WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast cancer incidence

  1. Study of breast cancer incidence in patients of lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez, Olivier; Román, Antonio; Johnson, Simon R.; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Hirose, Masaki; Casanova, Álvaro; de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Herranz, Carmen; Bueno-Moreno, Gema; Boni, Jacopo; Mateo, Francesca; Petit, Anna; Climent, Fina; Soler, Teresa; Vidal, August

    2016-01-01

    Molecular evidence has linked the pathophysiology of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) to that of metastatic breast cancer. Following on this observation, we assessed the association between LAM and subsequent breast cancer. An epidemiological study was carried out using three LAM country cohorts, from Japan, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The number of incident breast cancer cases observed in these cohorts was compared with the number expected on the basis of the country-specific incidence rate...

  2. Epidemiology, Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health measures. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the world using age-specific incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 acquired from the global cancer project (GLOBOCAN 2012) as well as data about incidence and mortality of the cancer based on national reports. It was estimated that 1,671,149 new cases of breast cancer were identified and 521,907 cases of deaths due to breast cancer occurred in the world in 2012. According to GLOBOCAN, it is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25.1% of all cancers. Breast cancer incidence in developed countries is higher, while relative mortality is greatest in less developed countries. Education of women is suggested in all countries for early detection and treatment. Plans for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers; also, it is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in less developed countries. PMID:27165207

  3. Study of breast cancer incidence in patients of lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Olivier; Román, Antonio; Johnson, Simon R; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Hirose, Masaki; Casanova, Álvaro; de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Herranz, Carmen; Bueno-Moreno, Gema; Boni, Jacopo; Mateo, Francesca; Petit, Anna; Climent, Fina; Soler, Teresa; Vidal, August; Sánchez-Mut, José Vicente; Esteller, Manel; López, José Ignacio; García, Nadia; Gumà, Anna; Ortega, Raúl; Plà, María Jesús; Campos, Miriam; Ansótegui, Emilio; Molina-Molina, María; Valenzuela, Claudia; Ussetti, Piedad; Laporta, Rosalía; Ancochea, Julio; Xaubet, Antoni; Pollán, Marina; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2016-02-01

    Molecular evidence has linked the pathophysiology of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) to that of metastatic breast cancer. Following on this observation, we assessed the association between LAM and subsequent breast cancer. An epidemiological study was carried out using three LAM country cohorts, from Japan, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The number of incident breast cancer cases observed in these cohorts was compared with the number expected on the basis of the country-specific incidence rates for the period 2000-2014. Immunohistochemical studies and exome sequence analysis were performed in two and one tumors, respectively. All cohorts revealed breast cancer standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) ≥ 2.25. The combined analysis of all cases or restricted to pre-menopausal age groups revealed significantly higher incidence of breast cancer: SIR = 2.81, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.32-5.57, P = 0.009; and SIR = 4.88, 95 % CI = 2.29-9.99, P = 0.0007, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses showed positivity for known markers of lung metastatic potential. This study suggests the existence of increased breast cancer risk among LAM patients. Prospective studies may be warranted to corroborate this result, which may be particularly relevant for pre-menopausal women with LAM. PMID:26951504

  4. The effect of country wealth on incidence of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and income per capita across countries. Data on breast cancer incidence in 52 countries were obtained from GLOBOCAN, along with economic indicators of gross domestic product per capita from the World Bank. Number of computed tomography scanners and magnetic resonance imaging (from World Health Organization) were used as a surrogate for technology and access to screening for cancer diagnosis. Statistical analyses for correlation and regression were performed, along with an analysis of variance (ANOVA). A strong positive association between breast cancer incidence and gross domestic product per capita, Pearson's r = 65.4 %, controlling latitude, density of computed tomography scanners and magnetic resonance imaging was found in countries of temperate zones. The estimated relationship suggests that 1 % higher gross domestic product per capita, within the temperate zones (latitudes), increases the expected age-standardized breast cancer incidence by about 35.6 % (p nations may have a higher incidence of breast cancer independent of geographic location and screening technology.

  5. ABO blood group and breast cancer incidence and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Margaret A.; Xu, Mousheng; Chen, Wendy Y.; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Wolpin, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    ABO blood type has been associated with risk and survival for several malignancies; however, data for an association with breast cancer are inconsistent. Our study population consisted of Nurses’ Health Study participants with self-reported serologic blood type and/or ABO genotype. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between serologic blood type and incident breast cancer among 67,697 women, including 3,107 cases. In addition, we examined the association wit...

  6. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Canadian fluoroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the formation of the National Cancer Incidence Reporting System in a data base format suitable for computerized record linkage, and the linkage of the data from the Canadian study of cancer following multiple fluoroscopies to that database and to the Canadian National Mortality Data Base between 1940 and 1987. A comprehensive statistical analysis of the breast cancer mortality data occurring among female members of the cohort between 1950 and 1987 with respect to exposure to low-LET radiation is reported, together with a parallel analysis of the breast cancer incidence data between 1975 and 1983. The Canadian fluoroscopy study is a cohort study of tuberculosis patients first treated in Canadian institutions between 1930 and 1952. The present mortality analysis relates to the breast cancer mortality experience between 1950 and 1987. A total of 677 deaths from breast cancer was observed in this period. The most appropriate dose-response relationship appears to be a simple linear one. There is a strong modifying influence of age at first exposure; women first exposed past the age of 30 have little excess risk due to radiation exposure. The breast cancer incidence analysis is based upon 628 cases observed between 1975 and 1983. Again a simple linear model appears to provide an adequate fit to the data. There is a suggestion of time dependency under the additive model, but this is not statistically significant. The results from this latest analysis continue to be reassuring in terms of radiation risk from mammography. (L.L.) 15 refs., figs., tabs

  7. An International Comparison of Male and Female Breast Cancer Incidence Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Diana; Forman, David; Ferlay, Jacques; Brinton, Louise A.; Cook, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Global international trends in female breast cancer incidence have been described previously but no comparable analysis of male breast cancer incidence rates has been conducted. We obtained male and female case and population data using Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5). We calculated age-adjusted sex-specific incidence rates and female-to-male incidence rate ratios (FMIRRs) and compared trends of such for the period 1988–2002. This analysis included 8,681 male breast cancer cases and...

  8. The impact of preoperative breast MRI on surgical planning in women with incident breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Aðalheiður Jónsdóttir 1973

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Routine breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has recently been introduced in Iceland as a preoperative examination of patients with incident breast cancer. Previous studies report that additional lesions not detected on mammography can be identified with MRI, which may result in revised surgical planning. Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine if additional findings on preoperative breast MRI changed the planned surgical treatment. Methods: This is a descript...

  9. Breast cancer incidence by estrogen receptor status in Denmark from 1996 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, J; Stahlberg, C; Jensen, M-B;

    2012-01-01

    During the past 50 years, breast cancer incidence has increased by 2-3 % annually. Despite many years of testing for estrogen receptors (ER), evidence is scarce on breast cancer incidence by ER status. The aim of this paper was to investigate the increase in breast cancer incidence by ER status. ....... Data were obtained from the clinical database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group which holds nationwide data on diagnosis, including pathology, treatment, and follow-up on primary breast cancers since 1977. All Danish women...

  10. Incidence of metachronous contralateral breast cancer in Denmark 1978–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Bording; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Ejlertsen, Bent;

    2014-01-01

    adjustments were made by use of Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The incidence of CBC decreased with increasing age at first breast cancer. Before 1998, incidence rates of CBC showed little variation. The rates decreased by period of first primary from 546 per 10(5) person-years in 1993-97 to 328 per 10......(5) person-years in 2003-09. After adjustment for age and calendar period, no clear trend was observed in the overall incidence according to time since first breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Occurrence of cancer in the contralateral breast seems to be rather independent of time passed since the first primary......BACKGROUND: Incidence of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) is much less studied than primary breast cancer. We aimed to assess incidence rates of CBC in relation to age, calendar period and time since first breast cancer. METHODS: Using the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry, we identified 85 863...

  11. Synchronous, bilateral breast cancer: prognostic value and incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobsen, J J; van der Palen, J; Ong, F; Meerwaldt, J H

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the question whether patients with bilateral breast cancer (BBC) have a worse prognosis in terms of recurrence and survival than patients with primarily unilateral breast cancer (UBC) following breast-conserving treatment (BCT). From 1983 to 2000, a total of 1760 BCT were registered in the Radiotherapy Department of the Medisch Spectrum Twente. We defined synchronous a BBC as cancer diagnosed in both breasts at the same time or within a period of 3 months of diagnosis of the first tumor. One thousand seven hundred and sixty BCT were performed on 1705 patients, 26 of whom presented with BBC. Of these 26 patients, 18 had BCT for both breasts. A higher proportion of patients with BBC showed more tubular carcinoma (P=0.029) and medially located tumors (P=0.076) than those with UBC did. The 5- and 10-year local recurrence rates (LRRs) were 4.5% and 9.1%, respectively, in BBC patients, as against 3.3% and 7.6% for UBC after BCT. The 5- and 10-year distant metastasis rates were 26.9% and 50.7%, respectively, for BBC as against 13.4% and 21.1% for UBC after BCT (P=0.065 and P=0.014, respectively). The 5- and 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rates for the 1705 patients were 82.1% and 41%, respectively, after BBC, and 91.4% and 84% after UBC (P=0.086 and P=0.0045, respectively). Patients with BBC have a higher rate of distant metastasis and a worse DSS than those with UBC. As the LRR is similar for BBC and UBC, BCT is not contraindicated in BBC. The incidence of BBC is low, at 1.5% which makes it difficult to reach any more definitive conclusions on outcome and treatment.

  12. Spatio-temporal analysis of female breast cancer incidence in Shenzhen, 2007–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hai-Bin; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Lei, Lin; Chen, Zhong-Wei; Peng, Ji; Yang, Ying-Zhou; Liu, Xiao-li

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is a leading tumor with a high mortality in women. This study examined the spatio-temporal distribution of the incidence of female breast cancer in Shenzhen between 2007 and 2012. Methods The data on breast cancer incidence were obtained from the Shenzhen Cancer Registry System. To describe the temporal trend, the average annual percentage change (AAPC) was analyzed using a joinpoint regression model. Spatial autocorrelation and a retrospective spatio-temporal scan ...

  13. Penetrance of breast cancer, ovarian cancer and contralateral breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 families : high cancer incidence at older age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, Dorina M.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Leegte, Beike K.; Schaapveld, Michael; Mourits, Marian J. E.; de Vries, J; van der Hout, Annemieke H.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate estimations of lifetime risks of breast and ovarian cancer are crucial for counselling women from BRCA1/2 families. We therefore determined breast and ovarian cancer penetrance in BRCA1/2 mutation families in the northern Netherlands and compared them with the incidence of cancers in the ge

  14. Breast cancer incidence and survival: registry-based studies of long-term trends and determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women in the Netherlands, and it is the most important cause of cancer death. Between age 35 and 55 about 20% of all deaths among women is due to breast cancer.1 The age-standardised incidence rate is among the highest in

  15. Incidence of Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Valentini, Caterina Giovanna; Fianchi, Luana; Voso, Maria Teresa; Caira, Morena; Leone, Giuseppe; Pagano, Livio

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women and the leading cause of death among middle-aged women. Early detection by mammography screening and improvement of therapeutic options have increased breast cancer survival rates, with the consequence that late side effects of cancer treatment become increasingly important. In particular, patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, commonly including alkylating agents and anthracyclines, are at increased risk of developing leuke...

  16. INCIDENCE OF ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA AFTER BREAST CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Morena Caira; Giuseppe Leone; Maria Teresa Voso; Luana Fianchi; Caterina Giovanna Valentini; Livio Pagano

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women and the leading cause of death among middle-aged women. Early detection by mammography screening and improvement of therapeutic options have increased breast cancer survival rates, with the consequence that late side effects of cancer treatment become increasingly important. In particular, patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, commonly including alkylating agents and anthracyclines, are at increased risk of developing leuke...

  17. Breast cancer incidence and use of hormone therapy in Denmark 1978-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, there have recently been reports of declining incidence rates for breast cancer. Decreased use of hormone therapy and decreased use of mammography has been put forward as possible reasons for this decline. The aim of this study was to analyse breast cancer incidence trends in Den...

  18. Breast cancer in the world: Incidence and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Curado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the burden of breast cancer in the world, as the now most common cancer in women in the globe. Here a descriptive pattern based on information available in IARC and WHO databases describing estimated age-specific incidence is presented, both for incidence and mortality. The newer treatment modalities and screening programs have been developed to alleviate the burden of this disease, but much more needs to be done in the developing countries for the impact to reach outside of the developed nations.El objetivo de este documento es describir la carga del cáncer de mama en el mundo, puesto que es el cáncer más común entre las mujeres del planeta. Aquí se presenta un patrón descriptivo basado en la información disponible en las bases de datos de la IARC y la OMS, describiendo estimaciones de la incidencia por grupos específicos de edad, tanto para incidencia como mortalidad. Las nuevas modalidades de tratamiento y programas de tamizaje se han desarrollado para aligerar la carga de esta enfermedad, pero necesita hacerse mucho más en los países en vías de desarrollo para que el impacto alcance más allá de las naciones desarrolladas.

  19. Vehicular Traffic–Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H.; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Richardson, David B; Millikan, Robert C.; Engel, Lawrence S; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E.; Neugut, Alfred I; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants, known human lung carcinogens, and potent mammary carcinogens in laboratory animals. However, the association between PAHs and breast cancer in women is unclear. Vehicular traffic is a major ambient source of PAH exposure. Objectives Our study aim was to evaluate the association between residential exposure to vehicular traffic and breast cancer incidence. Methods Residential histories of 1,508 particip...

  20. The 5-year incidence of male breast cancer in Southwest of China from 2007 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangbin Jin; Hua Tang; Deqiang Mao; Linjie Lu; Lingquan Kong; Yang Bai; Zixiang Yao; Guangyan Ji; Shengchun Liu; Guosheng Ren; Kainan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Male breast cancer is a rare disease with an incidence of about 1%of breast cancers in USA, but relatively lack of the information of male breast cancer in China, especial y in Southwest of China, led us to study its incidence trends. Methods:Chongqing is one of the biggest and the most important areas that is located in Southwest of China. There are around 31.4 mil ion people who live in approximate 82 402.95 km2 area of Chongqing. Data about breast cancer patients registered in the Center for Disease Prevention and Control of Chongqing (China) were statistical y col ected from 187 hospi-tals, about 58 hospitals in city and 129 hospitals in country, and over 6.2 mil ion people were studied every year. It was tried to represent al the people in vil ages and cities in Chongqing, China. Results:The incidence of male breast cancer in Southwest of China ranged from 0.34/100 000 to 1.45/100 000 between 2007 and 2011, while the incidence of female breast cancer ranged from 15.40/100000 to 21.66/100000 at the same time. The rate of male breast cancer to female breast cancer ranged from 0.02:1 to 0.07:1, male breast cancer accounted for 1.96%to 6.5%(with the mean value of 2.9%) of breast cancers in Southwest of China from 2007 to 2010. Conclusion:In Southwest of China male breast cancer accounts for about 2.9%of breast cancers which is higher than that in United States. It is important for policy makers and health manager to seriously consider breast cancer in future plan in Southwest of China.

  1. Obesity and its impact on breast cancer: tumor incidence, recurrence, survival, and possible interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligibel, Jennifer A; Strickler, Howard D

    2013-01-01

    A positive association between obesity and the risk of incident postmenopausal breast cancer has been consistently observed in epidemiologic studies. Although most studies of premenopausal women have not found a similar relationship between breast cancer and obesity, the prognosis for both pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer is substantially worse among obese than normal-weight individuals. Increasing evidence suggests that these associations may be mechanistically related to sex hormones, insulin, and certain adipokines. Insulin, for example, has important mitogenic/antiapoptotic activity in addition to its metabolic effects, and many breast tumors express high levels of the insulin receptor (IR)-A isoform. Further, the use of metformin, a diabetes medication that reduces insulin levels, has been epidemiologically associated with reduced breast cancer risk among patients with diabetes, and a recent observational study found a higher rate of pathologic complete responses among patients with diabetes and breast cancer who were using metformin. Formal clinical trials of metformin as adjuvant breast cancer therapy have been initiated and are ongoing. Similarly, the effect of lifestyle changes on breast cancer outcomes is actively being investigated. Several lifestyle intervention studies have demonstrated that weight loss, increased physical activity, and dietary changes are feasible in breast cancer populations, and that individuals who make lifestyle changes after breast cancer diagnosis experience several physical and psychologic benefits. In this article, the authors review the evidence linking obesity with breast cancer risk and outcomes and provide an overview of lifestyle intervention studies in patients with breast cancer.

  2. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes other than the cancer does not depend on whether or not the cancer is present, and among individuals with the cancer, the risk of death attributable to the cancer is the same in Japan and the U.S. and is not affected by radiation exposure. In particular, we focus on the incidence of breast cancer in Japanese women and how this incidence is affected by radiation risk factors. The analysis uses Japanese exposure and mortality data from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation study of atomic bomb survivors and U.S. incidence and lethality data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Even without Japanese incidence data, we obtain reasonable estimates of the incidence of breast cancer in unexposed Japanese women and identify the radiation risk factors that affect this incidence. Our analysis demonstrates that the age at exposure is an important risk factor, but that the incidence of breast cancer is not affected by the city of residence (Nagasaki versus Hiroshima) or the time since exposure

  3. INCIDENCE OF ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA AFTER BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Giovanna Valentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women and the leading cause of death among middle-aged women. Early detection by mammography screening and improvement of therapeutic options have increased breast cancer survival rates, with the consequence that late side effects of cancer treatment become increasingly important. In particular, patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, commonly including alkylating agents and anthracyclines, are at increased risk of developing leukemia, further enhanced by the use of radiotherapy. In the last few years also the use of growth factors seems to increase the risk of secondary leukemia. The purpose of this review is to update epidemiology of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms occurring in breast cancer patients

  4. INCIDENCE OF ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA AFTER BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morena Caira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women and the leading cause of death among middle-aged women. Early detection by mammography screening and improvement of therapeutic options have increased breast cancer survival rates, with the consequence that late side effects of cancer treatment become increasingly important. In particular, patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, commonly including alkylating agents and anthracyclines, are at increased risk of developing leukemia, further enhanced by the use of radiotherapy. In the last few years also the use of growth factors seems to increase the risk of secondary leukemia. The purpose of this review is to update epidemiology of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms occurring in breast cancer patients

  5. Incidence and Mortality and Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pournamdar, Zahra; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health measures. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the world using age-specific incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 acquired from the global cancer project (GLOBOCAN 2012) as well as data about incidence and mortality of the cancer based on national reports. It was estimated that 1,671,149 new cases of breast cancer were identified and 521,907 cases of deaths due to breast cancer occurred in the world in 2012. According to GLOBOCAN, it is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25.1% of all cancers. Breast cancer incidence in developed countries is higher, while relative mortality is greatest in less developed countries. Education of women is suggested in all countries for early detection and treatment. Plans for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers; also, it is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in less developed countries. PMID:27165206

  6. Incidence and Mortality and Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pournamdar, Zahra; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health measures. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the world using age-specific incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 acquired from the global cancer project (GLOBOCAN 2012) as well as data about incidence and mortality of the cancer based on national reports. It was estimated that 1,671,149 new cases of breast cancer were identified and 521,907 cases of deaths due to breast cancer occurred in the world in 2012. According to GLOBOCAN, it is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25.1% of all cancers. Breast cancer incidence in developed countries is higher, while relative mortality is greatest in less developed countries. Education of women is suggested in all countries for early detection and treatment. Plans for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers; also, it is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in less developed countries.

  7. Breast cancer incidence after the introduction of mammography screening: what should be expected?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Louise; Olsen, Anne Helene; von Euler-Chelpin, My;

    2006-01-01

    , the influx of newcomers, and variations in the data. Women who had undergone previous screening were found to have the same incidence of breast cancer as women who were never screened. CONCLUSIONS: The data from the current study do not provide evidence of overdiagnosis of invasive breast cancer in the 2...

  8. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women. PMID:26513636

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of breast cancer in China: incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Brennan, Patrick C

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm diagnosed amongst women worldwide and is the leading cause of female cancer death. However, breast cancer in China is not comprehensively understood compared with Westernised countries, although the 5-year prevalence statistics indicate that approximately 11 % of worldwide breast cancer occurs in China and that the incidence has increased rapidly in recent decades. This paper reviews the descriptive epidemiology of Chinese breast cancer in terms of incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence, and explores relevant factors such as age of manifestation and geographic locations. The statistics are compared with data from the Westernised world with particular emphasis on the United States and Australia. Potential causal agents responsible for differences in breast cancer epidemiology between Chinese and other populations are also explored. The need to minimise variability and discrepancies in methods of data acquisition, analysis and presentation is highlighted.

  10. Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in the Asia-Paciifc region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danny R.Youlden; Susanna M.Cramb; Cheng Har Yip; Peter D.Baade

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer for countries in the Asia-Paciifc region. Methods: Statistical information about breast cancer was obtained from publicly available cancer registry and mortality databases (such as GLOBOCAN), and supplemented with data requested from individual cancer registries. Rates were directly age-standardised to the Segi World Standard population and trends were analysed using joinpoint models. Results: Breast cancer was the most common type of cancer among females in the region, accounting for 18% of all cases in 2012, and was the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths (9%). Although incidence rates remain much higher in New Zealand and Australia, rapid rises in recent years were observed in several Asian countries. Large increases in breast cancer mortality rates also occurred in many areas, particularly Malaysia and hTailand, in contrast to stabilising trends in Hong Kong and Singapore, while decreases have been recorded in Australia and New Zealand. Mortality trends tended to be more favourable for women aged under 50 compared to those who were 50 years or older. Conclusion: It is anticipated that incidence rates of breast cancer in developing countries throughout the Asia-Pacific region will continue to increase. Early detection and access to optimal treatment are the keys to reducing breast cancer-related mortality, but cultural and economic obstacles persist. Consequently, the challenge is to customise breast cancer control initiatives to the particular needs of each country to ensure the best possible outcomes.

  11. Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality from Digital Mammography Screening: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L.; Lange, Jane; van den Broek, Jeroen J.; Lee, Christoph I.; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Ritley, Dominique; Kerlikowske, Karla; Fenton, Joshua J.; Melnikow, Joy; de Koning, Harry J.; Hubbard, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimates of radiation-induced breast cancer risk from mammography screening have not previously considered dose exposure variation or diagnostic work-up after abnormal screening. Objective To estimate distributions of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening, considering exposure from screening and diagnostic mammography and dose variation across women. Design Two simulation-modeling approaches using common data on screening mammography from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium and radiation dose from mammography from the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial. Setting U.S. population. Patients Women aged 40–74 years. Interventions Annual or biennial digital mammography screening from age 40, 45, or 50 until 74. Measurements Lifetime breast cancer deaths averted (benefits) and radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality per 100,000 women screened (harms). Results On average, annual screening of 100,000 women aged 40 to 74 years was projected to induce 125 breast cancers (95% confidence interval [CI]=88–178) leading to 16 deaths (95% CI=11–23) relative to 968 breast cancer deaths averted by early detection from screening. Women exposed at the 95th percentile were projected to develop 246 radiation-induced breast cancers leading to 32 deaths per 100,000 women. Women with large breasts requiring extra views for complete breast examination (8% of population) were projected to have higher radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality (266 cancers, 35 deaths per 100,000 women), compared to women with small or average breasts (113 cancers, 15 deaths per 100,000 women). Biennial screening starting at age 50 reduced risk of radiation-induced cancers 5-fold. Limitations We were unable to estimate years of life lost from radiation-induced breast cancer. Conclusions Radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening are impacted by dose

  12. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects. PMID:26838238

  13. Lobular breast cancer: incidence and genetic and non-genetic risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Dossus, Laure; Benusiglio, Patrick ,

    2014-01-01

    While most invasive breast cancers consist of carcinomas of the ductal type, about 10% are invasive lobular carcinomas. Invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas differ with respect to risk factors. Invasive lobular carcinoma is more strongly associated with exposure to female hormones, and therefore its incidence is more subject to variation. This is illustrated by US figures during the 1987 to 2004 period: after 12 years of increases, breast cancer incidence declined steadily from 1999 to 2004...

  14. Female breast cancer incidence and survival in Utah according to religious preference, 1985–1999

    OpenAIRE

    Folsom Jeffrey A; Merrill Ray M

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Female breast cancer incidence rates in Utah are among the lowest in the U.S. The influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint (LDS or Mormon) religion on these rates, as well as on disease-specific survival, will be explored for individuals diagnosed with breast cancer in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Methods Population-based records for incident female breast cancer patients were linked with membership records from the LDS Church to determine religious affi...

  15. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in women under 50 years of age in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina da Silva Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many countries have reported an increase in breast cancer incidence in young women. The current study's objective was to explore breast cancer distribution in women less than 50 years of age in Brazil. A descriptive study on breast cancer incidence (selected cities and mortality (Brazil and selected cities in 2002-2004 was carried out, and the results were compared with those from other countries. The study also analyzed the trend in hospital morbidity and incidence rates for breast cancer. Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul State showed the highest incidence rates (17.9 and 165.5/100,000 in the 15-39 and 40-49-year age strata, respectively. Regarding mortality, Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais State showed the highest rate in the 15-39-year group and Porto Alegre in the 40-49-year group (2.8 and 25.5/100,000. Hospital admissions and incidence rates for breast cancer suggest a change in epidemiological distribution. The results reveal an epidemiological pattern of breast cancer in young Brazilian women with regional distribution characteristics.

  16. A Case-Control Study of Oral Contraceptive Use and Incident Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Lynn; Zhang, Yuqing; Coogan, Patricia F.; Strom, Brian L; Palmer, Julie R

    2008-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer, largely on the basis of studies conducted before 1990. In the Case-Control Surveillance Study, a US hospital-based case-control study of medication use and cancer, the authors assessed the relation of OC use to breast cancer risk among 907 case women with incident invasive breast cancer (731 white, 176 black) and 1,711 controls (1,152 white, 559 black) interviewed from 1993 to 2007. They evaluated whether the asso...

  17. Age-period-cohort modelling of breast cancer incidence in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, K; Vaeth, M; Holst, H;

    2001-01-01

    The Nordic countries have experienced a steady increase in breast cancer incidence throughout the past 35 years. We analysed the incidence in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during the period 1958 to 1992 using age-period-cohort models and taking the systematic mammography screening into acco...... exposed to an increasing load of cohort borne breast cancer risk factors not experienced to the same extent by Norwegian women, whereas they were seemingly subjected to the same period effects.......The Nordic countries have experienced a steady increase in breast cancer incidence throughout the past 35 years. We analysed the incidence in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during the period 1958 to 1992 using age-period-cohort models and taking the systematic mammography screening...... in breast cancer incidence seen in the Nordic countries. The widespread practice of neglecting the period effects in age-period-cohort analysis of time trends in breast cancer incidence therefore probably needs reconsideration. A key finding was that Danish women born in the 20th century seem to have been...

  18. Female breast cancer incidence and survival in Utah according to religious preference, 1985–1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folsom Jeffrey A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female breast cancer incidence rates in Utah are among the lowest in the U.S. The influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint (LDS or Mormon religion on these rates, as well as on disease-specific survival, will be explored for individuals diagnosed with breast cancer in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Methods Population-based records for incident female breast cancer patients were linked with membership records from the LDS Church to determine religious affiliation and, for LDS Church members, level of religiosity. Incidence rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population using the direct method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare survival among religiously active LDS, less religiously active LDS, and non-LDS with simultaneous adjustment for prognostic factors. Results Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rates were consistently lower for LDS than non-LDS in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Rates were lower among LDS compared with non-LDS across the age span. In 1995–99, the age-adjusted incidence rates were 107.6 (95% CI: 103.9 – 111.3 for LDS women and 130.5 (123.2 – 137.9 for non-LDS women. If non-LDS women in Utah had the same breast cancer risk profile as LDS women, an estimated 214 (4.8% fewer malignant breast cancer cases would have occurred during 1995–99. With religiously active LDS serving as the reference group, the adjusted death hazard ratio for religiously less active LDS was 1.09 (0.94 – 1.27 and for non-LDS was 0.86 (0.75 – 0.98. Conclusion In Utah, LDS lifestyle is associated with lower incidence rates of female breast cancer. However, LDS experience poorer survivability from breast cancer than their non-LDS counterparts. Parity and breastfeeding, while protective factors against breast cancer, may contribute to poorer prognosis of female breast cancer in LDS women.

  19. Spatio-temporal analysis of female breast cancer incidence in Shenzhen, 2007-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bin Zhou; Sheng-Yuan Liu; Lin Lei; Zhong-Wei Chen; Ji Peng; Ying-Zhou Yang; Xiao-Li Liu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:Breast cancer is a leading tumor with a high mortality in women. This study examined the spatio-temporal distribution of the incidence of female breast cancer in Shenzhen between 2007 and 2012. Methods:The data on breast cancer incidence were obtained from the Shenzhen Cancer Registry System. To describe the temporal trend, the average annual percentage change (AAPC) was analyzed using a joinpoint regression model. Spatial autocorrelation and a retrospective spatio-temporal scan approach were used to detect the spatio-temporal cluster distribution of breast cancer cases. Results:Breast cancer ranked first among different types of cancer in women in Shenzhen between 2007 and 2012 with a crude incidence of 20.0/100,000 population. The age-standardized rate according to the world standard population was 21.1/100,000 in 2012, with an AAPC of 11.3%. The spatial autocorrelation analysis showed a spatial correlation characterized by the presence of a hotspot in south-central Shenzhen, which included the eastern part of Luohu District (Donghu and Liantang Streets) and Yantian District (Shatoujiao, Haishan, and Yantian Streets). Five spatio-temporal cluster areas were detected between 2010 and 2012, one of which was a Class 1 cluster located in southwestern Shenzhen in 2010, which included Yuehai, Nantou, Shahe, Shekou, and Nanshan Streets in Nanshan District with an incidence of 54.1/100,000 and a relative risk of 2.41;the other four were Class 2 clusters located in Yantian, Luohu, Futian, and Longhua Districts with a relative risk ranging from 1.70 to 3.25. Conclusions:This study revealed the spatio-temporal cluster pattern for the incidence of female breast cancer in Shenzhen, which will be useful for a better allocation of health resources in Shenzhen.

  20. Spatial patterns in breast cancer incidence in north-west Lancashire

    OpenAIRE

    Rigby, Janette E; Gatrell, Anthony C.

    2000-01-01

    Breast cancer is a disease whose incidence is increasing in both developed and developing countries, but whose complex aetiology is not clearly understood. Recent research suggests that the environment may be an important factor, hence and investigation into spatial patterning of incidence could inform such research. We use data on incidence in north-west Lancashire and apply some techniques for exploratory spatial analysis, at a variety of spatial scales. Issues relating to the use of inc...

  1. The breast cancer incidence risk among females and a hazards in the microenvironments of work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunon Zemła

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the earlier examinations on the Silesia voivodeship territory was found ultimately that in the districts with greatest development of industry the incidence of breast cancer was significantly greater in native females (stationary population than in immigrants (no stationary population, which suggests that there is a harmful influence of industrial pollutants in the female population (a longer time living in such conditions. It is possible that various chemical compounds especially from industrial-communal emissions and in the place of work – in the atmosphere contribute to a rise in the incidence of breast cancer in females as well. Material and methods. In analyse case-control type two women populations, i.e. natives – 540 cases with a breast cancer and 687 cases of control (women born within Silesia voivodeship, and immigrants – 319 cases of ills for breast cancer and 446 not-ills (all ones born outside Silesia voivodeship – were examinated. Anywhere in this case checking thesis whether character and long-time of hazards in microenvironment of work is significant in a risk of breast cancer. Results. The females that manually working without hazards in the place of work were characterized a bigger breast cancer risk – independently from place of birth (natives, immigrants, age group (30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, 60 and total age and the endemic areas about statistically significantly high or low incidence and mortality (tab. II, III. It can not distinguished in this study no bigger females group with any characteristic impurities in the place of work comparatively suffering groups to controls ones. Conclusions. In this study the occupational risk factors are small significant mark in the incidence for female breast cancer.

  2. Effects of different phases of an invitational screening program on breast cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Johanna; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Anttila, Ahti; Sarkeala, Tytti; Virkkunen, Hanna; Hakulinen, Timo

    2006-08-15

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of separate phases of an invitational screening program on breast cancer incidence at different ages. Our database included detailed municipality-specific information about invitations for mass-screening for breast cancer in 267 Finnish municipalities from time period 1987-2001. The age range was 50-74. For this study, the program was divided into 7 separate phases, and those that had not been invited served as a baseline. The incidence rate was modeled using Poisson regression. To study the differences between age groups within each program phase, an interaction term between age group and phase of screening was included in the model. The modeling was done separately for localized breast cancers, nonlocalized breast cancers and all stages combined. For localized cancers, the risk compared to the noninvited increased during the first years of the 2-year screening rounds in all age groups, and declined below the baseline during the second years. This effect was larger during the first round compared to the subsequent ones. In nonlocalized cancers, a clear incidence peak was detected only during the first year of the first round. A decreasing post screening effect was detected in nonlocalized cancers in women aged 60-69, but not in localized cancers. Cumulating over ages 50-74, extra incidence caused by regular screening in localized cancers was 5.2% if the program was continued up to age 59, and 28.0% if it continued up to age 69. Corresponding figures for nonlocalized cancers were decreases of 19.8% and 20.9%, respectively. PMID:16550598

  3. Combined effect of ionizing radiation and other risk factors on the incidence of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on combined effect of ionizing radiation (the number of roentgenoscopies and integral absorbed dose) and other risk factors (age, observation period etc) on the incidence of breast cancer (BC). It is shown that the relative BC risk, related with radiation, is affected by woman age during exposure

  4. Regional trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Denmark prior to mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A H; Andersen, K W; Madsen, Mette;

    1994-01-01

    To provide a basis for the evaluation of mammographic screening programmes in Denmark, a study was undertaken of the regional differences in breast cancer incidence and mortality. All 16 regions were followed for the 20 year period, 1970-89, before the start of the first population...... among women below age 60. The mortality was more stable, changing only from 24 to 28 (per 100,000 standardised WSP), but a significant increase occurred in the late 1980s. The study showed regional differences in both incidence and mortality of breast cancer in Denmark. Both the incidence......-based mammographic screening programme in the Copenhagen municipality in 1991. Multiplicative Poisson models were used for the analysis. In general, the incidence increased during this period from 55 to 70 [per 100,000 standardised world standard population (WSP)], and the analysis shows this to be most pronounced...

  5. The geographic distribution of breast cancer incidence in Massachusetts 1988 to 1997, adjusted for covariates

    OpenAIRE

    Gershman Susan; Gregorio David I; Kulldorff Martin; DeChello Laurie M; Joseph Sheehan T; Mroszczyk Mary

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The aims of this study were to determine whether observed geographic variations in breast cancer incidence are random or statistically significant, whether statistically significant excesses are temporary or time-persistent, and whether they can be explained by covariates such as socioeconomic status (SES) or urban/rural status? Results A purely spatial analysis found fourteen geographic areas that deviated significantly from randomness: ten with higher incidence rates tha...

  6. Ethnic differences in the time trend of female breast cancer incidence: Singapore, 1968 – 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chuen-Seng

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From 1968 to 2002, Singapore experienced an almost three-fold increase in breast cancer incidence. This increase appeared to be different across the three main ethnic groups: Chinese, Malays and Indians. This paper used age-period-cohort (APC modelling, to determine the effects of age at diagnosis, calendar period, and birth cohort on breast cancer incidence for each ethnic group. Methods This study included all breast cancer cases (n = 15,269 in the three ethnic groups, reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968 to 2002 between the ages 25 to 79. Age-specific fertility rates from the Department of Statistics were used to explore the role of fertility. Results In the 1970s, Indian women had the highest age-standardized breast cancer but by the mid-1980s the highest rates were seen among the Chinese. Remarkable differences were seen in the age-specific incidence rates by ethnic groups. After age 49, the incidence rates for the Chinese and Malays leveled off whereas it continued to rise in the Indians. While our analyses provided some evidence that an age-drift model described the trend seen in the Indians, age-period-cohort model and age-cohort model had the best fit for the Chinese and Malays aged 25 to 79 respectively. Overall, Chinese and Malay women born in later cohorts were at increased risk of developing breast cancer relative to their counterparts in the earlier cohorts. The three ethnic groups experienced similar changes in their fertility in the 1970s, which likely explained much of the increase in their breast cancer incidence but not the ethnic differences. There was a stronger inverse association between total fertility rate and pre-menopausal breast cancer incidence in the Chinese and Malays than the Indians. Conclusion The observed dissimilarity among ethnic groups suggests ethnic differences in exposure or response to certain risk factors. It is likely that longer and subtler differences in

  7. Study of Incidence of Lymphedema in Indian Patients Undergoing Axillary Dissection for Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Pramod R.; Sharma, Shekhar; Ahmed, Sheikh Zahoor; Vijaykumar, D. K.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphedema of the upper extremity, in addition to being unsightly, can be painful, can limit the arm movements, increases the risk of infection and is psychologically distressing, serving as a constant reminder of cancer. 1. To ascertain the incidence of lymphedema in a hospital based population (in patients undergoing axillary dissection for breast cancer. 2. To determine the clinico-epidemilogical factors associated with the occurrence of lymphedema in these patients. For all patients under...

  8. Development in incidence of breast cancer in non-screened Danish women, 1973-2002--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Niels; Langballe, Oline; Svendsen, Anne Louise;

    2006-01-01

    The authors report on the incidence rates of breast cancer overall and by histology in a population of unscreened women constituting approximately 80% of the total population of women in Denmark from 1973-2002, utilizing the files of the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry. The age-specific incidence...... no disproportionate changes by histology in any age group from 1988-2002. Thus, previous reports of a disproportionate increase in lobular breast cancer could not be confirmed in a non-screened population, whereas important changes over the past decade in the age-specific incidence pattern of breast cancer particular...

  9. Risk factors for breast cancer in a population with high incidence rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines generally recognized breast cancer risk factors and years of residence in Marin County, California, an area with high breast cancer incidence and mortality rates. Eligible women who were residents of Marin County diagnosed with breast cancer in 1997–99 and women without breast cancer obtained through random digit dialing, frequency-matched by cases' age at diagnosis and ethnicity, participated in either full in-person or abbreviated telephone interviews. In multivariate analyses, 285 cases were statistically significantly more likely than 286 controls to report being premenopausal, never to have used birth control pills, a lower highest lifetime body mass index, four or more mammograms in 1990–94, beginning drinking after the age of 21, on average drinking two or more drinks per day, the highest quartile of pack-years of cigarette smoking and having been raised in an organized religion. Cases and controls did not significantly differ with regard to having a first-degree relative with breast cancer, a history of benign breast biopsy, previous radiation treatment, age at menarche, parity, use of hormone replacement therapy, age of first living in Marin County, or total years lived in Marin County. Results for several factors differed for women aged under 50 years or 50 years and over. Despite similar distributions of several known breast cancer risk factors, case-control differences in alcohol consumption suggest that risk in this high-risk population might be modifiable. Intensive study of this or other areas of similarly high incidence might reveal other important risk factors proximate to diagnosis

  10. Incidence of and mortality from breast cancer among women in Poland in the years 2001-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Leśniczak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumour among women. About 15,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed and more than 5,000 women die in Poland every year. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality rate of breast cancer among women in Poland in the years 2001-2010. Material and methods: Analysed data concerning the incidence of and mortality from cancer among women were obtained from the National Cancer Registry. Results : The number of new cases reported in 2010 exceeded that reported in 2001 by 3,666. The mortality from breast cancer among women increased by 15.1% by 2009, to subsequently drop by 0.3% in 2010. The standardized incidence rate increased by 7.4 and the standardized mortality rate fell by 1.3 in 2001-2010. Conclusions : In the years 2001-2010 the incidence of breast cancer in women in Poland rose by 30.3%, with an increase of 7.4 in the incidence rate. The highest rise in the incidence and mortality of women due to breast cancer in Poland is reported in the Lodz voivodeship. In the years 2001-2009 the number of women’s deaths due to breast cancer increased slightly, while the mortality rate dropped.

  11. Incidence of and mortality from breast cancer among women in Poland in the years 2001-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Leśniczak; Grzegorz Krasomski; Przemysław Oszukowski; Tomasz Stetkiewicz; Piotr Woźniak

    2014-01-01

    Introduction : Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumour among women. About 15,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed and more than 5,000 women die in Poland every year. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality rate of breast cancer among women in Poland in the years 2001-2010. Material and methods: Analysed data concerning the incidence of and mortality from cancer among women were obtained from the National Cancer Registry. Results : The num...

  12. Relationship between Chemotherapy and Tamoxifen with Incidence of Fatty Liver in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Keyhanian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fatty liver disease is characterized by deposition of fat droplets in the liver of patients. According to some epidemiological studies; BMI, amount of fat intake from foods and high central fat are risk factors of breast cancer. This issue is one of the factors that cause high incidence of fatty liver in patients with breast cancer. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, all patients with breast cancer were evaluated who referred to Imam Sajjad hospital of Ramsar during 2008 - 2011. After initial review, 100 patients were enrolled. Those who were treated by chemotherapy underwent abdominal Sonography for evaluation of fatty liver. Also, those patients who also received tamoxifen in addition to chemotherapy, underwent abdominal ultrasonography 6 months after taking tamoxifen. After that, relationship between treatment of breast cancer and fatty liver in studied patients was evaluated based on obtained information. Results: The study results revealed that after chemotherapy, 30 (30% patients were reported to have fatty liver. Out of 70 people that after chemotherapy did not have fatty liver, 62 patients received tamoxifen; and after taking tamoxifen, 45.2% developed fatty liver. Using Chi Square test, there was a significant relationship between fatty liver after receiving tamoxifen, hyperlipidemia (p=0.011 and getting overweight (P =0.017. Conclusion: As the findings indicated, treatment of breast cancer especially with tamoxifen is associated with increased risk of fatty liver, especially in women who have hyperlipidemia and are overweight.

  13. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and breast cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Richardson, David B; Millikan, Robert C; Engel, Lawrence S; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E; Neugut, Alfred I; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M; Gammon, Marilie D

    2016-07-15

    Vehicular traffic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been associated with breast cancer incidence in epidemiologic studies, including our own. Because PAHs damage DNA by forming adducts and oxidative lesions, genetic polymorphisms that alter DNA repair capacity may modify associations between PAH-related exposures and breast cancer risk. Our goal was to examine the association between vehicular traffic exposure and breast cancer incidence within strata of a panel of nine biologically plausible nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER) genotypes. Residential histories of 1,508 cases and 1,556 controls were assessed in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project between 1996 and 1997 and used to reconstruct residential traffic exposures to benzo[a]pyrene, as a proxy for traffic-related PAHs. Likelihood ratio tests from adjusted unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess multiplicative interactions. A gene-traffic interaction was evident (p = 0.04) for ERCC2 (Lys751); when comparing the upper and lower tertiles of 1995 traffic exposure estimates, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.09 (1.13, 3.90) among women with homozygous variant alleles. Corresponding odds ratios for 1960-1990 traffic were also elevated nearly 2-3-fold for XRCC1(Arg194Trp), XRCC1(Arg399Gln) and OGG1(Ser326Cys), but formal multiplicative interaction was not evident. When DNA repair variants for ERCC2, XRCC1 and OGG1 were combined, among women with 4-6 variants, the odds ratios were 2.32 (1.22, 4.49) for 1995 traffic and 2.96 (1.06, 8.21) for 1960-1990 traffic. Our study is first to report positive associations between traffic-related PAH exposure and breast cancer incidence among women with select biologically plausible DNA repair genotypes. PMID:26946191

  14. Breast cancer in Denmark. Incidence, risk factors, and characteristics of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertz, M

    1993-01-01

    In Denmark, incidence of female breast cancer remained constant from 1943 to around 1960, whereafter a steady increase has occurred, the level today being about 50% higher than in 1960. No equivalent rise has been observed for breast cancer mortality. Influence of hormonal and dietary factors on breast cancer risk and survival was evaluated in a combined population-based case-control and follow-up study, including 2,445 women, aged less than 70 years, diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark between 1 March 1983 and 31 August 1984, identified from the files of the nation-wide clinical trial of the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group (DBCG) and the Danish Cancer Registry. The control group was an age-stratified random sample of the general female population, selected from the Central Population Register. Data on risk factors were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Clinical and pathological tumour characteristics derived from DBCG. The case-control analysis confirmed an overall increased risk of breast cancer associated with urban residence, high social status, nulliparity, early age at menarche, late age at natural menopause, hormonal replacement therapy, high dietary fat intake, and high alcohol consumption in a subgroup. It failed to detect an association with age at first childbirth, oral contraceptives, smoking, intake of vegetables, tea, coffee, and sweeteners. Survival was determined by tumour size, skin invasion, number of positive lymph nodes, and grade. There was no relation between survival and reproductive or hormonal factors, dietary variables, alcohol consumption, or smoking. However, a complex relationship may exist between survival and body mass index. PMID:8260176

  15. Trends in Breast Cancer Incidence Rates by Age and Stage at Diagnosis in Gharbiah, Egypt, over 10 Years (1999–2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Hirko, Kelly A; Soliman, Amr S.; Ahmed Hablas; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A.; Mohamed Ramadan; Mousumi Banerjee; Harford, Joe B.; Chamberlain, Robert M; Sofia D. Merajver

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study was undertaken to evaluate trends in breast cancer incidence in Egypt from 1999 to 2008 and to make projections for breast cancer occurrence for the years 2009–2015. Patients and Methods. We utilized joinpoint regression and average annual percent change (AAPC) measures with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to describe the trends in breast cancer incidence rates from the Gharbiah Cancer Registry by age and stage at diagnosis and to estimate expected breast cancer caseloads...

  16. An open cohort study of bone metastasis incidence following surgery in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimoto Masataka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To help design clinical trials of adjuvant bisphosphonate therapy for breast cancer, the temporal incidence of bone metastasis was investigated in a cohort of patients. We have tried to draw the criteria to use adjuvant bisphosphonate. Methods Consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing surgery between 1988 and 1998 (5459 patients were followed up regarding bone metastasis until December 2006. Patients' characteristics at the time of surgery were analyzed by Cox's method, with bone metastasis as events. Patient groups were assigned according to Cox's analysis, and were judged either to require the adjuvant bisphosphonate or not, using the tentative criteria: high risk (>3% person-year, medium risk (1-3%, and low risk ( Results Bone metastasis incidence was constant between 1.0 and 2.8% per person-year more than 10 years. Non-invasive cancer was associated with a very low incidence of bone metastasis (1/436. Multivariate Cox's analysis indicated important factors for bone metastasis were tumor grade (T, nodal grade (pN, and histology. Because T and pN were important factors for bone metastasis prediction, subgroups were made by pTNM stage. Patients at stages IIIA, IIIB and IV had an incidence of >3% per person-year, patients with stage I Conclusions Bone metastasis incidence remained constant for many years. Using pN, T, and histopathology, patients could be classified into high, medium, and low risk groups.

  17. Functional Time Series Models to Estimate Future Age-Specific Breast Cancer Incidence Rates for Women in Karachi, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farah Yasmeen[1; Sidra Zaheer[2

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Pakistan. The incidence of breast cancer in Pakistan is about 2.5 times higher than that in the neighboring countries India and Iran. In Karachi, the most populated city of Pakistan, the age-standardized rate of breast cancer was 69.1 per 100,000 women during 1998-2002, which is the highest recorded rate in Asia. The carcinoma of breast in Pakistan is an enormous public health concern. In this study, we examined the recent trends of breast cancer incidence rates among the women in Karachi. Methods: We obtained the secondary data of breast cancer incidence from various hospitals. They included Jinnah Hospital, KIRAN (Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine), and Civil hospital, where the data were available for the years 2004-2011. A total of 5331 new cases of female breast cancer were registered during this period. We analyzed the data in 5-year age groups 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75+. Nonparametric smoothing were used to obtained age-specific incidence curves, and then the curves are decomposed using principal components analysis to fit FTS (functional time series) model. We then used exponential smoothing statspace models to estimate the forecasts of incidence curve and construct prediction intervals. Results: The breast cancer incidence rates in Karachi increased with age for all available years. The rates increased monotonically and are relatively sharp with the age from 15 years to 50 years and then they show variability after the age of 50 years. 10-year forecasts for the female breast cancer incidence rates in Karachi show that the future rates are expected to remain stable for the age-groups 15-50 years, but they will increase for the females of 50-years and over. Hence in future, the newly diagnosed breast cancer cases in the older women in Karachi are expected to increase. Conclusion: Prediction of age

  18. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  19. The Impact of Pesticide Exposure on Breast Cancer Incidence. Evidence from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaría-Ulloa, Carolina

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer (BC is the most prevalent and the leading cause of death from cancer in women worldwide. The low percentage of cases related to reproductive history risk factors and to genetics suggests that the environment may play a role in its etiology. Pesticide exposure has been hypothesized to have an important effect. Objective: This ecological study tests whether BC incidence in Costa Rica is related to pesticide environmental exposure (PEE, controlling for access to health care, fertility, age at first pregnancy, and socioeconomic status. Methods: A Poisson regression model was run. Spatial analysis techniques to test for spatial autocorrelation, and geographically weighted regressions were used. Results: PEE had a statistically significant direct association with BC for women 45 yrs+. The corresponding incidence rate ratio for PEE was 1.29. This means that after controlling for other risk factors, moving a district to the next decile of PEE was associated with 29% increase in BC incidence for women 45+. PEE was significant in some rural and agricultural areas of the country, after controlling for other risk factors. Conclusions: There seems to be an actual relation between breast cancer and pesticides. Since it is a preventable risk factor, this is an important public health issue to be debated. Paying more attention to health consequences that derivate from environmental exposure would imply a shift toward the application of the precautionary principle. Conclusions about causality can not be drawn from an ecologic approach, like the one taken in this study.

  20. An investigation of the apparent breast cancer epidemic in France: screening and incidence trends in birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Jørn

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Official descriptive data from France showed a strong increase in breast-cancer incidence between 1980 to 2005 without a corresponding change in breast-cancer mortality. This study quantifies the part of incidence increase due to secular changes in risk factor exposure and in overdiagnosis due to organised or opportunistic screening. Overdiagnosis was defined as non progressive tumours diagnosed as cancer at histology or progressive cancer that would remain asymptomatic until time of death for another cause. Methods Comparison between age-matched cohorts from 1980 to 2005. All women residing in France and born 1911-1915, 1926-1930 and 1941-1945 are included. Sources are official data sets and published French reports on screening by mammography, age and time specific breast-cancer incidence and mortality, hormone replacement therapy, alcohol and obesity. Outcome measures include breast-cancer incidence differences adjusted for changes in risk factor distributions between pairs of age-matched cohorts who had experienced different levels of screening intensity. Results There was an 8-fold increase in the number of mammography machines operating in France between 1980 and 2000. Opportunistic and organised screening increased over time. In comparison to age-matched cohorts born 15 years earlier, recent cohorts had adjusted incidence proportion over 11 years that were 76% higher [95% confidence limits (CL 67%, 85%] for women aged 50 to 64 years and 23% higher [95% CL 15%, 31%] for women aged 65 to 79 years. Given that mortality did not change correspondingly, this increase in adjusted 11 year incidence proportion was considered as an estimate of overdiagnosis. Conclusions Breast cancer may be overdiagnosed because screening increases diagnosis of slowly progressing non-life threatening cancer and increases misdiagnosis among women without progressive cancer. We suggest that these effects could largely explain the reported

  1. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Ipswich Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ipswich IP4 5PD (United Kingdom); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT, United Kingdom and School of Radiotherapy, University of Milan, Milan 20122 (Italy); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Centre for Vision Speech and Signal Processing, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare organ specific cancer incidence risks for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy (including cone beam CT verification) following breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer.Method: Doses from breast radiotherapy and kilovoltage cone beam CT (CBCT) exposures were obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom in which the positions of radiosensitive organs were delineated. Five treatment deliveries were investigated: (i) conventional tangential field whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT), (ii) noncoplanar conformal delivery applicable to accelerated partial beast irradiation (APBI), (iii) two-volume simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) treatment, (iv) forward planned three-volume SIB, and (v) inverse-planned three volume SIB. Conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy methods were used to plan the complex treatments. Techniques spanned the range from simple methods appropriate for patient cohorts with a low cancer recurrence risk to complex plans relevant to cohorts with high recurrence risk. Delineated organs at risk included brain, salivary glands, thyroid, contralateral breast, left and right lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, colon, and bladder. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII cancer incidence models were applied to the measured mean organ doses to determine lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for ages at exposure from 35 to 80 yr according to radiotherapy techniques, and included dose from the CBCT imaging. Results: All LAR decreased with age at exposure and were lowest for brain, thyroid, liver, and bladder (<0.1%). There was little dependence of LAR on radiotherapy technique for these organs and for colon and stomach. LAR values for the lungs for the three SIB techniques were two to three times those from WBRT and APBI. Uncertainties in the LAR models outweigh any differences in lung LAR between the SIB methods. Constraints in the planning of the SIB methods ensured that

  2. Cost-effective mammography screening in Korea. High incidence of breast cancer in young women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer in Korean women are different from the characteristics reported in Western women. The highest incidence rate occurs in Korean women in their 40s. The purpose of this study was to determine the most cost-effective screening interval and target age range for Korean women from the perspective of the national healthcare system. A stochastic model was used to simulate breast cancer screenings by varying both the screening intervals and the age ranges. The effectiveness of mammography screening was defined as the probability of detecting breast cancer in the preclinical state and the cost was based on the direct cost of mammography screening and the confirmative tests. The age-specific mean sojourn times and the sensitivity of the mammography were applied in the stochastic model. An optimal cost-effectiveness was determined by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and lifetime schedule sensitivity. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess parameter uncertainty. The selected cost-effective strategies were: the current biennial mammography screenings for women who are at least 40 years old; biennial screening for women between the ages of 35 and 75 years; and a combination strategy consisting of biennial screening for women aged between 45 and 54 years, and 3-year interval screening for women aged between 40 and 44 years and 55 and 65 years. Further studies should follow to investigate the effectiveness of mammography screening in women younger than 40 years in Asia as well as in Korea. (author)

  3. Are work-related stressors associated with diagnosis of more advanced stages of incident breast cancers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Stahlberg, Claudia; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between work-related stressors and breast cancer incidence and prognostic characteristics (estrogen receptor status, grade, lymph node status, size, stage) at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: The 18,932 women included in the Danish Nurse Cohort reported work......-related stressors in 1993 and again in 1999 and were followed until the end of 2003 in national registries. Prognostic characteristics were obtained from a clinical database and fewer than 0.1% were lost to follow up. RESULTS: During follow-up, 455 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Neither women with high...... work pressure (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.73) nor women with self-reported low influence on work organization (0.98; 0.69, 1.39) or long working hours (0.93; 0.54, 1.58) were at higher risk of breast cancer than women with no such stressors. Women with high work tempo had a slightly higher risk...

  4. Incidence and Outcome of BRCA Mutations in Unselected Patients with Triple Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the incidence of germline and somatic BRCA1\\/2 mutations in unselected patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and determine the prognostic significance of carrying a mutation. Methods: DNA was obtained from 77 TNBC and normal tissues. BRCA1\\/2 exons\\/flanking regions were sequenced from tumor and patients classified as mutant or wild type (WT). Sequencing was repeated from normal tissue to identify germline and somatic mutations. Patient characteristics were compared with chi-square. Survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared with log-rank. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to determine the independent association of mutation status with outcome.

  5. Recent changes in breast cancer incidence and risk factor prevalence in San Francisco Bay area and California women: 1988 to 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, Theresa HM; Chang, Ellen T.; John, Esther M.; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Glaser, Sally L.; Clarke, Christina A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Historically, the incidence rate of breast cancer among non-Hispanic white women living in the San Francisco Bay area (SFBA) of California has been among the highest in the world. Substantial declines in breast cancer incidence rates have been documented in the United States and elsewhere during recent years. In light of these reports, we examined recent changes in breast cancer incidence and risk factor prevalence among non-Hispanic white women in the SFBA and other regions of C...

  6. The Modifying Effect of Social Class on the Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Ann C.; Curriero, Frank C.; Caballero, Benjamin; Helzlsouer, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether social class modifies the effect of BMI on breast cancer incidence. Methods. Participants included 5642 postmenopausal White women recruited in 1989 to CLUE II, a prospective cohort study in Washington County, Maryland. We obtained exposure data from CLUE II and the 1990 US Census. We used survival and random-effects Cox proportional hazards analyses to determine the association of social class and BMI with breast cancer incidence. Results. Education was independently associated with increased risk of breast cancer incidence (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.11; P < .05); contextual measures of social class were not. Education modified the effect of BMI at age 21 years (HR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97, 0.99); area-level social class modified the effect of BMI at baseline (HR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.94, 0.99) and BMI change (HR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.95, 1.00). Subpopulation analyses that were adjusted for hormone use, parity, and breast-feeding found similar effects. Conclusions. Social class moderates the influence of body size on breast cancer incidence. Public health efforts, therefore, should advocate for policies that improve social conditions to decrease the burden of breast cancer. PMID:19150917

  7. Leptin and leptin receptor genes in relation to premenopausal breast cancer incidence and grade in Caucasian women

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Fangyi; Kraft, Peter; Rice, Megan; Michels, Karin B

    2011-01-01

    Body mass is inversely related to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. Leptin, an essential cytokine regulating food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, and fat metabolism may be part of the mechanistic pathway. We investigated 50 tagging and candidate SNPs in the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes for associations with premenopausal breast cancer incidence using 405 cases and 810 controls nested within the Nurses’ Health Study II. We also examined associations between th...

  8. Interval breast cancers: Absolute and proportional incidence and blinded review in a community mammographic screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonaro, Luca A., E-mail: luca.carbonaro@gmail.com [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Azzarone, Antonio [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Paskeh, Bijan Babaei [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Brambilla, Giorgio [Dipartimento di Radiologia, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano (Mi) 20089 (Italy); Brunelli, Silvia [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, ULSS 20, Piazza Lambranzi, Verona 37034 (Italy); Calori, Anna [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Caumo, Francesca [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, ULSS 20, Piazza Lambranzi, Verona 37034 (Italy); Malerba, Paolo [Dipartimento di Radiologia, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano (Mi) 20089 (Italy); Menicagli, Laura [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Sconfienza, Luca M. [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Vadalà, Giuseppe [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Brambilla, Gelma; Fantini, Luigi [Servizio di Medicina Preventiva delle Comunità, ASL Milano 2, Via Friuli 2, Lacchiarella (Mi) 20084 (Italy); Ciatto, Stefano [Screening Program, ULSS 16, Padova (Italy); and others

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the first years since the beginning of a mammographic population-based screening program. Materials and methods: Women aged 49–69 were invited biennially for two-view film-screen mammography and double reading without arbitration was performed. Interval cancers (ICs) from 2001 to 2006 were identified using screening archives, local pathology archives, and hospital discharge records. The proportional incidence of IC was determined considering breast cancers expected without screening. Three offsite radiologists experienced in breast cancer screening blindly evaluated mammograms prior to diagnosis, randomly mixed with negative mammograms (1:2 ratio). Cases unrecalled at review were considered as true ICs, those recalled by only one reviewer as minimal signs, and those recalled by two or three reviewers as missed cancers. T and N stage of the reviewed ICs were evaluated and compared. Results: A total of 86,276 first level mammograms were performed. Mean recall rate was 6.8% at first and 4.6% at repeat screening. We had 476 screen-detected cancers and 145 ICs (10 of them ductal carcinomas in situ). Absolute incidence was 17 per 10,000 screening examinations. Invasive proportional incidence was 19% (44/234) in the first year, 39% (91/234) in the second year, and 29% (135/468) in the two-year interval. Of 145 ICs, 130 (90%) were reviewed mixed with 287 negative controls: 55% (71/130) resulted to be true ICs, 24% (31/130) minimal signs, and 22% (28/130) missed cancers. The rate of ICs diagnosed in the first year interval was 21% (15/71) for true ICs, 46% (13/28) for missed cancers, and 39% (12/31) for minimal signs, with a significant difference of true ICs rate compared to missed cancers rate (p = 0.012). A higher rate of T3 and T4 stages was found for missed cancers (18%, 5/28) compared to minimal signs (6%, 2/31) or true ICs (8%, 6/71), while the rate of N2 and N3 stage for both minimal signs (19%, 6/31) or missed cancers (25

  9. Interval breast cancers: Absolute and proportional incidence and blinded review in a community mammographic screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the first years since the beginning of a mammographic population-based screening program. Materials and methods: Women aged 49–69 were invited biennially for two-view film-screen mammography and double reading without arbitration was performed. Interval cancers (ICs) from 2001 to 2006 were identified using screening archives, local pathology archives, and hospital discharge records. The proportional incidence of IC was determined considering breast cancers expected without screening. Three offsite radiologists experienced in breast cancer screening blindly evaluated mammograms prior to diagnosis, randomly mixed with negative mammograms (1:2 ratio). Cases unrecalled at review were considered as true ICs, those recalled by only one reviewer as minimal signs, and those recalled by two or three reviewers as missed cancers. T and N stage of the reviewed ICs were evaluated and compared. Results: A total of 86,276 first level mammograms were performed. Mean recall rate was 6.8% at first and 4.6% at repeat screening. We had 476 screen-detected cancers and 145 ICs (10 of them ductal carcinomas in situ). Absolute incidence was 17 per 10,000 screening examinations. Invasive proportional incidence was 19% (44/234) in the first year, 39% (91/234) in the second year, and 29% (135/468) in the two-year interval. Of 145 ICs, 130 (90%) were reviewed mixed with 287 negative controls: 55% (71/130) resulted to be true ICs, 24% (31/130) minimal signs, and 22% (28/130) missed cancers. The rate of ICs diagnosed in the first year interval was 21% (15/71) for true ICs, 46% (13/28) for missed cancers, and 39% (12/31) for minimal signs, with a significant difference of true ICs rate compared to missed cancers rate (p = 0.012). A higher rate of T3 and T4 stages was found for missed cancers (18%, 5/28) compared to minimal signs (6%, 2/31) or true ICs (8%, 6/71), while the rate of N2 and N3 stage for both minimal signs (19%, 6/31) or missed cancers (25

  10. Leptin and leptin receptor genes in relation to premenopausal breast cancer incidence and grade in Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fangyi; Kraft, Peter; Rice, Megan; Michels, Karin B

    2012-01-01

    Body mass is inversely related to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. Leptin, an essential cytokine regulating food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, and fat metabolism may be part of the mechanistic pathway. We investigated 50 tagging and candidate SNPs in the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes for associations with premenopausal breast cancer incidence using 405 cases and 810 controls nested within the Nurses' Health Study II. We also examined associations between these SNPs and circulating leptin (among 910 women) and breast cancer grade (among 267 patients). Permutation tests were performed to adjust for multiple testing. We did not detect a significant association between SNPs in the LEP or LEPR gene and either breast cancer incidence or plasma leptin levels. Among cases, 14 SNPs of the LEPR gene were significantly associated with cancer grade, and rs1137101 (Q223R) survived multiple testing adjustment (adjusted P = 0.04). The G carriers of rs1137101 were more likely to have poorly differentiated than well-differentiated cancers. Our data suggest that common genetic variation in the LEP or LEPR gene has no strong association with premenopausal breast cancer risk. The LEPR gene might be associated with breast cancer grade. PMID:21947707

  11. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  12. Breast cancer incidence and menopausal hormone therapy in Norway from 2004 to 2009: a register-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Norway, the breast cancer incidence increased by 50% in the 1990s, during a period with initiation of mammography screening as well as a fourfold increase in use of menopausal hormone therapy (HT). After 2002, the HT use has dropped substantially; however, the breast cancer incidence has declined only marginally. How much mammography screening contributed to the breast cancer incidence increase in the 1990s compared with HT use and specifically different types of HT use, has thus been discussed. Whether HT affects the incidence of subtypes of breast cancer differently has also been questioned. We have linked individual data from several national registries from 2004 to 2009 on 449,717 women aged 50–65 years. 4597 cases of invasive cancer and 681 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were included in the analysis. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratio (HR) as a measure of the relative risk of breast cancer associated with use of HT. The HRs associated with prescriptions of HT for more than 1 year were 2.06 (1.90–2.24) for estrogen and progesterone combinations, 1.03 (0.85–1.25) for systemic estrogens, and 1.23 (1.01–1.51) for tibolone. Invasive lobular carcinoma was more strongly associated with use of estrogen and progesterone combinations, HR = 3.10 (2.51–3.81), than nonlobular carcinoma, HR = 1.94 (1.78–2.12). The corresponding value for DCIS was 1.61 (1.28–2.02). We estimated the population attributable fraction to 8.2%, corresponding to 90 breast cancer cases in 2006 indicating that HT use still caused a major number of breast cancer cases

  13. Increased Incidence of Loco-Regional Recurrences Among African American Women with Terminal Stage Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Colón-Otero; Sherry King; Vandelyn Smith; Carolyn Bieber; Julia Crook; Solberg, Lawrence A.; Robert Shannon; Perez, Edith A.

    2008-01-01

    A prospective analysis of women with terminal breast cancer admitted to CHNE from November 2006-August 2007 evaluated anecdotal observations that African American (AA) women are likelier than Caucasian women to evidence loco-regional recurrences (LRR). Women with terminal breast cancer who were admitted to CHNE, a not-for-profit hospice serving over 90% of Northeast Florida hospice patients, were eligible for participation. 134 terminal breast cancer patients were assessed by hospice nurses f...

  14. Inflammatory breast cancer: high incidence of detection of mixed human cytomegalovirus genotypes associated with disease pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    MonaMostafaMohamed; MohamedEl-Shinawi; M.AkramNouh; RobertJ.Schneider; ElsayedTarekElsayed

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is highly metastatic, aggressive and fatal form of breast cancer. Patients presenting with IBC are characterized by a high number of axillary lymph node metastases. Recently, we found that IBC carcinoma tissues contain significantly higher levels of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA compared to other breast cancer tissues, that may regulate cell signaling pathways. In fact, HCMV pathogenesis and clinical outcome can be statistically associated with multiple HCM...

  15. Inflammatory Breast Cancer: High Incidence of Detection of Mixed Human Cytomegalovirus Genotypes Associated with Disease Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Hossam Taha; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Nouh, M. Akram; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Elsayed, Elsayed Tarek; Schneider, Robert J.; Mohamed, Mona Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a highly metastatic, aggressive, and fatal form of breast cancer. Patients presenting with IBC are characterized by a high number of axillary lymph node metastases. Recently, we found that IBC carcinoma tissues contain significantly higher levels of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA compared to other breast cancer tissues that may regulate cell signaling pathways. In fact, HCMV pathogenesis and clinical outcome can be statistically associated with multiple H...

  16. Prediction of Female Breast Cancer Incidence among the Aging Society in Kanagawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the increasing number of elderly “baby boomers” in Japan, the number of cancer patients is also expected to increase. Approximately 2 million baby boomers from nearby local areas are residing in metropolitan areas; hence, the geographical distribution of cancer patients will probably markedly change. We assessed the expected number of breast cancer (BC) patients in different regions (urban, outer city, town, rural) using estimates of the nation’s population and Kanagawa Cancer Registry data. To estimate future BC incidence for each region, we multiplied the 2010 rate by the predicted female population for each region according to age group. The incidence cases of BC in those aged ≥65 years is expected to increase in all areas; in particular, compared to rates in 2010, the BC incidence in urban areas was predicted to increase by 82.6% in 2035 and 102.2% in 2040. Although the incidence in all BC cases in urban areas showed an increasing trend, until peaking in 2040 (increasing 31.2% from 2010), the number of BC patients would continue to decrease in other areas. The number of BC patients per capita BC specialist was 64.3 patients in 2010; this value would increase from 59.3 in 2010 to 77.7 in 2040 in urban areas, but would decrease in other areas. Our findings suggest that the number of elderly BC patients is expected to increase rapidly in urban areas and that the demand for BC treatment would increase in the elderly population in urban areas. PMID:27532126

  17. Global trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality Cáncer de mama en el mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy L. Porter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the increasing incidence of breast cancer world-wide and the increasing burden of breast cancer deaths experienced by lower-income countries. The causes of increasing incidence have been attributed to changes in the prevalence of reproductive risk factors, lifestyle changes, and genetic and biological differences between ethnic and racial groups. All these factors may contribute, but data linking etiological factors to increased risk in developing countries is lacking. The challenge for lower-income countries is developing effective strategies to reverse the trend of increasing mortality. Down-staging of breast cancer by early detection is a promising long-term strategy for preventing disease-related deaths but it is difficult to make the economic investment required to carry out broad screening programs. Successful strategies for addressing the growing breast cancer burden will therefore take political will, reliable data, public and medical community awareness, and partnerships between community advocates, governments, non-governmental organizations and biotechnology.Se destaca el aumento en la incidencia de cáncer de mama (CaMa en el mundo y la creciente carga de muertes por la enfermedad en países en desarrollo. El aumento en la incidencia se atribuye a cambios en la prevalencia de factores de riesgo reproductivo, estilo de vida, y a diferencias biológicas entre grupos étnicos y raciales. Sin embargo, aún faltan datos que relacionen los factores etiológicos al incremento en el riesgo en países en desarrollo. El desafío es generar estrategias efectivas que reviertan la tendencia en la mortalidad. La detección en etapas más tempranas es una estrategia prometedora de largo plazo pero la inversión necesaria para los programas de tamizaje es muy alta. Las estrategias exitosas para hacer frente a la creciente carga de CaMa deben tener voluntad política, evidencia confiable, reconocimiento de la comunidad p

  18. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer–related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2–65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  19. Endometrial Cancer Incidence in Breast Cancer Patients Correlating with Age and Duration of Tamoxifen Use: a Population Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ju-Yin; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Liaw, Yung-Po; AVITAL, ITZHAK; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Man, Yan-gao; Mannion, Ciaran; Wang, Jianlian; Chou, Ming-Chih; Tsai, Horng-Der; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsiao, Yi-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our study aimed to assess the endometrial cancer risk after tamoxifen adjuvant treatment for female breast cancer patients in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: A total of 74,280 breast cancer patients between January 1997 and December 2004 were included in the study; 39,411 received tamoxifen treatment and 34,869 did not. Tamoxifen-associated endometrial cancer was defined as endometrial cancer that occurred in patients at least 6-month after the diagnosis of breast cancer, who under...

  20. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, D. G.; Dinse, G E

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes ...

  1. Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use and incidence of breast cancer in the California Teachers Study cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the association between residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use and breast cancer incidence among members of the California Teachers Study cohort, a large study of professional school employees with extensive information on breast cancer risk factors, followed for cancer incidence since 1995. We identified 1552 invasive breast cancer cases, diagnosed between 1996 and 1999, among 114,835 cohort members. We used California Pesticide Use Reporting data to select pesticides for analysis based on use volume, carcinogenic potential, and exposure potential; a Geographic Information System was used to estimate pesticide applications within a half-mile radius of subjects' residences. We applied Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard rate ratios (HR) for selected pesticides, adjusting for age, race, and socioeconomic status. We saw no association between residential proximity to recent agricultural pesticide use and invasive breast cancer incidence. HR estimates for the highest compared to the lowest exposure categories for groups of agents were as follows: probable or likely carcinogens (1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-1.32), possible or suggestive carcinogens (1.06, 95% CI: 0.87-1.29), mammary carcinogens (1.15, 95% CI: 0.90-1.48), and endocrine disruptors (1.03, 95% CI: 0.86-1.25). HR estimates for other groups and individual pesticides did not differ from unity, nor was there a trend for any groupings of or individual pesticides examined. Stratifying by menopausal status or family history of breast cancer did not substantially affect our results. Our analyses suggest that breast cancer incidence is not elevated in areas of recent, high agricultural pesticide use in California

  2. Recent trends in breast cancer incidence in US white women by county-level urban/rural and poverty status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan Theresa HM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unprecedented declines in invasive breast cancer rates occurred in the United States between 2001 and 2004, particularly for estrogen receptor-positive tumors among non-Hispanic white women over 50 years. To understand the broader public health import of these reductions among previously unstudied populations, we utilized the largest available US cancer registry resource to describe age-adjusted invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence trends for non-Hispanic white women aged 50 to 74 years overall and by county-level rural/urban and poverty status. Methods We obtained invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence data for the years 1997 to 2004 from 29 population-based cancer registries participating in the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries resource. Annual age-adjusted rates were examined overall and by rural/urban and poverty of patients' counties of residence at diagnosis. Joinpoint regression was used to assess trends by annual quarter of diagnosis. Results Between 2001 and 2004, overall invasive breast cancer incidence fell 13.2%, with greater reductions among women living in urban (-13.8% versus rural (-7.5% and low- (-13.0% or middle- (-13.8% versus high- (-9.6% poverty counties. Most incidence rates peaked around 1999 then declined after second quarter 2002, although in rural counties, rates decreased monotonically after 1999. Similar but more attenuated patterns were seen for in situ cancers. Conclusion Breast cancer rates fell more substantially in urban and low-poverty, affluent counties than in rural or high-poverty counties. These patterns likely reflect a major influence of reductions in hormone therapy use after July 2002 but cannot exclude possible effects due to screening patterns, particularly among rural populations where hormone therapy use was probably less prevalent.

  3. Incidence and risk factors of postoperative residual curarization in patients with breast cancer: prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-jing HE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of postoperative residual curarization (PORC in patients with breast cancer after total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA with vecuronium. Methods  Two hundred and fifty-seven female patients with breast cancer undergoing breast-cancer surgery were enrolled into the present study. Anesthesia was induced with target-controlled infusion of propofol (Cp 3-4μg/ml and remifentanil (2-3 ng/ml. A bolus of vecuronium 0.1mg/ kg was administered intravenously over 5-10s as soon as the patient lost consciousness, and laryngeal mask was placed 3min later. Mechanical ventilation and TIVA were performed for maintaining anesthesia and keeping bispectral index (BIS between 40 to 60 during the operation. According to the duration of operation, 0.02mg/kg of vecuronium was administrated intermittently. Extubation of the laryngeal tube was performed according to clinical criteria. Train-of-four ratios (TOFr were immediately measured with Veryark-TOF (Guangzhou Weilifangzhou Technology Ltd, China in the recovery room. The patients were divided into two groups (Group N and Group R according to the value of TOFr at the time of extubation. N denoted the non-residual neuromuscular blockade group (TOF≥0.7, and R denoted the residual neuromuscular blockade group (TOF0.05. In group R, age and hemoglobin level were lower (P0.05. More patients in Group R received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and multiple boluses of vecuronium administration, and the duration between last dose of vecuronium to extubation was also prolonged compared with Group N (P<0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that age, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and multiple boluses of vecuronium administration were not associated with increased risk of PORC. Duration from last dose of vecuronium to extubation was associated with increased risk of PORC (OR=0.970, 95%CI 0.956-0.984, P<0.001. Conclusions PORC is commonly used in patients with

  4. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...

  5. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10-6, 6 x 10-4] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10-3. The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs

  6. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Villaescusa, J I [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Avda Campanar, 21 46009 Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Salas, M D [Public Health General Direction, Conselleria de Sanitat de Valencia, C/Micer Masco, 31 46021 Valencia (Spain); Cuevas, M D [Assistential Service General Direction, Conselleria de Sanitat de Valencia, C/Micer Masco, 31 46021 Valencia (Spain)

    2005-02-07

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10{sup -6}, 6 x 10{sup -4}] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10{sup -3}. The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs.

  7. First epidemiological analysis of breast cancer incidence and tumor characteristics after implementation of population-based digital mammography screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to epidemiologically evaluate the impact of digital mammography screening on incidence rates and tumor characteristics for breast cancer. Materials and methods: the first German digital screening units in the clinical routine were evaluated during the implementation period by using data from the cancer registry to compare the incidence rate of breast cancers and prognostic characteristics. 74% of women aged 50-69 within the region of Muenster/Coesfeld/Warendorf were invited between 10/2005 and 12/2007 for initial screening; 55% participated (n = 35961). Results: in 2002-2004 the average breast cancer incidence rate (per 100000) was 297.9. During the implementation of screening, the rate rose to 532.9 in 2007. Of the 349 cancers detected with screening, 76% (265/349) were invasive compared to 90% (546/608) of cases not detected with screening during the same period. 37% (97/265) of cancers detected in the screening program had a diameter of ≤ 10 mm and 75% (198/265) were node-negative compared to 15% (79/546) and 64% (322/503), respectively, in cancers detected outside the screening program. The distribution of invasive tumor size (pT categories) and the nodal status differed with statistical significance between cancers detected in and outside the program (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively). (orig.)

  8. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Nordic capitals, 1970-1998. Trends related to mammography screening programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnberg, Sven; Kemetli, Levent; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to relate the time trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality to the introduction of mammography screening in the Nordic capitals. Helsinki offered screening to women aged 50-59 starting in 1986. The other three capitals offered screening to women aged 50...

  9. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks ... the risk. Women who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested ...

  10. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Nordic capitals, 1970-1998. Trends related to mammography screening programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toernberg, Sven; Kemetli, Levent [Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Cancer Screening Unit, Oncologic Centre; Lynge, Elsebeth; Olsen, Anne Helene [Univ. of Copenhagen, (Denmark). Inst. of Public Health; Hofvind, Solveig; Wang, Hege [The Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Anttila, Ahti [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Hakama, Matti [Univ. of Tampere (Finland). School of Public Health; Nystroem, Lennarth [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine

    2006-07-15

    The aim of the present study was to relate the time trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality to the introduction of mammography screening in the Nordic capitals. Helsinki offered screening to women aged 50-59 starting in 1986. The other three capitals offered screening to women aged 50-69 starting in 1989 in Stockholm, 1991 in Copenhagen, and 1996 in Oslo. Prevalence peaks in breast cancer incidence depended on the age groups covered by the screening, the length of the implementation of screening, and the extent of background opportunistic screening. No mortality reduction following the introduction of screening was visible after seven to 12 years of screening in any of the three capitals where significant effects of the screening on the breast cancer mortality had already been demonstrated by using other analytical methods for the evaluation. No visible effect on mortality reduction was expected in Oslo due to too short an observation period. The study showed that the population-based breast cancer mortality trend is too crude a measure to detect the effect of screening on breast cancer mortality during the first years after the start of a programme.

  11. Association between Metformin Therapy and Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ting; Yang, Yuan; Liu, Shengchun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Metformin may be associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the effect of metformin intake on breast cancer risk and mortality. Methods We performed a PubMed and EMbase search for all available studies that described the risk of breast cancer and all-cause mortality in relation to the use of metformin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pooled relative risks (RRs) were determined using a random effects model to assess the streng...

  12. Trends in cancer incidence in female breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri, and ovary in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeole, Balkrishna B

    2008-01-01

    Trends in breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri and ovarian cancers in six population based cancer registries (Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Bhopal, and Barshi) were evaluated over a period of the last two decades. For studying trends we used a model that fits this data is the logarithm of Y=ABx which represents a Linear Regression model. This approach showed a decreasing trend for cancer of the cervix and increasing trends for cancers of breast, ovary and corpus uteri throughout the entire period of observation in most of the registries. The four cancers, breast, cervix, corpus uteri and ovary, constitute more than 50% of total cancers in women. As all these cancers are increasing, to understand their etiology in depth, analytic epidemiology studies should be planned in a near future on a priority basis.

  13. WCRF/AICR recommendation adherence and breast cancer incidence among postmenopausal women with and without non-modifiable risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sarah J O; Inoue-Choi, Maki; Lazovich, DeAnn; Robien, Kim

    2016-06-01

    Taller height, family history of breast cancer, greater number of years of potential fertility and nulliparity are established non-modifiable risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. Greater adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) diet, physical activity and body weight recommendations has previously been shown to be associated with lower breast cancer risk. However, no prior studies have evaluated whether women with non-modifiable risk factors receive similar benefits from recommendation adherence compared to women without these risk factors. In the Iowa Women's Health Study prospective cohort, we investigated whether associations of WCRF/AICR recommendation adherence differed by the presence/absence of non-modifiable breast cancer risk factors. Baseline (1986) questionnaire data from 36,626 postmenopausal women were used to create adherence scores for the WCRF/AICR recommendations (maximum score = 8.0). Overall and single recommendation adherence in relation to breast cancer risk (n = 3,189 cases) across levels of non-modifiable risk factors were evaluated using proportional hazards regression. Mean adherence score was 5.0 points (range: 0.5-8.0). Higher adherence scores (score ≥ 6.0 vs. ≤ 3.5, HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.67-0.87), and adherence to the individual recommendations for body weight and alcohol intake were associated with a lower breast cancer incidence. While not statistically significant among women with more non-modifiable risk factors (score ≥ 6.0 vs. ≤ 3.5, HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.36-1.63), hazard ratios were comparable to women with the no non-modifiable risk factors (score ≥ 6.0 vs. ≤ 3.5, HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.49-0.93) (p-interaction = 0.57). WCRF/AICR recommendation adherence is associated with lower breast cancer risk, regardless of non-modifiable risk factor status.

  14. Use of antidepressant medications in relation to the incidence of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton-Kehoe, D; Rossing, M A; Rutter, C.; Mandelson, M T; Weiss, N S

    2006-01-01

    Although associations have been reported between antidepressant use and risk of breast cancer, the findings have been inconsistent. We conducted a population-based case–control study among women enrolled in Group Health Cooperative (GHC), a health maintenance organization in Washington State. Women with a first primary breast cancer diagnosed between 1990 and 2001 were identified (N=2904) and five controls were selected for each case (N=14396). Information on antidepressant use was ascertaine...

  15. Breast cancer incidence in Greek women in relation to ABO blood groups and Rh factor

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatakos, Michael; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Safioleas, Panagiotis; Safioleas, Constnatinos; Manti, Christina; Safioleas, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aim To investigate the correlation between breast cancer in Greek women and ABO blood groups. Material-methods In 166 female patients with breast cancer factors such as blood group, histological type, family history, presence or absence of nodal and/or distant metastases were examined. These patients had similar demographic, clinical, surgical, immunohistochemical, laboratory, and follow-up data and this group is representative of general population of women in Greece. Results The ductal type...

  16. Breast cancer in kurdish women of northern Iraq: incidence, clinical stage, and case control analysis of parity and family risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safar Banaz M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer in the Middle-East occurs in relatively young women and frequently presents as advanced disease. A protective effect of multiparity is not apparent, and high familial risk is reported in some countries. This study investigates breast cancer rates and clinical stage related to age in the Kurdish region of Iraq and evaluates risk associated with parity and family history. Findings are compared with nearby countries and the West. Methods Sulaimaniyah Directorate of Health records identified 539 women diagnosed with breast cancer during 2006-2008. Clinical survey forms were completed on 296 patients and on 254 age-matched controls. Age specific incidence rates were calculated from Directorate of Health population estimates. Results Average patient age was 47.4 ± 11 years and 59.5% were pre-menopausal. Diagnosis was at clinical stage 1 for 4.1%, stage 2 for 43.5%, stage 3 for 26.0%, and stage 4 for 8.1% of patients. For 18.2%, stage was unknown. Annual breast cancer incidence rates per 100,000 women peaked at 168.9 at age 55 to 59 and declined to 57.3 at 60 and above. Patients had an average of 5.0 ± 3.3 children compared to 5.4 ± 3.5 for controls, P = 0.16. A first degree family member had breast cancer among 11.1% of patients and 2.1% of controls (P 50% of these patients and controls being ≥50 years old. No statistically significant relationship was found between tumor stage and age, P = 0.59. Conclusions In Kurdish Iraq, breast cancer is predominantly a disease of pre-menopausal women having multiple pregnancies. For younger patients, breast cancer incidence was similar to the West and possibly higher than many Middle-Eastern countries, but unlike the West, the estimated rates declined markedly in the elderly. The familial breast cancer risk for both older and younger women was within the general population risk of Western countries. Clinical stages were advanced and indicated delays in diagnosis that were

  17. Remarkable change in age-specific breast cancer incidence in the Swiss canton of Geneva and its possible relation with the use of hormone replacement therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article aims to explain the reasons for the remarkable change in age of breast cancer occurrence in the Swiss canton of Geneva. We used population-based data from the Geneva cancer registry, which collects information on method of detection, stage and tumour characteristics since 1975. For patients diagnosed between 1997–2003, we obtained additional information on use of hormone replacement therapy from a large prospective study on breast cancer. Using generalized log linear regression analysis, we compared age-specific incidence rates with respect to period, stage, oestrogen receptor status, method of detection and use of hormone replacement therapy. In the periods 1975–1979 and 1985–1989, breast cancer risk increased with age, showing the highest incidence rates among women aged ≥ 85 years. From 1997, the age-specific incidence curve changed completely (p < 0.0001), showing an incidence peak at 60–64 years and a reduced incidence among elderly women. This incidence peak concerned mainly early stage and oestrogen positive cancers and was exclusively observed among women who ever used hormone replacement therapy, regardless whether the tumour was screen-detected or not. The increasing prevalence of hormone replacement therapy use during the 1990s could explain the important change in age-specific breast cancer incidence, not only by increasing breast cancer risk, but also by revealing breast cancer at an earlier age

  18. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... perform breast self-exams each month. However, the importance of self-exams for detecting breast cancer is ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  19. Diverging breast and stomach cancer incidence and survival in migrants in The Netherlands, 1996–2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, M.; Aarts, M.J.; Siesling, S.; Aa, van der M.A.; Visser, O.; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Migrant populations usually experience a health transition with respect to their cancer risk as a result from environmental changes and acculturation processes. We investigated potentially contrasting experiences with breast and stomach cancer risk and survival in migrants to the Netherl

  20. Social inequality and incidence of and survival from breast cancer in a population-based study in Denmark, 1994-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg;

    2008-01-01

    on 25,855 patients with breast cancer in a cohort of 3.22 million people born between 1925 and 1973 and aged >or=30 years. In general, the incidence of breast cancer increased with increasing social advantage, with unemployment or retirement, with increasing urbanicity and with being single or divorced...

  1. On the rising trends of incidence and prognosis for breast cancer patients diagnosed 1975-2004: a long-term population-based study in southeastern Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwman, W.J.; Voogd, A.C.; Dijck, J.A.A.M. van; Nieuwenhuijzen, G.A.P; Ribot, J.; Pruijt, J.F.M.; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much progress has been made in the early diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. We have assessed the changing burden of this disease, by means of a comprehensive description of trends in incidence, survival, and mortality. METHODS: Data on breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1975

  2. Neighbourhoods matter too: the association between neigbourhood socioeconomic position, population density and breast, protaste and lung cancer incidence in Denmark between 2004 and 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Mathias; Bloomfield, Kim; Engholm, Gerda

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that cancer incidence is related to a number of individual factors, including socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to refine the current knowledge about indicators associated with cancer incidence by evaluating the influence of neighbourhood characteristics ...... on breast, prostate and lung cancer incidence in Denmark.......Previous studies have shown that cancer incidence is related to a number of individual factors, including socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to refine the current knowledge about indicators associated with cancer incidence by evaluating the influence of neighbourhood characteristics...

  3. Low incidence of germline mutation in BRCA1 Exon 11 among early-onset and familial Filipino breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene, type 1 (BRCA1) has been thought to be responsible for about 45% of families with multiple breast carcinoma cases and for more than 80% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families. About 61-75% of the reported distinct alterations that result in truncated protein products have been found in exon 11 which comprises 61% (3427bp) of the coding sequence of BRCA1(5592bp). Protein truncation test (PTT) has become a popular method as an efficient means of screening mutations in a coding sequence that lead to a truncated protein product. In this study, 34 early-onset and/or familial breast cancer (FBC) patients were investigated. Twenty-six patients are early-onset B(o)C cases (diagnosed≤40 years old), 14 of which have familiality of the disease. Among the 8 patients that have been diagnosed above 40 years old, 7 have familial clustering. Through radioactive PTT analysis of the 34 BC cases in a 5-20% denaturing gradient polyacrylamide gel, we found only one mutation in exon 11 having a 29.7 kDa truncated protein product. Our results corroborate the findings of a recently reported study of unselected incident breast cancer cases in the Philippines where the prevalence of BRCA1 mutation is also low. This would, however, be the second documented mutation in BRCA1 exon 11 in a Filipino BC patient since 1998. (author)

  4. Developing Multivariable Normal Tissue Complication Probability Model to Predict the Incidence of Symptomatic Radiation Pneumonitis among Breast Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsair-Fwu Lee

    Full Text Available Symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (SRP, which decreases quality of life (QoL, is the most common pulmonary complication in patients receiving breast irradiation. If it occurs, acute SRP usually develops 4-12 weeks after completion of radiotherapy and presents as a dry cough, dyspnea and low-grade fever. If the incidence of SRP is reduced, not only the QoL but also the compliance of breast cancer patients may be improved. Therefore, we investigated the incidence SRP in breast cancer patients after hybrid intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT to find the risk factors, which may have important effects on the risk of radiation-induced complications.In total, 93 patients with breast cancer were evaluated. The final endpoint for acute SRP was defined as those who had density changes together with symptoms, as measured using computed tomography. The risk factors for a multivariate normal tissue complication probability model of SRP were determined using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO technique.Five risk factors were selected using LASSO: the percentage of the ipsilateral lung volume that received more than 20-Gy (IV20, energy, age, body mass index (BMI and T stage. Positive associations were demonstrated among the incidence of SRP, IV20, and patient age. Energy, BMI and T stage showed a negative association with the incidence of SRP. Our analyses indicate that the risk of SPR following hybrid IMRT in elderly or low-BMI breast cancer patients is increased once the percentage of the ipsilateral lung volume receiving more than 20-Gy is controlled below a limitation.We suggest to define a dose-volume percentage constraint of IV20< 37% (or AIV20< 310cc for the irradiated ipsilateral lung in radiation therapy treatment planning to maintain the incidence of SPR below 20%, and pay attention to the sequelae especially in elderly or low-BMI breast cancer patients. (AIV20: the absolute ipsilateral lung volume that received more than

  5. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  6. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  7. An analysis of the incidence and related factors for radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients who receive radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Young; Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jung Soo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heui Kwan [Prebyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We analyzed the incidence and related factors of radiation dermatitis; at first, to recognize whether a decrease in radiation dermatitis is possible or not in breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy. Of 338 patients, 284 with invasive breast cancer who received breast conservation surgery with radiotherapy at Chonbuk National University Hospital from January 2007 to June 2009 were evaluated. Patients who also underwent bolus, previous contralateral breast irradiation and irradiation on both breasts were excluded. For patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis, the incidence and relating factors for radiation dermatitis were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 207 and 77 patients appeared to have RTOG grade 0/1 or above RTOG grade 2 radiation dermatitis, respectively. The factors found to be statistically significant for the 77 patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis include the presence of lymphocele due to the stasis of lymph and lymph edema which affect the healing disturbance of radiation dermatitis (p=0.003, p=0.001). Moreover, an allergic reaction to plaster due to the immune cells of skin and the activation of cytokine and concomitant hormonal therapy were also statistically significant factors (p=0.001, p=0.025). Most of the breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy appeared to have a greater than mild case of radiation dermatitis. Lymphocele, lymphedema, an allergy to plaster and concomitant hormonal therapy which affect radiation dermatitis were found to be significant factors. Consequently, we should eliminate lymphocele prior to radiation treatment for patients who appear to have an allergic reaction to plaster. We should also instruct patients of methods to maintain skin moisture if they appear to have a greater than moderate case of radiation dermatitis.

  8. An analysis of the incidence and related factors for radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients who receive radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed the incidence and related factors of radiation dermatitis; at first, to recognize whether a decrease in radiation dermatitis is possible or not in breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy. Of 338 patients, 284 with invasive breast cancer who received breast conservation surgery with radiotherapy at Chonbuk National University Hospital from January 2007 to June 2009 were evaluated. Patients who also underwent bolus, previous contralateral breast irradiation and irradiation on both breasts were excluded. For patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis, the incidence and relating factors for radiation dermatitis were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 207 and 77 patients appeared to have RTOG grade 0/1 or above RTOG grade 2 radiation dermatitis, respectively. The factors found to be statistically significant for the 77 patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis include the presence of lymphocele due to the stasis of lymph and lymph edema which affect the healing disturbance of radiation dermatitis (p=0.003, p=0.001). Moreover, an allergic reaction to plaster due to the immune cells of skin and the activation of cytokine and concomitant hormonal therapy were also statistically significant factors (p=0.001, p=0.025). Most of the breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy appeared to have a greater than mild case of radiation dermatitis. Lymphocele, lymphedema, an allergy to plaster and concomitant hormonal therapy which affect radiation dermatitis were found to be significant factors. Consequently, we should eliminate lymphocele prior to radiation treatment for patients who appear to have an allergic reaction to plaster. We should also instruct patients of methods to maintain skin moisture if they appear to have a greater than moderate case of radiation dermatitis.

  9. Recent incidence and descriptive epidemiological survey of breast cancer in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Saggu, Shalini; Rehman, Hasibur; Abbas, Zahid K.; Abid A. Ansari

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review and analyze the pattern of breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological review of BC of all diagnosed Saudi female cases from January 1990 to December 2014 was conducted at the Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, KSA. This report contains information obtained from the Saudi Cancer Registry and from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center. Results: The number o...

  10. Detection of Breast Cancer with Mammography in the First Screening Round in Relation to Expected Incidence in Different Age Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio (R) of prevalence of screening-detected breast cancer in the first screening round (P) was compared with the expected incidence rate (I) for different age groups in several screening programs. Published data on the first screening round from three Swedish randomized trials and six counties with service screening were used. The women invited to take part in the screening were aged 40-74 years. Not only P and I but also R increased with increasing age. With the youngest age group as reference, the increase was statistically significant for both invasive cancer and invasive cancer and carcinoma in situ together. The studied ratio (R) can be thought of as a measure of efficiency in detecting breast cancer cases in mammography screening. The reasons for the increase are probably that the breast tissue of younger women is denser, which makes the cancer more difficult to detect by mammography, and that slow-growing cancers tend to appear more frequently in older women

  11. Racial disparities in all-cause mortality among younger commercially insured women with incident metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Christine; Wagner, Anita K; Zhang, Fang; Lu, Christine Y; Earle, Craig; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Degnan, Dennis-Ross; Frank Wharam, J

    2016-07-01

    Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality persist and are likely related to multiple factors. Over the past decade, progress has been made in treating metastatic breast cancer, particularly in younger women. Whether disparities exist in this population is unknown. Using administrative claims data between 2000 and 2011 (OptumInsight, Eden Prairie, MN) of members insured through a large national US health insurer, we identified women aged 25-64 years diagnosed with incident metastatic breast cancer diagnosed between November 1, 2000, and December 31, 2008. We examined time from diagnosis to death, with up to 3 years of follow-up. We stratified analyses by geocoded race and socio-economic status, age-at-diagnosis, morbidity score, US region of residence, urban/non-urban, and years of diagnosis. We constructed Kaplan-Meier survival plots and analyzed all-cause mortality using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Among 6694 women with incident metastatic breast cancer (78 % Caucasian, 4 % African American, and 18 % other), we found higher mortality rates among women residing in predominantly African American versus Caucasian neighborhoods (hazard ratio (HR) 1.84; 95 % confidence interval, CI 1.39-2.45), women with high versus lower morbidity (HR 1.30 [1.12-1.51]), and women whose incident metastatic diagnosis was during 2000-2004 versus 2005-2008 (HR 1.60 [1.39-1.83]). Caucasian (HR 0.61 [0.52-0.71]) but not African American women (HR not significant) experienced improved mortality in 2005-2008 versus 2000-2004. Despite insured status, African American women and women with multi-morbidity had poorer survival. Only Caucasian women had improved mortality over time. Modifiable risk factors for increased mortality need to be addressed in order to reduce disparities. PMID:27342456

  12. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  13. Breast cancer statistics and markers

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika Siva Donepudi; Kasturi Kondapalli; Seelam Jeevan Amos; Pavithra Venkanteshan

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO...

  14. The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. Results: A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2% of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2 had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant

  15. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  16. Impact of Breast Cancer Subtype Defined by Immunohistochemistry Hormone Receptor and HER2 Status on the Incidence of Immediate Postmastectomy Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Cheng, Shi; Deng, Heran; Wu, Jiannan; Mao, Kai; Cao, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postmastectomy reconstruction has become an increasingly popular choice for breast cancer patients recently. However, whether molecular subtype of cancer impacts the incidence of breast reconstruction is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between breast cancer subtype defined by immunohistochemistry hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status and recent rates of immediate postmastectomy reconstruction in the United States.The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was used to evaluate stage I-III breast cancer patients with different subtypes who underwent either mastectomy alone or mastectomy plus reconstruction between 2010 and 2012. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors influencing the incidence of immediate reconstruction.Of 47,123 women included, 33.1% (10,712/32,376) of HR+/HER2-, 33.1% (1912/5768) of HR+/HER2+, 29.6% (850/2875) of HR-/HER2+, and 27.7% (1689/6104) of triple negative breast cancer patients received immediate breast reconstruction (chi-square test, P breast cancer patients received significantly less breast reconstruction. After adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, geographic, or clinicopathologic factors, HER2-overexpressing (OR 0.896, 95% CI 0.817-0.984) and triple negative (OR 0.806, 95% CI 0.751-0.866) breast cancer patients remained less likely to undergo immediate postmastectomy reconstruction compared with HR+/HER2- or HR+/HER2+ patients. No significant difference was found in the type of reconstruction among different subtypes. Subgroup analysis showed that the difference of breast reconstruction rates among distinct subtypes varied with different grade and stage groups, and the association between breast cancer subtype and the reconstruction rate was not significant in low grade and early stage patients.This population-based study determined that breast cancer subtype was an independent

  17. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... click the brackets in the lower right-hand corner of the video screen. To reduce the videos, ... with breast cancer are under way. With early detection, and prompt and appropriate treatment, the outlook for ...

  18. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  19. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  20. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  1. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  2. Recent incidence and descriptive epidemiological survey of breast cancer in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggu, Shalini; Rehman, Hasibur; Abbas, Zahid K.; Ansari, Abid A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review and analyze the pattern of breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological review of BC of all diagnosed Saudi female cases from January 1990 to December 2014 was conducted at the Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, KSA. This report contains information obtained from the Saudi Cancer Registry and from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center. Results: The number of women with BC increased steadily from 1990-2010. On the basis of the number of cases, the percentage distribution of BC appears to be increasing. There were 1152 female BC cases in 2008 in comparison with 1308 in 2009, and 1473 in 2010. Breast cancer ranked first among females accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers (5378) in the year 2010. The average age at the diagnosis of BC was 48; weighted average was 49.8, and range 43-52. Conclusion: Among Saudi patients, there was a significant increase in the number of cases of BC, which occurs at an earlier age than in Western countries. Continued vigilance, mammographic screening, and patient education are needed to establish early diagnosis and perform optimal treatment. PMID:26446327

  3. Trends in Breast Cancer Incidence Rates by Age and Stage at Diagnosis in Gharbiah, Egypt, over 10 Years (1999–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Hirko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was undertaken to evaluate trends in breast cancer incidence in Egypt from 1999 to 2008 and to make projections for breast cancer occurrence for the years 2009–2015. Patients and Methods. We utilized joinpoint regression and average annual percent change (AAPC measures with 95% confidence intervals (CI to describe the trends in breast cancer incidence rates from the Gharbiah Cancer Registry by age and stage at diagnosis and to estimate expected breast cancer caseloads for 2009–2015. Results. From 1999 to 2008, the AAPC in breast cancer incidence rates in Gharbiah significantly increased among women 50 years and older and among localized tumors (AAPC %, 95% CI, 3.1% to 8.0%. Our results predict a significant increase in breast cancer caseloads from 2009 to 2015 among women aged 30–39 (AAPC %, 95% CI, 0.9% to 1.1% and among women aged 40–49 years (AAPC %, 95% CI, 1.0% to 2.6%. Conclusion. These results have important implications for allocating limited resources, managing treatment needs, and exploring the consequences of prior interventions and/or changing risk factors in Egypt and other developing countries at the same stages of demographic and health transitions.

  4. Women and breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Lippman, M E

    1987-01-01

    One in every 12 women will develop breast cancer; the incidence increases with age, dietary fat intake, caloric intake, height, and weight. The 10-year survival rate of breast cancer patients who refuse therapy is virtually zero. Segmental mastectomy plus radiation and lumpectomy, combined with systemic (adjuvant)chemotherapy, are alternatives under investigation at the National Institutes of Health that may increase the survival rate by decreasing metastatic complications.

  5. Incidence of breast cancer in the five-year period (2001-2006 in patients treated surgically in the Cantonal Hospital in Zenica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Drljević

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is currently one of the most common malignant tumors of human race and at the same it is the most frequent cancer of female population. The war and post-war migrations of population have significantlychanged the demographic and age structure in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Absence of a National Cancer Register and a unique database on malignant diseases makes monitoring of breast cancer even more difficult.Theobjectiveof this retrospective study was to analyze the incidence of breast cancer in Zenica-Doboj Canton, to conduct a survey based on the age of patients in the five-year period starting from 1 January 2001 until 30 November 2005 and results of the study have been compared with 1990. All the patients were treated surgically with pre-surgical clinical examination, ultra-sound examination and mamography, and pathohistological verification of cancer and pathologically determined size of tumor. A total of 297 patients were treated out of the series of 583 breast surgeries.During this five-year survey a continuous increase of breast cancers in Zenica-Doboj Canton was noted.Therehas been an increased incidence of breast cancer in women aged 30-45, the average size of tumor has decreased, and there has been no change in the relationship between the pathohistological types of tumors and tendencies in surgical treatments to use breast conserving surgical methods. The program of early detection of breast cancer or screening of healthy women and search for “small” cancers (screening programs will enable a wider use of breast conserving surgical methods and it requires a more active involvement of the state and society.

  6. Acrylamide exposure and incidence of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Olsen, Anja; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    2008-01-01

    risk neither unadjusted nor adjusted for the potential confounders HRT duration, parity, BMI, alcohol intake and education. After adjustment for smoking behavior, however, a positive association was seen between acrylamide-hemoglobin levels and estrogen receptor positive breast cancer with an estimated...

  7. Differences in breast cancer incidence and stage distribution between urban and rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship, Poland in years 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzak, Michalina; Maslach, Dominik; Juczewska, Marzena; Lasota, Wieslaw; Rabczenko, Daniel; Marcinkowski, Jerzy; Szpak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in breast cancer incidence and stage of disease between the urban and rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship in 2001-2002, before the introduction of the Population Screening Programme in 2006. Analysis was based on 696 breast cancer cases diagnosed in years 2001-2002 and registered in the CR in Bialystok (Voivodship Cancer Registry). An average annual number of incidence, as well as crude and standardised incidence rates, were calculated. Age-specific incidence rates for 5-year age groups were also calculated and grouped as follows: =70 years old. Incidence differences related to place of residence: urban or rural, were presented with the use of u/r (urban/rural) ratio. In order to evaluate the stage of disease, a simplified classification recommended by ENCR (European Network of Cancer Registries) for population registries (localised, regional, metastatic) was applied. The breast cancer incidence rate in the urban population was higher than in rural areas with u/r ratio amounting to 1.4. The highest incidence and largely marked differences between urban and rural areas were among women aged 50-69 years with the u/r ratio amounting to 1.8. Overall, the proportion of stage localised in Podlaskie Voivodship was 33.1 percent and differed between urban and rural areas. The proportion of localised cancer was higher in urban areas, but patients were younger when compared to those living in rural areas. Knowledge of differences in incidence and breast cancer stage in urban and rural women investigated in this research, together with other epidemiological indicators, should be used for monitoring the Population Screening Programmes in these populations.

  8. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...

  9. Lack of an association between passive smoking and incidence of female breast cancer in non-smokers: evidence from 10 prospective cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several case-control studies have suggested that passive smoking may increase the incidence of female breast cancer. However, the results of cohort studies have been inconsistent in establishing an association. The present study evaluated the association between passive smoking and incidence of female breast cancer through a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. METHODS: Relevant articles published before August 2012 were identified by searching the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Pooled relative risks (RRs were determined with either a fixed or random effects model and were used to assess the strength of the association. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses according to ethnicity, menopausal status, and the period and place of exposure to passive smoking were also performed. RESULTS: Ten prospective cohort studies involving 782 534 female non-smokers were included in the meta-analysis and 14 831 breast cancer cases were detected. Compared with the women without exposure to passive smoking, the overall combined RR of breast cancer was 1.01 (95% confidence interval: 0.96 to 1.06, P = 0.73 among women with exposure to passive smoking. Similar results were achieved through the subgroup analyses. No evidence of publication bias was observed. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that passive smoking may not be associated with increased incidence of breast cancer. However, the present conclusion should be considered carefully and confirmed with further studies.

  10. Lack of an Association between Passive Smoking and Incidence of Female Breast Cancer in Non-Smokers: Evidence from 10 Prospective Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Fan; Skrip, Laura; Wang, Yang; Liu, Shengchun

    2013-01-01

    Background Several case-control studies have suggested that passive smoking may increase the incidence of female breast cancer. However, the results of cohort studies have been inconsistent in establishing an association. The present study evaluated the association between passive smoking and incidence of female breast cancer through a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Methods Relevant articles published before August 2012 were identified by searching the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Pooled relative risks (RRs) were determined with either a fixed or random effects model and were used to assess the strength of the association. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses according to ethnicity, menopausal status, and the period and place of exposure to passive smoking were also performed. Results Ten prospective cohort studies involving 782 534 female non-smokers were included in the meta-analysis and 14 831 breast cancer cases were detected. Compared with the women without exposure to passive smoking, the overall combined RR of breast cancer was 1.01 (95% confidence interval: 0.96 to 1.06, P = 0.73) among women with exposure to passive smoking. Similar results were achieved through the subgroup analyses. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusion The results suggest that passive smoking may not be associated with increased incidence of breast cancer. However, the present conclusion should be considered carefully and confirmed with further studies. PMID:24204725

  11. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  12. Incidence of Febrile Neutropenia in Korean Female Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Preoperative or Postoperative Doxorubicin/Cyclophosphamide Followed by Docetaxel Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Gon; Sohn, Joohyuk; Chon, Hongjae; Kim, Joo Hoon; Heo, Su Jin; Cho, Hyunsoo; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel chemotherapy (AC-D) is an intermediate risk factor (incidence of 10%–20%) for febrile neutropenia (FN) in breast cancer. However, the reported incidence of FN while using this regimen was obtained mostly from Western breast cancer patients, with little data available from Asian patients. This study aimed to assess the incidence of FN in Korean breast cancer patients and to describe clinical variables related to FN. Methods From September 2010 to February 2013, data from the Yonsei Cancer Center registry of breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with four cycles of AC-D (60 mg/m2 doxorubicin, 600 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks for four cycles followed by 75 mg/m2 or 100 mg/m2 docetaxel every 3 weeks for four cycles) were analyzed. The incidence of FN, FN associated complications, dose reduction/delays, and relative dose intensity (RDI) were investigated. Results Among the 254 patients reported to the registry, the FN incidence after AC-D chemotherapy was 29.5% (75/254), consisting of 25.2% (64/254) events during AC and 4.7% (12/254) during docetaxel chemotherapy. Dose reductions, delays, and RDI less than 85.0% during AC were observed in 16.5% (42/254), 19.5% (47/254), and 11.0% (28/254) of patients, respectively. Patients with FN events frequently experienced dose reduction/delays, which eventually led to a decreased RDI. Conclusion The incidence of FN during AC-D neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy was higher than expected in Korean breast cancer patients. Whether these patients should be classified as a high-risk group for FN warrants future prospective studies. PMID:27064666

  13. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  14. Incidence and clinical significance of ESR1 mutations in heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jiaxin Niu,1 Grant Andres,1 Kim Kramer,2 Madappa N Kundranda,3 Ricardo H Alvarez,4 Eiko Klimant,5 Ankur R Parikh,5 Bradford Tan,6 Edgar D Staren,7 Maurie Markman8 1Department of Medical Oncology, Western Regional Medical Center at Cancer Treatment Centers of America (CTCA, Goodyear, AZ, USA; 2CTCA Medicine and Science, Zion, IL, USA; 3Department of Medical Oncology, Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, Gilbert, AZ, USA; 4Department of Medical Oncology, Southeastern Regional Medical Center at CTCA, Newnan, GA, USA; 5Department of Medical Oncology, Eastern Regional Medical Center at CTCA, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 6Department of Pathology, Midwestern Regional Medical Center at CTCA, Zion, IL, USA; 7Advanced Individual Medicine, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 8CTCA Medicine and Science, Philadelphia, PA, USA Background: ESR1 mutation has recently emerged as one of the important mechanisms involved in endocrine resistance. The incidence and clinical implication of ESR1 mutation has not been well evaluated in heavily pretreated breast cancer patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of advanced breast cancer patients with tumors who underwent next-generation sequencing genomic profiling using Foundation One test at Cancer Treatment Centers of America® regional hospitals between November 2012 and November 2014. Results: We identified a total of 341 patients including 217 (59% estrogen receptor (ER+, 177 (48% progesterone receptor (PR+, 30 (8% hormone receptor+/HER2 positive, and 119 (32% triple negative patients. ESR1 mutation was noted in 27/222 (12.1% ER+ or PR+ breast cancer patients. All ER+ patients received at least one line of an aromatase inhibitor. All 28 patients were found to harbor ESR1 mutations affecting ligand-binding domain with the most common mutations affecting Y537 (17/28, 60.7% and D538 (9/28, 32.1%. In this cohort, 19 (67.9% patients carried three or more, seven (25% patients had one or two additional genomic alterations and one (3

  15. [Management of breast cancer in a woman with breast implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacle, S; Lifrange, E; Nizet, J-L

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer, currently one woman on eight, also concerns patients who underwent augmentation surgery. Breast implants have already been the subject of numerous publications concerning the risk of inducing breast cancer or of delaying its diagnosis; however, no significant causal relationship has been established. The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic consequences when breast cancer is identified in a patient with breast implants.

  16. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other less common types of breast cancer include: Medullary Mucinous Tubular Metaplastic Papillary breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer is a faster-growing type of cancer that accounts for about 1% to 5% of all breast cancers. Paget’s disease is a type of cancer that begins in ...

  17. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  18. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  19. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  20. [Incidence of cancer in Navarre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardanaz, E; Moreno, C; Pérez de Rada Arístegui, M E; Ezponda, C; Navaridas, N

    2004-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2000 an annual average of 3,303 cases of invasive cancer were registered in Navarre, 58% of them in men. If we except non melanoma skin tumours, the annual number of cases was 2,495, with gross incidence rates of 559 and 372 per 100,000 in men and women, and rates adjusted to the world population of 312 and 203 per 100,000 respectively. Amongst men, the four most frequently diagnosed tumoural localisations were the prostate, lung, colorectal and bladder, accounting for 57% of all cases. The most notable due to their frequency amongst women were tumours of the breast, colorectal, uterus body and ovary, accounting for 54% of all cases. With respect to the five year period from 1993 to 1997, the global incidence of cancer in the three year period from 1998 to 2000 has increased 4.2% in men and 7.4% in women. The incidence of lung cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in both sexes and of breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men are notable. There continues to be a fall in the incidence rates of stomach cancer in both sexes, following the tendency begun in the 1970s. PMID:15644889

  1. A BRCA1-mutation associated DNA methylation signature in blood cells predicts sporadic breast cancer incidence and survival.

    OpenAIRE

    Anjum, S; Fourkala, E O; Zikan, M.; Wong, A.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Jones, A.; HARDY, R.; Cibula, D.; Kuh, D.; Jacobs, I. J.; Teschendorff, A.E.; Menon, U; Widschwendter, M

    2014-01-01

    Background BRCA1 mutation carriers have an 85% risk of developing breast cancer but the risk of developing non-hereditary breast cancer is difficult to assess. Our objective is to test whether a DNA methylation (DNAme) signature derived from BRCA1 mutation carriers is able to predict non-hereditary breast cancer. Methods In a case/control setting (72 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 72 BRCA1/2 wild type controls) blood cell DNA samples were profiled on the Illumina 27 k methylation array. Using th...

  2. Serum estrogen and SHBG levels and breast cancer incidence among users and never users of hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Anne Mette Lund; Tjønneland, Anne; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard;

    2012-01-01

    Levels of endogenous estrogen and SHBG are associated with risk of breast cancer among women who have never used hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We investigated these associations in both never and baseline users of HRT.......Levels of endogenous estrogen and SHBG are associated with risk of breast cancer among women who have never used hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We investigated these associations in both never and baseline users of HRT....

  3. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) in patients receiving neoadjuvant and adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy for breast cancer: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waks, Adrienne G; Tolaney, Sara M; Galar, Alicia; Arnaout, Amal; Porter, Julie B; Marty, Francisco M; Winer, Eric P; Hammond, Sarah P; Baden, Lindsey R

    2015-11-01

    Opportunistic infection with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) has not been recognized as a significant complication of early-stage breast cancer treatment. However, we have observed an increase in PCP incidence among patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Herein we identify risk factors for and calculate incidence of PCP in this population. We identified all cases of PCP at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital (DFCI/BWH) from 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2013 in patients with stage I-III breast cancer treated with an adriamycin/cyclophosphamide (AC)-containing regimen. Nineteen cases of PCP in non-metastatic breast cancer patients were identified. All patients with PCP were diagnosed after receipt of either three or four cycles of AC chemotherapy on a dose-dense schedule. Patients who developed PCP were treated with median 16.4 mg prednisone equivalents/day as nausea prophylaxis for a median 64 days. The overall incidence of PCP among 2057 patients treated with neoadjuvant or adjuvant dose-dense AC for three or more cycles was 0.6 % (95 % confidence interval 0.3-1.0 %). No PCP was diagnosed in 1001 patients treated with non-dose-dense AC. There was one death from PCP. Women receiving dose-dense AC chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer are at risk for PCP. Administering the same chemotherapy and corticosteroid dose over an 8-week versus 12-week non-dose-dense schedule appears to have created a novel infectious vulnerability. Replacing dexamethasone with alternative anti-emetics may mitigate this risk.

  4. Mind the gap: Racial differences in breast cancer incidence and biologic phenotype, but not stage, among low-income women participating in a government-funded screening program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Joan E.; Walters, Christine A.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Ford, Marvella E.; Barker-Elamin, Tiffany; Bennett, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer mortality rates in South Carolina (SC) are 40% higher among African-American (AA) than European-American (EA) women. Proposed reasons include race-associated variations in care and/or tumor characteristics, which may be subject to income effects. We evaluated race-associated differences in tumor biologic phenotype and stage among low-income participants in a government-funded screening program. Methods Best Chance Network (BCN) data were linked with the SC Central Cancer Registry. Characteristics of breast cancers diagnosed in BCN participants aged 47–64 years during 1996–2006 were abstracted. Race-specific case proportions and incidence rates based on estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic grade were estimated. Results Among 33,880 low-income women accessing BCN services, repeat breast cancer screening utilization was poor, especially among EAs. Proportionally, stage at diagnosis did not differ by race (607 cancers, 53% among AAs), with about 40% advanced stage. Compared to EAs, invasive tumors in AAs were 67% more likely (proportions) to be of poor-prognosis phenotype (both ER-negative and high-grade); this was more a result of the 46% lesser AA incidence (rates) of better-prognosis (ER+ lower-grade) cancer than the 32% greater incidence of poor-prognosis disease (p-values <0.01). When compared to the general SC population, racial disparities in poor prognostic features within the BCN population were attenuated; this was due to more frequent adverse tumor features in EAs rather than improvements for AAs. Conclusion Among low-income women in SC, closing the breast cancer racial and income mortality gaps will require improved early diagnosis, addressing causes of racial differences in tumor biology, and improved care for cancers of poor-prognosis biology. PMID:23239148

  5. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  6. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  7. Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Stomach Resembling Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eo, Wan Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are infrequent, with an estimated incidence rate of approximately 0.3%. Gastric metastases usually are derived from lobular rather than from ductal breast cancer. The most frequent type of a breast cancer metastasis as seen on endoscopy to the stomach is linitis plastica; features of a metastatic lesion that resemble early gastric cancer (EGC) are extremely rare. In this report, we present a case of a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from an infi...

  8. Dilemma of Pregnant Ladies with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zainur Rashid Z; S Sulaiha S A; Lew K G; Nurhana S

    2009-01-01

    Gestational breast cancer (GBC) or pregnancyassociatedbreast cancer was defined as breast cancerdiagnosed during pregnancy and within 1 year ofdelivery. Breast cancer is the second commonest cancerafter cervical seen in pregnancy and lactation.Nevertheless, the incidence is low and accounts forapproximately 1 in 3000 of pregnancies. A delay indiagnosis is common and 70% to 89% of patients withoperable primary lesions already have positive axillarylymph nodes. Breast cancer identified during p...

  9. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  10. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  11. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per;

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  12. A steroid metabolizing gene variant in a polyfactorial model improves risk prediction in a high incidence breast cancer population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldon R. Jupe

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions and general significance: Since the optimized PFRM consistently outperformed BCRAT in all Caucasian study populations, it represents an improved personalized risk assessment tool. The finding of higher Marin County risk linked to a CYP11B2 aldosterone synthase SNP associated with essential hypertension offers a new genetic clue to sporadic breast cancer predisposition.

  13. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991

  14. Types of Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about this condition, see Inflammatory Breast Cancer . Paget disease of the nipple This type of breast cancer ... carcinoma (this is a type of metaplastic carcinoma) Medullary carcinoma Mucinous (or colloid) carcinoma Papillary carcinoma Tubular ...

  15. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  16. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  17. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  18. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention en español Cáncer de mama You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear ...

  19. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined......, was 1.46 (95% CI 1.41-1.51) in men and 1.09 (1.07-1.11) in women. In male waiters, the SIR decreased from 1.79 (1.63-1.96) in 1961-1975, to 1.33 (1.26-1.40) in 1991-2005, but remained stable among women. The SIR among male waiters was highest for cancers in the pharynx (6.11; 95% CI 5.02-7.37), oral...

  20. Association between breast and thyroid cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association

  1. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  2. Incidence of bone metastases and skeletal-related events in breast cancer patients: A population-based cohort study in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryzek Jon P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BrCa is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the industrialized world. More than half of women presenting with metastatic BrCa develop bone metastases. Bone metastases increase the risk of skeletal-related events (SREs, defined as pathological fractures, spinal cord compression, bone pain requiring palliative radiotherapy, and orthopaedic surgery. Both bone metastases and SREs are associated with unfavorable prognosis and greatly affect quality of life. Few epidemiological data exist on SREs after primary diagnosis of BrCa and subsequent bone metastasis. We therefore estimated the incidence of bone metastases and SREs in newly-diagnosed BrCa patients in Denmark from 1999 through 2007. Methods We estimated the overall and annual incidence of bone metastases and SREs in newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients in Denmark from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2007 using the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR, which covers all Danish hospitals. We estimated the cumulative incidence of bone metastases and SREs and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Of the 35,912 BrCa patients, 178 (0.5% presented with bone metastases at the time of primary breast cancer diagnosis, and of these, 77 (43.2% developed an SRE during follow up. A total of 1,272 of 35,690 (3.6% BrCa patients without bone metastases at diagnosis developed bone metastases during a median follow-up time of 3.4 years. Among these patients, 590 (46.4% subsequently developed an SRE during a median follow-up time of 0.7 years. Incidence rates of bone metastases were highest the first year after the primary BrCa diagnosis, particularly among patients with advanced BrCa at diagnosis. Similarly, incidence rates of a first SRE was highest the first year after first diagnosis of a bone metastasis. Conclusions The high incidence of SREs following the first year after first diagnosis of a bone metastasis

  3. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-qing Chen; Hong-mei Zeng; Rong-shou Zheng; Si-wei Zhang; Jie He

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Cancer incidence and mortality data collected from population-based cancer registries were analyzed to present the overall cancer statistics in Chinese registration areas by age,sex and geographic area in 2007.Methods:In 2010,48 cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2007 to National Central Cancer Registry of China.Of them,38 registries' data met the national criteria.Incidence and mortality were calculated by cancer sites,age,gender,and area.Age-standardized rates were described by China and World population.Results:The crude incidence rate for all cancers was 276.16/100,000 (305.22/100,000 for male and 246.46/100,000 for female; 284.71/100,000 in urban and 251.07/100,000 in rural).Age-standardized incidence rates by China and World population were 145.39/100,000 and 189.46/100,000 respectively.The crude mortality rate for all cancers was 177.09/100,000 (219.15/100,000 for male and 134.10/100,000 for female; 173.55/100,000 in urban and 187.49/100,000 in rural).Age-standardized mortality rates by China and World population were 86.06/100,000 and 116.46/100,000,respectively.The top 10 most frequently common cancer sites were the lung,stomach,colon and rectum,liver,breast,esophagus,pancreas,bladder,brain and lymphoma,accounting for 76.12% of the total cancer cases.The top 10 causes of cancer death were cancers of the lung,liver,stomach,esophagus,colon and rectum,pancreas,breast,leukemia,brain and lymphoma,accounting for 84.37% of the total cancer deaths.Conclusion:Cancer remains a major disease threatening people's health in China.Prevention and control should be enhanced,especially for the main cancers.

  4. Menopausal hot flushes after breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fenlon, D.R.; Corner, J.L.; Haviland, J

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed to improve understanding of the natural history and impact of hot flushes after breast cancer. Data were collected from women participating in an RCT of relaxation to reduce the incidence of flushes from breast cancer follow-up clinics from two hospitals in South-East England. Repondents were 150 women experiencing hot flushes following completion of primary treatment for breast cancer. This study utilized a flush diary, the Hot Flushes and Night Sweats Questionnaire (HFNSQ...

  5. Adulthood lifetime physical activity and breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Peplonska, Beata; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hartman, Terryl J.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Blair, Aaron; Zatonski, Witold; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown that breast cancer risk is reduced 30% to 40% in highly physically active compared with inactive women. However, the effects of moderate activities, timing of activities, and intervening effects of other risk factors remain less clear. METHODS: We analyzed data on physical activity patterns in 2176 incident breast cancer cases and 2326 controls in a population-based breast cancer case-control study in Poland conducted in 2000-2003. Using unconditio...

  6. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  7. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  8. Increased risk for depression after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer...... or a major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...... were estimated with Poisson regression models. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with the two outcomes among patients with breast cancer. RESULTS: We identified 44,494 women with breast cancer. In the first year after diagnosis, the rate ratio for a hospital contact...

  9. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data for this......OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data...... for this study were drawn from a linkage between the census data for 15 million people from the five Nordic countries and their cancer registries for the period 1961-2005. SIR analyses were conducted with the cancer incidence rates for the entire national study populations used as reference rates. RESULTS......: A total of 16 422 male firefighters were included in the final cohort. A moderate excess risk was seen for all cancer sites combined, (SIR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11). There were statistically significant excesses in the age category of 30-49 years in prostate cancer (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 4...

  10. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  11. Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene1 (BRCA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiksiri, S.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene1 (BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene for breast and ovarian cancers. The gene locates at chromosome 17q21 and encodes for 1863 amino acids protein. It is believed that BRCA1 protein is involved in many functions such as DNA repair, centrosome replication, cell cycle checkpoint and replication of other genes. More than 800 mutations have been found in the population with an increased risk of cancer incidence in their families. Germ-line mutation of BRCA1 accounts for 5-10 percent of all breast cancer cases. Epigenetic modifications also reduce the function of normal BRCA1 gene. Several methods are used for laboratory diagnosis of cancer-related mutations. The development of breast cancer in carriers at risk with BRCA1 mutations may be prevented by suitable prevention plans such as breast cancer screening, ovarian cancer screening, surgery and cancer chemotherapy.

  12. MRI evaluation of the contralateral breast in patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Taneja; Amarnath Jena; Syed. Mohd. Shuaib Zaidi; Anuj Khurana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Contralateral breast cancer can be synchronous and/or metachronous in patients with cancer of one breast. Detection of a synchronous breast cancer may affect patient management. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast (DCE-MRI) is a sensitive technique for detecting contralateral lesions occult on the other imaging modalities in women already diagnosed with cancer of one breast. Aim: The aim was to assess the incidence of mammographically occult synchronous contralateral bre...

  13. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Europe and Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiy Opeyemi Abdulrahman; Ganiyu Adebisi Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to remain the most lethal malignancy in women across the world. This study reviews some of the epidemiological similarities and differences in breast cancer between white European women and black African women with the aim of optimising care for women with breast malignancy across the world. The incidence of breast cancer is lower among African women than their European counterparts. Majority of women in Europe are postmenopausal when they present with breast cancer; h...

  14. Breast cancer in women using digoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggar, Robert J; Andersen, Louise Elisabeth; Kroman, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Digoxin use is associated with increased incidence of breast and uterus cancers. We postulated that digoxin use might affect tumor characteristics and increase relapse risk in women with breast cancer. METHODS: Incident breast cancer cases in Danish women (n = 49,312; 1995 to 2008...... in Cox regression models. RESULTS: At diagnosis, tumors in digoxin users were more likely ER+ (85.4% vs. 78.6%: P = 0.002) and have grade 1 ductal histology (37.2% vs. 25.7%; P = 0.004), compared to non-users. 45 relapses occurred in women already using digoxin at breast cancer diagnosis (1,487 person...... cancers arising in digoxin-using women had better prognostic features. After adjustment for markers, overall breast cancer relapse risk in digoxin users was not increased significantly, although recurrence hazards for ER+ tumors were higher in the first year following diagnosis....

  15. Familial breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Phipps, R. F.; Perry, P M

    1988-01-01

    Familial breast cancer is important because of all the known risk factors associated with developing the disease. The one with the most predictability is a positive family history. It is also important because a family history causes anxiety in the families concerned, and young women will often ask their chance of developing the disease. This form of breast cancer accounts for 10% of causes and has factors that distinguish it from the sporadic variety. Relatives of familial breast cancer pati...

  16. Breast cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Thomas W.; Naylor, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumors are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to th...

  17. Breast cancer and the consumption of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, L; Miller, D R; Helmrich, S P; Kaufman, D W; Schottenfeld, D; Stolley, P D; Shapiro, S

    1985-09-01

    The hypothesis has been raised that coffee consumption may increase the incidence of breast cancer, based on the report that fibrocystic breast disease, a risk factor for breast cancer, regresses after abstention from coffee and other methylxanthines. The relation between recent coffee consumption and the risk of breast cancer was evaluated in a case-control study, based on interviews conducted 1975-1982 at several mainly eastern US teaching and community hospitals. The responses of 2,651 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer were compared with those of 1,501 controls with nonmalignant conditions and 385 controls with cancers at other sites. The relative risk estimates for levels of coffee drinking up to seven or more cups daily, relative to none, approximated 1.0 with narrow 95% confidence intervals. After allowance for confounding, the relative risk estimate for drinking at least five cups a day was 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.6) using the noncancer controls and 1.1 (0.7-1.6) using the cancer controls. Coffee consumption was not associated with an increase in the risk of breast cancer among women with a history of fibrocystic breast disease, nor were tea or decaffeinated coffee associated with an increase in the risk of breast cancer. The results suggest that the recent consumption of coffee does not influence the incidence of breast cancer. PMID:4025289

  18. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones.

  19. Breast cancer radiotherapy and cardiac risk

    OpenAIRE

    Anusheel Munshi; Kaustav Talapatra; Debanarayan Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women in the developed world and its incidence in the developing world is on the rise. Management of breast cancer requires a multimodality approach and an integration of the services of surgery, radiation, and medical oncology. Radiotherapy after mastectomy or breast conservation leads to reduction in local recurrence by two-thirds. Recent trials and metaanalyses have also demonstrated overall survival benefit with radiotherapy...

  20. Breast cancer onset in twins and women with bilateral disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartman, Mikael; Hall, Per; Edgren, Gustaf;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Little is known of the onset of breast cancer in high-risk populations. We investigated the risk of breast cancer in twin sisters and in the contralateral breast taking family history into consideration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed a Scandinavian population-based cohort of 2......,499 female twin pairs, in which at least one had a diagnosis of breast cancer and estimated the risk of breast cancer in the sister. Using a total of 11 million individuals in Sweden with complete family links, we identified 93,448 women with breast cancer and estimated the risk of a bilateral breast cancer....... RESULTS: The incidence of breast cancer in twin sisters of breast cancer patients was 0.64% per year and 0.42% per year in mono- and dizygotic twin sisters, respectively. In comparison, the risk of familial (affected first-degree relative) and nonfamilial bilateral breast cancer was 1.03% per year and 0...

  1. Breast cancer (metastatic)

    OpenAIRE

    Stebbing, Justin; Slater, Sarah; Slevin, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    Median survival from metastatic breast cancer is 12 months without treatment, but young people can survive up to 20 years with the disease, whereas in other metastatic cancers this would be considered very unusual.

  2. Accuracy of Self-Reported Breast Cancer Information among Women from the Ontario Site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Andriana Barisic; Gord Glendon; Nayana Weerasooriya; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining complete medical record information can be challenging and expensive in breast cancer studies. The current literature is limited with respect to the accuracy of self-report and factors that may influence this. We assessed the agreement between self-reported and medical record breast cancer information among women from the Ontario site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Women aged 20–69 years diagnosed with incident breast cancer 1996–1998 were identified from the Ontario Cancer R...

  3. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  4. Increased incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia following breast cancer treatment with radiation alone or combined with chemotherapy: a registry cohort analysis 1990-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to measure myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) risk associated with radiation and/or chemotherapy breast cancer (BC) treatment. Our study cohort was composed of BC patients diagnosed from 1990 to 2005 and followed up for blood disorders, mean length of follow up = 7.17 years, range 2-18 years. 5790 TNM stage 0-III patients treated with surgery alone, radiation and/or chemotherapy were included. Patients without surgery (n = 111), with stem cell transplantation (n = 98), unknown or non-standard chemotherapy regimens (n = 94), lost to follow up (n = 66) or 'cancer status unknown' (n = 67) were excluded. Rates observed at our community based cancer care institution were compared to SEER incidence data for rate ratio (RR) calculations. 17 cases of MDS/AML (10 MDS/7 AML) occurred during the follow up period, crude rate .29% (95% CI = .17, .47), SEER comparison RR = 3.94 (95% CI = 2.34, 6.15). The RR of MDS in patients age < 65 comparing our cohort incidence to SEER incidence data was 10.88 (95% CI = 3.84, 24.03) and the RR of AML in patients age < 65 was 5.32 (95% CI = 1.31, 14.04). No significant increased risk of MDS or AML was observed in women ≥ 65 or the surgery/chemotherapy-only group. A RR of 3.32 (95% CI = 1.42, 6.45) was observed in the surgery/radiation-only group and a RR of 6.32 (95% CI = 3.03, 11.45) in the surgery/radiation/chemotherapy group. 3 out of 10 MDS cases died of disease at an average 3.8 months post diagnosis and five of seven AML cases died at an average 9 months post diagnosis. An elevated rate of MDS and AML was observed among breast cancer patients < 65, those treated with radiation and those treated with radiation and chemotherapy compared to available population incidence data. Although a small number of patients are affected, leukemia risk associated with treatment and younger age is significant

  5. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer: consensus statement for standardized diagnosis and treatment. Annals of Oncology 2011; 22(3):515-523. [PubMed Abstract] Fouad TM, Kogawa T, Reuben JM, Ueno NT. The role of inflammation in inflammatory breast cancer. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 2014; 816:53-73. [PubMed ...

  6. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  7. Breast cancer mortality in mammographic screening in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Nyström, Lennarth; Moss, Sue;

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the impact of service mammography screening on breast cancer mortality using European incidence-based mortality (IBM) studies (or refined mortality studies). IBM studies include only breast cancer deaths occurring in women with breast cancer diagnosed after their first invitation to...... screening....

  8. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer.

  9. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  10. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  11. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  12. Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Krishnappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer (PSBBC is a rare clinical entity. The reported incidence ranges between 0.3% and 12%. There are several controversial issues regarding PSBBC pertaining to the diagnostic criteria, nomenclature, and management policies. Materials and Methods: Fourteen cases of PSBBC treated between 2001 to 2010 at our institute were retrospectively analysed in regards to demographic data, management and follow up. Results: PSBBC constituted 0.19% of total breast cancer patients at our institute. Age ranged from 28 to 78 years. PSBBC were detected by clinical examination in eight cases and by mammography in six cases. Twelve patients underwent bilateral modified radical mastectomy, one had unilateral mastectomy on one side and breast conservation on the other side and one patient has bilateral breast conservation. Majority of patients belonged to stage 2 and stage 3. All patients were found to have invasive ductal carcinoma. Five cases were ER/PR positive and 8 patients were triple hormone receptor negative. Eight patients received unilateral and six received bilateral adjuvant radiotherapy. Nine patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. 5 patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Median follow up of patients was 15.4 months. Conclusion: PSBBC is a rare event warranting awareness and screening of the contralateral breast in patients with unilateral breast cancer. These patients require individualized treatment planning based on the tumor factors of the index lesion. Further multi institutional prospective studies are needed for adequate understanding of management of PSBBC.

  13. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950-80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiationinduced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer

  14. Occupational risk factors for female breast cancer: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, M S; Labrèche, F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although progress has been made in identifying personal risk factors and in improving treatment for female breast cancer, incidence rates continue to increase. With women now occupying a sizable fraction of the workforce, it is worth inquiring whether there are occupational risk factors for breast cancer. This is a review of occupational studies on female breast cancer. METHODS: Suitable reports and published articles with associations of female breast cancer and occupation were i...

  15. Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes among Women in China: Practices, Knowledge, and Attitudes Related to Breast Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Chung; Yi-Lan Liu; Tsu-Yin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer is a major public health issue and the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women worldwide. Despite lower incidence rates than those living in Western countries, breast cancer incidence among Chinese women has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes toward and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods. This cross-sectional study examined the practices, knowledge, and attit...

  16. The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi IG; Hussain II; Alghamdi MS; El-Sheemy MA

    2013-01-01

    Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 a...

  17. Incidence of mammary tumors in the canine population living in the Veneto region (Northeastern Italy): Risk factors and similarities to human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascellari, Marta; Capello, Katia; Carminato, Antonio; Zanardello, Claudia; Baioni, Elisa; Mutinelli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    Although mammary gland tumors (MT) are the most-common type of tumor in intact female dogs, there is little information about their incidence in dog population. Data on MT in female dogs was retrieved from the Animal Tumor registry of dogs and cats of Venice and Vicenza provinces during 2005-2013 and was analyzed to visualize crude incidence rates by breed and across age categories. Overall, 2744 mammary tumors were reported accounting for 54% of all tumors in female dogs. The annual incidence rate (IR) was 250 cases per 100,000 dogs. The most frequent malignant tumors were complex carcinomas, consisting of both epithelial and myoepithelial tissues (IR=71.89), and simple carcinomas (IR=62.59). The MT incidence rate increased through the study period; particularly in the last 4 years, and malignant neoplasms occurred more frequently (70%) than the benign counterparts (30%). Seventy-four percent of tumors were diagnosed in intact females, and the mean age at diagnosis was significantly higher for spayed dogs than for intact ones. MT were less frequent in dogs younger than 6 years and increased up to approximately 60% for ages between 8 and 13 years. The purebred dogs had a higher probability to have a malignant neoplasm than mixed-breed dogs, particularly in dogs younger than 7 years, and the Samoyed, Dobermann, Schnauzer and Yorkshire Terrier breeds were more inclined to develop malignant MT. The incidence of MT in dogs is increasing, and IRs are comparable to that in women. The epidemiological similarities between dogs and women support the validity of canine MT as a model for human breast cancer. PMID:26948297

  18. Methylxanthines and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, C; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R N

    1987-10-15

    We investigated the relationship between methylxanthine consumption and breast cancer using data from a case-control study which included 1,510 cases and 1,882 controls identified through a nation-wide breast cancer screening program. There was no evidence of a positive association between methylxanthine consumption and risk of breast cancer. In fact, there was some suggestion of a negative association, particularly in women diagnosed after age 50. In addition, there was no evidence of increased risk with past or recent methylxanthine consumption, or with the consumption of caffeine or specific beverages, most notably brewed or instant caffeinated coffee and tea. PMID:3117709

  19. Long-term follow-up after treatment of invasive and in situ breast cancer : aspects on second breast cancers HRQOL and lymphoedema

    OpenAIRE

    Sackey, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among Swedish women and in 2012, 8490 new inva- sive breast cancers were diagnosed. The incidence of in situ breast cancer has markedly in- creased since nationwide mammography screening was introduced in the late 1980s. The in- creasing figures of in situ breast cancer are predominantly attributable to an increased frequency of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). In 2012, 1443 in situ breast cancers were diagnosed in Swe- den, which is approximately 15%...

  20. Cancer incidence in Thailand, 1995-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriplung, Hutcha; Sontipong, Sineenat; Martin, Nimit; Wiangnon, Surapon; Vootiprux, Visoot; Cheirsilpa, Arkom; Kanchanabat, Chol; Khuhaprema, Theeravud

    2005-01-01

    There are five population-based cancer registries in Thailand in different regions of the country. Four of them (Chiang Mai, Khon Kaen, Bangkok, and Songkhla) have been operating since 1988 and the other (Lampang) since the early 1990s. These registries have published regular 3-year cancer incidence reports since the first in 1993 for the period 1989-1991. The objective of this article is to summarize the figures of cancer incidence in Thailand during 1995-1997. The population of Thailand in 1996, at the middle of the period, was 27 million males and 27.5 million females. Information of cancer cases residing in the five provinces was collected and abstracted from different sources. Age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of cancer in males and females was calculated for each registry and that for the whole country was estimated using the five registries as representatives for the four geographical regions of Thailand. The estimated number of new cancer cases in 1996 for the whole country was 35,539 men and 38,476 women and the ASRs were 149.2 and 125.0 per 10(5) population in men and women respectively. Cancer incidences greatly differed from region to region. Lung cancer was the commonest in Chiang Mai and Lampang in the Northern region in both sexes. The incidence of liver cancer in Khon Kaen in the Northeastern region outnumbered all the others in both sexes; cholangiocarcinoma was the major type of liver cancer. In Bangkok, lung cancer was the most important cancer in males and breast cancer was in females. Though it was lung and cervix uteri cancer that ranked the first in men and women in Songkhla, the rate of oral and pharyngeal cancer was exceptionally higher than in other registries. The geographical variability in cancer patterns in Thailand reflects exposure of the population to different risk factors unique to the different regions. In the study as a whole, there are some methodological weak points in estimating the ASRs and number of cancer cases for the

  1. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  2. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the risk of breast cancer: Having an abortion. Making diet changes such as eating less fat or more ... does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Reviewers and Updates Editorial Boards ...

  3. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthesis Complementary Therapy Types of Complementary Therapy Acupuncture Art Therapy Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided Imagery Hypnosis Massage Therapy Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Yoga and Breast Cancer Getting ...

  4. The breast cancer conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    For decades, rates of breast cancer have been going up faster in rich countries than in poor ones. Scientists are beginning to understand more about its causes but unanswered questions remain. Patrick Adams reports.

  5. Local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy for invasive breast cancer: High incidence in young patients and association with poor survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study risk factors for local recurrence (LR) after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) for invasive breast cancer and, for patients with an LR, the mode of detection, location, treatment, influence of radiation therapy, and impact on survival. Methods and Materials: 1360 patients (median age 52 years; range 24-88) with a total of 1393 pT1-2 N0-1 tumors treated with BCT between 1980-1994 were studied (median follow-up 52 months). The adequacy of radiation treatment of the patients developing LR was studied in a quality control study. The impact of LR on overall survival and distant metastasis was studied in a Cox regression model with LR as a time-dependent covariate. Results: A total of 88 LR occurred with a 5- and 10-year LR risk of 8 and 12%. Age was the only significant risk factor. Compared to patients >65 years old, patients <45 years old and patients 45-65 years old had a relative risk (RR) of 4.09 and 2.41, respectively, of developing LR. Risk on LR was found to increase gradually with younger age. Radiation therapy was considered adequate and did not play a role in influencing the LR rate. Almost 65% of the LR were true or marginal recurrences. Of all LR, 80% appeared during the first 5 years and were detected with equal frequency by the patient herself, the physician, and annual mammography. LR was a major predictor for distant metastasis (RR: 4.90; 3.15-7.62) and death (RR: 4.29; 2.93-6.28). Conclusion: Young age is a major risk factor for LR and there is a significant gradual increase in LR with decreasing age. LR is associated with a higher risk of distant metastasis and death. Whether LR is the cause of or a marker for distant metastasis remains unresolved

  6. Perioperative intravenous lidocaine decreases the incidence of persistent pain after breast surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grigoras, Anca

    2012-09-01

    Breast cancer surgery is associated with a high incidence of persistent postsurgical pain (PPSP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intravenous (IV) lidocaine on acute and PPSP, analgesic requirements, and sensation abnormalities in patients undergoing surgery for breast cancer.

  7. Breast cancer survival and season of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Dorthe; Bjerre, Karsten D; Tjønneland, Anne M;

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has been suggested to influence the incidence and prognosis of breast cancer, and studies have found better overall survival (OS) after diagnosis for breast cancer in summer-autumn, where the vitamin D level are expected to be highest. Objective To compare the prognostic...... outcome for early breast cancer patients operated at different seasons of the year. Design Open population-based cohort study. Setting Danish women operated 1978-2010. Cases 79 658 adjusted for age at surgery, period of surgery, tumour size, axillary lymph node status and hormone receptor status...

  8. Breast cancer and the robe of breast size as a contributory factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, AD; Nicolai, Jean; de Vries, J

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have been published on the incidence of breast cancer following augmentation mammaplasty, with very different conclusions. A tower incidence of breast cancer than expected was found in a study conducted by Deapen and Brody in women who had undergone augmentation surgery, and an antic

  9. Alcohol consumption before and after breast cancer diagnosis: associations with survival from breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcomb, P.A.; Kampman, E.; Trentham-Dietz, A.; Egan, K.M.; Titus, L.J.; Baron, J.A.; Hampton, J.M.; Passarelli, M.N.; Willett, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Alcohol intake is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. In contrast, the relation between alcohol consumption and breast cancer survival is less clear. Patients and Methods We assessed pre- and postdiagnostic alcohol intake in a cohort of 22,890 women with incident invasive breast

  10. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Lawson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  11. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  12. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  13. Aging Impacts Transcriptome but not Genome of Hormone-dependentBreast Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yau, Christina; Fedele, Vita; Roydasgupta, Ritu; Fridlyand, Jane; Hubbard, Alan; Gray, Joe W.; Chew, Karen; Dairkee, Shanaz H.; Moore, DanH.; Schittulli, Francesco; Tommasi, Stefania; Paradiso, Angelo; Albertson, Donna G.; Benz, Christopher C.

    2007-10-09

    Age is one of the most important risk factors for human malignancies, including breast cancer; in addition, age-at-diagnosis has been shown to be an independent indicator of breast cancer prognosis. However, except for inherited forms of breast cancer, there is little genetic or epigenetic understanding of the biological basis linking aging with sporadic breast cancer incidence and its clinical behavior.

  14. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P;

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...

  15. Systemic Treatment Approaches in Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bontenbal (Marijke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most conmlon malignant tumor among women, with an estimated 135,000 new cases and 58,000 recorded deaths per year in the Europeau Community in 1990. With respect to the Netherlands, the most recent data of The Netherlands Cancer Registry show an incidence of nearly 1

  16. Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  17. Descriptive Epidemiology of Female Breast Cancer in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KexinChen; MinHe; ShufenDong; JifangWang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe trends in the changes of incidence and mortality of female breast cancer patients in Tianjin, and evaluate the effect of these trends on prevention. METHODS A method of descriptive epidemiology was used to comprehensively study the status of female breast cancer in Tianjin. RESULTS From 1981 to 2000, the incidence rate of breast cancer in Tianjin had been increasing at the speed of 1.8 % annually, whereas the peak of the age-adjusted incidence and mortality rate expressed a mild declining trend. Follow-up study indicated that 3 and 5-year survival rates improved in various degrees. CONCLUSION Early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer are very important to both increasing survival and lowering mortality from breast cancer. Preventive efforts should be promoted for women who are at high risk for breast cancer.

  18. The current status of imaging diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the incidence and the mortality rate of female breast cancer in our country is increasing, Early diagnosis of breast cancer is particularly important. Precious preoperative staging in the breast cancer is advantageous for the treatment planning. Evaluating the efficacy of chemotherapy is beneficial for adjusting the follow-up plan. Imaging examination has become an important role in breast cancer management. At present, commonly used equipment include mammography, ultrasound, CT, and MRI, etc. This article reviews the present study status of these tools in diagnosis of breast cancer. A reasonable and effective choice of those tools can facilitate clinic diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  19. Cancer incidence among workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of cancer incidence among Los Alamos workers was reported at the Sixteenth Mid-Year Topical Symposium of the Health Physics Society. Cancer incidence was especially low among Anglo-American males for cancer of the lung and oral cancer, cancer sites commonly associated with cigarette smoking. No cases of cancer of the lung, oral cavity, pancreas, or bladder were observed among Anglo-American females in the population. Standardized incidence ratios for cancer of the breast and cancer of the uterine corpus exceeded one; however, these findings were not statistically significant. These findings are consistent with expectation for a population of high socioeconomic class, such as the Laboratory work force. Therefore, working conditions at the Laboratory do not appear to have affected cancer incidence in this population. 1 reference, 2 tables

  20. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk to your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  1. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... inhibitor, can do an even better job of preventing breast cancer than the SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors stop an enzyme ...

  2. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Theresa; Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action, the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, and the optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention are summarized.

  3. The Basic Facts of Korean Breast Cancer in 2013: Results of a Nationwide Survey and Breast Cancer Registry Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sun Young; Kim, Zisun; Hur, Min Hee; Yoon, Chan Seok; Park, Eun-Hwa; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2016-03-01

    The Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) has reported a nationwide breast cancer data since 1996. We present a comprehensive report on the facts and trends of breast cancer in Korea in 2013. Data on the newly diagnosed patients in the year 2013 were collected from 99 hospitals by using nationwide questionnaire survey. Clinical characteristics such as stage of cancer, histologic types, biological markers, and surgical management were obtained from the online registry database. A total of 19,316 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2013. The crude incidence rate of female breast cancer including carcinoma in situ was 76.2 cases per 100,000 women. The median age at diagnosis was 50 years, and the proportions of postmenopausal women with breast cancer accounted for more than half of total patients. The proportion of early breast cancer increased consistently, and the pathologic features have changed accordingly. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in more cases than total mastectomy in the year. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries markedly increased approaching 3-fold in last 11 years. According to annual percentile change of invasive cancer incidence, the incidence increased rapidly until 2010. And thereafter the increase of it became steadier. For ductal carcinoma in situ, the incidence consistently increased during the same period without any joinpoint. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to defining of the trends and characteristics of breast cancer in Korea.

  4. Effectiveness of pranayama on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jyothi Chakrabarty; M S Vidyasagar; Donald Fernandes; Ganapathi Joisa; Prabha Varghese; Sreemathi Mayya

    2015-01-01

    Context: Incidence of breast cancer is very high among women around the world. Breast cancer patients experience cancer-related fatigue at some points during the treatment for breast cancer. Since cancer-related fatigue is of multifactorial origin, there are no evidence-based treatment strategies for fatigue. This study tested the effectiveness of certain pranayama techniques in reducing cancer-related fatigue among breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Aims: The objective of t...

  5. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda;

    2010-01-01

    of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. RESULTS: Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated....... Five-yearly 10% price increases may prevent 521 new lung cancer cases in 2050 (21% less cases). An intervention that immediately reduces population alcohol consumption to the recommended level (below 12g/d) may lower breast cancer by 7%, preventing 445 out of the 6060 expected new cases in 2050. Five......-yearly 10% price increases in alcoholic beverages achieved a reduction of half as expected by the ideal scenario, i.e. 4% (262) preventable cases in 2050. CONCLUSIONS: The future burden of lung and breast cancer could be markedly reduced by intervening in their risk factors. Prevent illustrates the benefit...

  6. Breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabanek, P

    1988-01-01

    Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...

  7. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  8. Dilemma of Pregnant Ladies with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainur Rashid Z

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gestational breast cancer (GBC or pregnancyassociatedbreast cancer was defined as breast cancerdiagnosed during pregnancy and within 1 year ofdelivery. Breast cancer is the second commonest cancerafter cervical seen in pregnancy and lactation.Nevertheless, the incidence is low and accounts forapproximately 1 in 3000 of pregnancies. A delay indiagnosis is common and 70% to 89% of patients withoperable primary lesions already have positive axillarylymph nodes. Breast cancer identified during pregnancycan be extremely distressing for the mother despite ithas similar course of disease and prognosis seen in nonpregnantwomen of the same age and stage of disease.Diagnostic and treatment options should be carefullydecided to prevent further harm to the mother or anypotential risk to the developing fetus.

  9. [Breast cancer update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armuss, A

    2014-06-01

    Breast Cancer, with a life-time prevalence of about 10-12%, is the most common cancer in women. In 2013, the actress Angelina Jolie, by announcing she had a double mastectomy, increased the awareness of a family history of breast and ovarian cancer and the treatment available to reduce the inherited risks. In Germany, each year about 25 out of 100,000 women (age-standardized according to European Standard) die of the disease. The number of newly diagnosed cases is about 72,000 per year. In comparison, many other countries record higher levels. Investing in the development of new therapies has therefore been key for many years. Prevention programs, such as the mammography screening are publicly touted, in both cases with the aim to reduce breast cancer mortality. To accurately assess the risk in underwriting, it is important to know about the risk factors for the development of breast cancer, as well as the latest advances in prevention, therapy and their prognostic classification. The following article provides an overview. PMID:25000626

  10. 2004-2008年北京市女性乳腺癌发病及死亡变化趋势%The incidence and mortality trends of female breast cancer in Beijing, China: between 2004 and 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雷; 孙婷婷; 王宁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the incidence and mortality trends of female breast cancer in urban and rural areas of Beijing from 2004 to 2008.Methods The incidence and mortality data of female breast cancer from 2004 to 2008 were sorted from Beijing Cancer Registry Database,including 15 527 new diagnosed cases and 3219 deceased cases in total,covering population 29 351 258 person years; among which 11 065 new cases and 2378 deceased cases were from urban areas,covering 17 877 128 person years and 4462 new diagnosed cases and 841 deceased cases were from rural areas,covering 11 474 130 person years.The incidence cases aged 25 and above were divided into 13 age groups by 5 years.The cases under 49 years ( ≤ 49 ) and over 49 years ( > 49 ) were separately defined as premenopausal group and postmenopausal group.Incidence and mortality rates in each year,age-specific incidence and mortality rates in urban and rural areas in Beijing were calculated.The annual standard incidence and mortality rates were adjusted by world population constitution; and the incidence rates ratio in different years related to the place of residence,urban or rural were calculated.JoinPoint software was applied to analyze the incidence trend and calculated the annual percentage of changing (APC).Results The age of female breast cancer patients in urban Beijing in 2004 was (55.83 ± 13.01 ),while it changed to (56.10 ± 12.80) in 2008,increasing by 0.27 years old.The proportion of the patients who were under 49 years declined from 38.32% (732/1910) in 2004 to 34.02% (894/2628) in 2008.While the average age of the patients in rural areas have improved 0.21 year old,from (52.15 ± 11.33) years old in 2004 to (52.36 ± 11.59) years old in 2008; and the proportion of the patients under 49 years also declined from 45.44% (314/691) in 2004 to 43.40% (454/1046) in 2008.From 2004 to 2008,the incidence and mortality rate of female breast cancer in urban areas of Beijing separately rose from 55

  11. Depression and conservative surgery for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauriceia C. L. de Medeiros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is prevalent among women and associated with reduced quality of life, and therefore it is important to determine its incidence in adult women, especially in those with breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of depression in women who underwent conservative surgery for breast cancer with or without breast reconstruction. METHODS: Seventy-five women aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled. Patients had undergone conservative surgery for breast cancer with immediate breast reconstruction (n = 25 or without breast reconstruction (n = 25 at least one year before the study. The control group consisted of 25 women without cancer, but of similar age and educational level distribution as the other two groups. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression. The collected data were assessed using analysis of variance and the χ2 test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in age (p = 0.72 or educational level (p = 0.20. A smaller number of patients had undergone the menopause (p = 0.02 in the control group than in other groups. There were no significant differences in occurrence of depression between groups (χ2=9.97; p = 0.126. CONCLUSÍON: Conservative surgery for breast cancer did not affect the occurrence of depression in women, regardless of whether breast reconstruction was performed.

  12. Radiation as a cause of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening

  13. Radiation as a cause of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Silverstone, S.M.

    1976-09-01

    The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening.

  14. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jennrich; Claus Schulte-Uebbing

    2016-01-01

    Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includ...

  15. Mammography - importance, possibilities, current screening situation of the breast cancer and further expansion possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer still remains the most frequent cancer in women population. Incidence of breast cancer is increasing, but mortality is decreasing. The most important for decreasing of breast cancer mortality is early diagnostic, especially screening. Screening is a form of secondary prevention. Although many screening studies have shown that mammography decreases of the breast cancer death, there are still many controversies. The published recommendations for the breast screening are sometimes very different. (author)

  16. Challenges and Needs of Chinese and Korean American Breast Cancer Survivors: In-Depth Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; Ma, Grace X.; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Oh, Youngsuk; Scully, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and the number of breast cancer survivors have been rapidly increasing among Chinese and Korean women in the United States. However, few data are available regarding quality of life in Asian American breast cancer survivors. This qualitative study aims to describe Asian American women’s perceptions of quality of life and their breast cancer experiences. In-depth interviews with four Chinese and five Korean American breast cancer survivors and three oncologists were con...

  17. Incidence and mortality rates in breast, corpus uteri, and ovarian cancers in Poland (1980–2013: an analysis of population-based data in relation to socio-economic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banas T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomasz Banas,1 Grzegorz Juszczyk,2 Kazimierz Pitynski,1 Dorota Nieweglowska,1 Artur Ludwin,1 Aleksandra Czerw2 1Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, 2Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Objectives: This study aimed to analyze incidence and mortality trends in breast cancer (BC, corpus uteri cancer (CUC, and ovarian cancer (OC in Poland in the context of sociodemographic changes.Materials and methods: Incidence and mortality data (1980–2013 were retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry, while socioeconomic data (1960–2013 were obtained from the World Bank. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated by direct standardization, and join-point regression was performed to describe trends using the average annual percentage change (AAPC.Results: A significant decrease in birth and fertility rates and a large increase in gross domestic product were observed together with a decrease in the total mortality rate among women, as well as an increase in life expectancy for women. A large, significant increase in BC incidence was observed (AAPC1980–1990 2.14, AAPC1990–1996 4.71, AAPC1996–2013 2.21, with a small but significant decrease in mortality after a slight increase (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66. During the period 1980–2013, a significant increase in CUC incidence (AAPC1980–1994 3.7, AAPC1994–2013 1.93 was observed, with an initial mortality-rate reduction followed by a significant increase (AAPC1980–2006 −1.12, AAPC2006–2013 3.74. After the initial increase of both OC incidence and mortality from 1994, the incidence rate decreased significantly (AAPC1980–1994 2.98, AAPC1994–2013 −0.49, as did the mortality rate (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66.Conclusion: After 1994, a decrease in OC incidence was found, while the incidence of BC and CUC continued to increase. A reduction in

  18. Analysis of the Incidence and Risk Factors of Depression in Women after Breast Cancer Surgery%女性乳腺癌术后抑郁发生情况及相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立新; 薛锋

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the incidence and risk factors of postoperative depression for breast cancer in women .[Methods] Totally 486 patients undergoing breast cancer surgery in breast surgery department of our hospi-tal from April 2000 to April 2013 were chosen .The incidence of depression after breast cancer surgery in women was discussed .The related factors of postoperative depression were analyzed .[Results]Of 486 patients undergoing breast cancer surgery ,184 patients had postoperative depression ,and the incidence rate of depression was 37 .86% .There was significant difference in age and personal income between depression patients and non-depression patients after breast cancer surgery ( P<0 .05) .Clinical data such as postoperative time ,surgical method and clinical stage in de-pression patients after breast cancer surgery were similar to those in non-depression patients ,and there was no signifi-cant difference between groups .[Conclusion] The postoperative depression in breast cancer has high incidence rate , which is correlated with general social characteristics such as age and income ,but is not obviously correlated with clin-ical characteristics of patients .Mastering the related risk factors of depression after breast cancer surgery can contrib-ute to the targeted intervention to reduce the incidence of postoperative depression ,improve the quality of life of pa-tients and promote the prognosis .%【目的】探讨女性乳腺癌术后抑郁的发生情况,并分析其相关危险因素。【方法】选择本院乳腺外科于2000年4月至2013年4月收治的486例接受乳腺癌手术患者的临床资料,探讨女性乳腺癌术后抑郁发生的情况,并分析乳腺癌术后发生抑郁的相关因素。【结果】486例乳腺癌手术患者中,184例患者均出现了术后抑郁,其抑郁发生率约为37.86%,乳腺癌术后抑郁患者的年龄、个人收入情况与非抑郁患者存在明显差异( P <0.05),乳

  19. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  20. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie;

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight into the t......Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  1. Breast Cancer and Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Bardwell, Wayne A; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom in breast cancer patients and survivors. A rather nebulous concept, fatigue overlaps with sleepiness and depressed mood. In this chapter, we cover methods for assessing fatigue; describe the occurrence of fatigue before, during and after initial treatment; present possible underlying mechanisms of fatigue; and, enumerate approaches to its treatment.

  2. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  3. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  4. C-C4-04: Trends in Breast Cancer Incidence in a Setting of Increased Mammography Screening and Decreased Use of Oral Estrogen Replacement Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Barbara G.; Sieglemann-Danieli, Nava; Kokia, Ehud S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Utilization of estrogen hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has dropped dramatically since the publication of the Women’s Health Initiative findings questioning its use for prevention of chronic conditions. Recent publications have suggested a link between this drop in HRT use and a parallel drop in breast cancer.

  5. PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT IN BREAST CANCER PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Chauhan, Dr. Ritu Yadav*, Vivek Kaushal, Preeti Beniwal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Breast carcinoma is the most common cancer worldwide. The incidence and mortality rate is increasing in developing countries as compare to developed countries. The aim of this study was to assess complete blood count of the breast cancer patients to determine their prognostic values during the different courses of chemotherapy treatment.  Methods: In the present study, two hundred breast cancer patients were selected to study prognostic significance of peripheral blood of ...

  6. Scintigraphic diagnosis of breast cancer in highly selected patients with dense breast and silicon breast augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Bai, M. S.; Park, H. B.; Kim, S. Z.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The comparable diagnostic accuracy of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scintimammogram (SM) in patients with dense and fatty breasts was reported in the U. S and Canadian multicenter clinical trials (JNM 37 : p74-75, 1996). This is not the case with mammography which misses breast cancer in dense breasts often. The reported incidence of dense breast among Korean is about 50% as opposed to 25% in western population seen on mammograms. Therefore, dense breast would be more problematic in the evaluation of breast cancer among Korean. Thirty five highly selected patients with breast mass and 2 patients after silicon mammoplasty were evaluated by sonography (US), mammography (Mam) and SM. The patient's age ranged from 28 to 40 (average 34.6). Each patient received 20 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc MIBI intravenously and in 5-10 min simultaneous prone lateral views were obtained for 10 min followed by a supine anterior view with arms up for 10 min. Interpretive criteria of breast cancer by SM was any focal increased uptake (mild-marked) within the breast (single or multiple). In two patients with silicon mammoplasty, US and Mam were not useful while SM excluded breast cancer although small (> 1.0 cm) lesion could not be completely excluded. In 19 patients with biopsy confirmed carcinoma (larger than 1.5 cm), The results of three modalities were the following. The remaining 15 patients considered to have benign diseases (76% by Mam, 93% by US, 93% by SM) and are being followed at the surgical clinic. In conclusion, SM is very useful in the evaluation of breast mass in highly selected patients with dense breast which is more common among Korean and in patients after silicon augmentation. Therefore, SM should be used more often in patients (especially young) with dense breast and after mammoplasty than mammography in the detection of breast cancer.

  7. Report of incidence and mortality in China cancer registries, 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanqing Chen; Rongshou Zheng; Siwei Zhang; Ping Zhao; Guanglin Li; Lingyou Wu; Jie He

    2013-01-01

    The National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) collected cancer registration data in 2009 from local cancer registries in 2012,and analyzed to describe cancer incidence and mortality in China.Methods.:On basis of the criteria of data quality from NCCR,data subrnitted from 104 registries were checked and evaluated.There were 72 registries' data qualified and accepted for cancer registry annual report in 2012.Descriptive analysis included incidence and mortality stratified by area (urban/rural),sex,age group and cancer site.The top 10 common cancers in different groups,proportion and cumulative rates were also calculated.Chinese population census in 1982 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates.Results:All 72 cancer registries covered a total of 85,470,522 population (57,489,009 in urban and 27,981,513 in rural areas).The total new cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 244,366 and 154,310,respectively.The morphology verified cases accounted for 67.23%,and 3.14% of incident cases only had information from death certifications.The crude incidence rate in Chinese cancer registration areas was 285.91/100,000(males 317.97/100,000,females 253.09/100,000),age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 146.87/100,000 and 191.72/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 22.08%.The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 303.39/100,000 and 150.31/100,000 in urban areas whereas in rural areas,they were 249.98/100,000 and 139.68/100,000,respectively.The cancer mortality in Chinese cancer regist-ation areas was 180.54/100,000 (224.20/100,000 in males and 135.85/100,000 in females),age-standardized umortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 85.06/100,000 and 115.65/100,000,and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.94%.The cancer mortality and ASMRC were 181

  8. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad A. Al-Amri; Mohammed Y. Saeedi; Fatina M. Al-Tahan; Ali, Arwa M.; Shaker A. Alomary; Mostafa Arafa; Ibrahim, Ahmed K.; Kassim A. Kassim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the first cancer among females in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in 2010. There are several risk factors affecting the incidence of breast cancer where some factors influence the risk more than the others. Aim: We aimed to identify the different risk factors related to breast cancer among females participating in the breast-screening program in Riyadh, KSA. Methods: Based on data from phase-I of the br...

  9. MODERN VIEWS ON BILATERAL BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented modern literature data on the features of the pathogenesis, course, clinical and morphological expression and tumor characteristics, parameters and nodal metastasis of hematogenous bilateral breast cancer. Highlight the results of domestic and foreign studies in recent years to determine the prognostic factors and recurrence of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer. It was revealed that the frequency of bilateral breast tumor lesions varies widely, ranging from 0.1 to 20%, with metachronous tumors recorded significantly higher (69.6% than the synchronous (22.7%. The probability of occurrence of metachronous breast cancer is higher in women with a family history, as well as if they have a gene mutation BRCA-1. Found that the most common histological type of breast tumor with bilateral lesions is invasive ductal. However, the incidence of invasive lobular cancer and non-invasive lobular cancer is slightly higher among synchronous bilateral cancer compared with unilateral disease. Studies have shown that in a double-sided synchronous breast cancer tumor, as a rule, has a lower degree of differentiation, and the higher the expression level of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Relevance of the issue because the identification of patterns in the study of lymphatic and hematogenous features bilateral metastasis of mammary tumors provides a basis for speculation about the differences in the progression of neoplastic disease in these groups and is a cause for further detailed research in this area to identify and evaluate the prognosis and also the choice of tactics of such patients.

  10. Arab women's breast cancer screening practices: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Khater, Al-Hareth Al; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al Kuwari, Mohammed Ghaith; Al-Meer, Nabila; Malik, Mariam; Singh, Rajvir; Jong, Floor Christie-de

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the Arab world and the involved women are often diagnosed at advanced stages of breast cancer. This literature review explores factors influencing Arab women's breast cancer screening behavior. Searched databases were: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean, and Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Breast cancer screening participation rates are low. Screening programs are opportunistic and relatively new to the region. Knowledge amongst women and health care providers, professional recommendation, socio-demographic factors, cultural traditions, beliefs, religious, social support, accessibility and perceived effectiveness of screening influence screening behavior.

  11. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-23

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  12. The incidences and mortalities of major cancers in China, 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanqing Chen; Rongshou Zheng; Siwei Zhang; Ping Zhao; Guanglin Li; Lingyou Wu; Jie He

    2013-01-01

    In 2012,the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China collected cancer registration information for the year 2009 from local cancer registries and analyzed it to describe the incidences and mortalities of cancers in China.Based on the data quality criteria from NCCR,data from 104 registries covering 85,470,522 people (57,489,009 in urban areas and 27,981,513 in rural areas) were checked and evaluated.The data from 72 registries were qualified and accepted for the cancer registry annual report in 2012.The total cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 244,366 and 154,310,respectively.The morphologically verified cases accounted for 67.23% and 3.14% of the incident cases only had information from death certifications.The crude incidence in the Chinese cancer registration areas was 285.91/100,000 (317.97/100,000 in males and 253.09/100,000 in females).The age-standardized rates for incidences based on the Chinese standard population (ASRIC) and the world standard population (ASRIW) were 146.87/100,000 and 191.72/100,000,respectively,with a cumulative incidence of 22.08%.The cancer mortality in the Chinese cancer registration areas was 180.54/100,000 (224.20/100,000 in males and 135.85/100,000 in females).The age-standardized rates for mortalities based on the Chinese standard population (ASRMC) and the world standard population (ASRMW) were 85.06/100,000 and 115.65/100,000,respectively,and the cumulative mortality was 12.94%.Lung cancer,gastric cancer,colorectal cancer,liver cancer,esophageal cancer,pancreatic cancer,encephaloma,lymphoma,female breast cancer,and cervical cancer were the most common cancers,accounting for 75% of all cancer cases.Lung cancer,gastric cancer,liver cancer,esophageal cancer,colorectal cancer,pancreatic cancer,breast cancer,encephaloma,leukemia,and lymphoma accounted for 80% of all cancer deaths.The cancer registration's population coverage has been increasing,and its data quality is improving.As the basis of the

  13. Breast cancer surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173

  14. Report of Incidence and Mortality in China Cancer Registries, 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-qing Chen; Rong-shou Zheng; Si-wei Zhang; Ni Li; Ping Zhao; Guang-lin Li; Liang-you Wu; Jie He

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Annual cancer incidence and mortality in 2008 were provided by National Central Cancer Registry in China,which data were collected from population-based cancer registries in 2011.Methods:There were 56 registries submitted their data in 2008.After checking and evaluating the data quality,total 41 registries' data were accepted and pooled for analysis.Incidence and mortality rates by area (urban or rural areas) were assessed,as well as the age-and sex-specific rates,age-standardized rates,proportions and cumulative rate.Results:The coverage population of the 41 registries was 66,138,784 with 52,158,495 in urban areas and 13,980,289 in rural areas.There were 197,833 new cancer cases and 122,136 deaths in cancer with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.62.The morphological verified rate was 69.33%,and 2.23% of cases were identified by death certificate only.The crude cancer incidence rate in all areas was 299.12/100,000 (330.16/100,000 in male and 267.56/100,000 in female) and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and world standard population (ASIRW) were 148.75/100,000 and 194.99/100,000,respectively.The cumulative incidence rate (0-74 years old) was of 22.27%.The crude incidence rate in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas.However,after adjusted by age,the incidence rate in urban was lower than that in rural.The crude cancer mortality was 184.67/100,000 (228.14/100,000 in male and 140.48/100,000 in female),and the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world population were 84.36/100,000 and 114.32/100,000,respectively.The cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) was of 12.89%.Age-adjusted mortality rates in urban areas were lower than that in rural areas.The most common cancer sites were lung,stomach,colon-rectum,liver,esophagus,pancreas,brain,lymphoma,breast and cervix which accounted for 75% of all cancer incidence.Lung cancer was the leading cause of

  15. Cancer estimation of incidence and survival in Algeria 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Cherif M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the major public health problems in Algeria. In the last 25 years, a significant increase in the incidence of the major types of cancers has been observed in both sexes. Moreover, the 5-year survival rate is low for the severe tumors due to a difficulty in access to cancer care and an incomplete health care framework. Cancer Registry of Setif, Algeria, has been recording cancer incidence, mortality, and survival since 1986 in collaboration with International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC of Lyon. Cancer Registry of Setif is being a source of information for cancer planning and corresponding surveillance in the National Cancer Plan 2015-2019, starting in January 2015. Data is recorded by means of CanReg 5 software. This software is developed and provided by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC of Lyon. It is designed specifically for cancer registration, and standardized to capture, control, and process the data. Estimation of cancer incidence in Algeria and survival rates are very important for surveillance, control, and planning of care. In men the incidence of lung, colorectal, bladder, prostate, and laryngeal cancers has significantly and steadily increased in the last decade. In women, the incidence of breast, colorectal, thyroid, and lung cancers has also increased significantly in the same period. Five-year survival rates for cancer of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast, cervix, ovary, and prostate in adults, and childhood leukemia are relatively low compared with other countries. The aim of our study was to estimate incidence and survival by means of Setif cancer registry data.

  16. Mammographic breast density and breast cancer risk: interactions of percent density, absolute dense, and non-dense areas with breast cancer risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghjyan, Lusine; Colditz, Graham A; Rosner, Bernard; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-02-01

    We investigated if associations of breast density and breast cancer differ according to the level of other known breast cancer risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), age at menarche, parity, age at first child's birth, age at menopause, alcohol consumption, a family history of breast cancer, a history of benign breast disease, and physical activity. This study included 1,044 postmenopausal incident breast cancer cases diagnosed within the Nurses' Health Study cohort and 1,794 matched controls. Percent breast density, absolute dense, and non-dense areas were measured from digitized film images with computerized techniques. Information on breast cancer risk factors was obtained prospectively from biennial questionnaires. Percent breast density was more strongly associated with breast cancer risk in current postmenopausal hormone users (≥50 vs. 10 %: OR 5.34, 95 % CI 3.36-8.49) as compared to women with past (OR 2.69, 95 % CI 1.32-5.49) or no hormone history (OR 2.57, 95 % CI 1.18-5.60, p-interaction = 0.03). Non-dense area was inversely associated with breast cancer risk in parous women, but not in women without children (p-interaction = 0.03). Associations of density with breast cancer risk did not differ by the levels of BMI, age at menarche, parity, age at first child's birth, age at menopause, alcohol consumption, a family history of breast cancer, a history of benign breast disease, and physical activity. Women with dense breasts, who currently use menopausal hormone therapy are at a particularly high risk of breast cancer. Most breast cancer risk factors do not modify the association between mammographic breast density and breast cancer risk.

  17. Ethnic disparities in cancer incidence among residents of Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Robert L; Whippy, Helen J D; Talon, Rebecca J; Montano, Melani V

    2009-01-01

    Cancer incidence data collected by the Guam Cancer Registry for the period 1998 through 2002 were analyzed by cancer site, age, and ethnicity. Ethnicity and site specific age-adjusted cancer incidence rates for Guam residents were calculated utilizing Guam 2000 census data and the U.S. 2000 standard population and were compared to U.S. 2000 data. Age-adjusted total cancer incidence rates per 100,000 population for the major ethnic groups represented on Guam were generally lower than U.S. averages (the exception was the Caucasian group which was higher). Some highlights include: 1). Chamorros (the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands) living on Guam had a slightly lower total cancer incidence rate than the total U.S. population (406.8/100,000 vs. 478.6 U.S.). Chamorros had high age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the mouth and pharynx (24.4 vs. U.S. 10.7), nasopharynx (13.9 vs. 0.6 U.S.), liver (13.2 vs. 5.2 U.S.), and cervix (16.2 vs. 9.6 U.S.). Rates for prostate cancer ( 103.9 vs. 167.7 U.S.), female breast (115.9 vs. 130.9 U.S.), ovary (7.0 vs. 14.2 U.S.), colon-rectum-anus (44.3 vs. 56.9 U.S.), leukemia (11.0 vs. 12.6 U.S.), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (7.0 vs. 18.9 U.S.) were all lower than U.S. rates. 2). Filipinos living on Guam had high age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the nasopharynx (5.1), and liver (9.6). Filipinos had low age-adjusted incidence rates for all cancers (215.7), cancers of the mouth and pharynx when NPC was excluded (4.8), lung and bronchus (35.6 vs. U.S. 70.1), pancreas (1.7 vs. U.S. 11.1), colon-rectum-anus (37.1), female breast (60.7), prostate (46.1), leukemia (4.7), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (8.4). 3). Micronesians other than Chamorros had the highest age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the lung and bronchus (111.5), liver (39.4), and cervix (27.4). Micronesians had low age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the colon-rectum-anus (4.1), female breast (35.0), prostate (78.4), leukemia (6.3), and non

  18. Bilateral breast cancer, synchronous and metachronous; differences and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jobsen, J.J.; Palen, van der J.; Ong, F.; Riemersma, S.; Struikmans, H.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: to analyze the incidence of patients having synchronous or metachronous bilateral invasive breast cancer (SBBC and MBBC) and to assess the characteristics and outcome compared to those having unilateral breast cancer (UBC). The used data were obtained from our pr

  19. Breast cancer research in Asia : Adopt or adapt Western knowledge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Yip, Cheng-Har; Hartman, Mikael; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Devi, Beena C. R.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Taib, Nur Aishah; van Gils, Carla H.; Verkooijen, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer continues to rise rapidly in Asian countries. However, most of our current knowledge on breast cancer has been generated in Western populations. As the socio-economic profile, life style and culture of Asian and Western women are substantially different,

  20. Incidence,mortality and survival analysis of breast cancer in China%中国女性乳腺癌发病死亡和生存状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈万青; 郑荣寿

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过对肿瘤登记数据的分析,了解中国女性乳腺癌的流行现况及生存状态。方法:根据全国肿瘤登记中心的数据资料,评估全国乳腺癌的流行情况,并分析乳腺癌长期变化趋势及生存状况。结果:2011年中国女性乳腺癌发病人数约24.9万,发病率37.86/10万,近10年发病呈上升趋势,年龄调整后上升减缓。每年死亡约6.0万,死亡率9.21/10万,近10年乳腺癌死亡率呈上升趋势,年龄调整后上升幅度减缓。乳腺癌患者的1、3和5年观察生存率分别为90.5%、80.0%和72.7%,5年相对生存率为73.0%(95%CI为0.712~0.749)。结论:乳腺癌是威胁我国妇女健康的主要恶性肿瘤之一,疾病负担依然日益加重,应进一步加强乳腺癌的防治工作。%Objective:Based on cancer registry data, the present work aimed to analyze breast cancer survival and epidemiology in China. Methods:The cancer data was retrieved from the National Central Cancer Registry Database. The new diagnosis situation and the number of deaths due to breast cancers were estimated. The time trend and survival for breast cancer were also analyzed. Results:About 249,000 new cases, with a 37.86/100,000 crude incidence rate, of female breast cancer were diagnosed in China in 2011. The crude incidence rate increased over the past ten years, and the trend for age-standardized rate increased gradually. Approximately 60,000 deaths were caused by breast cancer in China in 2011, with a crude mortality rate of 9.21/100,000. The crude mortality for females with breast cancer in China increased over the past several decades;however, after regulation of age-standardized rate, this increasing trend declined. The combined 5 year age-standardized relative survival rate was 73.0%(95%CI:71.2%to 74.9%), and the 1, 3, and 5 year observed survival rates were 90.5%, 80.0%, and 72.7%, respectively. Conclusion:Breast cancer is a major cancer that threatens the

  1. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone ... be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), ...

  2. Older breast cancer survivors' views and preferences for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Sarah; Lavelle, Katrina

    2009-07-01

    Evidence suggests that physical activity improves quality of life and physical functioning among breast cancer patients and survivors. However, previous studies have tended to focus on younger patients, despite higher incidence and lower survival among older breast cancer survivors. In this study we explored physical activity preferences of older breast cancer survivors to inform the development of future targeted interventions. Twenty-nine female breast cancer survivors (1 to 5 years postdiagnosis) aged 59 to 86 (mean 66.54, SD 6.50) took part in either a semistructured interview or a focus group exploring physical activity patterns, motivators, facilitators, barriers, and preferences. The main factors influencing physical activity were body image, weight issues, vitality, mood, and the desire to carry on as normal. Preference was expressed for activities that were gentle, tailored to age and cancer-related abilities, holistic, involving other older breast cancer survivors, and with an instructor who was knowledgeable about both breast cancer and aging.

  3. Insulin resistance and breast-cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, P F; Bonfrèr, J M; van Noord, P A; Hart, A A; de Jong-Bakker, M; Nooijen, W J

    1992-10-21

    Life-style has a major influence on the incidence of breast cancer. To evaluate the effects of life-style related metabolic-endocrine factors on breast cancer risk we conducted a case-control study comparing 223 women aged 38 to 75 years presenting with operable (stage I or II) breast cancer and 441 women of the same age having no breast cancer, who participated in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women reporting diabetes mellitus were excluded. Sera from 110 women of the same age group presenting with early stage melanoma, lymphoma or cervical cancer were used as a second 'other-cancer control group'. Serum levels of C-peptide were significantly higher in early breast cancer cases compared to controls. The same was found for the ratios C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine, indicating insulin resistance. Sex hormone binding globulin was inversely, triglycerides and available estradiol were positively related to C-peptide. Serum C-peptide levels were related to body mass index (BMI), and to waist/hip ratio (WHR), in particular in controls. However, the relative increase of C-peptide, C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine in cases was independent of BMI or WHR. The log relative risk was linearly related to the log C-peptide levels. Relative risk according to quintiles, and adjusted for age, family history, BMI and WHR, for women at the 80% level was 2.9 as compared with those at the 20% level for C-peptide. Elevated C-peptide or C-peptide to fructosamine values were not observed in the sera from women belonging to the 'other-cancer control group'. This study suggests that hyperinsulinemia with insulin resistance is a significant risk factor for breast cancer independent of general adiposity or body fat distribution. PMID:1399128

  4. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  5. The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A renewal of the search for a link between breast cancer and thyroid disease has once again demonstrated an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with breast cancer. This is the most recent of many studies showing an association between a variety of thyroid disorders and breast cancer. Such an association is not surprising as both diseases are female predominant with a similar postmenopausal peak incidence. The significance of the presence of thyroid autoantibodies, particularly thyroid peroxidase antibodies, in serum from patients with breast cancer is unknown, but it has been suggested that antibody positivity is associated with better prognosis. One area in which thyroid and breast functions overlap is in the uptake and utilization of dietary iodide. Experimental findings showing the ability of iodine or iodine-rich seaweed to inhibit breast tumour development is supported by the relatively low rate of breast cancer in Japanese women who consume a diet containing iodine-rich seaweed. However, there is as yet no direct evidence that iodine, iodinated compounds, or a combination of iodine and selenium is the antimammary carcinogenic element in the Japanese diet. It remains to be resolved whether the perceived breast cancer–thyroid disease relationship is thyroid or iodine related or, in the case of thyroid autoantibodies, is the consequence of an immune response to the carcinoma. Is this response breast specific and does it relate to iodine status? These and many other questions await resolution before a definitive role in the natural history of breast carcinoma can be assigned to the thyroid

  6. Tamoxifen Resistance in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Minsun

    2012-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a central component of the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer as a partial agonist of ER. It has been clinically used for the last 30 years and is currently available as a chemopreventive agent in women with high risk for breast cancer. The most challenging issue with tamoxifen use is the development of resistance in an initially responsive breast tumor. This review summarizes the roles of ER as the therapeutic target of tamoxifen in cancer treatment, clin...

  7. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Anna H.; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort stud...

  8. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  9. Patrones geográficos de incidencia y mortalidad evitable por cáncer de mama en Costa Rica Geographic patterns of incidence and avoidable mortality by breast cancer in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amada Aparicio Llanos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar los patrones espaciales de la mortalidad evitable e incidencia por cáncer de mama en Costa Rica. Métodos: En el análisis geográfico se utilizó la representación del índice de mortalidad estandarizada, el índice de incidencia estandarizada y las áreas que registraron una mortalidad significativamente diferente al promedio nacional. Resultados: Se observa crecimiento en las tasas de incidencia por cáncer de mama. Este comportamiento se presenta también en edades tempranas, pasando de 75 a 102 nuevos casos por cien mil mujeres de 45 a 54 años, en el periodo 1990-2004. Por su parte, las muertes evitables en las mujeres de 45 a 54 años estuvieron alrededor de las 20 defunciones por 100 mil mujeres. Con el análisis geográfico se identificó un patrón de alto riesgo de padecer y morir por cáncer de mama en el valle central del país. Discusión: Los resultados deben motivar a implementar políticas en salud en términos de un aumento en la prevención y diagnóstico temprano del cáncer de mama en aquellas áreas de salud con mayor riesgo de padecer y morir por esta enfermedad.Objective: To identify the geographic patterns of avoidable mortality and incidence by breast neoplasms in Costa Rica. Material and methods: Data of deaths and new cases of breast cancer were taken from the "Centro Centroamericano de Población" and the Public Health System data. For the geographic analysis we used the geographical representation of the standardized mortality ratio and the areas with a mortality rate significantly higher than national average. Results: There is an increase in the incidence rates by breast cancer. This behavior is similar in early ages, the new cases increase from 10 to 80 per 100,000 women with ages between 45 and 54 years, in period 1990-2004. On the other hand, the avoidable deaths in the women of 45 to 54 years old were close to 20 deaths/100,000 women. There are geographic patterns of high mortality and

  10. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  11. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  12. Breast cancer and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    The preliminary results of a study of the incidence of breast cancer in relation to use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) are presented. The findings are based on data from three participating centres in Thailand, and one each in Kenya and Mexico. A relative risk for breast cancer of 0.7 was observed in women who had ever used DMPA; this was not statistically significant. Although no consistent decrease in risk with duration of use was observed, the lowest relative risk (0.5) was ob...

  13. Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kemp, W.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    At present, the risk of a woman developing invasive breast cancer during her life is about 1 in 8. This makes breast cancer the most prevalent type of cancer in women worldwide. As the risk of dying from breast cancer for a woman is about 1 in 36, early breast cancer detection and effective treatmen

  14. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56, P=0.02. The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10–24.9, P=0.04. Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P>0.05. Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh.

  15. TP53 genetic alterations in Arab breast cancer patients: Novel mutations, pattern and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    AL-QASEM, ABEER J.; Toulimat, Mohamed; Abdelmoneim M Eldali; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Yousef, Nujoud; Al-Daihan, Sooad K; Al-Tassan, Nada; Al-Tweigeri, Taher; ABOUSSEKHRA, ABDELILAH

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health concern. The incidence and mortality of breast cancer varies significantly in ethnically and geographically distinct populations. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) breast cancer has shown an increase in incidence and is characterized by early onset and aggressiveness. The tumor suppressor TP53 gene is a crucial genetic factor that plays a significant role in breast carcinogenesis. Furthermore, studies have shown a correlation between certain ...

  16. The incidences and mortalities of major cancers in China, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Qing Chen; Rong-Shou Zheng; Si-Wei Zhang; Hong-Mei Zeng; Xiao-Nong Zou

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the cancer incidences and mortalities in China in 2010, the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China evaluated data for the year of 2010 from 145 qualified cancer registries covering 158,403,248 people (92,433,739 in urban areas and 65,969,509 in rural areas). The estimates of new cancer cases and cancer deaths were 3,093,039 and 1,956,622 in 2010, respectively. The percentage of morphologically verified cases were 67.11%; 2.99% of incident cases were identified through death certification only, with the mortality to incidence ratio of 0.61. The crude incidence was 235.23/100,000 (268.65/100,000 in males and 200.21/100,000 in females). The age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and by world standard population (ASR world) were 184.58/100,000 and 181.49/100,000, respectively, with a cumulative incidence (0-74 years old) of 21.11%. The crude cancer mortality was 148.81/100,000 (186.37/100,000 in males and 109.42/100,000 in females). The ASR China and ASR world were 113.92/100,000 and 112.86/100,000, respectively, with a cumulative mortality of 12.78%. Lung, breast, gastric, liver, esophageal, colorectal, and cervical cancers were the most common cancers. Lung, liver, gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast, and pancreatic cancers were the leading causes of cancer deaths. The coverage of cancer registration has rapidly increased in China in recent years and may reflect more accurate cancer burdens among populations living in different areas. Given the increasing cancer burden in the past decades, China should strengthen its cancer prevention and control.

  17. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  18. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Norman F.; Lisa J Martin; Bronskill, Michael; Martin J. Yaffe; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon

    2010-01-01

    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associat...

  19. Human breast cancer: its genetics, biology and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Riaz (Muhammad)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCancer is a major public health problem, being the second leading cause of death, after cardiovascular diseases1. Among women, breast cancer is the first neoplasm for incidence and the second for mortality all over the world. World-wide, an incidence of 1.4 million new cases and a mortal

  20. Breast cancer risk factor knowledge among nurses in teaching hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hatcher Juanita; Mahmud Sadia; Ahmed Faiza; Khan Shaista M

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in both the developed and the developing world. The incidence of breast cancer in Karachi, Pakistan is 69.1 per 100,000 with breast cancer presentation in stages III and IV being common (≥ 50%). The most pragmatic solution to early detection lies in breast cancer education of women. Nurses constitute a special group having characteristics most suited for disseminating breast cancer information to the women. We assessed th...

  1. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD) cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  2. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Anders

    1999-05-01

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  3. Vascular and Cognitive Assessments in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy After Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-27

    Cognitive/Functional Effects; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  4. 400例早期乳腺癌化疗过程中贫血发生率及相关因素%Incidence and risk factors of anemia in 400 patients with early breast cancer treated by chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡耿喜; 刘情; 姚广裕; 陈路嘉; 叶长生

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the incidence and predictive factors of anemia induced by chemothera-py in early breast cancer patients. Methods 400 early breast cancer patients treated by taxane-based regimens from 2009 to 2011 in our hospital were analyzed to obtain the incidence of anemia. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to search for risk factors linked to the occurrence of anemia. Results Incidence of anemia was 72.2% in early breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The occur-rence of anemia was related to 5 risk factors: chemotherapy regiments, Hb at baseline 60 years old, BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2 and HBV antigen positive. Conclusion The anemia incidence during chemothera-py is high in early breast cancer patients. Such factors,as chemotherapy regiments, Hb at baseline, age, BMI and HBV antigen, should be taken into account in identifying high risk patients and prevent anemia.%目的:探讨早期乳腺癌患者化疗过程中贫血的发生率及相关因素.方法:对2009-2011年本院乳腺外科共400例接受含紫杉烷方案化疗的早期乳腺癌患者进行回顾性分析, 统计化疗过程中贫血发生率,并进行单因素分析及多因素Logistic回归分析探讨贫血相关因素. 结果:400例早期乳腺癌患者接受含紫杉烷方案化疗期间贫血发生率为72.2%;化疗过程中发生贫血的相关因素包括:化疗方案、化疗前Hb 60 岁、BMI≤25 kg/m2和乙肝. 结论:早期乳腺癌化疗过程中贫血发生率较高,可根据化疗方案、化疗前Hb水平、年龄、BMI及是否有乙肝识别贫血高危患者,预测贫血发生率.

  5. Breast cancer after bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, A-B; Crüger, Dorthe Gylling; Gerster, M;

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the incidence of breast cancer after risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in healthy BRCA mutation carriers. This study is a long-term follow-up of 307 BRCA mutation carriers of whom 96 chose RRM. None of the study participants had a previous history of breast or ovarian...... cancer nor had they undergone RRM or risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) prior to the time of BRCA testing. The annual incidence of post-mastectomy breast cancer was 0.8% compared with 1.7% in the non-operated group. Implications of these findings in relation to genetic counseling...

  6. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  7. Circadian clocks and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeman, Victoria; Jack L. Williams; Meng, Qing-Jun; Streuli, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks respond to environmental time cues to coordinate 24-hour oscillations in almost every tissue of the body. In the breast, circadian clocks regulate the rhythmic expression of numerous genes. Disrupted expression of circadian genes can alter breast biology and may promote cancer. Here we overview circadian mechanisms, and the connection between the molecular clock and breast biology. We describe how disruption of circadian genes contributes to cancer via multiple mechanisms, an...

  8. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt w...

  9. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  10. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  11. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  12. Overdiagnosis by mammographic screening for breast cancer studied in birth cohorts in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripping, T.M.; Verbeek, A.L.; Fracheboud, J.; Koning, H.J. de; Ravesteyn, N.T. van; Broeders, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    A drawback of early detection of breast cancer through mammographic screening is the diagnosis of breast cancers that would never have become clinically detected. This phenomenon, called overdiagnosis, is ideally quantified from the breast cancer incidence of screened and unscreened cohorts of women

  13. Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærlev, Linda; Hansen, Johnny; Lyngbeck Hansen, Hans;

    2005-01-01

    .19 to 1.32) for men and 1.07 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.20) for women. This was mainly due to an excess of cancer of the larynx, lung, tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, urinary bladder, colon, and bone as well as skin melanomas among men (the three latter borderline significantly increased...... extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. METHODS: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986-1999 (33,340 men; 11,291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked...... with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517,518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected: 1.26 (95% CI 1...

  14. Trends in cancer incidence in Maputo, Mozambique, 1991-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesaltina Lorenzoni

    Full Text Available Very limited information is available regarding the incidence of cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed changes in cancer patterns from 1991 to 2008 in Maputo (Mozambique.We calculated the rates of incidence of different cancer sites by sex in the 5-year age-group of the population of Maputo city as well as age-standardized rates (ASRs and average annual percentage changes (AAPC.Over the 18-year study period a total of 12,674 cases of cancer (56.9% females were registered with an overall increase in the risk of cancer in both sexes. In males, the most common cancers were those of the prostate, Kaposi sarcoma (KS and the liver. Prostate cancer showed the most dramatic increase over the whole study period (AAPC +11.3%; 95% CI: 9.7-13.0, with an ASR of 61.7 per 105 in 2003-2008. In females, the most frequent cancers were of the uterine cervix, the breast and KS, with the former increasing along the whole study period (AAPC + 4.7%; 95% CI: 3.4-6 with an ASR of 62.0 per 105 in 2003-2008 as well as breast cancer (AAPC +6.5%; 95%CI: 4.3-8.7.Overall, the risk of cancer rose in both sexes during the study period, particularly among cancers associated with westernization of lifestyles (prostate, breast, combined with increasingly rising incidences or limited changes in cancers associated with infection and poverty (uterine cervix, liver. Moreover, the burden of AIDS-associated cancers has shown a marked increase.

  15. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  16. Abuse victimization and risk of breast cancer in the Black Women’s Health Study: Abuse and breast cancer risk in black women

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Lauren A; Palmer, Julie R.; Boggs, Deborah A; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between abuse victimization and breast cancer, and results have been inconclusive. Using data from 35,728 participants in the Black Women’s Health Study, we conducted multivariable Cox regression to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of abuse across the life span (childhood, adolescence, and adulthood) with breast cancer. Incident breast cancer diagnoses were reported during 1995–2009, and abuse hi...

  17. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  18. Environmental chemical exposures and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stanley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a hormone-sensitive condition with no single identifiable cause, breast cancer is a major health problem. It is characterized by a wide range of contributing factors and exposures occurring in different combinations and strengths across a lifetime that may be amplified during periods of enhanced developmental susceptibility and impacted by reproductive patterns and behaviours. The vast majority of cases are oestrogen-receptor positive and occur in women with no family history of the disease suggesting that modifiable risk factors are involved. A substantial body of evidence now links oestrogen-positive breast cancer with environmental exposures. Synthetic chemicals capable of oestrogen mimicry are characteristic of industrial development and have been individually and extensively assessed as risk factors for oestrogen-sensitive cancers. Existing breast cancer risk assessment tools do not take such factors into account. In the absence of consensus on causation and in order to better understand the problem of escalating incidence globally, an expanded, integrated approach broadening the inquiry into individual susceptibility breast cancer is proposed. Applying systems thinking to existing data on oestrogen-modulating environmental exposures and other oestrogenic factors characteristic of Westernisation and their interactions in the exposure, encompassing social, behavioural, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors, can assist in understanding cancer risks and the pursuit of prevention strategies. A new conceptual framework based on a broader understanding of the “system” that underlies the development of breast cancer over a period of many years, incorporating the factors known to contribute to breast cancer risk, could provide a new platform from which government and regulators can promulgate enhanced and more effective prevention strategies.

  19. Medication use among women with breast cancer in the Netherlands : Pharmacoepidemiological studies based on data from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry-PHARMO linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.P. van Herk-Sukel (Myrthe)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, breast cancer is the most frequent (30%) of all cancers in women. In 2008, around 13,000 women were newly diagnosed with the disease. Worldwide, breast cancer accounted for almost 1.4 million new cancer patients in 20082. Incidence rates of breast cancer have been inc

  20. Breast cancer in Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women.To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 and June 30th 2009 patients presenting with breast lumps were assessed by clinical examination, imaging studies and pathological examination. Relevant clinical and pathological were recorded prospectively data on all patients with microscopically proven breast cancer. The cancers were graded according to the modified Bloom-Richardson system. Tissue immunoperoxidase stains for oestrogen, progesterone receptors and c-erb2 oncogene were performed with commercially prepared antigens and reagents.Nineteen thousand four hundred and twenty – three (19,423) patients were seen during the study period. There were 330 (1.7%) patients with histologically proven breast cancer. The mean age was 49.1 years. A palpable breast lump was detected in 248 patients (75.2%). Two hundred and eighty –one patients (85.2%) presented with Stages III and IV , 271 (82.1%) invasive and 230 ( 85.2%) high grade carcinomas. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 32 and 9 cases respectively. Her2 protein was positive in 11 cases. In Kumasi, as in other parts of Ghana, breast cancer affects mostly young pre-menopausal who present with advanced disease. The cancers have unfavourable prognostic features and are unlikely to respond to hormonal therapy. (au)

  1. Reproductive Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meshram II; Hiwarkar PA; Kulkarni PN

    2009-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is second most important cancer among Indian women. Although risk factors are not much prevalent as in western countries, incidence rate is increasing in India. The study was undertaken to study various risk factors associated with breast cancer. Methods: A hospital based group matched case control study was undertaken to identify risk factors. The study consisted of 105 hospitalized cases confirmed on histopathology and 210 group matched controls selected from urban...

  2. A Study on Risk Factors of Breast Cancer Among Patients Attending the Tertiary Care Hospital, in Udupi District

    OpenAIRE

    Ramchandra Kamath; Mahajan, Kamaleshwar S; Lena Ashok; Sanal, T S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cancer has become one of the ten leading causes of death in India. Breast cancer is the most common diagnosed malignancy in India, it ranks second to cervical cancer. An increasing trend in incidence is reported from various registries of national cancer registry project and now India is a country with largest estimated number of breast cancer deaths worldwide. Aim: To study the factors associated with breast cancer. Objectives: To study the association between breast cancer and s...

  3. Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.

  4. The incidence and mortality of major cancers in China, 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanqing Chen; Rongshou Zheng; Hongmei Zeng; Siwei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background: The National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) collected population-based cancer registration data in 2012 from local registries and estimated the cancer incidence and mortality in China. Methods: In the middle of 2015, 261 cancer registries submitted reports on new cancer cases and deaths occurred in 2012. Qualiifed data from 193 registries were used for analysis after evaluation. Crude rates, number of cases, and age-standardized rates stratiifed by area (urban/rural), sex, age group, and cancer type were calculated according to the national population in 2012. Results: The covered population were 198,060,406 from 193 qualiifed cancer registries (74 urban and 119 rural reg-istries). The major indicators of quality control, percentage of cases morphologically veriifed (MV%), death certiifcate-only cases (DCO%), and the mortality to incidence (M/I) ratio, were 69.13%, 2.38%, and 0.62, respectively. It was esti-mated that there were 3,586,200 new cancer cases and 2,186,600 cancer deaths in 2012 in China with an incidence of 264.85/100,000 [age-standardized rate of incidence by the Chinese standard population (ASRIC) of 191.89/100,000] and a mortality of 161.49/100,000 [age-standardized rate of mortality by the Chinese standard population (ASRMC) of 112.34/100,000]. The ten most common cancer sites were the lung, stomach, liver, colorectum, esophagus, female breast, thyroid, cervix, brain, and pancreas, accounting for approximately 77.4%of all new cancer cases. The ten lead-ing causes of cancer death were lung cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, pancre-atic cancer, female breast cancer, brain tumor, leukemia, and lymphoma, accounting for 84.5%of all cancer deaths. Conclusions: Continuous cancer registry data provides basic information in cancer control programs. The cancer burden in China is gradually increasing, both in urban and rural areas, in males and females. Effcient cancer preven-tion and control, such as

  5. [Radiotherapy of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin, C; Barillot, I; Azria, D; Belkacémi, Y; Bollet, M; Chauvet, B; Cowen, D; Cutuli, B; Fourquet, A; Hannoun-Lévi, J M; Leblanc, M; Mahé, M A

    2016-09-01

    In breast cancer, radiotherapy is an essential component of the treatment. After conservative surgery for an infiltrating carcinoma, radiotherapy must be systematically performed, regardless of the characteristics of the disease, because it decreases the rate of local recurrence and by this way, specific mortality. Partial breast irradiation could not be proposed routinely but only in very selected and informed patients. For ductal carcinoma in situ, adjuvant radiotherapy must be also systematically performed after lumpectomy. After mastectomy, chest wall irradiation is required for pT3-T4 tumours and if there is an axillary nodal involvement, whatever the number of involved lymph nodes. After neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy, in case of pN0 disease, chest wall irradiation is recommended if there is a clinically or radiologically T3-T4 or node positive disease before chemotherapy. Axillary irradiation is recommended only if there is no axillary surgical dissection and a positive sentinel lymph node. Supra and infra-clavicular irradiation is advised in case of positive axillary nodes. Internal mammary irradiation must be discussed case by case, according to the benefit/risk ratio (cardiac toxicity). Dose to the chest wall or the breast must be between 45-50Gy with a conventional fractionation. A boost dose over the tumour bed is required if the patient is younger than 60 years old. Hypofractionation (42.5 Gy in 16 fractions, or 41.6 Gy en 13 or 40 Gy en 15) is possible after tumorectomy and if a nodal irradiation is not mandatory. Delineation of the breast, the chest wall and the nodal areas are based on clinical and radiological evaluations. 3D-conformal irradiation is the recommended technique, intensity-modulated radiotherapy must be proposed only in case of specific clinical situations. Respiratory gating could be useful to decrease the cardiac dose. Concomitant administration of chemotherapy in unadvised, but hormonal treatment could be start with

  6. Recent Advances in the Use of Metformin: Can Treating Diabetes Prevent Breast Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Hatoum, Diana; Eileen M. McGowan

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial epidemiological evidence pointing to an increased incidence of breast cancer and morbidity in obese, prediabetic, and diabetic patients. In vitro studies strongly support metformin, a diabetic medication, in breast cancer therapy. Although metformin has been heralded as an exciting new breast cancer treatment, the principal consideration is whether metformin can be used as a generic treatment for all breast cancer types. Importantly, will metformin be useful as an inexpen...

  7. Efficacy of Group Logotherapy on Decreasing Anxiety in Women with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohabbat-Bahar, Sahar; Golzari, Mahmoud; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaiel

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most incident cancer and the fifth cause of death due to malignancies among Iranian women. A strong breast cancer patients' sense of meaning and purpose in life appears to decrease anxiety in their life. The present study has investigated the effectiveness of group Logotherapy on the reduction of anxiety in women with breast cancer. Methods The research was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control group. For this purpose, 30 patients with breast ...

  8. The first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abulkhair, Omalkhair A.; Al Tahan, Fatina M.; Young, Susan E.; Musaad, Salma MA.; Jazieh, Abdul-Rahman M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite its relatively low incidence in Saudi Arabia, breast cancer has been the most common cancer among Saudi females for the past 12 consecutive years. The objective of this study was to report the results of the first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Women 40 years of age or older underwent breast cancer screening. Mammograms were scored using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Correlations between im...

  9. Opposite effects of microchimerism on breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Biggar, Robert J; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2012-01-01

    data were obtained during 1993-1997 when all women were cancer-free. In 2006 all women were followed up for incident breast and colon cancer in national registers. In blinded analyses, we analysed buffy coat DNA for Y chromosome (DYS14) as a marker of male microchimerism. RESULTS: We detected male...... microchimerism in 70% of 272 cancer-free women, 40% of 89 women who later developed breast cancer, and 90% of 67 women who later developed colon cancer. The corresponding odds ratios were 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17-0.52) for breast, and 3.9 (95%CI 1.6-9.5) for colon cancer. CONCLUSION: Detection...... of male microchimerism was strongly associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer and also the increased risk of developing colon cancer. Confirmatory findings based on an improved study design, failure to identify important confounders and the strength of the associations lead us to believe...

  10. Epigenetics and Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An T. Vo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several of the active compounds in foods, poisons, drugs, and industrial chemicals may, by epigenetic mechanisms, increase or decrease the risk of breast cancers. Enzymes that are involved in DNA methylation and histone modifications have been shown to be altered in several types of breast and other cancers resulting in abnormal patterns of methylation and/or acetylation. Hypermethylation at the CpG islands found in estrogen response element (ERE promoters occurs in conjunction with ligand-bonded alpha subunit estrogen receptor (Erα dimers wherein the ligand ERα dimer complex acts as a transcription factor and binds to the ERE promoter. Ligands could be 17-β-estradiol (E2, phytoestrogens, heterocyclic amines, and many other identified food additives and heavy metals. The dimer recruits DNA methyltransferases which catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM to 5′-cytosine on CpG islands. Other enzymes are recruited to the region by ligand-ERα dimers which activate DNA demethylases to act simultaneously to increase gene expression of protooncogenes and growth-promoting genes. Ligand-ERα dimers also recruit histone acetyltransferase to the ERE promoter region. Histone demethylases such as JMJD2B and histone methyltransferases are enzymes which demethylate lysine residues on histones H3 and/or H4. This makes the chromatin accessible for transcription factors and enzymes.

  11. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  12. Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China-a report from 32 Chinese cancer registries,2003-2007%中国女性乳腺癌的发病和死亡现况——全国32个肿瘤登记点2003-2007年资料分析报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄哲宙; 陈万青; 吴春晓; 郑荣寿; 陈建国; 杨念念; 王宁; 张思维; 郑莹

    2012-01-01

    目的:描述2003-2007年中国女性乳腺癌的发病和死亡情况.方法:从经审核合格的全国32个肿瘤登记点收集2003-2007年女性乳腺癌发病、死亡和相应的人口数据,对数据进行汇总和描述分析.结果:2003-2007年全国32个肿瘤登记点女性乳腺癌合计发病率为41.64/10万,居女性癌症发病的第1位;合计死亡率为9.63/10万,居女性癌症死因的第6位.女性乳腺癌在全国城市地区的发病率和死亡率均高于农村地区,城市地区发病率是农村地区的3.04倍,城市地区死亡率是农村地区的1.92倍.肿瘤登记点合计女性乳腺癌发病率在GLOBOCAN 2008统计的184个国家中排位第110位,死亡率排位第172位.结论:女性乳腺癌已经成为中国女性最常见的癌症之一,中国城市女性乳腺癌的发病率和死亡率水平显著高于农村,但中国女性乳腺癌的发病率和死亡率在世界范围仍处于中低水平.%Objective: To describe the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China during 2003-2007. Methods: The incidence and mortality data of female breast cancer and the corresponding population data from 32 eligible cancer registries in China during 2003-2007 were collected and analyzed. Results: The combined crude incidence rate of female breast cancer during 2003-2007 was 41.64 per 100 000, which was the highest among female cancer incidence rates. The combined crude mortality rate of female breast cancer was 9.63 per 100 000, which was ranked as the sixth among the mortality rates of all female cancers. The incidence rate was 3.04 times higher and the mortality rate was 1.92 times higher in urban areas than those in rural areas. Compared to the incidence and mortality rates of 184 regions provided from GLABOCAN 2008 database, the female breast cancer incidence in China was ranked as the one hundred and tenth, and the mortality was ranked as the one hundred and seventy-second. Conclusion: Breast cancer has been becoming

  13. Second primary malignancies in patients with male breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    K. Hemminki; Scélo, G; Boffetta, P.; Mellemkjaer, L; Tracey, E; Andersen, A; Brewster, D. H.; Pukkala, E.; McBride, M.; Kliewer, E V; Chia, K-S; POMPE-KIRN, V; Martos, C; Jonasson, J. G.; Li, X.

    2005-01-01

    An international multicentre study of first and second primary neoplasms associated with male breast cancer was carried out by pooling data from 13 cancer registries. Among a total of 3409 men with primary breast cancer, 426 (12.5%) developed a second neoplasia; other than breast cancer, a 34% overall excess risk of second primary neoplasia, affecting the small intestine (standardised incidence ratio, 4.95, 95% confidence interval, 1.35–12.7), rectum (1.78, 1.20–2.54), pancreas (1.93, 1.14–3....

  14. Changing Trends of Breast Cancer Survival in Sultanate of Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Shiyam Kumar; Burney, Ikram A; Adel Al-Ajmi; Al-Moundhri, Mansour S

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in women, with elevated incidence in developing countries. This retrospective study included all 122 patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 2003 to December 2008 in the Sultanate of Oman. Age at presentation was 47.41 years (SD ± 12.88), with one-third of patients younger than 40 years. The majority of patients presented with stage III (41.2%) and IV (18.2%) breast cancer. T size ( = . 0 2 3 ), skin involvement ( ...

  15. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Europe and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiy Opeyemi Abdulrahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer continues to remain the most lethal malignancy in women across the world. This study reviews some of the epidemiological similarities and differences in breast cancer between white European women and black African women with the aim of optimising care for women with breast malignancy across the world. The incidence of breast cancer is lower among African women than their European counterparts. Majority of women in Europe are postmenopausal when they present with breast cancer; however, the peak incidence among African women is in the premenopausal period. Ductal carcinoma is the commonest type of breast cancer among women in Africa and Europe. However, medullary and mucinous carcinomas are more common in Africa than in Europe. While European women usually present at an early stage especially with the advent of screening, African women generally present late for treatment resulting in lower survival rates. There should be more research at the molecular level among African women to identify genetic factors that may contribute to the risk of developing breast cancer. There should also be improvement in the health care system in Africa in order to optimise care for women with breast cancer.

  16. Breast Cancer In Women Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  17. A review of breast cancer awareness among women in India: Cancer literate or awareness deficit?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, A; Shridhar, K.; Dhillon, PK

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide including India, where advanced stages at diagnosis, and rising incidence and mortality rates, make it essential to understand cancer literacy in women. We conducted a literature review to evaluate the awareness levels of risk factors for breast cancer among Indian women and health professionals. Methods A structured literature search using combined keywords was undertaken on bibliographic databases including MEDL...

  18. Breast Cancer After Treatment of Hodgkin's Lymphoma: General Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improved survival rates among patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma over the past few decades have come with increased incidence of second malignancies. One of the major concerns among female survivors is the significantly elevated risk of breast cancer that appears with extended follow-up. In this review, we include the published literature regarding the risk of breast cancer after irradiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma. We also present the possible long-term surveillance strategies and the optimal time to start screening these women. This could potentially help in early detection of secondary breast cancers and consequently improve outcomes. Furthermore, because of prior radiotherapy, the management of the breast cancer among this unique population has been controversial. We discuss the characteristics of breast cancer that occurs after Hodgkin's lymphoma and also treatment options that could be implemented

  19. Incidence of cancer in Nairobi, Kenya (2004-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, Anne; Okerosi, Nathan; Ronoh, Victor; Mutuma, Geoffrey; Parkin, Max

    2015-11-01

    Cancer incidence rates are presented for the Nairobi Cancer Registry, a population-based cancer registry (PBCR) covering the population of the capital city of Kenya (3.2 million inhabitants in 2009). Case finding was by active methods, with standard and checks for accuracy and validity. During the period 2004-2008 a total of 8,982 cases were registered comprising 3,889 men (an age standardized incidence rate (ASR) of 161 per 100,000) and 5,093 women (ASR 231 per 1,00,000). Prostate cancer was the most common cancer in men (ASR 40.6 per 100,000) while breast cancer was the most common among women (ASR 51.7 per 100,000). Cervical cancer ranked the second most common cancer among women in Nairobi with an ASR of 46.1 per 100,000, somewhat lower than those of other registries in East Africa region. Breast and cervical cancers accounted for 44% of all cancers in women. Cancer of the oesophagus was common in both sexes, with a slight excess of cases in men (sex ratio 1.3). Unlike other regions in East Africa, the rate of Kaposi sarcoma was relatively low during the period (men 3.6/100,000; women 2.0/100,000). Although incidence rates cannot be calculated for the early years of the registry, the increase in relative frequency of prostate cancer and declines in frequency of Kaposi sarcoma may indicate underlying trends in the risk of these cancers. PMID:26139540

  20. Quality indicators for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poortmans, Philip; Aznar, Marianne; Bartelink, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer has considerably changed over the years, from simple simulator-based 2-dimensional techniques to sophisticated image-guided individualized treatments, with maximally protected normal structures. This has led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of breast...

  1. Male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottini, Laura; Palli, Domenico; Rizzo, Sergio; Federico, Mario; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Male breast cancer (MaleBC) is a rare disease, accounting for development; low-penetrance gene mutations (i.e. CHEK-2) are more common but involve a lower risk increase. About 90% of all male breast tumors have proved to be invasive ductal carcinomas, expressing high levels of hormone receptors with evident therapeutic returns. The most common clinical sign of BC onset in men is a painless palpable retroareolar lump, which should be evaluated by means of mammography, ultrasonography and core biopsy or fine needle aspiration (FNA). To date, there are no published data from prospective randomized trials supporting a specific therapeutic approach in MaleBC. Tumor size together with the number of axillary nodes involved are the main prognostic factors and should guide the treatment choice. Locoregional approaches include surgery and radiotherapy (RT), depending upon the initial clinical presentation. When systemic treatment (adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic) is delivered, the choice between hormonal and or chemotherapy (CT) should depend upon the clinical and biological features, according to the FBC management guidelines. However great caution is required because of high rates of age-related comorbidities. PMID:19427229

  2. Therapeutic effects of cytoprotective agent on breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xinjia; Wang, Lihua; Li, Wei; Yu, Zhuang; Wang, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Most patients will choose breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery, while radiotherapy will damage skin and soft tissue so that will have adverse effect on reconstruction. In this study, we assume that the usage of Amifostine can reduce the incidence of complications after breast reconstruction so that provides more choices of reconstruction operation. Dividing SD rats into surgical placement expansion material group (include 15 ml normal saline) and simple operation group. Then furt...

  3. Mammographic screening for breast cancer: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Warwick; Peters, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, BreastScreen Australia celebrated 20 years of mammographic screening for breast cancer in Australia. There has been a reduction in mortality from breast cancer over the last two decades, coincident with mammographic screening. However, there are concerns that mammographic screening may result in overdiagnosis of breast cancer and that the reduction in mortality from breast cancer is the result of better treatment rather than screening. This article reviews the evidence on which mammo...

  4. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trials is available from the NCI website . Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Breast Cancer Treatment of locally advanced ... NIH). NIH is the federal government’s center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an ...

  6. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  7. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jennrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includes various well-documented pathomechanisms. In the sense of primary and secondary prevention, the cancer-triggering potential of aluminium and its use in anti-perspirant deodorants must be re-evaluated. For the same reason the access to a targeted diagnosis and treatment of aluminium loading must be facilitated.

  8. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants, 1967-92.

    OpenAIRE

    Pukkala, E.; Auvinen, A; Wahlberg, G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether occupational exposure among commercial airline cabin attendants are associated with risk of cancer. DESIGN--Record linkage study. SETTING--Finland. SUBJECTS-1577 female and 187 male cabin attendants who had worked for the Finnish airline companies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Standardised incidence ratio; expected number of cases based on national cancer incidences. RESULTS--A significant excess of breast cancer (standardised incidence ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interva...

  9. Incidence of cancer among female flight attendants: a meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tokumaru, Osamu; Haruki, Kosuke; Bacal, Kira; Katagiri, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Taisuke; Sakurai, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    Cancer type: malignant melanoma; breast cancerStudy design: cohort study. Study size: 15433 individuals. Description of cohort(s) studied: Only cohort studies of cancer incidence in female commercial airline female flight attendants (FA), which compared each incidence with that of a national or state reference population data [ie, standardized incidence ratio (SIR)], were included.Exposure(s) evaluated: exposure to known or suspected carcinogens and mutagens such as ionizing radiation,ozone, ...

  10. Dormancy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banys M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Malgorzata Banys,1,2 Andreas D Hartkopf,1 Natalia Krawczyk,1 Tatjana Kaiser,1 Franziska Meier-Stiegen,1 Tanja Fehm,1 Hans Neubauer11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg, Hamburg, GermanyAbstract: Tumor dormancy describes a prolonged quiescent state in which tumor cells are present, but disease progression is not yet clinically apparent. Breast cancer is especially known for long asymptomatic periods, up to 25 years, with no evidence of the disease, followed by a relapse. Factors that determine the cell's decision to enter a dormant state and that control its duration remain unclear. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding how tumor cells circulating in the blood interact and extravasate into secondary sites and which factors might determine whether these cells survive, remain dormant, or become macrometastases. The mechanisms of tumor cell dormancy are still not clear. Two different hypotheses are currently discussed: tumor cells persist either by completely withdrawing from the cell cycle or by continuing to proliferate at a slow rate that is counterbalanced by cell death. Because dormant disseminated tumor cells may be the founders of metastasis, one hypothesis is that dormant tumor cells, or at least a fraction of them, share stem cell-like characteristics that may be responsible for their long half-lives and their suggested resistance to standard chemotherapy. Therefore, knowledge of the biology of tumor cell dormancy may be the basis from which to develop innovative targeted therapies to control or eliminate this tumor cell fraction. In this review, we discuss biological mechanisms and clinical implications of tumor dormancy in breast cancer patients.Keywords: tumor dormancy, disseminated tumor cell, circulating tumor cell, targeted therapy

  11. Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BRCA mutations, including prostate cancer , pancreatic cancer , and testicular cancer . Because breast cancer in men can be caused ... Breast Cancer In Men? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer ...

  12. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Breast cancer is the first cancer among females in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in 2010. There are several risk factors affecting the incidence of breast cancer where some factors influence the risk more than the others. Aim: We aimed to identify the different risk factors related to breast cancer among females participating in the breast-screening program in Riyadh, KSA. Methods: Based on data from phase-I of the breast-screening program, a case-control study was conducted on women living in Riyadh, KSA. A sample of 349 women (58 cases and 290 controls) was recruited to examine the different breast cancer correlates. Multivariate regression model was built to investigate the most important risk factors. Results: The mean age of cases was 48.5 ± 7.1 years. Age at marriage, number of pregnancy, age at menopause, oral contraceptive pills, breast feeding and family history of breast cancer in first-degree relative were identified as the most important correlates among the studied cohort. Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ≥50 years, and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause<50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.

  13. Current strategies for the prevention of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Advani P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pooja Advani, Alvaro Moreno-AspitiaDepartment of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: Due to the high incidence of breast cancer in the United States, optimal strategies for its prevention are imperative. This entails identification of women who are at an increased risk for breast cancer and an integrative approach that includes effective screening methods as well as nutritional, pharmacologic, and surgical management. Several breast cancer risk-assessment tools, such as the Gail and Claus models, can help clinicians determine the quantitative risk of breast cancer. The role of selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, for the prevention of breast cancer has been well established. Several other agents, such as aromatase inhibitors, are currently being investigated. The potential adverse effects of these chemopreventive agents, which include an impact on the quality of life, must be discussed with the patient before deciding on this approach. Additionally, breast cancer risk factors have been identified over the years; some of them are modifiable, but others are not. Although there is no conclusive evidence to suggest the protective role of specific dietary components, alcohol consumption and obesity are associated with an increased breast cancer risk; thus lifestyle changes can lead to a lower risk of developing breast cancer. Surgical approaches, including bilateral risk-reduction mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, are usually limited to women with a hereditary predisposition to development of breast cancer. The objective of this review is to summarize the various approaches directed at reducing the incidence of breast cancer.Keywords: chemoprevention, tamoxifen, raloxifene, prophylactic surgery

  14. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  15. Breast cancer burden in central Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgaili M Elgaili

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Elgaili M Elgaili1, Dafalla O Abuidris2, Munazzah Rahman3, Arthur M Michalek4, Sulma I Mohammed3,51Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, University of Gezira, Sudan; 2Radiation Oncology Department, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, University of Gezira, Sudan; 3Department of Comparative Pathobiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN USA; 4Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA; 5Purdue Cancer Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USAAbstract: Breast cancer is a worldwide disease resulting in many deaths. Although breast cancer incidence is lower in Sub-Saharan African countries than in developed countries, African women are more likely than women in the developed world to be diagnosed at later stages of the disease and, thus, are more likely to die from it. This is due to the lack of awareness by women, accessibility to screening methods, and availability of African-based research findings that would influence decision making at the governmental level. This descriptive study was undertaken to shed light on the type, stage and age distribution of breast cancer at diagnosis in women living in central Sudan encompassing al-Gezira, Blue Nile, White Nile, and Sennar States. Cases comprised 1255 women from central Sudan diagnosed with breast cancer and referred to and treated at Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Biology, and Oncology, from January 1999 to December 2006. Data revealed that 74% of the women were <50 years old or premenopausal. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common pathology (82% and women presenting with stage III or higher tumors that had already metastasized, while ductal carcinoma in situ was the least prevalent (0.5% finding. Estrogen and progesterone receptors expression were performed on a limited number of samples and the overwhelming majority of cases were observed to be negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors expression.Keywords: female breast cancer, estrogen

  16. Update on inflammatory breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lerebours, Florence; Bieche, Ivan; Lidereau, Rosette

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is both the least frequent and the most severe form of epithelial breast cancer. The diagnosis is based on clinical inflammatory signs and is reinforced by pathological findings. Significant progress has been made in the management of IBC in the past 20 years. Yet survival among IBC patients is still only one-half that among patients with non-IBC. Identification of the molecular determinants of IBC would probably lead to more specific treatments and to improve...

  17. Endobronchial metastasis in breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Albertini, R E; Ekberg, N L

    1980-01-01

    Ten patients with endobronchial metastasis from primary breast cancer were found among 1200 fibreoptic bronchoscopies. Six of these patients had radiological signs suggesting bronchial obstruction. The diagnosis was verified in nine cases by means of bronchoscopic biopsy or cytology and in one by thoracotomy. Endobronchial metastasis should be considered when symptoms or chest films suggest endobronchial disease in a patient with a history of breast cancer.

  18. Leptomeningeal metastases in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Brian J.; Kesari, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) metastasis from breast cancer may be characterized as either parenchymal brain metastasis (BM) or leptomeningeal (LM) metastasis. BM are much more common (about 80% of all CNS metastases), and have been more extensively studied than LM. CNS metastasis in breast cancer has been associated with reduced overall survival, with the shortest survival generally observed in cases of LM. Here, we review the epidemiology, prognostic factors, diagnostic tools, currently avai...

  19. Low level alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and risk of breast cancer in Asian-American women

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Linda Morris; Gridley, Gloria; Wu, Anna H.; Falk, Roni T; Hauptmann, Michael; Kolonel, Laurence N; West, Dee W.; Nomura, Abraham M. Y.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that breast cancer incidence rates among Asian migrants to the United States approach U.S. incidence rates over several generations, implicating potentially modifiable exposures such as moderate alcohol use that has been linked to excess breast cancer risk in other populations. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of alcohol intake, primarily low levels, on breast cancer risk in Asian-American women and explore whether smoking and alcohol contributed to the ...

  20. Soy Isoflavones Supplementation in Treating Women at High Risk For or With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-06

    BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  1. [Molecular classification of bladder cancer. Possible similarities to breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, R M; Fritz, V; Stöhr, R; Hartmann, A

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic decisions for breast cancer are increasingly becoming based on subtype-specific gene expression tests. For bladder cancer very similar subtypes have been identified by genome-wide mRNA analysis, which as for breast cancer differ with respect to the prognosis and response to therapy on the basis of their hormone dependency. At the DNA level, however, the type of mutations and their frequencies within the subtypes are strikingly different between bladder and breast cancers. It will be interesting to see whether possible driver mutations can serve as therapeutic targets in both indications. In contrast, the apparent hormone dependency of a substantial number of bladder carcinomas suggests that hormonal and anti-hormonal treatment can be valid therapy options similar to breast cancer. Moreover, gender-specific differences with respect to the incidence and aggressiveness of male compared to female bladder cancers can be explained by hormonal effects. Together with forthcoming immunomodulatory therapies these multiple therapy options raise and give new hope to efficiently combat this aggressive disease. PMID:26780243

  2. 皮脂厚度、静脉穿刺困难与乳腺癌发病率的相关性分析%Correlation analysis between skinfold thickness, venipuncture difficulty and breast cancer incidences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席生莲; 许连芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨皮脂厚度、静脉穿刺困难程度与乳腺癌发病率的相关性,为乳腺癌的发病机制提供参考.方法 测定50例乳腺癌观察组患者及50名健康对照组的肩胛皮脂厚和三酰甘油(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、胆固醇(TC)的含量,同时采用超声引导下静脉穿刺对乳腺癌进行诊断,探讨静脉穿刺困难与诊断符合率的相关性.结果 观察组与对照组之间肩胛皮脂厚度、TG、HDL-C水平差异有统计学意义(P0.05).在观察组50例中,静脉穿刺成功40例,诊断阳性39例,符合率为97.5%;穿刺困难10例,诊断阳性4例,阳性率为40.0%.结论 皮脂厚度程度与乳腺癌的发生呈正相关,同时静脉穿刺的成功率与乳腺癌诊断的阳性率呈正相关.%Objective To invesligale the correlation between skinfold ihickness, venipuncture difficulty and breast cancer incidences so as to provide references for the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Methods The scapular skinfold ihickness, amounl of Lriacylglycerol (TG) , high densily lipoprolein choleslerol (HDL-C) and total choleslerol (TC) of 50 palienls with breast cancer in observation group and 50 heallhy controls were respectively measured. Ultrasonic-guided venipuncture was performed simullaneously to investigate the correlation be-Lween venipuncture difficulty and dignoslic accordance rale. Results There were slalislical differences in the scapular skinfold thicknesses, TG and HDL-C amounl between observation group and control group ( P 0. 05 ) . For the 50 palienls in observation group, there were 40 cases of successful venipunclure,39 cases of positive diagnosis, with an accordance rale of 97. 5% ;10 cases of difficult venipunclure and 4 cases of positive diagnosis, with a posi-live rale of 40. 0%. Conclusion There were positive correlations between the skinfold ihickness and breasl cancer incidence, successful rale of venipunclure and positive rale of breasl cancer diagnosis.

  3. Chapter 27 -- Breast Cancer Genomics, Section VI, Pathology and Biological Markers of Invasive Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spellman, Paul T.; Heiser, Laura; Gray, Joe W.

    2009-06-18

    Breast cancer is predominantly a disease of the genome with cancers arising and progressing through accumulation of aberrations that alter the genome - by changing DNA sequence, copy number, and structure in ways that that contribute to diverse aspects of cancer pathophysiology. Classic examples of genomic events that contribute to breast cancer pathophysiology include inherited mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and CHK2 that contribute to the initiation of breast cancer, amplification of ERBB2 (formerly HER2) and mutations of elements of the PI3-kinase pathway that activate aspects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and deletion of CDKN2A/B that contributes to cell cycle deregulation and genome instability. It is now apparent that accumulation of these aberrations is a time-dependent process that accelerates with age. Although American women living to an age of 85 have a 1 in 8 chance of developing breast cancer, the incidence of cancer in women younger than 30 years is uncommon. This is consistent with a multistep cancer progression model whereby mutation and selection drive the tumor's development, analogous to traditional Darwinian evolution. In the case of cancer, the driving events are changes in sequence, copy number, and structure of DNA and alterations in chromatin structure or other epigenetic marks. Our understanding of the genetic, genomic, and epigenomic events that influence the development and progression of breast cancer is increasing at a remarkable rate through application of powerful analysis tools that enable genome-wide analysis of DNA sequence and structure, copy number, allelic loss, and epigenomic modification. Application of these techniques to elucidation of the nature and timing of these events is enriching our understanding of mechanisms that increase breast cancer susceptibility, enable tumor initiation and progression to metastatic disease, and determine therapeutic response or resistance. These studies also

  4. Circulating Adipokines and Inflammatory Markers and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Cushman, Mary; Xue, Xiaonan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Strickler, Howard D.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; McTiernan, Anne; Kaplan, Robert C.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Snetselaar, Linda; Wang, Dan; Ho, Gloria Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adipokines and inflammation may provide a mechanistic link between obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer, yet epidemiologic data on their associations with breast cancer risk are limited. Methods: In a case-cohort analysis nested within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, baseline plasma samples from 875 incident breast cancer case patients and 839 subcohort participants were tested for levels of seven adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin, resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, hepatocyte growth factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and for C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker. Data were analyzed by multivariable Cox modeling that included established breast cancer risk factors and previously measured estradiol and insulin levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The association between plasma CRP levels and breast cancer risk was dependent on hormone therapy (HT) use at baseline (P interaction = .003). In a model that controlled for multiple breast cancer risk factors including body mass index (BMI), estradiol, and insulin, CRP level was positively associated with breast cancer risk among HT nonusers (hazard ratio for high vs low CRP levels = 1.67, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 2.68, P trend = .029). None of the other adipokines were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Following inclusion of CRP, insulin, and estradiol in a multivariable model, the association of BMI with breast cancer was attenuated by 115%. Conclusion: These data indicate that CRP is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer among HT nonusers. Inflammatory mediators, together with insulin and estrogen, may play a role in the obesity–breast cancer relation. PMID:26185195

  5. Genomic profiling of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anjita; Singh, Alok Kumar; Maurya, Sanjeev Kumar; Rai, Rajani; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Mohan; Shukla, Hari S

    2009-05-01

    Genome study provides significant changes in the advancement of molecular diagnosis and treatment in Breast cancer. Several recent critical advances and high-throughput techniques identified the genomic trouble and dramatically accelerated the pace of research in preventing and curing this malignancy. Tumor-suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes, DNA-repair genes, carcinogen-metabolism genes are critically involved in progression of breast cancer. We reviewed imperative finding in breast genetics, ongoing work to segregate further susceptible genes, and preliminary studies on molecular profiling.

  6. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...

  7. Risk factors for breast cancer in nulliparous women

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, F; Tavani, A; C. Bosetti; Vecchia, C La; De Negri, E.; F. Barbone; Talamini, R.; Franceschi, S

    1999-01-01

    The relation between hormonal and lifestyle factors and breast cancer risk in nulliparae was investigated using data from two case-control studies conducted in Italy between 1983 and 1994. The study included 1041 nulliparae with histologically confirmed incident breast cancer and 1002 nulliparous controls admitted to hospital for a wide range of acute, non-neoplastic, nonhormone-related diseases. In premenopausal nulliparae, there was an inverse relation with age at menarche [odds ratios (OR)...

  8. The Heritability of Breast Cancer among women in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Sören; Mucci, Lorelei A; Harris, Jennifer R;

    2016-01-01

    Background Family history is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Although some important genetic factors have been identified, the extent to which familial risk can be attributed to genetic factors versus common environment remains unclear. Methods We estimated the familial concordance...... and heritability of breast cancer among 21,054 monozygotic and 30,939 dizygotic female twin pairs from the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer, the largest twin study of cancer in the world. We accounted for left-censoring, right-censoring, as well as the competing risk of death. Results From 1943 through 2010, 3......,933 twins were diagnosed with breast cancer. The cumulative lifetime incidence of breast cancer taking competing risk of death into account was 8.1% for both zygosities, while the cumulative risk for twins whose co-twins had breast cancer was 28% among monozygotic and 20% among dizygotic twins...

  9. Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes among Women in China: Practices, Knowledge, and Attitudes Related to Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast cancer is a major public health issue and the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women worldwide. Despite lower incidence rates than those living in Western countries, breast cancer incidence among Chinese women has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes toward and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods. This cross-sectional study examined the practices, knowledge, and attitudes toward breast cancer screening (BCS on a convenience sample of 400 Chinese women. Results. Among study participants, 75% of the women never had a mammogram and the top three barriers reported were low priority, feeling OK, and lack of awareness/knowledge toward breast cancer screening. The results from the logistic regression model showed increased self-efficacy; having performed monthly self-exams, and having had clinical breast exams in the past two years were significant correlates while demographic variables were not correlated with screening behaviors. Conclusion. The findings provide a foundation to better understand beliefs and practices of Chinese women toward BCS and highlight the critical need for general public, health professionals, and the health care system to work collaboratively toward improving the quality of breast cancer care in this population.

  10. HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer - a Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Sultana, Sabira; Ahmed, Saeed; Akhtar, Naheed; Tariq, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of among all cancers with increased incidence, high mortality rate, and high economic and social costs. The the most common type of cancer among females worldwide, breast cancer is actually the uncontrolled proliferation of cells which attain malignancy. Recently it has shown that breast cancer contributes 11% among all types of cancer diagnosed globally on an annual basis and it is one of the leading causes of death among women. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) is a receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 normally involved in the proliferation and division of breast cells. In some abnormal cases the HER2 gene does not work correctly and makes too many copies of itself. HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancers constitute an aggressive type of breast cancer and tend to grow faster and are more likely to spread. However, therapies that specifically target HER2, such as Herceptin® (traztuzumab), are very effective. HER2 targeted therapies, has significantly improved the therapeutic outcome for patients with HER2 positive breast cancer. PMID:27221828

  11. Cancer incidence among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes--a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Krasnik, A; Pipper, C;

    2007-01-01

    had a significantly lower incidence. All migrants had a significantly lower incidence of breast and colorectal cancer but male migrants from East Europe had a significantly higher incidence of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The overall cancer incidence among migrants was lower compared to native Danes....... The cohort was linked to the Danish Cancer Register and cancer cases among migrants (n=537) and native Danes (n=2829) were identified. RESULTS: The overall cancer incidence did not differ significantly between migrants from East Europe and native Danes; whereas migrants from the Middle East and North Africa......STUDY AIMS: To investigate the incidence of cancer among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes, including time trends in the risk of cancer among migrants. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design. Migrants were matched 1:4 on age and sex with a Danish born reference population...

  12. Cancer-specific incidence rates of tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Seo, Soyoung; Hwang, Boram; Lee, Eugene; Yun, Yujin; Choi, Minsun; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Population-based studies of the incidence of tuberculosis in cancer patients according to the type of cancer are limited. We investigated the cancer-specific incidence of tuberculosis in a nationwide population-based cohort in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis. We used mandatory National Health Insurance claims data to construct a cancer cohort of adults (aged 20–99 years) with newly diagnosed malignancies other than lung cancer, from January 2008 to December 2012. Patients who developed tuberculosis in this period were identified in the cancer cohort and the general population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of tuberculosis in the cancer cohort according to type of cancer and time after cancer diagnosis were calculated by comparing the observed incidence rates with those inferred from the age- and gender-specific incidence rates in the general population. A total of 855,382 cancer patients and 1589,876 person-years (py) were observed. A total of 5745 patients developed tuberculosis; the mean incidence rate was 361.3 per 100,000 py, and the SIR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17–2.27). The incidence rate was highest for hematologic malignancy and lowest for thyroid cancer. It was also highest as 650.1 per 100,000 py, with SIR of 3.70 (CI, 3.57–3.83) for the first 6 months after diagnosis of malignancy and then declined. However, it still remained higher than that of the general population after 24 months (SIR = 1.43, CI, 1.36–1.51). The incidence of tuberculosis increases after diagnosis in patients with malignancies. The risk of tuberculosis differs according to the type of cancer and remains elevated even 24 months after cancer diagnosis. Tuberculosis should be considered an important comorbidity in patients with malignancies. PMID:27661041

  13. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and breast cancer risk: a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren; Thomassen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik T;

    2008-01-01

    nationwide health registers. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We identified 847 breast cancer cases over an average follow-up period of 7.5 years. Any NSAID use at baseline was associated with an increased incidence...... and Health cohort. Information on NSAID and paracetamol use was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed at baseline (1993-1997) and updated through 2003 using a nationwide prescription database. Detailed information on breast cancer incidence and tumour characteristics was obtained from...... was unrelated to breast cancer incidence. The increased breast cancer incidence among NSAID users may reflect a noncausal association, but our study provides no evidence of a chemopreventive effect of NSAIDs against breast cancer over the durations studied. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Apr...

  14. Strategies for morbidity control of axillary dissection for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bonnema (Jorien)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer accounts for one third of all cancers in females in the Netherlands I and the incidence has been increasing world-wide in the past decades 2.. For the majority of patients, surgery forms the primary treatment of choice 3. Dissection of the axillary lymph nodes has been part

  15. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  16. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  17. Drug transporters in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Stenvang, Jan; Moreira, José;

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances that have taken place in the past decade, including the development of novel molecular targeted agents, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of cancer treatment. In breast cancer, anthracyclines and taxanes are the two main chemotherapeutic options used on a routine...

  18. DNA methylation markers for breast cancer prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dedeurwaerder, Sarah; Fuks, François

    2012-01-01

    Currently, most of the prognostic and predictive gene expression signatures emerging for breast cancer concern the tumor component. In Dedeurwaerder et al. we show that DNA methylation profiling of breast tumors is a particularly sensitive means of capturing features of the immune component of breast tumors. Most importantly, correlation is observed between T-cell marker genes and breast cancer clinical outcome.

  19. Lung cancer after treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorigan, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Howell, Anthony; Thatcher, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Improvements in the outcome of breast cancer mean that more patients are living longer and are, therefore, at risk of developing a second malignancy. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of the risk of lung cancer arising in patients previously treated for early stage breast cancer. We review data on the effect of treatment factors (ie, surgery type, radiotherapy technique, and adjuvant chemotherapy) and patient factors (ie, age and smoking) on the risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer. The evidence suggests that older radiotherapy techniques were associated with a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer in the ipsilateral lung, but there is no clear evidence of an increased risk with modern techniques. Smoking is an important risk factor, and increases the risk of lung cancer in those receiving radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not significantly associated with an increased risk. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with time elapsed since treatment, but any effect of age at treatment is unclear.

  20. Aromatase Inhibitors and Other Compounds for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  1. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  2. Advances in Translational Medicine of Breast Cancer:From Bench to Bedside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xin-en

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in women, and its incidence increases year by year. With the rapid development of human genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, the basic and clinical results of breast cancer have emerged in endlessly. Translational medicine is a hot ifeld of international medicine, biological interdisciplinary science and many research funding projects at present, committed to establishing an academic exchange platform for global scientiifc researchers. In this study, the translational medicine of breast cancer was summarized and reviewed from the following aspects, including molecular markers related to breast cancer, molecular typing, individualized and molecular targeted therapies, relationship between molecular biology and imagiology of breast cancer.

  3. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  4. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can breast cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes breast cancer? Many risk factors ... Genes have instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  5. Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer SusceptibilitySuzanne. E. FentonUS EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  7. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Targeted therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy ... fatigue, and pain at the injection site. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs and anti-androgens LHRH ...

  8. Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159781.html Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise Moderate physical activity can ease stress that impairs ... to memory problems among breast cancer survivors, but exercise can help, according to new research. "We found ...

  9. Cancer incidence and mortality in Chukotka, 1997–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The general aim was to assess cancer incidence and mortality among the general population of Chukotka in 1997–2010 and to compare it with the population of Russia. Methods. Cancer data were abstracted from the annual statistical reports of the P.A. Hertzen Research Institute of Oncology in Moscow. The annual number and percent of cases, crude and age-standardized cancer incidence (ASIR and mortality (ASMR rates per 100,000 among men and women in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were determined for the period 1997–2010 for incidence and 1999–2010 for mortality. Two years’ data were aggregated to generate temporal trends during the period. In age-standardization, the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer was used. Results. The higher incidence and mortality rate of cancer (all sites combined among men compared to women, which was observed in Russia nationally, was reflected also in Chukotka, although the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Overall, the patterns of cancer sites are similar between Chukotka and Russia, with cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchus and stomach occupying the top ranks among men. Oesophageal cancer is common in Chukotka but not in Russia, whereas prostate cancer is common in Russia but not in Chukotka. Among women, breast cancer is either the commonest or second commonest cancer in terms of incidence or mortality in both Chukotka and Russia. Cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchi ranks higher in Chukotka than in Russia. The rate of cancer incidence and mortality for all sites combined during the 13-year period was relatively stable in Russia. Dividing the period into two halves, an increase among both men and women was observed in Chukotka for all sites combined, and also for colorectal cancer. Conclusions. This paper presents previously unavailable cancer epidemiological data on Chukotka. They provide a basis for comparative

  10. Cancer incidence and mortality in Chukotka, 1997–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The general aim was to assess cancer incidence and mortality among the general population of Chukotka in 1997–2010 and to compare it with the population of Russia. Methods Cancer data were abstracted from the annual statistical reports of the P.A. Hertzen Research Institute of Oncology in Moscow. The annual number and percent of cases, crude and age-standardized cancer incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 among men and women in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were determined for the period 1997–2010 for incidence and 1999–2010 for mortality. Two years’ data were aggregated to generate temporal trends during the period. In age-standardization, the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer was used. Results The higher incidence and mortality rate of cancer (all sites combined) among men compared to women, which was observed in Russia nationally, was reflected also in Chukotka, although the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Overall, the patterns of cancer sites are similar between Chukotka and Russia, with cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchus and stomach occupying the top ranks among men. Oesophageal cancer is common in Chukotka but not in Russia, whereas prostate cancer is common in Russia but not in Chukotka. Among women, breast cancer is either the commonest or second commonest cancer in terms of incidence or mortality in both Chukotka and Russia. Cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchi ranks higher in Chukotka than in Russia. The rate of cancer incidence and mortality for all sites combined during the 13-year period was relatively stable in Russia. Dividing the period into two halves, an increase among both men and women was observed in Chukotka for all sites combined, and also for colorectal cancer. Conclusions This paper presents previously unavailable cancer epidemiological data on Chukotka. They provide a basis for comparative studies across

  11. IMMUNOPHENOTYPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INFLAMMATORY BREAST CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. Berishvili; N. N. Tupitsyn; K. P. Laktionov

    2014-01-01

    The investigation enrolled 31 patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) treated at the N. N. Blokhin Cancer Research Center from 2006 to 2008. IBC is diagnosed on the basis of signs of rapid progression, such as localized or generalized breast induration, red- ness and edema. IBC accounts for less than 5% of all diagnosed breast cancers and is the most lethal form of primary breast cancer. We studied tumor markers of the immunophenotype of IBC and levels and subpopulations of immunocompe...

  12. Sexuality After Breast Cancer: Need for Guideline

    OpenAIRE

    Vaziri, Sh; Lotfi Kashani, F

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical experiences have revealed that patients with breast cancer experience various sexual problems following their treatment. Breast cancer negatively impacts the sexual life of the afflicted couples, and as a traumatic event can influence women’s psychosexual functioning and intimate relationship. This review focuses on sexuality after breast cancer and on a growing need for bio-psycho-social guidelines for breast cancer treatment. Methods This study aims to review the literat...

  13. Physical activity and breast cancer survival

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunleye, Adeyemi A; Holmes, Michelle D.

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity improves quality of life after a breast cancer diagnosis, and a beneficial effect on survival would be particularly welcome. Four observational studies have now reported decreased total mortality among physically active women with breast cancer; the two largest have also reported decreased breast cancer specific mortality. The estrogen pathway and the insulin pathway are two potential mechanisms by which physical activity could affect breast cancer survival. Randomized trial...

  14. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in one breast only) diagnosed after age 50 Grandmother with breast cancer diagnosed at age 75 Get ... breast cancer diagnosed at age 45 and paternal grandmother (father’s mother) with breast cancer diagnosed at age ...

  15. Breast Cancer in Africa: Limitations and Opportunities for Application of Genomic Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Silverstein, Allison; Sood, Rachita; Costas-Chavarri, Ainhoa

    2016-01-01

    As genomic medicine gains clinical applicability across a spectrum of diseases, insufficient application in low-income settings stands to increase health disparity. Breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment have benefited greatly from genomic medicine in high-income settings. As breast cancer is a leading cause of both cancer incidence and mortality in Africa, attention and resources must be applied to research and clinical initiatives to integrate genomic medicine into breast cancer ...

  16. Prospective surveillance of women with a family history of breast cancer: auditing the risk threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, E.; Berg, J; Black, R; Bradshaw, N.; Campbell, J.; Carnaghan, H; Cetnarkyj, R; Drummond, S; Davidson, R; Dunlop, J.; Fordyce, A.; Gibbons, B; Goudie, D; Gregory, H; Holloway, S

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate current guidelines criteria for inclusion of women in special ‘breast cancer family history' surveillance programmes, records were reviewed of women referred to Scottish breast cancer family clinics between January 1994 and December 2003 but discharged as at ‘less than ‘moderate' familial risk'. The Scottish Cancer Registry was then interrogated to determine subsequent age-specific incidence of breast cancer in this cohort and corresponding Scottish population figures. Among 2074 ...

  17. Genetic predisposition, parity, age at first childbirth and risk for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Butt Salma; Harlid Sophia; Borgquist Signe; Ivarsson Malin; Landberg Göran; Dillner Joakim; Carlson Joyce; Manjer Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of breast cancer and parity and age at first childbirth are well established and important risk factors for breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the interaction between these environmental factors and genetic variants on breast cancer risk. Methods The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS) included 17 035 female participants, from which 728 incident bre...

  18. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures. (orig.)

  19. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  20. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  1. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  2. Secretory breast cancer. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, A; Maggi, S; Bersigotti, L; Lazzarin, G; Nuccetelli, E; Amanti, C

    2013-04-01

    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor initially described in children but occurring equally in adult population. This unusual breast cancer subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases. However, surgery is still considered the most appropriate treatment for this pathology. We describe the case of a 50 -year-old woman who has undergone a breast conservative surgery for a little tumor, preoperatively diagnosticated by a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a well differentiated infiltrating carcinoma.

  3. Radiotherapy alone in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective analysis was conducted on breast cancer patients treated by radiotherapy alone at The Princess Margaret Hospital and at the Institut Gustave-Roussy. These patients had either operable tumours, but were unfit for general anesthesia, or had inoperable tumors due to local contraindications to surgery. Previous results showed that a radiation dose increase of 15 Gy can decrease the relative risk of tumour or lymph node recurrence twofold. In this third report, the same data were analyzed to determine the treatment-related complication rates and to correlate these to the radiation dose levels. Overall results were analyzed on 453 patients, but detailed analyses on complications were conducted on 372 patients not developing local recurrence in the first 6 months of follow-up. Each complication was graded on a 3-level previously defined scale. Most frequent complications were skin changes of different degrees, which were usually asymptomatic. More disabling complications were arm edema, impaired shoulder mobility, rib fractures and brachial plexopathy. The incidence of disabling complications was low. The only factor significantly increasing the risk of complications was the radiation dose level to the tumour and axilla. Technical factors such as overlapping fields should also be taken into account. As the more effective control of tumour and lymph nodes obtained in patients treated with higher radiation doses is counterbalanced by an increase in the complication rate, the dose to be delivered for each patient should be carefully chosen according to individual risk factors. (author). figs

  4. Urban-rural disparity of breast cancer and socioeconomic risk factors in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Fei

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The primary aim of this work is the study of breast cancer disparity among Chinese women in urban vs. rural regions and its associations with socioeconomic factors. Data on breast cancer incidence were obtained from the Chinese cancer registry annual report (2005-2009. The ten socioeconomic factors considered in this study were obtained from the national population 2000 census and the Chinese city/county statistical yearbooks. Student's T test was used to assess disparities of female breast cancer and socioeconomic factors in urban vs. rural regions. Pearson correlation and ordinary least squares (OLS models were employed to analyze the relationships between socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence. It was found that the breast cancer incidence was significantly higher in urban than in rural regions. Moreover, in urban regions, breast cancer incidence remained relatively stable, whereas in rural regions it displayed an annual percentage change (APC of 8.55. Among the various socioeconomic factors considered, breast cancer incidence exhibited higher positive correlations with population density, percentage of non-agriculture population, and second industry output. On the other hand, the incidence was negatively correlated with the percentage of population employed in primary industry. Overall, it was observed that higher socioeconomic status would lead to a higher breast cancer incidence in China. When studying breast cancer etiology, special attention should be paid to environmental pollutants, especially endocrine disruptors produced during industrial activities. Lastly, the present work's findings strongly recommend giving high priority to the development of a systematic nationwide breast cancer screening program for women in China; with sufficient participation, mammography screening can considerably reduce mortality among women.

  5. Perspectives of breast cancer etiology: synergistic interaction between smoking and exogenous hormone use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Hong Zhu; Cao-Hui Hu; Paul Strickland

    2011-01-01

    To explore breast cancer etiology, literature was searched using Medline. We explored the (1)plausibility of smoking in breast carcinogenesis; (2) physiological properties, susceptibility windows, and exposure timing of breast cells; (3) role of exogenous hormones in breast carcinogenesis; (4) biological mechanism of synergistic interactions between smoking and exogenous hormones in breast carcinogenesis; and (5) evidence from epidemiologic studies and the fitted secular trend between smoking rate, exogenous hormone use, and breast cancer incidence in past decades. We deduced that exogenous hormone use per se is not a significant cause and its association with breast cancer is distorted by chronic exposure to environmental carcinogens, especially smoking. We hypothesize that smoking is one of the causes of breast cancer and that this causality is strengthened by synergistic interaction between smoking and exogenous hormone use. Physicians should be cautious of prescribing exogenous hormones for those with chronic exposure to environmental carcinogens to prevent breast cancer.

  6. Pattern of Breast Cancer Distribution in Ghana: A Survey to Enhance Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Naku Ghartey Jnr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nearly 70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Ghana are in advanced stages of the disease due especially to low awareness, resulting in limited treatment success and high death rate. With limited epidemiological studies on breast cancer in Ghana, the aim of this study is to assess and understand the pattern of breast cancer distribution for enhancing early detection and treatment. Methods. We randomly selected and screened 3000 women for clinical palpable breast lumps and used univariate and bivariate analysis for description and exploration of variables, respectively, in relation to incidence of breast cancer. Results. We diagnosed 23 (0.76% breast cancer cases out of 194 (6.46% participants with clinically palpable breast lumps. Seventeen out of these 23 (0.56% were premenopausal (<46.6 years with 7 (0.23% being below 35 years. With an overall breast cancer incidence of 0.76% in this study, our observation that about 30% of these cancer cases were below 35 years may indicate a relative possible shift of cancer burden to women in their early thirties in Ghana, compared to Western countries. Conclusion. These results suggest an age adjustment for breast cancer screening to early twenties for Ghanaian women and the need for a nationwide breast cancer screening to understand completely the pattern of breast cancer distribution in Ghana.

  7. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  8. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uden, D J P; van Laarhoven, H W M; Westenberg, A H; de Wilt, J H W; Blanken-Peeters, C F J M

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimodal therapeutic approach has significantly improved patient survival. However, the median overall survival among women with IBC is still poor. By elucidating the biologic characteristics of IBC, new treatment options may become available. We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language literature on IBC through computerized literature searches. The objective of the current review is to present an overview of the literature related to the biology, imaging and multidisciplinary treatment of inflammatory breast cancer.

  9. The role of general nuclear medicine in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Lacey R, E-mail: lgreene@csu.edu.au [Faculty of Science, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales (Australia); Wilkinson, Deborah [Faculty of Health, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Faculty of Science, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-03-15

    The rising incidence of breast cancer worldwide has prompted many improvements to current care. Routine nuclear medicine is a major contributor to a full gamut of clinical studies such as early lesion detection and stratification; guiding, monitoring, and predicting response to therapy; and monitoring progression, recurrence or metastases. Developments in instrumentation such as the high-resolution dedicated breast device coupled with the diagnostic versatility of conventional cameras have reinserted nuclear medicine as a valuable tool in the broader clinical setting. This review outlines the role of general nuclear medicine, concluding that targeted radiopharmaceuticals and versatile instrumentation position nuclear medicine as a powerful modality for patients with breast cancer.

  10. The role of general nuclear medicine in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rising incidence of breast cancer worldwide has prompted many improvements to current care. Routine nuclear medicine is a major contributor to a full gamut of clinical studies such as early lesion detection and stratification; guiding, monitoring, and predicting response to therapy; and monitoring progression, recurrence or metastases. Developments in instrumentation such as the high-resolution dedicated breast device coupled with the diagnostic versatility of conventional cameras have reinserted nuclear medicine as a valuable tool in the broader clinical setting. This review outlines the role of general nuclear medicine, concluding that targeted radiopharmaceuticals and versatile instrumentation position nuclear medicine as a powerful modality for patients with breast cancer

  11. Correlation Between Obesity and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) in Breast Cancer Patients of Southern Rajasthan

    OpenAIRE

    Inamdar, Padmanabh; Mehta, Garima

    2011-01-01

    Despite advances in management of breast cancer, etiology is still elusive. Diet, obesity and other life style factors have been implicated in its etiology. We assessed the role of obesity and HDL-C levels in patients with rural background in etiology of breast cancer. To know the relation between obesity and incidence of breast cancer in local population. Also to know serum HDL-C level in breast cancer and its correlation with breast cancer. A nested pilot study of 50 breast cancer patients ...

  12. RECQL4 helicase has oncogenic potential in sporadic breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Arvind; Agarwal, Devika; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek Ma; Lu, Huiming; Croteau, Deborah L; Moseley, Paul; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Green, Andrew R; Ball, Graham; Rakha, Emad A; Chan, Stephen Yt; Ellis, Ian O; Wang, Lisa L; Zhao, Yongliang; Balajee, Adayabalam S; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2016-03-01

    RECQL4 helicase is a molecular motor that unwinds DNA, a process essential during DNA replication and DNA repair. Germ-line mutations in RECQL4 cause type II Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), characterized by a premature ageing phenotype and cancer predisposition. RECQL4 is widely considered to be a tumour suppressor, although its role in human breast cancer is largely unknown. As the RECQL4 gene is localized to chromosome 8q24, a site frequently amplified in sporadic breast cancers, we hypothesized that it may play an oncogenic role in breast tumourigenesis. To address this, we analysed large cohorts for gene copy number changes (n = 1977), mRNA expression (n = 1977) and protein level (n = 1902). Breast cancer incidence was also explored in 58 patients with type II RTS. DNA replication dynamics and chemosensitivity was evaluated in RECQL4-depleted breast cancer cells in vitro. Amplification or gain in gene copy number (30.6%), high-level mRNA expression (51%) and high levels of protein (23%) significantly associated with aggressive tumour behaviour, including lymph node positivity, larger tumour size, HER2 overexpression, ER-negativity, triple-negative phenotypes and poor survival. RECQL4 depletion impaired the DNA replication rate and increased chemosensitivity in cultured breast cancer cells. Thus, although recognized as a 'safe guardian of the genome', our data provide compelling evidence that RECQL4 is tumour promoting in established breast cancers. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Computerized database management system for breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kok Swee; Chong, Sze Siang; Tso, Chih Ping; Nia, Mohsen Esmaeili; Chong, Aun Kee; Abbas, Siti Fathimah

    2014-01-01

    Data analysis based on breast cancer risk factors such as age, race, breastfeeding, hormone replacement therapy, family history, and obesity was conducted on breast cancer patients using a new enhanced computerized database management system. My Structural Query Language (MySQL) is selected as the application for database management system to store the patient data collected from hospitals in Malaysia. An automatic calculation tool is embedded in this system to assist the data analysis. The results are plotted automatically and a user-friendly graphical user interface is developed that can control the MySQL database. Case studies show breast cancer incidence rate is highest among Malay women, followed by Chinese and Indian. The peak age for breast cancer incidence is from 50 to 59 years old. Results suggest that the chance of developing breast cancer is increased in older women, and reduced with breastfeeding practice. The weight status might affect the breast cancer risk differently. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  14. AN EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETIC STUDY ON BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫华; 王继先; 李本孝; 李征

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the genetic susceptibility for breast cancer of Chinese, a hospital-based case-control study, pedigree survey and molecular genetic study were conducted. Methods. Logistic regression model and stratification methods were used in the risk factors analysis. Li-Mantel art and Falconer methods were used to analyze the segregation ratio and heritability. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to detect AI, G-banding technique was used to detect the chromosome aberration of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Results. Family history of breast cancer is related to enhanced breast cancer risk significartly, OR is 3.905 ( 95 % CI = 1.079 ~ 14.13), and it widely interacts with other risk factors. Accumulative incidence of breast cancer in first degree relatives is 9.99%, which is larger than that in second, third degree and non-blood relatives. Segregation ratio is 0.021, heritability among first degree relatives is 35.6 ± 5.8%. Frequencies of LOH at BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci in sporadic breast cancer are 6.12% and 5.77% respectively. In the sibs, both of them show LOH at D13S173 locus, and high frequencies of chromosome aberrations were observed. Conclusions. Genetic susceptibility contributes to breast cancer occurrence of Chinese, and its racial variation may be one of the important reasons for the large difference of incidence between western and eastern countries.

  15. AN EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETIC STUDY ON BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫华; 王继先; 李本孝; 李征

    2000-01-01

    Obieaites. To investigate the genetic susceptibility for breast cancer of Chinese, a hospital-besed case-control study, pedigree survey and molecular genetic study were conducted. Methods. Logistic regression model and stratification methods were used in the risk factors analysis. Li-Mantel-Gart and Falconer methods were used to analyze the segregation ratio and heritability. Polymemse chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to detect AI, G-banding technique was used to detect the chromosome aberration of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Results. Family history of breast cancer is related to enhanced breast cancer risk significantly, OR is 3.905(95% CI = 1.079—14.13), and it widely interacts with other risk factors. Accumulative incidence of breast cancer in first degree relatives is 9.99%, which is larger than that in second, third degree and non-blnod relatives. Segregation ratio is 0.021, heritability among first degree relatives is 35.6 ± 5.8%. Frequencies of LDH at BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci in sporadic breast cancer are 6.12% and 5.77% respectively. In the sibs, both of them show LOH at D13S173 locus, and high frequencies of chromosome abermtions were observed.Condusions. Genetic susceptibility contributes to breast cancer occurrence of Chinese, and its racial variation may be one of the important reasons for the large difference of incidence between western and eastern countries.

  16. Breast cancer. Selected legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynstra, N A

    1994-07-01

    Several legal and ethical issues may arise during the course of screening for and diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Among the most active legal areas are reimbursement for therapies deemed experimental by certain insurance companies, such as high dose chemotherapy/autologous bone marrow transplantation (HDCT/ABMT) and off-label drug use; these reimbursement issues are discussed. Legal issues in mammography screening and insurance coverage and legal issues relative to informed consent in breast cancer treatment also are discussed. PMID:8004625

  17. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard;

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria...

  18. Breast cancer - background and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary is to provide the reader with a brief overview of the key concepts relating to epidemiology and etiology; clinical presentation and patterns of spread; Canadian guidelines for management; prognosis; and current Canadian screening recommendations in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. This information will enable the reader to have the appropriate background knowledge before delving into the subsequent articles in this special CJMRT breast cancer edition. A variety of references have been provided for readers who are interested in more than a skeleton version of the current literature. (author)

  19. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  20. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  1. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  2. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  3. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J.; Joshi, Amit D.; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I. Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of eviden

  4. Sociocultural factors and breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Dinah A; Faulkner, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and efforts at early diagnosis have not been very successful because the public has scant knowledge about the disease, a large percentage of breast cancer cases are diagnosed late and mainly rural SSA women's practice of breast self-examination is poor. In this paper, we argue that an examination of the social and cultural contexts of SSA that influence breast cancer diagnosis and management in the region is needed. We discuss the implications of sociocultural factors, such as gender roles and spirituality, on breast cancer diagnosis and management in SSA. PMID:26757491

  5. Early breast cancer without axillary lymph node involvement; Cancer du sein sans atteinte ganglionnaire axillaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbel, I.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Belaid, A.; Azoury, F.; Heymann, S.; Marsiglia, H.; Bourgier, C. [Departement de Radiotherapie, Unite fonctionnelle de Senologie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Ghorbel, I.; Belaid, A. [Service de Radiotherapie Carcinologique, institut Salah-Azaiz. Tunis (Tunisia); Kanoun, S. [Service de Radiotherapie, hopital Farhat-Hached, Sousse (Tunisia); Kallel, A. [Service de Radiotherapie, clinique Ennasr, Tunis (Tunisia); Pichenot, E.; Verstraet, R. [Departement de Physique, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Marsiglia, H. [Universite de Florence (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. In France, breast cancer incidence was 88.9 per 100, 000 women in 2000. Early detection of breast tumours by screening mammography allows a breast conserving treatment, i.e., breast irradiation preceded by a lumpectomy and a sentinel node biopsy. The standard irradiation of early breast cancers consists in delivering 50 Gy to the whole breast in 2 Gy fractions over a five-week period followed by an additional dose targeting the tumour bed of 16 Gy in eight fractions. The 3D-conformal treatment planning optimizes dose distribution to the whole breast and to the tumour bed and lessens the normal tissue irradiation (heart and ipsilateral lung). The aim of this article is to describe epidemiologic, radio anatomic and prognostic features of early stage breast cancer and to propose guidelines for 3D-conformal treatment planning in early breast cancers. This review is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  6. PCNA immunostaining in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, M C; Furnival, C M; Parsons, P G; Townsend, E

    1993-08-01

    Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) has been shown to be of prognostic value in patients with certain types of cancer. The aim of this study was to determine if the abundance of PCNA is inversely correlated with survival of patients with breast cancer. Paraffin blocks were available from 68 patients, all of whom had been followed clinically for at least 5 years. Sections from 20 patients showed no reactivity to PCNA and were excluded from the study because it was not possible to distinguish between true negatives and false negatives (those due to poor fixation of the original specimens). The PCNA index (the number of stained cancer cells as a percentage of the total number of cancer cells present) was calculated for the remaining 48 patients. Results were analysed by Wilcoxon's rank sum test (two tailed) and Pearson's correlation coefficient. There was no statistical difference between the PCNA indices of those patients dead from their disease within 5 years of diagnosis compared with those alive and without signs of breast cancer at 5 years. There was also no correlation between PCNA index and size of the cancer, involvement of axillary lymph nodes, time to recurrence or time to death. There was, however, a significant correlation between PCNA index and histological grade (P = 0.029). It appears that PCNA staining of stored paraffin sections is of little prognostic value in patients with breast cancer. PMID:8101708

  7. Myeloperoxidase genotype, fruit and vegetable consumption, and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Gammon, Marilie D; Santella, Regina M; Gaudet, Mia M; Britton, Julie A; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Terry, Mary Beth; Neugut, Alfred I; Josephy, P David; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2004-10-15

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an antimicrobial enzyme in the breast, generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) endogenously. An MPO G463A polymorphism exists in the promoter region, with the variant A allele conferring lower transcription activity than the common G allele. Because oxidative stress may play a role in breast carcinogenesis, we evaluated MPO genotypes in relation to breast cancer risk among 1,011 cases and 1,067 controls from the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (1996-1997). We also assessed the potential modifying effects of dietary antioxidants and hormonally related risk factors on these relationships. Women over 20 years with incident breast cancer who were residents of Nassau and Suffolk Counties, NY, were identified as potential cases. Population-based controls were frequency matched by 5-year age groups. Genotyping was performed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) technology, and suspected breast cancer risk factors and usual dietary intake were assessed during an in-person interview. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Having at least one A allele was associated with an overall 13% reduction in breast cancer risk. When consumption of fruits and vegetables and specific dietary antioxidants were dichotomized at the median, inverse associations with either GA or AA genotypes were most pronounced among women who consumed higher amounts of total fruits and vegetables (odds ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.97); this association was not noted among the low-consumption group (P for interaction = 0.04). Relationships were strongest among premenopausal women. Results from this first study of MPO genotypes and breast cancer risk indicate that MPO variants, related to reduced generation of ROS, are associated with decreased breast cancer risk, and emphasize the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption in reduction of breast

  8. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Larner, F; Woodley, LN; Shousha, S; Moyes, A; Humphreys-Williams, E; Strekopytov, S; Halliday, AN; Rehkämper, M; Coombes, RC

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn i...

  9. The National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group MAP.3 trial: an international breast cancer prevention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pater, J.; Richardson, H.; Johnston, D.; Goss, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    Several large phase iii trials have demonstrated that tamoxifen—and more recently, raloxifene—can effectively reduce the incidence of invasive breast cancer by 50%. However, these selective estrogen receptor modulators can also be associated with several rare, but serious, adverse events. Recently, the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIS) have demonstrated excellent efficacy in adjuvant breast cancer trials, and they show particular promise in the breast cancer prevention setting. The ...

  10. Prognostic value of breast cancer subtypes on breast cancer specific survival, distant metastases and local relapse rates in conservatively managed early stage breast cancer: a retrospective clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Sanpaolo, Pietro; Barbieri, Viviana; Genovesi, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    International audience To ascertain if breast cancer subtypes had prognostic effect on breast cancer specific survival, distant metastases and local relapse rates in women affected by early stage breast cancer.

  11. Managing the risk of invasive breast cancer in women at risk for breast cancer and osteoporosis: the role of raloxifene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor G Vogel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Victor G VogelThe University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Magee-Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Raloxifene hydrochloride is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM that has antiestrogenic effects on breast and endometrial tissue and estrogenic effects on bone, lipid metabolism, and blood clotting. Raloxifene significantly improves serum lipids and serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk, but it has no significant effect on the risk of primary coronary events. A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of raloxifene for osteoporosis showed the odds of fracture risk were 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49–0.74 for raloxifene 60 mg/day compared with placebo. During 8 years of follow-up in an osteoporosis trial, the raloxifene group had a 76% reduction in the incidence of invasive ER-positive breast cancer compared with the placebo group. In the STAR trial, the incidence of invasive breast cancer was 4.30 per 1000 women-years with raloxifene and 4.41 per 1000 with tamoxifen; RR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.82–1.28. The effect of raloxifene on invasive breast cancer was, therefore, equivalent to that of tamoxifen with more favorable rates of adverse effects including uterine malignancy and clotting events. Millions of postmenopausal women could derive net benefit from raloxifene through reduced rates of fracture and invasive breast cancer.Keywords: raloxifene, osteoporosis, breast cancer risk reduction

  12. The epidemiology of breast cancer in French Guiana 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roue, Tristan; Fior, Angela; Plenet, Juliette; Belliardo, Sophie; Nacher, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    For the first time the incidence and mortality of breast cancer were estimated in French Guiana, an overseas French Territory of South America. A certified cancer registry collected exhaustive data on breast cancer between 2003 and 2005. The age-standardized rate of breast cancer was 47.1 per 100 000 women. The age-standardized death rate was 11.0 per 100 000 women. Although the standardized incidence and death rates were lower than in metropolitan France and South America, the ratio between incidence and mortality showed that the prognosis of breast cancer in French Guiana was worse than in metropolitan France (23 deaths per 100 incident cases versus 17 deaths per 100 incident cases, respectively). The demographics of French Guiana, suggests that mass organized screening may benefit from lowering the age of its target population.

  13. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Düring, Maria; Henriksen, Trine Foged;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  14. Estrogen receptor positive breast cancers and their association with environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannel Sylvio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies to assess risk factors for breast cancer often do not differentiate between different types of breast cancers. We applied a general linear model to determine whether data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program on annual county level age-adjusted incidence rates of breast cancer with and without estrogen receptors (ER+ and ER- were associated with environmental pollutants. Results Our final model explained approximately 38% of the variation in the rate of ER+ breast cancer. In contrast, we were only able to explain 14% of the variation in the rate of ER- breast cancer with the same set of environmental variables. Only ER+ breast cancers were positively associated with the EPA's estimated risk of cancer based on toxic air emissions and the proportion of agricultural land in a county. Meteorological variables, including short wave radiation, temperature, precipitation, and water vapor pressure, were also significantly associated with the rate of ER+ breast cancer, after controlling for age, race, premature mortality from heart disease, and unemployment rate. Conclusions Our findings were consistent with what we expected, given the fact that many of the commonly used pesticides and air pollutants included in the EPA cancer risk score are classified as endocrine disruptors and ER+ breast cancers respond more strongly to estrogen than ER- breast cancers. The findings of this study suggest that ER+ and ER- breast cancers have different risk factors, which should be taken into consideration in future studies that seek to understand environmental risk factors for breast cancer.

  15. Nanoparticle-based Paclitaxel vs Solvent-based Paclitaxel as Part of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer (GeparSepto)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  16. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed By Aldesleukin and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Inflammatory Stage IIIB or Metastatic Stage IV Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  17. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Comba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  18. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard;

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development...

  19. Embryonic morphogen nodal promotes breast cancer growth and progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela F Quail

    Full Text Available Breast cancers expressing human embryonic stem cell (hESC-associated genes are more likely to progress than well-differentiated cancers and are thus associated with poor patient prognosis. Elevated proliferation and evasion of growth control are similarly associated with disease progression, and are classical hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we demonstrate that the hESC-associated factor Nodal promotes breast cancer growth. Specifically, we show that Nodal is elevated in aggressive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578t human breast cancer cell lines, compared to poorly aggressive MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines. Nodal knockdown in aggressive breast cancer cells via shRNA reduces tumour incidence and significantly blunts tumour growth at primary sites. In vitro, using Trypan Blue exclusion assays, Western blot analysis of phosphorylated histone H3 and cleaved caspase-9, and real time RT-PCR analysis of BAX and BCL2 gene expression, we demonstrate that Nodal promotes expansion of breast cancer cells, likely via a combinatorial mechanism involving increased proliferation and decreased apopotosis. In an experimental model of metastasis using beta-glucuronidase (GUSB-deficient NOD/SCID/mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII mice, we show that although Nodal is not required for the formation of small (<100 cells micrometastases at secondary sites, it supports an elevated proliferation:apoptosis ratio (Ki67:TUNEL in micrometastatic lesions. Indeed, at longer time points (8 weeks, we determined that Nodal is necessary for the subsequent development of macrometastatic lesions. Our findings demonstrate that Nodal supports tumour growth at primary and secondary sites by increasing the ratio of proliferation:apoptosis in breast cancer cells. As Nodal expression is relatively limited to embryonic systems and cancer, this study establishes Nodal as a potential tumour-specific target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  20. Nanotechnology for breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takemi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Sakamoto, Jason H; Tasciotti, Ennio; Robertson, Fredika M; Ferrari, Mauro

    2009-02-01

    Breast cancer is the field of medicine with the greatest presence of nanotechnological therapeutic agents in the clinic. A pegylated form of liposomally encapsulated doxorubicin is routinely used for treatment against metastatic cancer, and albumin nanoparticulate chaperones of paclitaxel were approved for locally recurrent and metastatic disease in 2005. These drugs have yielded substantial clinical benefit, and are steadily gathering greater beneficial impact. Clinical trials currently employing these drugs in combination with chemo and biological therapeutics exceed 150 worldwide. Despite these advancements, breast cancer morbidity and mortality is unacceptably high. Nanotechnology offers potential solutions to the historical challenge that has rendered breast cancer so difficult to contain and eradicate: the extreme biological diversity of the disease presentation in the patient population and in the evolutionary changes of any individual disease, the multiple pathways that drive disease progression, the onset of 'resistance' to established therapeutic cocktails, and the gravity of the side effects to treatment, which result from generally very poor distribution of the injected therapeutic agents in the body. A fundamental requirement for success in the development of new therapeutic strategies is that breast cancer specialists-in the clinic, the pharmaceutical and the basic biological laboratory-and nanotechnologists-engineers, physicists, chemists and mathematicians-optimize their ability to work in close collaboration. This further requires a mutual openness across cultural and language barriers, academic reward systems, and many other 'environmental' divides. This paper is respectfully submitted to the community to help foster the mutual interactions of the breast cancer world with micro- and nano-technology, and in particular to encourage the latter community to direct ever increasing attention to breast cancer, where an extraordinary beneficial impact may

  1. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  2. Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Anja; Homey, Bernhard; Soto, Hortensia; Ge, Nianfeng; Catron, Daniel; Buchanan, Matthew E.; McClanahan, Terri; Murphy, Erin; Yuan, Wei; Wagner, Stephan N.; Barrera, Jose Luis; Mohar, Alejandro; Verástegui, Emma; Zlotnik, Albert

    2001-03-01

    Breast cancer is characterized by a distinct metastatic pattern involving the regional lymph nodes, bone marrow, lung and liver. Tumour cell migration and metastasis share many similarities with leukocyte trafficking, which is critically regulated by chemokines and their receptors. Here we report that the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 are highly expressed in human breast cancer cells, malignant breast tumours and metastases. Their respective ligands CXCL12/SDF-1α and CCL21/6Ckine exhibit peak levels of expression in organs representing the first destinations of breast cancer metastasis. In breast cancer cells, signalling through CXCR4 or CCR7 mediates actin polymerization and pseudopodia formation, and subsequently induces chemotactic and invasive responses. In vivo, neutralizing the interactions of CXCL12/CXCR4 significantly impairs metastasis of breast cancer cells to regional lymph nodes and lung. Malignant melanoma, which has a similar metastatic pattern as breast cancer but also a high incidence of skin metastases, shows high expression levels of CCR10 in addition to CXCR4 and CCR7. Our findings indicate that chemokines and their receptors have a critical role in determining the metastatic destination of tumour cells.

  3. Incidence of Cancer: Alarming Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Lourdes Iglesias Armenteros

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is an important health problem worldwide. It affects all of the countries, independently of the race, culture, level of economical development and political system. Around 10 million of new cases of cancer are detected every year. At present approximately 50 000 women died because of this disease.

  4. Optical transillumination spectroscopy of breast tissue for cancer risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilge, Lothar; Blyschak, Kristina; Simick, Michelle; Jong, Roberta A.

    2003-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women. The lifetime risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer is approximately 1 in 10 thereby the highest out of all cancers. Breast cancer screening programs have been shown to decrease the mortality rates of women between ages 50-69, since cancers are detected at an earlier, more favourable stage. It is apparent that the development of breast cancer is a slow process following initial transformation of the breast tissue. Hence, there has been a strong effort within the research community to understand risk factors for the disease. Risk factors are defined as those characteristics that are more common in people with the disease when compared to the normal population. Quantification of an individual's breast cancer rate may lead that individual to modify her lifestyle and/or diet. Lifestyle changes could lead to a reduction in the incidence of breast cancer. Anatomically, the presence of increased amounts of fibroglandular tissue raises the estimated risk by up to 6 fold (correct for age), hence representing one of the strongest known risk factors pertaining to the entire female population. In this study the relative area of mammographic densities within a mammogram will be used as a global risk assessment tool. It has been shown previously that quantification of water, lipids, haemoglobin and other tissue chromophores of the optically interrogated breast tissue, which also gives rise to the mammographic densities, is feasible through near-infrared spectroscopy. Thus, the hypothesis for this study is that optical transillumination spectroscopy provides consistent and/or complementary information to conventional mammography in quantifying breast tissue density.

  5. Adipocytokines and breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Wen-wen; FU Chun-li; SUN Yu; WU Qing; CHEN Li

    2007-01-01

    Background Many researches suggested that obesity increased the risk of breast cancer, but the mechanism was currently unknown. Adipocytokines might mediate the relationship. Our study was aimed to investigate the relationship between serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin and the onset, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.Methods Blood samples were collected from 80 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipids, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were assayed simultaneously.Results Serum levels of adiponectin ((8.60±2.92) mg/L vs (10.37±2.81) mg/L, P=0.001) and HDL-c were significantly decreased in breast cancer patients in comparison to controls. Serum levels of resistin ((26.35±5.36) μg/L vs (23.32±4.75)μg/L, P=0.000), leptin ((1.35±0.42) μg/L vs (1.06±0.39) μg/L, P=0.003), FBG and triglyceride (TG) in breast cancer patients were increased in contrast to controls, respectively. However, we did not find the significant difference of the serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin between premenopausal breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P=0.091, 0.109 and 0.084, respectively). The serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were significantly different between patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and those without LNM (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.006, respectively).The stepwise regression analysis indicated that the tumor size had the close correlation with leptin (R2=0.414, P=0.000)and FBG (R2=0.602, P=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced serum levels of adiponectin (OR:0.805;95%CI: 0.704-0.921; P=0.001), HDL (OR: 0.087; 95%CI: 0.011-0.691, P=0.021), elevated leptin (OR:2.235;95%CI:1.898-4.526; P=0.004) and resistin (OR: 1.335; 95%CI: 1.114-2.354; P=0.012) increased the risk for

  6. Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R;

    2013-01-01

    Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....

  7. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stimulate the growth of breast cancer cells: Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) bind to estrogen receptors , preventing estrogen from binding. Examples of SERMs approved by the FDA are tamoxifen (Nolvadex®), ... called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs), inhibit an enzyme ...

  8. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; van Overeem Hansen, Thomas; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...

  9. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  10. Mouse Stirs up Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen Pilcher; 孙雯

    2004-01-01

    @@ The humble house mouse could be more dangerous than we thought,according to a study that suggests a rodent① virus plays a role in the development of breast cancer. But the finding is contentious② and reignites③ a long-standing④wrangle⑤ about the potential⑥ causes of the disease.

  11. Cancer incidence in Arkhangelskaja Oblast in northwestern Russia. The Arkhangelsk Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkatsjov Anatolij V

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data concerning incidence and prevalence of cancer in the different regions of Russia have traditionally not been provided on a basis that facilitated comparison with data from countries in western parts of Europe. The oncological hospital in Arkhangelsk, in co-operation with Universitetet i Tromsø (Norway, has established a population based cancer registry for Arkhangelskaja Oblast (AO. AO is an administrative unit with 1.3 million inhabitants in northwestern Russia. The aim of this investigation was to assess the content and quality of the AO cancer registry (AKR, and to present the site-specific cancer-incidence rates in AO in the period 1993–2001. Methods The population in this study consisted of all individuals registered as residents of AO. All new cancer cases in the period 1993 – 2001, registered the AKR, were included in the study (ICD-10: C00-C95, except for C77-78. The annual gender and age-group-specific population figures were obtained from the AO statistics office. Results A total of 34 697 cases of primary cancers were included. The age-adjusted (world standard incidence rate for all sites combined was 164/100 000 for women and 281/100 000 for men. The highest incidence was for cancer of the trachea, bronchus and lung (16.3% of all cases, whereof 88.6 % of the cases were among men. Among women, cancer of the breast constituted 15.9 percent of all cases. The age-adjusted incidences of the most frequent cancer sites among men were: lung (77.4/100 000; stomach (45.9; rectum (13.4; oesophagus (13.0; colon (12.2; bladder (11.6; and prostate cancer (11.1. Among women they were: breast (28.5; stomach (19.7; colon (12.2; and ovary cancer (9.0. Conclusion Our findings confirm and strengthen the indication that the incidences of stomach, larynx, liver, pancreas, prostate, colon, bladder and melanoma cancer are quite different in male populations in Russia compared to many other European countries. Among women, most

  12. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard;

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  13. Mutation analysis of breast cancer gene BRCA among breast cancer Jordanian females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To screen mutations of the tumor suppressor breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) within 3 exons among Jordanian breast cancer females. A total of 135 Jordanian breast cancer females were genetically analyzed by denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) for mutation detection in 3 BRCA1 exons (2, 11 and 20) between 2000-2002 in Al-Basheer Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Of the studied patients 50 had a family history of breast cancer, 28 had a family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and 57 had no family history of any cancer. Five germline mutations were detected among breast cancer females with a family history of breast cancers (one in exon 2 and 4 mutations in exon 11). Another germline mutation (within exon 11) was detected among breast cancer females with family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and no mutation was detected among breast cancer females with no family history of any cancer or among normal control females. Screening mutations within exon 2, exon 11 and exon 20 showed that most screened mutations were within BRCA1 exon 11 among breast cancer Jordanian families with a family history of breast cancer. (author)

  14. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison Howard; Gibbons Laurie; Zhou Jia; Pan Sai Yi; Wen Shi Wu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal) and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk fact...

  15. Cohort study examining tamoxifen adherence and its relationship to mortality in women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    McCowan, C.; Shearer, J.; Donnan, P T; Dewar, J.A.; Crilly, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Fahey, T P

    2008-01-01

    Increasing duration of tamoxifen therapy improves survival in women with breast cancer but the impact of adherence to tamoxifen on mortality is unclear. This study investigated whether women prescribed tamoxifen after surgery for breast cancer adhered to their prescription and whether adherence influenced survival. A retrospective cohort study of all women with incident breast cancer in the Tayside region of Scotland between 1993 and 2002 was linked to encashed prescription records to calcula...

  16. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Pajenga E.; Rexha T.; Çeliku S.; Mariani E.

    2013-01-01

    In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal group...

  17. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Risk of Breast Cancer in Korean Women: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Kim, Eun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer incidence by age group in Korean women are unique. This systematic review aimed to investigate the association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast cancer risk in Korean women. Methods: We searched electronic databases such as KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, and RISS4U as well as PubMed for publications on Korean breast cancer patients. We also conducted manual searching based on references and citations in potential pap...

  18. Bilateral metachronous breast cancer with bilateral recurrences: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Hyun; Sohn, Yu Mee [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The incidence of bilateral breast cancer has been reported to range from 0.4% to 14%, and it increases gradually as a result of improved early detection capabilities and longer survival times. We report a rare case where the bilateral breast cancers occurred as a metachronous bilateral breast cancer with bilateral recurrences, detected by mammography, and the rapid growth of tumor that manifested as microcalcification and skin thickening within 3 months.

  19. Probiotic Beverage with Soy Isoflavone Consumption for Breast Cancer Prevention: A Case-control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Toi, Masakazu; Hirota, Saya; Tomotaki, Ai; Sato, Nobuaki; Hozumi, Yasuo; Anan, Keisei; Nagashima, Takeshi; Tokuda, Yutaka; Masuda, Norikazu; Ohsumi, Shozo; Ohno, Shinji; Takahashi, Masato; Hayashi, Hironori; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ohashi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate how beverages containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (BLS) and soy isoflavone consumption since adolescence affected the incidence of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study, three hundred and six cases with breast cancer and 662 controls aged 40 to 55 were matched for age and residential area and included in the analyses. Diet, lifestyle and other breast cancer risk factors were investigated using the self-administered questionnaire an...

  20. Conferences point to growing concern about possible links between breast cancer, environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, B

    1996-01-01

    Evidence is growing that there may be a connection between certain chemicals in the environment and the rising incidence of breast cancer in North America. Two recent Canadian conferences have been held to disseminate information and another is planned for 1996. "We have a situation that is similar to global warming, " Devra Lee Davis, founder of the US Breast Cancer Prevention Collaborative Research Group, warned people attending a conference in Niagara Falls, Ont. "Breast cancer continues t...

  1. Breast cancer in the Thai Cohort Study: An exploratory case-control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Susan; Lim, Lynette; Vilainerun, Duangkae; Banks, Emily; Sripaiboonkij, Nintita; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian; Bain, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence may be increasing in Thailand but very little research has assessed core breast cancer risk factors in this country. We used baseline questionnaire data from a national cohort study of Thai Open University students in an exploratory case-control study of breast cancer. The study included 43 female cases and 860 age-matched controls selected from the remaining 47,271 female cohort participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional l...

  2. Morbidity associated with breast cancer therapy and the place of physiotherapy in its management

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Păcurar; Codruţa Miclăuş; Marius Miclăuş

    2011-01-01

    Incidence of breast cancer continues to grow while modern diagnosis and treatment techniques improve long-term survival rates of the patients. Hence, more women will experience morbidity associated to breast cancer treatment. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the morbidity associated with breast cancer treatment and to emphasize the role of physiotherapist within the rehabilitation team. Pain, pectoralis tightness and axillary web syndrome are the most frequently encountered s...

  3. Bilateral breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Jun, Hwang Yoon; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical features of bilateral breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records(n=23) and mammograms (n=15) of 23 patients with bilateral breast cancer. Patients' age, location of the tumor and pathologic staging were determined from clinical records. Mammographic features were classified as spiculated mass, nonspiculated mass, mass with microcalcification, microcalcification only, asymmetric density, and normal. Of the 23 cases of bilateral breast cancer, 8(34.8%) were synchronous and 15(65.2%) were metachronous. Age at diagnosis of cancer in the first breast was between 27 and 59(mean 43) years ; there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between patients with synchronous and metachronous cancer. The mean interval between the diagnosis of each lesion of the metachronous pairs was 9.1 years. In 11 of 23 cases(48%), tumors were locaated in the same quadrant, and in the other 12 cases(52%), they were in different quadrant. At mammography, five of 15 metachronous cancers(33%) were similar in appearance and 10 pairs(67%) were different. In 4 of 23 cases(17%), cancer in the first breast was at stage 0 and stage 1, and in 13 of 23(57%), cancer in the second breast was at this same stage. In bilateral breast cancer, the two breasts frequently show different mammographic features. Cancer of the second breast was at an early stage; this suggest that regular examination and mammography are important and can allow early detection of contralateral breast cancer.

  4. Risk, Characteristics, and Prognosis of Breast Cancer after Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Veit-Rubin, Nikolaus; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Vinh Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Bouchardy Magnin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.

  5. Isoflavones - Mechanism of Action and Impact on Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Stubert, Johannes; Gerber, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Isoflavones are plant-derived substances with weak es-trogenic effects. Asian populations are high consumers of soy products which are rich in isoflavones. The lower breast cancer incidence in Asian women compared with Western women has been associated with the possibility of a preventive isoflavone effect on cancer risk. The aim of this review is to give an overview of current research data on the influence of isoflavones on the risk of primary breast cancer development as well as the risk o...

  6. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  7. RECURRENCE PATTERN FOLLOWING BREAST - CONSERVING SURGERY FOR EARLY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the Local Recurrence and metastasis pattern after Breast - Conserving Surgery for early breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2014 in department of surgery in VIMS Bellary, 70 patients with stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma were treated with breast - conserving surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. In this study we investigated the prognostic value of clinical and pathological factors in early breast cancer patients treated with BCS. All of the surgeries were performed by a single surgical team. Recurrence and its risk factors were evaluated.

  8. Melatonin: an Inhibitor of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Steven M. Hill; Belancio, Victoria P; Dauchy, Robert T; Xiang, Shulin; Brimer, Samantha; Mao, Lulu; Hauch, Adam; Lundberg, Peter W.; Summers, Whitney; YUAN, LIN; Frasch, Tripp; Blask, David E.

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses recent work on melatonin-mediated circadian regulation and metabolic and molecular signaling mechanisms involved in human breast cancer growth and associated consequences of circadian disruption by exposure to light at night (LEN). The anti-cancer actions of the circadian melatonin signal in human breast cancer cell lines and xenografts heavily involve MT1 receptor-mediated mechanisms. In estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive human breast cancer, melatonin, via the MT1 ...

  9. Risk of second primary cancer among patients with early operable breast cancer registered or randomised in Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) protocols of the 77, 82 and 89 programmes during 1977-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, M.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Engholm, G.;

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors have increased risks of developing second primary cancers due to shared etiology, life style factors but also to primary breast cancer treatment. Among 53 418 patients registered by the population based Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) during 1977-2001, 31 818...... rates of the Danish population were used for calculation of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Time at risk was from diagnosis of breast cancer+1 year until death or through 2002. Risk for all second primary cancers combined was increased, SIR=1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.99-1.08). Sites...

  10. HSP90 Inhibitor AT13387 and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Advanced Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-08

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  11. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects more likely to occur after breast cancer treatment include: Lymphedema Post-mastectomy pain syndrome Chemo brain If the cancer comes back (recurs) If cancer does recur, your treatment options will depend on the location of the ...

  12. Breast metastasis from vaginal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Scharifker, Daniel; Varsegi, George; Almeida, Zoyla

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare malignancy accounting for 1-2% of all pelvic neoplasms. Dissemination usually occurs through local invasion and rarely metastasises to distal locations. Metastasis of vaginal cancer to the breast is extremely infrequent and unique. A 66-year-old Asian woman presented with vaginal bleeding and was found to have a vaginal mass and a left breast mass. Pathological assessment of the biopsies revealed identical squamous cell characteristics of both masses. We describe a very rare and novel case of a distally located vaginal carcinoma with metastasis to the breast Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IV (FIGO IVB). Robot-assisted extrafascial total hysterectomy with local vaginal mass excision and partial mastectomy of the left breast were performed. After surgery, the patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy followed by breast and pelvic radiotherapy, with maintained complete remission after 3 years of follow-up. This combination of findings and treatment is very distinct with a unique and favourable response. PMID:27444140

  13. Seventeen-years overview of breast cancer inside and outside screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo, Laia; Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina;

    2013-01-01

    Background. Long-term data on breast cancer detection in mammography screening programs are warranted to better understand the mechanisms by which screening changes the breast cancer pattern in the population. We aimed to analyze 17 years of breast cancer detection rates inside and outside...... to women aged 50-69 years. We identified targeted, eligible, invited and participating women. We calculated screening detection and interval cancer rates for participants, and breast cancer incidence in non-screened women (= targeted women excluding participants) by biennial invitation rounds. Tumor...... characteristics were tabulated for each of the three groups of cancers. Results. Start of screening resulted in a prevalence peak in participants, followed by a decrease to a fairly stable detection rate in subsequent invitation rounds. A similar pattern was found for breast cancer incidence in non-screened women...

  14. Epigenetic Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Zhong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Both genetic and epigenetic alterations can control the progression of cancer. Genetic alterations are impossible to reverse, while epigenetic alterations are reversible. This advantage suggests that epigenetic modifications should be preferred in therapy applications. DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases have become the primary targets for studies in epigenetic therapy. Some DNA methylation inhibitors and histone deacetylation inhibitors are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, the uses of epigenetic targets are believed to have great potential as a lasting favorable approach in treating breast cancer.

  15. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  16. Cancer incidence and mortality trends in Australian adolescents and young adults, 1982–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haggar Fatima A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing incidence and lack of survival improvement in adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer have led to increased awareness of the cancer burden in this population. The objective of this study was to describe overall and type-specific cancer incidence and mortality trends among AYAs in Western Australia from 1982–2007. Methods Age–adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for all malignancies combined and for each of the most common diagnostic groups, using five-year age–specific rates. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to derive annual percentage changes (APC for incidence and mortality rates. Results The annual incidence rate for all cancers combined increased in males from 1982 until 2000 (APC = 1.5%, 95%CI: 0.9%; 2.1% and then plateaued, whilst rates for females remained stable across the study period (APC = −0.1%; 95%CI: −0.2%; 0.4% across the study period. For males, significant incidence rate increases were observed for germ cell tumors, lymphoblastic leukemia and thyroid cancer. In females, the incidence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, colorectal and breast cancers increased. Significant incidence rate reductions were noted for cervical, central nervous system and lung cancers. Mortality rates for all cancers combined decreased from 1982 to 2005 for both males (APC = −2.6%, 95%CI:−3.3%;−2.0% and females (APC = −4.6%, 95%CI:−5.1%;−4.1%. With the exception of bone sarcoma and lung cancer in females, mortality rates for specific cancer types decreased significantly for both sexes during the study period. Conclusions Incidence of certain AYA cancers increased, whilst it decreased for others. Mortality rates decreased for most cancers, with the largest improvement observed for breast carcinomas. Further research is needed to identify the reasons for the increasing incidence of certain cancers.

  17. The Adjunctive Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Lung Yang; Huei-Lung Liang; Chen-Pin Chou; Jer-Shyung Huang; Huay-Ben Pan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and digital mammography (DM) for breast cancers. Materials and Methods. Fifty-seven female patients with pathologically proved breast cancer were enrolled. Three readers gave a subjective assessment superiority of the index lesions (mass, focal asymmetry, architectural distortion, or calcifications) and a forced BIRADS score, based on DM reading alone and with additional DBT information. The relevance between...

  18. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  19. Molecular genetics of breast cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurður Ingvarsson 1956

    1999-01-01

    Somatic changes in the genome of breast cancer cells include amplifications, deletions and gene mutations. Several chromosome regions harboring known oncogenes are found amplified in breast tumors. Despite the high number of chromosome regions deleted in breast tumors the functional relationship to known genes at these locations and cancer growth is mainly undiscovered. Mutations in two tumor suppressor genes (TSG) have been described in a subset of breast carcinomas. These TSG are the TP53, ...

  20. An updated report on the trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan, 1958-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanoda, Kota; Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Hattori, Masakazu; Soda, Midori; Ioka, Akiko; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of cancer trends in Japan requires periodic updating. Herein, we present a comprehensive report on the trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan using recent population-based data. National cancer mortality data between 1958 and 2013 were obtained from published vital statistics. Cancer incidence data between 1985 and 2010 were obtained from high-quality population-based cancer registries of three prefectures (Yamagata, Fukui and Nagasaki). Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to examine the trends in age-standardized rates of cancer incidence and mortality. All-cancer mortality decreased from the mid-1990s, with an annual percent change of -1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.4, -1.3). During the most recent 10 years, over 60% of the decrease in cancer mortality was accounted for by a decrease in stomach and liver cancers (63% for males and 66% for females). The long-term increase in female breast cancer mortality, beginning in the 1960s, plateaued in 2008. All-cancer incidence continuously increased, with annual percent changes of 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5, 0.8) between 1985 and 2005, and 1.8% (95% CI: 0.6, 2.9) between 2005 and 2010. During the most recent 10 years, almost half of the increase in cancer incidence was accounted for by an increase in prostate cancer (60%) in males and breast cancer (46%) in females. The cancer registry quality indices also began to increase from ∼2005. Decreases in stomach and liver cancers observed for incidence and mortality reflect the reduced attribution of infection-related factors (i.e. Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis virus). However, it should be noted that cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates began to increase from ∼1990.

  1. Thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica. 1998 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, Corsica appears to be one of the most exposed regions to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Taking into account the scientific knowledge at that time, it was decided to focus studies on thyroid cancers. A study was carried out in order to estimate thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica for the periods 1998-2001 and 2002-2006. The study identified incident thyroid cancer cases between 1998 and 2006 among residents in Corsica. Data were collected using information from the hospitals (PMSI) and the local health insurance funds (ALD). Cases were validated through medical records before inclusion in the study. Over the period of study, 342 cases of thyroid cancer, rather women and relatively young patients, were identified in Corsica. Incidence rate of the thyroid cancer was high, but stable among men, and with a slight increase among women, particularly between 2002 and 2006. However, incidence rate and clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer in Corsica are not exceptional and are similar to those in other French districts. (authors)

  2. [Cancer incidence in the military: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peragallo, Mario Stefano; Urbano, Francesco; Sarnicola, Giuseppe; Lista, Florigio; Vecchione, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    An abnormally elevated rate of Hodgkin's lymphoma was reported in 2001 among Italian soldiers in Bosnia and Kosovo since 1995: a surveillance system was therefore set up for the military community. Preliminary results for a longer period (1996-2007) have shown incidence rates lower than expected for all malignancies. No significant difference was registered between observed and expected cases of Hodkin's lymphoma: the excess of reported cases for this malignancy in 2001-2002 was probably due to a peak occurred in 2000 among the whole military; it is therefore unrelated to deployment in the Balkans, and probably represents a chance event. Moreover, a significant excess of thyroid cancer was reported among the whole military.The estimated number of incident cases, including those missed by the surveillance system, was not significantly higher than expected for all cancers; conversely, the estimated incidence rate of thyroid cancer was significantly increased; this excess, however, is probably due to a selection bias.These data concerning cancer surveillance in the Italian military are consistent with lacking evidence of an increased cancer incidence among troops of other countries deployed in the areas of Iraq, Bosnia, and Kosovo, where armour penetrating depleted uranium shells have been used. However, a comprehensive assessment of cancer morbidity in the military requires a revision of the privacy regulations, in order to link individual records of military personnel and data bases of the National Health Service. PMID:22166781

  3. Evolution of Imaging in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Evelyn M; Crowley, James; Hagan, Catherine; Atkinson, Lisa L

    2016-06-01

    The following topics are discussed in this article. A historical review of the evolution of breast cancer imaging from thermography through digital breast tomosynthesis, molecular breast imaging, and advanced breast magnetic resonance imaging. Discussion of multiple clinical trials, their strengths, and weaknesses. Historical perspective on the Mammography Quality Standards Act and its relationship with development and implementation of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). PMID:27029017

  4. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  5. Reducing Breast Cancer Recurrence: The Role of Dietary Polyphenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhuis, Andrea J; Campion, Peta; Bishop, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from numerous observational and clinical studies suggest that polyphenolic phytochemicals such as phenolic acids in olive oil, flavonols in tea, chocolate and grapes, and isoflavones in soy products reduce the risk of breast cancer. A dietary food pattern naturally rich in polyphenols is the Mediterranean diet and evidence suggests those of Mediterranean descent have a lower breast cancer incidence. Whilst dietary polyphenols have been the subject of breast cancer risk-reduction, this review will focus on the clinical effects of polyphenols on reducing recurrence. Overall, we recommend breast cancer patients consume a diet naturally high in flavonol polyphenols including tea, vegetables (onion, broccoli), and fruit (apples, citrus). At least five servings of vegetables and fruit daily appear protective. Moderate soy protein consumption (5-10 g daily) and the Mediterranean dietary pattern show the most promise for breast cancer patients. In this review, we present an overview of clinical trials on supplementary polyphenols of dietary patterns rich in polyphenols on breast cancer recurrence, mechanistic data, and novel delivery systems currently being researched. PMID:27608040

  6. Low tobacco-related cancer incidence in offspring of long-lived siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob K; Skytthe, Axel; McGue, Matt;

    2015-01-01

    interval) for offspring of long-lived individuals were 0.78 (0.70-0.86) for overall cancer; 0.66 (0.56-0.77) for tobacco-related cancer; 0.34 (0.22-0.51) for lung cancer; 0.88 (0.71-1.10) for breast cancer; 0.91 (0.62-1.34) for colon cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The low incidence of tobacco-related cancers in long......-lived families compared with non-tobacco-related cancers suggests that health behavior plays a central role in lower early cancer incidence in offspring of long-lived siblings in Denmark.......PURPOSE: Familial clustering of longevity is well documented and includes both genetic and other familial factors, but the specific underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We examined whether low incidence of specific cancers is a mechanism for familial clustering of longevity. METHODS...

  7. Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies on height, weight and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Spiegelman, D.; Yaun, S-S.; Adami, H-O.; Beeson, L.; Folsom, A.R.; Fraser, G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Kushi, L.; Marshall, J.R.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.; Smith-Warner, S.A.; Speizer, F.E.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Hunter, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    The association between anthropometric indices and the risk of breast cancer was analyzed using pooled data from seven prospective cohort studies. Together, these cohorts comprise 337,819 women and 4,385 incident invasive breast cancer cases. In multivariate analyses controlling for reproductive, di

  8. Natural history of breast cancers detected in the Swedish mammography screening programme: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress...

  9. Dietary targeting of tumor suppressors and oncogenes for breast cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer is a complex disease that arises from genetic and epigenetic changes in molecules that are critical for growth control, DNA repair, apoptosis, and differentiation. The incidence of breast cancer varies worldwide, implicating diet and lifestyle disparities among the general population a...

  10. Iatrogenic displacement of tumor cells to the sentinel node after surgical excision in primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove F; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Kroman, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    of ITC in the SN of 414 breast cancer patients with recent surgical excision to a group of 16,960 patients without recent surgical procedure in a multivariate analysis by linking data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database and the Danish National Health Register. Moreover, the incidence...

  11. Triciribine Phosphate, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-13

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  12. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  13. Breast cancer and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism

  14. Primary breast lymphoma in the right breast during treatment for left breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuzawa Kengo; Kinoshita Tadahiko; Iwashita Yukio; Nishimura Ataru; Nagata Shigeyuki; Tashiro Hideya; Wakasugi Kenzo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary breast lymphoma is a rare condition, and distinguishing it from breast cancer is important because their treatments differ radically. Moreover, a recent report showed that mastectomy offered no benefit in the treatment of primary breast lymphoma. Case presentation A 59-year-old woman was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and local radiation after surgery for left breast cancer. She presented with a rapidly growing mass in the right breast at 20 months after surger...

  15. Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JoEllen WELSH

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic data have demonstrated that breast cancer incidence is inversely correlated with indices of vitamin D status, including ultraviolet exposure, which enhances epidermal vitamin D synthesis. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is ex-pressed in mammary epithelial cells, suggesting that vitamin D may directly influ-ence sensitivity of the gland to transformation. Consistent with this concept, in vitro studies have demonstrated that the VDR ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), exerts negative growth regulatory effects on mammary epithelial ceils that contribute to maintenance of the differentiated phenotype. Furthermore, deletion of the VDR gene in mice alters the balance between proliferation and apoptosis in the mammary gland, which ultimately enhances its susceptibility to carcinogenesis.In addition, dietary supplementation with vitamin D, or chronic treatment with synthetic VDR agonists, reduces the incidence of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in rodents. Collectively, these observations have reinforced the need to further define the human requirement for vitamin D and the molecular actions of the VDR in relation to prevention of breast cancer.

  16. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  17. Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161233.html Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens Greater self-esteem noted in ... interviewed to assess their mental health, perception of breast cancer risk, and levels of distress about breast cancer. The ...

  18. Electric power, melatonin, and breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    In this paper, the epidemiology of breast cancer will be discussed, followed by a brief description of the effect of electric fields on melatonin and the relation of melatonin to mammary cancer in rats. Finally, there will be a consideration of factors such as alcohol that affect melatonin and their relation to breast cancer risk. 55 refs.

  19. Cancer incidence study in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November of 1982 the Colorado Department of Health completed an epidemiologic investigation of leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas and colon in Mesa County, Colorado for the years 1970 to 1979. This investigation was performed in response to a concern that the presence of uranium mill tailings in some Mesa County homes presents a potential cancer hazard. The results of the investigation show that the incidence of multiple myeloma, colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer are not above expected rates. The incidence of leukemia is not above expected rates for the entire study period, 1970 to 1979. The incidence of lung cancer appears elevated when compared to the The Third National Cancer Survey data for Colorado but lower than expected when compared to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. To further examine the leukemia and lung cancer incidence findings, a case/control study was conducted. The controls consisted of colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer cases. The results of the leukemia case/control analysis show no association with the radiation exposure variables: occupational radiation exposure; uranium mining exposure; having ever lived in a type A home (uranium tailings home); and radiation therapy. The lung cancer case/control analysis shows a significant association with only the radiation exposure variable, uranium mining history, indicating cases were more likely to have been uranium miners than were controls. As with leukemia, the study found no association between lung cancer and living in a uranium mill tailings home. The relatively low radiation exposures typical of type A homes and the small number of persons exposed make it very difficult to establish, by epidemiologic methods, that a risk exists

  20. Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Couto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Mediterranean diet has a recognized beneficial effect on health and longevity, with a protective influence on several cancers. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern influences breast cancer risk. DESIGN: The Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort study includes 49,258 women aged 30 to 49 years at recruitment in 1991-1992. Consumption of foods and beverages was measured at enrollment using a food frequency questionnaire. A Mediterranean diet score was constructed based on the consumption of alcohol, vegetables, fruits, legumes, cereals, fish, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat, and dairy and meat products. Relative risks (RR for breast cancer and specific tumor characteristics (invasiveness, histological type, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, malignancy grade and stage associated with this score were estimated using Cox regression controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: 1,278 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was not statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of breast cancer overall, or with specific breast tumor characteristics. A RR (95% confidence interval for breast cancer associated with a two-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score was 1.08 (1.00-1.15 in all women, and 1.10 (1.01-1.21 and 1.02 (0.91-1.15 in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. When alcohol was excluded from the Mediterranean diet score, results became not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern did not decrease breast cancer risk in this cohort of relatively young women.

  1. Breast cancer risk in metabolically healthy but overweight postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Marc J; Xie, Xianhong; Xue, Xiaonan; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Rohan, Thomas E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y F; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Greco, Theresa; Yu, Herbert; Beasley, Jeannette; Strickler, Howard D

    2015-01-15

    Adiposity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Recent data suggest that high insulin levels in overweight women may play a major role in this relationship, due to insulin's mitogenic/antiapoptotic activity. However, whether overweight women who are metabolically healthy (i.e., normal insulin sensitivity) have elevated risk of breast cancer is unknown. We investigated whether overweight women with normal insulin sensitivity [i.e., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, or fasting insulin level, within the lowest quartile (q1)] have increased breast cancer risk. Subjects were incident breast cancer cases (N = 497) and a subcohort (N = 2,830) of Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants with available fasting insulin and glucose levels. In multivariate Cox models, metabolically healthy overweight women, defined using HOMA-IR, were not at elevated risk of breast cancer compared with metabolically healthy normal weight women [HRHOMA-IR, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-1.42]. In contrast, the risk among women with high (q3-4) HOMA-IRs was elevated whether they were overweight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.60) or normal weight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.80; 95% CI, 0.88-3.70). Similarly, using fasting insulin to define metabolic health, metabolically unhealthy women (insulin q3-4) were at higher risk of breast cancer regardless of whether they were normal weight (HRinsulin, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.01-4.22) or overweight (HRinsulin, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.35-2.99), whereas metabolically healthy overweight women did not have significantly increased risk of breast cancer (HRinsulin, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64-1.42) relative to metabolically healthy normal weight women. Metabolic health (e.g., HOMA-IR or fasting insulin) may be more biologically relevant and more useful for breast cancer risk stratification than adiposity per se. PMID:25593034

  2. Breast cancer risk in metabolically healthy but overweight postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Marc J; Xie, Xianhong; Xue, Xiaonan; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Rohan, Thomas E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y F; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Greco, Theresa; Yu, Herbert; Beasley, Jeannette; Strickler, Howard D

    2015-01-15

    Adiposity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Recent data suggest that high insulin levels in overweight women may play a major role in this relationship, due to insulin's mitogenic/antiapoptotic activity. However, whether overweight women who are metabolically healthy (i.e., normal insulin sensitivity) have elevated risk of breast cancer is unknown. We investigated whether overweight women with normal insulin sensitivity [i.e., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, or fasting insulin level, within the lowest quartile (q1)] have increased breast cancer risk. Subjects were incident breast cancer cases (N = 497) and a subcohort (N = 2,830) of Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants with available fasting insulin and glucose levels. In multivariate Cox models, metabolically healthy overweight women, defined using HOMA-IR, were not at elevated risk of breast cancer compared with metabolically healthy normal weight women [HRHOMA-IR, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-1.42]. In contrast, the risk among women with high (q3-4) HOMA-IRs was elevated whether they were overweight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.60) or normal weight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.80; 95% CI, 0.88-3.70). Similarly, using fasting insulin to define metabolic health, metabolically unhealthy women (insulin q3-4) were at higher risk of breast cancer regardless of whether they were normal weight (HRinsulin, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.01-4.22) or overweight (HRinsulin, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.35-2.99), whereas metabolically healthy overweight women did not have significantly increased risk of breast cancer (HRinsulin, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64-1.42) relative to metabolically healthy normal weight women. Metabolic health (e.g., HOMA-IR or fasting insulin) may be more biologically relevant and more useful for breast cancer risk stratification than adiposity per se.

  3. Association between urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite and breast cancer risk: a prospective, case-cohort study of postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sangmi; Taylor, Jack A.; Milne, Ginger L.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2013-01-01

    Overweight or obese women are at increased risk of developing and dying from breast cancer. Obesity-driven inflammation may stimulate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-mediated aromatase activation and estrogen biosynthesis in breast tissues. We hypothesized that increased production of PGE2 would contribute to elevated breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. We carried out a case-cohort study with 307 incident breast cancer cases and 300 subcohort members from the Sister Study cohort. Hazard ratio...

  4. Interaction between radiation and other breast cancer risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A follow-up study was conducted of 1764 women institutionalized for pulmonary tuberculosis between 1930 and 1954. Among 1047 women exposed to fluoroscopic chest X-rays during air collapse therapy of the lung, an excess of breast cancer was observed and previously reported (41 cases observed versus 23.3 expected). Among 717 comparison patients who received other treatments, no excess breast cancer risk was apparent (15 cases observed versus 14.1 expected). To determine whether breast cancer risk factors modify the carcinogenic effect of radiation, analyses were performed evaluating the interaction of radiation with indicators of breast cancer risk. The greatest radiation risk was found when radiation exposure occurred just before and during menarche. Similarly, exposures during first pregnancy appeared substantially more hazardous than exposures occurring before or after first pregnancy, suggesting that the condition of the breast at the time of pregnancy modifies the effect of radiation in such a way as to enhance the risk. Age at menopause did not appear to influence the risk of radiation exposure. Other than radiation, benign breast disease was the most significant breast cancer risk indicator. Benign breast disease was not seen to modify the effect of radiation exposure; however, excessive radiation exposure might have increased the incidence of benign breast disease, complicating the interaction analysis. Because of the uncertainty due to small-number sampling variation, these study results will require confirmation by a larger series. They do, however, suggest that stages when breast tissue undergoes high mitotic activity, e.g. menarche and pregnancy, are times of special vulnerability to the harmful effects of ionizing radiation

  5. Pilot Implementation of Breast Cancer Early Detection Programs in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, Raúl; Díaz, Sandra; Sánchez, Oswaldo; Perry, Fernando; Piñeros, Marion; Poveda, César; Salguero, Edgar; Osorio, Dimelza

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is increasing in developing countries, and Colombia has a double burden from cervical and breast cancer. Suitable guidelines for breast cancer early detection are needed, and the Breast Health Global Initiative provides a favorable framework for breast cancer control in low resource nations. The Colombian National Cancer Institute developed evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer early detection in which coordinated early detection in symptomatic women and hospital-based scr...

  6. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rasskazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief overview of the main methods of breast cancer screening. Proven effectiveness of mammography as a screening method in reducing mortality from breast cancer, specified limits of the method. The main trend of increasing the effectiveness of screening is the transition to digital technologies. Properly organized screening with the active participation of the population reduces mortality from breast cancer by 30%.

  7. The p53 pathway in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gasco, Milena; Shami, Shukri; Crook, Tim

    2002-01-01

    p53 mutation remains the most common genetic change identified in human neoplasia. In breast cancer, p53 mutation is associated with more aggressive disease and worse overall survival. The frequency of mutation in p53 is, however, lower in breast cancer than in other solid tumours. Changes, both genetic and epigenetic, have been identified in regulators of p53 activity and in some downstream transcriptional targets of p53 in breast cancers that express wild-type p53. Molecular pathological an...

  8. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s) and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  9. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  10. Cancer incidence in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiow-Ing; Yaung, Chih-Liang; Lee, Long-Teng; Chiou, Shang-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Numerous antinuclear demonstrations reveal that the public is anxious about the potential health effects caused by nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to address the question "Is there a higher cancer incidence rate in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan?" The Taiwan Cancer Registry database from 1979 to 2003 was used to compare the standardized incidence rate of the top four cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks between the "plant-vicinity" with those "non-plant-vicinity" groups. All cancer sites, five-leading cancers in Taiwan, and gender-specific cancers were also studied. We also adopted different observation time to compare the incidence rate of cancers between two groups to explore the impact of the observation period. The incidences of leukemia, thyroid, lung, and breast cancer were not significantly different between two groups, but cervix uteri cancer showed higher incidence rates in the plant-vicinity group. The incidence of cervical cancer was not consistently associated with the duration of plant operation, according to a multiyear period comparison. Although there was higher incidence in cervix cancer in the plant-vicinity group, our findings did not provide the crucial evidence that nuclear power plants were the causal factor for some cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks.

  11. Effectiveness of ultrasound for breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound (US) for breast cancer screening, we conducted a retrospective survey of 856 breast cancer patients who were preoperatively examined by mammography (MMG) and US. Their average age was 54.7 years, with a range of 24 to 92 years. MMG revealed positive findings in 771 patients (90.1%), and negative findings in the remaining 85 patients (9.9%). Likewise, US revealed positive findings in 835 patients (97.5%), and negative findings in the remaining 21 patients (2.5%). Accordingly, the proportion of positive finding in US was significantly higher than that in MMG (chi-square test, p<0.0001). The incidence of negative findings with MMG was inversely related to age: 5.8% for patients in their 70s, 5.7% for those in their 60s, 8.3% for those in their 50s, 11.1% for those in their 40s, and 26.2% for those in their 30s or younger, because of the higher breast density in younger women (chi-square test, p<0.0001). The incidence of positive findings was 99.4% for tumors 2.1 to 3.0 cm in size, 96.3% for those measuring 1.6 to 2.0 cm, 94.3% for those measuring 1.1 to 1.5 cm, and 75.4% for those less than or equal to 1.0 cm (chi-square test, p<0.0001). Among the 85 patients with negative findings by MMG, 70(82.4%) were positive and 15 (17.6%) were negative by US. As findings of calcification by US, high echo spots plus a tumor lesion were observed in 59 patients (71.1%), high echo spots only were noted in 22 patients (26.5%), and high echo spots were not seen in 2 patients (2.4%). In conclusion, parallel use of MMG and US is recommended for breast cancer screening, especially for women in their 50s or younger, to reduce the incidence of misdiagnosis. (author)

  12. Current cancer incidence and trends in Yaounde, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enow Orock GE

    2014-05-01

    cases varied from 970 in 2004 to 784 in 2011. There is a persistent relative increase in HIV-related malignancies (Non Hodgkin lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma and colorectal cancers in both sexes. The overall Age Standardized Incidence Rate (ASR for all cancers during the period was 44.35 per 100, 000 in males and 62.35 in females. The commonest cancers found in the population were breast (18.5%, cervix (13.8%, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (11.9%, prostate (7.3%, Kaposi sarcoma (6.9%, liver (2.9%, colorectal (2.9%, soft tissue (2.8%, ovary (2.4% and skin (2.3%. Conclusion: Cancer is a public health problem in Cameroon. HIV-associated and colorectal cancers are emerging cancers in this community. This calls for more population-based cancer registries in the country to provide reliable information on cancer incidence in different localities while cancer and cancer-related deaths should be made compulsorily reportable if proper monitoring is to be achieved

  13. Gene Therapy in Human Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Abaan, Ogan D.

    2002-01-01

    Gene therapy, being a novel treatment for many diseases, is readily applicable for the treatment of cancer patients. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. There are many clinical protocols for the treatment of breast cancer, and gene therapy is now being considered within current protocols. This review will focus on the basic concepts of cancer gene therapy strategies (suicide gene, tumor suppressor gene, anti-angiogenesis, immunotherapy, oncolytic viruses and ribozyme/antisens...

  14. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer among Females in Basrah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Habib, Omran; A Hameed, Lamis; A Ajeel, Narjis; Al-Hawaz, Mazin H; Al-Faddagh, Zaki A; N Nasr, Ghalib; Al-Sodani, Ali H; A Khalaf, Asaad; M Hasson, Hasson; Lname, Aida A; Abdul-Samad, Fname

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in females. Its incidence is higher in developed countries than in developing ones partly due to variation in risk exposure and partly due to better detection methods. Scattered evidence in Basrah, Iraq, suggests that breast cancer has been increasing at a significant pace in recent years. This study aimed to measure the current level of risk of breast cancer among females in Basrah and to describe the time trend over almost a decade of years. Data on breast cancer cases from all sources of cancer registration in Basrah governorate were compiled for the years 2005-2012. The data for each year were first checked separately for duplicate reporting of cases among various sources. Then the eight files were pooled together and checked again for any duplicate cases among years of registration. The final set of data contained 2,284 cases of breast cancer (2,213 female cases and 71 male cases). All patients were inhabitants of Basrah governorate at the time of diagnosis. Figures on the Basrah population were obtained from various sources including the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Planning and Developmental Collaboration and local household surveys. It was possible to have total population estimates for each year and by age and sex. The data were imported into SPSS (version 17) software. Age specific and year specific incidence rates were calculated. The age standardized incidence rate was also calculated using world population as the standard population to be 34.9 per 100,000 females. Age-wise, no case was reported among children aged less than 15 years and the incidence increased with advancing age reaching a peak of 123.8/100,000 females at the age range of 50-54 years. The time trend of the crude incidence rate showed only modest increased risk with passage of years and no age shift could be documented in this study. Breast cancer in females in Basrah is a significant health problem. The current incidence rate (crude, 23

  15. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  16. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  17. Cancer incidence in blood transfusion recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus;

    2007-01-01

    , the standardized incidence ratios for cancers of the tongue, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, liver, and respiratory and urinary tracts and for squamous cell skin carcinoma remained elevated beyond 10 years after the transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: The marked increase in cancer risk shortly after a blood transfusion may......BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions may influence the recipients' cancer risks both through transmission of biologic agents and by modulation of the immune system. However, cancer occurrence in transfusion recipients remains poorly characterized. METHODS: We used computerized files from Scandinavian...... blood banks to identify a cohort of 888,843 cancer-free recipients transfused after 1968. The recipients were followed from first registered transfusion until the date of death, emigration, cancer diagnosis, or December 31, 2002, whichever came first. Relative risks were expressed as ratios...

  18. Typhoid Vaccine in Testing Response to Immune Stress in Patients With Stage I-IIIA Breast Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Depression; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  19. Cardiotoxicity of oncologic treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac affectation by neoplastic diseases may be due to the heart invasion produced by itself tumor, compression of the heart and / or great vessels by noncardiac neoplasms, most commonly embolization and therapeutic purposes antitumor. Cancer treatment has experienced significant progress in recent decades by the great expansion of chemotherapeutic agents and the refinement of radiotherapy techniques; however, many of the most effective drugs antineoplastic and thoracic irradiation cause both acute and chronic cardiotoxicity. Thus, the long-term monitoring of patients receiving anthracycline drugs Crucial in the therapy of many neoplasms, demonstrates clinical heart failure in 4.5 to 7% of patients, increasing the incidence of defects in the cardiac function over time. Its pathogenesis is likely included in the formation of free radicals, alterations calcium transport, dysfunction or adrenergic amines glass release active. Dex razoxane is the only clinically used cardio protective marketed for selected group of patients with breast cancer, it is necessary development of new agents that protect the cardiotoxicity of this group of drugs and reduce morbidity and secondary mortality to them. In this work, the tracking shows 4 patients with breast cancer who had received treatment with anthracyclines and the cardiotoxic manifestation suffered, resulting in changes in their treatment, and in one of the patients was used cardio protective medication

  20. Does architectural lighting contribute to breast cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiro Mariana G

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives There is a growing interest in the role that light plays on nocturnal melatonin production and, perhaps thereby, the incidence of breast cancer in modern societies. The direct causal relationships in this logical chain have not, however, been fully established and the weakest link is an inability to quantitatively specify architectural lighting as a stimulus for the circadian system. The purpose of the present paper is to draw attention to this weakness. Data Sources and Extraction We reviewed the literature on the relationship between melatonin, light at night, and cancer risk in humans and tumor growth in animals. More specifically, we focused on the impact of light on nocturnal melatonin suppression in humans and on the applicability of these data to women in real-life situations. Photometric measurement data from the lighted environment of women at work and at home is also reported. Data Synthesis The literature review and measurement data demonstrate that more quantitative knowledge is needed about circadian light exposures actually experienced by women and girls in modern societies. Conclusion Without such quantitative knowledge, limited insights can be gained about the causal relationship between melatonin and the etiology of breast cancer from epidemiological studies and from parametric studies using animal models.