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Sample records for breast cancer hormone

  1. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women who • Are older • Have no children • Delayed pregnancy until after age 30 • Have used combination hormone therapy (estrogen plus progestin) for more than five years • Have a mother, sister, or daughter who has had breast cancer Did you know? Breast pain alone is not ...

  2. Hormone therapy for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of benefits: Taking Tamoxifen for 5 years after breast cancer surgery cuts the chance of cancer coming back by half. Some studies show that taking it for 10 years may work even better. It reduces the risk that cancer ...

  3. Review of hormonal treatment of breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-28

    Jul 28, 2011 ... cancer, cases of hormone resistance breast cancer have been described recently in the literature. This can happen from the beginning, or during treatment. Therefore, we aim to examine the causes of resistance to hormonal treatment with a view to understand the options of tackling this problem, and ...

  4. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before age 12) or reached menopause late (after age 55). Breast cancer is more common among women who • Are older • ... 40. If you are at high risk for breast cancer, you should get an annual mammogram beginning at age 40. Talk with your provider about other screening ...

  5. Sex hormone receptors in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abreo, Nina; Hindenburg, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    The dependency of certain breast cancers on estrogen is undeniably one of the most important observations in oncology. Since this early observation, there has been a tremendous effort to define the precise roles of the estrogen receptor (ER) in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Estrogen signaling pathways can also be exploited as effective targets for cancer treatment. Both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent receptor activation pathways have been successfully blocked by hormonal therapies including selective ER modulators such as tamoxifen, by blocking and accelerating the degradation of ER (fulvestrant), and by depleting tissue levels of estrogen (aromatase inhibitors). Because of the immense prognostic and predictive value of the ER and PR receptor, accurately defining hormone dependency is also of paramount importance. Despite this avalanche of discovery and development resulting in improved outcome for the patient, resistance to these therapies, both intrinsic and acquired, is well known. Uncovering the various mechanisms of resistance has deepened scientific understanding of posttranslational modifications of these receptors, as well as their cross talk with other receptor families such as the HER-2/neu receptor. The recent discovery that orphan estrogen-related receptors may also play an important role in breast cancer is just starting to be appreciated. A clear understanding of the historical perspective and the intricacies of ER structure and function is required to improve current therapeutic strategies for breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones? Hormones are substances that function as chemical messengers in the body. They affect the actions of ... at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT ...

  7. Review of hormonal treatment of breast cancer | Abdulkareem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although tamoxifen is the established drug for hormonal treatment of breast cancer, cases of hormone resistance breast cancer have been described recently in the literature. This can happen from the beginning, or during treatment. Therefore, we aim to examine the causes of resistance to hormonal treatment with a view to ...

  8. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  9. Hormonal Regulation of Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xian, Wa

    2003-01-01

    ... become altered in breast cancer. Specific emphasis has been placed upon studying the mechanisms by which the lactogenic hormones, prolactin, hydrocortisone and insulin, regulate milk protein gene expression...

  10. Hormone receptor expression in male breast cancers | Akosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male breast cancers are rare but have been found in higher proportions in Black Africans. Prognostic factors for breast cancers include tumour size, grade and stage, and hormone receptor status. The hormone receptor status is an invaluable guide in the use of adjuvant endocrine therapy, but none of the reports available ...

  11. Contemporary Hormonal Contraception and the Risk of Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina S; Skovlund, Charlotte W; Hannaford, Philip C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about whether contemporary hormonal contraception is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. METHODS: We assessed associations between the use of hormonal contraception and the risk of invasive breast cancer in a nationwide prospective cohort study involving...... all women in Denmark between 15 and 49 years of age who had not had cancer or venous thromboembolism and who had not received treatment for infertility. Nationwide registries provided individually updated information about the use of hormonal contraception, breast-cancer diagnoses, and potential...... confounders. RESULTS: Among 1.8 million women who were followed on average for 10.9 years (a total of 19.6 million person-years), 11,517 cases of breast cancer occurred. As compared with women who had never used hormonal contraception, the relative risk of breast cancer among all current and recent users...

  12. Alimentary triggers of hormone dependent breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Lykholat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC consistently holds the leading positions in the structure of morbidity and mortality of the female population. Food containing veterinary hormones is extremely dangerous to human health: estrogens are female sex hormones. Excessive level of estrogen in the body gives rise to diseases of varying severity: in women (especially of older age it may cause breast cancer. The paper investigates the processes of lipid peroxidation and the status of antioxidant protection system in rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens. The purpose of the work is to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidative protection status in rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens for determining the trigger mechanisms for tumor development. Experiments were conducted on female Wistar rats exposed to exogenous estrogen for 45 days. At the beginning of the experiment, age of experimental animals was 3 months in pubertal period and 6 months as mature ones. The control groups consisted of intact animals of appropriate age. To simulate the influence of exogenous estrogen, rats’ food was treated with the Sinestron drug at the rate of 2 mg per kg. The research materials were serum and liver of rats. Objects of the research were indicators of lipid peroxidation activity (content of TBA-active products and antioxidant protection system (reduced glutathione (RG level, glutathione transferase (GT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GP, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and total antioxidative activity (AOA. Data obtained was treated with standard methods of estimation of variation series. Various degrees of peroxidation intensification depending on the age and organs were determined. Maximum excess of control indexes in the serum was observed and it indicated synthetic estrogen effect of on all major body systems. In prepubertal period females’ liver the reaction of prooxidant system and tension in the antioxidant

  13. Metastatic Breast Cancer and Hormonal Receptor Status among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the third commonest cancer in women in Uganda. The majority of breast cancer patients in Uganda present with advanced disease. Many studies show that metastatic lesions frequently lodge in bones, lung and liver. Tumour hormone receptor status correlates with site of metastatic lesions and ...

  14. Primary hormone treatment in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciá Escalante, S; Pons Sanz, V; Rodríguez Lescure, A; Ballester Navarro, I; Carrato Mena, A

    2006-05-01

    Clinical benefits of hormone therapy in patients with hormone-sensitive tumors have been clearly established. Postmenopausal women with positive hormone receptors represent the largest group of patients in whom early stage breast cancer is diagnosed. Third-generation aromatase inhibitors (letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane) are active and well tolerated in postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive metastasic or locally advanced breast cancer as first or second line treatment. These are also valuable agents in the neoadjuvant setting in postmenopausal women, and even as single treatment in localized breast tumors in women not amenable to surgery.

  15. Metastatic Breast Cancer and Hormonal Receptor Status among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hormone receptor status correlates with site of metastatic lesions and survival among breast cancer patients. Objective: To determine the sites of metastatic breast lesions and how they relate to the hormonal receptor status. Methods: In this cross sectional descriptive study, 71 women with histologically confirmed incident ...

  16. Normal breast physiology: the reasons hormonal contraceptives and induced abortion increase breast-cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Angela

    2014-01-01

    A woman gains protection from breast cancer by completing a full-term pregnancy. In utero, her offspring produce hormones that mature 85 percent of the mother's breast tissue into cancer-resistant breast tissue. If the pregnancy ends through an induced abortion or a premature birth before thirty-two weeks, the mother's breasts will have only partially matured, retaining even more cancer-susceptible breast tissue than when the pregnancy began. This increased amount of immature breast tissue will leave the mother with more sites for cancer initiation, thereby increasing her risk of breast cancer. Hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk by their proliferative effect on breast tissue and their direct carcinogenic effects on DNA. Hormonal contraceptives include estrogen-progestin combination drugs prescribed in any manner of delivery: orally, transdermally, vaginally, or intrauterine. This article provides the detailed physiology and data that elucidate the mechanisms through which induced abortion and hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk.

  17. Importance of hormone receptors in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohelia Muñoz-Ordóñez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The basis of the diagnosis of breast cancer is the histological confirmation of it. In the diagnostic methods performed on biopsy specimens and / or surgical specimens of patients, analysis of hormone receptors, provides information to the appropriate prescription of the endocrine treatments used today, in addition to having utility as a prognostic factor in determining the risk of recurrence post treatment and evaluate the response. To obtain tumor tissue, also allows to determine prognostic and predictive factors such as histopathological classification of the tumor, its size, number of positive lymph nodes and lymph-vascular commitment, all of them very important in a integrated treatment, in order to improve the quality and life expectancy of patients.

  18. THYROID HORMONE PROFILE IN EARLY BREAST CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renija Valiya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumour in women worldwide. The relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disease is a controversy. Many of the studies showed hypothyroidism as the commonly found thyroid abnormality in breast cancer. [1] There is considerable evidence for an increased risk of thyroid and breast cancer in patients with iodine deficiency. This ability of iodine to reduce the risk of breast cancer is attributed to the ability of iodine and its compounds to induce apoptosis so that appropriate cell death occurs. Instead, in the absence of optimum level of iodine in the body the transformed cells continue to grow and divide resulting in cancer. AIMS 1. To find out the association of thyroid hormones and breast cancer in early breast cancer patients. 2. To find out the association of thyroid peroxidase antibodies in early breast cancer patients. Settings Cases: 82 breast cancer patients in early stage who attended the breast clinic. Controls: 82 age matched controls (Between 25-80 years. Design: Case control study. MATERIALS AND METHOD In this study, investigated for thyroid function test (T3, T4, TSH and thyroid peroxide antibody level in 82 early breast cancer patients. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS SPSS 16. RESULTS Statistically significant low T4 and high TSH in breast cancer patients, along with elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody. CONCLUSION Compared to hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism was found to be clinically significant in breast cancer patients

  19. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  20. Starting Hormone Therapy at Menopause Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.

  1. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Thune, Inger; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Hankins, Gary D V; Malone, Fergal D; D'Alton, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer. Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3), anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years) 31 women (7.6%) were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile) had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR), 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012). The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021). An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships. Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  2. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships.Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  3. Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women : reanalysis of 13 studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Key, T. J.; Appleby, P. N.; Reeves, G. K.; Roddam, A. W.; Helzlsouer, K. J.; Alberg, A. J.; Rollison, D. E.; Dorgan, J. F.; Brinton, L. A.; Overvad, K.; Kaaks, R.; Trichopoulou, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Panico, S.; Duell, E. J.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Rinaldi, S.; Riboli, E.; Fentiman, I. S.; Dowsett, M.; Manjer, J.; Lenner, P.; Hallmans, G.; Baglietto, L.; English, D. R.; Giles, G. G.; Hopper, J. L.; Severi, G.; Morris, H. A.; Koenig, K.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Arslan, A. A.; Toniolo, P.; Shore, R. E.; Krogh, V.; Micheli, A.; Berrino, F.; Muti, P.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Laughlin, G. A.; Kabuto, M.; Akiba, S.; Stevens, R. G.; Neriishi, K.; Land, C. E.; Cauley, J. A.; Lui, Li Yung; Cummings, Steven R.; Gunter, M. J.; Rohan, T. E.; Strickler, H. D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone

  4. Steroidal Hormone Receptor Expression in Male Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Homaei-Shandiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The etiology of male breast cancer is unclear, but hormonal levels may play a role in development of this disease. It seems that the risk of male breast cancer related to increased lifelong exposure to estrogen or reduced androgen. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the steroid hormone receptors including estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR in Iranian cases with male breast cancer. Methods: This is a prospective review of 18 cases of male breast cancer in in Omid Hospital, Mashhad, North East of Iran, between October 2001 and October 2006. ER and PR were measured by immunohistochemistry. Clinicopathologic features and family history were obtained by interview. Data were analyzed with SPSS 13 using descriptive statistics.  Results: The median age was 63.2 year. All the cases were infiltrating ductal carcinoma. A high rate of expression of ER (88.8% and PR (66.6% was found in the studied cases. Conclusion: Cancers of the male breast are significantly more likely than cancers of the female breast to express hormonal receptors.

  5. Evaluating Serum Markers for Hormone Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèl Schummer

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in females worldwide. Death rates have been declining, largely as a result of early detection through mammography and improved treatment, but mammographic screening is controversial because of over-diagnosis of breast disease that might not require treatment, and under-diagnosis of cancer in women with dense breasts. Breast cancer screening could be improved by pairing mammography with a tumor circulating marker, of which there are currently none. Given genomic similarities between the basal breast cancer subtype and serous ovarian cancer, and given our success in identifying circulating markers for ovarian cancer, we investigated the performance in hormone receptor-negative breast cancer detection of both previously identified ovarian serum markers and circulating markers associated with transcripts that were differentially expressed in breast cancer tissue compared to healthy breast tissue from reduction mammaplasties.We evaluated a total of 15 analytes (13 proteins, 1 miRNA, 1 autoantibody in sera drawn at or before breast cancer surgery from 43 breast cancer cases (28 triple-negative-TN-and 15 hormone receptor-negative-HRN-/ HER2-positive and 87 matched controls.In the analysis of our whole cohort of breast cancer cases, autoantibodies to TP53 performed significantly better than the other selected 14 analytes showing 25.6% and 34.9% sensitivity at 95% and 90% specificity respectively with AUC: 0.7 (p<0.001. The subset of 28 TN cancers showed very similar results. We observed no correlation between anti-TP53 and the 14 other markers; however, anti-TP53 expression correlated with Body-Mass-Index. It did not correlate with tumor size, positive lymph nodes, tumor stage, the presence of metastases or recurrence.None of the 13 serum proteins nor miRNA 135b identified women with HRN or TN breast cancer. TP53 autoantibodies identified women with HRN breast

  6. Efficacy of chemotherapy after hormone therapy for hormone receptor–positive metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Mori

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: According to the guidelines for metastatic breast cancer, hormone therapy for hormone receptor–positive metastatic breast cancer without life-threatening metastasis should be received prior to chemotherapy. Previous trials have investigated the sensitivity of chemotherapy for preoperative breast cancer based on the efficacy of neoadjuvant hormone therapy. In this retrospective study, we investigated the efficacy of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer in hormone therapy–effective and hormone therapy–ineffective cases. Methods: Patients who received chemotherapy after hormone therapy for metastatic breast cancer between 2006 and 2013 at our institution were investigated. Results: A total of 32 patients received chemotherapy after hormone therapy for metastatic breast cancer. The median patient age was 59 years, and most of the primary tumors exhibited a T2 status. A total of 26 patients had an N(+ status, while 7 patients had human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive tumors. A total of 13 patients received clinical benefits from hormone therapy, with a rate of clinical benefit of subsequent chemotherapy of 30.8%, which was not significantly different from that observed in the hormone therapy–ineffective patients (52.6%. A total of 13 patients were able to continue the hormone therapy for more than 1 year, with a rate of clinical benefit of chemotherapy of 38.5%, which was not significantly different from that observed in the short-term hormone therapy patients (47.4%. The luminal A patients were able to continue hormone therapy for a significantly longer period than the non-luminal A patients (median survival time: 17.8 months vs 6.35 months, p = 0.0085. However, there were no significant differences in the response to or duration of chemotherapy. Conclusion: The efficacy of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer cannot be predicted based on the efficacy of prior hormone therapy or tumor subtype

  7. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinton, Louise A; Cook, Michael B; McCormack, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    -control/cohort) odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with exposure estimates combined using fixed effects meta-analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Risk was statistically significantly associated with weight (highest/lowest tertile: OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.18 to 1.57), height (OR = 1......BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly because of its relative rarity. Although genetic factors are involved, less is known regarding the role of anthropometric and hormonally related risk factors. METHODS: In the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium.......41; 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.86). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent findings across case-control and cohort investigations, complemented by pooled analyses, indicated important roles for anthropometric and hormonal risk factors in the etiology of male breast cancer. Further investigation should focus on potential roles...

  8. Pregnancy hormonal environment and mother's breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; de Assis, Sonia; Warri, Anni; Luoto, Riitta

    2012-04-01

    Pregnancy can both reduce and increase lifetime breast cancer risk, and it also induces a short-term, transient increase in risk. Several biological mechanisms have been proposed to explain the protective effect, including pregnancy-induced increase in circulating estrogen levels leading to reduced estrogen receptor (ER) expression and activity. Persistent changes in ER-regulated gene expression may then alter the response of the breast to postpregnancy hormonal exposures originating, for example, from food. Understanding how pregnancy increases breast cancer risk has received less attention. Human studies indicate that those women who were exposed to an elevated pregnancy estrogenic environment, such as women who took the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol or who had the highest circulating estrogen levels at the beginning or end of pregnancy, are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. There is also evidence that elevated leptin levels, for example, in pregnant women who gained excessive amount of weight, increase later breast cancer risk. This may reflect a close interaction between estradiol (E2), ER, and leptin. Our preclinical study suggests that an exposure to excess pregnancy E2 and leptin levels reverses the protective changes in genomic signaling pathways seen in the breast/mammary gland of parous women and rodents. Recent findings indicate that involution - the period after lactation when the breast regresses back to prepregnancy stage - may be related to some pregnancy-associated breast cancers. Importantly, in a preclinical model, the increase can be reversed by anti-inflammatory treatment, offering hope that the increase in lifelong breast cancer risk induced by late first pregnancy or by an exposure of pregnant women to an excessive hormonal environment may be reversible.

  9. Thyroid hormone differentially modulates Warburg phenotype in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhane, Sonal; Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2011-10-14

    Sustenance of cancer cells in vivo critically depends on a variety of genetic and metabolic adaptations. Aerobic glycolysis or Warburg effect has been a defining biochemical hallmark of transformed cells for more than five decades although a clear molecular basis of this observation is emerging only in recent years. In this study, we present our findings that thyroid hormone exerts its non-genomic and genomic actions in two model human breast cancer cell lines differentially. By laying a clear foundation for experimentally monitoring the Warburg phenotype in living cancer cells, we demonstrate that thyroid hormone-induced modulation of bioenergetic profiles in these two model cell lines depends on the degree of Warburg phenotype that they display. Further we also show that thyroid hormone can sensitize mitochondria in aggressive, triple-negative breast cancer cells favorably to increase the chemotherapeutic efficacy in these cells. Even though the role of thyroid hormone in modulating mitochondrial metabolism has been known, the current study accentuates the critical role it plays in modulating Warburg phenotype in breast cancer cells. The clinical significance of this finding is the possibility to devise strategies for metabolically modulating aggressive triple-negative tumors so as to enhance their chemosensitivity in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-protein bound oestradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, breast cancer and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, P. F.; Bonfrèr, J. M.; Hart, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    It has recently been found by various authors that despite a normal serum concentration of oestradiol (E2), the percentage of non-protein-bound or free E2 is abnormally high in breast cancer patients. Since it is the free E2 which is considered to be biologically active, confirmation of this finding would be most relevant to the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Using Hammond's centrifugal ultrafiltration dialysis method we have measured free E2 in heparinized plasma from 68 premenopausal women (a) at high familial risk of breast cancer (n = 18), (b) with benign breast disease (n = 17), (c) cured of T1N0M0 breast cancer at least 6 months previously (n = 17) and (d) normal controls matched for age, parity and Quetelet index (n = 16). Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was measured as [3H]-dihydrotestosterone binding capacity. Free E2 and SHBG were also measured in the serum of (e) postmenopausal patients having breast cancer (n = 38) and (f) matched control cancer patients (n = 67). We confirmed a very good inverse correlation between log free E2 per cent and log SHBG (P less than 0.0001). The regression lines for groups (a)-(d) were not statistically different. The regression lines for groups (e) and (f) were identical and ran nearly parallel to those for groups (a)-(d) though somewhat lower. This small difference may be ascribed to menopausal status. Therefore, we found no difference in free E2 percentage, calculated free E2 concentration or SHBG between premenopausal women at risk, women with benign breast disease, patients cured for early breast cancer or having breast cancer and matched controls. However, postmenopausal breast cancer patients had a significantly higher total serum E2 concentration and, by consequence a higher calculated free E2 concentration compared to the carefully matched control group. PMID:4038881

  11. Reproductive and hormonal risk factors of breast cancer: a historical perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horn J; Vatten LJ

    2017-01-01

    ...: The complexity of breast cancer etiology has puzzled scientists for more than 300 years. In this brief review, we emphasize the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in relation to the risk of breast cancer...

  12. Interrelationships of Hormones, Diet, Body Size and Breast Cancer among Hispanic Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peltz, Gerson

    2005-01-01

    ...). The training program will focus on breast cancer etiology, specifically the interrelationships between hormones, diet, body size, and breast cancer among Hispanic women in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV...

  13. Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of 13 studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Key, T. J; Appleby, P. N; Reeves, G. K; Roddam, A. W; Helzlsouer, K. J; Alberg, A. J; Rollison, D. E; Dorgan, J. F; Brinton, L. A; Overvad, K; Kaaks, R; Trichopoulou, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Panico, S; Duell, E. J; Peeters, P. H. M; Rinaldi, S; Riboli, E; Fentiman, I. S; Dowsett, M; Manjer, J; Lenner, P; Hallmans, G; Baglietto, L; English, D. R; Giles, G. G; Hopper, J. L; Severi, G; Morris, H. A; Koenig, K; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Arslan, A. A; Toniolo, P; Shore, R. E; Krogh, V; Micheli, A; Berrino, F; Muti, P; Barrett-Connor, E; Laughlin, G. A; Kabuto, M; Akiba, S; Stevens, R. G; Neriishi, K; Land, C. E; Cauley, J. A; Lui, Li Yung; Cummings, Steven R; Gunter, M. J; Rohan, T. E; Strickler, H. D

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. METHODS...

  14. Mechanisms of hormonal therapy resistance in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shin-ichi; Kimura, Mariko

    2015-04-01

    Whilst estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers are preferentially treated with hormone therapy, approximately one-third of them relapse. The mechanisms of refractoriness have been investigated by numerous studies but have not been fully clarified. Hormonal therapy resistance, particularly aromatase inhibitor (AI) resistance, may be related to the acquisition of alternative intracellular ER signaling. We have been investing the mechanisms using cancer specimens and cell lines by monitoring the transcription activity of ERs. AI refractory specimens showed diverse ER activity in the adenovirus estrogen receptor element-green fluorescent protein (ERE-GFP) assay and varied sensitivity to anti-estrogens, indicating the existence of multiple resistant mechanisms. We established six different types of cell lines mimicking AI resistance from ERE-GFP-introduced ER-positive cell lines. They revealed that multiple and alternative ER activating pathways were involved in the resistance, such as phosphorylation-dependent or androgen metabolite-dependent mechanisms. The response to fulvestrant and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor also varied among individual resistant cell lines. These results indicate that further subclassification of ER-positive breast cancer is extremely important to decide the therapeutic management of not only hormonal therapy but also new molecular target therapy.

  15. Interactions between intakes of alcohol and postmenopausal hormones on risk of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    alcohol interacts with hormone use on risk of breast cancer. The 5,035 postmenopausal women who participated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were asked about their alcohol intake and hormone use at baseline in 1981-1983 and were followed until 2002 in the Danish cancer registry, with ...Alcohol and postmenopausal hormone use are well-established modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. Alcohol may decrease the metabolic clearance of estradiol, whereby the risk of breast cancer associated with hormone use may depend on blood alcohol levels. The objective is to determine whether...... to follow-up. Proportional hazard models were used to analyze data. During follow-up, 267 women developed breast cancer. Alcohol consumption was associated with a small increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio = 1.11 per drink/day, 95% CI: 0.99-1.25). Women who used hormones also had a higher risk...

  16. Interleukin 8 in progression of hormone-dependent early breast cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-04-18

    Apr 18, 2017 ... significance of IL8 and clinicopathological parameters in hormone-dependent breast cancer, and to examine possible associations between them that might imply possible biological dependence. The study included 91 early-stage breast cancer patients with detectable levels of hormone receptors (ER>0, ...

  17. Hormones and breast cancer: can we use them in ways that could reduce the risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mahmud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hormones promote or inhibit breast cancer in different ways. These effects and the mechanisms involved are reviewed in order to suggest a potentially safer use of hormones. Natural estrogens, administered transdermally, and natural progesterone may be the safest combination of female hormones. Increased intake of cruciferous vegetables could provide additional safety by improving 2-hydoxyestrone and diminishing 16 alphahydroxyestrone. Testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA may directly inhibit breast cancer, but could potentially stimulate it by being aromatized into estrogen in the breast. Modest doses with blood level monitoring appear logical. Melatonin and oxytocin are inhibitory to breast and other cancers. Insulin is a growth factor for breast cancer. Managing insulin resistance before the onset of diabetes could reduce the risk. Tri-iodothyronine (T3 has multiple anti-breast cancer effects. Synthroid may not increase T3 levels adequately. Human growth hormone does not appear to increase risk; but it should not be given for performance enhancement.

  18. Palbociclib in Hormone-Receptor-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas C; Ro, Jungsil; André, Fabrice; Loi, Sherene; Verma, Sunil; Iwata, Hiroji; Harbeck, Nadia; Loibl, Sibylle; Huang Bartlett, Cynthia; Zhang, Ke; Giorgetti, Carla; Randolph, Sophia; Koehler, Maria; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2015-07-16

    Growth of hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer is dependent on cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4 and CDK6), which promote progression from the G1 phase to the S phase of the cell cycle. We assessed the efficacy of palbociclib (an inhibitor of CDK4 and CDK6) and fulvestrant in advanced breast cancer. This phase 3 study involved 521 patients with advanced hormone-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer that had relapsed or progressed during prior endocrine therapy. We randomly assigned patients in a 2:1 ratio to receive palbociclib and fulvestrant or placebo and fulvestrant. Premenopausal or perimenopausal women also received goserelin. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, objective response, rate of clinical benefit, patient-reported outcomes, and safety. A preplanned interim analysis was performed by an independent data and safety monitoring committee after 195 events of disease progression or death had occurred. The median progression-free survival was 9.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5 to not estimable) with palbociclib-fulvestrant and 3.8 months (95% CI, 3.5 to 5.5) with placebo-fulvestrant (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.56; Ppalbociclib-fulvestrant group were neutropenia (62.0%, vs. 0.6% in the placebo-fulvestrant group), leukopenia (25.2% vs. 0.6%), anemia (2.6% vs. 1.7%), thrombocytopenia (2.3% vs. 0%), and fatigue (2.0% vs. 1.2%). Febrile neutropenia was reported in 0.6% of palbociclib-treated patients and 0.6% of placebo-treated patients. The rate of discontinuation due to adverse events was 2.6% with palbociclib and 1.7% with placebo. Among patients with hormone-receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who had progression of disease during prior endocrine therapy, palbociclib combined with fulvestrant resulted in longer progression-free survival than fulvestrant alone

  19. Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of 13 studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J; Appleby, P N; Reeves, G K; Roddam, A W; Helzlsouer, K J; Alberg, A J; Rollison, D E; Dorgan, J F; Brinton, L A; Overvad, K; Kaaks, R; Trichopoulou, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Panico, S; Duell, E J; Peeters, P H M; Rinaldi, S; Fentiman, I S; Dowsett, M; Manjer, J; Lenner, P; Hallmans, G; Baglietto, L; English, D R; Giles, G G; Hopper, J L; Severi, G; Morris, H A; Hankinson, S E; Tworoger, S S; Koenig, K; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Arslan, A A; Toniolo, P; Shore, R E; Krogh, V; Micheli, A; Berrino, F; Barrett-Connor, E; Laughlin, G A; Kabuto, M; Akiba, S; Stevens, R G; Neriishi, K; Land, C E; Cauley, J A; Lui, Li Yung; Cummings, Steven R; Gunter, M J; Rohan, T E; Strickler, H D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone concentrations in more than 6000 postmenopausal women controls in 13 prospective studies. Results: Concentrations of all hormones were lower in older than younger women, with the largest difference for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was higher in the older women. Androgens were lower in women with bilateral ovariectomy than in naturally postmenopausal women, with the largest difference for free testosterone. All hormones were higher in obese than lean women, with the largest difference for free oestradiol, whereas SHBG was lower in obese women. Smokers of 15+ cigarettes per day had higher levels of all hormones than non-smokers, with the largest difference for testosterone. Drinkers of 20+ g alcohol per day had higher levels of all hormones, but lower SHBG, than non-drinkers, with the largest difference for DHEAS. Hormone concentrations were not strongly related to age at menarche, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy or family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: Sex hormone concentrations were strongly associated with several established or suspected risk factors for breast cancer, and may mediate the effects of these factors on breast cancer risk. PMID:21772329

  20. Hormone Receptor Status Does Not Affect Prognosis in Metaplastic Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Analysis with Comparison to Infiltrating Ductal and Lobular Carcinomas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul Wright, G; Davis, Alan T; Koehler, Tracy J; Melnik, Marianne K; Chung, Mathew H

    2014-01-01

    Metaplastic breast cancer is a rare histologic variant among breast cancers. We sought to investigate the impact of hormone receptor status in metaplastic breast cancer and compare outcomes with common histologic variants of breast...

  1. Identification of hormonal receptors in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa Pascual, M.; Lage, A.; Diaz, J.W.; Moreno, L.; Marta Diaz, T. (Instituto de Oncologia y Radiobiologia, La Habana (Cuba))

    1981-01-01

    The experience in the implementation of a technique for determining hormono-dependence of human breast cancer is presented. The results found with the use of the technique in 50 patients with malignant breast cancer treated at IOR are examined and discussed.

  2. Breast cancer with different prognostic characteristics developing in Danish women using hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlberg, Claudia; Pedersen, A T; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the risk of developing prognostic different types of breast cancer in women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A total of 10 874 postmenopausal Danish Nurses were followed since 1993. Incident breast cancer cases and histopathological information were...

  3. Breast cancer incidence and use of hormone therapy in Denmark 1978-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, there have recently been reports of declining incidence rates for breast cancer. Decreased use of hormone therapy and decreased use of mammography has been put forward as possible reasons for this decline. The aim of this study was to analyse breast cancer incidence trends...

  4. Cancer care Ontario guideline recommendations for hormone receptor testing in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofech-Mozes, S; Vella, E T; Dhesy-Thind, S; Hanna, W M

    2012-12-01

    Hormone receptor testing (oestrogen and progesterone) in breast cancer at the time of primary diagnosis is used to guide treatment decisions. Accurate and standardised testing methods are critical to ensure the proper classification of the patient's hormone receptor status. Recommendations were developed to improve the quality and accuracy of hormone receptor testing based on a systematic review conducted jointly by the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists and Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-Based Care. Evidence-based recommendations were formulated to set standards for optimising immunohistochemistry in assessing hormone receptor status, as well as assuring quality and proficiency between and within laboratories. A formal external review was conducted to validate the relevance of these recommendations. It is anticipated that widespread adoption of these guidelines will further improve the accuracy of hormone receptor testing in Canada. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hormonal Contraceptive Use as Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Young Javanese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Fitria Kusuma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous study from 351 Indonesian women shown that they had breast cancers at younger age compared with western. In this study we investigate role of hormonal contraceptive as risk factor for Indonesian Javanese young breast cancer cases. However, the presence different life style between ethnic alter their risk as causal factors across populations. Diagnostic and prognostic study findings, including breast cancer prediction rules, must therefore be validated in Asian women. We undertook case-control study to determine population-based distributions of breast cancer among young Javanese people, one of the largest populations in Indonesia (Southeast Asia. A total of 500 women diagnosed with breast cancer participated in this study, divided in to two group young (less 40 years old and mature breast cancer. Data for hormonal contraceptive, clinico-pathological characteristics and other risk factors were collected. We found that young Javanese women who use hormonal contraceptive for more than 10 years had a 4,67 fold increased risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer in young age (p<0,01. We didn’t found any differences between this two groups in menarche and parity. Interestingly for Javanese women who breast feeding more than 18 months increase 1,74 fold increased risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer in young age (p<0,01.

  6. Breast Cancer Risk Analysis by the Use of Hormonal Contraceptives and Age of Menarche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Triara Dewi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of cases of breast cancer is increasing every year and it’s a serious health problem in the world, including in Indonesia. Breast cancer is type of cancer that is most dominant in Indonesia. High estrogen exposure is one of factor that can increase the risk of breast cancer in women. This study was conducted to determine the relationship of estrogen exposure through the use of hormonal contraceptives and age of menarche with breast cancer incidence in women. Type of this study is observational analytic and use case control design. All of women breast cancer patients of Dr. Soetomo Hospital in 2013 were the population of case. All of woman non breast cancer patients who done breast examination at Dr Soetomo Hospital in 2013 were the population of control. The number of respondents in this study were 90 respondents were drawn from population using simple random sampling method. The variables studied were the use of hormonal contraceptives and age of menarche. The results of the analysis used binary logistic regression (α = 5% indicated that the use of hormonal contraceptives (p = 0,028; OR = 3,266 and age of menarche (p =0,031; OR = 3,492 has an significant correlation with incidence of breast cancer in women at Dr. Soetomo Hospital in 2013. It is expected that the community can be more accurate in determining the duration of hormonal contraception usage and avoid lifestyle can accelerate the occurrence of menarche. Keywords: breast cancer, risk factor, hormonal contraceptives, age of menarche, estrogen

  7. Preeclampsia-Associated Hormonal Profiles and Reduced Breast Cancer Risk Among Older Mothers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laudenslager, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ... to cases on race/ethnicity, current age, age at delivery, and breast-feeding status. A fasting blood and saliva sample was collected from each subject during the luteal phase (day 19-22) of the menstrual cycle and assayed for specific steroid and peptide hormones thought to be linked to breast cancer.

  8. Interleukin 8 in progression of hormone-dependent early breast cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many studies have confirmed high levels ofinterleukin 8 (IL8) in HER2-enriched and basal-like (ER–) primary breast tumours, but less is known about thesignificance of IL8 in hormone-dependent breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of IL8 and clinicopathological parameters in ...

  9. Exploiting for Breast Cancer Control a Proposed Unified Mechanism for Reduction of Human Breast Cancer Risk by the Hormones of Pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobson, Herbet; Andersen, Thomas T; Bennett, James A

    2005-01-01

    .... This constitutes a model for studying how parity reduces breast cancer risk for women. Employing the model, investigators have given pregnancy-associated hormones in lieu of pregnancy to carcinogen-treated rats to assess their cancer-inhibiting capability...

  10. Breast cancer development in transsexual subjects receiving cross-sex hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, Louis J; van Trotsenburg, Michael A A; Giltay, Erik J; van Diest, Paul J

    2013-12-01

    Transsexual people receive cross-sex hormones as part of their treatment, potentially inducing hormone-sensitive malignancies. To examine the occurrence of breast cancer in a large cohort of Dutch male and female transsexual persons, also evaluating whether the epidemiology accords with the natal sex or the new sex. Number of people with breast cancer between 1975 and 2011. We researched the occurrence of breast cancer among transsexual persons 18-80 years with an exposure to cross-sex hormones between 5 to >30 years. Our study included 2,307 male-to-female (MtF) transsexual persons undergoing androgen deprivation and estrogen administration (52,370 person-years of exposure), and 795 female-to-male (FtM) subjects receiving testosterone (15,974 total years of exposure). Among MtF individuals one case was encountered, as well as a probable but not proven second case. The estimated rate of 4.1 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-13.0) was lower than expected if these two cases are regarded as female breast cancer, but within expectations if viewed as male breast cancer. In FtM subjects, who were younger and had shorter exposure to cross-sex hormones compared with the MtF group, one breast cancer case occurred. This translated into a rate of 5.9 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: 0.5-27.4), again lower than expected for female breast cancer but within expected norms for male breast cancer. The number of people studied and duration of hormone exposure are limited but it would appear that cross-sex hormone administration does not increase the risk of breast cancer development, in either MtF or FtM transsexual individuals. Breast carcinoma incidences in both groups are comparable to male breast cancers. Cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects does not seem to be associated with an increased risk of malignant breast development. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY AND BREAST CANCER – NEWS ANDRECOMMENDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjetka Uršič Vrščaj

    2008-12-01

    It should be recognized that even in the absence of HT use, there is a risk of development ofbreast cancer. There are multiple risk factors for breast cancer, including alcohol intake,obesity and lack of exercise. These need to be included during counselling to put the magnitude of risk of HRT into an appropriate perspective

  12. Manipulating Protein Acetylation in Breast Cancer: A Promising Approach in Combination with Hormonal Therapies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Linares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogens play an essential role in the normal physiology of the breast as well as in mammary tumorigenesis. Their effects are mediated by two nuclear estrogen receptors, ERα and β, which regulate transcription of specific genes by interacting with multiprotein complexes, including histone deacetylases (HDACs. During the past few years, HDACs have raised great interest as therapeutic targets in the field of cancer therapy. In breast cancer, several experimental arguments suggest that HDACs are involved at multiple levels in mammary tumorigenesis: their expression is deregulated in breast tumors; they interfere with ER signaling in intricate ways, restoring hormone sensitivity in models of estrogen resistance, and they clinically represent new potential targets for HDACs inhibitors (HDIs in combination with hormonal therapies. In this paper, we will describe these different aspects and underline the clinical interest of HDIs in the context of breast cancer resistance to hormone therapies (HTs.

  13. Hormones and breast cancer: can we use them in ways that could reduce the risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Mahmud

    2011-01-01

    Many hormones promote or inhibit breast cancer in different ways. These effects and the mechanisms involved are reviewed in order to suggest a potentially safer use of hormones. Natural estrogens, administered transdermally, and natural progesterone may be the safest combination of female hormones. Increased intake of cruciferous vegetables could provide additional safety by improving 2-hydoxyestrone and diminishing 16 alphahydroxyestrone. Testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may di...

  14. Bias in Observational Studies of the Association between Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per-Henrik Zahl

    Full Text Available During the period 1985-2000 the breast cancer incidence rates increased 50% in the age group invited to mammography screening in Norway and Sweden. Simultaneously, use of hormone replacement treatment therapy (HT increased 5 times. Several influential observational studies showed that HT was associated with 50% to 100% increased risk of breast cancer and most for those using combined (estrogen plus progestin hormone replacement therapy (CHT. In contrast, the randomized WHI trial reported that CHT increased the risk by 10% for those not having previously used hormones and 24% when including previous users in the analyses. In another randomized trial, estrogen use only was not associated with any increased risk at all. After the WHI trial was published in 2003, use of HT dropped 70% within 5 years in Norway and Sweden while breast cancer rates were essentially unchanged. After 2008, HT use has dropped further and breast cancer incidence rates have started increasing again. The study objective is to calculate and to explain potential bias in the observational study design.Here we use data from the randomized WHI trial and analyze these data as done in the observational studies to calculate the magnitude of the potential biases in the observational study design. Time varying effect of hormones and categorization of the follow-up time may increase the hazard ratio for long-term users from 1.10 to 1.48. Selective retrospective reporting of hormone use may further increase the hazard ratio to 1.68.We suggest that the mechanism causing higher hazard ratio of breast cancer (compared to the observational studies is the time-varying effect of CHT on the breast cancer risk and selective retrospective reporting of hormone use. Other risk factors for the increase in breast cancer risk in the age group 50-69 years should be considered, for example, overdiagnosis.

  15. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on

  16. First pregnancy characteristics, postmenopausal breast density, and salivary sex hormone levels in a population at high risk for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Mockus

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions and general significance: While reproductive characteristics, in particular parity, generally demonstrated independent associations with postmenopausal breast density and E, P and DHEA levels, T levels showed concordant inverse associations with age-at-first birth and breast density. These findings suggest that reproductive effects and later life salivary sex steroid hormone levels may have independent effects on later life breast density and cancer risk.

  17. Thyroid Hormone Receptors Predict Prognosis in BRCA1 Associated Breast Cancer in Opposing Ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heublein, Sabine; Mayr, Doris; Meindl, Alfons; Angele, Martin; Gallwas, Julia; Jeschke, Udo; Ditsch, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Since BRCA1 associated breast cancers are frequently classified as hormone receptor negative or even triple negative, the application of endocrine therapies is rather limited in these patients. Like hormone receptors that bind to estrogen or progesterone, thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. TRs might be interesting biomarkers - especially in the absence of classical hormone receptors. The current study aimed to investigate whether TRs may be specifically expressed in BRCA1 associated cancer cases and whether they are of prognostic significance in these patients as compared to sporadic breast cancer cases. This study analyzed TRα and TRβ immunopositivity in BRCA1 associated (n = 38) and sporadic breast cancer (n = 86). Further, TRs were studied in MCF7 (BRCA1 wildtype) and HCC3153 (BRCA1 mutated) cells. TRβ positivity rate was significantly higher in BRCA1 associated as compared to sporadic breast cancers (p = 0.001). The latter observation remained to be significant when cases that had been matched for clinicopathological criteria were compared (p = 0.037). Regarding BRCA1 associated breast cancer cases TRβ positivity turned out to be a positive prognostic factor for five-year (p = 0.007) and overall survival (p = 0.026) while TRα positivity predicted reduced five-year survival (p = 0.030). Activation of TRβ resulted in down-modulation of CTNNB1 while TRα inhibition reduced cell viability in HCC3153. However, only BRCA1 wildtype MCF7 cells were capable of rapidly degrading TRα1 in response to T3 stimulation. Significantly, this study identified TRβ to be up-regulated in BRCA1 associated breast cancer and revealed TRs to be associated with patients’ prognosis. TRs were also found to be expressed in triple negative BRCA1 associated breast cancer. Further studies need to be done in order to evaluate whether TRs may become interesting targets of endocrine therapeutic approaches, especially when tumors are

  18. Thyroid Hormone Receptors Predict Prognosis in BRCA1 Associated Breast Cancer in Opposing Ways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Heublein

    Full Text Available Since BRCA1 associated breast cancers are frequently classified as hormone receptor negative or even triple negative, the application of endocrine therapies is rather limited in these patients. Like hormone receptors that bind to estrogen or progesterone, thyroid hormone receptors (TRs are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. TRs might be interesting biomarkers - especially in the absence of classical hormone receptors. The current study aimed to investigate whether TRs may be specifically expressed in BRCA1 associated cancer cases and whether they are of prognostic significance in these patients as compared to sporadic breast cancer cases. This study analyzed TRα and TRβ immunopositivity in BRCA1 associated (n = 38 and sporadic breast cancer (n = 86. Further, TRs were studied in MCF7 (BRCA1 wildtype and HCC3153 (BRCA1 mutated cells. TRβ positivity rate was significantly higher in BRCA1 associated as compared to sporadic breast cancers (p = 0.001. The latter observation remained to be significant when cases that had been matched for clinicopathological criteria were compared (p = 0.037. Regarding BRCA1 associated breast cancer cases TRβ positivity turned out to be a positive prognostic factor for five-year (p = 0.007 and overall survival (p = 0.026 while TRα positivity predicted reduced five-year survival (p = 0.030. Activation of TRβ resulted in down-modulation of CTNNB1 while TRα inhibition reduced cell viability in HCC3153. However, only BRCA1 wildtype MCF7 cells were capable of rapidly degrading TRα1 in response to T3 stimulation. Significantly, this study identified TRβ to be up-regulated in BRCA1 associated breast cancer and revealed TRs to be associated with patients' prognosis. TRs were also found to be expressed in triple negative BRCA1 associated breast cancer. Further studies need to be done in order to evaluate whether TRs may become interesting targets of endocrine therapeutic approaches, especially when

  19. Family history and breast cancer hormone receptor status in a Spanish cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejuan Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease that impacts racial/ethnic groups differently. Differences in genetic composition, lifestyles, reproductive factors, or environmental exposures may contribute to the differential presentation of breast cancer among Hispanic women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population-based study was conducted in the city of Santiago de Compostela, Spain. A total of 645 women diagnosed with operable invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2005 participated in the study. Data on demographics, breast cancer risk factors, and clinico-pathological characteristics of the tumors were collected. Hormone receptor negative tumors were compared with hormone receptor postive tumors on their clinico-pathological characteristics as well as risk factor profiles. RESULTS: Among the 645 breast cancer patients, 78% were estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ or progesterone receptor-positive (PR+, and 22% were ER-&PR-. Women with a family history of breast cancer were more likely to have ER-&PR- tumors than women without a family history (Odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-2.26. This association was limited to cancers diagnosed before age 50 (Odds ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-5.81. CONCLUSIONS: An increased proportion of ER-&PR- breast cancer was observed among younger Spanish women with a family history of the disease.

  20. Interrelationships of Prenatal and Postnatal Growth, Hormones, Diet, and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    infants to investigate the association between maternal age, diet, preeclampsia , and infant birth weight, and hormone levels using the infants’ cord...was restricted to parous women, which prevented us from assessing whether the induced abortion and breast cancer relation was stronger among...and 38 controls had a first-degree family history of breast cancer preventing us from assessing its’ role as an effect modifier. In summary, our study

  1. Increased risk of breast cancer following different regimens of hormone replacement therapy frequently used in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlberg, Claudia; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown an increased risk of breast cancer following hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The aim of this study was to investigate whether different treatment regimens or the androgenecity of progestins influence the risk of breast cancer differently. The Danish Nurse Cohort...... was established in 1993, where all female nurses aged 45 years and above received a mailed questionnaire (n = 23,178). A total of 19,898 women returned the questionnaire (86%). The questionnaire included information on HRT types and regimens, reproductive history and lifestyle-related factors. Breast cancer cases...... performed using Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 244 women developed breast cancer during follow-up. After adjustment for confounding factors, an increased risk of breast cancer was found for the current use of estrogen only (RR = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.16-3.35), for the combined use of estrogen...

  2. Risk of Breast Cancer in Relation to Combined Effects of Hormone Therapy, Body Mass Index, and Alcohol Use, by Hormone-receptor Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Tjonneland, Anne; Keiding, Niels

    2015-01-01

    -risk" users is important for therapeutic reasons. We investigated interactions between hormone therapy use and alcohol-use/high BMI status in relation to invasive breast cancer risk, both overall and according to estrogen receptor (ER) status. METHODS: Two Danish prospective cohorts were pooled, including 30......BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption, increased body mass index (BMI), and hormone therapy are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, but their combined effects are not well understood. Because hormone therapy is effective for the relief of menopausal symptoms, the identification of "high......,938 person-years of follow-up, 1579 women developed invasive breast cancer. Among nonusers of hormone therapy, the risk of breast cancer was slightly increased with overweight/obesity and increasing alcohol consumption. Compared with normal-weight nonusers, the risk of breast cancer was higher in hormone...

  3. Prospectively measured thyroid hormones and thyroid peroxidase antibodies in relation to breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosovic, Ada; Becker, Charlotte; Bondeson, Anne-Greth; Bondeson, Lennart; Ericsson, Ulla-Britt; Malm, Johan; Manjer, Jonas

    2012-11-01

    Thyroid hormones influence both normal breast cell differentiation and breast cancer cell proliferation and stimulate the angiogenesis of certain cancer forms. Several cross-sectional studies have measured thyroid hormones/autoantibodies in breast cancer ceases vs. controls, but it is difficult to determine the cause-effect direction in these studies. Only three prospective studies have reported on the subject so far. The aim of our study was to investigate prediagnostically measured levels of thyroid hormones, thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid autoantibodies in relation to subsequent risk of breast cancer. The Malmoe Diet and Cancer study examined 17,035 women between 1991 and 1996. Blood samples were collected at baseline and free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxin (T4), TSH and thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (TPO-Ab) levels were measured in 676 cases and 680 controls. Relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were assessed using a logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders. Free T4 levels were positively associated with a high risk of breast cancer, and the OR for women with free T4 levels above vs. below the median was 1.40 (1.10-1.77). This association was most pronounced in overweight women (1.51:1.07-2.12). Women with high levels of TPO-Ab had a lower risk of breast cancer, but only the analysis of TPO-Ab as a continuous variable reached statistical significance. Free T4 was in our study positively associated with a high risk of breast cancer. This association was most pronounced in overweight/obese women. Women with a high level of TPO-Ab had a relatively low risk of breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  4. Serum calcium, tumor size, and hormone receptor status in women with untreated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaw, Sunn Sunn H; Sahmoun, Abe; Schwartz, Gary G

    2012-05-01

    Elevated serum levels of calcium are frequently observed in advanced breast cancer, but data on serum calcium and breast cancer characteristics at the time of breast cancer diagnosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 555 women with newly-diagnosed, untreated breast cancer in North Dakota. We examined the relationship between tumor size, serum calcium and other clinical characteristics of breast tumors, including age and hormone receptor status, using multiple linear regressions. Tumors that were estrogen receptor negative tended to be associated with higher serum calcium levels (p = 0.07). We observed a significant positive correlation between tumor volume and serum calcium levels (adjusted for patient age, body mass index, hormonal receptors, stage at diagnosis, and grade). The association between tumor volume and serum calcium was limited to post-menopausal women. Our finding that postmenopausal women with larger breast tumors had significantly higher serum calcium levels is consistent with a calciotropic effect of early breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

  5. Sex hormones and breast cancer risk in premenopausal women: collaborative reanalysis of seven prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships of circulating concentrations of oestrogens, progesterone and androgens with breast cancer and related risk factors in premenopausal women are not well understood. Methods Individual data on prediagnostic sex hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations were contributed by 7 prospective studies. Analyses were restricted to women who were premenopausal and under age 50 at blood collection, and to breast cancer cases diagnosed before age 50. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for breast cancer associated with hormone concentrations were estimated by conditional logistic regression in up to 767 cases and 1699 controls matched for age, date of blood collection, and day of cycle, with stratification by study and further adjustment for cycle phase. The associations of hormones with risk factors for breast cancer in control women were examined by comparing geometric mean hormone concentrations in categories of these risk factors, adjusted for study, age, phase of menstrual cycle and body mass index (BMI). All statistical tests were two-sided. Findings ORs for breast cancer associated with a doubling in hormone concentration were 1.19 (95% CI 1.06–1.35) for oestradiol, 1.17 (1.03–1.33) for calculated free oestradiol, 1.27 (1.05–1.54) for oestrone, 1.30 (1.10–1.55) for androstenedione, 1.17 (1.04–1.32) for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, 1.18 (1.03–1.35) for testosterone and 1.08 (0.97–1.21) for calculated free testosterone. Breast cancer risk was not associated with luteal phase progesterone (for a doubling in concentration OR=1.00 (0.92–1.09)), and adjustment for other factors had little effect on any of these ORs. The cross-sectional analyses in control women showed several associations of sex hormones with breast cancer risk factors. Interpretation Circulating oestrogens and androgens are positively associated with the risk for breast cancer in premenopausal women. PMID:23890780

  6. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2000-06-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function.

  7. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2010-01-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function. PMID:10903527

  8. Fulvestrant and Palbociclib in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Breast Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  9. Polymorphisms in steroid hormone biosynthesis genes and risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Lori C; Blackston, Christie; Doherty, Jennifer A; Ray, Roberta M; Lin, Ming Gang; Stalsberg, Helge; Gao, Dao Li; Feng, Ziding; Thomas, David B; Chen, Chu

    2008-05-01

    Common variants in genes encoding for key enzymes involved in steroidogenesis may alter sex steroid hormone levels, thereby influencing susceptibility to breast carcinoma and related conditions. In a case-control study of Chinese women, we examined genotypes of the CYP11A1 pentanucleotide [(TAAAA)n] repeat (D15S520), CYP17A1 rs743572, and HSD17B1 rs605059 polymorphisms in relation to the risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions, comparing 615 women with breast cancer and 467 women with fibrocystic breast conditions separately with 879 women without clinical breast disease. We also evaluated whether these relationships differed by the presence of proliferation in the extratumoral epithelium or fibrocystic lesions, menopausal status, or body mass index. Only CYP11A1 genotype was related to breast cancer risk, with women homozygous for the 4-repeat allele, relative to those homozygous for the 6-repeat allele, at reduced risk (age-adjusted odds ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.91). There was some suggestion of a stronger inverse association for breast cancer with evidence of proliferation in the extratumoral epithelium than for breast cancer without extratumoral proliferation. Breast cancer risk associated with CYP11A1 genotype did not differ by menopausal status or body mass index level. No associations between CYP11A1, CYP17A1, and HSD17B1 genotypes and risk of fibrocystic breast conditions were observed. Our findings support the possibility that common allelic variation at the CYP11A1 D15S520 locus alters breast cancer risk in Chinese women.

  10. Genetic modifiers of menopausal hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Anja; Hein, Rebecca; Lindström, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Women using menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) are at increased risk of developing breast cancer (BC). To detect genetic modifiers of the association between current use of MHT and BC risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide case-only studies followed by replication in 11 case-control...

  11. Prognostic factors for survival in metastatic breast cancer by hormone receptor status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwast, A.B.G.; Voogd, A.C.; Menke-Pluijmers, M.B.E.; Linn, S.C.; Sonke, G.S.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Siesling, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Hormone receptor (HR) status is an important prognostic factor for patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and is also correlated with other prognostic factors, such as initial lymph node status, HER2-Neu status and age. The prognostic value of these other factors, however, is unknown when

  12. Non-hormonal interventions for hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Gabriel; Capurro, Daniel; Pantoja, Tomas; Corbalán, Javiera; Moreno, Gladys; Letelier, Luz M; Vera, Claudio

    2010-09-08

    Hot flushes are common in women with a history of breast cancer. Hormonal therapies are known to reduce these symptoms but are not recommended in women with a history of breast cancer due to their potential adverse effects. The efficacy of non-hormonal therapies is still uncertain. To assess the efficacy of non-hormonal therapies in reducing hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer. We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, PsycINFO (August 2008) and WHO ICTRP Search Portal. We handsearched reference lists of reviews and included articles, reviewed conference proceedings and contacted experts. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing non-hormonal therapies with placebo or no therapy for reducing hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer. Two authors independently selected potentially relevant studies, decided upon their inclusion and extracted data on participant characteristics, interventions, outcomes and the risk of bias of included studies. Sixteen RCTs met our inclusion criteria. We included six studies on selective serotonin (SSRI) and serotonin-norepinephrine (SNRI) reuptake inhibitors, two on clonidine, one on gabapentin, two each on relaxation therapy and homeopathy, and one each on vitamin E, magnetic devices and acupuncture. The risk of bias of most studies was rated as low or moderate. Data on continuous outcomes were presented inconsistently among studies, which precluded the possibility of pooling the results. Three pharmacological treatments (SSRIs and SNRIs, clonidine and gabapentin) reduced the number and severity of hot flushes. One study assessing vitamin E did not show any beneficial effect. One of two studies on relaxation therapy showed a significant benefit. None of the other non-pharmacological therapies had a significant benefit. Side-effects were inconsistently reported. Clonidine, SSRIs and SNRIs, gabapentin and relaxation

  13. Tamoxifen for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the common cancers. Hormonal therapy along with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy are vital modalities for the management of breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the most widely used hormonal therapy for more than two decades. In this article we review the benefits, dose, duration and timing of Tamoxifen therapy in patients with breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, hormonal therapy, tamoxifen.

  14. An Automatic Framework for Assessing Breast Cancer Risk Due to Various Hormone Replacement Therapies (HRT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Brandt, Sami; Nielsen, Mads

    Background: It is well known that Menopausal Hormone therapy increases mammographic density. Increase in breast density may relate to breast cancer risk. Several computer assisted automatic methods for assessing mammographic density have been suggested by J.W. Byng (1996), N. Karssemeijer (1998), J...... measurements of breast density changes related to HRT. 2) To investigate whether transdermal low dose estradiol treatment induces changes in mammographic density compared to raloxifene and if these findings indicate elevation of breast cancer risk by treatment. Material and Methods: Digitised mammographies...... of 2x135 completers of a two year, randomised, trial formed the base of the present analysis. Active treatments were transdermal estradiol releasing 0.014mg E2/week and orally administered raloxifene hydrochloride, 60mg/day respectively. Influence of the therapies on breast density was assessed...

  15. Estrogen signalling and the DNA damage response in hormone dependent breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Elizabeth Caldon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen is necessary for the normal growth and development of breast tissue, but high levels of estrogen are a major risk factor for breast cancer. One mechanism by which estrogen could contribute to breast cancer is via the induction of DNA damage. This perspective discusses the mechanisms by which estrogen alters the DNA damage response (DDR and DNA repair through the regulation of key effector proteins including ATM, ATR, CHK1, BRCA1 and p53 and the feedback on estrogen receptor signalling from these proteins. We put forward the hypothesis that estrogen receptor signalling converges to suppress effective DNA repair and apoptosis in favour of proliferation. This is important in hormone-dependent breast cancer as it will affect processing of estrogen-induced DNA damage, as well as other genotoxic insults. DDR and DNA repair proteins are frequently mutated or altered in estrogen responsive breast cancer which will further change the processing of DNA damage. Finally the action of estrogen signalling on DNA damage is also relevant to the therapeutic setting as the suppression of a DNA damage response by estrogen has the potential to alter the response of cancers to anti-hormone treatment or chemotherapy that induces DNA damage.

  16. Prediagnostic Sex Steroid Hormones in Relation to Male Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Louise A; Key, Tim J; Kolonel, Laurence N; Michels, Karin B; Sesso, Howard D; Ursin, Giske; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Wood, Shannon N; Falk, Roni T; Parisi, Dominick; Guillemette, Chantal; Caron, Patrick; Turcotte, Véronique; Habel, Laurel A; Isaacs, Claudine J; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Cook, Michael B

    2015-06-20

    Although previous studies have implicated a variety of hormone-related risk factors in the etiology of male breast cancers, no previous studies have examined the effects of endogenous hormones. Within the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, an international consortium comprising 21 case-control and cohort investigations, a subset of seven prospective cohort studies were able to contribute prediagnostic serum or plasma samples for hormone quantitation. Using a nested case-control design, multivariable unconditional logistic regression analyses estimated odds ratios and 95% CIs for associations between male breast cancer risk and 11 individual estrogens and androgens, as well as selected ratios of these analytes. Data from 101 cases and 217 matched controls were analyzed. After adjustment for age and date of blood draw, race, and body mass index, androgens were found to be largely unrelated to risk, but circulating estradiol levels showed a significant association. Men in the highest quartile had an odds ratio of 2.47 (95% CI, 1.10 to 5.58) compared with those in the lowest quartile (trend P = .06). Assessment of estradiol as a ratio to various individual androgens or sum of androgens showed no further enhancement of risk. These relations were not significantly modified by either age or body mass index, although estradiol was slightly more strongly related to breast cancers occurring among younger (age < 67 years) than older men. Our results support the notion of an important role for estradiol in the etiology of male breast cancers, similar to female breast cancers. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  17. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Risk of Breast Cancer in Korean Women: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Myon Bae

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer incidence by age group in Korean women are unique. This systematic review aimed to investigate the association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT and breast cancer risk in Korean women. Methods: We searched electronic databases such as KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, and RISS4U as well as PubMed for publications on Korean breast cancer patients. We also conducted manual searching based on references and citations in potential papers. All of the analytically epidemiologic studies that obtained individual data on HRT exposure and breast cancer occurrence in Korean women were selected. We restricted the inclusion of case-control studies to those that included age-matched controls. Estimates of summary odds ratio (SOR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using random effect models. Results: One cohort and five case-control studies were finally selected. Based on the heterogeneity that existed among the six studies (I-squared=70.2%, a random effect model was applied. The summary effect size of HRT history from the six articles indicated no statistical significance in breast cancer risk (SOR, 0.983; 95% CI, 0.620 to 1.556. Conclusions: These facts support no significant effect of HRT history in the risk of breast cancer in Korean women. It is necessary to conduct a pooled analysis.

  18. Reproductive and hormonal risk factors of breast cancer: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Julie; Vatten, Lars J

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of breast cancer etiology has puzzled scientists for more than 300 years. In this brief review, we emphasize the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in relation to the risk of breast cancer. By following the historical course of how various risk factors have been determined, this study attempts to illustrate the origin of hypotheses, their subsequent rejection, and development of new hypotheses. Starting with the contributions of Italian physicians in the 18th century and covering the activity of British epidemiologists before World War II, this review ends up with the international collaboration that became increasingly important in the second half of the 20th century.

  19. Flavonoid-induced autophagy in hormone sensitive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Elisa; Pinton, Giulia; Bellini, Paolo; Minassi, Alberto; Appendino, Giovanni; Moro, Laura

    2009-09-01

    The activity of 8-prenylapigenin (8-PA) and its 3'-methoxylated analogue isocannflavin B (IsoB) was investigated in estrogen-dependent T47-D and estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. 8-PA showed a biphasic effect on T47-D cell proliferation, while no significant effect was observed on MDA-MB-231 cells. Conversely, IsoB exhibited only an inhibitory effect on T47-D cell proliferation, accompanied by the appearance of an intense intracytoplasmic vacuolization of autophagic origin. Moreover, biochemical analysis showed that IsoB reduced Akt phosphorylation and p21(Cip1) expression in T47-D cells. These data show that the prenylflavone moiety is a versatile platform for the induction and modulation of bioactivity.

  20. Serum levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and calcium in relation to survival following breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Linnea; Butt, Salma; Borgquist, Signe; Almquist, Martin; Malm, Johan; Manjer, Jonas

    2014-09-01

    Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium in blood are correlated with each other. Previous studies have suggested vitamin D to have anti-proliferative effects on tumor cells, whereas PTH may have carcinogenic effects. A cancer disease may influence calcium levels in blood, but less is known about calcium and its potential effect on cancer risk and survival. The aim of this study was to examine pre-diagnostic levels of vitamin D (25OHD), PTH and calcium in relation to survival after breast cancer. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study enrolled 17,035 women between 1991 and 1996. 672 patients developed incident invasive breast cancer up until 31 December 2006. Serum samples collected at baseline were analyzed for 25OHD, PTH and calcium. All patients were followed until 31 December 2010 using the Swedish Cause of Death Registry. The analytes were divided into tertiles and the risk of death from breast cancer was analyzed using an adjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis, yielding hazard ratios with 95 % confidence intervals. Levels of 25OHD and breast cancer mortality were associated in a u-shaped manner with the highest mortality among patients in the first (2.46: 1.38-4.37) and third tertiles (1.99: 1.14-3.49), as compared to the second. An inverse relation was found between calcium levels and breast cancer mortality, with the lowest mortality in the third tertile, (0.53: 0.30-0.92) as compared to the first. There was no clear association between PTH and breast cancer mortality. This study shows that pre-diagnostic 25OHD and calcium may affect survival following breast cancer.

  1. Estrogen-biosynthesis gene CYP17 and its interactions with reproductive, hormonal and lifestyle factors in breast cancer risk: results from the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Gammon, Marilie D; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Britton, Julie A; Terry, Mary Beth; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Eng, Sybil M; Wang, Qiao; Gurvich, Irina; Neugut, Alfred I; Santella, Regina M; Ahsan, Habibul

    2008-04-01

    The genes that are involved in estrogen biosynthesis, cellular binding and metabolism may contribute to breast cancer susceptibility. We examined the effect of the CYP17 promoter T --> C polymorphism and its interactions with the reproductive history, exogenous hormone use and selected lifestyle risk factors on breast cancer risk among 1037 population-based incident cases and 1096 population-based controls in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. Overall, there were no associations between the CYP17 genotype and breast cancer risk. Among postmenopausal women, the joint exposure to higher body mass index (BMI) and the variant C allele was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR), 1.60; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.22]. The joint exposure to the variant C allele and long-term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (>51 months) was related to an increased risk of breast cancer (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.99-2.31) especially estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.08-3.25). Among the control population, the CYP17 variant C allele was inversely associated with long-term use of postmenopausal HRT and a higher BMI in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the CYP17 variant C allele may increase breast cancer risk in conjunction with long-term HRT use and high BMI in postmenopausal women.

  2. Height, age at menarche and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritte, R.; Lukanova, A.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Mesrine, S.; Fagherazzi, G.; Dossus, L.; Teucher, B.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Associations of breast cancer overall with indicators of exposures during puberty are reasonably well characterized; however, uncertainty remains regarding the associations of height, leg length, sitting height and menarcheal age with hormone receptor-defined malignancies. Within the European

  3. Hormonal Regulation of Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xian, Wa; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2004-01-01

    Our laboratory is interested in studying the mechanisms by which lactogenic hormones regulate Beta-casein gene expression and how alterations in the levels of these hormones may function in the growth...

  4. Association between chronological change of reproductive factors and breast cancer risk defined by hormone receptor status: results from the Seoul Breast Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seokang; Park, Sue K; Sung, Hyuna; Song, Nan; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Yoo, Keun-Young; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kang, Daehee

    2013-08-01

    Lifestyle factors have been chronologically changed into western style ones, which could result in the rapid increase of breast cancer incidence in Korea. It is plausible that reproductive factors through hormonal mechanisms are differentially related to the risk of breast cancer subtypes. We investigated the association of reproductive risk factors on breast cancer by birth year groups and also evaluated the differential associations on the hormone receptor-defined subtypes. Using the data from the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SeBCS), a multicenter case-control study, 3,332 breast cancer patients and 3,620 control subjects were analyzed. The distribution of subtypes among cases was as follows: 61.0 % estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, 51.9 % progesterone receptor (PR)-positive, and 43.4 % both ER/PR-positive status, respectively. Polytomous logistic regression and Wald tests for heterogeneity have been used across the subtypes. The frequencies of reproductive-related risk factors including early age at menarche, nulligravid, age at first full-term pregnancy (FFTP), duration of estrogen exposure before FFTP (EEBF), less number of children, never breastfeeding, and short duration of breastfeeding has increased as women were born later in both cases and controls, respectively (p trend breast cancer patients, either ER- or PR-positive subtypes were increased in women born in 1960s compared to women born in 1940s. Early age at menarche increased the risk of breast cancer regardless of the subtypes while nulligravid, late age at FFTP, and longer duration of EEBP were associated with hormone receptor-positive cancer risk only (p heterogeneity age at menarche, parity, age at FFTP, and duration of EEBF with breast cancer risk were different based on the hormone receptor status and birth year groups in Korea.

  5. Serum estrogen and SHBG levels and breast cancer incidence among users and never users of hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Anne Mette Lund; Tjønneland, Anne; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard

    2012-01-01

    Levels of endogenous estrogen and SHBG are associated with risk of breast cancer among women who have never used hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We investigated these associations in both never and baseline users of HRT.......Levels of endogenous estrogen and SHBG are associated with risk of breast cancer among women who have never used hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We investigated these associations in both never and baseline users of HRT....

  6. Aromatase Inhibitor-Induced Erythrocytosis in a Patient Undergoing Hormonal Treatment for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi Yeruva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatase inhibitors (AIs are most commonly used for breast cancer patients with hormone receptor positive disease. Although the side effect profile of aromatase inhibitors is well known, including common side effects like arthralgia, bone pain, arthritis, hot flashes, and more serious problems like osteoporosis, we present a case of an uncommon side effect of these medications. We report the case of a postmenopausal woman on adjuvant hormonal therapy with anastrozole after completing definitive therapy for stage IIIB estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, who was referred to hematology service for evaluation of persistent erythrocytosis. Primary and known secondary causes of polycythemia were ruled out. On further evaluation, we found that her erythrocytosis began after initiation of anastrozole and resolved after it was discontinued. We discuss the pathophysiology of aromatase inhibitor-induced erythrocytosis and reference of similar cases reported in the literature.

  7. Cognitive Deficits in Breast Cancer Survivors After Chemotherapy and Hormonal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jennifer Sandson; Vance, David E; Triebel, Kristen L; Meneses, Karen M

    2015-12-01

    Adjuvant treatments, specifically chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, have dramatically increased breast cancer survival, resulting in increased attention to the residual effects of treatment. Breast cancer survivors (BCS) frequently report that cognitive deficits are a particular source of distress, interfering with many aspects of quality of life. The literature on neuropsychological performance measures in BCS supports the reality of subtle cognitive deficits after both chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. This premise is supported by recent imaging studies, which reveal anatomical changes after chemotherapy as well as changes in patterns of neural activation while performing cognitive tasks. This review suggests that, even when performance on neuropsychological performance measures is within normal limits, BCS may be using increased cognitive resources in the face of reduced cognitive reserve. Potential interventions for cognitive deficits after adjuvant therapy include prescriptions for healthy living, pharmacotherapy, complementary therapy, and cognitive remediation therapy directed toward specific cognitive deficits or a combination of several strategies.

  8. Hormone replacement therapy after breast cancer: attitudes of women eligible in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallberg, B; von Schoultz, E; Bolund, C; Bergh, J; Wilking, N

    2009-12-01

    Objectives To investigate the attitudes of breast cancer patients who accepted or declined participation in a randomized trial with hormone replacement therapy that might increase their risk of recurrence (the Stockholm trial). Methods A total of 115 patients free from breast cancer recurrence were interviewed; 57 were participants and 58 were non-participants in the Stockholm trial. Patients answered five questionnaires regarding information needs (two), attitudes to participation in trials (two) and patient role in treatment decisions (one). Results Participants in the Stockholm trial had a lower risk of breast cancer recurrence (measured by node-positive disease and tumor size) and were older than non-participants. Their information needs were the same. Participants in the trial were more prepared to accept uncertainty, to have an altruistic attitude, to accept risks including an increased risk of recurrence of breast cancer, if their quality of life or general health was improved. Most patients preferred a collaborative role in relation to their physician but participants often wanted more influence than they had in treatment decisions. Conclusion A patient's decision to accept or decline participation in the Stockholm trial was influenced by her objective risk of breast cancer recurrence and reflected her attitude to risk, uncertainty and preference to be active in treatment decisions.

  9. Preeclampsia-Associated Hormonal Profiles and Reduced Breast Cancer Risk Among Older Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Preeclampsia has been linked to reduced breast cancer risk, and this reduction may be especially marked among women who bear their first child later...in life. In this ongoing case-control study, we examine the hormonal profiles of older Colorado mothers with and without a history of preeclampsia in...premenopausal, and are free of serious chronic disease. Cases are 14 Denver area women who experienced preeclampsia in their first pregnancy; controls are 13

  10. Association between contralateral prophylactic mastectomy and breast cancer outcomes by hormone receptor status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Abenaa M; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Parker, Patricia A; Dong, Wenli; Peterson, Susan K; Cantor, Scott B; Crosby, Melissa; Shen, Yu

    2012-11-15

    The effect of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) on the survival of patients with early-stage breast cancer remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of CPM using a propensity scoring approach that reduces selection bias from the nonrandom assignment of patients in observational studies. A total of 3889 female patients with stage I to III breast cancer were identified who were treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from 1997 to 2009. We assessed the association between CPM and disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS), by using Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs), and by matching patients in the CPM and no-CPM groups using propensity scores (n = 497 pairs). With a median follow-up time of 4.5 years, CPM was associated with improved DFS (HR, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.97) and OS (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99), adjusted for prognostic factors. The improved DFS was seen predominantly among hormone receptor-negative (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.38-0.95) compared with hormone receptor-positive patients (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.58-1.10). For the matched patient cohort, stratified survival analysis also showed an improvement in DFS with CPM (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.22-1.01) in hormone receptor-negative patients that was nearly statistically significant. CPM was associated with improved DFS for some patients with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer, after reducing selection bias. Identifying subsets of patients most likely to benefit from CPM may have important implications for a more personalized approach to treatment decisions about CPM. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  11. Non-hormonal interventions for hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rada

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hot flushes are common in women with a history of breast cancer. Hormonal therapies are known to reduce these symptoms but are not recommended in women with a history of breast cancer due to their potential adverse effects. The efficacy of non-hormonal therapies is still uncertain. OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of non-hormonal therapies in reducing hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer. METHODS Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Lilacs, CINAHL, PsycINFO (August 2008 and WHO ICTRP Search Portal. We handsearched reference lists of reviews and included articles, reviewed conference proceedings and contacted experts. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing non-hormonal therapies with placebo or no therapy for reducing hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently selected potentially relevant studies, decided upon their inclusion and extracted data on participant characteristics, interventions, outcomes and the risk of bias of included studies. MAIN RESULTS Sixteen RCTs met our inclusion criteria. We included six studies on selective serotonin (SSRI and serotonin-norepinephrine (SNRI reuptake inhibitors, two on clonidine, one on gabapentin, two each on relaxation therapy and homeopathy, and one each on vitamin E, magnetic devices and acupuncture. The risk of bias of most studies was rated as low or moderate. Data on continuous outcomes were presented inconsistently among studies, which precluded the possibility of pooling the results. Three pharmacological treatments (SSRIs and SNRIs, clonidine and gabapentin reduced the number and severity of hot flushes. One study assessing vitamin E did not show any beneficial effect. One of two studies on relaxation therapy showed a significant benefit. None of the other non-pharmacological therapies

  12. Non-hormonal interventions for hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hot flushes are common in women with a history of breast cancer. Hormonal therapies are known to reduce these symptoms but are not recommended in women with a history of breast cancer due to their potential adverse effects. The efficacy of non-hormonal therapies is still uncertain. OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of non-hormonal therapies in reducing hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer. METHODS Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Lilacs, CINAHL, PsycINFO (August 2008 and WHO ICTRP Search Portal. We handsearched reference lists of reviews and included articles, reviewed conference proceedings and contacted experts. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing non-hormonal therapies with placebo or no therapy for reducing hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently selected potentially relevant studies, decided upon their inclusion and extracted data on participant characteristics, interventions, outcomes and the risk of bias of included studies. MAIN RESULTS Sixteen RCTs met our inclusion criteria. We included six studies on selective serotonin (SSRI and serotonin-norepinephrine (SNRI reuptake inhibitors, two on clonidine, one on gabapentin, two each on relaxation therapy and homeopathy, and one each on vitamin E, magnetic devices and acupuncture. The risk of bias of most studies was rated as low or moderate. Data on continuous outcomes were presented inconsistently among studies, which precluded the possibility of pooling the results. Three pharmacological treatments (SSRIs and SNRIs, clonidine and gabapentin reduced the number and severity of hot flushes. One study assessing vitamin E did not show any beneficial effect. One of two studies on relaxation therapy showed a significant benefit. None of the other non-pharmacological therapies

  13. Multiple cancer/testis antigens are preferentially expressed in hormone-receptor negative and high-grade breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tseng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis (CT antigens are protein antigens normally expressed only in germ cells of testis, and yet are expressed in a proportion of a wide variety of human cancers. CT antigens can elicit spontaneous immune responses in cancer patients with CT-positive cancers, and CT antigen-based therapeutic cancer vaccine trials are ongoing for "CT-rich" tumors. Although some previous studies found breast cancer to be "CT-poor", our recent analysis identified increased CT mRNA transcripts in the ER-negative subset of breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we performed a comprehensive immunohistochemical study to investigate the protein expression of eight CT genes in 454 invasive ductal carcinomas, including 225 ER/PR/HER2-negative (triple-negative carcinomas. We found significantly more frequent expression of all eight CT antigens in ER-negative cancers, and five of them--MAGEA, CT7, NY-ESO-1, CT10 and CT45, were expressed in 12-24% of ER-negative cancers, versus 2-6% of ER-positive cancers (p2 cm. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CT antigens are preferentially expressed in hormone receptor-negative and high-grade breast cancer. Considering the limited treatment options for ER/PR/HER2 triple-negative breast cancer, the potential of CT-based immunotherapy should be explored.

  14. Estrogen receptor activation by tobacco smoke condensate in hormonal therapy-resistant breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Toshifumi; Shinagawa, Yuri; Asari, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kanae; Takanobu, Junko; Gohno, Tatsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Yuri; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between tobacco smoke and breast cancer incidence has been studied for many years, but the effect of smoking on hormonal therapy has not been previously reported. We investigated the effect of smoking on hormonal therapy by performing in vitro experiments. We first prepared tobacco smoke condensate (TSC) and examined its effect on estrogen receptor (ER) activity. The ER activity was analyzed using MCF-7-E10 cells into which the estrogen-responsive element (ERE)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene had been stably introduced (GFP assay) and performing an ERE-luciferase assay. TSC significantly activated ERs, and upregulated its endogenous target genes. This activation was inhibited by fulvestrant but more weakly by tamoxifen. These results suggest that the activation mechanism may be different from that for estrogen. Furthermore, using E10 estrogen depletion-resistant cells (EDR cells) established as a hormonal therapy-resistant model showing estrogen-independent ER activity, ER activation and induction of ER target genes were significantly higher following TSC treatment than by estradiol (E2). These responses were much higher than those of the parental E10 cells. In addition, the phosphorylation status of signaling factors (ERK1/2, Akt) and ER in the E10-EDR cells treated with TSC increased. The gene expression profile induced by estrogenic effects of TSC was characterized by microarray analysis. The findings suggested that TSC activates ER by both ligand-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Although TSC constituents will be metabolized in vivo, breast cancer tissues might be exposed for a long period along with hormonal therapy. Tobacco smoke may have a possibility to interfere with hormonal therapy for breast cancer, which may have important implications for the management of therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of oestrogen on microRNA expression in hormone-responsive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Lorenzo; Ravo, Maria; Nassa, Giovanni; Tarallo, Roberta; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Giurato, Giorgio; Cirillo, Francesca; Stellato, Claudia; Silvestro, Silvana; Cantarella, Concita; Rizzo, Francesca; Cimino, Daniela; Friard, Olivier; Biglia, Nicoletta; De Bortoli, Michele; Cicatiello, Luigi; Nola, Ernesto; Weisz, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates oestrogen effects in hormone-responsive cells. Following oestrogenic activation, ERα directly regulates the transcription of target genes via DNA binding. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small noncoding RNAs that function as negative regulators of protein-coding gene expression. They are found aberrantly expressed or mutated in cancer, suggesting their crucial role as either oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes. Here, we analysed changes in miRNA expression in response to oestrogen in hormone-responsive breast cancer MCF-7 and ZR-75.1 cells by microarray-mediated expression profiling. This led to the identification of 172 miRNAs up- or down-regulated by ERα in response to 17β-oestradiol, of which 52 are similarly regulated by the hormone in the two cell models investigated. To identify mechanisms by which ERα exerts its effects on oestrogen-responsive miRNA genes, the oestrogen-dependent miRNA expression profiles were integrated with global in vivo ERα binding site mapping in the genome by ChIP-Seq. In addition, data from miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles obtained under identical experimental conditions were compared to identify relevant miRNA target transcripts. Results show that miRNAs modulated by ERα represent a novel genomic pathway to impact oestrogen-dependent processes that affect hormone-responsive breast cancer cell behaviour. MiRNome analysis in tumour tissues from breast cancer patients confirmed a strong association between expression of these small RNAs and clinical outcome of the disease, although this appears to involve only marginally the oestrogen-regulated miRNAs identified in this study.

  16. Risk of second breast cancers after lobular carcinoma in situ according to hormone receptor status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Mao

    Full Text Available Although subsequent breast cancer risk after primary lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS has been studied intensively, whether the risk of second breast cancer after first LCIS varies with hormone receptor (HR status of primary tumor remains unclear.We identified 10,304 women with primary pure unilateral LCIS between 1998 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER 18 Registries. Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5 or 10-year probabilities of second ipsilateral breast cancers (IBCs and contralateral breast cancers (CBCs were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional model was performed to identify impact of HR status of primary LCIS, and other demographic, clinicopathologic or treatment characteristics on risk of second IBCs or CBCs.Of the 10,304 women with primary LCIS included in this study, 9949 (96.5% patients had HR+ tumors, and 355 (3.5% had HR- tumors. Multivariable-adjusted analyses showed that although there was no difference in risk of total second IBCs between women with HR+ and HR- LCIS (P = 0.152, patients with HR+ LCIS had a statistically lower risk of second invasive IBCs compared to those with HR- LCIS (hazard ratio 0.356, 95% CI 0.141-0.899, P = 0.029. Women with primary HR+ LCIS had lower risks of both second total and invasive CBCs compared to those with HR- LCIS (total CBCs: hazard ratio 0.340, 95% CI 0.228-0.509, P<0.001; invasive CBCs: hazard ratio 0.172, 95% CI 0.108-0.274, P<0.001. Additionally, black women had a 2-fold risk of developing subsequent total IBCs than white women (P = 0.028.This population-based study demonstrated that the risk of second breast cancers was significantly increased in women with HR- first LCIS compared to those with HR+ LCIS. These findings warrant intensive surveillance for second breast cancers in HR- LCIS survivors.

  17. Vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaus, Marleen J; Peeters, Petra H M; Bakker, Marije F; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Baglietto, Laura; Fortner, Renée T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Polidoro, Silvia; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Travier, Noémie; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Winkvist, Anna; Wennberg, Maria; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J; Aune, Dagfinn; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; van Gils, Carla H

    2016-01-01

    The recent literature indicates that a high vegetable intake and not a high fruit intake could be associated with decreased steroid hormone receptor-negative breast cancer risk. This study aimed to investigate the association between vegetable and fruit intake and steroid hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk. A total of 335,054 female participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort were included in this study (mean ± SD age: 50.8 ± 9.8 y). Vegetable and fruit intake was measured by country-specific questionnaires filled out at recruitment between 1992 and 2000 with the use of standardized procedures. Cox proportional hazards models were stratified by age at recruitment and study center and were adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. After a median follow-up of 11.5 y (IQR: 10.1-12.3 y), 10,197 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed [3479 estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+PR+); 1021 ER and PR negative (ER-PR-)]. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of vegetable intake was associated with a lower risk of overall breast cancer (HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94). Although the inverse association was most apparent for ER-PR- breast cancer (ER-PR-: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.96; P-trend = 0.03; ER+PR+: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.05; P-trend = 0.14), the test for heterogeneity by hormone receptor status was not significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.09). Fruit intake was not significantly associated with total and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk. This study supports evidence that a high vegetable intake is associated with lower (mainly hormone receptor-negative) breast cancer risk. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Aging Impacts Transcriptome but not Genome of Hormone-dependentBreast Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yau, Christina; Fedele, Vita; Roydasgupta, Ritu; Fridlyand, Jane; Hubbard, Alan; Gray, Joe W.; Chew, Karen; Dairkee, Shanaz H.; Moore, DanH.; Schittulli, Francesco; Tommasi, Stefania; Paradiso, Angelo; Albertson, Donna G.; Benz, Christopher C.

    2007-10-09

    Age is one of the most important risk factors for human malignancies, including breast cancer; in addition, age-at-diagnosis has been shown to be an independent indicator of breast cancer prognosis. However, except for inherited forms of breast cancer, there is little genetic or epigenetic understanding of the biological basis linking aging with sporadic breast cancer incidence and its clinical behavior.

  19. [Advanced luminal breast cancer (hormone receptor-positive, HER2 negative): New therapeutic options in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Hélène; Bally, Olivia; Kassem, Loay; Tredan, Olivier; Heudel, Pierre; Bachelot, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Despite improvements in early detection, surgery and systemic therapy, metastatic breast cancer remains a major cause of death. Luminal type breast cancers expressing hormone estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone (PR) and without HER2 overexpression are generally sensitive to endocrine therapy, but raise the issue of the occurrence of resistance to treatment, particularly at metastatic stage. A better understanding of hormone resistance may guide the development of new therapeutics. New strategies aim at enhancing and prolonging of endocrine sensitivity, by optimizing existing schemes, or by combining an endocrine therapy with a targeted therapies specific to hormone resistance pathways: ER signaling, PI3K/AKT/mTOR and Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK). Key corners of 2014 include confirmation of benefit of high dose fulvestrant, and commercialization of everolimus as the first mTOR inhibitor in this indication. Other strategies are being tested dealing with new endocrine therapies or new molecular targets such as PI3K inhibitors, insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-R) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Coming years may be fruitful and might radically change our way to treat these patients. Copyright © 2015 Société Françise du Cancer. Publié par Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Hyperactivation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase promotes escape from hormone dependence in estrogen receptor–positive human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd W.; Hennessy, Bryan T.; González-Angulo, Ana M.; Fox, Emily M.; Mills, Gordon B.; Chen, Heidi; Higham, Catherine; García-Echeverría, Carlos; Shyr, Yu; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2010-01-01

    Many breast cancers exhibit a degree of dependence on estrogen for tumor growth. Although several therapies have been developed to treat individuals with estrogen-dependent breast cancers, some tumors show de novo or acquired resistance, rendering them particularly elusive to current therapeutic strategies. Understanding the mechanisms by which these cancers develop resistance would enable the development of new and effective therapeutics. In order to determine mechanisms of escape from hormone dependence in estrogen receptor–positive (ER-positive) breast cancer, we established 4 human breast cancer cell lines after long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED). LTED cells showed variable changes in ER levels and sensitivity to 17β-estradiol. Proteomic profiling of LTED cells revealed increased phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrates p70S6 kinase and p85S6 kinase as well as the PI3K substrate AKT. Inhibition of PI3K and mTOR induced LTED cell apoptosis and prevented the emergence of hormone-independent cells. Using reverse-phase protein microarrays, we identified a breast tumor protein signature of PI3K pathway activation that predicted poor outcome after adjuvant endocrine therapy in patients. Our data suggest that upon adaptation to hormone deprivation, breast cancer cells rely heavily on PI3K signaling. Our findings also imply that acquired resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer may be abrogated by combination therapies targeting both ER and PI3K pathways. PMID:20530877

  1. Mast cells in invasive ductal breast cancer: different behavior in high and minimum hormone-receptive cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Rovere, Filippo; Granata, Angelo; Familiari, Dario; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Mondello, Baldassare; Basile, Giacomo

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the role of mast cells (MC) in cancer have given contrasting results. In order to contribute to the clarification of their role, research on breast cancer was carried out, because some aspects of its carcinogenesis, such as the diversity of the hormonal component, differ greatly. This study included 50 cases of invasive ductal breast cancer not otherwise specified (NOS): 25 of them were high hormone-receptive (HHR) cancers with estrogen and progesterone receptor values not lower than 50%, 25 were minimum hormone-receptive (MHR) cancers (< 5%). In both groups, mast cells were quantified in the peritumoral area. Twenty cases of surgical interventions for non-neoplastic esthetic prosthesis in healthy women were examined as controls. The proliferation index Ki-67 (MIB1) and the c-erb B2 receptor protein were also considered in cancer patients. Mast cells were detected using Giemsa and Alcian blue stains. The results obtained showed that there was a highly significant increase in the number of mast cells mainly in the peritumoral area in HHR cancer cases (p < 0.0001) compared to MHR cancers and controls (p < 0.0001). Comparison between mast cells in MHR cancer and control cases was not significant (p = 0.114). Hormone-receptive cancers have a less severe prognosis for their higher responsiveness to therapy. This element may suggest that the higher mast cell number present in these types of cancer is a favorable prognostic factor. Moreover, mast cells tend to accumulate around the cancer area and this can be seen as an attempt to oppose the progression of the anomalous tissue. Mast cells were reported to exhibit cytolytic activity against tumor cells.

  2. Pharmacologic management of bone-related complications and bone metastases in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yardley DA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Denise A Yardley1,2 1Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: There is a high risk for bone loss and skeletal-related events, including bone metastases, in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Both the disease itself and its therapeutic treatments can negatively impact bone, resulting in decreases in bone mineral density and increases in bone loss. These negative effects on the bone can significantly impact morbidity and mortality. Effective management and minimization of bone-related complications in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer remain essential. This review discusses the current understanding of molecular and biological mechanisms involved in bone turnover and metastases, increased risk for bone-related complications from breast cancer and breast cancer therapy, and current and emerging treatment strategies for managing bone metastases and bone turnover in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, bone metastases, hormone receptor-positive, bone-related complications, interventions, management and management strategies, estrogen receptor-positive

  3. Cognitive function and discontinuation of adjuvant hormonal therapy in older breast cancer survivors: CALGB 369901 (Alliance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluethmann, Shirley M; Alfano, Catherine M; Clapp, Jonathan D; Luta, George; Small, Brent J; Hurria, Arti; Cohen, Harvey J; Sugarman, Steven; B Muss, Hyman; Isaacs, Claudine; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effects of cognitive function on discontinuation of hormonal therapy in breast cancer survivors ages 65+ ("older"). Older breast cancer survivors with invasive, non-metastatic disease, and no reported cognitive difficulties were recruited from 78 Alliance sites between 2004 and 2011. Eligible survivors (n = 1280) completed baseline interviews; follow-up was conducted annually for up to 7 years. Survivors with estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) cancers who initiated hormonal therapy (n = 990) were included. Self-reported cognitive function was measured using the EORTC-QLQ30 scale; a difference of eight points on the 0-100 scale was considered clinically significant. Based on varying rates of discontinuation over time, discontinuation was evaluated separately for three time periods: early (3-5 years). Cox models for each time period were used to evaluate the effects of cognition immediately preceding discontinuation, controlling for age, chemotherapy, and other covariates. Survivors were 65-91 years old (mean 72.6 years), and 79% had stages 1 or 2A disease. Overall, 43% discontinued hormonal therapy before 5 years. Survivors who reported lower cognitive function in the period before discontinuation had greater hazards of discontinuing therapy at the treatment midpoint (HR 1.22 per 8-point difference, CI 1.09-1.40, p cognition was not related to discontinuation in the other periods. Self-reported cognitive problems were a significant risk factor for discontinuation of hormonal therapy 1-3 years post-initiation. Additional research is needed on the temporality of cognitive effects and hormonal therapy to support survivorship care needs of older survivors.

  4. Relationships of sex steroid hormone levels in benign and cancerous breast tissue and blood: A critical appraisal of current science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanczyk, Frank Z; Mathews, Brett W; Sherman, Mark E

    2015-07-01

    A systematic review of the literature on sex steroid measurement in breast tissue identified only 19 articles meeting the following criteria: menopausal status given; steroids measured in tissue homogenates by conventional RIA with a purification step or by mass spectrometry; and values reported per g tissue or per g protein. Twelve articles were analyzed in detail for: ratios of sex steroid hormone levels in cancerous or benign tissues to blood levels, stratified by menopausal status; ratios between the different hormone levels within tissues or within blood; and difference in these ratios between tissue and blood compartments. Estrogen and androgen concentrations varied greatly in benign and cancerous tissues and in blood between individuals. Postmenopausal, but not premenopausal, estradiol concentrations were significantly higher in cancerous compared to benign breast tissue. The estradiol/estrone ratio was lowest in premenopausal benign tissue, and substantially higher in premenopausal cancerous tissue and postmenopausal benign and cancerous tissues. Estradiol and estrone levels were considerably higher in tissue than in plasma in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Androgen levels were generally higher in the benign than the cancerous tissue, and tissue androgen levels were higher than in plasma, suggesting in situ aromatization of androgens to estrogens in breast cancer tissue. Limited available data on levels of hydroxylated estrogens in breast tissue compared to corresponding levels in plasma or urine were reviewed, but due to the paucity of studies no conclusions can presently be drawn regarding the relationship of the 2-hydroxyestrone:16α-hydroxyestrone ratio to breast cancer risk and genotoxic effects of 4-hydroxylated estrogens. Finally, data on hormone levels in breast adipose tissue were analyzed; high levels of androstenedione and testosterone and significant estrone and estradiol levels in breast adipocytes from postmenopausal breast

  5. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of breast cancer: the role of progestins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlberg, Claudia Irene; Pederson, Anette Tønnes; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2003-01-01

    . Recent studies originating from both the USA and Europe suggest that the combined treatment regimens with estrogen and progestin increase the risk of breast cancer beyond the risk following the use of unopposed estrogen. At present it is not known if progestins with different androgenicity influence......Epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of breast cancer associated with the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This notion is mostly based on studies from the USA. During the last decades unopposed estrogen treatment has been used to a lesser extent, whereas the combined...... estrogen-progestin treatment regime is now prescribed worldwide. In the USA the predominant compounds are conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone-acetate, whereas oestradiol combined with testosterone-like progestins is commonly used in Europe. These differences are largely the result of traditions...

  6. Hormone-replacement therapy influences gene expression profiles and is associated with breast-cancer prognosis: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Skoog Lambert; Shaw Peter; Pawitan Yudi; Nordgren Hans; Miller Lance D; Liu Edison T; Lin Chin-Yo; Huang Fei; Bjöhle Judith; Ploner Alexander; Hall Per; Smeds Johanna; Wedrén Sara; Öhd John; Bergh Jonas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Postmenopausal hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) increases breast-cancer risk. The influence of HRT on the biology of the primary tumor, however, is not well understood. Methods We obtained breast-cancer gene expression profiles using Affymetrix human genome U133A arrays. We examined the relationship between HRT-regulated gene profiles, tumor characteristics, and recurrence-free survival in 72 postmenopausal women. Results HRT use in patients with estrogen receptor (ER) pr...

  7. Young couples' experiences of breast cancer during hormone therapy: an interpretative phenomenological dyadic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Pascal; Vanlemmens, Laurence; Fournier, Emmanuelle; Trocmé, Mélanie; Christophe, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Young women are confronted with the same consequences of cancer as older women are. In addition, they face problems specifically related to their age, such as their children's education and their family responsibilities, marital relationships, and career issues. The objective was to identify the functioning profiles of young couples confronted with hormone therapy. This study was both qualitative and dyadic. Interviews with 11 couples revealed 5 themes. Initially, the partners reported increased intimacy and mutual support; however, during hormone therapy, a divergence developed between the patients and their partners. The partners wished for the couple to resume a normal life. The patients' loved ones, also helpful in the beginning, were tempted to promote this resumption of normalcy, with the risk that the patients' suffering would no longer be acknowledged. The risk of cancer recurrence appeared to immobilize the patients, who were unable to adopt a long-term perspective. Finally, the experience of the disease led the participants to reorganize their priorities and promoted self-centering. Breast cancer affects both the patient and her loved ones. Future research should focus on qualitative extensions to other stages of cancer treatment and quantitative studies to measure the phenomena revealed in the current work. Cancer and its treatment have impacts on the patient and her marriage; therefore, the focus for the clinical care should be on the couple rather than just the patient. Additionally, our findings suggest new areas of psychological dyadic counseling for cancer patients and their partners.

  8. Tumor subtype-specific associations of hormone-related reproductive factors on breast cancer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available It is inconclusive whether reproductive factors, which are known as risk factors of breast cancer, also influence survival. We investigated overall and subtype-specific associations between reproductive factors and breast cancer survival.Among 3,430 incident breast cancer patients who enrolled in the Seoul Breast Cancer Study, 269 patients (7.8% died and 528 patients (15.4% recurred. The overall and subtype-specific associations of reproductive factors including age at menarche and menopause, duration of estrogen exposure, menstrual cycle, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy, number of children, age at last birth, time since the last birth, and duration of breastfeeding, on overall and disease-free survival (OS and DFS were estimated by hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model.An older age at menarche (HR for OS=1.10, 95% CI=1.03-1.19, a greater number of children (≥ 4 vs. 2, HR for DFS=1.58, 95% CI=1.11-2.26, and a shorter time since last birth (<5 vs. ≥ 20 years, HR for DFS=1.67, 95% CI=1.07-2.62 were associated with worse survival while longer duration of estrogen exposure with better survival (HR for DFS=0.97, 95% CI=0.96-0.99. In the stratified analyses by subtypes, those associations were more pronounced among women with hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor 2 positive (HR+ HER2+ tumors.It is suggested that reproductive factors, specifically age at menarche, number of children, time since last birth, and duration of estrogen exposure, could influence breast tumor progression, especially in the HR+ HER2+ subtype.

  9. Hormone receptor status of contralateral breast cancers: analysis of data from the US SEER population-based registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezencev, Roman; Švajdler, Marián

    2017-05-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer display higher propensity to develop second primary cancer in the contralateral breast (CBC). Identification of patients with increased risk of CBC and understanding relationships between hormone receptor (HR) statuses of the first and second breast cancers is desirable for endocrine-based prevention strategies. Using 1992-2012 data from 13 SEER registries, the risk of developing CBC was determined as ratio of observed and expected second breast cancers (SIR). Association between HR statuses was examined by exploratory data analysis and multivariable logistic regression. Women with ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers have increased risk of developing CBC with SIR values 2.09 (CI 95 = 1.97-2.21) and 2.40 (CI 95 = 2.18-2.63), respectively. ER statuses of the CBC are moderately positively associated. In metachronous CBC, most cases with ER-positive first cancers had ER-positive second breast cancers (81.6 %; CI 95 = 80.2-82.9 %); however, considerable proportion of cases with ER-negative first cancers had ER-positive second cancers (48.8 %; CI 95 = 46.2-51.4 %). Some women with ER-negative breast cancers may benefit from endocrine-based prevention of ER-positive CBC.

  10. Breast Cancer Suspicion in a Transgender Male-to-Female Patient on Hormone Replacement Therapy Presenting with Right Breast Mass: Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Presentation of a Rare Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystina Tongson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing use of hormonal therapy among male-to-female (MtF transgender individuals. This long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT renders MtF individuals a unique patient subgroup in terms of breast cancer risk. This case describes a MtF transgender who presented with a breast lesion concerning for malignancy following hormonal replacement therapy. The patient additionally had a strong family history of breast cancer. Final pathology revealed lobular hyperplasia in the setting of gynecomastia and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH. Both pathology findings are rare in biological females, let alone in the setting of hormone replacement therapy in a MtF individual. While the number of reported cases of suspicious breast lesions in this population remains scarce, it presents both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to the nature of the treatment course and the lack of research in this recently growing subgroup of patients.

  11. Lifestyle influences on the association between pre-diagnostic hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer prognosis - results from The Danish 'Diet, Cancer and Health' prospective cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Marianne; Olsen, Anja; Kroman, Niels

    2014-01-01

    , and Health" diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) were identified and their pre-diagnostic HRT use evaluated for association with tumour biology and breast cancer outcome in multivariate analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Breast cancer specific mortality. RESULTS: Of the 1212 patients originally considered 1064......OBJECTIVES: The association between pre-diagnostic hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast cancer specific mortality as well as potential influences from other lifestyle factors on the association was investigated. STUDY DESIGN: Female participants from the prospective cohort "Diet, Cancer...... were included. Of these, 105 women died from breast cancer during a median follow-up of 6.3 years (range 0.2-14.3 years). In multivariate analyses women who used HRT at enrolment into the cohort study had 47% lower risk of dying from breast cancer as compared to women who had previously or never used...

  12. Hormonally up-regulated neu-associated kinase: A novel target for breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Joelle N; Neely, Benjamin A; Yeh, Elizabeth S

    2017-05-01

    Hormonally up-regulated neu-associated Kinase (Hunk) is a protein kinase that was originally identified in the murine mammary gland and has been shown to be highly expressed in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 positive (HER2 + /ErbB2 + ) breast cancer cell lines as well as MMTV-neu derived mammary tumor cell lines. However, the physiological role of Hunk has been largely elusive since its identification. Though Hunk is predicted to be a Serine/Threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinase with homology to the SNF1/AMPK family of protein kinases, there are no known Hunk substrates that have been identified to date. Recent work demonstrates a role for Hunk in HER2 + /ErbB2 + breast cancer progression, including drug resistance to HER2/ErbB2 inhibitors, with Hunk potentially acting downstream of HER2/ErbB2 and the PI3K/Akt pathway. These studies have collectively shown that Hunk plays a vital role in promoting mammary tumorigenesis, as Hunk knockdown via shRNA in xenograft tumor models or crossing MMTV-neu or Pten-deficient genetically engineered mouse models into a Hunk knockout (Hunk-/-) background impairs mammary tumor growth in vivo. Because the majority of HER2 + /ErbB2 + breast cancer patients acquire drug resistance to HER2/ErbB2 inhibitors, the characterization of novel drug targets like Hunk that have the potential to simultaneously suppress tumorigenesis and potentially enhance efficacy of current therapeutics is an important facet of drug development. Therefore, work aimed at uncovering specific regulatory functions for Hunk that could contribute to this protein kinase's role in both tumorigenesis and drug resistance will be informative. This review focuses on what is currently known about this under-studied protein kinase, and how targeting Hunk may prove to be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of various options of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the hormonal status of patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Sidorenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study hormone balance changes caused by various options of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT in patients with breast cancer (BC. Materials and methods. Data on 200 patients aged 30 to 65 years with primary BC (Stages IIB-IIIA, who had been treated at the Rostov Cancer Research Institute in 2006 to 2009, served as a material for the study. The levels of steroid hormones of the estrogenic, androgenic, and glucocorticoid series were studied before and after neoadjuvant CT.Results. When neoadjuvant poly-CT (PCT was performed on automedia, the levels of total estrogens were almost unchanged; the frac- tions of estrone and estriol also remained stable. Only estradiol levels were recorded to show a certain declining tendency.There were considerable changes in the expression of all steroid hormones during preoperative systemic PCT.According o the drug therapy option, significant differences were found in the time course of changes in blood cortisol levels. Conclusion. Neoadjuvant CT on automedia results in diminished estrogenization irrespective of age and the phase of the menstrual cycle.

  14. Recent trends in hormone therapy utilization and breast cancer incidence rates in the high incidence population of Marin County, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orenstein Fern

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent declines in invasive breast cancer have been reported in the US, with many studies linking these declines to reductions in the use of combination estrogen/progestin hormone therapy (EPHT. We evaluated the changing use of postmenopausal hormone therapy, mammography screening rates, and the decline in breast cancer incidence specifically for Marin County, California, a population with historically elevated breast cancer incidence rates. Methods The Marin Women's Study (MWS is a community-based, prospective cohort study launched in 2006 to monitor changes in breast cancer, breast density, and personal and biologic risk factors among women living in Marin County. The MWS enrolled 1,833 women following routine screening mammography between October 2006 and July 2007. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included items regarding historical hormone therapy regimen (estrogen only, progesterone only, EPHT, age of first and last use, total years of use, and reason(s for stopping, as well as information regarding complementary hormone use. Questionnaire items were analyzed for 1,083 non-Hispanic white participants ages 50 and over. Breast cancer incidence rates were assessed overall and by tumor histology and estrogen receptor (ER status for the years 1990-2007 using data from the Northern California Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER cancer registry. Results Prevalence of EPHT use among non-Hispanic white women ages 50 and over declined sharply from 21.2% in 1998 to 6.7% by 2006-07. Estrogen only use declined from 26.9% in 1998 to 22.4% by 2006-07. Invasive breast cancer incidence rates declined 33.4% between 2001 and 2004, with drops most pronounced for ER+ cancers. These rate reductions corresponded to declines of about 50 cases per year, consistent with population attributable fraction estimates for EPHT-related breast cancer. Self-reported screening mammography rates did not change

  15. Menstruation recovery after chemotherapy and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist plus tamoxifen therapy for premenopausal patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kenichi; Matsuo, Sadanori; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao; Shiono, Motomi

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the period required for menstruation recovery after long-term luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist plus tamoxifen therapy following chemotherapy. In this study we investigated the period required for menstruation recovery after the therapy. The subjects comprised 105 premenopausal breast cancer patients who had undergone surgery. All patients were administered an LH-RH agonist for 24 months and tamoxifen for 5 years following the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, and the status of menstruation recovery was examined. Menstruation resumed in 16 cases (15.2%) after the last LH-RH agonist treatment session. The mean period from the last LH-RH agonist treatment to the recovery of menstruation was 6.9 months. The rate of menstruation recovery was 35.5% in patients aged 40 years or younger and 8.0% in those aged 41 years or older, and it was significantly higher in those aged 40 years or younger. The period until menstruation recovery tended to be longer in older patients at the end of treatment. This study showed that menstruation resumed after treatment at higher rates in younger patients. However, because it is highly likely that ovarian function will be destroyed by the treatment even in young patients, it is considered necessary to explain the risk to patients and obtain informed consent before introducing this treatment modality.

  16. Reproductive and hormonal risk profile according to language acculturation and country of residence in the Ella Binational Breast Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodora, Jesse N; Gallo, Linda; Cooper, Renee; Wertheim, Betsy C; Natarajan, Loki; Thompson, Patricia A; Komenaka, Ian K; Brewster, Abenaa; Bondy, Melissa; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Meza-Montenegro, María Mercedes; Gutierrez-Millan, Luis Enrique; Martínez, María Elena

    2014-06-01

    We compared the distribution of breast cancer reproductive and hormonal risk factors by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent. To compare the distribution of breast cancer reproductive and hormonal risk factors by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent, taking into account level of education, we analyzed data on 581 Mexican and 620 Mexican American (MA) women with a history of invasive breast cancer from the Ella Binational Breast Cancer Study. An eight-item language-based acculturation measure was used to classify MA women. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test associations between language acculturation, country of residence, and reproductive and hormonal risk factors. After adjustment for age and education, compared to women residing in Mexico, English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have an earlier age at menarche (education. Results support continued efforts to educate Mexican and MA women on screening and early detection of breast cancer along with promotion of modifiable factors, such as breastfeeding.

  17. Osteoprotegerin and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype: a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Sarink, Danja; Schock, Helena; Johnson, Theron; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Affret, Aurélie; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Van Gils, Carla H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rinaldi, Sabina; Dossus, Laure; Gunter, Marc; Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2017-02-08

    Circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) axis, may influence breast cancer risk via its role as the decoy receptor for both the RANK ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Circulating OPG and breast cancer risk has been examined in only one prior study. A case-control study was nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 2008 incident invasive breast cancer cases (estrogen receptor (ER)+, n = 1622; ER-, n = 386), matched 1:1 to controls, were included in the analysis. Women were predominantly postmenopausal at blood collection (77%); postmenopausal women included users and non-users of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT). Serum OPG was quantified with an electrochemiluminescence assay. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. The associations between OPG and ER+ and ER- breast cancer differed significantly. Higher concentrations of OPG were associated with increased risk of ER- breast cancer (top vs. bottom tertile RR = 1.93 [95% CI 1.24-3.02]; p trend  = 0.03). We observed a suggestive inverse association for ER+ disease overall and among women premenopausal at blood collection. Results for ER- disease did not differ by menopausal status at blood collection (p het  = 0.97), and we observed no heterogeneity by HT use at blood collection (p het  ≥ 0.43) or age at breast cancer diagnosis (p het  ≥ 0.30). This study provides the first prospective data on OPG and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype. High circulating OPG may represent a novel risk factor for ER- breast cancer.

  18. The breast cancer hormone receptor retesting controversy in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: lessons for the health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Deborah M; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with hormonal treatment is determined by the presence of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status in breast cancer. In Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), 425 of 1088 (39.1%) patients who had original "negative" receptor tests conducted between 1997 and 2005, had positive results upon retesting in a specialized laboratory. This commentary addresses (1) the diagnostic utility of estrogen and progesterone testing for breast cancer in general, (2) specific testing problems that occurred in NL, (3) scientific problems associated with retesting, and (4) the impact on public trust and the resulting legal and political responses that occurred as a result of the adverse events associated with false-negative hormone receptor tests. Finally, the lessons learned will be discussed including known high false-negative rates associated with the tests and the bias associated with retesting, the need for quality assurance and national standards, public education, and appropriate communication with patients and the public.

  19. Palbociclib: A Novel Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor for Hormone Receptor-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangini, Neha S; Wesolowski, Robert; Ramaswamy, Bhuvaneswari; Lustberg, Maryam B; Berger, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    To review palbociclib, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6, and its current place in therapy for the treatment of hormone receptor (HMR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2)-negative advanced breast cancer. Four phase I trials, 2 phase II trials, and 1 phase III trial were identified from May 2004 to May 2015 using PubMed, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) abstracts, and European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) abstracts. In the first-line setting, the phase II PALbociclib: Ongoing trials in the Management of breast cAncer (PALOMA)-1 trial randomized patients to receive letrozole alone or letrozole plus palbociclib 125 mg daily for 3 weeks, followed by 1 week off, as initial therapy for advanced breast cancer. The investigator-assessed median progression-free survival (PFS) was 20. 2 months for the combination versus 10.2 months for letrozole alone (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.488; 95% CI = 0.319-0.748; 1-sided P = 0.0004). The ensuing Food and Drug Administration approval of palbociclib was given a "breakthrough therapy" designation, where preliminary evidence suggests substantial improvement over existing therapies for a serious or life-threatening disease. A confirmatory phase III trial, PALOMA-2, is under way. In patients who were previously treated with endocrine therapy for advanced breast cancer, the phase III PALOMA-3 trial randomized patients to fulvestrant plus palbociclib versus fulvestrant plus placebo. The investigator-assessed median PFS at the time of a preplanned analysis was 9.2 months with palbociclib-fulvestrant compared with 3.8 months with placebo-fulvestrant (HR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.32-0.56; P Palbociclib, the first-in-class CDK4/6 inhibitor, significantly extended PFS in combination with endocrine therapy in the first and subsequent lines of treatment for HMR-positive, Her2-negative advanced breast cancer. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Associations of hormone-related factors with breast cancer risk according to hormone receptor status among white and African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Shrubsole, Martha J; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Fair, Alecia M; Sanderson, Maureen; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Kelley, Mark C; Zheng, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Causes of racial disparities in breast cancer incidence and mortality between white and African American women remain unclear. This study evaluated associations of menstrual and reproductive factors with breast cancer risk by race and cancer subtypes. Included in the study were 1866 breast cancer cases and 2306 controls recruited in the Nashville Breast Health Study, a population-based case-control study. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). African American women were more likely to have estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)), progesterone receptor-negative (PR(-)), and triple-negative (ER(-)PR(-)HER2(-)) breast cancer than white women. Age at menarche (≥ 14 years) and multiparity (≥ 3 live births) were inversely associated with ER(+) tumors only, whereas late age at first live birth (> 30 years) and nulliparity were associated with elevated risk; such associations were predominantly seen in white women (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.55-0.88; OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.56-0.92; OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.13-1.79; OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.06-1.63, respectively). Age at menopause between 47 and 51 years was associated with elevated risk of ER(-) tumors in both white and African American women. Among women who had natural menopause, positive association between ever-use of hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer risk was seen in white women only (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.03-1.87). This study suggests that certain hormone-related factors are differentially associated with risk of breast cancer subtypes, and these associations also differ by race. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex steroid induced apoptosis as a rational strategy to treat anti-hormone resistant breast and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, V Craig; Fan, Ping; Abderrahman, Balkees; Maximov, Philipp Y; Hawsawi, Yousef M; Bhattacharya, Poulomi; Pokharel, Niranjana

    2016-05-01

    The combined incidence and the extended disease course of breast and prostate cancer is a major challenge for health care systems. The solution for society requires an economically viable treatment strategy to maintain individuals disease free and productive, so as to avoid the fracture of the family unit. Forty years ago, translational research using the antiestrogen tamoxifen was targeted to estrogen receptor (ER) positive micrometastatic tumor cells and established the long-term antihormone adjuvant treatment strategy used universally today. The antihormone strategy was the accepted structure of cancer biology. Sex steroid deprivation therapy remains the orthodox strategy for the treatment of both breast and prostate cancer. Despite major initial therapeutic success, the strategies of long term anti-hormone therapies with either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors (AI) or antiandrogens or abiraterone for breast and prostate cancer, respectively, eventually lead to a significant proportion of anti-hormone resistant or stimulated tumor growth. Remarkably, a general principle of anti-hormone resistance has emerged for both breast and prostate cancer based primarily on clinical and supportive laboratory data. Paradoxically, anti-hormone resistant cell populations emerge and grow but are vulnerable to the cytotoxicity of estrogen or androgen-induced apoptosis for both breast and prostate cancer, respectively. These consistent anticancer actions of sex steroids appear to recapitulate the more complex mechanism of bone remodeling in elderly men and women during sex steroid deprivation. Estrogen is the key hormone in both sexes because in men androgen is first converted to estrogen. Estrogen regulates and triggers apoptosis in osteoclasts that develop during estrogen deprivation and destroy bone to cause osteoporosis. Sex steroid deprived breast and prostate cancer has recruited a streamlined natural apoptotic program from the human genome, but this is suppressed in the

  2. Clinical relevance of "withdrawal therapy" as a form of hormonal manipulation for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson John FR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown in in-vitro experiments that "withdrawal" of tamoxifen inhibits growth of tumor cells. However, evidence is scarce when this is extrapolated into clinical context. We report our experience to verify the clinical relevance of "withdrawal therapy". Methods Breast cancer patients since 1998 who fulfilled the following criteria were selected from the departmental database and the case-notes were retrospectively reviewed: (1 estrogen receptor positive, operable primary breast cancer in elderly (age > 70 years, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer; (2 disease deemed suitable for treatment by hormonal manipulation; (3 disease assessable by UICC criteria; (4 received "withdrawal" from a prior endocrine agent as a form of therapy; (5 on "withdrawal therapy" for ≥ 6 months unless they progressed prior. Results Seventeen patients with median age of 84.3 (53.7-92.5 had "withdrawal therapy" as second to tenth line of treatment following prior endocrine therapy using tamoxifen (n = 10, an aromatase inhibitor (n = 5, megestrol acetate (n = 1 or fulvestrant (n = 1. Ten patients (58.8% had clinical benefit (CB (complete response/partial response/stable disease ≥ 6 months with a median duration of Clinical Benefit (DoCB of 10+ (7-27 months. Two patients remain on "withdrawal therapy" at the time of analysis. Conclusion "Withdrawal therapy" appears to produce sustained CB in a significant proportion of patients. This applies not only to "withdrawal" from tamoxifen, but also from other categories of endocrine agents. "Withdrawal" from endocrine therapy is, therefore, a viable intercalating option between endocrine agents to minimise resistance and provide additional line of therapy. It should be considered as part of the sequencing of endocrine therapy.

  3. Does fasting during Ramadan trigger non-adherence to oral hormonal therapy in breast cancer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeneldin, Ahmed Abdelmabood; Gaber, Ayman Abdelsamee; Taha, Fatma Mohamed

    2012-09-01

    To estimate the effect of fasting during Ramadan (the ninth lunar month) on adherence to oral hormonal therapies (OHT) among breast cancer (BC) patients. During Ramadan 2010, 139 BC patients were interviewed at the Egyptian National Cancer Institute. They were asked about fasting as well as intake of OHT in Ramadan and in the preceding month. The median age was 50years and most patients were postmenopausal with good performance status and non-metastatic disease. The median number of fasting days was 18% and 93% of patients were fasting 80% or more of Ramadan. Tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors were used in 64% and 36%, respectively. Adherence to OHT during Ramadan and its preceding month were 94.2% and 95.7%, respectively (p=0.77). In univariate analysis, non-adherence prior to Ramadan and shorter duration of OHT were predictors of non-adherence during Ramadan (PFasting, age, performance status, presence of metastases and type of hormonal therapy were not good predictors of adherence. While most of patients receiving OHT for BC are fasting during Ramadan, this does not negatively impact compliance with treatment. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Reproductive and hormonal risk factors of breast cancer: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn J

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Julie Horn,1,2 Lars J Vatten1 1Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trøndelag Hospital Trust, Levanger, Norway Abstract: The complexity of breast cancer etiology has puzzled scientists for more than 300 years. In this brief review, we emphasize the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in relation to the risk of breast cancer. By following the historical course of how various risk factors have been determined, this study attempts to illustrate the origin of hypotheses, their subsequent rejection, and development of new hypotheses. Starting with the contributions of Italian physicians in the 18th century and covering the activity of British epidemiologists before World War II, this review ends up with the international collaboration that became increasingly important in the second half of the 20th century. Keywords: age at first birth, epidemiology, estrogen, lactation, parity, pregnancy

  5. New Treatment Option for Young Women with Hormone-Sensitive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBSCG), in partnership with the Breast International Group (BIG) and the North American Breast Cancer Group, and funded by the U.S. National Cancer ... treatment with tamoxifen plus ovarian function suppression. At five years ... cancer after treatment with exemestane plus ovarian function suppression; ...

  6. In real life, one-quarter of patients with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer receive chemotherapy as initial palliative therapy: a study of the Southeast Netherlands Breast Cancer Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, D.J.; Kampen, R.J. van; Voogd, A.C.; Dercksen, M.W.; Berkmortel, F. van den; Smilde, T.J.; Wouw, A.J. van de; Peters, F.P.; Riel, J.M. van; Peters, N.A.; Boer, M. de; Peer, P.G.; Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to present initial systemic treatment choices and the outcome of hormone receptor-positive (HR+) metastatic breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All the 815 consecutive patients diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer in 2007-2009 in eight participating

  7. The theory of modulated hormone therapy for the treatment of breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa S. Wiley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a theory that questions the standard of care for pre- and post-menopausal women with breast cancer. Through the use of modulated hormones to mimic the natural multiphasic fluctuations of estrogen and progesterone cycles of healthy young women, it can be expected that patients will not only exhibit increased quality of life such as better sleep, well-being, and libido, but also memory improvement and less joint pain. Additionally, this regimen may engage genetic pathways that protect women in youth from breast cancers. We present a mathematical basis for the coupling of the hormone cycles through the use of Gaussian curves that provides the foundation of a new format of hormone replacement in women.

  8. Thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRa) tissue expression in ductal invasive breast cancer: A study combining quantitative immunohistochemistry with digital slide image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampoudis, P; Agrogiannis, G; Kontzoglou, K; Kouraklis, G; Sotiropoulos, G C

    2017-08-01

    In breast cancer, hormonal receptors hold promise for developing novel targeted therapies. The thyroid exerts its actions via the thyroid hormone receptors alpha and beta. The clinical significance of the expression of thyroid hormone receptors in breast cancer is unclear. We studied thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRa) expression in 82 samples from 41 women with ductal invasive breast cancer and no thyroid disease. We performed quantitative immunohistochemistry with digital image analysis and correlated TRa expression with clinicopathological parameters. TRa was expressed in both normal breast epithelium and breast cancer, but expression in breast cancer was significantly lower. TRa was expressed significantly less in larger and grade III tumors. Conversely, breast cancers with lymphovascular invasion showed increased TRa expression compared to cancers without lymphovascular invasion. TRa expression was not significantly different between node-positive and node-negative breast cancers, or among different hormonal profiles and intrinsic subtypes. This is the first-in-human study to combine quantitative immunohistochemistry with image analysis to study TRa expression in women with ductal invasive breast cancer and no clinical or biochemical evidence of thyroid dysfunction. We confirm that TRa is expressed in both normal and malignant breast epithelium and suggest that TRa expression is downregulated during breast carcinogenesis. Larger and higher grade breast cancers demonstrate partial loss in TRa expression. Alterations in TRa expression take place even in the absence of clinical or biochemical thyroid disease. The underlying mechanism of these findings and their potential significance in survival and relapse mandate further research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  9. Interrelationships of Prenatal and Postnatal Growth, Hormones, Diet, and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanderson, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    .... Based on these interrelationships, we hypothesized that insulin resistance would be positively associated with breast cancer, and that genetic susceptibility, and adolescent/adult diet and physical...

  10. Signaling Components of the Anti-Tumor Hormone Somatostatin in Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tentler, John

    1999-01-01

    .... Experimentally and clinically, somatostatin can inhibit breast cancer cell growth, possibly by inhibiting the secretion of growth factors, or by acting directly on the cells themselves to induce...

  11. Signaling Components of the Anti-Tumor Hormone Somatostatin in Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tentler, John

    2000-01-01

    .... Experimentally and clinically, somatostatin can inhibit breast cancer cell growth, possibly by inhibiting the secretion of growth factors, or by acting directly on the cells themselves to induce...

  12. The role of histological subtype in hormone receptor positive metastatic breast cancer: similar survival but different therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, Dorien; Truin, Wilfred; Voogd, Adri; Roumen, Rudi; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; Dercksen, Marcus Wouter; van den Berkmortel, Franchette; Smilde, Tineke; van de Wouw, Agnes; van Kampen, Roel; van Riel, Johanna; Peters, Natascha; Peer, Petronella; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G

    2016-05-17

    This study describes the differences between the two largest histological breast cancer subtypes (invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive (mixed) lobular carcinoma (ILC) with respect to patient and tumor characteristics, treatment-choices and outcome in metastatic breast cancer. Patients with ILC were older at diagnosis of primary breast cancer and had more often initial bone metastasis (46.5% versus 34.8%, P = 0.01) and less often multiple metastatic sites compared to IDC (23.7% versus 30.9%, P = 0.11). Six months after diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, 28.1% of patients with ILC and 39.8% of patients with IDC had received chemotherapy with a longer median time to first chemotherapy for those with ILC (P = 0.001). After six months 84.8% of patients with ILC had received endocrine therapy versus 72.5% of patients with IDC (P = 0.0001). Median overall survival was 29 months for ILC and 25 months for IDC (P = 0.53). We included 437 patients with hormone receptor-positive IDC and 131 patients with hormone receptor-positive ILC, all diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer between 2007-2009, irrespective of date of the primary diagnosis. Patient and tumor characteristics and data on treatment and outcome were collected. Survival curves were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method. Treatment strategies of hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer were remarkably different for patients with ILC and IDC. Further research is required to understand tumor behavior and treatment-choices in real-life.

  13. Hormonal Receptor, Human Epidermal Growth Factor and Its Association with Breast Cancer Tumor Characteristics in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajenga, Edlira; Rexha, Tefta; Çeliku, Silva; Ugrinska, Ana; Bejtja, Gazmend

    2016-09-01

    This retrospective study was designed to analyze expression patterns of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2/neu in Albanian patients with breast carcinoma to identify their relationships with tumor size, histological grade (HG), lymph node metastasis and relapse. Patients with either biopsy or metastatic relapse were identified. Demographics, tumor characteristics, ER, PR, and HER2/neu status were retrospectively obtained from the medical records of patients treated with breast cancer during 2006-2011. Hormonal receptors and HER2/neu were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Association of ER, PR and HER2/neu with clinicopathological and molecular characteristics were studied using Fisher's test. P value ≤0.05 was considered significant. There were 110 patients included in the study. Mean patient age was 51.08±10.75 years. The overall immunoexpression of ER, PR and HER2/neu were found positive in 76 (69%), 73 (67%), and 16 (41%) patients, respectively. ER- was associated with higher histological grade (24% vs. 9.2%) and PR+ with tumor size (T2, 78.3 vs. 64.3) (p=0.02 and 0.05, respectively). ER and PR expression were significantly decreased in HER2/neu positive cases while HER2/neu levels correlated with tumor size (p=0.03) and nodal metastasis (p=0.03). No association was detected between ER, PR, HER2/neu and relapse. A combination of ER, PR and HER2/neu and prognostic factors could be of clinical value by defining subgroups in Albanian breast cancer patients that might benefit from more aggressive treatment.

  14. Prospectively measured thyroid hormones and thyroid peroxidase antibodies in relation to risk of different breast cancer subgroups: a Malmö Diet and Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jasmine; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid hormone level has been positively associated with breast cancer risk and with breast cancer cell proliferation and growth. Although breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, this is the first study assessing pre-diagnostic levels of free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in relation to breast cancer subgroups and aggressiveness. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study collected blood samples from 17,035 women between 1991 and 1996. Free T3, free T4, TSH, and TPO-Ab were analyzed in 676 incident breast cancer cases and 680 controls. Breast tumors were classified according to tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, histological grade, histological type, hormone receptor status (ER, PgR), as well as Ki67, cyclin D1, and p27. Odds ratios of different breast cancer subgroups were calculated using a logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders. High fT4 was associated with a statistically significant higher risk of overall breast cancer, small, grade I, ER-positive, PgR-positive, and cyclin D1 low tumors. The associations for ER and PgR were verified in a heterogeneity analysis. Low TPO-Ab was associated with a higher risk of overall breast cancer, ductal, large, ER-positive, PgR-positive, cyclin D1 low, and p27 high tumors. The heterogeneity analysis verified the association for tumor size. Free T3 was not associated with overall breast cancer risk, but in the heterogeneity analysis, high fT3 was associated with tumor size and expression of p27. There were no strong associations between TSH and overall breast cancer risk or any tumor subgroup. High pre-diagnostic fT4 levels and low pre-diagnostic TPO-Ab levels were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. This increase was mainly limited to a higher incidence rate of less aggressive breast cancer subgroups.

  15. Incidences of breast cancer throughout long-term hormone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Prieto, J; Juez-Martel, P

    2007-05-01

    To report the main incidences related to diagnosis of breast cancer in a randomly selected cohort population of women treated with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), always in conjunction with the opposed progestin, medroxy progesterone acetate (MPA) throughout prolonged oral administration. One hundred and seventy-eight women were subsequently studied before and during the treatment (cohort study). The profile of studied patients included family and personal histories, gynecological and breast examinations, basal hormonal levels, bone mass concentration (BMC) as well as total cholesterol levels and their fractions. The usual clinical cut off age was applied at the beginning of treatment according to following criteria: (a) women less than 60 years old (91.60%), and (b) women more than 60 years old (8.40%), by assuming that a primary protective effect of HRT might be lost or diminished after surpassing this age threshold. In all the treated women were thoroughly advised about the importance of diet, exercises and self-determination. Both oral CEE 0.625 mg/daily and either 2.5 mg/daily or 5 mg/daily of MPA were administrated in accordance with The American Fertility Society Meeting after 1995 (Seattle) recommendations, following two patterns: (1) cycles or perimenopausal women: from days 1 to 25, and (2) postmenopausal women, from Monday to Friday. No other specific treatments were prescribed. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 12.0 and G-stat 2.0. Evaluation of basal hormonal levels, BMC, cholesterol levels and their fractions were not included in the current study. Data from the statistical analysis of 178 treated women were as follow: mean duration of treatment 8.06 years for all women; in the younger age group 7.97, and in the older age group 9.04. Total of 1405.5 woman-years of follow-up, 119 women for more than 5 years (66.85%), and more times (68.18%) with CEE plus MPA 5 mg/daily regime. Dropouts occurred in 34 women (19.10%). Main incidences

  16. MR and mammographic imaging features of HER2-positive breast cancers according to hormone receptor status: a retrospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung Eun; Bae, Min Sun; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya; Ryu, Han Suk; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-07-01

    Background Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer has two distinct subtypes according to hormone receptor (HR) status. Survival, pattern of recurrence, and treatment response differ between HR-/HER2+ and HR+/HER2+ cancers. Purpose To investigate imaging and clinicopathologic features of HER2+ cancers and their correlation with HR expression. Material and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 252 consecutive patients with 252 surgically confirmed HER2+ cancers (125 HR- and 127 HR+) were included. Two experienced breast radiologists blinded to the clinicopathologic findings reviewed the mammograms and magnetic resonance (MR) images using the BI-RADS lexicon. Tumor kinetic features were acquired by computer-aided detection (CAD). The imaging and clinicopathologic features of 125 HR-/HER2+ cancers were compared with those of 127 HR+/HER2+ cancers. Association between the HR status and each feature was assessed. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that circumscribed mass margin (odds ratio [OR], 4.73; P HER2+ cancers. Between the two HER2+ subtypes, there were no differences in mammographic imaging presentations and calcification features and MR kinetic features by a CAD. Conclusion HER2+ breast cancers have different MR imaging (MRI) phenotypes and clinicopathologic feature according to HR status. MRI features related to HR and HER2 status have the potential to be used for the diagnosis and treatment decisions in HER2+ breast cancer patients.

  17. Prostate-Derived Ets Transcription Factor Overexpression is Associated with Nodal Metastasis, Hormone Receptor Positivity in Invasive Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Turcotte

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-derived Ets transcription factor (PDEF has recently been associated with invasive breast cancer, but no expression profile has been defined in clinical specimens. We undertook a comprehensive PDEF transcriptional expression study of 86 breast cancer clinical specimens, several cell lines, normal tissues. PDEF expression profile was analyzed according to standard clinicopathologic parameters, compared with hormonal receptor, HER-2/neu status, to the expression of the new tumor biomarker Dikkopf-1 (DKK1. Wide ranging PDEF overexpression was observed in 74% of tested tumors, at higher levels than the average expression found in normal breasts. High PDEF expression was associated with hormone receptor positivity (P < .001, moderate to good differentiation (less than grade III, P = .01, dissemination to axillary lymph nodes (P = .002. PDEF was an independent risk factor for nodal involvement (multivariate analysis, odds ratio 1.250, P = .002. It was expressed in a different subgroup compared to DKK1-expressing tumors (P < .001. Our data imply that PDEF mRNA expression could be useful in breast cancer molecular staging. Further insights into PDEF functions at the protein level, possible links with hormone receptors biology, bear great potential for new therapeutic avenues.

  18. 11q13 is a Susceptibility Locus for Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambrechts, Diether; Truong, Therese; Justenhoven, Christina

    2012-01-01

    A recent two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified five novel breast cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 9, 10 and 11. To provide more reliable estimates of the relative risk associated with these loci and investigate possible heterogeneity by subtype of breast cancer, we ge...

  19. The role of hormones in the differences in the incidence of breast cancer between Mongolia and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Rebecca; Ganmaa, Daavasambuu; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Rosenberg, Philip S; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Frasier, Lindsay; Houghton, Lauren; Janes, Craig; Stanczyk, Frank; Hoover, Robert N

    2014-01-01

    There are striking differences in breast cancer incidence between Asian and western women. Rates vary substantially within Asia also, with Mongolia's even lower than China's. These profound differences have been speculated to be due in part to diet, mediated by circulating hormone concentrations. Sex steroid hormone concentrations were measured in women living in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia and the United Kingdom (U.K.). Diet was obtained by interview and national survey data. Mean hormone differences were compared by country, and systematic variation by number of days since last menstrual period was modeled and adjusted for age and parity; difference in overall area under the curves was assessed. The diet in Mongolia was higher in meat and dairy than in the U.K. Mean testosterone concentrations were 18.5% lower (pparity. Progesterone was almost 50% higher in Mongolian women (p = 0.04), particularly during the follicular phase and early luteal surge. Hormone concentrations generally were similar in Mongolian women born in Ulaanbaatar compared with those born in rural areas, although there was a decreasing progesterone trend by degree of westernization (rural Mongolia; urban Mongolia; U.K.). Mean hormone differences were similar when restricted to parous women, and with further adjustment for body mass index, height, and smoking status. These data augment accumulating evidence that circulating estrogens are unlikely to explain reduced breast cancer rates in Asia compared with the west, and suggest casting a wider net with respect to biomarkers. Lower testosterone and higher progesterone in Mongolian women raise the possibility that these hormones may be important to consider. In addition, the almost exclusive dietary reliance of Mongolians on meat and dairy argues against beneficial effects of a low-fat diet on circulating hormones explaining international breast cancer differences.

  20. The role of hormones in the differences in the incidence of breast cancer between Mongolia and the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Troisi

    Full Text Available There are striking differences in breast cancer incidence between Asian and western women. Rates vary substantially within Asia also, with Mongolia's even lower than China's. These profound differences have been speculated to be due in part to diet, mediated by circulating hormone concentrations.Sex steroid hormone concentrations were measured in women living in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia and the United Kingdom (U.K.. Diet was obtained by interview and national survey data. Mean hormone differences were compared by country, and systematic variation by number of days since last menstrual period was modeled and adjusted for age and parity; difference in overall area under the curves was assessed.The diet in Mongolia was higher in meat and dairy than in the U.K. Mean testosterone concentrations were 18.5% lower (p<0.0001 while estradiol concentrations were 19.1% higher (p = 0.02 in Mongolian than British women, adjusted for age and parity. Progesterone was almost 50% higher in Mongolian women (p = 0.04, particularly during the follicular phase and early luteal surge. Hormone concentrations generally were similar in Mongolian women born in Ulaanbaatar compared with those born in rural areas, although there was a decreasing progesterone trend by degree of westernization (rural Mongolia; urban Mongolia; U.K.. Mean hormone differences were similar when restricted to parous women, and with further adjustment for body mass index, height, and smoking status.These data augment accumulating evidence that circulating estrogens are unlikely to explain reduced breast cancer rates in Asia compared with the west, and suggest casting a wider net with respect to biomarkers. Lower testosterone and higher progesterone in Mongolian women raise the possibility that these hormones may be important to consider. In addition, the almost exclusive dietary reliance of Mongolians on meat and dairy argues against beneficial effects of a low-fat diet on circulating hormones

  1. The Role of Hormones in the Differences in the Incidence of Breast Cancer between Mongolia and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Rebecca; Ganmaa, Daavasambuu; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Frasier, Lindsay; Houghton, Lauren; Janes, Craig; Stanczyk, Frank; Hoover, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are striking differences in breast cancer incidence between Asian and western women. Rates vary substantially within Asia also, with Mongolia's even lower than China's. These profound differences have been speculated to be due in part to diet, mediated by circulating hormone concentrations. Methods Sex steroid hormone concentrations were measured in women living in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia and the United Kingdom (U.K.). Diet was obtained by interview and national survey data. Mean hormone differences were compared by country, and systematic variation by number of days since last menstrual period was modeled and adjusted for age and parity; difference in overall area under the curves was assessed. Findings The diet in Mongolia was higher in meat and dairy than in the U.K. Mean testosterone concentrations were 18.5% lower (pHormone concentrations generally were similar in Mongolian women born in Ulaanbaatar compared with those born in rural areas, although there was a decreasing progesterone trend by degree of westernization (rural Mongolia; urban Mongolia; U.K.). Mean hormone differences were similar when restricted to parous women, and with further adjustment for body mass index, height, and smoking status. Interpretation These data augment accumulating evidence that circulating estrogens are unlikely to explain reduced breast cancer rates in Asia compared with the west, and suggest casting a wider net with respect to biomarkers. Lower testosterone and higher progesterone in Mongolian women raise the possibility that these hormones may be important to consider. In addition, the almost exclusive dietary reliance of Mongolians on meat and dairy argues against beneficial effects of a low-fat diet on circulating hormones explaining international breast cancer differences. PMID:25536229

  2. Added Value of Serum Hormone Measurements in Risk Prediction Models for Breast Cancer for Women Not Using Exogenous Hormones: Results from the EPIC Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüsing, Anika; Fortner, Renée T; Kühn, Tilman; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Fournier, Agnes; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno de Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; van Gills, Carla H; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria-Jose; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Dossus, Laure; Li, Kuanrong; Ferrari, Pietro; Merritt, Melissa A; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2017-08-01

    Purpose: Circulating hormone concentrations are associated with breast cancer risk, with well-established associations for postmenopausal women. Biomarkers may represent minimally invasive measures to improve risk prediction models.Experimental Design: We evaluated improvements in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from risk prediction models developed by Gail and colleagues and Pfeiffer and colleagues using a nested case-control study within the EPIC cohort, including 1,217 breast cancer cases and 1,976 matched controls. Participants were pre- or postmenopausal at blood collection. Circulating sex steroids, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, IGF-binding protein 3, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated using backward elimination separately in women pre- and postmenopausal at blood collection. Improvement in discrimination was evaluated as the change in concordance statistic (C-statistic) from a modified Gail or Pfeiffer risk score alone versus models, including the biomarkers and risk score. Internal validation with bootstrapping (1,000-fold) was used to adjust for overfitting.Results: Among women postmenopausal at blood collection, estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG were selected into the prediction models. For breast cancer overall, model discrimination after including biomarkers was 5.3 percentage points higher than the modified Gail model alone, and 3.4 percentage points higher than the Pfeiffer model alone, after accounting for overfitting. Discrimination was more markedly improved for estrogen receptor-positive disease (percentage point change in C-statistic: 7.2, Gail; 4.8, Pfeiffer). We observed no improvement in discrimination among women premenopausal at blood collection.Conclusions: Integration of hormone measurements in clinical risk prediction models may represent a strategy to improve breast cancer risk stratification. Clin Cancer Res; 23(15); 4181-9. ©2017 AACR. ©2017

  3. Cutaneous adverse effects of hormonal adjuvant therapy for breast cancer: a case of localised urticarial vasculitis following anastrozole therapy and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Vanessa L; Friedlander, Michael; Waring, Dale; Kossard, Steven; Wood, Glenda K

    2014-11-01

    Hormonal therapy with either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors is commonly used to treat women with breast cancer in both the adjuvant and recurrent disease setting. Cutaneous adverse reactions to these drugs have been rarely reported in the literature. We report an unusual case of urticarial vasculitis following the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole that localised to the unilateral trunk and mastectomy scar, and review the literature on the cutaneous adverse effects of hormonal therapy for breast cancer. © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  4. Oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1 expression in human breast and prostate cancer cases, and its regulation by sex steroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Jorge Maia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1 is an interferon-induced protein characterised by its capacity to catalyse the synthesis of 2ʹ-5ʹ-linked oligomers of adenosine from adenosine triphosphate (2-5A. The 2-5A binds to a latent Ribonuclease L (RNase L, which subsequently dimerises into its active form and may play an important role in the control of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Previously, our research group identified OAS1 as a differentially-expressed gene in breast and prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal cells. This study evaluates: i the expression of OAS1 in human breast and prostate cancer specimens; and ii the effect of sex steroid hormones in regulating the expression of OAS1 in breast (MCF-7 and prostate (LNCaP cancer cell lines. The obtained results showed that OAS1 expression was down-regulated in human infiltrative ductal carcinoma of breast, adenocarcinoma of prostate, and benign prostate hyperplasia, both at mRNA and protein level. In addition, OAS1 expression was negatively correlated with the progression of breast and prostate cancer. With regards to the regulation of OAS1 gene, it was demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E2 down-regulates OAS1 gene in MCF-7 cell lines, an effect that seems to be dependent on the activation of oestrogen receptor (ER. On the other hand, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT treatment showed no effect on the expression of OAS1 in LNCaP cell lines. The lower levels of OAS1 in breast and prostate cancer cases indicated that the OAS1/RNaseL apoptotic pathway may be compromised in breast and prostate tumours. Moreover, the present findings suggested that this effect may be enhanced by oestrogen in ER-positive breast cancers.

  5. Association between lifetime exposure to passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by hormone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumylaite, Loreta; Kregzdyte, Rima; Poskiene, Lina; Bogusevicius, Algirdas; Pranys, Darius; Norkute, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is inconsistently associated with breast cancer. Although some studies suggest that breast cancer risk is related to passive smoking, little is known about the association with breast cancer by tumor hormone receptor status. We aimed to explore the association between lifetime passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women. A hospital-based case-control study was performed in 585 cases and 1170 controls aged 28-90 years. Information on lifetime passive smoking and other factors was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used for analyses restricted to the 449 cases and 930 controls who had never smoked actively. All statistical tests were two-sided. Adjusted odds ratio of breast cancer was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-1.41) in women who experienced exposure to passive smoking at work, 1.88 (95% CI: 1.38-2.55) in women who had exposure at home, and 2.80 (95% CI: 1.84-4.25) in women who were exposed at home and at work, all compared with never exposed regularly. Increased risk was associated with longer exposure: women exposed ≤ 20 years and > 20 years had 1.27 (95% CI: 0.97-1.66) and 2.64 (95% CI: 1.87-3.74) times higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed (Ptrend passive smoking with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer did not differ from that with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer (Pheterogeneity > 0.05). There was evidence of interaction between passive smoking intensity and menopausal status in both overall group (P = 0.02) and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer group (P passive smoking is associated with the risk of breast cancer independent of tumor hormone receptor status with the strongest association in postmenopausal women.

  6. Breast cancer and leptomeningeal disease (LMD): hormone receptor status influences time to development of LMD and survival from LMD diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yust-Katz, S; Garciarena, P; Liu, D; Yuan, Y; Ibrahim, N; Yerushalmi, R; Penas-Prado, M; Groves, M D

    2013-09-01

    Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) occurs in 5 % of breast cancer patients. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors related to survival and time to development of LMD in breast cancer patients. A retrospective analysis of breast cancer patients with LMD, evaluated in MDACC between 1995 and 2011. 103 patients with diagnosis of breast cancer and LMD were identified (one male). The median age at LMD diagnosis was 49.2 years. 78.2 % had invasive ductal carcinoma. Hormone receptors (HRs) were positive in 55.3 % of patients, 47.4 % were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and 22.8 % were triple negative. 52 % of the patients were treated with WBRT, 19 % with spinal radiation, 36 % with systemic chemotherapy and 55 % with intrathecal chemotherapy. Estimated median overall survival from time of breast cancer diagnosis was 3.66 years. Median survival from time of LMD diagnosis was 4.2 months. Time from breast cancer diagnosis to LMD was 2.48 years. In multivariate analysis, HR status and stage at diagnosis were significantly associated with time to LMD diagnosis (p < 0.05). In triple negative patients, time to LMD was shorter. In patients who were HR positive, time to LMD was longer. Survival from LMD diagnosis was significantly associated with both treatment, as well as positive HR status (multivariate analysis p < 0.05). In conclusion LMD has dismal prognosis in breast cancer patients. HR status contributes to time to LMD diagnosis and survival from LMD diagnosis. The impact of treatment aimed at LMD cannot be ascertained in our retrospective study due to the inherent bias associated with the decision to treat.

  7. Estrogen receptor beta impacts hormone-induced alternative mRNA splicing in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dago, Dougba Noel; Scafoglio, Claudio; Rinaldi, Antonio; Memoli, Domenico; Giurato, Giorgio; Nassa, Giovanni; Ravo, Maria; Rizzo, Francesca; Tarallo, Roberta; Weisz, Alessandro

    2015-05-09

    Estrogens play an important role in breast cancer (BC) development and progression; when the two isoforms of the estrogen receptor (ERα and ERβ) are co-expressed each of them mediate specific effects of these hormones in BC cells. ERβ has been suggested to exert an antagonist role toward the oncogenic activities of ERα, and for this reason it is considered an oncosuppressor. As clinical evidence regarding a prognostic role for this receptor subtype in hormone-responsive BC is still limited and conflicting, more knowledge is required on the biological functions of ERβ in cancer cells. We have previously described the ERβ and ERα interactomes from BC cells, identifying specific and distinct patterns of protein interactions for the two receptors. In particular, we identified factors involved in mRNA splicing and maturation as important components of both ERα and ERβ pathways. Guided by these findings, here we performed RNA sequencing to investigate in depth the differences in the early transcriptional events and RNA splicing patterns induced by estradiol in cells expressing ERα alone or ERα and ERβ. Exon skipping was the most abundant splicing event in the post-transcriptional regulation by estradiol. We identified several splicing events induced by ERα alone and by ERα+ERβ, demonstrating for the first time that ERβ significantly affects estrogen-induced splicing in BC cells, as revealed by modification of a subset of ERα-dependent splicing by ERβ, as well as by the presence of splicing isoforms only in ERβ+cells. In particular, we observed that ERβ+BC cell lines exhibited around 2-fold more splicing events than the ERβ- cells. Interestingly, we identified putative direct targets of ERβ-mediated alternative splicing by correlating the genomic locations of ERβ and ERα binding sites with estradiol-induced differential splicing in the corresponding genes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ERβ significantly affects estrogen

  8. Massage Therapy for Reducing Stress Hormones and Enhancing Immune Function in Breast Cancer Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ironson, Gail

    2001-01-01

    The objectives and specific aims of the ongoing study are to evaluate massage and relaxation therapies for an ethnically diverse group of women with early stages of breast cancer (Stages 1 and 2) for 1...

  9. Massage Therapy for Reducing Stress Hormones and Enhancing Immune Function in Breast Cancer Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tronson, Gail

    2000-01-01

    The objectives and specific aims of the ongoing study are to evaluate massage and relaxation therapies for an ethnically diverse group of women with early stages of breast cancer (Stages 1 and 2) for (1...

  10. Dietary fiber intake and risk of hormonal receptor-defined breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study1,2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, P.; Rinaldi, S.; Jenab, M.; Lukanova, A.; Olsen, A.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Fagherazzi, G.; Touillaud, M.; Kaaks, R.; Rusten, A. von; Boeing, H.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Benetou, V.; Grioni, S.; Panico, S.; Masala, G.; Tumino, R.; Polidoro, S.; Bakker, M.F.; Gils, C.H. van; Ros, M.M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Krum-Hansen, S.; Engeset, D.; Skeie, G.; Pilar, A.; Sanchez, M.J.; Buckland, G.; Ardanaz, E.; Chirlaque, D.; Rodriguez, L.; Travis, R.; Key, T.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Sund, M.; Lenner, P.; Slimani, N.; Norat, T.; Aune, D.; Riboli, E.; Romieu, I.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited scientific evidence has characterized the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer (BC) by menopausal status and hormone receptor expression in tumors. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relation between total dietary fiber and its main food sources

  11. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  12. Digital versus screen-film mammography: impact of mammographic density and hormone therapy on breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarelli, Anna M; Prummel, Maegan V; Muradali, Derek; Shumak, Rene S; Majpruz, Vicky; Brown, Patrick; Jiang, Hedy; Done, Susan J; Yaffe, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Most studies that have examined the effects of mammographic density and hormone therapy use on breast cancer detection have included screen-film mammography. This study further examines this association in post-menopausal women screened by digital mammography. Approved by the University of Toronto Research Ethics Board, this study identified 688,418 women of age 50-74 years screened with digital or screen-film mammography from 2008 to 2009 within the Ontario Breast Screening Program. Of 2993 eligible women with invasive breast cancer, 2450 were contacted and 1421 participated (847 screen-film mammography, 574 digital direct radiography). Mammographic density was measured by study radiologists using the standard BI-RADS classification system and by a computer-assisted method. Information on hormone therapy use was collected by a telephone-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression and two-tailed tests for significance evaluated associations between factors and detection method by mammography type. Women with >75 % radiologist-measured mammographic density compared to those with film (OR = 6.40, 95 % CI 2.30-17.85) than digital mammography (OR = 2.41, 95 % CI 0.67-8.58) and aged 50-64 years screened with screen-film mammography (OR = 10.86, 95 % CI 2.96-39.57). Recent former hormone therapy users were also at an increased risk of having an interval cancer with the association being significant for women screened with digital mammography (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI 1.17-3.71). Breast screening using digital mammography lowers the risk of having an interval cancer for post-menopausal women aged 50-64 with greater mammographic density.

  13. A multigene predictor of metastatic outcome in early stage hormone receptor-negative and triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Christina; Esserman, Laura; Moore, Dan H; Waldman, Fred; Sninsky, John; Benz, Christopher C

    2010-01-01

    Various multigene predictors of breast cancer clinical outcome have been commercialized, but proved to be prognostic only for hormone receptor (HR) subsets overexpressing estrogen or progesterone receptors. Hormone receptor negative (HRneg) breast cancers, particularly those lacking HER2/ErbB2 overexpression and known as triple-negative (Tneg) cases, are heterogeneous and generally aggressive breast cancer subsets in need of prognostic subclassification, since most early stage HRneg and Tneg breast cancer patients are cured with conservative treatment yet invariably receive aggressive adjuvant chemotherapy. An unbiased search for genes predictive of distant metastatic relapse was undertaken using a training cohort of 199 node-negative, adjuvant treatment naive HRneg (including 154 Tneg) breast cancer cases curated from three public microarray datasets. Prognostic gene candidates were subsequently validated using a different cohort of 75 node-negative, adjuvant naive HRneg cases curated from three additional datasets. The HRneg/Tneg gene signature was prognostically compared with eight other previously reported gene signatures, and evaluated for cancer network associations by two commercial pathway analysis programs. A novel set of 14 prognostic gene candidates were identified as outcome predictors: CXCL13, CLIC5, RGS4, RPS28, RFX7, EXOC7, HAPLN1, ZNF3, SSX3, HRBL, PRRG3, ABO, PRTN3, MATN1. A composite HRneg/Tneg gene signature index proved more accurate than any individual candidate gene or other reported multigene predictors in identifying cases likely to remain free of metastatic relapse. Significant positive correlations between the HRneg/Tneg index and three independent immune-related signatures (STAT1, IFN, and IR) were observed, as were consistent negative associations between the three immune-related signatures and five other proliferation module-containing signatures (MS-14, ONCO-RS, GGI, CSR/wound and NKI-70). Network analysis identified 8 genes within the

  14. Challenges in the treatment of hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer with brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minetta C; Cortés, Javier; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2016-06-01

    Brain metastases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer, yet little is known about the optimal treatment of brain disease in this group of patients. Although these patients are at lower risk for brain metastases relative to those with HER2-positive and triple-negative disease, they comprise the majority of women diagnosed with breast cancer. Surgery and radiation continue to have a role in the treatment of brain metastases, but there is a dearth of effective systemic therapies due to the poor penetrability of many systemic drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Additionally, patients with brain metastases have long been excluded from clinical trials, and few studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of systemic therapies specifically for the treatment of HER2-negative breast cancer brain metastases. New approaches are on the horizon, such as nanoparticle-based cytotoxic drugs that have the potential to cross the BBB and provide clinically meaningful benefits to patients with this life-threatening consequence of HR-positive breast cancer.

  15. Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea and the resumption of menstruation in premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Chinami; Akiyoshi, Sayuri; Ishida, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Ohno, Shinji; Tokunaga, Eriko

    2017-09-01

    For premenopausal women with breast cancer, information on the effects of chemotherapy and the risk of infertility is important. In this study, the effect of chemotherapy on the ovarian function in premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer was investigated, with an age-stratified analysis of the appearance of amenorrhea and the resumption of menstruation after the use of chemotherapy with anthracyclines or taxanes. Premenopausal women diagnosed with operable Stage I-III hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and underwent neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with the standard regimen of anthracyclines and/or taxanes were included. The patients were classified into age groups in 5-year increments, and the rates of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA), resumption of menstruation, and duration of CIA after chemotherapy were analyzed. The subjects consisted of 101 patients (median age 45 years). CIA occurred in 97 (96%) patients and 40 patients resumed menstruation. In all patients aged ≤39 years menstruation restarted, whereas in all patients aged ≥50 years, menstruation did not restart. For the patients who resumed menstruation, the younger the patients, the sooner menstruation tended to restart. The resumption of menstruation occurred within 1 year for younger patients aged around 30 years, but for those aged ≥35 years, 60% of cases took around 2-3 years for resumption. The incidence of CIA, the resumption of menstruation and duration of CIA after chemotherapy depend greatly on the patient's age.

  16. Effects of parity on pregnancy hormonal profiles across ethnic groups with a diverse incidence of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Alan A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Katz, Joseph; Levitz, Mortimer; Del Priore, Giuseppe; Toniolo, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that a full-term pregnancy may affect maternal risk of breast cancer later in life. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare circulating levels of maternal hormones affecting breast differentiation (human chorionic gonadotropin and prolactin) and proliferation [alpha-fetoprotein, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and estradiol] between women at a low to moderate risk (Asians and Hispanics), as compared with women at a high risk for breast cancer (Caucasians and African-Americans). Between May 2002 and December 2004, a total of 586 pregnant women were approached during a routine prenatal visit. Among them, 450 women (206 Caucasian, 126 Asian, 88 Hispanic, and 30 African-American) met the inclusion criteria and signed the informed consent. Only singleton pregnancies were considered. Blood samples were drawn during the second trimester of pregnancy. Laboratory analyses were done using the IMMULITE 2000 immunoassay system. Gestational age standardized mean levels of estradiol, IGF-I, and prolactin were significantly higher in Hispanic women compared with Caucasian women. Mean concentration of IGF-I was significantly higher in African-American women compared with Caucasian and Asian women. No significant differences in pregnancy hormone levels were observed between Caucasian and Asian (predominantly second-generation Chinese) women in this study. Irrespective of ethnicity, women who had their first pregnancy had substantially higher mean levels of alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, estradiol, and prolactin compared with women who previously had at least one full-term pregnancy. These data suggest that circulating pregnancy hormone levels may explain some of the ethnic differences in breast cancer risk.

  17. Background Parenchymal Enhancement and Fibroglandular Tissue Proportion on Breast MRI: Correlation with Hormone Receptor Expression and Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Mesut; Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Süllü, Yurdanur; Tomak, Leman; Polat, Ayfer Kamalı

    2017-01-01

    To assess the relationship between background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) proportion on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hormone receptor expression and molecular subtypes in invasive breast cancer. This retrospective study enrolled 75 breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRI before treatment. T1-weighted images were reviewed to determine the FGT proportion, and contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images were reviewed to determine BPE. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor 2-neu (HER2) status, and molecular subtypes of the tumors were compared with the BPE and FGT proportions. Women with high BPE tended to have increased rate of ER and PR positive tumors (p=0.018 and p=0.013). FGT proportion was associated with ER positivity (p=0.009), but no significant differences between FGT proportion and PR positivity were found (p=0.256). There was no significant difference between HER2 status and any of the imaging features (p=0.453 and p=0.922). For premenopausal women, both FGT proportion and BPE were associated with molecular subtypes (p=0.025 and p=0.042). FGT proportion was also associated with BPE (pbreast cancer, both high FGT containing breasts and high BPE breasts tended to have ER positive tumors.

  18. Pathological response rate in hormone-positive breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant FEC and triweekly docetaxel: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiba T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Takayoshi Kiba,1 Nao Morii,2,3 Hirotoshi Takahashi,2 Shinji Ozaki,2 Misao Atsumi,4 Fumi Masumoto,4 Hiroyasu Yamashiro,2,31Division of Modern Medical Technology, Institute for Clinical Research, 2Department of Breast Surgery, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center and Chugoku Cancer Center, Kure, Japan; 3Department of Breast Surgery, Tenri Hospital, Tenri, Nara, Japan; 4Clinical Trial Management Office, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center and Chugoku Cancer Center, Kure, JapanAbstract: We recently reported that neoadjuvant 5-FU, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC followed by weekly paclitaxel and/or trastuzumab induced a high pathological complete response (pCR rate in hormone-negative patients. The present study examined the therapeutic efficacy of neoadjuvant FEC followed by triweekly docetaxel and/or trastuzumab in the treatment of hormone-positive patients. Between February 2012 and December 2013, 16 hormone-positive patients with local breast cancer (luminal A type: six patients; luminal B type: two patients; luminal HER2 type: eight patients were included in the study. The histological type of the primary cancer was invasive ductal carcinoma in all patients. The cancer stages in the 16 women who received this regimen were stage I in five (31.3%, IIA in four (25.0%, IIB in five (31.3%, IIIB in one (6.3%, and IIIC in one (6.3%. Regarding clinical TNM classification, five patients were T1N0M0, one was T1N1M0, three were T2N0M0, five were T2N1M0, one was T3N2M0, and one was T4N0M0. The pCR was evaluated using resected tissue after neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to the evaluation criteria of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society. Patients were classified into pathologic responders (grade 2: 50.0% of all patients: 2/6 of luminal A type; 6/8 of Luminal HER2 type and nonresponders (grades 0 and 1: 50.0% of all patients: 4/6 of luminal A type; 2/2 of luminal B type; 2/8 of luminal HER2 type according to the grade of

  19. Study of Prostate Specific Antigen Gene Expression and Telomerase in Breast Cancer Patients: Relationship to Steroid Hormone Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zarghami

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Breast cancer is the most common disease in women. In the expansion and progression of breast tumors combination of tumor markers including prostate specific antigen (PSA and telomerase are engaged. The aim of this study was to evaluate relationship between telomerase activity and prostate specific antigen gene expression with steroid hormone receptors in breast cancer patients. Materials & Methods: This study was a case-control and consisted of 50 women diagnosed with breast benign tumors as control and 50 women having malignant tumors as cases. Telomerase activity was measured in tumor cytosol of samples by telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP assay. PSA protein was measured using ultra sensitive immunoflourometric assay and PSA mRNA expression was carried out using RT-PCR technique in all tumor tissues. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were stained using immunohistochemistry technique in tumor tissues. Data analysis was carried out by using SPSS software version 11.6 and paired t-student test. Results: Using TRAP assay, presence of the telomerase activity was positive in all of the breast cancer patients. The difference of relative telomerase activity (RTA values between stages and also all grades were more statistically significant (p<0.05. The mRNA of PSA was detected only in benign tumors and stage I and grade I malignant tumor cytosols. Difference of tumor cytosol PSA levels between the cases and control groups and also between all grades and stages of diseases were significant (p <0.05. In all, there was an inverse significant correlation between the RTA and PSA protein levels in the case groups. (r=-0.42, p<0.05.There was a statistically difference between steroid hormone receptors (ER and PR positive and negative on PSA and telomerase gene expression in breast tumor tissues (p<0.05. Conclusion: It is speculated that differential expression of PSA and telomerase genes in breast tumors are under

  20. Palbociclib in hormone receptor positive advanced breast cancer: A cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, J; Helou, J; Pritchard, K I; Naimark, D M

    2017-11-01

    The addition of palbociclib to letrozole improves progression-free survival in the first-line treatment of hormone receptor positive advanced breast cancer (ABC). This study assesses the cost-utility of palbociclib from the Canadian healthcare payer perspective. A probabilistic discrete event simulation (DES) model was developed and parameterised with data from the PALOMA 1 and 2 trials and other sources. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-month (QALM) gained for palbociclib was calculated. A time horizon of 15 years was used in the base case with costs and effectiveness discounted at 5% annually. Time-to- progression and time-to-death were derived from a Weibull and exponential distribution. Expected costs were based on Ontario fees and other sources. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to account for parameter uncertainty. Compared to letrozole, the addition of palbociclib provided an additional 14.7 QALM at an incremental cost of $161,508. The resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $10,999/QALM gained. Assuming a willingness-to-pay (WTP) of $4167/QALM, the probability of palbociclib to be cost-effective was 0%. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves derived from a probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that at a WTP of $11,000/QALM gained, the probability of palbociclib to be cost-effective was 50%. The addition of palbociclib to letrozole is unlikely to be cost-effective for the treatment of ABC from a Canadian healthcare perspective with its current price. While ABC patients derive a meaningful clinical benefit from palbociclib, considerations should be given to increase the WTP threshold and reduce the drug pricing, to render this strategy more affordable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reproductive and hormonal risk factors for postmenopausal luminal, HER2-overexpressing, and triple-negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Porter, Peggy L.; Daling, Janet R.; Li, Christopher I.

    2008-01-01

    Background Molecular profiling studies have identified subtypes of breast cancer that can be approximately classified by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2-neu (HER2) expression. These molecular subtypes are prognostically significant, but differences in their etiologic profiles have not been established. Reproductive factors may plausibly be differentially related to risk of different breast cancer subtypes since these factors are presumed to impact exposure to endogenous sex hormones. Methods We pooled two population-based case-control studies of breast cancer in women aged 55-79 years, for an analysis including 1,476 controls and 1,023 luminal, 39 HER2-overexpressing, and 78 triple-negative cases. Polytomous logistic regression was used to compare each case group to controls. Results Associations varied by molecular subtype. Early age at menarche was only associated with risk of HER2-overexpressing disease [odds ratio (OR)=2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4-5.5], while breastfeeding for 6 months or longer was only protective for luminal and triple-negative disease (OR=0.8, 95% CI:0.6-1.0 and OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9, respectively). Both late age at menopause and use of estrogen plus progestin hormone therapy were only associated with risk of luminal disease (OR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2, and OR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.1, respectively). No differences in risks associated with parity or age at first live birth were observed by subtype. Conclusions Certain reproductive factors may have a greater impact on risk of certain molecular subtypes of disease compared to others. Future studies that further define the etiology of breast cancer subtypes will add to our biological understanding of the disease. PMID:18726992

  2. Lifestyle influences on the association between pre-diagnostic hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer prognosis - results from The Danish 'Diet, Cancer and Health' prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Marianne; Olsen, Anja; Kroman, Niels; Tjønneland, Anne

    2014-12-01

    The association between pre-diagnostic hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast cancer specific mortality as well as potential influences from other lifestyle factors on the association was investigated. Female participants from the prospective cohort "Diet, Cancer, and Health" diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) were identified and their pre-diagnostic HRT use evaluated for association with tumour biology and breast cancer outcome in multivariate analysis. Breast cancer specific mortality. Of the 1212 patients originally considered 1064 were included. Of these, 105 women died from breast cancer during a median follow-up of 6.3 years (range 0.2-14.3 years). In multivariate analyses women who used HRT at enrolment into the cohort study had 47% lower risk of dying from breast cancer as compared to women who had previously or never used HRT (adjusted HR: 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37-0.85). Pre-diagnostic HRT use was associated with smaller tumour size at the time of diagnosis and a higher frequency of receptor positive breast cancer. Paradoxically, a high pre-diagnostic intake of vitamin D supplements was associated with HRT use but also with a higher BC specific mortality (HR: 1.47; 95% CI, 1.07-2.00) CONCLUSIONS: HRT use at enrolment was associated with breast tumours of smaller size at the time of diagnosis and positive receptor status, and with a lower BC mortality. The found association between vitamin D from supplements and higher BC mortality warrants further exploration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help you not feel alone. Outlook (Prognosis) New, improved treatments are helping people with breast cancer live ... carcinoma in situ Patient Instructions Breast radiation - discharge Chemotherapy - what to ask your doctor Lymphedema - self-care ...

  4. Remarkable change in age-specific breast cancer incidence in the Swiss canton of Geneva and its possible relation with the use of hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wespi Yves

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article aims to explain the reasons for the remarkable change in age of breast cancer occurrence in the Swiss canton of Geneva. Methods We used population-based data from the Geneva cancer registry, which collects information on method of detection, stage and tumour characteristics since 1975. For patients diagnosed between 1997–2003, we obtained additional information on use of hormone replacement therapy from a large prospective study on breast cancer. Using generalized log linear regression analysis, we compared age-specific incidence rates with respect to period, stage, oestrogen receptor status, method of detection and use of hormone replacement therapy. Results In the periods 1975–1979 and 1985–1989, breast cancer risk increased with age, showing the highest incidence rates among women aged ≥ 85 years. From 1997, the age-specific incidence curve changed completely (p Conclusion The increasing prevalence of hormone replacement therapy use during the 1990s could explain the important change in age-specific breast cancer incidence, not only by increasing breast cancer risk, but also by revealing breast cancer at an earlier age.

  5. Breast cancer among nurses: is the intensity of night work related to hormone receptor status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Jenny-Anne S; Kjuus, Helge; Zienolddiny, Shan; Haugen, Aage; Kjærheim, Kristina

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether night work is related to breast cancer receptor status. The effect of night work on the risk of estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-defined breast cancers was evaluated in 513 nurses diagnosed with breast cancer between 1996 and 2007 and in 757 frequency-matched controls, all of whom were selected from a cohort of Norwegian nurses. Odds ratios for the exposure "duration of work with a minimum of 6 consecutive night shifts" were compared for tumor subgroups with respect to the common control group through the use of polytomous logistic regression. Statistically significant associations were observed between breast cancer and work durations of ≥ 5 years with ≥ 6 consecutive night shifts, with the highest risk observed for progesterone receptor-positive tumors (odds ratio = 2.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 4.3; P-trend = 0.01). When the exposure variable was dichotomized (ever/never worked ≥ 6 consecutive night shifts), a borderline statistically significant heterogeneity (P = 0.05) was seen between progesterone receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-negative tumors in postmenopausal women. The association observed between consecutive night shifts and progesterone receptor-positive cancers suggests that progesterone could play an important role in the detrimental effects of night work.

  6. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  7. Activating ESR1 mutations in hormone-resistant metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dan R; Wu, Yi-Mi; Vats, Pankaj; Su, Fengyun; Lonigro, Robert J; Cao, Xuhong; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Wang, Rui; Ning, Yu; Hodges, Lynda; Gursky, Amy; Siddiqui, Javed; Tomlins, Scott A; Roychowdhury, Sameek; Pienta, Kenneth J; Kim, Scott Y; Roberts, J Scott; Rae, James M; Van Poznak, Catherine H; Hayes, Daniel F; Chugh, Rashmi; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Talpaz, Moshe; Schott, Anne F; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2013-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women, and over two-thirds of cases express estrogen receptor-α (ER-α, encoded by ESR1). Through a prospective clinical sequencing program for advanced cancers, we enrolled 11 patients with ER-positive metastatic breast cancer. Whole-exome and transcriptome analysis showed that six cases harbored mutations of ESR1 affecting its ligand-binding domain (LBD), all of whom had been treated with anti-estrogens and estrogen deprivation therapies. A survey of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) identified four endometrial cancers with similar mutations of ESR1. The five new LBD-localized ESR1 mutations identified here (encoding p.Leu536Gln, p.Tyr537Ser, p.Tyr537Cys, p.Tyr537Asn and p.Asp538Gly) were shown to result in constitutive activity and continued responsiveness to anti-estrogen therapies in vitro. Taken together, these studies suggest that activating mutations in ESR1 are a key mechanism in acquired endocrine resistance in breast cancer therapy.

  8. Dual Blockade of HER-2 Provides a Greater Magnitude of Benefit in Patients With Hormone-Negative Versus Hormone-Positive Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, Mark; Williams, Casey; Loibl, Sibylle; Leyland-Jones, Brian

    2016-12-01

    The dual small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib blocks both human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-1) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) tyrosine kinase activity by binding reversibly to the ATP-binding site of the receptor's intracellular domain. Lapatinib, in combination with capecitabine, has been approved in 2007 for the treatment of patients with advanced HER-2 + breast cancer upon progressive disease following standard chemotherapy. Approval was also extended to the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced hormone receptor (HR)-positive and HER-2-positive breast cancer in 2010. More recently, clinical trials that have investigated the efficacy of dual HER-2 blockade in both the metastatic and neoadjuvant breast cancer settings. For example, in 2013 the European Medicines Agency approved the combination of lapatinib and trastuzumab in HER-2 + /HR - patients. We review the efficacy results from dual HER-2 blockade studies and present new post hoc analysis efficacy data according to HR status. We show that dual blockade of HER-2 appears to provide a greater magnitude of benefit in the HR - versus the HR + subgroup of patients. Finally, we examine the potential of molecularly subtyping HER-2 + tumors using the PAM50 test as a predictor of response to treatment with the combination of trastuzumab and lapatinib. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of herb-drug interactions with ginkgo biloba in women receiving hormonal treatment for early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, Janette; Dhillon, Haryana M; Clarke, Stephen J; Olesen, Inger; Leslie, Felicity; Warby, Anne; Beith, Jane; Sullivan, Anne; Hamilton, Anne; Beale, Philip; Rittau, Anneliese; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2013-12-01

    Women receiving treatment for breast cancer commonly ingest herbal medicines. Little is known about the potential for herb-drug interactions in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ginkgo biloba co-administration on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole and letrozole. This was a prospective open-label cross-over study in 60 women with early stage breast cancer taking either tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole (n=20/group). Participants received ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) for 3 weeks (120 mg twice daily). Trough concentrations of drugs were measured before and after ginkgo biloba treatment using LC-MS/MS. Toxicities were graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Trough concentrations before and after treatment with ginkgo biloba were not significantly different for tamoxifen (93.5 ± 29.0, 86.5 ± 25.3 ng/mL; p=0.16), letrozole (91.1 ± 50.4, 89.6 ± 52.14 ng/mL; p=0.60) or anastrozole (29.1 ± 8.6, 29.1 ± 7.6 ng/mL; p=0.97). Ginkgo biloba was well tolerated, with no difference in toxicity during ginkgo biloba. Co-administration of ginkgo biloba does not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole. There was no difference in the toxicity profile of hormone therapy with ginkgo biloba use in women with early stage breast cancer.

  10. Interaction between body mass index and hormone-receptor status as a prognostic factor in lymph-node-positive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Yong Chung

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the body mass index (BMI at a breast cancer diagnosis and various factors including the hormone-receptor, menopause, and lymph-node status, and identify if there is a specific patient subgroup for which the BMI has an effect on the breast cancer prognosis. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 8,742 patients with non-metastatic invasive breast cancer from the research database of Asan Medical Center. The overall survival (OS and breast-cancer-specific survival (BCSS outcomes were compared among BMI groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards regression models with an interaction term. There was a significant interaction between BMI and hormone-receptor status for the OS (P = 0.029, and BCSS (P = 0.013 in lymph-node-positive breast cancers. Obesity in hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer showed a poorer OS (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.92 to 2.48 and significantly poorer BCSS (HR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.08 to 2.99. In contrast, a high BMI in hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer revealed a better OS (HR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.16 to 1.19 and BCSS (HR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.19 to 1.44. Being underweight (BMI < 18.50 kg/m2 with hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer was associated with a significantly worse OS (HR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.00-3.95 and BCSS (HR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.12-4.47. There was no significant interaction found between the BMI and hormone-receptor status in the lymph-node-negative setting, and BMI did not interact with the menopause status in any subgroup. In conclusion, BMI interacts with the hormone-receptor status in a lymph-node-positive setting, thereby playing a role in the prognosis of breast cancer.

  11. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... as possible. Learn more about palliative care . Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  12. Surgery Should Complement Endocrine Therapy for Elderly Postmenopausal Women with Hormone Receptor-Positive Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endocrine therapy (ET is an integral part of breast cancer (BC treatment with surgical resection remaining the cornerstone of curative treatment. The objective of this study is to compare the survival of elderly postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early-stage BC treated with ET alone, without radiation or chemotherapy, versus ET plus surgery. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective study based on a prospective database. The medical records of postmenopausal BC patients referred to the surgical oncology service of two hospitals during an 8-year period were reviewed. All patients were to receive ET for a minimum of four months before undergoing any surgery. Results. Fifty-one patients were included and divided in two groups, ET alone and ET plus surgery. At last follow-up in exclusive ET patients (n=28, 39% had stable disease or complete response, 22% had progressive disease, of which 18% died of breast cancer, and 39% died of other causes. In surgical patients (n=23, 78% were disease-free, 9% died of recurrent breast cancer, and 13% died of other causes. Conclusions. These results suggest that surgical resection is beneficial in this group and should be considered, even for patients previously deemed ineligible for surgery.

  13. Palbociclib: a first-in-class CDK4/CDK6 inhibitor for the treatment of hormone-receptor positive advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Janice

    2015-08-13

    Palbociclib was approved by the FDA for use in combination with letrozole for the treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer as initial endocrine-based therapy. In addition, the combination of palbociclib with fulvestrant resulted in superior outcome than fulvestrant alone in those who had progressed during prior endocrine therapy. This research highlight summarized the current development of CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors and future directions in the treatment of advanced hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.

  14. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  15. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  16. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  17. Potential role for mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors as first-line therapy in hormone receptor–positive advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck JT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available J Thaddeus Beck Highlands Oncology Group, Fayetteville, AR, USA Abstract: Despite advances in cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapies, 5-year ­survival rates remain low for patients with advanced breast cancer at diagnosis. This highlights the limited effectiveness of current treatment options. An improved understanding of cellular functions associated with the development and progression of breast cancer has resulted in the creation of a number of novel targeted molecular therapies. However, more work is needed to improve outcomes, particularly in the first-line recurrent or metastatic hormone receptor–positive breast cancer setting. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway is a major intracellular signaling pathway that is often upregulated in breast cancer, and overactivation of this pathway has been associated with primary or developed resistance to endocrine treatment. Clinical data from the Phase III Breast Cancer Trials of Oral Everolimus-2 (BOLERO-2 study of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus combined with exemestane in hormone receptor–positive advanced breast cancer were very promising, highlighting the potential role of mTOR inhibitors in combination with endocrine therapies as a first-line treatment option for these patients. It is hoped that the use of mTOR inhibitors combined with current standard-of-care endocrine therapies, such as aromatase inhibitors, in the first-line advanced breast cancer setting may result in greater antitumor effects and also delay or reverse treatment resistance. Keywords: mammalian target of rapamycin, everolimus, hormone receptor–positive breast cancer, first-line

  18. Height, age at menarche and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritte, Rebecca; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dossus, Laure; Teucher, Birgit; Steindorf, Karen; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Quirós, José Ramón; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra Hm; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Krum-Hansen, Sanda; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Sund, Malin; Andersson, Anne; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; McCormack, Valerie; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2013-06-01

    Associations of breast cancer overall with indicators of exposures during puberty are reasonably well characterized; however, uncertainty remains regarding the associations of height, leg length, sitting height and menarcheal age with hormone receptor-defined malignancies. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationships of adult height, leg length and sitting height and age at menarche with risk of estrogen and progesterone receptor negative (ER-PR-) (n = 990) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,524) breast tumors. Height as a single risk factor was compared to a model combining leg length and sitting height. The possible interactions of height, leg length and sitting height with menarche were also analyzed. Risk of both ER-PR- and ER+PR+ malignancies was positively associated with standing height, leg length and sitting height and inversely associated with increasing age at menarche. For ER+PR+ disease, sitting height (hazard ratios: 1.14[95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.20]) had a stronger risk association than leg length (1.05[1.00-1.11]). In comparison, for ER-PR- disease, no distinct differences were observed between leg length and sitting height. Women who were tall and had an early menarche (≤13 years) showed an almost twofold increase in risk of ER+PR+ tumors but no such increase in risk was observed for ER-PR- disease. Indicators of exposures during rapid growth periods were associated with risks of both HR-defined breast cancers. Exposures during childhood promoting faster development may establish risk associations for both HR-positive and -negative malignancies. The stronger associations of the components of height with ER+PR+ tumors among older women suggest possible hormonal links that could be specific for postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  19. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  20. Obesity is associated with a poorer prognosis in women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Penelope J; Bell, Robin J; Davis, Susan R

    2014-11-01

    Whether moderate to severe obesity (body mass index (BMI)≥30 to obesity on time to either local or distant recurrence or new breast cancer, or death due to breast cancer was determined by Cox regression. Women in the most extreme categories of BMI (age, 58.4±11.6 years, 53.8% had Stage 1 disease and 88.9% received oral adjuvant endocrine therapy (OAET) within 2 years of diagnosis. The likelihood of an event was significantly associated with moderate to severe obesity (HR=1.71, 95%CI, 1.12-2.62, p=0.014), disease beyond Stage 1 (HR=2.87, 95% CI 1.73-4.75, pobesity (HR 3.23, 95%CI 1.48-7.03, p=0.003) and OAET use (HR 0.41, 95%CI 0.17-0.98, p=0.046) were significantly associated with an event. Moderate to severe obesity is associated with a poorer invasive breast cancer prognosis; this is also true for women with Stage 1 disease, and is independent of age and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prechemotherapy antimullerian hormone, age, and body size predict timing of return of ovarian function in young breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui-Chun Irene; Haunschild, Carolyn; Chung, Karine; Komrokian, Sara; Boles, Sarah; Sammel, Mary Dupuis; DeMichele, Angela

    2014-12-01

    Endocrine measures of ovarian reserve before breast cancer treatment may predict postchemotherapy ovarian function, providing prognostic information at the time of cancer diagnosis. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine whether prechemotherapy levels of antimullerian hormone (AMH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and inhibin B (inhB) are associated with the return of ovarian function after chemotherapy and 2) to generate a prognostic score for ovarian recovery in young women with breast cancer. A prospective cohort study recruited 109 participants (median age, 39 years; age range, 23-45 years) before chemotherapy from 2 breast clinics and followed them longitudinally. By using time-to-event analysis, the authors tested the association between prechemotherapy AMH, FSH, and inhB levels and the time to return of ovarian function, as measured by menstrual pattern. After a median follow-up of 163 days (range, 4-1009 days) after chemotherapy, 62 participants (57%) experienced return of ovarian function. In adjusted analyses, AMH levels >0.7 ng/mL (hazard ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-5.6) and FSH levels ≤10 IU/L (hazard ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-16.8) were associated with a shorter time to ovarian recovery, whereas inhB levels were not related. A prognostic score based on age 0.7 ng/mL, and body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) was used to estimate the timing of recovery. In reproductive-aged women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, prechemotherapy AMH and FSH levels were associated with the return of ovarian function, independent of age. A novel prognostic score incorporating AMH, age, and body size was capable of estimating the time to ovarian recovery. Pending validation, these data support using prechemotherapy ovarian reserve measures, particularly AMH, to prospectively counsel young patients on future ovarian function. Because ovarian function is not equivalent to fertility, follow-up studies on predicting fertility are needed

  2. The association of soy food consumption with the risk of subtype of breast cancers defined by hormone receptor and HER2 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglia, Michelle L; Zheng, Wei; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Gao, Jing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-08-15

    Soy food intake has previously been associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence for subgroups of breast cancer, particularly by menopausal and hormone receptor status, is less consistent. To evaluate the role of hormone receptor and menopausal status on the association between soy food intake and breast cancer risk, we measured usual soy food intake in adolescence and adulthood via food frequency questionnaire in 70,578 Chinese women, aged 40-70 years, recruited to the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996-2000). After a median follow-up of 13.2 years (range: 0.01-15.0), 1,034 incident breast cancer cases were identified. Using Cox models, we found that adult soy intake was inversely associated with breast cancer risk [hazard ratio (HR) for fifth versus first quintile soy protein intake = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI):0.63-0.97]. The association was predominantly seen in premenopausal women (HR = 0.46; 95% CI:0.29-0.74). Analyses further stratified by hormone receptor status showed that adult soy intake was associated with significantly decreased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)+/progesterone receptor (PR)+ breast cancer in postmenopausal women (HR = 0.72; 95% CI:0.53-0.96) and decreased risk of ER-/PR- breast cancer in premenopausal women (HR = 0.46; 95% CI:0.22-0.97). The soy association did not vary by human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) status. Furthermore, we found that high soy intake during adulthood and adolescence was associated with reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk (HR = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.32-0.88; comparing third vs. first tertile) while high adulthood soy intake was associated with postmenopausal breast cancer only when adolescent intake was low (HR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43-0.91). Our study suggests that hormonal status, menopausal status and time window of exposure are important factors influencing the soy-breast cancer association. © 2016 UICC.

  3. The Effect of Aerobic Training on the Level of Growth Hormone and 17-beta Estradiol Middle-aged Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Esfahbodi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and the most common cause of death in middle-aged women in developed countries.  The results have indicated that sedentariness and hormonal changes increase the risk of breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of eight weeks of aerobic training on levels of growth hormone and 17-beta estradiol middle-aged women with breast cancer. Methods: In the present semi-experimental study, 15 women with breast cancer with the mean age of 44.46±17.15 years, weight (70.53±5.18 kg and body mass index (27.58±2.18 kg/m2 were selected through available sampling and considered as the experimental group. The exercise program was performed three sessions per week, and every session lasting 40-60 minutes with an intensity of 30%-60% heart rate reserve (HRR for eight weeks. Growth hormone and beta 17 estradiol levels pre and post aerobic training, 12 hrs of fasting and with 24 hrs of severe Lack of physical activity was measured during of eight weeks. Data were analyzed by paired samples t-test at a significance levels of P<0.05. Results: The growth hormone levels did not change significantly after eight weeks of aerobic exercise (P=0.447, whereas 17-beta estradiol levels decreased significantly (P=0.000. Conclusion: It seemed that eight weeks of aerobic exercise could reduce one of the breast cancer markers (17-beta estradiol; so these training are recommended for the improving or prevention of breast cancer.

  4. Hormones in the etiology and prevention of breast and endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, R D

    1984-12-01

    Since the incidence of endometrial cancer among estrogen-treated women at Wilford Hall Air Force Medical Center was not increased as reported by others, a prospective study was begun in 1975. With this data base, the cases of breast and endometrial cancer in estrogen and oral contraceptive users were reviewed. The incidence of mammary malignancy in postmenopausal estrogen users (141.0:100,000) was lower than that of the untreated women, ie, nonhormone users (342.3:100,000) (P less than or equal to .01). The incidence of breast cancer in the estrogen-progestogen users (67.3:100,000) was significantly lower than that of the untreated women and than that expected from the Third National Cancer Survey (188.3:100,000) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) data (229.2:100,000) (P less than or equal to .01). Oral contraceptives also decreased the risk of breast carcinoma, since the incidence in users (10.3:100,000) was significantly lower than expected in this age group according to both the Third National Cancer Survey (53.3:100,000) and the NCI data (57.3:100,000) (P less than or equal to .01). Unopposed estrogen replacement therapy increased the incidence of endometrial cancer to 410.8:100,000, but progestogen added to estrogen therapy significantly decreased this incidence to 68.1:100,000 (P less than or equal to .0001). The estrogen-progestogen users also had a significantly lower incidence of endometrial carcinoma than the untreated women (258.3:100,000) (P less than or equal to .005). Oral contraceptives, particularly the combination pill with estrogen and progestogen in each tablet, are protective against adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. The incidence of endometrial cancer apparently increased in premenopausal women during our study from 10.9:100,000 women in the first five years to 41.9:100,000 during the last two years as birth control pill use declined from 8,693 users in 1975 to 5,563 users during 1981, primarily in women over the age of 35.

  5. Extended adjuvant endocrine therapy in hormone dependent breast cancer: the paradigm of the NCIC-CTG MA.17/BIG 1-97 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Michaela J; Liedke, Pedro E R; Goss, Paul E

    2013-04-01

    Early hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer is a chronic relapsing disease that can remain clinically silent for many years. The NCIC-CTG MA.17/BIG 1-97 trial randomized disease-free early breast cancer patients who had received five years of adjuvant tamoxifen to either letrozole or placebo and was the first to demonstrate a benefit with extended endocrine therapy. MA.17/BIG 1-97 was stopped at the first interim analysis because disease free survival was strongly prolonged in the letrozole arm. Subsequent subset analyses and longer follow up have shown that this therapy improved survival across all groups, particularly among women with node-positive disease and those that were pre-menopausal at time of study enrolment. The MA.17/BIG 1-97 study should be considered a paradigm for extended adjuvant endocrine therapy in hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relevance of breast cancer hormone receptors and other factors to the efficacy of adjuvant tamoxifen: patient-level meta-analysis of randomised trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, C.; Godwin, J.; Gray, R.; Clarke, M.; Cutter, D.; Darby, S.; McGale, P.; Pan, H. C.; Taylor, C.; Wang, Y. C.; Dowsett, M.; Ingle, J.; Peto, R.; Albain, K.; Anderson, S.; Arriagada, R.; Barlow, W.; Bergh, J.; Bliss, J.; Buyse, M.; Cameron, D.; Carrasco, E.; Correa, C.; Coates, A.; Collins, R.; Costantino, J.; Cuzick, J.; Davidson, N.; Davies, K.; Delmestri, A.; Di Leo, A.; Elphinstone, P.; Evans, V.; Ewertz, M.; Gelber, R.; Gettins, L.; Geyer, C.; Goldhirsch, A.; Gregory, C.; Hayes, D.; Hill, C.; Jakesz, R.; James, S.; Kaufmann, M.; Kerr, A.; MacKinnon, E.; McHugh, T.; Norton, L.; Ohashi, Y.; Paik, S.; Perez, E.; Piccart, M.; Pierce, L.; Pruneri, G.; Pritchard, K.; Raina, V.; Ravdin, P.; Robertson, J.; Rutgers, E.; Shao, Y. F.; Swain, S.; Valagussa, P.; Viale, G.; Whelan, T.; Winer, E.; Wang, Y.; Wood, W.; Abe, O.; Abe, R.; Enomoto, K.; Kikuchi, K.; Koyama, H.; Masuda, H.; Nomura, Y.; Sakai, K.; Sugimachi, K.; Toi, M.; Tominaga, T.; Uchino, J.; Yoshida, M.; Haybittle, J. L.; Leonard, C. F.; Calais, G.; Geraud, P.; Collett, V.; Sayer, J.; Harvey, V. J.; Holdaway, I. M.; Kay, R. G.; Mason, B. H.; Forbes, J. F.; Wilcken, N.; Bartsch, R.; Dubsky, P.; Fesl, C.; Fohler, H.; Gnant, M.; Greil, R.; Lang, A.; Luschin-Ebengreuth, G.; Marth, C.; Mlineritsch, B.; Samonigg, H.; Singer, C. F.; Steger, G. G.; Stöger, H.; Canney, P.; Yosef, H. M. A.; Focan, C.; Peek, U.; Oates, G. D.; Powell, J.; Durand, M.; Mauriac, L.; Dolci, S.; Larsimont, D.; Nogaret, J. M.; Philippson, C.; Piccart, M. J.; Masood, M. B.; Parker, D.; Price, J. J.; Lindsay, M. A.; Mackey, J.; Martin, M.; Hupperets, P. S. G. J.; Bates, T.; Blamey, R. W.; Chetty, U.; Ellis, I. O.; Mallon, E.; Morgan, D. A. L.; Patnick, J.; Pinder, S.; Olivotto, I.; Ragaz, J.; Berry, D.; Broadwater, G.; Cirrincione, C.; Muss, H.; Weiss, R. B.; Abu-Zahra, H. T.; Portnoj, S. M.; Bowden, S.; Brookes, C.; Dunn, J.; Fernando, I.; Lee, M.; Poole, C.; Rea, D.; Spooner, D.; Barrett-Lee, P. J.; Mansel, R. E.; Monypenny, I. J.; Gordon, N. H.; Davis, H. L.; Lehingue, Y.; Romestaing, P.; Dubois, J. B.; Delozier, T.; Griffon, B.; Mace Lesec'h, J.; Rambert, P.; Mustacchi, G.; Petruzelka, L.; Pribylova, O.; Owen, J. R.; Harbeck, N.; Jänicke, F.; Meisner, C.; Schmitt, M.; Thomssen, C.; Meier, P.; Shan, Y.; Wang, X.; Zhao, D. B.; Chen, Z. M.; Howell, A.; Swindell, R.; Burrett, J. A.; Hermans, D.; Hicks, C.; Lay, M.; Albano, J.; de Oliveira, C. F.; Gervásio, H.; Gordilho, J.; Johansen, H.; Mouridsen, H. T.; Gelman, R. S.; Harris, J. R.; Henderson, C.; Shapiro, C. L.; Christiansen, P.; Ejlertsen, B.; Jensen, M.-B.; Møller, S.; Carstensen, B.; Palshof, T.; Trampisch, H. J.; Dalesio, O.; de Vries, E. G. E.; Rodenhuis, S.; van Tinteren, H.; Comis, R. L.; Davidson, N. E.; Robert, N.; Sledge, G.; Solin, L. J.; Sparano, J. A.; Tormey, D. C.; Dixon, J. M.; Forrest, P.; Jack, W.; Kunkler, I.; Rossbach, J.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Treurniet-Donker, A. D.; van Putten, W. L. J.; Rotmensz, N.; Veronesi, U.; Bartelink, H.; Bijker, N.; Bogaerts, J.; Cardoso, F.; Cufer, T.; Julien, J. P.; van de Velde, C. J. H.; Cunningham, M. P.; Huovinen, R.; Joensuu, H.; Costa, A.; Tinterri, C.; Bonadonna, G.; Gianni, L.; Goldstein, L. J.; Bonneterre, J.; Fargeot, P.; Fumoleau, P.; Kerbrat, P.; Luporsi, E.; Namer, M.; Eiermann, W.; Hilfrich, J.; Jonat, W.; Kreienberg, R.; Schumacher, M.; Bastert, G.; Rauschecker, H.; Sauer, R.; Sauerbrei, W.; Schauer, A.; Blohmer, J. U.; Costa, S. D.; Eidtmann, H.; Gerber, B.; Jackisch, C.; Loibl, S.; von Minckwitz, G.; de Schryver, A.; Vakaet, L.; Belfiglio, M.; Nicolucci, A.; Pellegrini, F.; Pirozzoli, M. C.; Sacco, M.; Valentini, M.; McArdle, C. S.; Smith, D. C.; Stallard, S.; Dent, D. M.; Gudgeon, C. A.; Hacking, A.; Murray, E.; Panieri, E.; Werner, I. D.; Segui, M. A.; Galligioni, E.; Lopez, M.; Erazo, A.; Medina, J. Y.; Horiguchi, J.; Takei, H.; Fentiman, I. S.; Hayward, J. L.; Rubens, R. D.; Skilton, D.; Scheurlen, H.; Sohn, H. C.; Untch, M.; Dafni, U.; Markopoulos, C.; Fountzilas, G.; Mavroudis, D.; Klefstrom, P.; Blomqvist, C.; Saarto, T.; Gallen, M.; Margreiter, R.; de Lafontan, B.; Mihura, J.; Roché, H.; Asselain, B.; Salmon, R. J.; Vilcoq, J. R.; Bourgier, C.; Koscielny, S.; Laplanche, A.; Lê, M. G.; Spielmann, M.; A'Hern, R.; Ellis, P.; Kilburn, L.; Yarnold, J. R.; Benraadt, J.; Kooi, M.; van de Velde, A. O.; van Dongen, J. A.; Vermorken, J. B.; Castiglione, M.; Colleoni, M.; Collins, J.; Forbes, J.; Gelber, R. D.; Lindtner, J.; Price, K. N.; Regan, M. M.; Rudenstam, C. M.; Senn, H. J.; Thuerlimann, B.; Bliss, J. M.; Chilvers, C. E. D.; Coombes, R. C.; Hall, E.; Marty, M.; Possinger, K.; Schmid, P.; Wallwiener, D.; Foster, L.; George, W. D.; Stewart, H. J.; Stroner, P.; Borovik, R.; Hayat, H.; Inbar, M. J.; Robinson, E.; Bruzzi, P.; del Mastro, L.; Pronzato, P.; Sertoli, M. R.; Venturini, M.; Camerini, T.; de Palo, G.; Di Mauro, M. G.; Formelli, F.; Amadori, D.; Martoni, A.; Pannuti, F.; Camisa, R.; Cocconi, G.; Colozza, A.; Passalacqua, R.; Aogi, K.; Takashima, S.; Ikeda, T.; Inokuchi, K.; Sawa, K.; Sonoo, H.; Korzeniowski, S.; Skolyszewski, J.; Ogawa, M.; Yamashita, J.; Bastiaannet, E.; van de Water, W.; van Nes, J. G. H.; Christiaens, R.; Neven, P.; Paridaens, R.; van den Bogaert, W.; Braun, S.; Janni, W.; Martin, P.; Romain, S.; Janauer, M.; Seifert, M.; Sevelda, P.; Zielinski, C. C.; Hakes, T.; Hudis, C. A.; Wittes, R.; Giokas, G.; Kondylis, D.; Lissaios, B.; de la Huerta, R.; Sainz, M. G.; Altemus, R.; Camphausen, K.; Cowan, K.; Danforth, D.; Lichter, A.; Lippman, M.; O'Shaughnessy, J.; Pierce, L. J.; Steinberg, S.; Venzon, D.; Zujewski, J. A.; D'Amico, C.; Lioce, M.; Paradiso, A.; Chapman, J.-A. W.; Gelmon, K.; Goss, P. E.; Levine, M. N.; Meyer, R.; Parulekar, W.; Pater, J. L.; Pritchard, K. I.; Shepherd, L. E.; Tu, D.; Ohno, S.; Bass, G.; Brown, A.; Bryant, J.; Dignam, J.; Fisher, B.; Mamounas, E. P.; Redmond, C.; Wickerham, L.; Wolmark, N.; Baum, M.; Jackson, I. M.; Palmer, M. K.; Ingle, J. N.; Suman, V. J.; Bengtsson, N. O.; Emdin, S.; Jonsson, H.; Lythgoe, J. P.; Kissin, M.; Erikstein, B.; Hannisdal, E.; Jacobsen, A. B.; Varhaug, J. E.; Gundersen, S.; Hauer-Jensen, M.; Høst, H.; Nissen-Meyer, R.; Mitchell, A. K.; Robertson, J. F. R.; Ueo, H.; Di Palma, M.; Mathé, G.; Misset, J. L.; Levine, M.; Morimoto, K.; Takatsuka, Y.; Crossley, E.; Harris, A.; Talbot, D.; Taylor, M.; Martin, A. L.; di Blasio, B.; Ivanov, V.; Paltuev, R.; Semiglazov, V.; Brockschmidt, J.; Cooper, M. R.; Falkson, C. I.; Ashley, S.; Makris, A.; Powles, T. J.; Smith, I. E.; Gazet, J. C.; Browne, L.; Graham, P.; Corcoran, N.; Deshpande, N.; di Martino, L.; Douglas, P.; Lindtner, A.; Notter, G.; Bryant, A. J. S.; Ewing, G. H.; Firth, L. A.; Krushen-Kosloski, J. L.; Anderson, H.; Killander, F.; Malmström, P.; Rydén, L.; Arnesson, L.-G.; Carstensen, J.; Dufmats, M.; Fohlin, H.; Nordenskjöld, B.; Söderberg, M.; Carpenter, J. T.; Murray, N.; Royle, G. T.; Simmonds, P. D.; Crowley, J.; Gralow, J.; Green, S.; Hortobagyi, G.; Livingston, R.; Martino, S.; Osborne, C. K.; Ravdin, P. M.; Adolfsson, J.; Bondesson, T.; Celebioglu, F.; Dahlberg, K.; Fornander, T.; Fredriksson, I.; Frisell, J.; Göransson, E.; Iiristo, M.; Johansson, U.; Lenner, E.; Löfgren, L.; Nikolaidis, P.; Perbeck, L.; Rotstein, S.; Sandelin, K.; Skoog, L.; Svane, G.; af Trampe, E.; Wadström, C.; Maibach, R.; Thürlimann, B.; Hakama, M.; Holli, K.; Isola, J.; Rouhento, K.; Saaristo, R.; Brenner, H.; Hercbergs, A.; Yoshimoto, M.; Paterson, A. H. G.; Fyles, A.; Meakin, J. W.; Panzarella, T.; Bahi, J.; Reid, M.; Spittle, M.; Bishop, H.; Bundred, N. J.; Forsyth, S.; Pinder, S. E.; Sestak, I.; Deutsch, G. P.; Kwong, D. L. W.; Pai, V. R.; Senanayake, F.; Boccardo, F.; Rubagotti, A.; Hackshaw, A.; Houghton, J.; Ledermann, J.; Monson, K.; Tobias, J. S.; Carlomagno, C.; de Laurentiis, M.; de Placido, S.; Williams, L.; Broglio, K.; Buzdar, A. U.; Love, R. R.; Ahlgren, J.; Garmo, H.; Holmberg, L.; Liljegren, G.; Lindman, H.; Wärnberg, F.; Asmar, L.; Jones, S. E.; Gluz, O.; Liedtke, C.; Nitz, U.; Litton, A.; Wallgren, A.; Karlsson, P.; Linderholm, B. K.; Chlebowski, R. T.; Caffier, H.

    2011-01-01

    As trials of 5 years of tamoxifen in early breast cancer mature, the relevance of hormone receptor measurements (and other patient characteristics) to long-term outcome can be assessed increasingly reliably. We report updated meta-analyses of the trials of 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. We undertook

  7. Interactive effect of genetic susceptibility with height, body mass index, and hormone replacement therapy on the risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlid Sophia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer today has many established risk factors, both genetic and environmental, but these risk factors by themselves explain only part of the total cancer incidence. We have investigated potential interactions between certain known genetic and phenotypic risk factors, specifically nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and height, body mass index (BMI and hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Methods We analyzed samples from three different study populations: two prospectively followed Swedish cohorts and one Icelandic case–control study. Totally 2884 invasive breast cancer cases and 4508 controls were analysed in the study. Genotypes were determined using Mass spectrometry-Maldi-TOF and phenotypic variables were derived from measurements and/or questionnaires. Odds Ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression with the inclusion of an interaction term in the logistic regression model. Results One SNP (rs851987 in ESR1 tended to interact with height, with an increasingly protective effect of the major allele in taller women (p = 0.007 and rs13281615 (on 8q24 tended to confer risk only in non users of HRT (p-for interaction = 0.03. There were no significant interactions after correction for multiple testing. Conclusions We conclude that much larger sample sets would be necessary to demonstrate interactions between low-risk genetic polymorphisms and the phenotypic variables height, BMI and HRT on the risk for breast cancer. However the present hypothesis-generating study has identified tendencies that would be of interest to evaluate for gene-environment interactions in independent materials.

  8. HORMONE THERAPY IN ADVANCED ER+/HER2- NEGATIVE BREAST CANCER WITH PI3K INHIBITORS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Inkov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease, showing as several different clinical and histologic types. Most of breast cancers express hormone receptors for estrogen and progesterone, which are considered as estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone-receptor-positive, respectively. Endocrine therapy was the first class of target-directed therapy approved for treating breast cancer and is still very important for the treatment of HR+ breast cancer because of its effectiveness and good toxicity profile. It targets receptor-mediated signaling pathways implicated in cell survival and proliferation, such as those mediated by hormone receptors. Although these approaches have improved the management of advanced breast cancer, many patients either fail to respond to initial therapy (primary or de novo resistance or eventually become resistant to treatment (secondary or acquired resistance. To expand the use of existing endocrine treatments and their efficiency, new methods are needed. Such new approaches would boost the benefit of existing endocrine therapy by extending time to disease progression, avoiding or overcoming resistance to endocrine treatment, and delaying the use of chemotherapy. This article will review the central role of the PI3K inhibitors in driving ER+/HER2- breast tumors. Also, schemes to combine pathway inhibitors with endocrine therapy for better patient outcome, and approaches to identify patient populations that would benefit most from inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway will be assessed.

  9. Ovarian suppression using luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists during chemotherapy to preserve ovarian function and fertility of breast cancer patients: a meta-analysis of randomized studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, M; Ceppi, M; Poggio, F; Peccatori, F A; Azim, H A; Ugolini, D; Pronzato, P; Loibl, S; Moore, H C F; Partridge, A H; Bruzzi, P; Del Mastro, L

    2015-12-01

    The role of temporary ovarian suppression with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) is still controversial. Our meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) investigates whether the use of LHRHa during chemotherapy in premenopausal breast cancer patients reduces treatment-related POF rate, increases pregnancy rate, and impacts disease-free survival (DFS). A literature search using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, and the proceedings of major conferences, was conducted up to 30 April 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for POF (i.e. POF by study definition, and POF defined as amenorrhea 1 year after chemotherapy completion) and for patients with pregnancy, as well hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CI for DFS, were calculated for each trial. Pooled analysis was carried out using the fixed- and random-effects models. A total of 12 RCTs were eligible including 1231 breast cancer patients. The use of LHRHa was associated with a significant reduced risk of POF (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.57; P chemotherapy completion, the addition of LHRHa reduced the risk of POF (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.41-0.73, P chemotherapy-induced POF and seems to increase the pregnancy rate, without an apparent negative consequence on prognosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  12. KRAS rs61764370 is associated with HER2-overexpressed and poorly-differentiated breast cancer in hormone replacement therapy users: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerne Jasmina-Ziva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A single nucleotide polymorphism located in the 3'-untranslated region of the KRAS oncogene (KRAS variant; rs61764370 disrupts a let-7 miRNA binding and was recently reported to act as a genetic marker for increased risk of developing human cancers. We aimed to investigate an association of the KRAS variant with sporadic and familial breast cancer and breast tumor characteristics. Methods Genotyping was accomplished in 530 sporadic postmenopausal breast cancer cases, 165 familial breast cancer cases (including N = 29, who test positive for BRCA1/2 mutations and 270 postmenopausal control women using the flurogenic 5' nuclease assay. Information on hormone replacement therapy (HRT use and tumor characteristics in sporadic breast cancer cases was ascertained from a postal questionnaire and pathology reports, respectively. Associations between the KRAS genotype and breast cancer or breast tumor characteristics were assessed using chi-square test and logistic regression models. Results No evidence of association was observed between the KRAS variant and risk of sporadic and familial breast cancer - either among BRCA carriers or non-BRCA carriers. The KRAS variant was statistically significantly more often associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 - positive tumors and tumors of higher histopathologic grade. However, both associations were detected only in HRT users. Conclusion Our data do not support the hypothesis that the KRAS variant rs61764370 is implicated in the aetiology of sporadic or of familial breast cancer. In postmenopausal women using HRT, the KRAS variant might lead to HER2 overexpressed and poorly-differentiated breast tumors, both indicators of a worse prognosis.

  13. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced risk of breast cancer. The Mediterranean diet focuses mostly on plant-based foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts. People who follow the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over ...

  14. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. It’s estimated that about 10% of breast cancer cases are hereditary (run in the family). In many of these cases, you inherited a gene from your parents that has mutated (changed from ...

  15. Interest in Integrative Medicine Among Postmenopausal Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Patients in the EvAluate-TM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Carolin C; Fasching, Peter A; Fehm, Tanja; de Waal, Johann; Rezai, Mahdi; Baier, Bernd; Baake, Gerold; Kolberg, Hans-Christian; Guggenberger, Martin; Warm, Mathias; Harbeck, Nadia; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Deuker, Jörg-Uwe; Dall, Peter; Richter, Barbara; Wachsmann, Grischa; Brucker, Cosima; Siebers, Jan W; Fersis, Nikos; Kuhn, Thomas; Wolf, Christopher; Vollert, Hans-Walter; Breitbach, Georg-Peter; Janni, Wolfgang; Landthaler, Robert; Kohls, Andreas; Rezek, Daniela; Noesslet, Thomas; Fischer, Gunnar; Henschen, Stefan; Praetz, Thomas; Heyl, Volker; Kühn, Thorsten; Krauss, Thomas; Thomssen, Christoph; Hohn, Andre; Tesch, Hans; Mundhenke, Christoph; Hein, Alexander; Rauh, Claudia; Bayer, Christian M; Jacob, Adib; Schmidt, Katja; Belleville, Erik; Hadji, Peyman; Brucker, Sara Y; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Kümmel, Sherko; Beckmann, Matthias W; Paepke, Daniela

    2017-06-01

    Breast cancer patients often use complementary and alternative medicine, but few prospectively collected data on the topic are available specifically for postmenopausal breast cancer patients. A large prospective study was therefore conducted within a noninterventional study in order to identify the characteristics of patients interested in integrative medicine. The EvAluate-TM study is a prospective, multicenter noninterventional study in which treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole was evaluated in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive primary breast cancer. Between 2008 and 2009, 5045 postmenopausal patients were enrolled at 339 certified breast centers in Germany. As part of the data collection process, patients were asked at the baseline about their interest in and information needs relating to integrative medicine. Of the 5045 patients recruited, 3411 responded to the questionnaire on integrative medicine and took part in the analysis, 1583 patients expressed an interest in integrative medicine, and 1828 patients declared no interest. Relevant predictors of interest in integrative medicine were age, body mass index, tumor size, previous chemotherapy, and use of concomitant medications for other medical conditions. Interest in integrative medicine declined highly significantly ( P 65 years, 38.0%). Patients in favor of integrative medicine were significantly less satisfied with the information received about individual treatments and antihormonal therapy. Patients with interest in integrative medicine were more often interested in rehabilitation and fitness, nutritional counseling, and additional support from self-help organizations. These women were mostly interested in receiving information about their disease and integrative medicine from a physician, rather than from other sources. This study shows that a considerable proportion of postmenopausal breast cancer patients are interested in integrative medicine. Information about

  16. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBianco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  17. Gene expression markers in circulating tumor cells may predict bone metastasis and response to hormonal treatment in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Molina, Julian; Jiang, John; Ferber, Matthew; Pruthi, Sandhya; Jatkoe, Timothy; Derecho, Carlo; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Yixin

    2013-11-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have recently attracted attention due to their potential as prognostic and predictive markers for the clinical management of metastatic breast cancer patients. The isolation of CTCs from patients may enable the molecular characterization of these cells, which may help establish a minimally invasive assay for the prediction of metastasis and further optimization of treatment. Molecular markers of proven clinical value may therefore be useful in predicting disease aggressiveness and response to treatment. In our earlier study, we identified a gene signature in breast cancer that appears to be significantly associated with bone metastasis. Among the genes that constitute this signature, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) was identified as the most differentially expressed gene associated with bone metastasis. In this study, we investigated 25 candidate gene markers in the CTCs of metastatic breast cancer patients with different metastatic sites. The panel of the 25 markers was investigated in 80 baseline samples (first blood draw of CTCs) and 30 follow-up samples. In addition, 40 healthy blood donors (HBDs) were analyzed as controls. The assay was performed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with RNA extracted from CTCs captured by the CellSearch system. Our study indicated that 12 of the genes were uniquely expressed in CTCs and 10 were highly expressed in the CTCs obtained from patients compared to those obtained from HBDs. Among these genes, the expression of keratin 19 was highly correlated with the CTC count. The TFF1 expression in CTCs was a strong predictor of bone metastasis and the patients with a high expression of estrogen receptor β in CTCs exhibited a better response to hormonal treatment. Molecular characterization of these genes in CTCs may provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis and identify gene markers in CTCs for predicting disease progression and

  18. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  19. Melatonin, Aging and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Steven

    2001-01-01

    ... conditions for tumor induction, promotion and progression. The pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, has been shown by numerous laboratories to inhibit the proliferation of both human and animal models of breast cancer...

  20. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. Testosterone is one ...

  1. Hormone-replacement therapy influences gene expression profiles and is associated with breast-cancer prognosis: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoog Lambert

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postmenopausal hormone-replacement therapy (HRT increases breast-cancer risk. The influence of HRT on the biology of the primary tumor, however, is not well understood. Methods We obtained breast-cancer gene expression profiles using Affymetrix human genome U133A arrays. We examined the relationship between HRT-regulated gene profiles, tumor characteristics, and recurrence-free survival in 72 postmenopausal women. Results HRT use in patients with estrogen receptor (ER protein positive tumors (n = 72 was associated with an altered regulation of 276 genes. Expression profiles based on these genes clustered ER-positive tumors into two molecular subclasses, one of which was associated with HRT use and had significantly better recurrence free survival despite lower ER levels. A comparison with external data suggested that gene regulation in tumors associated with HRT was negatively correlated with gene regulation induced by short-term estrogen exposure, but positively correlated with the effect of tamoxifen. Conclusion Our findings suggest that post-menopausal HRT use is associated with a distinct gene expression profile related to better recurrence-free survival and lower ER protein levels. Tentatively, HRT-associated gene expression in tumors resembles the effect of tamoxifen exposure on MCF-7 cells.

  2. HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY AND CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjetka Uršič Vrščaj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sex steroids are not known to damage DNA directly. They can stimulate or inhibit cell proliferation, and thus can modulate tumor developmental progression.Results. Sex steroids-related tumors in women are represented by breast cancer and endometrial cancer, and a possible relationship exists between sex steroids and both ovarian and colon cancer. Among current ERT users or those who stopped use 1–4 years previously, the relative risk of having breast cancer diagnosed is low, increases by factor of 1.023 for each year of hormone use. An appropriate combination of estrogen and progestin does not appear to increase, and may even decrease, the risk of endometrial cancer. Studies on HRT and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer have produced conflicting results but most data seem to exclude a strong assotiation. It is important that available data suggest a reduced risk of benign colorectal adenoma and colon cancer for 30–40%.Conclusions. After breast cancer, endometrial cancer, melanoma or epithelial ovarian cancer HRT is not absolute contraindication. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma should be considered to be a contraindication to HRT.

  3. Immunohistochemical staining of leptin is associated with grade, stage, lymph node involvement, recurrence, and hormone receptor phenotypes in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Khabaz, Mohamad Nidal; Abdelrahman, Amer; Butt, Nadeem; Damnhory, Lila; Elshal, Mohamed; Aldahlawi, Alia M.; Ashoor, Swsan; Al-Maghrabi, Basim; Dobson, Pauline; Brown, Barry; Al-Sakkaf, Kaltoom; Al-Qahtani, Mohmmad; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity is part of the established risk factors for breast cancer (BC) in postmenopausal females. Circulating leptin increases in parallel with the increase of body weight and fat reservoir. Methods This research investigated the link between leptin phenotype and the clinicopathological factors in BC. A large set of breast cancer cases (449), and 27 non-cancerous tissue samples of breast were employed for leptin expression recognition using immunohistochemistry staining. Results Cy...

  4. Cost-effectiveness of palbociclib in hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamiya, H; Tahara, R K; Tolaney, S M; Choudhry, N K; Najafzadeh, M

    2017-08-01

    Palbociclib (PAL), a novel small-molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 for the treatment of advanced breast cancer, has demonstrated significant efficacy in prolonging progression-free survival when added to existing therapies. Considering the high cost of PAL, we assessed cost-effectiveness of adding PAL to usual care in treatment of advanced breast cancer. We developed a discrete event simulation model to simulate time to cancer progression and to compare life time clinical benefit and cost of alternative treatment strategies for patients with metastatic disease from societal perspective. Per approved indication, endocrine treatment naive patients were assigned to PAL plus letrozole (PAL + LET) or letrozole alone (LET). Patients with prior endocrine therapy were assigned to PAL plus fulvestrant (FUL) (PAL + FUL) or FUL alone. The model assumptions were informed based on published clinical trial data and other peer reviewed studies. We carried out one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of our results to the changes in model assumptions. In treatment-naive patients, the addition of PAL to LET cost an estimated $768 498 per additional quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. The addition of PAL to FUL in patients with prior endocrine therapy cost an estimated $918 166 per QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated adding PAL has a 0% chance of being cost-effectiveness in either patient groups at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000 per QALY. From a societal perspective, PAL treatment of both patient groups (with and without prior endocrine therapy) is highly unlikely to be cost-effective compared with the usual care in the USA.

  5. A kinome-wide screen identifies the Insulin/IGF-1 receptor pathway as a mechanism of escape from hormone dependence in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Emily M.; Miller, Todd W.; Balko, Justin M.; Kuba, Maria G.; Sánchez, Violeta; Smith, R. Adam; Liu, Shuying; González-Angulo, Ana María; Mills, Gordon B.; Ye, Fei; Shyr, Yu; Manning, H. Charles; Buck, Elizabeth; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancers adapt to hormone deprivation and become resistant to antiestrogens. In this study, we sought to identify kinases essential for growth of ER+ breast cancer cells resistant to long term estrogen deprivation (LTED). A kinome-wide siRNA screen showed that the insulin receptor (InsR) is required for growth of MCF7/LTED cells. Knockdown of InsR and/or insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibited growth of 3/4 LTED cell lines. Inhibition of InsR and IGF-1R with the dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor OSI-906 prevented the emergence of hormone-independent cells and tumors in vivo, inhibited parental and LTED cell growth and PI3K/AKT signaling, and suppressed growth of established MCF-7 xenografts in ovariectomized mice, whereas treatment with the neutralizing IGF-1R monoclonal antibody MAB391 was ineffective. Combined treatment with OSI-906 and the ER downregulator fulvestrant more effectively suppressed hormone-independent tumor growth than either drug alone. Finally, an insulin/IGF-1 gene expression signature predicted recurrence-free survival in patients with ER+ breast cancer treated with the antiestrogen tamoxifen. We conclude that therapeutic targeting of both InsR and IGF-1R should be more effective than targeting IGF-1R alone in abrogating resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer. PMID:21908557

  6. Real-World Treatment Patterns for Hormone Receptor-Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer in Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Rita; Scazafave, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Clinical guidelines generally recommend endocrine therapy over chemotherapy for hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer (unless life-threatening metastases are present). This study aimed to assess the real-world treatment patterns of patients with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer in Europe and the United States. Treatment patterns in Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK) and the United States from January 2012 to December 2014 were investigated using a patient record database (Global Oncology Monitor©). Sample data were projected to the wider clinical population to provide running annual estimates every 3 months. Sample sizes ranged from 1272 to 1640 patients in Europe and from 2225 to 2760 patients in the United States. Across all lines of therapy, 37-43% (Europe) and 45-50% (United States) of patients received chemotherapy. More patients received endocrine therapy than chemotherapy as first-line treatment for advanced breast cancer (Europe: 51-54% vs. 33-35%; United States: 53-60% vs. 34-42%). In contrast, endocrine therapy-only regimens were given less commonly than chemotherapy-only regimens in the third-line setting in both Europe and the United States. Chemotherapy is used extensively in routine clinical practice for hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. The results also suggest that the treatment patternsin Europe and the United States are qualitatively different. Funding : Ipsos Healthcare and AstraZeneca.

  7. A Nested Case-Control Study of Luteinizing Hormone Variants and Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    LH status and breast cancer. Potentially confounding variables were included in multivariate logistic models. They included height, weight, Quetelet ...condition (62.4% versus 51.2%, p < 0.005), had a higher weight (mean, 69 versus 67 kg, p < 0.006) and Quetelet index (mean, 25.9 versus 25.5, p < 0.05...Height (cm) 162.4 (150-183) 161.6 (145-183) 0.19 Weight (kg) 69 (47-123) 67 (45-141) ɘ.006 Quetelet index (kg/m2) 25.9 (17.0-43.5) 25.5 (17.0-54.8

  8. Potential prognostic value of clinical characteristics, hormone status and major depressive disorder in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Lingyun; Huang, Tianhe; Lian, Jie; Zhou, Fuling; Gao, Chengge; Lin, Yan; Tu, Honglei; Nan, Kejun; Li, Zongfang; Wei, Yongchang

    2017-07-01

    To identify independent factors predicting overall survival (OS) of breast cancer (BC) patients. Two hundred and eighty one women with BC were recruited and clinical characteristics including lymphovascular invasion, clinical stage of Tumor Node Metastasis and positive axillary lymph nodes were documented; immunohistochemistry/fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to examine the expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2 and Ki-67; major depressive disorder was assessed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders V. Multivariable analyses indicated that in BC patients, lymphovascular invasion, Tumor Node Metastasis, pN, Ki-67 and major depressive disorder were significantly negatively correlated with OS; estrogen receptor was significantly positively associated with OS. Early diagnostic approaches and effective psychologic intervention are indispensable for BC patients.

  9. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease ...

  10. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  11. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    南, 優子; ミナミ, ユウコ; MINAMI, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    During recent decades, breast cancer incidence has been increasing in Japan. Epidemiological studies have clarified the trend in breast cancer incidence and identified risk factors for breast cancer. Established risk factors for breast cancer include early age at menarche, late age at first birth, low parity, postmenopausal obesity, family history of breast cancer, and history of benign breast disease. Breast-feeding and physical activity may also be associated with breast cancer risk. Detail...

  12. Effects of a high-fiber, low-fat diet intervention on serum concentrations of reproductive steroid hormones in women with a history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Stefanick, Marcia L; Newman, Vicky A; Jones, Lovell A; Natarajan, Loki; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Hollenbach, Kathryn A; Pierce, John P; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-06-15

    Diet intervention trials are testing whether postdiagnosis dietary modification can influence breast cancer recurrence and survival. One possible mechanism is an effect on reproductive steroid hormones. Serum reproductive steroid hormones were measured at enrollment and 1 year in 291 women with a history of breast cancer who were enrolled onto a randomized, controlled diet intervention trial. Dietary goals for the intervention group were increased fiber, vegetable, and fruit intakes and reduced fat intake. Estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured. The intervention (but not the comparison) group reported a significantly lower intake of energy from fat (21% v 28%), and higher intake of fiber (29 g/d v 22 g/d), at 1-year follow-up (P <.001). Significant weight loss did not occur in either group. A significant difference in the change in bioavailable estradiol concentration from baseline to 1 year in the intervention (-13 pmol/L) versus the comparison (+3 pmol/L) group was observed (P <.05). Change in fiber (but not fat) intake was significantly and independently related to change in serum bioavailable estradiol (P <.01) and total estradiol (P <.05) concentrations. Results from this study indicate that a high-fiber, low-fat diet intervention is associated with reduced serum bioavailable estradiol concentration in women diagnosed with breast cancer, the majority of whom did not exhibit weight loss. Increased fiber intake was independently related to the reduction in serum estradiol concentration.

  13. Continuation of bevacizumab and addition of hormone therapy following weekly paclitaxel therapy in HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redondo A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Andrés Redondo,1,* Virginia Martínez,1,* Pilar Zamora,1 Beatriz Castelo,1 Alvaro Pinto,1 Patricia Cruz,1 Oliver Higuera,1 Marta Mendiola,2 David Hardisson,3 Enrique Espinosa11Medical Oncology Department, 2Translational Oncology and Molecular Pathology Laboratory, 3Pathology Department, University Hospital La Paz (IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Bevacizumab plus taxane chemotherapy improves progression-free survival (PFS versus taxane monotherapy in the first-line treatment of HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC and appears promising in the second-line setting. This retrospective analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of this combination in a real-world setting.Patients and methods: Eligible patients received bevacizumab (10 mg/kg days 1 and 15, every 28 days plus paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 days 1, 8, and 15, every 28 days as first-line therapy for MBC, or as subsequent lines, including bevacizumab continuation therapy, at La Paz University Hospital between August 2007 and October 2012. End points included objective response rate (ORR, PFS, overall survival (OS, and safety.Results: Seventy-eight patients were included. Median PFS was 12.8 months for patients receiving first-line treatment and 9.3 months for subsequent lines. Forty-five patients (57.7% continued bevacizumab after stopping paclitaxel, and had significantly longer PFS and OS than those who did not (hazard ratio [HR] 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.248–0.653, P<0.001; HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.218–0.710, P=0.002; respectively. In the continuation phase, estrogen receptor-positive patients had longer PFS and OS when receiving hormone therapy plus bevacizumab versus patients receiving only bevacizumab (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.24–1.04, P=0.06; HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.16–1.16, P=0.09; respectively. Thirty-five patients (44.9% reported grade 3–4 adverse events.Conclusion: Bevacizumab plus paclitaxel was effective in HER2-negative MBC

  14. Assessment of letrozole and tamoxifen alone and in sequence for postmenopausal women with steroid hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: the BIG 1-98 randomised clinical trial at 8·1 years median follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regan, Meredith M; Neven, Patrick; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer have persistent, long-term risk of breast-cancer recurrence and death. Therefore, trials assessing endocrine therapies for this patient population need extended follow-up. We present an update of efficacy outcomes in the Brea...

  15. CYP19A1 polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in the BIG 1-98 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyland-Jones, Brian; Gray, Kathryn P; Abramovitz, Mark

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether CYP19A1 polymorphisms are associated with abnormal activity of aromatase and with musculoskeletal and bone side effects of aromatase inhibitors. DNA was isolated from tumor specimens of 4861 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer enrolled in the BIG 1......-98 trial to receive tamoxifen and/or letrozole for 5 years. Tumors were genotyped for six CYP19A1 polymorphisms using PCR-based methods. Associations with breast cancer-free interval (BCFI), distant recurrence-free interval (DRFI), musculoskeletal and bone adverse events (AEs) were assessed using Cox...... proportional hazards models. All statistical tests were two-sided. No association between the CYP19A1 genotypes and BCFI or DRFI was observed overall. A reduced risk of a breast cancer event for tamoxifen-treated patients with rs700518 variants was observed (BCFI CC/TC vs. TT: HR 0.53, 95 % CI 0...

  16. Exploratory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Response-Guided Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Hormone Positive Breast Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miquel-Cases

    Full Text Available Guiding response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (guided-NACT allows for an adaptative treatment approach likely to improve breast cancer survival. In this study, our primary aim is to explore the expected cost-effectiveness of guided-NACT using as a case study the first randomized controlled trial that demonstrated effectiveness (GeparTrio trial.As effectiveness was shown in hormone-receptor positive (HR+ early breast cancers (EBC, our decision model compared the health-economic outcomes of treating a cohort of such women with guided-NACT to conventional-NACT using clinical input data from the GeparTrio trial. The expected cost-effectiveness and the uncertainty around this estimate were estimated via probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA, from a Dutch societal perspective over a 5-year time-horizon.Our exploratory CEA predicted that guided-NACT as proposed by the GeparTrio, costs additional €110, but results in 0.014 QALYs gained per patient. This scenario of guided-NACT was considered cost-effective at any willingness to pay per additional QALY. At the prevailing Dutch willingness to pay threshold (€80.000/QALY cost-effectiveness was expected with 78% certainty.This exploratory CEA indicated that guided-NACT (as proposed by the GeparTrio trial is likely cost-effective in treating HR+ EBC women. While prospective validation of the GeparTrio findings is advisable from a clinical perspective, early CEAs can be used to prioritize further research from a broader health economic perspective, by identifying which parameters contribute most to current decision uncertainty. Furthermore, their use can be extended to explore the expected cost-effectiveness of alternative guided-NACT scenarios that combine the use of promising imaging techniques together with personalized treatments.

  17. Insulin use, hormone receptor status and hematopoietic cytokines׳ circulation in women with diabetes mellitus and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A.P. Wintrob

    2017-04-01

    The data presented here is among the first to show a relationship between pre-existing use of injectable insulin in women diagnosed with breast cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus, hematopoietic cytokine profiles at time of breast cancer diagnosis, and subsequent cancer outcomes. A Pearson correlation analysis evaluating the relationship between G-CSF, GM-CSF, and IL-7 stratified by insulin use, controls, as well as by estrogen and progesterone receptor status is also provided.

  18. Hormone resistance in two MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines is associated with reduced mTOR signaling, decreased glycolysis and increased sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euphemia Yee Leung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mTOR pathway is a key regulator of multiple cellular signaling pathways and is a potential target for therapy. We have previously developed two hormone-resistant sub-lines of the MCF-7 human breast cancer line, designated TamC3 and TamR3, which were characterized by reduced mTOR signaling, reduced cell volume and resistance to mTOR inhibition. Here we show that these lines exhibit increased sensitivity to carboplatin, oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, camptothecin, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, docetaxel and hydrogen peroxide. The mechanisms underlying these changes have not yet been characterized but may include a shift from glycolysis to mitochondrial respiration. If this phenotype is found in clinical hormone-resistant breast cancers, conventional cytotoxic therapy may be a preferred option for treatment.

  19. Modeling Canadian Quality Control Test Program for Steroid Hormone Receptors in Breast Cancer: Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Teresa; Makrestsov, Nikita; Garatt, John; Torlakovic, Emina; Gilks, C Blake; Mallett, Susan

    The Canadian Immunohistochemistry Quality Control program monitors clinical laboratory performance for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor tests used in breast cancer treatment management in Canada. Current methods assess sensitivity and specificity at each time point, compared with a reference standard. We investigate alternative performance analysis methods to enhance the quality assessment. We used 3 methods of analysis: meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity of each laboratory across all time points; sensitivity and specificity at each time point for each laboratory; and fitting models for repeated measurements to examine differences between laboratories adjusted by test and time point. Results show 88 laboratories participated in quality control at up to 13 time points using typically 37 to 54 histology samples. In meta-analysis across all time points no laboratories have sensitivity or specificity below 80%. Current methods, presenting sensitivity and specificity separately for each run, result in wide 95% confidence intervals, typically spanning 15% to 30%. Models of a single diagnostic outcome demonstrated that 82% to 100% of laboratories had no difference to reference standard for estrogen receptor and 75% to 100% for progesterone receptor, with the exception of 1 progesterone receptor run. Laboratories with significant differences to reference standard identified with Generalized Estimating Equation modeling also have reduced performance by meta-analysis across all time points. The Canadian Immunohistochemistry Quality Control program has a good design, and with this modeling approach has sufficient precision to measure performance at each time point and allow laboratories with a significantly lower performance to be targeted for advice.

  20. Adjuvant Trastuzumab in HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer by Age and Hormone Receptor Status: A Cost-Utility Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, William; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Nair, Nisha; Blakely, Tony

    2016-08-01

    The anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody trastuzumab improves outcomes in patients with node-positive HER2+ early breast cancer. Given trastuzumab's high cost, we aimed to estimate its cost-effectiveness by heterogeneity in age and estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, which has previously been unexplored, to assist prioritisation. A cost-utility analysis was performed using a Markov macro-simulation model, with a lifetime horizon, comparing a 12-mo regimen of trastuzumab with chemotherapy alone using the latest (2014) effectiveness measures from landmark randomised trials. A New Zealand (NZ) health system perspective was adopted, employing high-quality national administrative data. Incremental quality-adjusted life-years for trastuzumab versus chemotherapy alone are two times higher (2.33 times for the age group 50-54 y; 95% CI 2.29-2.37) for the worst prognosis (ER-/PR-) subtype compared to the best prognosis (ER+/PR+) subtype, causing incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for the former to be less than half those of the latter for the age groups from 25-29 to 90-94 y (0.44 times for the age group 50-54 y; 95% CI 0.43-0.45). If we were to strictly apply an arbitrary cost-effectiveness threshold equal to the NZ gross domestic product per capita (2011 purchasing power parity [PPP]-adjusted: US$30,300; €23,700; £21,200), our study suggests that trastuzumab (2011 PPP-adjusted US$45,400/€35,900/£21,900 for 1 y at formulary prices) may not be cost-effective for ER+ (which are 61% of all) node-positive HER2+ early breast cancer patients but cost-effective for ER-/PR- subtypes (37% of all cases) to age 69 y. Market entry of trastuzumab biosimilars will likely reduce the ICER to below this threshold for premenopausal ER+/PR- cancer but not for ER+/PR+ cancer. Sensitivity analysis using the best-case effectiveness measure for ER+ cancer had the same result. A key limitation was a lack of treatment

  1. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  2. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  3. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over butter and fish instead of red meat. Breast cancer risk reduction for women with a high risk If your doctor has assessed your family history and determined that you have other factors, such ...

  4. Prognosis of metastatic breast cancer subtypes: the hormone receptor/HER2-positive subtype is associated with the most favorable outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, Dorien J A; van Kampen, Roel J W; Voogd, Adri C; Dercksen, M Wouter; van den Berkmortel, Franchette; Smilde, Tineke J; van de Wouw, Agnes J; Peters, Frank P J; van Riel, Johanna M G H; Peters, Natascha A J B; de Boer, Maaike; Borm, George F; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G

    2013-10-01

    Contrary to the situation in early breast cancer, little is known about the prognostic relevance of the hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in metastatic breast cancer. The objectives of this study were to present survival estimates and to determine the prognostic impact of breast cancer subtypes based on HR and HER2 status in a recent cohort of metastatic breast cancer patients, which is representative of current clinical practice. Patients diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer between 2007 and 2009 were included. Information regarding patient and tumor characteristics and treatment was collected. Patients were categorized in four subtypes based on the HR and HER2 status of the primary tumor: HR positive (+)/HER2 negative (-), HR+/HER2+, HR-/HER2+ and triple negative (TN). Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the prognostic impact of breast cancer subtype, adjusted for possible confounders. Median follow-up was 21.8 months for the 815 metastatic breast cancer patients included; 66 % of patients had the HR+/HER2- subtype, 8 % the HR-/HER2+ subtype, 15 % the TN subtype and 11 % the HR+/HER2+ subtype. The longest survival was observed for the HR+/HER2+ subtype (median 34.4 months), compared to 24.8 months for the HR+/HER2- subtype, 19.8 months for the HR-/HER2+ subtype and 8.8 months for the TN subtype (P < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, subtype was an independent prognostic factor, as were initial site of metastases and metastatic-free interval. The HR+/HER2+ subtype was associated with the longest survival after diagnosis of distant metastases.

  5. Predictors of early relapse in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in the BIG 1-98 trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mauriac, L.; Keshaviah, A; Debled, M; Mouridsen, H; Forbes, Jf; Thürlimann, B; Paridaens, R; Monnier, A.; Láng, I.; Wardley, A; Nogaret, J-M; Gelber, RD; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Price, KN; Coates, AS

    2017-01-01

    Background: Aromatase inhibitors are considered standard adjuvant endocrine treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, but it remains uncertain whether aromatase inhibitors should be given upfront or sequentially with tamoxifen. Awaiting results from ongoing randomized trials, we examined prognostic factors of an early relapse among patients in the BIG 1-98 trial to aid in treatment choices. Patients and methods: Analyses included all 7707 eligible patient...

  6. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and breast cancer risk according to menopause and hormone receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Ferrari, Pietro; González, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary flavonoids and lignans and breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive, with the possible exception of isoflavones in Asian countries. Therefore, we investigated prospectively dietary total and subclasses of flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk according...... to menopause and hormonal receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 334,850 women, mostly aged between 35 and 70 years from ten European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. A flavonoid...... and lignan food composition database was developed from the US Department of Agriculture, the Phenol-Explorer and the UK Food Standards Agency databases. Cox regression models were used to analyse the association between dietary flavonoid/lignan intake and the risk of developing BC. During an average 11...

  7. PALBOCICLIB IN COMBINATION WITH HORMONE THERAPY FOR LUMINAL HER2-NEGATIVE METASTATIC BREAST CANCER: NEW HIGHLY EFFECTIVE STRATEGY OF DRUG TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Artamonova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review considers a new oral targeted drug palbociclib and its place in treatment of luminal (estrogen receptor-positive HER2– metastatic breast cancer. The results of randomized clinical trials have shown that inclusion of palbociclib in various hormone therapy regimens for treatment of HER2– metastatic breast cancer with expression of estrogen receptors allows to significantly improve clinical outcomes and increase survival, objective response rate and its duration, as well as clinical benefit rate (CBR. Addition of palbociclib to letrozole in the 1st line hormone therapy or to fulvestrant in patients with progression at/after previous endocrine therapy increased progression-free survival in all groups irrespective of clinical characteristics, tumor progression, or expression of molecular markers mediating development of hormone resistance. The main adverse events associated with palbociclib were neutropenia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, but overall hematological toxicity was manageable, and the therapy itself was safe. This strategy received a “breakthrough therapy designation” from the experts and combines proven effectiveness and satisfactory tolerability, allows to maintain high quality of life, and should be prescribed to patients with luminal HER2– metastatic breast cancer.

  8. Apocrine sweat gland obstruction by antiperspirants allowing transdermal absorption of cutaneous generated hormones and pheromones as a link to the observed incidence rates of breast and prostate cancer in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kris G

    2009-06-01

    Breast and prostate cancer share similarities and likely represent homologous cancers in females and males, respectively. The role of hormones such as testosterone and estrogen in carcinogenesis is well established. Despite worldwide research efforts, the pathogenesis of these diseases is largely not well understood. Personal care products containing estrogens or xenoestrogens have raised concern as a breast cancer risk, especially in young African-American women. In the United States (US) there is a parallel rise in the incidence in breast and prostate cancer compared to selected non-hormone dependent tumors. Observed US and global breast and prostate cancer incidence increases were occurring before exogenous hormone replacement and xenoestrogen exposure were commonplace. An unintentional, inadvertent, and long term hormone exposure may occur from transdermal absorption of sex hormones and pheromones (androgens) from axillary apocrine sweat gland obstruction by aluminum-based antiperspirants. The global rise in antiperspirant use parallels rises in breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates. A multi-disciplinary literature based set of evidence is presented on how such a link is possible, to prompt confirmatory investigations in the pursuit of unmet needs in breast and prostate cancer etiology and prevention.

  9. Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50302 women with breast cancer and 96973 women without the disease. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; et, al.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although childbearing is known to protect against breast cancer, whether or not breastfeeding contributes to this protective effect is unclear. METHODS: Individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries that included information on breastfeeding patterns and other aspects

  10. Direct regulation of microRNA biogenesis and expression by estrogen receptor beta in hormone-responsive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, O; Ferraro, L; Grober, O M V; Ravo, M; De Filippo, M R; Giurato, G; Nassa, G; Tarallo, R; Cantarella, C; Rizzo, F; Di Benedetto, A; Mottolese, M; Benes, V; Ambrosino, C; Nola, E; Weisz, A

    2012-09-20

    Estrogen effects on mammary epithelial and breast cancer (BC) cells are mediated by the nuclear receptors ERα and ERβ, transcription factors that display functional antagonism with each other, with ERβ acting as oncosuppressor and interfering with the effects of ERα on cell proliferation, tumor promotion and progression. Indeed, hormone-responsive, ERα+ BC cells often lack ERβ, which when present associates with a less aggressive clinical phenotype of the disease. Recent evidences point to a significant role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in BC, where specific miRNA expression profiles associate with distinct clinical and biological phenotypes of the lesion. Considering the possibility that ERβ might influence BC cell behavior via miRNAs, we compared miRNome expression in ERβ+ vs ERβ- hormone-responsive BC cells and found a widespread effect of this ER subtype on the expression pattern of these non-coding RNAs. More importantly, the expression pattern of 67 miRNAs, including 10 regulated by ERβ in BC cells, clearly distinguishes ERβ+, node-negative, from ERβ-, metastatic, mammary tumors. Molecular dissection of miRNA biogenesis revealed multiple mechanisms for direct regulation of this process by ERβ+ in BC cell nuclei. In particular, ERβ downregulates miR-30a by binding to two specific sites proximal to the gene and thereby inhibiting pri-miR synthesis. On the other hand, the receptor promotes miR-23b, -27b and 24-1 accumulation in the cell by binding in close proximity of the corresponding gene cluster and preventing in situ the inhibitory effects of ERα on pri-miR maturation by the p68/DDX5-Drosha microprocessor complex. These results indicate that cell autonomous regulation of miRNA expression is part of the mechanism of action of ERβ in BC cells and could contribute to establishment or maintenance of a less aggressive tumor phenotype mediated by this nuclear receptor.

  11. Central obesity increases risk of breast cancer irrespective of menopausal and hormonal receptor status in women of South Asian Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagrani, R; Mhatre, S; Rajaraman, P; Soerjomataram, I; Boffetta, P; Gupta, S; Parmar, V; Badwe, R; Dikshit, R

    2016-10-01

    Current evidence suggests that the relationship between obesity and breast cancer (BC) risk may vary between ethnic groups. A total of 1633 BC cases and 1504 controls were enrolled in hospital-based case-control study in Mumbai, India, from 2009 to 2013. Along with detailed questionnaire, we collected anthropometric measurements on all participants. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for BC risk associated with anthropometry measurements, stratified on tumour subtype and menopausal status. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of ≥0.95 was strongly associated with risk of BC compared to WHR ≤0.84 in both premenopausal (OR = 4.3; 95% CI: 2.9-6.3) and postmenopausal women (OR = 3.4; 95% CI: 2.4-4.8) after adjustment for body mass index (BMI). Premenopausal women with a BMI ≥30 were at lower risk compared to women with normal BMI (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.4-0.8). A similar protective effect was observed in women who were postmenopausal for obese women (BMI: 25-29.9 and ≥ 30 kg/m(2), respectively) were at increased BC risk irrespective of menopausal status if their WHR ≥0.95. Central obesity (measured in terms of WC and WHR) increased the risk of both premenopausal and postmenopausal BCs irrespective of hormone receptor (HR) status. Central obesity appears to be a key risk factor for BC irrespective of menopausal or HR status in Indian women with no history of hormone replacement therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  13. Breast Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011 Funding: Increasing Awareness and Support Among Young Women with Breast Cancer Funding: Young Breast Cancer Survivors Funding: Breast Cancer Genomics Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State ...

  14. Insulin and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Pisani P, Muti P, Crosignani P, Panico S, Pierotti M, Secreto G, Totis A, Fissi R, Mazzoleni Prospective study on hormones and diet in the etiology...4, 1988. 21) Berrino F, Muti P, Micheli A, Bolelli GF, Krogh V, Sciajno R, Pisani P, Panico S, Secreto G.Serum sex steroids levels after menopause... Panico S, Pierotti M, Secreto G, Totis A, Fissi R, Mazzoleni Prospective study on hormones and diet in the etiology of breast cancer In: Diet, hormones and

  15. A Nested Case-Control Study of Luteinizing Hormone Variants and Risk of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toniolo, Paolo

    1998-01-01

    An immunological variant of luteinizing hormone (LH) dependent on two point mutations in the gene of the LH beta-subunit has increased in vitro bioactivity and is detectable in serum with immunofluorometric assays (IFMA...

  16. Evaluating the Genetic, Hormonal, and Exogenous Factors Affecting Somatic Copy Number Variation in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0579 TITLE: Evaluating the Genetic , Hormonal, and Exogenous Factors Affecting Somatic Copy Number Variation in...Sep 2015 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Evaluating the Genetic , Hormonal, and Exogenous Factors Affecting Somatic Copy...progress in subaim 1a, substantially improving the design of our proposed transgenic animal , the “deletion reporter mouse”, and are finalizing cloning

  17. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  18. Management of patients with hormone receptor–positive breast cancer with visceral disease: challenges and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harb WA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wael A Harb Horizon Oncology Center, Lafayette, IN, USA Abstract: Endocrine therapy is an important treatment option for women with hormone receptor–positive (HR+ advanced breast cancer (ABC, yet many tumors are either intrinsically resistant or develop resistance to these therapies. Treatment of patients with ABC presenting with visceral metastases, which is associated with a poor prognosis, is also problematic. There is an unmet need for effective treatments for this patient population. Although chemotherapy is commonly perceived to be more effective than endocrine therapy in managing visceral metastases, patients who are not in visceral crisis might benefit from endocrine therapy, avoiding chemotherapy-associated toxicities that might affect quality of life. To improve outcomes, several targeted therapies are being investigated in combination with endocrine therapy for patients with endocrine-resistant, HR+ ABC. Although available data have considered patients with HR+ ABC as a whole, there are promising data from a prespecified analysis of a Phase III study of everolimus (Afinitor®, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor, in combination with exemestane (Aromasin® in patients with visceral disease progressing after nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor therapy. In this review, challenges and treatment options for management of HR+ ABC with visceral disease, including consideration of therapeutic approaches undergoing clinical investigation, will be assessed.Keywords: endocrine resistance, endocrine therapy, targeted therapy

  19. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline: Update on Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy for Women With Hormone Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Harold J.; Prestrud, Ann Alexis; Seidenfeld, Jerome; Anderson, Holly; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Davidson, Nancy E.; Gelmon, Karen E.; Giordano, Sharon H.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Malin, Jennifer; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Rowden, Diana; Solky, Alexander J.; Sowers, MaryFran R.; Stearns, Vered; Winer, Eric P.; Somerfield, Mark R.; Griggs, Jennifer J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To develop evidence-based guidelines, based on a systematic review, for endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor–positive breast cancer. Methods A literature search identified relevant randomized trials. Databases searched included MEDLINE, PREMEDLINE, the Cochrane Collaboration Library, and those for the Annual Meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS). The primary outcomes of interest were disease-free survival, overall survival, and time to contralateral breast cancer. Secondary outcomes included adverse events and quality of life. An expert panel reviewed the literature, especially 12 major trials, and developed updated recommendations. Results An adjuvant treatment strategy incorporating an aromatase inhibitor (AI) as primary (initial endocrine therapy), sequential (using both tamoxifen and an AI in either order), or extended (AI after 5 years of tamoxifen) therapy reduces the risk of breast cancer recurrence compared with 5 years of tamoxifen alone. Data suggest that including an AI as primary monotherapy or as sequential treatment after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen yields similar outcomes. Tamoxifen and AIs differ in their adverse effect profiles, and these differences may inform treatment preferences. Conclusion The Update Committee recommends that postmenopausal women with hormone receptor–positive breast cancer consider incorporating AI therapy at some point during adjuvant treatment, either as up-front therapy or as sequential treatment after tamoxifen. The optimal timing and duration of endocrine treatment remain unresolved. The Update Committee supports careful consideration of adverse effect profiles and patient preferences in deciding whether and when to incorporate AI therapy. PMID:20625130

  1. DMXL2 drives epithelial to mesenchymal transition in hormonal therapy resistant breast cancer through Notch hyper-activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faronato, Monica; Nguyen, Van T M; Patten, Darren K; Lombardo, Ylenia; Steel, Jennifer H; Patel, Naina; Woodley, Laura; Shousha, Sami; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Coombes, R Charles; Magnani, Luca

    2015-09-08

    The acquisition of endocrine therapy resistance in estrogen receptor α (ERα) breast cancer patients represents a major clinical problem. Notch signalling has been extensively linked to breast cancer especially in patients who fail to respond to endocrine therapy. Following activation, Notch intracellular domain is released and enters the nucleus where activates transcription of target genes. The numerous steps that cascade after activation of the receptor complicate using Notch as biomarker. Hence, this warrants the development of reliable indicators of Notch activity. DMXL2 is a novel regulator of Notch signalling not yet investigated in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that DMXL2 is overexpressed in a subset of endocrine therapy resistant breast cancer cell lines where it promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition through hyper-activation of Notch signalling via V-ATPase dependent acidification. Following DMXL2 depletion or treatment with Bafilomycin A1, both EMT targets and Notch signalling pathway significantly decrease. We show for the first time that DMXL2 protein levels are significantly increased in ERα positive breast cancer patients that progress after endocrine therapy. Finally, we demonstrate that DMXL2 is a transmembrane protein with a potential extra-cellular domain. These findings identify DMXL2 as a novel, functional biomarker for ERα positive breast cancer.

  2. Management of adverse events in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer treated with everolimus: observations from a phase III clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mary E

    2013-08-01

    Everolimus is a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor approved for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex, renal angiomyolipoma and tuberous sclerosis complex, and, in combination with exemestane, for hormone receptor-positive HER2-negative advanced breast cancer after failure of treatment with letrozole or anastrozole. Results from the phase III BOLERO-2 trial demonstrated that everolimus in combination with exemestane provided significant clinical benefit to patients with advanced hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Although everolimus is generally well tolerated, as with most therapies administered in an advanced cancer setting, drug-related adverse events (AEs) inevitably occur. Most common AEs observed in the everolimus studies include stomatitis, rash, infection, noninfectious pneumonitis, and hyperglycemia. Clinical awareness and early identification of such AEs by oncology nurses are essential to dosing (interruptions, reduction, and treatment discontinuation); quality of life; and, ultimately, patient outcomes. Because everolimus has already been shown to significantly improve clinical efficacy in patients with advanced breast cancer, a proactive approach to the practical management of AEs associated with this mTOR inhibitor as well as other most common AEs observed in this patient population has been reviewed and outlined here.

  3. Exploiting for Breast Cancer Control a Proposed Unified Mechanism for Reduction of Human Breast Cancer Risk by the Hormones of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Jose M. Reyes, Luis E. Valladares, Thomas T. Andersen, James A. Bennett, Herbert I. Jacobson, Ana M. Pino. Oncology Reports. In review. *6. An...ovarian hormones on the induction of l-methyl-l-nitrosourea-induced mammary cancer. Carcinogenesis, 4, 495–497. 3. Guzman RC, Yang J, Rajkumar L...2;96(5):2520-5. 4. Rajkumar L, Guzman RC, Yang J, Thordarson G, Talamantes F, Nandi S. Prevention of mammary carcinogenesis by short-term

  4. Possible implication of environmental hormones in the recent risk increase of cancers of the skin and the liver, but not of the female breast worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, M; Murakami, M; Kodama, T

    1999-01-01

    The invention of 2 contrasting terms "Western type cancer" and "non-Western type cancer" implies that the progress of Westernization of life style for a given population may find its reflection in the balance of cancer risk between a Western type cancer and a non-Western type cancer. Our recent investigation presented evidence to indicate that the incidence of cancers of all sites increased by 32.1% (males) and 18.0% (females) from early 1960s to mid 1980s in the world statistics, and that the observed risk increase of cancers of the skin and liver did not fit the definition of "Westernization effect". It was suggested that the spread of environmental hormones could be related to the increased risks of 2 cancers. This study attempted to test the validity of the above statement by studying comparatively the epidemiological aspects of cancer of the skin, liver and breast, the latter being the reference tumor of the "Westernization effect". Cancer risk for each tumor was expressed in terms of the age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR). For mathematical reasons, both ASIR- and AAIR-data were transformed into their logarithms before statistical analysis. We prepared the world population model with a size of 38 population units to investigate the relation between reproductive activity and cancer risk. Results obtained are as follows: a) the log AAIR of liver cancer was positively correlated to 2 parameters of reproductive activity in the female world population, and failed to show any correlation to the same 2 parameters in the male world population. The above finding was taken as evidence to indicate that liver cancer still retained its characteristics as a cancer of non-Western type with male predominancy of cancer risk. b) The log AAIR of skin cancer was negatively correlated to 2 parameters of reproductive activity in the world populations of both sexes--reconfirmation of skin cancer as of the Western type. c) In the period of early

  5. Identification of common variants in the SHBG gene affecting sex hormone-binding globulin levels and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Deborah J; Healey, Catherine S; Baynes, Caroline; Kalmyrzaev, Bolot; Ahmed, Shahana; Dowsett, Mitch; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Luben, Robert N; Cox, David; Ballinger, Dennis; Pharoah, Paul D P; Ponder, Bruce A J; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F

    2008-12-01

    Circulating levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are inversely associated with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Three polymorphisms within the SHBG gene have been reported to affect SHBG levels, but there has been no systematic attempt to identify other such variants. We looked for associations between SHBG levels in 1,134 healthy, postmenopausal women and 11 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in or around the SHBG gene. Associations between SHBG SNPs and breast cancer were tested in up to 6,622 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 6,784 controls. Ten SNPs within or close to the SHBG gene were significantly associated with SHBG levels as was the (TAAAA)(n) polymorphism. The best-fitting combination of rs6259, rs858521, and rs727428 and body mass index, waist, hip, age, and smoking status accounted for 24% of the variance in SHBG levels (natural logarithm transformed). Haplotype analysis suggested that rs858518, rs727428, or a variant in linkage disequilibrium with them acts to decrease SHBG levels but that this effect is neutralized by rs6259 (D356N). rs1799941 increases SHBG levels, but the previously reported association with (TAAAA)(n) repeat length appears to be a consequence of linkage disequilibrium with these SNPs. One further SHBG SNP was significantly associated with breast cancer (rs6257, per-allele odds ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.95; P = 0.002). At least 3 SNPs showed associations with SHBG levels that were highly significant but relatively small in magnitude. rs6257 is a potential breast cancer susceptibility variant, but relationships between the genetic determinants of SHBG levels and breast cancer are complex.

  6. (125)I-Labelled 2-Iodoestrone-3-sulfate: synthesis, characterization and OATP mediated transport studies in hormone dependent and independent breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nilasha; Wu, T Robert; Chio, Jason; Kelly, Ryan; Stephenson, Karin A; Forbes, John; Allen, Christine; Valliant, John F; Bendayan, Reina

    2015-03-01

    Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (OATP) are a family of membrane associated transporters that facilitate estrone-3-sulphate (E3S) uptake by hormone dependent, post-menopausal breast cancers. We have established E3S as a potential ligand for targeting hormone dependent breast cancer cells, and in this study sought to prepare and investigate radioiodinated E3S as a tool to study the OATP system. 2- and 4-Iodoestrone-3-sulfates were prepared from estrone via aromatic iodination followed by a rapid and high yielding sulfation procedure. The resulting isomers were separated by preparative HPLC and verified by (1)H NMR and analytical HPLC. Transport studies of 2- and 4-[(125)I]-E3S were conducted in hormone dependent (i.e. MCF-7) and hormone independent (i.e. MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells in the presence or absence of the specific transport inhibitor, bromosulfophthalein (BSP). Cellular localization of OATP1A2, OATP2B1, OATP3A1 and OATP4A1 were determined by immunofluorescence analysis using anti-Na(+)/K(+) ATPase-α (1:100 dilution) and DAPI as plasma membrane and nuclear markers, respectively. Significantly (pbreast cancer cells. In contrast 4-[(125)I]-E3S did not show cellular accumulation in either case. The efficiency of 2-[(125)I]-E3S transport (expressed as a ratio of Vmax/Km) was 2.4 times greater in the MCF-7 as compared to the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. OATP1A2, OATP3A1 and OATP4A1 expression was localized in plasma membranes of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells confirming the functional role of these transporters in radioiodinated E3S cellular uptake. An efficient method for the preparation of 2- and 4-[(125)I]-E3S was developed and where the former demonstrated potential as an in vitro probe for the OATP system. The new E3S probe can be used to study the OATP system and as a platform to create radiopharmaceuticals for imaging breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  8. Observation versus late reintroduction of letrozole as adjuvant endocrine therapy for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer (ANZ0501 LATER): an open-label randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdenkowski, N; Forbes, J F; Boyle, F M; Kannourakis, G; Gill, P G; Bayliss, E; Saunders, C; Della-Fiorentina, S; Kling, N; Campbell, I; Mann, G B; Coates, A S; Gebski, V; Davies, L; Thornton, R; Reaby, L; Cuzick, J; Green, M

    2016-05-01

    Despite the effectiveness of adjuvant endocrine therapy in preventing breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer events continue at a high rate for at least 10 years after completion of therapy. This randomised open label phase III trial recruited postmenopausal women from 29 Australian and New Zealand sites, with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer, who had completed ≥4 years of endocrine therapy [aromatase inhibitor (AI), tamoxifen, ovarian suppression, or sequential combination] ≥1 year prior, to oral letrozole 2.5 mg daily for 5 years, or observation. Treatment allocation was by central computerised randomisation, stratified by institution, axillary node status and prior endocrine therapy. The primary outcome was invasive breast cancer events (new invasive primary, local, regional or distant recurrence, or contralateral breast cancer), analysed by intention to treat. The secondary outcomes were disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival, and safety. Between 16 May 2007 and 14 March 2012, 181 patients were randomised to letrozole and 179 to observation (median age 64.3 years). Endocrine therapy was completed at a median of 2.6 years before randomisation, and 47.5% had tumours of >2 cm and/or node positive. At 3.9 years median follow-up (interquartile range 3.1-4.8), 2 patients assigned letrozole (1.1%) and 17 patients assigned observation (9.5%) had experienced an invasive breast cancer event (difference 8.4%, 95% confidence interval 3.8% to 13.0%, log-rank test P = 0.0004). Twenty-four patients (13.4%) in the observation and 14 (7.7%) in the letrozole arm experienced a DFS event (log-rank P = 0.067). Adverse events linked to oestrogen depletion, but not serious adverse events, were more common with letrozole. These results should be considered exploratory, but lend weight to emerging data supporting longer duration endocrine therapy for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, and offer insight into reintroduction of AI therapy. Australian New

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  10. General Information about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  11. Breast cancer statistics and markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Siva Donepudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO 2012. Here, the review is been focused on different breast cancer markers, that is, tissue markers (hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor-2, urokinase plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, p53 and cathepsin D, genetic markers (BRAC1 and 2 and gene expression microarray technique, etc., and serum markers (CA 15.3, BR 27.29, MCA, CA 549, carcinoembryonic antigen, oncoproteins, and cytokeratins used in present diagnosis, but none of the mentioned markers can diagnose breast cancer at an early stage. There is a disquieting need for the identification of best diagnosing marker, which can be able to diagnose even in early stage of breast carcinogenesis.

  12. Effects of Tomato- and Soy-rich diets on the IGF-1 Hormonal Network: A Crossover Study of Postmenopausal Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, John M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Bittoni, Marisa; Reeves, Katherine W.; Degraffinreid, Cecilia R.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Clinton, Steven K.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if dietary modifications with tomato products and/or a soy supplement affected circulating levels of IGF-1 and other markers of cell-signaling in postmenopausal women at risk for breast cancer. Methods Eligible and consented postmenopausal women at high risk for developing breast cancer were enrolled in a 26-week, two-arm (tomato and soy, 10 weeks each) longitudinal dietary intervention study in which each woman served as her own control. Changes in biochemical endpoints including Insuline-like Growth Factor (IGF)-1, IGF binding protein (BP)-3, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), c-peptide, and insulin were measured for each intervention arm. Carotenoid and isoflavone levels were measured to assess adherence. Results Significant increases in carotenoid and isoflavone levels during the tomato and soy study arms, respectively, suggested that women were adherent to both arms of the intervention. The tomato-rich diet had little effect on cell-signaling biomarkers previously associated with breast cancer risk. However, results of the soy intervention showed that concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 increased by 21.6 and 154.7 μmol/L, respectively (p=0.001 for both) and SHBG decreased by 5.4 μmol/L (p<0.001) after consumption of the soy protein supplement. Conclusions Increased soy protein intake may lead to small, but significant, increases in IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. Soy consumption also led to a significant decrease in SHBG, which has been hypothesized to promote, rather than prevent, cancer growth. Previous epidemiological studies, however, have confirmed soy’s protective effect on breast cancer. Additional investigation regarding the effect of soy on breast cancer risk and its mechanism of action appears warranted. PMID:21430071

  13. Effects of tomato- and soy-rich diets on the IGF-I hormonal network: a crossover study of postmenopausal women at high risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, John M; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Vitolins, Mara Z; Bittoni, Marisa; Reeves, Katherine W; Degraffinreid, Cecilia R; Schwartz, Steven J; Clinton, Steven K; Paskett, Electra D

    2011-05-01

    To determine whether dietary modifications with tomato products and/or a soy supplement affected circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and other markers of cell signaling in postmenopausal women at risk for developing breast cancer. Eligible and consented postmenopausal women at high risk for developing breast cancer were enrolled in a 26-week, two-arm (tomato and soy, 10 weeks each) longitudinal dietary intervention study in which each woman served as her own control. Changes in biochemical endpoints including IGF-I, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), C-peptide, and insulin were measured for each intervention arm. Carotenoid and isoflavone levels were measured to assess adherence. Significant increases in carotenoid and isoflavone levels during the tomato and soy study arms, respectively, suggested that women were adherent to both arms of the intervention. The tomato-rich diet had little effect on cell-signaling biomarkers previously associated with breast cancer risk. However, results of the soy intervention showed that concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 increased by 21.6 and 154.7 μmol/L, respectively (P = 0.001 for both) and SHBG decreased by 5.4 μmol/L (P < 0.001) after consumption of the soy protein supplement. Increased soy protein intake may lead to small, but significant, increases in IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Soy consumption also led to a significant decrease in SHBG, which has been hypothesized to promote, rather than prevent, cancer growth. Previous epidemiologic studies, however, have confirmed protective effect of soy on breast cancer. Additional investigation about the effect of soy on breast cancer risk and its mechanism of action is warranted.

  14. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  15. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer correctly. Their recommendations are summarized below. Minimum criteria for a diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer ... Initial biopsy samples from the affected breast show invasive carcinoma. Further examination of tissue from the affected ...

  16. Treatment challenges for community oncologists treating postmenopausal women with endocrine-resistant, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Razeq H

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hikmat Abdel-RazeqDepartment of Internal Medicine, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman, JordanI read with great interest the review written elegantly by Gradishar addressing the challenges that community oncologists face in treating postmenopausal women with endocrine-resistant, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2-negative advanced breast cancer in your journal.1As the author correctly stated, resistance to endocrine therapy in women with hormone receptor-positive disease is very frequent and almost inevitable.Understanding the multiple known mechanisms for endocrine resistance has helped physicians and researchers target these pathways.2 Many of the recently introduced drugs, such as the mTOR inhibitor everolimus3 and the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK 4/6 inhibitor palbociclib,4 are in clinical practice and have been already incorporated in international guidelines.5View original paper by Gradishar.

  17. A large set of estrogen receptor β-interacting proteins identified by tandem affinity purification in hormone-responsive human breast cancer cell nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassa, Giovanni; Tarallo, Roberta; Ambrosino, Concetta; Bamundo, Angela; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Paris, Ornella; Ravo, Maria; Guzzi, Pietro H; Cannataro, Mario; Baumann, Marc; Nyman, Tuula A; Nola, Ernesto; Weisz, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen receptors α (ER-α) and β (ER-β) play distinct biological roles in onset and progression of hormone-responsive breast cancer, with ER-β exerting a modulatory activity on ER-α-mediated estrogen signaling and stimulation of cell proliferation by mechanisms still not fully understood. We stably expressed human ER-β fused to a tandem affinity purification-tag in estrogen-responsive MCF-7 cells and applied tandem affinity purification and nanoLC-MS/MS to identify the ER-β interactome of this cell type. Functional annotation by bioinformatics analyses of the 303 proteins that co-purify with ER-β from nuclear extracts identify several new molecular partners of this receptor subtype that represents nodal points of a large protein network controlling multiple processes and functions in breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  19. Kinome wide functional screen identifies role of Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) in hormone-independent, ER-positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Neil; Jansen, Valerie M.; Bafna, Sangeeta; Giltnane, Jennifer M.; Balko, Justin M.; Estrada, Mónica V.; Meszoely, Ingrid; Mayer, Ingrid; Abramson, Vandana; Ye, Fei; Sanders, Melinda; Dugger, Teresa C.; Van Allen, Eliezer; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancers initially respond to antiestrogens but eventually become estrogen-independent and recur. ER+ breast cancer cells resistant to long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) exhibit hormone-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth. A kinome-wide siRNA screen using a library targeting 720 kinases identified Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) as one of the top genes whose downregulation resulted in inhibition of estrogen-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth of LTED cells. High PLK1 mRNA and protein correlated with a high Ki67 score in primary ER+ breast cancers after treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PLK1 inhibited ER expression, estrogen-independent growth and ER transcription in MCF7 and HCC1428 LTED cells. Pharmacological inhibition of PLK1 with volasertib, a small molecule ATP-competitive PLK1 inhibitor, decreased LTED cell growth, ER transcriptional activity and ER expression. Volasertib in combination with the ER antagonist, fulvestrant, decreased MCF7 xenograft growth in ovariectomized mice more potently than each drug alone. JUNB, a component of the AP-1 complex, was expressed 16-fold higher in MCF7/LTED compared to parental MCF7 cells. Further, JUNB and BCL2L1 (which encodes anti-apoptotic BCL-xL) mRNA levels were markedly reduced upon volasertib treatment in MCF7/LTED cells while they were increased in parental MCF7 cells. Finally, JUNB knockdown decreased ER expression and transcriptional activity in MCF7/LTED cells, suggesting that PLK1 drives ER expression and estrogen-independent growth via JUNB. These data support a critical role of PLK1 in acquired hormone-independent growth of ER+ human breast cancer and is therefore a promising target in tumors that have escaped estrogen deprivation therapy. PMID:25480943

  20. Hormonal replacement therapy after gynaecological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglia, Nicoletta; Mariani, Luca; Marenco, Davide; Robba, Claudio; Peano, Elisa; Kubatzki, Franziska; Sismondi, Piero

    2006-01-01

    Thousands of women are treated each year for gynaecological cancers; many of these are already in menopause, while other younger patients will go into early menopause due to surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to the pelvic region. The aim of this paper is to review the biological and clinical evidence in favour and against hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use after gynaecological cancers. With the exception of breast and endometrial cancer, there is no biological evidence that HRT may increase the recurrence risk. In women with previous endometrial cancer, HRT use is not supported by univocal and conclusive data to formulate specific recommendations, whereas most authors suggest that oestrogens may be used after adequate information about risks and benefits. The use of HRT in breast cancer patients is, at present, considered contra-indicated, even if results of clinical trials are not concordant. Therapeutic non-hormonal alternatives may be proposed to these patients.

  1. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  2. Hormone replacement therapy in menopause as a risk factor for developing breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Firmino Souto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar a produção científica envolvendo o uso da terapia de reposição hormonal no climatério como um fator de risco para desenvolvimento de câncer de mama. Método: Realizou-se uma revisão integrativa da literatura. Utilizamos as bases de dados BDENF, LILACS e SciELO. Identificamos 71 artigos, dos quais 24 compuseram nossa amostra. Resultados: Observamos que o Brasil foi o país com mais publicações e o idioma mais requisitado foi o português. Em relação à escolha do delineamento do estudo, 50% dos estudos possuíam abordagem metodológica do tipo qualitativa e o método de coleta de dados por meio de documentos foi o mais utilizado. Conclusão: A enfermagem como profissional da saúde deve orientar as mulheres em idade perimenopausa sobre os riscos e benefícios do uso da terapia de reposição hormonal a fim de auxiliá-las na adesão ou não a esse tratamento.

  3. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah

    2017-10-02

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  4. Media coverage of women's health issues: is there a bias in the reporting of an association between hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, M K; Cui, Y; Flaws, J A; Langenberg, P; Bush, T L

    2001-01-01

    Media coverage of scientific research plays a major role in shaping public opinion and influencing medical practice. When an association is controversial, such as with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast cancer, it is important that a balanced picture of the scientific literature be reported. The objective of this study was to assess whether scientific publications that do and do not support an HRT/breast cancer association were cited in the media in proportions similar to those with which they appear in the scientific literature. Scientific publications reporting on the HRT/breast cancer association published from January 1, 1995, to June 30, 2000, were identified through a systematic Medline search. Media reports from newspapers, magazines, television, and radio that reported on HRT and breast cancer were retrieved from an online database. Investigators independently recorded characteristics of the scientific publications and media reports. A total of 32 scientific publications were identified: 20 (62.5%) concluded there was an increased risk of breast cancer associated with HRT (positive publications), and 12 (37.5%) concluded there was no evidence for an association (null publications). Nearly half (47%) of the scientific publications were not cited by the media. There were 203 media citations of scientific publications: 82% were of positive publications and 18% were of null publications, representing a significant excess of citations of positive publications (p Media coverage of this controversial issue is based on a limited sample of the scientific publications. Moreover, the excess of media citations for positive scientific publications suggests a bias against null scientific publications.

  5. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  6. Affluence and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    incidence and income (r = 0.098, p = 0.168). Breast cancer risk factors, such as delayed childbirth, less breast-feeding, and use of hormone supplements, are more common in affluent women. Affluent women are more likely to have mammograms, which detect many cancers that might not otherwise be diagnosed. In addition, women in certain affluent ethnic groups-Ashkenazi Jews, Icelanders and the Dutch-are more likely to carry genetic mutations known to predispose to breast cancer. We hypothesize that women with more income can afford better cancer care and survive longer than poorer women. But our hypothesis does not explain why this effect should be limited to White women; or why node involvement increased with income in White women but not in Blacks or Hispanics. Further studies may be worthwhile. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Physical activity and risk of breast cancer overall and by hormone receptor status: The European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steindorf, K.; Ritte, R.; Eomois, P.P.; Lukanova, A.; Tjonneland, A.; Johnsen, N.F.; Overvad, K.; Ostergaard, J.N.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with reduced risks of invasive breast cancer. However, whether this holds true for breast cancer subtypes defined by the estrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PR) status is controversial. The study included 257,805 women from the multinational

  8. Acupuncture versus venlafaxine for the management of vasomotor symptoms in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Eleanor M; Rodriguez, Alba I; Kohn, Beth; Ball, Ronald M; Pegg, Jan; Pocock, Jeffrey R; Nunez, Ramon; Peterson, Ed; Jakary, Susan; Levine, Robert A

    2010-02-01

    Vasomotor symptoms are common adverse effects of antiestrogen hormone treatment in conventional breast cancer care. Hormone replacement therapy is contraindicated in patients with breast cancer. Venlafaxine (Effexor), the therapy of choice for these symptoms, has numerous adverse effects. Recent studies suggest acupuncture may be effective in reducing vasomotor symptoms in menopausal women. This randomized controlled trial tested whether acupuncture reduces vasomotor symptoms and produces fewer adverse effects than venlafaxine. Fifty patients were randomly assigned to receive 12 weeks of acupuncture (n = 25) or venlafaxine (n = 25) treatment. Health outcomes were measured for up to 1 year post-treatment. Both groups exhibited significant decreases in hot flashes, depressive symptoms, and other quality-of-life symptoms, including significant improvements in mental health from pre- to post-treatment. These changes were similar in both groups, indicating that acupuncture was as effective as venlafaxine. By 2 weeks post-treatment, the venlafaxine group experienced significant increases in hot flashes, whereas hot flashes in the acupuncture group remained at low levels. The venlafaxine group experienced 18 incidences of adverse effects (eg, nausea, dry mouth, dizziness, anxiety), whereas the acupuncture group experienced no negative adverse effects. Acupuncture had the additional benefit of increased sex drive in some women, and most reported an improvement in their energy, clarity of thought, and sense of well-being. Acupuncture appears to be equivalent to drug therapy in these patients. It is a safe, effective and durable treatment for vasomotor symptoms secondary to long-term antiestrogen hormone use in patients with breast cancer.

  9. Identification of biology-based breast cancer types with distinct predictive and prognostic features: role of steroid hormone and HER2 receptor expression in patients treated with neoadjuvant anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Loibl, Sibylle; Müller, Berit M; Roller, Marc; Denkert, Carsten; Komor, Martina; Schlüns, Karsten; Blohmer, Jens Uwe; Budczies, Jan; Gerber, Bernd; Noske, Aurelia; du Bois, Andreas; Weichert, Wilko; Jackisch, Christian; Dietel, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Reliable predictive and prognostic markers for routine diagnostic purposes are needed for breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We evaluated protein biomarkers in a cohort of 116 participants of the GeparDuo study on anthracycline/taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy for operable breast cancer to test for associations with pathological complete response (pCR) and disease-free survival (DFS). Particularly, we evaluated if interactions between hormone rece...

  10. In real life, one-quarter of patients with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer receive chemotherapy as initial palliative therapy: a study of the Southeast Netherlands Breast Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, D J A; van Kampen, R J W; Voogd, A C; Dercksen, M W; van den Berkmortel, F; Smilde, T J; van de Wouw, A J; Peters, F P J; van Riel, J M G H; Peters, N A J B; de Boer, M; Peer, P G M; Tjan-Heijnen, V C G

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to present initial systemic treatment choices and the outcome of hormone receptor-positive (HR+) metastatic breast cancer. All the 815 consecutive patients diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer in 2007-2009 in eight participating hospitals were identified. From the 611 patients with HR+ disease, a total of 520 patients with HER2-negative (HER2-) breast cancer were included. Initial palliative systemic treatment was registered. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) per initial palliative systemic therapy were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. From the total of 520 patients with HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer, 482 patients (93%) received any palliative systemic therapy. Patients that received initial chemotherapy (n = 116) were significantly younger, had less comorbidity, had received more prior adjuvant systemic therapy and were less likely to have bone metastasis only compared with patients that received initial endocrine therapy (n = 366). Median PFS of initial palliative chemotherapy was 5.3 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2-6.2] and of initial endocrine therapy 13.3 months (95% CI 11.3-15.5), with a median OS of 16.1 and 36.9 months, respectively. Initial chemotherapy was also associated with worse outcome in terms of PFS and OS after adjustment for prognostic factors. A high percentage of patients with HR+ disease received initial palliative chemotherapy, which was associated with worse outcome, even after adjustment of relevant prognostic factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Overcoming Endocrine Resistance in Hormone-Receptor Positive Advanced Breast Cancer-The Emerging Role of CDK4/6 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Ciara C

    Dysregulation of the cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) pathway in cancer cells may inhibit senescence and promote cellular proliferation. By using various different mechanisms, malignant cells may increase cyclin D-dependent activity. The cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6)-retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway controls the cell cycle restriction point, and is commonly dysregulated in breast cancer; making it a rational target for anticancer therapy. To date, three oral highly selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) are in various stages of clinical development: PD0332991 (palbociclib), LEE011 (ribociclib) and LY2835219 (abemaciclib). Results from phase I, II and III trials in hormone-receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer have been encouraging, demonstrating convincing efficacy and a tolerable side-effect profile (mainly uncomplicated neutropenia). This article will review the preclinical and clinical development of the CDK4/6i, as well as reviewing the existing preclinical evidence regarding combination of these agents with chemotherapy and other targeted therapies. Future and ongoing clinical trials, which may expand the potential application of these agents, will also be discussed. In summary, CDK4/6i are exciting compounds which may change the therapeutic landscape of HR-positive breast cancer.

  12. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  13. A locus on 19p13 modifies risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is associated with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary S

    2010-01-01

    Germline BRCA1 mutations predispose to breast cancer. To identify genetic modifiers of this risk, we performed a genome-wide association study in 1,193 individuals with BRCA1 mutations who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer under age 40 and 1,190 BRCA1 carriers without breast cancer diagn...

  14. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide (PTHrP) as a New Target for Metastatic Breast Cancer: Evaluation in Preclinical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    against this notoriously hard- to-treat family of cancers. We have now constructed animal models with mammary epithelium fluorescent labelled cells to...monoclonal antibodies against breast cancer is likely to be transferable to other pathologies where PTHrP is part of the driving mechanisms. The...Nearest person month worked 12 Contribution to project Construction of TdT animals, CRISPr preparation of human TNBC KO lines, student mentoring

  15. Intake of whole grain products and risk of breast cancer by hormone receptor status and histology among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Rikke; Olsen, Anja; Loft, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    in intake of total whole grain products of 50 g per day the adjusted incidence rate ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.01 (0.96-1.07). Intake of rye bread, oatmeal and whole grain bread was not associated with breast cancer risk. No association was observed between the intake of total or specific whole...

  16. Pretreatment anti-Müllerian hormone predicts for loss of ovarian function after chemotherapy for early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Richard A; Rosendahl, Mikkel; Kelsey, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Improving survival for women with early breast cancer (eBC) requires greater attention to the consequences of treatment, including risk to ovarian function. We have assessed whether biochemical markers of the ovarian reserve might improve prediction of chemotherapy related amenorrhoea....

  17. Osteoprotegerin and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype : a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortner, Renée T; Sarink, Danja; Schock, Helena; Johnson, Theron; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Affret, Aurélie; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Peeters, Petra H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Van Gils, Carla H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/17443068X; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rinaldi, Sabina; Dossus, Laure; Gunter, Marc; Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) axis, may influence breast cancer risk via its role as the decoy receptor for both the RANK ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL).

  18. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and breast cancer risk according to menopause and hormone receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Ferrari, Pietro; González, Carlos A; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bredsdorff, Lea; Overvad, Kim; Touillaud, Marina; Perquier, Florence; Fagherazzi, Guy; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tikk, Kaja; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Dilis, Vardis; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Menéndez, Virginia; Travier, Noémie; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Wallström, Peter; Sonestedt, Emily; Sund, Malin; Landberg, Rikard; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Travis, Ruth C; Scalbert, Augustin; Ward, Heather A; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-05-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary flavonoids and lignans and breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive, with the possible exception of isoflavones in Asian countries. Therefore, we investigated prospectively dietary total and subclasses of flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk according to menopause and hormonal receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 334,850 women, mostly aged between 35 and 70 years from ten European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. A flavonoid and lignan food composition database was developed from the US Department of Agriculture, the Phenol-Explorer and the UK Food Standards Agency databases. Cox regression models were used to analyse the association between dietary flavonoid/lignan intake and the risk of developing BC. During an average 11.5-year follow-up, 11,576 incident BC cases were identified. No association was observed between the intake of total flavonoids [hazard ratio comparing fifth to first quintile (HRQ5-Q1) 0.97, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.90-1.04; P trend = 0.591], isoflavones (HRQ5-Q1 1.00, 95 % CI: 0.91-1.10; P trend = 0.734), or total lignans (HRQ5-Q1 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.93-1.11; P trend = 0.469) and overall BC risk. The stratification of the results by menopausal status at recruitment or the differentiation of BC cases according to oestrogen and progesterone receptors did not affect the results. This study shows no associations between flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk, overall or after taking into account menopausal status and BC hormone receptors.

  19. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  20. SPECIFIC FEATURE OF HORMONAL PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY AND RECURRENT BREAST CANCER AND THEIR ROLE IN THE EFFICIENCY OF CHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kozlova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The hormonal background was studied in 32 menopausal patients who had primary breast cancer (Stage III or its recurrence in the postoperative scar. The patients with the primary process, unlike those with a recurrence, were found to have increased adrenocortical cortisol-forming activity and changed thyroid homeostasis. In both types of the neoplastic process, the blood concentrations of estradi- ol, testosterone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones were disturbed in a substantial number of cases; the distinc- tive feature of the primary process and its recurrence lies in the opposite direction. An association of individual differences in the con- centrations of estradiol and testosterone with the efficiency of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was analyzed in patients with recurrent can- cer.

  1. Breast cancer in male-to-female (MtF) transgender patients: is hormone receptor negativity a feature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Zhi Hao; Archampong, David; Gate, Tim

    2015-05-20

    A 41-year-old male-to-female (MtF) transgender patient presented with a symptomatic tender lump in the left breast. There was no family history of breast cancer. She had been receiving estrogen therapy for 14 years to maintain her secondary sexual characteristics. Triple assessment revealed a 13 mm triple-negative grade 3 invasive ductal carcinoma. The tumour was completely excised following a left wide local excision and sentinel lymph node biopsy. There was no regional lymph node involvement. She was referred to the oncologist for adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Raman and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy studies of changes in lipid content and composition in hormone-treated breast and prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potcoava, Mariana C; Futia, Gregory L; Aughenbaugh, Jessica; Schlaepfer, Isabel R; Gibson, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest in the role of lipids in cancer cell proliferation and resistance to drug therapies has motivated the need to develop better tools for cellular lipid analysis. Quantification of lipids in cells is typically done by destructive chromatography protocols that do not provide spatial information on lipid distribution and prevent dynamic live cell studies. Methods that allow the analysis of lipid content in live cells are therefore of great importance. Using micro-Raman spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, we generated a lipid profile for breast (T47D, MDA-MB-231) and prostate (LNCaP, PC3) cancer cells upon exposure to medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and synthetic androgen R1881. Combining Raman spectra with CARS imaging, we can study the process of hormone-mediated lipogenesis. Our results show that hormone-treated cancer cells T47D and LNCaP have an increased number and size of intracellular lipid droplets and higher degree of saturation than untreated cells. MDA-MB-231 and PC3 cancer cells showed no significant changes upon treatment. Principal component analysis with linear discriminant analysis of the Raman spectra was able to differentiate between cancer cells that were treated with MPA, R1881, and untreated.

  3. Does Subsequent Pregnancy Influence Breast Cancer Survival

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrek, Jeanne

    2000-01-01

    Although future childbearing decisions may impact the quality of life of young breast cancer patients, some oncologists are concerned that disease recurrence may be stimulated by hormonal elevations of pregnancy...

  4. Beating Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Beating Breast Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2017 Table of Contents Melanie ... Her mother had died at age 49 of breast cancer after three battles with the disease. Ovarian cancer ...

  5. Attribution to Heterogeneous Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Subtypes Based on Hormone Receptor and Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Receptor Expression in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Sung, Ho Kyung; Ahn, Choonghyun; Hwang, Yunji; Jang, Jieun; Lee, Juyeon; Kim, Heewon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Park, Sohee; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Yoo, Keun-Young; Kang, Daehee; Park, Sue K

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a heterogeneous risk assessment of breast cancer based on the hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) calculating the risks and population-based attributable fractions (PAFs) for modifiable and nonmodifiable factors.Using matched case-control study design from the Seoul Breast Cancer Study and the national prevalence of exposure, the risks and PAFs for modifiable and nonmodifiable factors were estimated for total breast cancers and subtypes.The attribution to modifiable factors was different for each subtype (luminal A, PAF = 61.4% [95% confidence interval, CI = 54.3%-69.8%]; luminal B, 21.4% [95% CI = 18.6-24.9%]; HER2-overexpression, 59.4% [95% CI = 47.8%-74.3%], and triple negative tumors [TNs], 27.1% [95% CI = 22.9%-32.4%)], and the attribution to the modifiable factors for the luminal A and HER2-overexpression subtypes was higher than that of the luminal B and TN subtypes (P heterogeneity  ≤  0.001). The contribution of modifiable reproductive factors to luminal A type in premenopausal women was higher than that of the other subtypes (18.2% for luminal A; 3.1%, 8.1%, and -3.1% for luminal B, HER2-overexpression, and TN subtypes, respectively; P heterogeneity  ≤  0.001). Physical activity had the highest impact preventing 32.6% of luminal A, 14.5% of luminal B, 38.0% of HER2-overexpression, and 26.9% of TN subtypes (P heterogeneity = 0.014). Total reproductive factors were also heterogeneously attributed to each breast cancer subtype (luminal A, 65.4%; luminal B, 24.1%; HER2-overexpression, 57.9%, and TN subtypes, -3.1%; P heterogeneity  ≤  0.001).Each pathological subtype of breast cancer by HRs and HER2 status may be associated with heterogeneous risk factors and their attributable risk, suggesting a different etiology. The luminal B and TN subtypes seemed to be less preventable despite intervention for alleged risk factors, even though physical activity had a high

  6. A Molecular Case-Control Study on the Association of Melatonin Hormone and rs#10830963 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in its Receptor MTNR1B Gene with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia A Abd El Moneim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main function of the pineal hormone melatonin which is mediated via its two receptors, MTNR1A and MTNR1B, is to mediate dark signals in addition to anti-oxidation, immune system enhancement, protection from radiation, and anti-cancer functions. A common single nucleotide polymorphism in the MTNR1B gene is rs#10830963, which is well known as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study intends to figure out the role of melatonin and its receptor MTNR1B gene rs#10830963 polymorphism in breast cancer incidence, diagnosis and prognosis. Methods: This study included 43 females with breast cancer and 45 apparently normal healthy females. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR was used for amplification and genotyping of the MTNR1B gene rs#10830963 polymorphism in whole blood. Serum melatonin levels were measured using a ready-for-use radioimmunoassay kit. Results: For the MTNR1B gene rs#10830963 polymorphism, we observed a significantly higher GG genotype frequency among cases (72.1% than controls (13.3%, with a diagnostic sensitivity of 83.78% and specificity of 76.47%. The cases had a frequency of 11.6% for the CC genotype and 16.3% for the CG genotype which was significantly lower compared to controls that had a 44.4% frequency of the CC genotype and 42.2% frequency of the CG genotype. The GG genotype had a significant association with larger tumor volume (P=0.048. Serum melatonin levels were significantly lower among breast cancer patients than controls. Using the ROC curve analysis, serum melatonin showed a significant AUC (72.6%, P39.5 pg/ml. Conclusion: The risk for breast cancer incidence increased as the serum levels of melatonin decreased and in females homozygous for the G allele (GG genotype of the MTNR1B gene rs#10830963 polymorphism. The GG genotype was found to be associated with increased breast tumor volume as a marker of a poor prognosis breast cancer.

  7. Prognostic factors of early distant recurrence in hormone receptor-positive, postmenopausal breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen therapy: results of a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debled, Marc; MacGrogan, Gaëtan; Brouste, Véronique; Mathoulin-Pelissier, Simone; Durand, Michel; Mauriac, Louis

    2007-06-01

    Current adjuvant hormone therapy in postmenopausal women with breast cancer is debatable between upfront aromatase inhibitors (AIs) and sequential treatment with tamoxifen. A major concern is the higher rate of early recurrences observed with sequential treatment. The authors conducted a retrospective analysis to identify risk factors of early recurrences in hormone receptor (HR)-positive, postmenopausal women within the first 3 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. Between 1986 and 2000, operable breast cancer patients who received exclusively adjuvant tamoxifen for at least 3 years were selected from the authors' institutional database. Age, histology, pathologic tumor size, modified Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (mSBR) grade, mitotic index, tumor necrosis, peritumoral vascular emboli (PVE), HR status, and the number of involved axillary lymph-node were considered as prognostic factors of recurrence. Among 715 patients who met the inclusion criteria, a distant recurrence occurred in 38 patients (5.3%) within the first 3 years of tamoxifen therapy. Significant prognostic factors of early recurrence were mSBR, axillary lymph node involvement, tumor necrosis, mitotic index, PVE, and pathologic tumor size. Grade 1 and/or lymph node-negative tumors were excluded from the multivariate analysis (1 recurrence in 208 patients). In this model, mSBR grade 3 was the only significant predictive factor of early recurrence (hazard ratio, 3.72; P<.001). In this study, a subset of patients was identified that was at low-risk of early recurrence (mSBR grade 1 and/or negative lymph node status). Women in that subset could be treated using sequential hormone therapy with tamoxifen and AIs. In women with mSBR grade 3 or lymph node-positive tumors, an upfront treatment with AIs seemed to be the current optimal strategy. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  8. [Immunohistochemical hormonal mismatch and human epidermal growth factor type 2 [HER2] phenotype of brain metastases in breast cancer carcinoma compared to primary tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, C; Boissonneau, S; Fina, F; Figarella-Branger, D; Ouafik, L; Fuentes, S; Dufour, H; Gonçalves, A; Charaffe-Jauffret, E; Metellus, P

    2016-06-01

    Phenotype changes between primary tumor and the corresponding brain metastases are recent reported data. Breast cancer, with biological markers predicting prognosis and guiding therapeutic strategy remains an interesting model to observe and evaluate theses changes. The objective of our study was to compare molecular features (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR], and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2, [HER2]) between brain metastases and its primary tumor in patients presenting with pathologically confirmed breast cancer. This retrospective study was based on the immunohistochemical analysis of the brain metastases paraffin embedded samples stored in our institutional tumor bank, after surgical resection. The level of expression of hormonal receptors and HER2 on brain metastases were centrally reviewed and compared to the expression status in primary breast cancer from medical records. Forty-four samples of brain metastases were available for analysis. Hormonal receptor modification status was observed in 11/44 brain metastases (25%) for ER and 6/44 (13.6%) for PR. A modification of HER2 overexpression was observed in brain metastases in 6/44 (13.6%). Molecular subtype modification was shown in 17 cases (38.6%). A significant difference was demonstrated between time to develop brain metastases in cases without status modification (HER2, ER and PR) (med=49.5months [7.8-236.4]) and in cases in which brain metastases status differs from primary tumor (med=27.5months [0-197.3]), (P=0.0244, IC95=3.09-51.62, Mann and Whitney test). the main interest of this study was to focus on the molecular feature changes between primary tumor and their brain metastases. Time to develop brain metastases was correlated to phenotypic changes in brain metastases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis according to molecular subtype: association with breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Chang, Jung Min; Shin, Sung Ui; Chu, A Jung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) according to molecular subtype and to determine whether the molecular subtype affects breast cancer detection on DBT. This was an institutional review board--approved study with a waiver of informed consent. DBT findings of 288 invasive breast cancers were reviewed according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. Detectability of breast cancer was quantified by the number of readers (0-3) who correctly detected the cancer in an independent blinded review. DBT features and the cancer detectability score according to molecular subtype were compared using Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance. Of 288 invasive cancers, 194 were hormone receptor (HR)-positive, 48 were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive and 46 were triple negative breast cancers. The most common DBT findings were irregular spiculated masses for HR-positive cancer, fine pleomorphic or linear branching calcifications for HER2 positive cancer and irregular masses with circumscribed margins for triple negative breast cancers (p Cancer detectability on DBT was not significantly different according to molecular subtype (p = 0.213) but rather affected by tumour size, breast density and presence of mass or calcifications. Breast cancers showed different imaging features according to molecular subtype; however, it did not affect the cancer detectability on DBT. Advances in knowledge: DBT showed characteristic imaging features of breast cancers according to molecular subtype. However, cancer detectability on DBT was not affected by molecular subtype of breast cancers.

  10. Permanent alopecia in patients with breast cancer after taxane chemotherapy and adjuvant hormonal therapy: Clinicopathologic findings in a cohort of 10 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonia, Athina; Cota, Carlo; Setterfield, Jane F; Goldberg, Lynne J; Fenton, David A; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2017-05-01

    Anagen effluvium with reversible scalp alopecia is a known side effect of chemotherapy. However, there are an increasing number of reports in the literature documenting permanent alopecia in patients treated with taxanes. We sought to describe the clinicopathologic features in breast cancer patients who underwent treatment with taxanes and adjuvant hormonal chemotherapy. We reviewed the clinical and histopathologic information of a cohort of 10 patients treated with taxanes and adjuvant hormonal chemotherapy. We have observed 3 types of clinical patterns of alopecia (types A, B, and C), and have validated the histopathologic features showing alopecia areata-like and female pattern hair loss. The study was based on a small sample size and retrospective retrieval of clinical information and histopathologic review of posttreatment slides. We hypothesize a clinicopathologic model of hair follicle cycle disruption in response to the chemoinflammatory and hormonal insults to the hair follicles resulting in permanent alopecia. Clinicopathologic correlation is paramount to the understanding of the morphobiologic pathways in chemotherapy-induced alopecia caused by taxanes and adjuvant hormonal treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. FDA Approval of Palbociclib in Combination with Fulvestrant for the Treatment of Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Amanda J; Wedam, Suparna; Amiri-Kordestani, Laleh; Bloomquist, Erik; Tang, Shengui; Sridhara, Rajeshwari; Chen, Wei; Palmby, Todd R; Fourie Zirkelbach, Jeanne; Fu, Wentao; Liu, Qi; Tilley, Amy; Kim, Geoffrey; Kluetz, Paul G; McKee, Amy E; Pazdur, Richard

    2016-10-15

    On February 19, 2016, the FDA approved palbociclib (Ibrance, Pfizer) for use in combination with fulvestrant (Faslodex, AstraZeneca) for the treatment of women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with disease progression following endocrine therapy. The approval was based on the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 521 pre- and postmenopausal women with HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced or MBC. Patients were randomized (2:1) to receive palbociclib plus fulvestrant (n = 347) or placebo plus fulvestrant (n = 174). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). A statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in PFS (9.5 months vs. 4.6 months) was observed in patients receiving palbociclib plus fulvestrant [HR 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36-0.59; P palbociclib. The most common adverse reactions (>20%) in patients treated with palbociclib were neutropenia, leukopenia, infections, fatigue, nausea, anemia, stomatitis, headache, diarrhea, and thrombocytopenia. This approval was granted in the context of a prior accelerated approval for palbociclib in combination with letrozole in patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer as initial endocrine-based therapy. Clin Cancer Res; 22(20); 4968-72. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Anti-aromatase effect of resveratrol and melatonin on hormonal positive breast cancer cells co-cultured with breast adipose fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chottanapund, Suthat; Van Duursen, M. B M; Navasumrit, Panida; Hunsonti, Potchanee; Timtavorn, Supatchaya; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Van den Berg, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Targeting the estrogen pathway has been proven effective in the treatment for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. There are currently two common groups of anti-estrogenic compounds used in the clinic; Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs, e.g. tamoxifen) and Selective Estrogen Enzyme

  13. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  14. HEREDITARY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bit-Sava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary breast cancer occurs in 5–20 % of cases and it is associated with inherited mutations in particular genes, such as BRCA1 и BRCA2 in most cases. The CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, RAD51, BLM, PALB2, Nbs genes are associated with low and median risks ofdeveloping breast cancer. Molecular genetic studies identify germinal mutations underlying hereditary breast cancer. In most cases hereditary breast cancer refers to triple-negative phenotype, which is the most aggressive type of breast cancer, that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. The review presents the diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer. Clinical-morphological aspects allow the new diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer to be identified. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors demonstrate the potential for effective treatment of BRCA-associated breast cancer.

  15. Reverse phase protein array based tumor profiling identifies a biomarker signature for risk classification of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Sonntag

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A robust subclassification of luminal breast cancer, the most common molecular subtype of human breast cancer, is crucial for therapy decisions. While a part of patients is at higher risk of recurrence and requires chemo-endocrine treatment, the other part is at lower risk and also poorly responds to chemotherapeutic regimens. To approximate the risk of cancer recurrence, clinical guidelines recommend determining histologic grading and abundance of a cell proliferation marker in tumor specimens. However, this approach assigns an intermediate risk to a substantial number of patients and in addition suffers from a high interobserver variability. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify a quantitative protein biomarker signature to facilitate risk classification. Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA were used to obtain quantitative expression data for 128 breast cancer relevant proteins in a set of hormone receptor-positive tumors (n = 109. Proteomic data for the subset of histologic G1 (n = 14 and G3 (n = 22 samples were used for biomarker discovery serving as surrogates of low and high recurrence risk, respectively. A novel biomarker selection workflow based on combining three different classification methods identified caveolin-1, NDKA, RPS6, and Ki-67 as top candidates. NDKA, RPS6, and Ki-67 were expressed at elevated levels in high risk tumors whereas caveolin-1 was observed as downregulated. The identified biomarker signature was subsequently analyzed using an independent test set (AUC = 0.78. Further evaluation of the identified biomarker panel by Western blot and mRNA profiling confirmed the proteomic signature obtained by RPPA. In conclusion, the biomarker signature introduced supports RPPA as a tool for cancer biomarker discovery.

  16. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guluzar Arzu Turan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 317-323

  17. Triple-negative breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón, Reinaldo D; Costanzo, María V

    2010-01-01

    Perou's molecular classification defines tumors that neither express hormone receptors nor overexpress HER2 as triple-negative (TN) tumors. These tumors account for approximately 15% of breast cancers. The so-called basaloid tumors are not always synonymous with TN tumors; they differ in the fact that they express different molecular markers, have a higher histologic grade, and have a worse prognosis. Clinically they occur in younger women as interval cancer, and the risk of recurrence is hig...

  18. Breast Cancer Vaccines: New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetti, Rosaria; Dell’Aversana, Carmela; Giorgio, Cristina; Astorri, Roberta; Altucci, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a persistent global challenge for its high frequency in women (although it seldom occurs in men), due to the large diffusion of risk factors and gene mutations, and for its peculiar biology and microenvironment. To date, BC can benefit from different therapeutic strategies involving surgery, ablation, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and more specific approaches such as hormone therapy and the administration of various substances impairing cancer growth, aggressivity, and rec...

  19. Identification of a Hormone-regulated Dynamic Nuclear Actin Network Associated with Estrogen Receptor α in Human Breast Cancer Cell Nuclei*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, Concetta; Tarallo, Roberta; Bamundo, Angela; Cuomo, Danila; Franci, Gianluigi; Nassa, Giovanni; Paris, Ornella; Ravo, Maria; Giovane, Alfonso; Zambrano, Nicola; Lepikhova, Tatiana; Jänne, Olli A.; Baumann, Marc; Nyman, Tuula A.; Cicatiello, Luigi; Weisz, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a modular protein of the steroid/nuclear receptor family of transcriptional regulators that upon binding to the hormone undergoes structural changes, resulting in its nuclear translocation and docking to specific chromatin sites. In the nucleus, ERα assembles in multiprotein complexes that act as final effectors of estrogen signaling to the genome through chromatin remodeling and epigenetic modifications, leading to dynamic and coordinated regulation of hormone-responsive genes. Identification of the molecular partners of ERα and understanding their combinatory interactions within functional complexes is a prerequisite to define the molecular basis of estrogen control of cell functions. To this end, affinity purification was applied to map and characterize the ERα interactome in hormone-responsive human breast cancer cell nuclei. MCF-7 cell clones expressing human ERα fused to a tandem affinity purification tag were generated and used to purify native nuclear ER-containing complexes by IgG-Sepharose affinity chromatography and glycerol gradient centrifugation. Purified complexes were analyzed by two-dimensional DIGE and mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of a ligand-dependent multiprotein complex comprising β-actin, myosins, and several proteins involved in actin filament organization and dynamics and/or known to participate in actin-mediated regulation of gene transcription, chromatin dynamics, and ribosome biogenesis. Time course analyses indicated that complexes containing ERα and actin are assembled in the nucleus early after receptor activation by ligands, and gene knockdown experiments showed that gelsolin and the nuclear isoform of myosin 1c are key determinants for assembly and/or stability of these complexes. Based on these results, we propose that the actin network plays a role in nuclear ERα actions in breast cancer cells, including coordinated regulation of target gene activity, spatial and functional

  20. Identification of a hormone-regulated dynamic nuclear actin network associated with estrogen receptor alpha in human breast cancer cell nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, Concetta; Tarallo, Roberta; Bamundo, Angela; Cuomo, Danila; Franci, Gianluigi; Nassa, Giovanni; Paris, Ornella; Ravo, Maria; Giovane, Alfonso; Zambrano, Nicola; Lepikhova, Tatiana; Jänne, Olli A; Baumann, Marc; Nyman, Tuula A; Cicatiello, Luigi; Weisz, Alessandro

    2010-06-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is a modular protein of the steroid/nuclear receptor family of transcriptional regulators that upon binding to the hormone undergoes structural changes, resulting in its nuclear translocation and docking to specific chromatin sites. In the nucleus, ERalpha assembles in multiprotein complexes that act as final effectors of estrogen signaling to the genome through chromatin remodeling and epigenetic modifications, leading to dynamic and coordinated regulation of hormone-responsive genes. Identification of the molecular partners of ERalpha and understanding their combinatory interactions within functional complexes is a prerequisite to define the molecular basis of estrogen control of cell functions. To this end, affinity purification was applied to map and characterize the ERalpha interactome in hormone-responsive human breast cancer cell nuclei. MCF-7 cell clones expressing human ERalpha fused to a tandem affinity purification tag were generated and used to purify native nuclear ER-containing complexes by IgG-Sepharose affinity chromatography and glycerol gradient centrifugation. Purified complexes were analyzed by two-dimensional DIGE and mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of a ligand-dependent multiprotein complex comprising beta-actin, myosins, and several proteins involved in actin filament organization and dynamics and/or known to participate in actin-mediated regulation of gene transcription, chromatin dynamics, and ribosome biogenesis. Time course analyses indicated that complexes containing ERalpha and actin are assembled in the nucleus early after receptor activation by ligands, and gene knockdown experiments showed that gelsolin and the nuclear isoform of myosin 1c are key determinants for assembly and/or stability of these complexes. Based on these results, we propose that the actin network plays a role in nuclear ERalpha actions in breast cancer cells, including coordinated regulation of target gene

  1. Estrogenic botanical supplements, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and hormone-related symptoms in breast cancer survivors: a HEAL study report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Huiyan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear whether estrogenic botanical supplement (EBS use influences breast cancer survivors' health-related outcomes. Methods We examined the associations of EBS use with health-related quality of life (HRQOL, with fatigue, and with 15 hormone-related symptoms such as hot flashes and night sweats among 767 breast cancer survivors participating in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL Study. HRQOL was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study short form-36 physical and mental component scale summary score. Fatigue was measured by the Revised-Piper Fatigue Scale score. Results Neither overall EBS use nor the number of EBS types used was associated with HRQOL, fatigue, or hormone-related symptoms. However, comparisons of those using each specific type of EBS with non-EBS users revealed the following associations. Soy supplements users were more likely to have a better physical health summary score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-2.70. Flaxseed oil users were more likely to have a better mental health summary score (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.05-2.94. Ginseng users were more likely to report severe fatigue and several hormone-related symptoms (all ORs ≥ 1.7 and all 95% CIs exclude 1. Red clover users were less likely to report weight gain, night sweats, and difficulty concentrating (all OR approximately 0.4 and all 95% CIs exclude 1. Alfalfa users were less likely to experience sleep interruption (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.12-0.68. Dehydroepiandrosterone users were less likely to have hot flashes (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14-0.82. Conclusions Our findings indicate that several specific types of EBS might have important influences on a woman's various aspects of quality of life, but further verification is necessary.

  2. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  3. A treelet transform analysis to relate nutrient patterns to the risk of hormonal receptor-defined breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Nada; Moskal, Aurelie; Slimani, Nadia; Viallon, Vivian; Chajes, Veronique; Freisling, Heinz; Monni, Stefano; Knueppel, Sven; Förster, Jana; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Molina-Montes, Esther; Salmerón, Diego; Quirós, José Ramón; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Fournier, Agnès; Baglietto, Laura; Fortner, Renee Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; De Magistris, Maria Santucci; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno de Mesquita, H Bas; Bakker, Marije F; Peeters, Petra Hm; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Winkvist, Anna; Johansson, Ingegerd; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Key, Tim; Travis, Ruth; Schmidt, Julie A; Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Pattern analysis has emerged as a tool to depict the role of multiple nutrients/foods in relation to health outcomes. The present study aimed at extracting nutrient patterns with respect to breast cancer (BC) aetiology. Nutrient patterns were derived with treelet transform (TT) and related to BC risk. TT was applied to twenty-three log-transformed nutrient densities from dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals computed using Cox proportional hazards models quantified the association between quintiles of nutrient pattern scores and risk of overall BC, and by hormonal receptor and menopausal status. Principal component analysis was applied for comparison. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Women (n 334 850) from the EPIC study. The first TT component (TC1) highlighted a pattern rich in nutrients found in animal foods loading on cholesterol, protein, retinol, vitamins B12 and D, while the second TT component (TC2) reflected a diet rich in β-carotene, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamins C and B6, fibre, Fe, Ca, K, Mg, P and folate. While TC1 was not associated with BC risk, TC2 was inversely associated with BC risk overall (HRQ5 v. Q1=0·89, 95 % CI 0·83, 0·95, P trend<0·01) and showed a significantly lower risk in oestrogen receptor-positive (HRQ5 v. Q1=0·89, 95 % CI 0·81, 0·98, P trend=0·02) and progesterone receptor-positive tumours (HRQ5 v. Q1=0·87, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·98, P trend<0·01). TT produces readily interpretable sparse components explaining similar amounts of variation as principal component analysis. Our results suggest that participants with a nutrient pattern high in micronutrients found in vegetables, fruits and cereals had a lower risk of BC.

  4. Dietary fiber intake and risk of hormonal receptor-defined breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Pietro; Rinaldi, Sabina; Jenab, Mazda; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Touillaud, Marina; Kaaks, Rudolf; von Rüsten, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Benetou, Vassiliki; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Polidoro, Silvia; Bakker, Marije F; van Gils, Carla H; Ros, Martine M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Krum-Hansen, Sanda; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Pilar, Amiano; Sánchez, Maria-José; Buckland, Genevieve; Ardanaz, Eva; Chirlaque, Dolores; Rodriguez, Laudina; Travis, Ruth; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Sund, Malin; Lenner, Per; Slimani, Nadia; Norat, Teresa; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    Limited scientific evidence has characterized the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer (BC) by menopausal status and hormone receptor expression in tumors. We investigated the relation between total dietary fiber and its main food sources (vegetables, fruit, cereals, and legumes) and BC risk by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). A total of 11,576 invasive BC cases in 334,849 EPIC women mostly aged 35-70 y at baseline were identified over a median follow-up of 11.5 y. Dietary fiber was estimated from country-specific dietary questionnaires. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to quantify the association between dietary variables and BC risk with energy adjustment by using the residual method. Subgroup analyses were performed by menopausal status and estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in tumors. BC risk was inversely associated with intakes of total dietary fiber [hazard ratio comparing fifth quintile to first quintile (HR(Q5-Q1)): 0.95; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.01; P-trend = 0.03] and fiber from vegetables (0.90; 0.84, 0.96; P-trend fiber from fruit, cereals, or legumes. Overall, associations were homogeneous by menopausal status and ER and PR expression in tumors. For vegetable fiber, stronger associations were observed for estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor-negative (HR(Q5-Q1):0.74; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.93; P-trend = 0.01) than for estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive tumors (0.92: 0.81, 1.03; P-trend = 0.05), with P-heterogeneity = 0.09. Diets rich in dietary fiber and, particularly, fiber from vegetables may be associated with a small reduction in risk of BC, independently of menopausal status.

  5. Screening for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niell, Bethany L; Freer, Phoebe E; Weinfurtner, Robert Jared; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Drukteinis, Jennifer S

    2017-11-01

    The goal of screening is to detect breast cancers when still curable to decrease breast cancer-specific mortality. Breast cancer screening in the United States is routinely performed with mammography, supplemental digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and/or MR imaging. This article aims to review the most commonly used breast imaging modalities for screening, discuss how often and when to begin screening with specific imaging modalities, and examine the pros and cons of screening. By the article's end, the reader will be better equipped to have informed discussions with patients and medical professionals regarding the benefits and disadvantages of breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 16 K Prolactin as an Angiogenic Inhibitor in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liby, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Tumors must induce the formation of new blood vessels to grow and metastasize. Prolactin (PRL) is a 23 kDa hormone that has mitogenic, morphogenic, and lactogenic actions on the breast, but its role in breast cancer is unclear...

  7. [Quality of life of patients with breast cancer receiving hormonal therapy, depending on age and marital status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trishikina, E A; Orlova, R V; Roman, L D

    2009-01-01

    Our study involved 247 patients with histologically verified breast tumors, aged 48-89, who had received hormones - tamoxifen as first-line therapy, exemestan (second-line) for 12 months. FACT-B and FACT-G questionnaires were used to assess quality of life. Worse results were reported in tamoxifen-treated patients older than 60 years. Indices of emotional and social security in the two groups: 60-70 year-olds (10.8+/-0.96% and 14.3+/-1.27% vis-à-vis 14.8+/-1.31% and 15.6+/-1.42%, respectively) and over 70 year-olds (15.2+/-1.46% and 15.8+/-1.48%, respectively). Our evidence suggested that a large-seale complex of effective psychological rehabilitation be given, particularly, to those under 60, married andlor with minors, right from the very beginning of treatment.

  8. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, D; Lancaster, GA; Manning, JT

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  9. The prognostic and predictive value of Tregs and tumor immune subtypes in postmenopausal, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy: a Dutch TEAM study analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C. Engels (Charla C.); A. Charehbili; C.J.H. van de Velde; E. Bastiaannet (Esther); A. Sajet (Anita); H. Putter (Hein); E.A. van Vliet; R.L.P. van Vlierberghe (Ronald L.); V.T.H.B.M. Smit (Vincent); J.M.S. Bartlett (John); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); G.-J. Liefers (Gerrit-Jan); P.J.K. Kuppen (P. J K)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractEvidence exists for an immunomodulatory effect of endocrine therapy in hormone receptor-positive (HR+ve) breast cancer (BC). Therefore, the aim of this study was to define the prognostic and predictive value of tumor immune markers and the tumor immune profile in HR+ve BC, treated with

  10. CYP19 Genetic Polymorphism Haplotype AASA Is Associated with a Poor Prognosis in Premenopausal Women with Lymph Node-Negative, Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hsin Kuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the critical role of CYP19 in estrogen synthesis, we investigated the influence of CYP19 gene polymorphisms on the clinical outcome of lymph node- (LN- negative, hormone receptor- (HR- positive early breast cancers. Genotyping for the CYP19 polymorphisms rs4646 (A/C, rs1065779 (A/C, CYP19 (TTTAn (short allele/long (S/L allele using the 7 TTTA repeat polymorphism as the cut-off, and rs1870050 (A/C was performed on 296 patients with LN-negative, HR-positive breast cancers. All patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Associations were examined between these 4 genotypes and 6 common haplotypes of CYP19 and distant disease-free survival (DDFS, disease-free survival (DFS, and overall survival (OS. Patients were divided into the 6 subhaplotypes of CCLA (41.1%, AASA (17.1%, CASA (11.9%, CCLC (8.9%, CCSA (7.5%, AASC (8.9%, and others (4.6%. In premenopausal patients, haplotype AASA was significantly associated with a poor DDFS (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR, 3.3; P=0.001, DFS (aHR, 2.5; P=0.0008, and OS (aHR, 2.9; P=0.0004 after adjusting for age, tumor size, tumor grade, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, chemotherapy, pathology, adjuvant hormone therapy, menopausal status, and radiotherapy. Furthermore, haplotype AASA remained a negative prognostic factor for premenopausal patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in terms of DDFS (aHR, 4.5; P=0.0005, DFS (HR, 3.2; P=0.003, and OS (HR, 6.4; P=0.0009. However, in postmenopausal patients, haplotype AASA was not associated with a poor prognosis, whereas the AASC haplotype was significantly associated with a poor DFS (aHR, 3.1; P=0.03 and OS (aHR, 4.4; P=0.01. Our results indicate that, in patients with LN-negative, HR-positive breast cancers, genetic polymorphism haplotype AASA is associated with poor survival of premenopausal women but does not affect survival of postmenopausal women.

  11. Screening and association testing of common coding variation in steroid hormone receptor co-activator and co-repressor genes in relation to breast cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stallcup Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a limited number of studies have performed comprehensive investigations of coding variation in relation to breast cancer risk. Given the established role of estrogens in breast cancer, we hypothesized that coding variation in steroid receptor coactivator and corepressor genes may alter inter-individual response to estrogen and serve as markers of breast cancer risk. Methods We sequenced the coding exons of 17 genes (EP300, CCND1, NME1, NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3, SMARCA4, SMARCA2, CARM1, FOXA1, MPG, NCOR1, NCOR2, CALCOCO1, PRMT1, PPARBP and CREBBP suggested to influence transcriptional activation by steroid hormone receptors in a multiethnic panel of women with advanced breast cancer (n = 95: African Americans, Latinos, Japanese, Native Hawaiians and European Americans. Association testing of validated coding variants was conducted in a breast cancer case-control study (1,612 invasive cases and 1,961 controls nested in the Multiethnic Cohort. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for allelic effects in ethnic-pooled analyses as well as in subgroups defined by disease stage and steroid hormone receptor status. We also investigated effect modification by established breast cancer risk factors that are associated with steroid hormone exposure. Results We identified 45 coding variants with frequencies ≥ 1% in any one ethnic group (43 non-synonymous variants. We observed nominally significant positive associations with two coding variants in ethnic-pooled analyses (NCOR2: His52Arg, OR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.05–3.05; CALCOCO1: Arg12His, OR = 2.29; 95% CI, 1.00–5.26. A small number of variants were associated with risk in disease subgroup analyses and we observed no strong evidence of effect modification by breast cancer risk factors. Based on the large number of statistical tests conducted in this study, the nominally significant associations that we observed may be due to chance, and will need to be confirmed in other

  12. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  13. Determination of HER2 phosphorylation at tyrosine 1221/1222 improves prediction of poor survival for breast cancer patients with hormone receptor-positive tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frogne, Thomas; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Lyng, Maria B

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: High expression of total HER2 protein confers poor prognosis for breast cancer patients. HER2 is a member of the HER family consisting of four receptors, HER1 to HER4. HER receptor activity is regulated by a variety of mechanisms, and phosphorylation of the C-terminal part of the HER...... metastases, by evaluating the expression of phosphorylated HER1, HER2, HER3, Erk, Akt and the total level of HER4 and HER2. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 268 primary breast tumors and 30 paired metastatic lesions from postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast tumors...... in primary tumors versus metastasis was evaluated. RESULTS: In the primary tumors, 8%, 18%, 14% and 15% of cases were scored positive for total HER2, pHER1, pHER2 and pHER3 expression, respectively. HER4 was expressed with strong intensity in 68% and at moderate intensity in 29% of cases. The activated forms...

  14. Hormone replacement therapy in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglia, Nicoletta; Gadducci, Angelo; Ponzone, Riccardo; Roagna, Riccardo; Sismondi, Piero

    2004-08-20

    Thousands of women are treated each year for cancer; many of these are already in menopause, while other younger patients will go into early menopause due to surgery, or chemotherapy, or the need for radiotherapy to the pelvic region. In most cases the oncologist and the gynaecologist would advise these women against the use of HRT. The purpose of this paper is to review biological and clinical evidences in favour and against HRT use in the different tumours and to propose an algorithm that can help choosing the treatment for the single woman. We performed a systematic literature review through April 2002 concerning: (1) biological basis of hormonal modulation of tumour growth; (2) epidemiological data on the impact of HRT on different cancers risk in healthy women; (3) safety of HRT use in cancer survivors; (4) alternatives to HRT. With the exception of meningioma, breast and endometrial cancer, there is no biological evidence that HRT may increase recurrence risk. In women with previous breast and endometrial cancer HRT is potentially hazardous on a biological basis, even if published data do not show any worsening of prognosis. Even if a cautious approach to hormonal-dependent neoplasias is fully comprehensible and the available alternative treatment should be taken into greater consideration, the reticence to prescribe HRT in women previously treated for other non hormone-related tumours has neither a biological nor a clinical basis. An algorithm based on present knowledge is proposed.

  15. Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58,209 women with breast cancer and 101,986 women without the disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaborative Group on Hormona, l Factors; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58,209 women with breast cancer and 101,986 women without the disease. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: Women with a family history of breast cancer are

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Lapatinib plus Letrozole in Post-Menopausal Women with Hormone Receptor-and HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delea, Thomas E; Hawkes, Carol; Amonkar, Mayur M; Lykopoulos, Konstantinos; Johnston, Stephen R D

    2013-12-01

    In the EGF30008 and TAnDEM (TrAstuzumab in Dual HER2 ER-positive Metastatic breast cancer) trials, anti-HER2 therapy plus an aromatase inhibitor (lapatinib + letrozole (LAP + LET) and trastuzumb + anastrozole (TZ + ANA), respectively) improved time to progression versus aromatase inhibitor monotherapy (LET and ANA, respectively) in post-menopausal women with previously untreated hormone receptor-positive (HR+) and HER2-positive (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer. A partitionedsurvival analysis model using data from EGF30008 and published results of TAnDEM and other literature was used to evaluate the incremental direct medical cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained with LAP + LET versus LET, ANA, and TZ + ANA in post-menopausal women with previously untreated HR+ and HER2+ metastatic breast cancer from the UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Incremental costs for LAP + LET are £ 34,737 versus LET, £ 35,995 versus ANA, and £ 5,513 versus TZ + ANA. Corresponding QALYs gained are 0.467, 0.601, and 0.252 years. Cost/QALY gained with LAP + LET is £ 74,448 versus LET, £ 59,895 versus ANA, and £ 21,836 versus TZ + ANA. Given a threshold of £ 30,000/QALY, the estimated probability that LAP + LET is cost-effective is 1.4% versus LET, 9.2% versus ANA, and 51% versus TZ + ANA. Based on criteria for the evaluation of health technologies in the UK (£ 30,000/QALY), LAP + LET is not likely to be cost-effective versus aromatase inhibitor monotherapy but may be cost-effective versus TZ + ANA, although the latter comparison is associated with substantial uncertainty.

  17. A gene expression signature from human breast cancer cells with acquired hormone independence identifies MYC as a mediator of antiestrogen resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd W.; Balko, Justin M.; Ghazoui, Zara; Dunbier, Anita; Anderson, Helen; Dowsett, Mitch; González-Angulo, Ana M.; Mills, Gordon B.; Miller, William R.; Wu, Huiyun; Shyr, Yu; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Although most patients with estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer initially respond to endocrine therapy, many ultimately develop resistance to antiestrogens. However, mechanisms of antiestrogen resistance and biomarkers predictive of such resistance are underdeveloped. Experimental Design We adapted four ER+ human breast cancer cell lines to grow in an estrogen-depleted medium. A gene signature of estrogen independence was developed by comparing expression profiles of long-term estrogen-deprived (LTED) cells to their parental counterparts. We evaluated the ability of the LTED signature to predict tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor, and disease outcome following adjuvant tamoxifen. We utilized Gene Set Analysis (GSA) of LTED cell gene expression profiles and a loss-of-function approach to identify pathways causally associated with resistance to endocrine therapy. Results The LTED gene expression signature was predictive of high tumor cell proliferation following neoadjuvant therapy with anastrozole and letrozole, each in different patient cohorts. This signature was also predictive of poor recurrence-free survival in two studies of patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen. Bioinformatic interrogation of expression profiles in LTED cells revealed a signature of MYC activation. The MYC activation signature and high MYC protein levels were both predictive of poor outcome following tamoxifen therapy. Finally, knockdown of MYC inhibited LTED cell growth. Conclusions A gene expression signature derived from ER+ breast cancer cells with acquired hormone independence predicted tumor response to aromatase inhibitors and associated with clinical markers of resistance to tamoxifen. In some cases, activation of the MYC pathway was associated with this resistance. PMID:21346144

  18. Baseline characteristics of women presenting with breast cancer at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maajayrani

    hormonal factors in breast cancer, 1996). Current users of hormone replacement therapy are also at a slightly higher risk (Dixon, 2004; Martin & Weber, 2000; Million Women Study. Collaborators, 2003). Increased maternal age at first pregnancy is also believed to be associated with a high risk of having breast cancer (Bray ...

  19. Predictors of early relapse in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in the BIG 1-98 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriac, L; Keshaviah, A; Debled, M; Mouridsen, H; Forbes, J F; Thürlimann, B; Paridaens, R; Monnier, A; Láng, I; Wardley, A; Nogaret, J-M; Gelber, R D; Castiglione-Gertsch, M; Price, K N; Coates, A S; Smith, I; Viale, G; Rabaglio, M; Zabaznyi, N; Goldhirsch, A

    2007-05-01

    Aromatase inhibitors are considered standard adjuvant endocrine treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, but it remains uncertain whether aromatase inhibitors should be given upfront or sequentially with tamoxifen. Awaiting results from ongoing randomized trials, we examined prognostic factors of an early relapse among patients in the BIG 1-98 trial to aid in treatment choices. Analyses included all 7707 eligible patients treated on BIG 1-98. The median follow-up was 2 years, and the primary end point was breast cancer relapse. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify prognostic factors. Two hundred and eighty-five patients (3.7%) had an early relapse (3.1% on letrozole, 4.4% on tamoxifen). Predictive factors for early relapse were node positivity (P < 0.001), absence of both receptors being positive (P < 0.001), high tumor grade (P < 0.001), HER-2 overexpression/amplification (P < 0.001), large tumor size (P = 0.001), treatment with tamoxifen (P = 0.002), and vascular invasion (P = 0.02). There were no significant interactions between treatment and the covariates, though letrozole appeared to provide a greater than average reduction in the risk of early relapse in patients with many involved lymph nodes, large tumors, and vascular invasion present. Upfront letrozole resulted in significantly fewer early relapses than tamoxifen, even after adjusting for significant prognostic factors.

  20. Novel Targeted Agents and Immunotherapy in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Ingrid A; Dent, Rebecca; Tan, Tira; Savas, Peter; Loi, Sherene

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of breast cancer is generally determined according to breast cancer subtype: hormone receptor-positive (luminal), triple-negative (basal-like), and HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Recent years have seen the development of exciting novel and potent therapeutics based on molecular pathways, immune modulation, and antibody conjugates. In this article, we cover new and emerging therapeutic areas and ongoing clinical trials that may result in further improvements in breast cancer outcomes.

  1. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA M.Med, Galukande M M M.Med, MSc, FCS, Namuguzi D M.Med, Muyinda Z M.Med. Affiliations: breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA1 M.Med, Galukande M1 M M.Med, ...

  2. Metaplastic Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    T?rkan, Halil; G?kg?z, M. ?ehsuvar; Parlak, N. Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Metaplastic Breast Cancer (MBC) is a term referring to a heterogeneous group with malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tissue components. MBC is a rare disease, accounting for 0.2% of all breast cancers. Most MBC are triple negative cancers with poor prognosis and an aggressive clinical course. Herein, we aimed to present a 74-year-old patient with metaplastic breast cancer along with clinical, radiologic and pathologic properties.

  3. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María-José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-12-15

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele =0.70; 95% CI: 0.58-0.85; ptrend  = 2.84 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55-0.92; HRhomozygotes  = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.76; p2DF  = 1.45 × 10(-3) ). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15; ptrend  = 6.6 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.96 95% CI: 0.90-1.03; HRhomozygotes  = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35; p2DF =1.25 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662. © 2015 UICC.

  4. Evolution of systemic treatment for hormone-sensitive breast cancer: from sequential use of single agents to the upfront administration of drug combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Imyanitov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current standards of treatment of endocrine-dependent cancers (breast cancer (BC, prostate cancer imply sequential use of endocrine therapy and cytotoxic agents: it is believed, that steroid hormone antagonists cease the division of transformed cells and therefore make them resistant to other therapeutic modalities. It is important to recognize that conceptual investigations in this field were carried out dozens of years ago, and often involved relatively non-efficient drugs, imperfect laboratory tests, etc. There are several recent examples of combined use of endocrine therapy and other compounds. The addition of docetaxel (6 cycles to androgen deprivation resulted in significant improvement of overall survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer. Clinical trial involving the combined use of exemestane and everolimus demonstrated promising results. There are ongoing studies on inhibitors of cycline-dependent kinases. Use of these drugs in the beginning of endocrine therapy may significantly delay resistance to the antagonists of estrogen signaling.

  5. Breast cancer epigenetics: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable molecular changes during cell division without any change in the sequence of DNA molecules is known as epigenetic. Molecular mechanisms involved in this process, including histone modifications, methylation of DNA, protein complex and RNA antisense. Cancer genome changes happen through a combination of DNA hypermethylation, long-term epigenetic silencing with heterozygosis loss and genomic regions loss. Different combinations of N-terminal’s changes cooperate with histone variants with a specific role in gene regulation. It have led to load a setting histone that determine transcription potential of a particular gene or genomic regions. DNA methylation analysis in genome region using methylation-specific digital karyotyping of normal breast tissue detect gene expression patterns and DNA specific methylation can be found in breast carcinoma too more than 100 genes in breast tumors or cell lines of breast cancer are reported hypermethylated. Important of DNA methylation on cancer has been concentrated CpG islands hypermethylation. Most of the techniques are able to identify hypermethylated areas. Often, methylated genes play important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, metastasis and tissue invasion, angiogenesis and hormonal signaling. Cyclin D2 (CCND2 gene is an important regulator of cell cycle and increased of expression inhibits the transition from G1 to S cell cycle. This gene is frequently methylated in breast cancer and has been proposed as the first event. Other cell cycle regulator is p16ink4A / CDKN2A that methylated in a large number of human cancers, including breast cancer. Another regulator of the proliferation of breast cancer that methylated is tumor suppressor RAR-β cancer that has been found in lobular and ductal carcinoma. Recent studies have showed the role of epigenetic silencing in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in which tumor suppressor genes have been changed by acetylation and DNA deacetylation

  6. A systematic review of non-hormonal treatments of vasomotor symptoms in climacteric and cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Drewe, Juergen; Bucher, Kathleen A; Zahner, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The cardinal climacteric symptoms of hot flushes and night sweats affect 24-93% of all women during the physiological transition from reproductive to post-reproductive life. Though efficacious, hormonal therapy and partial oestrogenic compounds are linked to a significant increase in breast cancer. Non-hormonal treatments are thus greatly appreciated. This systematic review of published hormonal and non-hormonal treatments for climacteric, and breast and prostate cancer-associated hot flushes...

  7. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  8. [Breast cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Berclaz, Gilles; Langer, Igor; Pittet-Cuenod, Brigitte; Delaloye, Jean-François

    2007-10-24

    Breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for early breast cancer. For patients who choice or need a mastectomy, breast reconstruction provides an acceptable alternative. Breast cancer surgery has been evolving through minimally invasive approaches. Sentinel node biopsy has already remplaced axillary lymph node dissection in the evaluation of the axilla. Local ablation of the tumor may be a valuable alternative to surgery in the future.

  9. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Breast cancer Breast cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  11. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnink, T. H. Oude; Nagengast, W. B.; Brouwers, A. H.; Schroder, C. P.; Hospers, G. A.; Lub-de Hooge, M. N.; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.; de Vries, E. G. E.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging of breast cancer can potentially be used for breast cancer screening, staging, restaging, response evaluation and guiding therapies. Techniques for molecular breast cancer imaging include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, and radionuclide imaging with positron

  12. Bisphosphonates for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, N; Schmidt, Rl; Stockler, M

    2005-07-20

    heterogeneity among these studies and a random effects meta-analysis emphasizes the uncertainty of this finding (RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.45 - 1.25; p = 0.19). Toxicity or adverse events were described in 18 of the 21 studies. In general, few serious adverse events were reported. Toxicity associated with bisphosphonates is generally mild and infrequent. Renal toxicity is the main issue with intravenous zolendronate and is dose (8 mg) and infusion time related (women with advanced breast cancer and clinically evident bone metastases, the use of bisphosphonates (oral or intravenous) in addition to hormone therapy or chemotherapy, when compared with placebo or no bisphosphonates, reduces the risk of developing a skeletal event and the skeletal event rate, as well as increasing the time to skeletal event. Some bisphosphonates may also reduce bone pain in women with advanced breast cancer and clinically evident bone metastases and may improve global quality of life. The optimal timing of initiation of bisphosphonate therapy and duration of treatment is uncertain. In women with early breast cancer the effectiveness of bisphosphonates remains an open question for research.

  13. Breast cancer predisposition syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemel, Deborah; Domchek, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    A small, but important, percentage of breast cancer cases is caused by the inheritance of a single copy of a mutated gene. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the genes most commonly associated with inherited breast cancer; however, mutations in TP53 and PTEN cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Cowden syndrome, respectively, both of which are associated with high lifetime risks of breast cancer. Advances in the field of breast cancer genetics have led to an improved understanding of detection and prevention strategies. More recently, strategies to target the underlying genetic defects in BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast and ovarian cancers are emerging and may have implications for certain types of sporadic breast cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    of Medicinal Product Statistics provided individually updated exposure information. The National Cancer Register and Pathology Register provided ovarian cancer incidence data. Information on confounding factors and effect modifiers was from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses with 5-year age......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  15. Treatment helps young women preserve fertility during breast cancer chemo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have found that young women with breast cancer were able to better preserve their fertility during cancer treatments by using hormone-blocking drug injections that put them into temporary menopause. The results announced today at the annual me

  16. Anastrozole versus tamoxifen as first-line therapy in postmenopausal patients with hormone-dependent advanced breast cancer: a prospective, randomized, phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla-Santos, Alfredo; Milla, Lidon; Portella, Jordi; Rallo, Lidon; Pons, Maria; Rodes, Esther; Casanovas, Jose; Puig-Gali, Margarita

    2003-06-01

    A prospective phase III trial comparing anastrozole with tamoxifen as first-line therapy in postmenopausal, hormone-dependent, advanced breast cancer (ABC). Patients were randomized to anastrozole 1 mg daily (n = 121) or tamoxifen 40 mg daily (n = 117). Efficacy and tolerability were evaluated after 3 months' therapy, and survival was evaluated at median time of follow-up. At a median follow-up of 13.3 months, clinical benefit (CB) was achieved in 83% and 56% of anastrozole and tamoxifen patients, respectively (p < 0.001); median time to disease progression (TTP) in patients achieving CB was 18.0 months and 7.0 months, respectively, (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.08-0.20, p < 0.01). At data cutoff, 89% of tamoxifen patients had died, compared with 60% of anastrozole patients; median time to death was 17.4 months and 16.0 months, respectively (HR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.47-0.86, p = 0.003). Therapy was well tolerated in both groups. Anastrozole showed significant advantages over tamoxifen for CB, median TTP in patients gaining CB, and survival. These data further support routine use of anastrozole as first-line treatment for postmenopausal hormone-dependent ABC.

  17. Differential action of glycoprotein hormones: significance in cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Arya, Swathy V; Rao, A J

    2014-02-01

    Growth of multicellular organisms depends on maintenance of proper balance between proliferation and differentiation. Any disturbance in this balance in animal cells can lead to cancer. Experimental evidence is provided to conclude with special reference to the action of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on Sertoli cells, and luteinizing hormone (LH) on Leydig cells that these hormones exert a differential action on their target cells, i.e., stimulate proliferation when the cells are in an undifferentiated state which is the situation with cancer cells and promote only functional parameters when the cell are fully differentiated. Hormones and growth factors play a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. There is a growing body of evidence that various tumors express some hormones at high levels as well as their cognate receptors indicating the possibility of a role in progression of cancer. Hormones such as LH, FSH, and thyroid-stimulating hormone have been reported to stimulate cell proliferation and act as tumor promoter in a variety of hormone-dependent cancers including gonads, lung, thyroid, uterus, breast, prostate, etc. This review summarizes evidence to conclude that these hormones are produced by some cancer tissues to promote their own growth. Also an attempt is made to explain the significance of the differential action of hormones in progression of cancer with special reference to prostate cancer.

  18. Hormone replacement therapy and the risk of breast cancer: assessment of therapy acceptance in a cohort of previously treated breast cancer patients Terapia de reposição hormonal e o risco de câncer de mama: avaliação de atitudes em pacientes previamente tratadas por câncer de mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnaldo Anelli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the postmenopausal period, an average of 25% of women will present symptomatic ovarian failure requiring hormonal replacement therapy. Estrogen can relieve vasomotor symptoms. Hormonal replacement therapy is generally not recommended for breast cancer patients due to the potential risk of tumor recurrence. To answer the questions about the safety of hormonal replacement therapy in this subgroup of women, it is necessary to establish the acceptance of treatment. METHODS: Between September 1998 and February 2001, a cohort of 216 breast cancer patients were asked to complete a questionnaire. All patients had completed their treatment and were informed about survival rates after breast cancer and hormonal replacement therapy. RESULTS: Among the 216 patients, 134 (62% would refuse hormonal replacement therapy. A hundred patients were afraid of relapse (74.6%. Adjuvant tamoxifen therapy was the only statistically significant variable (70.3% versus 29.7% p=0.003. Understanding clinical stage (p= 0.045 and type of medical assistance (private versus public , p=0.033 also seemed to influence the decision. Early stage disease (p= 0.22, type of surgical procedure (radical versus conservative, p=0.67, adjuvant chemotherapy (p=0.082 or marital status (p=0.98 were not statistically significant in decision making. Several patients submitted to adjuvant chemotherapy (41.6% would accept hormonal replacement therapy under medical supervision, as did most of advanced clinical stage patients (58.3%; p=0.022. CONCLUSION: There is a high level of rejection for hormonal replacement therapy among breast cancer patients when current data on tumor cure rates, and potential risks of estrogen use is available. Adverse effects of tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting may be the reason for refusal of hormonal replacement therapy .INTRODUÇÃO: Cerca de 25% das mulheres apresentarão deficiência estrogênica sintomática necessitando terapia de reposi

  19. Breast cancer statistics, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Ma, Jiemin; Bryan, Leah; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,620 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2013. One in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. Breast cancer incidence rates increased slightly among African American women; decreased among Hispanic women; and were stable among whites, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives from 2006 to 2010. Historically, white women have had the highest breast cancer incidence rates among women aged 40 years and older; however, incidence rates are converging among white and African American women, particularly among women aged 50 years to 59 years. Incidence rates increased for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers in the youngest white women, Hispanic women aged 60 years to 69 years, and all but the oldest African American women. In contrast, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers declined among most age and racial/ethnic groups. These divergent trends may reflect etiologic heterogeneity and the differing effects of some factors, such as obesity and parity, on risk by tumor subtype. Since 1990, breast cancer death rates have dropped by 34% and this decrease was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. Nevertheless, survival disparities persist by race/ethnicity, with African American women having the poorest breast cancer survival of any racial/ethnic group. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  20. Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival : an overview of the randomised trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abe, O; Abe, R; Enomoto, K; Kikuchi, K; Koyama, H; Masuda, H; Nomura, Y; Sakai, K; Sugimachi, K; Tominaga, T; Uchino, J; Yoshida, M; Haybittle, JL; Davies, C; Harvey, VJ; Holdaway, TM; Kay, RG; Mason, BH; Forbes, JF; Wilcken, N; Gnant, M; Jakesz, R; Ploner, M; Yosef, HMA; Focan, C; Lobelle, JP; Peek, U; Oates, GD; Powell, J; Durand, M; Mauriac, L; Di Leo, A; Dolci, S; Piccart, MJ; Masood, MB; Parker, D; Price, JJ; Hupperets, PSGJ; Jackson, S; Ragaz, J; Berry, D; Broadwater, G; Cirrincione, C; Muss, H; Norton, L; Weiss, RB; Abu-Zahra, HT; Portnoj, SM; Baum, M; Cuzick, J; Houghton, J; Riley, D; Gordon, NH; Davis, HL; Beatrice, A; Mihura, J; Naja, A; Lehingue, Y; Romestaing, P; Dubois, JB; Delozier, T; Mace-Lesec'h, J; Rambert, P; Andrysek, O; Barkmanova, J; Owen, [No Value; Meier, P; Howell, A; Ribeiro, GC; Swindell, R; Alison, R; Boreham, J; Clarke, M; Collins, R; Darby, S; Davies, C; Elphinstone, P; Evans, [No Value; Godwin, J; Gray, R; Harwood, C; Hicks, C; James, S; MacKinnon, E; McGale, P; McHugh, T; Mead, G; Peto, R; Wang, Y; Albano, J; de Oliveira, CF; Gervasio, H; Gordilho, J; Johansen, H; Mouridsen, HT; Gelman, RS; Harris, [No Value; Henderson, IC; Shapiro, CL; Andersen, KW; Axelsson, CK; Blichert-Toft, M; Moller, S; Mouridsen, HT; Overgaard, J; Overgaard, M; Rose, C; Cartensen, B; Palshof, T; Trampisch, HJ; Dalesio, O; de Vries, EGE; Rodenhuis, S; van Tinteren, H; Comis, RL; Davidson, NE; Gray, R; Robert, N; Sledge, G; Tormey, DC; Wood, W; Cameron, D; Chetty, U; Forrest, P; Jack, W; Rossbach, J; Klijn, JGM; Treurniet-Donker, AD; van Putten, WLJ; Costa, A; Veronesi, U; Bartelink, H; Duchateau, L; Legrand, C; Sylvester, R; van der Hage, JA; van de Velde, CJH; Cunningham, MP; Catalano, R; Creech, RH; Bonneterre, J; Fargeot, P; Fumoleau, P; Kerbrat, P; Namer, M; Jonat, W; Kaufmann, M; Schumacher, M; von Minckwitz, G; Bastert, G; Rauschecker, H; Sauer, R; Sauerbrei, W; Schauer, A; Schumacher, M; de Schryver, A; Vakaet, L; Belfiglio, M; Nicolucci, A; Pellegrini, F; Sacco, M; Valentini, M; McArdle, CS; Smith, DC; Galligioni, E; Boccardo, F; Rubagotti, A; Dent, DM; Gudgeon, CA; Hacking, A; Erazo, A; Medina, JY; Izuo, M; Morishita, Y; Takei, H; Fentiman, IS; Hayward, JL; Rubens, RD; Skilton, D; Graeff, H; Janicke, F; Meisner, C; Scheurlen, H; Kaufmann, M; von Fournier, D; Dafni, U; Fountzilas, G; Klefstrom, P; Blomqvist, C; Saarto, T; Margreiter, R; Asselain, B; Salmon, RJ; Vilcoq, [No Value; Arriagada, R; Hill, C; Laplanche, A; Le, MG; Spielmann, M; Bruzzi, P; Montanaro, E; Rosso, R; Sertoli, MR; Venturini, M; Amadori, D; Benraadt, J; Kooi, M; van de Velde, AO; van Dongen, JA; Vermorken, JB; Castiglione, M; Cavalli, F; Coates, A; Collins, J; Forbes, J; Gelber, RD; Goldhirsch, A; Lindtner, J; Price, KN; Rudenstam, CM; Senn, HJ; Bliss, JM; Chilvers, CED; Coombes, RC; Hall, E; Marty, M; Borovik, R; Brufman, G; Hayat, H; Robinson, E; Wigler, N; Bonadonna, G; Camerini, T; De Palo, G; Del Vecchio, M; Formelli, F; Valagussa, P; Martoni, A; Pannuti, F; Cocconi, G; Colozza, A; Camisa, R; Aogi, K; Takashima, S; Abe, O; Ikeda, T; Inokuchi, K; Kikuchi, K; Sawa, K; Sonoo, H; Korzeniowski, S; Skolyszewski, J; Ogawa, M; Yamashita, J; Bonte, J; Christiaens, R; Paridaens, R; Van den Boegart, W; Martin, P; Romain, S; Hakes, T; Hudis, CA; Norton, L; Wittes, R; Giokas, G; Kondylis, D; Lissaios, B; de la Huerta, R; Sainz, MG; Altemus, R; Cowan, K; Danforth, D; Lichter, A; Lippman, M; O'Shaughnessy, J; Pierce, LJ; Steinberg, S; Venzon, D; Zujewski, J; Paradiso, A; De Lena, M; Schittulli, F; Myles, JD; Pater, JL; Pritchard, KI; Nomura, Y; Anderson, S; Bass, G; Brown, A; Bryant, J; Costantino, J; Dignam, J; Fisher, B; Redmond, C; Wieand, S; Wolmark, N; Baum, M; Jackson, IM; Palmer, MK; Ingle, JN; Suman, VJ; Bengtsson, NO; Jonsson, H; Larsson, LG; Lythgoe, JP; Swindell, R; Kissin, M; Erikstein, B; Hannisdal, E; Jacobsen, AB; Varhaug, JE; Erikstein, B; Gundersen, S; Hauer-Jensen, M; Host, H; Jacobsen, AB; Nissen-Meyer, R; Blamey, RW; Mitchell, AK; Morgan, DAL; Robertson, JFR; Di Palma, M; Mathe, G; Misset, JL; Clark, RM; Levine, M; Morimoto, K; Sawa, K; Takatsuka, Y; Crossley, E; Harris, A; Talbot, D; Taylor, M; Cocconi, G; di Blasio, B; Ivanov, [No Value; Semiglazov, [No Value; Brockschmidt, J; Cooper, MR; Ueo, H; Falkson, CI; A'Hern, R; Ashley, S; Powles, TJ; Smith, IE; Yarnold, [No Value; Gazet, JC; Cocoran, N; Deshpande, N; di Martino, L; Douglas, P; Hacking, A; Host, H; Lindtner, A; Notter, G; Bryant, AJS; Ewing, GH; Firth, LA; Krushen-Kosloski, JL; Nissen-Meyer, R; Foster, L; George, WD; Stewart, HJ; Stroner, P; Malmstrom, P; Moller, TR; Ryden, S; Tengrup, [No Value; Tennvall-Nittby, L; Carstenssen, J; Dufmats, M; Hatschek, T; Nordenskjold, B; Soderberg, M; Carpenter, JT; Albain, K; Crowley, J; Green, S; Martino, S; Osborne, CK; Ravdin, PM; Glas, U; Johansson, U; Rutqvist, LE; Singnomklao, T; Wallgren, A; Castiglione, M; Goldhirsch, A; Maibach, R; Senn, HJ; Thurlimann, B; Brenner, H; Hercbergs, A; Yoshimoto, M; DeBoer, G; Paterson, AHG; Pritchard, KI; Meakin, JW; Panzarella, T; Pritchard, KI; Shan, Y; Shao, YF; Wang, [No Value; Zhao, DB; Boreham, J; Chen, ZM; Pan, HC; Peto, R; Bahi, J; Reid, M; Spittle, M; Deutsch, GP; Senanayake, F; Kwong, DLW; Bianco, AR; Carlomagno, C; De Laurentiis, M; De Placido, S; Buzdar, AU; Smith, T; Bergh, J; Holmberg, L; Liljegren, G; Nilsson, J; Seifert, M; Sevelda, P; Zielinsky, CC; Buchanan, RB; Cross, M; Royle, GT; Dunn, JA; Hills, RK; Lee, M; Morrison, JM; Spooner, D; Litton, A; Chlebowski, RT; Caffier, H

    2005-01-01

    Background Quinquennial overviews (1985-2000) of the randomised trials in early breast cancer have assessed the 5-year and 10-year effects of various systemic adjuvant therapies on breast cancer recurrence and survival. Here, we report the 10-year and 15-year effects. Methods Collaborative

  1. Synthesis and anticancer cell potential of steroidal 16,17-seco-16,17a-dinitriles: identification of a selective inhibitor of hormone-independent breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Andrea R; Petri, Edward T; Klisurić, Olivera R; Ćelić, Andjelka S; Jakimov, Dimitar S; Djurendić, Evgenija A; Penov Gaši, Katarina M; Sakač, Marija N

    2015-02-15

    We report the synthesis of steroidal 16,17-seco-16,17a-dinitriles and investigate their antitumor cell properties. Compounds were evaluated for anticancer potential by in vitro antiproliferation studies, molecular docking and virtual screening. Several compounds inhibit the growth of breast and prostate cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and PC3), and/or cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Supporting this, molecular docking predicts that steroidal 16,17-seco-16,17a-dinitriles could bind with high affinity to multiple molecular targets of breast and prostate cancer treatment (aromatase, estrogen receptor α, androgen receptor and 17α-hydroxylase) facilitated by D-seco flexibility and nitrile-mediated contacts. Thus, 16,17-seco-16,17a-dinitriles may be useful for the design of inhibitors of multiple steroidogenesis pathways. Strikingly, 10, a 1,4-dien-3-on derivative, displayed selective submicromolar antiproliferative activity against hormone-dependent (MCF-7) and -independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells (IC50 0.52, 0.11μM, respectively). Ligand-based 3D similarity searches suggest AKR1C, 17β-HSD and/or 3β-HSD subfamilies as responsible for this antiproliferative activity, while fast molecular docking identified AKR1C and ERβ as potential binders-both targets in the treatment of hormone-independent breast cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuroendocrine breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge

    2012-08-13

    Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast lump. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasonography showed a 2.4 cm nodule, probably a benign lesion (BI-RADS 3). A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed and revealed proliferative epithelial papillary lesion. She was submitted to excisional biopsy and histology showed endocrine breast cancer well differentiated (G1). Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for synaptophysin. These breast cancers are characterised for their excellent prognosis and conservative treatment is almost always enough to obtain patient cure.

  3. Tumor Heterogeneity in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turashvili, Gulisa; Brogi, Edi

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and differs greatly among different patients (intertumor heterogeneity) and even within each individual tumor (intratumor heterogeneity). Clinical and morphologic intertumor heterogeneity is reflected by staging systems and histopathologic classification of breast cancer. Heterogeneity in the expression of established prognostic and predictive biomarkers, hormone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 oncoprotein is the basis for targeted treatment. Molecular classifications are indicators of genetic tumor heterogeneity, which is probed with multigene assays and can lead to improved stratification into low- and high-risk groups for personalized therapy. Intratumor heterogeneity occurs at the morphologic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic levels, creating diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumor heterogeneity that are relevant to the development of treatment resistance is a major area of research. Despite the improved knowledge of the complex genetic and phenotypic features underpinning tumor heterogeneity, there has been only limited advancement in diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive strategies for breast cancer. The current guidelines for reporting of biomarkers aim to maximize patient eligibility for targeted therapy, but do not take into account intratumor heterogeneity. The molecular classification of breast cancer is not implemented in routine clinical practice. Additional studies and in-depth analysis are required to understand the clinical significance of rapidly accumulating data. This review highlights inter- and intratumor heterogeneity of breast carcinoma with special emphasis on pathologic findings, and provides insights into the clinical significance of molecular and cellular mechanisms of heterogeneity. PMID:29276709

  4. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    one or both breasts were affected. Family Member (e.g. grandmother, aunt) Paternal or Maternal Type or Location of Cancer (e.g. breast ...Local recurrences and distant metastases after breast -conserving surgery and radiation therapy for early breast cancer . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys...AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: DAMD17-03-1-0454 TITLE: Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance

  5. Clinicopathological comparison of triple negative breast cancers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Basal subtype, estrogen receptor, hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor‑2/neu, progesterone receptor, triple negative. Date of Acceptance: 10‑Nov‑2014. Introduction. Breast cancer is by far the most frequent cancer among women worldwide with an estimated 1.38 million new cases of ...

  6. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first 3 months of pregnancy . Other Information About Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Key Points Lactation (breast milk production) and breast- ... has had breast cancer. To Learn More About Breast Cancer and Pregnancy For more information from the National Cancer Institute ...

  7. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first 3 months of pregnancy . Other Information About Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Key Points Lactation (breast milk production) and breast- ... has had breast cancer. To Learn More About Breast Cancer and Pregnancy For more information from the National Cancer Institute ...

  8. AMR-Me inhibits PI3K/Akt signaling in hormone-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells and inactivates NF-κB in hormone-independent MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, Thangaiyan; Huwiler, Andrea; Zangemeister-Wittke, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    AMR-Me, a C-28 methylester derivative of triterpenoid compound Amooranin isolated from Amoora rohituka stem bark and the plant has been reported to possess multitude of medicinal properties. Our previous studies have shown that AMR-Me can induce apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptotic and MAPK signaling pathways by regulating the expression of apoptosis related genes in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. However, the molecular mechanism of AMR-Me induced apoptotic cell death remains unclear. Our results showed that AMR-Me dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells under serum-free conditions supplemented with 1 nM estrogen (E2) with an IC50 value of 0.15 µM, 0.45 µM, respectively. AMR-Me had minimal effects on human normal breast epithelial MCF-10A + ras and MCF-10A cells with IC50 value of 6 and 6.5 µM, respectively. AMR-Me downregulated PI3K p85, Akt1, and p-Akt in an ERα-independent manner in MCF-7 cells and no change in expression levels of PI3K p85 and Akt were observed in MDA-MB-231 cells treated under similar conditions. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 suppressed Akt activation similar to AMR-Me and potentiated AMR-Me induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. EMSA revealed that AMR-Me inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) DNA binding activity in MDA-MB-231 cells in a time-dependent manner and abrogated EGF induced NF-κB activation. From these studies we conclude that AMR-Me decreased ERα expression and effectively inhibited Akt phosphorylation in MCF-7 cells and inactivate constitutive nuclear NF-κB and its regulated proteins in MDA-MB-231 cells. Due to this multifactorial effect in hormone-dependent and independent breast cancer cells AMR-Me deserves attention for use in breast cancer prevention and therapy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Breast cancer risk and hormone receptor status in older women by parity, age of first birth, and breastfeeding - a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Sarah J; Bernstein, Leslie; Johnson, Karen A; Malone, Kathleen E; McDonald, Jill A; Marchbanks, Polly A; Simon, Michael S; Strom, Brian L; Press, Michael F; Folger, Suzanne G; Burkman, Ronald T; Deapen, Dennis; Spirtas, Robert; Ursin, Giske

    2009-01-01

    Background Early age at first birth and multiparity reduce the risk of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor (ERPR) positive breast cancer, whereas breastfeeding reduces the risk of both ERPR-positive and ERPR-negative cancers. Methods We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to investigate whether age at first birth (parity on risk of ERPR-positive and ERPR-negative cancer using 1457 incident breast cancer cases and 1455 controls aged ≥ 55 years who participated in the Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences Study. Results Women who gave birth before age 25 years had a 36% reduced risk of breast cancer compared to nulligravida that was not observed for women who started their families at an older age (P heterogeneity=0.0007). This protective effect was restricted to ERPR-positive breast cancer (P heterogeneity=0.004). Late age at first birth increased the risk of ERPR-negative cancers. Additional births reduced the risk of ERPR-positive cancers among women with an early first birth (P trend=0.0001) and among women who breastfed (P trend=0.004), but not among older mothers or those who never breastfed. In women with a late first birth who never breastfed, multiparity was associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Conclusions These findings suggest that the effect of parity on a woman's long-term risk of breast cancer is modified by age at first full-term pregnancy and possibly by breastfeeding. PMID:18628424

  10. Breast cancer survival and season of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Dorthe; Bjerre, Karsten D; Tjønneland, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has been suggested to influence the incidence and prognosis of breast cancer, and studies have found better overall survival (OS) after diagnosis for breast cancer in summer-autumn, where the vitamin D level are expected to be highest. Objective To compare the prognostic...... outcome for early breast cancer patients operated at different seasons of the year. Design Open population-based cohort study. Setting Danish women operated 1978-2010. Cases 79 658 adjusted for age at surgery, period of surgery, tumour size, axillary lymph node status and hormone receptor status...

  11. Efficacy and safety of endocrine monotherapy as first-line treatment for hormone-sensitive advanced breast cancer: A network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwen; Huang, Yanhong; Wang, Changyi; He, Yuanfang; Zheng, Shukai; Wu, Kusheng

    2017-08-01

    Endocrine therapy was recommended as the preferred first-line treatment for hormone receptor-positive (HR+, i.e., ER+ and/or PgR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HER2-) postmenopausal advanced breast cancer (ABC), but which endocrine monotherapy is optimal lacks consensus. We aimed to identify the optimal endocrine monotherapy with a network meta-analysis. We performed a network meta-analysis for a comprehensive analysis of 6 first-line endocrine monotherapies (letrozole, anastrozole, exemestane, tamoxifen, fulvestrant 250 mg and 500 mg) for HR+ HER2- metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. The main outcomes were objective response rate (ORR), time to progression (TTP), and progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary outcomes were adverse events. We identified 27 articles of 8 randomized controlled trials including 3492 patients in the network meta-analysis. For ORR, the treatments ranked in descending order of effectiveness were letrozole > exemestane > anastrozole > fulvestrant 500 mg > tamoxifen > fulvestrant 250 mg. For TTP/PFS, the order was fulvestrant 500 mg > letrozole > anastrozole > exemestane > tamoxifen > fulvestrant 250 mg. We directly compared adverse events and found that tamoxifen produced more hot flash events than fulvestrant 250 mg. Fulvestrant 500 mg and letrozole might be optimal first-line endocrine monotherapy choices for HR+ HER2- ABC because of efficacious ORR and TTP/PFS, with a favorable tolerability profile. However, direct comparisons among endocrine monotherapies in the first-line therapy setting are still required to robustly demonstrate any differences among these endocrine agents. Clinical choices should also depend on the specific disease situation and duration of endocrine therapy.

  12. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  13. Concurrent Use in Taiwan of Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Hormone Users Aged 55 Years to 79 Years and Its Association with Breast Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Ting Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs among women aged 55 to 79 years who had also been prescribed hormonal therapies (HT and its association with breast cancer risk. Methods. The use, frequency of service, and CHP prescribed among 17,583 HT users were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and HT. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs of breast cancer between the TCM nonusers and women who had undergone coadministration of HT and a CHP or CHPs. Results. More than one out of every five study subjects used a CHP concurrently with HT (CHTCHP patients. Shu-Jing-Huo-Xie-Tang was the most commonly used CHP coadministered with HT. In comparison to HT-alone users, the HRs for invasive breast cancer among CHTCHP patients were not significantly increased either in E-alone group or in mixed regimen group. Conclusions. The coadministration of hormone regimen and CHPs did not increase the risk of breast cancer.

  14. The association between China's Great famine and risk of breast cancer according to hormone receptor status: a hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimujiang, Aliya; Mo, Miao; Liu, Ying; Huang, Nai-Si; Liu, Guangyu; Xu, Wanghong; Wu, Jiong; Shen, Zhen-Zhou; Shao, Zhimin; Colditz, Graham A

    2016-11-01

    The Great Chinese Famine afflicted almost all Chinese people between 1959 and 1961. No study has explicitly assessed the association between an exposure to Chinese Famine and risk of overall breast cancer and tumor subtype. We evaluated the unique historical environmental influences of famine exposure on breast cancer subtypes. 16,469 Chinese women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) from 1999 to 2014 were analyzed. Four tumor subtypes were defined by both estrogen-receptor (ER) and progesterone-receptor (PR) status. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of ER-PR-, ER+PR-, and ER-PR+ relative to ER+PR+ breast cancer for exposure to famine and age at the exposure. Compared with cases not exposed to the Famine, exposed cases were more likely to be diagnosed with ER-PR- (OR 1.60, 95 % CI 1.43-1.81), ER-PR+ (OR 4.85, 95 % CI 3.80-6.19), and ER+PR- (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.67-2.37) than ER+PR+ breast cancer after controlling for established breast cancer risk factors. Women exposed to Famine after first birth had a higher risk of EP-PR- (OR 1.66, 95 % CI 1.28-2.15), ER-PR+ (OR 9.75, 95 % CI 5.85-16.25), and ER+PR- (OR 2.35, 95 % CI 1.69-3.26) compared to those with ER+PR+ breast cancer. Women exposed to the Famine, particularly those exposed after first birth, were more likely to be diagnosed with ER-PR-, ER-PR+, and ER+PR- breast cancer. This retrospective analysis suggests that famine, malnutrition, or the associated lack of fruit and vegetable consumption in adulthood may be related to epidemiological heterogeneity within breast cancer subtypes.

  15. Performance comparison of machine learning methods for prognosis of hormone receptor status in breast cancer tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinli, Adem; Sarikoc, Fatih; Akgun, Hulya; Ozturk, Figen

    2013-06-01

    We examined the classification and prognostic scoring performances of several computer methods on different feature sets to obtain objective and reproducible analysis of estrogen receptor status in breast cancer tissue samples. Radial basis function network, k-nearest neighborhood search, support vector machines, naive bayes, functional trees, and k-means clustering algorithm were applied to the test datasets. Several features were employed and the classification accuracies of each method for these features were examined. The assessment results of the methods on test images were also experimentally compared with those of two experts. According to the results of our experimental work, a combination of functional trees and the naive bayes classifier gave the best prognostic scores indicating very good kappa agreement values (κ=0.899 and κ=0.949, p<0.001) with the experts. This combination also gave the best dichotomization rate (96.3%) for assessment of estrogen receptor status. Wavelet color features provided better classification accuracy than Laws texture energy and co-occurrence matrix features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  17. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980–2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  18. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Exogenous hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Dreyer, L; Tryggvadottir, L

    1997-01-01

    The well-described influence of several aspects of reproductive life on the risk for cancer in the reproductive organs has raised concern regarding the safety of exogenous hormones, particularly since sex hormones have become one of the most widely used drugs among women in the western world....... The major areas of application include oral contraception and hormone replacement therapy in women with menopausal symptoms. Since the introduction of oral contraceptives onto the Nordic market in the late 1960s, the number of users has grown steadily, to reach proportions of long-term users among women...... years) of hormone replacement therapy among Nordic women aged 40-69 in 1995 was estimated to be 10-11%, which on the basis of an associated relative risk for breast cancer ranging from 1.2-1.5 suggests than an annual total of 260 cases of breast cancer could be avoided in the Nordic countries around...

  19. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  20. Mammographic breast density and breast cancer risk: interactions of percent density, absolute dense, and non-dense areas with breast cancer risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghjyan, Lusine; Colditz, Graham A; Rosner, Bernard; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-02-01

    We investigated if associations of breast density and breast cancer differ according to the level of other known breast cancer risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), age at menarche, parity, age at first child's birth, age at menopause, alcohol consumption, a family history of breast cancer, a history of benign breast disease, and physical activity. This study included 1,044 postmenopausal incident breast cancer cases diagnosed within the Nurses' Health Study cohort and 1,794 matched controls. Percent breast density, absolute dense, and non-dense areas were measured from digitized film images with computerized techniques. Information on breast cancer risk factors was obtained prospectively from biennial questionnaires. Percent breast density was more strongly associated with breast cancer risk in current postmenopausal hormone users (≥50 vs. 10 %: OR 5.34, 95 % CI 3.36-8.49) as compared to women with past (OR 2.69, 95 % CI 1.32-5.49) or no hormone history (OR 2.57, 95 % CI 1.18-5.60, p-interaction = 0.03). Non-dense area was inversely associated with breast cancer risk in parous women, but not in women without children (p-interaction = 0.03). Associations of density with breast cancer risk did not differ by the levels of BMI, age at menarche, parity, age at first child's birth, age at menopause, alcohol consumption, a family history of breast cancer, a history of benign breast disease, and physical activity. Women with dense breasts, who currently use menopausal hormone therapy are at a particularly high risk of breast cancer. Most breast cancer risk factors do not modify the association between mammographic breast density and breast cancer risk.

  1. [THE EFFECT OF PREGNANCY ON BREAST CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shelly Tartakover; Shochet, Gali Epstein; Drucker, Liat; Lishner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Cancer and pregnancy coincide in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. One of the most common malignancies associated with pregnancy is breast cancer. Women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with metastatic disease and estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors than do non-pregnant women. Controversies exist regarding the effect of pregnancy on breast cancer prognosis. Some researchers suggest that pregnancy does not affect breast cancer prognosis, whereas others claim the opposite. Although PABC is usually discovered in an advanced stage, breast cancer metastasis on the placenta is a rare event. During cancer progression, the surrounding microenvironment co-evolves into an activated state through continuous communication with the malignant cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. The effect of pregnancy and placental environment on breast cancer biology is the issue of this review. Placental and cancer cells implantation processes share similar molecular pathways. This suggests that placental factors may affect breast cancer cells biology. Previously, we analyzed the effect of first trimester human placenta on breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells were co-cultured with placental explants during their implantation on matrigel substrate. We found that the placenta reduced ER expression on the cancer cells and induced their migration and invasion abilities. As a result of it, breast cancer cells migrated away from the placental implantation sites. Hormonal pathways were involved in these phenomena. These results may explain the high incidence of metastases during pregnancy in on the one hand and the rarity of metastases on the placenta on the other hand.

  2. Cyclic AMP Modulation of Estrogen-Induced Effects: A Novel Mechanism for Hormonal Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    muscle cells. J Physiol (Lond) 61:530-546 58. Gaddum JH 1926 The action of adrenalin and ergota- mine on the uterus of the rabbit J Physiol (Lond) 61...action of the steroid hormones (such as estrogens, androgens, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and the insect steroid hormone ecdysone), as well...dimerize with the retinoid X receptor [12,20]. The recep- tor for the insect steroid hormone ecdysone, on the other hand, is active only as a

  3. Breast Cancer and its Radiotherapeutic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Zeinali Rafsanjani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women after skin cancer. In Iran, the presentation age of this cancer is younger than the global average. There are different therapeutic methods for treatment of breast cancer and the choice of treatment depends on the stage of the disease as well as its type and characteristics. Therapeutic methods include surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, each consisting of a variety of techniques. The two main surgical techniques are lumpectomy and mastectomy. The main systemic methods are biological therapy (immunotherapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy is mainly categorized into external-beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. In this paper, we present a brief review of the different types of breast cancer and their treatments using conventional and modern radiotherapy methods, as well as the treatment efficacy and side effects of breast radiotherapy.

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  5. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A

    2013-01-01

    ), and their ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Study-specific and combined multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated based on tertiles of estrogen metabolites. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit according to hormone receptor status.¿Results: Higher......Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1...

  6. [Fibrocystic breast disease--breast cancer sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habor, V; Habor, A; Copotoiu, C; Panţîru, A

    2010-01-01

    Fibrocystic breast disease has developed a major issue: the breast cancer sequence. Its involvement regarding the increse of breast cancer risk has 2 aspects: it may be either the marker of a prone tissue or a premalignant hystological deffect. Difficult differential diagnosis of benign proliferative breast lession and carcinoma led to the idea of sequency between the two: cancer does not initiate on normal mammary epithelia; it takes several proliferative stages for it to occur. In our series we analized a number of 677 breast surgical procedures where the pathologic examination reveals 115 cases (17%) of coexistence between cancer and fibrocystic breast disease. This aspect has proved to be related to earlier debut of breast cancer, suggesting that epithelial hyperplasia is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  7. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  8. Breast reconstruction after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletti, Joseph M; Fosnot, Joshua; Nelson, Jonas A; Disa, Joseph J; Bucky, Louis P

    2011-06-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the mental, emotional, and physical benefits of reconstruction in breast cancer patients. 2. Compare the most common techniques of reconstruction in patients and detail benefits and risks associated with each. 3. Outline different methods of reconstruction and identify the method considered best for the patient based on timing of the procedures, body type, adjuvant therapies, and other coexisting conditions. 4. Distinguish between some of the different flaps that can be considered for autologous reconstruction. Breast cancer is unfortunately a common disease affecting millions of women, often at a relatively young age. Reconstruction following mastectomy offers women an opportunity to mollify some of the emotional and aesthetic effects of this devastating disease. Although varying techniques of alloplastic and autologous techniques are available, all strive to achieve the same goal: the satisfactory reformation of a breast mound that appears as natural as possible without clothing and at the very least is normal in appearance under clothing. This article summarizes the various approaches to breast reconstruction and offers a balanced view of the risks and benefits of each, all of which in the end offer the opportunity for excellent and predictable results with a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  9. A new therapeutic strategy against hormone-dependent breast cancer: the preclinical development of a dual aromatase and sulfatase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul A; Chander, Surinder K; Newman, Simon P; Woo, L W Lawrence; Sutcliffe, Oliver B; Bubert, Christian; Zhou, Dujin; Chen, Shiuan; Potter, Barry V L; Reed, Michael J; Purohit, Atul

    2008-10-15

    The production of E2 is paramount for the growth of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Various strategies have been used, including the use of enzyme inhibitors against either aromatase (AROM) or steroid sulfatase (STS), in an attempt to ablate E2 levels. Both these enzymes play a critical role in the formation of estrogenic steroids and their inhibitors are now showing success in the clinic. We show here, in a xenograft nude mouse model, that the inhibition of both enzymes using STX681, a dual AROM and STS inhibitor (DASI), is a potential new therapeutic strategy against HDBC. MCF-7 cells stably expressing either AROM cDNA (MCF-7(AROM)) or STS cDNA (MCF-7(STS)) were generated. Ovariectomized MF-1 female nude mice receiving s.c. injections of either androstenedione (A(4)) or E2 sulfate and bearing either MCF-7(AROM) or MCF-7(STS) tumors were orally treated with STX64, letrozole, or STX681. Treatment was administered for 28 days. Mice were weighed and tumor measurements were taken weekly. STX64, a potent STS inhibitor, completely blocked MCF-7(STS) tumor growth but failed to attenuate MCF-7(AROM) tumor growth. In contrast, letrozole inhibited MCF-7(AROM) tumors but had no effect on MCF-7(STS) tumors. STX681 completely inhibited the growth of both tumors. AROM and STS activity was also completely inhibited by STX681, which was accompanied by a significant reduction in plasma E2 levels. This study indicates that targeting both the AROM and the STS enzyme with a DASI inhibits HDBC growth and is therefore a potentially novel treatment for this malignancy.

  10. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  11. Breast cancer: equal rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fátima Carvalho Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is not any statistics related to encouraging breast cancer along the past century, and there has not been any in present century. It has been published in the scientific and lay press information on the crescent number of women attacked by breast cancer. How to spare women and family members of such pain when they experience this disease? Which rights provide assistance to the women with cancer?

  12. Oxalate induces breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellaro, Andrés M; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L; Pucci, Oscar A; Gil, German A

    2015-10-22

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  13. Thyroid function and survival following breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, J; Borgquist, S; Almquist, M; Manjer, J

    2016-11-01

    Thyroid function has been associated with breast cancer risk, and breast cancer cell growth and proliferation. It is not clear whether thyroid function affects prognosis following breast cancer but, if so, this could have an important clinical impact. The present study analysed prospectively collected measurements of free tri-iodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in relation to breast cancer survival. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study is a prospective cohort study of 17 035 women in Sweden. Study enrolment was conducted between 1991 and 1996. Patients with incident breast cancer were identified through record linkage with cancer registries until 31 December 2006. Information on vital status was collected from the Swedish Cause of Death Registry, with the endpoint breast cancer mortality (31 December 2013). Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 per cent confidence intervals (c.i.) were obtained by Cox proportional hazards analysis. Some 766 patients with incident breast cancer were identified, of whom 551 were eligible for analysis. Compared with patients in the first free T4 tertile, breast cancer mortality was lower among those in the second tertile (HR 0·49, 95 per cent c.i. 0·28 to 0·84). There was an indication, although non-significant, of lower breast cancer mortality among patients in the second TSH tertile (HR 0·63, 0·37 to 1·09) and in those with positive TPO-Ab status (HR 0·61, 0·30 to 1·23). Free T3 showed no clear association with mortality. In the present study, there was a positive association between free T4 levels and improved breast cancer survival. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Disease management patterns for postmenopausal women in Europe with hormone-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Fabrice; Neven, Patrick; Marinsek, Nina; Zhang, Jie; Baladi, Jean-Francois; Degun, Ravi; Benelli, Giancarlo; Saletan, Stephen; Jerusalem, Guy

    2014-06-01

    International guidelines for hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HER2(-)) advanced breast cancer (BC) recommend sequential lines of hormonal therapy (HT), and only recommend chemotherapy for patients with extensive visceral involvement or rapidly progressive disease. This study evaluated actual physician-reported treatments for advanced BC in Europe. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 355 postmenopausal women with HR(+), HER2(-) advanced BC who progressed on ≥1 line of HT (adjuvant or advanced) and completed ≥1 line of chemotherapy (advanced). Treatment choice was evaluated for each line of therapy. Of 355 patients, 111 (31%) received first-line chemotherapy, whereas 218 (61%) and 26 (7%) switched from HT to chemotherapy in second and third line, respectively. More patients receiving first-line HT had bone metastases (73% vs 27% chemotherapy). Patients treated with first-line chemotherapy had more brain (12% vs 3% HT) or extensive liver (13% vs 6% HT) metastases. Subgroup analysis of 188 patients who received first-line HT and had de novo advanced BC or relapsed/recurrent disease more than 1 year after adjuvant therapy found that the majority (89%; n = 167) of these patients switched to chemotherapy in second line. However, among these 167 patients, 27% had no significant changes in metastases between first and second line. Among the 73% of patients who had significant changes in metastases, 20% had no brain metastases or extensive visceral disease. Our study suggests that the guideline-recommended use of multiple HT lines is open to interpretation and that optimal treatment for European postmenopausal women with HR(+), HER2(-) advanced BC who responded to HT may not be achieved.

  15. Mortality rates among early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients: a population-based cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Bjerre, Karsten; Ejlertsen, Bent Laursen

    2011-01-01

    Indications for adjuvant endocrine treatment of breast cancer have gradually increased over the past several years. We aimed to define subgroups of patients who may or may not benefit from adjuvant endocrine therapy....

  16. Bringing androgens up a NOTCH in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulli, Gerard A; Butler, Lisa M; Tilley, Wayne D; Hickey, Theresa E

    2014-08-01

    While it has been known for decades that androgen hormones influence normal breast development and breast carcinogenesis, the underlying mechanisms have only been recently elucidated. To date, most studies have focused on androgen action in breast cancer cell lines, yet these studies represent artificial systems that often do not faithfully replicate/recapitulate the cellular, molecular and hormonal environments of breast tumours in vivo. It is critical to have a better understanding of how androgens act in the normal mammary gland as well as in in vivo systems that maintain a relevant tumour microenvironment to gain insights into the role of androgens in the modulation of breast cancer development. This in turn will facilitate application of androgen-modulation therapy in breast cancer. This is particularly relevant as current clinical trials focus on inhibiting androgen action as breast cancer therapy but, depending on the steroid receptor profile of the tumour, certain individuals may be better served by selectively stimulating androgen action. Androgen receptor (AR) protein is primarily expressed by the hormone-sensing compartment of normal breast epithelium, commonly referred to as oestrogen receptor alpha (ERa (ESR1))-positive breast epithelial cells, which also express progesterone receptors (PRs) and prolactin receptors and exert powerful developmental influences on adjacent breast epithelial cells. Recent lineage-tracing studies, particularly those focussed on NOTCH signalling, and genetic analysis of cancer risk in the normal breast highlight how signalling via the hormone-sensing compartment can influence normal breast development and breast cancer susceptibility. This provides an impetus to focus on the relationship between androgens, AR and NOTCH signalling and the crosstalk between ERa and PR signalling in the hormone-sensing component of breast epithelium in order to unravel the mechanisms behind the ability of androgens to modulate breast cancer

  17. Mortality rates among early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients: a population-based cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer Michael; Bjerre, Karsten; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Indications for adjuvant endocrine treatment of breast cancer have gradually increased over the past several years. We aimed to define subgroups of patients who may or may not benefit from adjuvant endocrine therapy.......Indications for adjuvant endocrine treatment of breast cancer have gradually increased over the past several years. We aimed to define subgroups of patients who may or may not benefit from adjuvant endocrine therapy....

  18. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Adjuvant Letrozole Versus Anastrozole in Postmenopausal Patients With Hormone Receptor-Positive, Node-Positive Early Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Ian; Yardley, Denise; Burris, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Letrozole (Femara) Versus Anastrozole Clinical Evaluation (FACE) study compared the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole versus anastrozole in postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor (HR) -positive and node-positive early breast cancer (eBC). Methods Postmenopausal women...... receptor 2 status. The primary end point was 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), and the key secondary end points were overall survival and safety. Results A total of 4,136 patients were randomly assigned to receive either letrozole (n = 2,061) or anastrozole (n = 2,075). The final analysis was done at 709.......9% for all adverse events), hypertension (1.2% v 1.0%), hot flushes (0.8% v 0.4%), myalgia (0.8% v 0.7%), dyspnea (0.8% v 0.5%), and depression (0.8% v 0.6%). Conclusion Letrozole did not demonstrate significantly superior efficacy or safety compared with anastrozole in postmenopausal patients with HR...

  19. Low Ki67/high ATM protein expression in malignant tumors predicts favorable prognosis in a retrospective study of early stage hormone receptor positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaolan; Li, Haocheng; Kornaga, Elizabeth N; Dean, Michelle; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Riabowol, Karl; Magliocco, Anthony M; Morris, Don; Watson, Peter H; Enwere, Emeka K; Bebb, Gwyn; Paterson, Alexander

    2016-12-27

    This study was designed to investigate the combined influence of ATM and Ki67 on clinical outcome in early stage hormone receptor positive breast cancer (ES-HPBC), particularly in patients with smaller tumors (ATM and Ki67 proteins using fluorescence and brightfield immunohistochemistry respectively, and quantified their expression with digital image analysis. Data on expression levels were subsequently correlated with clinical outcome. Remarkably, ATM expression was useful to stratify the low Ki67 group into subgroups with better or poorer prognosis. Specifically, in the low Ki67 subgroup defined as having smaller tumors and no positive nodes, patients with high ATM expression showed better outcome than those with low ATM, with estimated survival rates of 96% and 89% respectively at 15 years follow up (p = 0.04). Similarly, low-Ki67 patients with smaller tumors, 1-3 positive nodes and high ATM also had significantly better outcomes than their low ATM counterparts, with estimated survival rates of 88% and 46% respectively (p = 0.03) at 15 years follow up. Multivariable analysis indicated that the combination of high ATM and low Ki67 is prognostic of improved survival, independent of tumor size, grade, and lymph node status (p = 0.02). These data suggest that the prognostic value of Ki67 can be improved by analyzing ATM expression in ES-HPBC.

  20. Use of Palliative Endocrine Therapy in Patients with Hormone Receptor-Positive Distant Metastatic Breast Cancer: How Often, How Effective, How Long?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Uwe; Huang, Dorothy Jane; Schötzau, Andreas; Schmid, Seraina Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    This study provides real-world clinical evidence regarding palliative endocrine therapy (ET) in breast cancer (BC). The main questions to be answered were: how often and how long did patients receive ET? A particular aspect was the analysis of compliance and persistence with ET. An analysis of a nonselected/consecutive cohort of women with distant metastatic hormone receptor-positive BC (n = 205) was conducted. In all, 165 patients (80.5%) received ET during the palliative disease course. The noncompliance rate was 1.5%. Sixty-seven patients (40.6%) had ET as the only antineoplastic therapy. The median number of therapy lines was 2, and the median duration was 18 months. The median metastatic disease survival (MDS) was 34 months. In patients who had an MDS of ≥9 months (n = 145; 87.9%), during 70.6% of the MDS time only ET had been administered. Patients who were naïve to ET more often had a good response to and a longer duration of palliative ET than those who were not. The nonpersistence rate was 4.3%. Excluding the few patients who had a rapidly progressive course, the disease was controlled for about 70% of the entire palliative disease course with ET alone. Only very few patients were nonpersistent with ET and consciously stopped a still effective, ongoing ET. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Triple negative breast cancer: an Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Murtaza Akhtar, Subhrajit Dasgupta, Murtuza Rangwala Department of Surgery, NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in the world. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a recently identified biological variant with aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis. Data of hormonal status from the Indian population is scarce due to financial constraints in performing immunohistochemistry evaluation. The present study aims to prospectively analyze receptor status of all breast cancer patients and identify TNBC and compare their clinical profile and short term survival with other non-TNBC group. Materials and methods: All cytologically and histopathologically confirmed cases of carcinoma breast were prospectively enrolled. In a longitudinal study at tertiary care hospital in central India based on the hormonal status, they were further divided into TNBC and other groups. Comparison of risk factors, clinical profile and short-term survival was carried out. Results: A total 85 patients were enrolled and of them 37 (43.7% were TNBC. On comparing risk factors ie, age, age at menarche, total reproductive age, age at first child birth, and menopausal status – no statistical significance was observed between the TNBC and non-TNBC groups. But on comparison of clinical profile TNBC tumors were significantly large with majority of patients presenting as locally advanced breast cancer (83%. No statistical difference was observed in axillary lymph node status between two groups. TNBC tumors were histologically more aggressive (grade 3 compared to other groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in short term overall survival but all three deaths were observed in the TNBC group only and two local recurrences after surgery were observed in the TNBC group. Conclusion: TNBC forms a large proportion of carcinoma breast patients in a central

  2. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Keoxifene (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Nolvadex (Tamoxifen ...

  3. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah’s family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  4. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  5. Family History of Breast Cancer as a Determinant of the Risk of Developing Endometrial and Ovarian Cancers: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazerouni, N. N

    2002-01-01

    Statement of the problem: Although endometrial and ovarian cancers share some of the same reproductive, hormonal, and genetic risk factors with breast cancer, it is not well established if a family history of breast cancer...

  6. Tamoxifen-induced epigenetic silencing of oestrogen-regulated genes in anti-hormone resistant breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Stone

    associated with negative proliferation control. Furthermore, reactivation of such genes using epigenetic drugs could provide a potential therapeutic avenue for the management of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer.

  7. Breast cancer and fertility: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronn, Ruth; Holzer, Hananel

    2015-09-01

    This review will summarize key fertility issues in young women with breast cancer. The detrimental effects of treatment modalities on ovarian and hormonal function will be reviewed. Options for fertility protection and preservation will also be outlined, as well as the unique issues facing women in pregnancy with a previous breast cancer diagnosis. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues continue to be in debate for their protective impact on the ovaries during the time of gonadotoxic treatment. Success rates in the cryopreservation of embryos, oocytes and gonadal tissue continue to improve. Concurrently, advancing reproductive technologies are developing promising techniques for obtaining mature oocytes from ovarian tissue and from early ovarian follicles. The pursuit of a pregnancy after breast cancer treatment is an additional challenge. Increasing bodies of evidence support the safety of pregnancy after breast cancer and the possibly improved survival. Still, there is an uncertainty regarding recommended intervals from diagnosis to conception. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for hereditary breast cancer mutations is also becoming of increasing interest. The fertility impact of breast cancer treatment in young women is of ongoing concern. The effects should be universally addressed and options should be outlined with young women prior to commencement of treatment.

  8. Inflammatory Breast Cancer: High Risk of Contralateral Breast Cancer Compared to Comparably Staged Non-Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, Catherine; Brown, Linda M.; Mai, Phuong L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), the most lethal form of breast cancer, has characteristics linked to higher risk of contralateral breast cancer. However, no large studies have examined risk of contralateral breast cancer following IBC. Methods We calculated absolute risk of invasive contralateral breast cancer among 5,631 IBC and 174,634 comparably staged non-IBC first breast cancer cases who survived at least 2 months following diagnosis and were reported to 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries between January 1, 1973 and December 31, 2006. We considered that contralateral cancers occurring within 2–23 months of first cancer diagnosis may more likely be metastatic/recurrent disease and those occurring 2 or more years after diagnosis independent primaries. Results Absolute risk of contralateral breast cancer was generally greater following IBC than regional/distant non-IBC, regardless of age and hormone receptor status of first cancer diagnosis. Much of the increase in absolute risk following IBC occurred within 2–23 months of first cancer diagnosis, while the risk for non-IBC occurred more gradually over time since diagnosis. For instance, among women first diagnosed before age 50, absolute risks following IBC and non-IBC were 4.9% vs. 1.1% at 2 years, 6.0% vs. 2.2% at 5 years, and 7.7% vs. 6.1% at 20 years after diagnosis. However, patterns of higher risk following IBC than non-IBC were also evident for at least 10–15 years in the subcohort of women who survived at least 24 months without a contralateral cancer. Conclusion Our results suggest that IBC has higher risk of cancer in the contralateral breast than comparably staged non-IBC, possibly due to both metastasic/recurrent disease and independent primaries. PMID:21390499

  9. Breast cancer risk and hormone receptor status in older women by parity, age of first birth, and breastfeeding: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Sarah J; Bernstein, Leslie; Johnson, Karen A; Malone, Kathleen E; McDonald, Jill A; Marchbanks, Polly A; Simon, Michael S; Strom, Brian L; Press, Michael F; Folger, Suzanne G; Burkman, Ronald T; Deapen, Dennis; Spirtas, Robert; Ursin, Giske

    2008-07-01

    Early age at first birth and multiparity reduce the risk of estrogen receptor-progesterone receptor (ERPR)-positive breast cancer, whereas breastfeeding reduces the risk of both ERPR-positive and ERPR-negative cancers. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to investigate whether age at first birth ( or =25 years) and breastfeeding (ever/never) modify the long-term effect of parity on risk of ERPR-positive and ERPR-negative cancer using 1,457 incident breast cancer cases and 1,455 controls ages > or =55 years who participated in the Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences Study. Women who gave birth before age 25 years had a 36% reduced risk of breast cancer compared with nulligravida that was not observed for women who started their families at an older age (P(heterogeneity) = 0.0007). This protective effect was restricted to ERPR-positive breast cancer (P(heterogeneity) = 0.004). Late age at first birth increased the risk of ERPR-negative cancers. Additional births reduced the risk of ERPR-positive cancers among women with an early first birth (P(trend) = 0.0001) and among women who breastfed (P(trend) = 0.004) but not among older mothers or those who never breastfed. In women with a late first birth who never breastfed, multiparity was associated with increased risk of breast cancer. These findings suggest that the effect of parity on a woman's long-term risk of breast cancer is modified by age at first full-term pregnancy and possibly by breastfeeding.

  10. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  11. Novel Approaches to Breast Cancer Prevention and Inhibition of Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Using mouse genetics, we showed that RANKL and its receptor RANK are critical regulators of sex hormone and BRCA1 mutation-driven breast cancer...into breast cancer patients and controls due to self reporting and histological examination. We have tested differences in RANKL, OPG and RANKL/OPG...organisms and repairable mutagenesis with in vivo mouse genetics and human cohort studies to functionally characterize candidate breast cancer genes

  12. Oncotype Dx Results in Multiple Primary Breast Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Toole; Kidwell, Kelley M.; Catherine Van Poznak

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine whether multiple primary breast cancers have similar genetic profiles, specifically Oncotype Dx Recurrence Scores, and whether obtaining Oncotype Dx on each primary breast cancer affects chemotherapy recommendations. METHODS A database of patients with hormone receptor-positive, lymph node-negative, breast cancer was created for those tumors that were sent for Oncotype Dx testing from the University of Michigan Health System from 1/24/2005 to 2/25/2013. Retrospective char...

  13. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflamma- tory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen or aspirin reduces this inflammatory response and, possibly, postpartum breast...involution with systemic ibuprofen or aspirin did not interrupt mammary epithelial cell regression that normally occurs during this period These data... children of immigrant stress, and social desirability bias. Preliminary data suggest that breast cancer survivors, notably racial/ethnic minorities

  14. Lymphedema after breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Ziani, Fatima Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Image in medicine Lymphedema is one of the most significant survivorship issues after the surgical treatment of breast cancer and in this population it has been documented to have significant quality...

  15. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Breast Cancer Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  16. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared......, and in women giving birth to boys. These findings, however, did not reach statistical significance. Finally, risk reduction was slightly greater following milder forms of preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: Our data is compatible with an approximately 20% reduction in risk of developing breast cancer following...

  17. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Eiliv

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1 triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3. Methods We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II, European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, Multiethnic Cohort (MEC, Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Women's Health Study (WHS. Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Results Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Conclusion Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians.

  18. Pregnancy and its role in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Correia Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Early full-term pregnancy is the only recognized factor able to prevent breast cancer. There are several hypotheses to explain the mechanisms of this protection, namely an altered hormonal milieu, a differentiation process or a switch in stem cell properties. To explore them, authors have been using animal models, mainly in rodents. Hormonal administration with estrogen and progesterone was the most widely used process to mimic the mammary changes during pregnancy. We have recently proposed that this enigmatic protective role of a full-term birth in breast cancer is carried out by tumor inhibition mediated by differentiated mammary epithelial cells. This explanation may give a new perspective of breast cancer prevention and treatment.

  19. Inherited and acquired alterations in development of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzolo P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Piera Rizzolo, Valentina Silvestri, Mario Falchetti, Laura OttiniDepartment of Molecular Medicine, "La Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, accounting for about 30% of all cancers. In contrast, breast cancer is a rare disease in men, accounting for less than 1% of all cancers. Up to 10% of all breast cancers are hereditary forms, caused by inherited germ-line mutations in "high-penetrance," "moderate-penetrance," and "low-penetrance" breast cancer susceptibility genes. The remaining 90% of breast cancers are due to acquired somatic genetic and epigenetic alterations. A heterogeneous set of somatic alterations, including mutations and gene amplification, are reported to be involved in the etiology of breast cancer. Promoter hypermethylation of genes involved in DNA repair and hormone-mediated cell signaling, as well as altered expression of micro RNAs predicted to regulate key breast cancer genes, play an equally important role as genetic factors in development of breast cancer. Elucidation of the inherited and acquired genetic and epigenetic alterations involved in breast cancer may not only clarify molecular pathways involved in the development and progression of breast cancer itself, but may also have an important clinical and therapeutic impact on improving the management of patients with the disease.Keywords: breast cancer, inherited susceptibility, acquired alterations, epigenetics

  20. Melatonin, an inhibitory agent in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooshinfar, Elaheh; Safaroghli-Azar, Ava; Bashash, Davood; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of breast cancer makes it one of the most challenging cancers to treat. Due to the stimulatory effect of estrogen in mammary cancer progression, anti-estrogenic agents like melatonin have found their way into breast cancer treatment. Further studies confirmed a reverse correlation between nocturnal melatonin levels and the development of mammary cancer. In this study we reviewed the molecular inhibitory effects of melatonin in breast cancer therapy. To open access the articles, Google scholar and science direct were used as a motor search. We used from valid external and internal databases. To reach the search formula, we determined mean key words like breast cancer, melatonin, cell proliferation and death. To retrieval the related articles, we continuously search the articles from 1984 to 2015. The relevance and the quality of the 480 articles were screened; at least we selected 80 eligible articles about melatonin molecular mechanism in breast cancer. The results showed that melatonin not only inhibits breast cancer cell growth, but also is capable of inhibiting angiogenesis, cancer cell invasion, and telomerase activity. Interestingly this hormone is able to induce apoptosis through the suppression or induction of a wide range of signaling pathways. Moreover, it seems that the concomitant administration of melatonin with other conventional chemotherapy agents had beneficial effects for patients with breast cancer, by alleviating unfavorable effects of those agents and enhancing their efficacy. The broad inhibitory effects of melatonin in breast cancer make it a promising agent and may add it to the list of potential drugs in treatment of this cancer.

  1. Women's health, breast health: a review of the gynecologic effects of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mindy; O'Hair, Kim

    2009-07-01

    Breast cancer is very common and seen in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Research into prevention, better screening, and more effective treatments is occurring continually, and changes are translated into clinical practice relatively quickly. It is important for women's health care providers to have an understanding of breast cancer treatments and the gynecologic side effects. For premenopausal women interested in fertility, options should be discussed prior to chemotherapy. Issues pertaining to pregnancy after breast cancer should be discussed in a multidisciplinary fashion, involving the obstetrician/gynecologist, breast surgeon, and oncologist. Ovarian suppression is often used as part of breast cancer treatment in premenopausal women with hormone positive disease, and menopausal symptoms may be severe. Hormonal therapies including tamoxifen and the aromatase inhibitors are used in the treatment of hormone positive breast cancers. Each of these drugs has a variety of gynecologic implications. Understanding the options for treatment for menopausal complaints in breast cancer patients is important for women's health providers. Although most breast cancers are sporadic, a small percentage will be due to mutations in the BRCA genes. It is important for women's health providers to take an appropriate family history and refer to genetic counselors for possible testing when hereditary cancer is suspected. This review focuses on the various women's health issues pertaining to breast cancer and treatment.

  2. Receptor conversion in distant breast cancer metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, L.D.C.

    2013-01-01

    The routine pathological work-up of breast cancer includes the evaluation of the estrogen receptor (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) which reveals biological information about the tumour as well as provides predictive biomarkers regarding hormonal

  3. [Pregnancy and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Torres, Nicolás; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2013-01-01

    association of breast cancer and pregnancy is not common. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the pregnancy, young age, stage, treatment, prognosis and mortality of women with breast cancer during pregnancy. retrospective analysis from March 1992 to February 2009, 16 patients were included with breast cancer and pregnancy. They were analized: histological characteristic of tumor, therapeutic response of the oncological treatment, evolution of the pregnancy. From of baby born: Apgar and weight. The woman's mortality with breast cancer during pregnancy was evaluated for age group and for interval of time between late pregnancy and diagnosis posterior of breast cancer and pregnancy. characteristic predominant clinicohistological: stage III (81.2%), T3-T4 (75%), N+ 93.7%, invasive ductal carcinoma (87.5%), histological grade 2-3 (93.7%), receptor estrogeno positive (43.7%); RPpositive (25%); HER-2/neu positive (31.2%). 27 chemotherapy cycles were applied with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide during the second or third trimester of the pregnancy, there were not severe adverse effects for the mothers and the baby born exposed to chemotherapy. The mean time to disease recurrence was 18.8 months (range, 6-62 months). The rate of mortality for specific age (breast cancer and pregnancy.

  4. Flax and Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Gillian; Fritz, Heidi; Balneaves, Lynda G; Verma, Shailendra; Skidmore, Becky; Fernandes, Rochelle; Kennedy, Deborah; Cooley, Kieran; Wong, Raimond; Sagar, Stephen; Fergusson, Dean; Seely, Dugald

    2014-05-01

    Flax is a food and dietary supplement commonly used for menopausal symptoms. Flax is known for its lignan, α-linolenic acid, and fiber content, components that may possess phytogestrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and hormone modulating effects, respectively. We conducted a systematic review of flax for efficacy in improving menopausal symptoms in women living with breast cancer and for potential impact on risk of breast cancer incidence or recurrence. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and AMED from inception to January 2013 for human interventional or observational data pertaining to flax and breast cancer. Of 1892 records, we included a total of 10 studies: 2 randomized controlled trials, 2 uncontrolled trials, 1 biomarker study, and 5 observational studies. Nonsignificant (NS) decreases in hot flash symptomatology were seen with flax ingestion (7.5 g/d). Flax (25 g/d) increased tumor apoptotic index (Pflax or 50 mg secoisolariciresinol diglycoside daily. Observational data suggests associations between flax and decreased risk of primary breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69-0.97), better mental health (AOR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.05-2.94), and lower mortality (multivariate hazard ratio = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.50-0.95) among breast cancer patients. Current evidence suggests that flax may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. Flax demonstrates antiproliferative effects in breast tissue of women at risk of breast cancer and may protect against primary breast cancer. Mortality risk may also be reduced among those living with breast cancer. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Ectopic breasts: familial functional axillary breasts and breast cancer arising in an axillary breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osswald, Sandra S; Osswald, Michael B; Elston, Dirk M

    2011-06-01

    Supernumerary breasts and nipples are not uncommon and have familial and syndrome associations. Although usually of only cosmetic concern, hormonal changes and inflammatory or neoplastic conditions that affect primary breast tissue also may occur in areas of ectopic breast tissue. We describe cases of familial functional axillary breasts and primary carcinoma of the breast arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue.

  6. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  7. Radiation as a cause of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Silverstone, S.M.

    1976-09-01

    The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening.

  8. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  9. Bilateral Synchronous Male Breast Cancer in Iran: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zangouri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral synchronous male breast cancer is very rare. A 63-year-old male presented with rapidly progressive enlarging bilateral breast masses without ulceration and bloody nipple discharge. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Pathology study revealed grade 2 invasive ductal carcinoma in both breasts. He underwent a bilateral modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormone therapy. The importance of this case report is to create increased attention to the fact that, although rare, breast cancer can occur in males. Early presentation and compliance with treatment modality provide a better outcome.

  10. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Johanna M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Adang, Eddy M.; Otten, Johannes D.; Verbeek, André L.; Broeders, Mireille J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to

  11. Expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneyte, Ian F.; Kristel, Petra M. P.; Maliepaard, Marc; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is involved in in vitro multidrug resistance and was first identified in the breast cancer cell line MCF7/AdrVp. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BCRP in resistance of breast cancer to anthracycline treatment. EXPERIMENTAL

  12. Breast cancer and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabben, Laura; Mueller, Michel D

    2017-08-29

    Background In the past decades the incidence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) increased. Possible explanations are the trend to postpone childbearing and the general increase in the incidence of breast cancer. Materials and methods A sytematic review of the literature was performed with the aim to report on incidence, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of breast cancer during pregnancy. We also cover the issue of pregnancy following a diagnosis of breast cancer including fertility preservation and prognosis. Results Ultrasound is the imaging method of choice in pregnancy, but mammography can also be performed as the fetal irradiation dose is low. To avoid a delay in diagnosis every sonographic mass in pregnant women which does not clearly correspond to a cyst needs further investigation by biopsy. Treatment should follow as close as possible the guidelines for non-pregnant patients. Administration of chemotherapy is possible after the first trimester. There is a large body of evidence for the use of anthracyclines. In contrast radiotherapy, trastuzumab and antihormonal treatment by tamoxifen are contraindicated during pregnancy. Pregnancy does not seem to influence prognosis. Most adverse obstetric outcomes are related to preterm delivery, which should therefore, whenever possible, be avoided. Young patients with breast cancer and incomplete family planning should be referred for counseling about fertility preservation options before the initiation of adjuvant treatment. A pregnancy following breast cancer does not have a negative impact on prognosis. Conclusion Multidisciplinary management of women with breast cancer in pregnancy is mandatory and data should be collected to allow further improvement in management.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of extended adjuvant endocrine therapy in the treatment of post-menopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erman, Aysegul; Nugent, Arlene; Amir, Eitan; Coyte, Peter C

    2014-06-01

    Five years of Tamoxifen (Standard TAM) is a common treatment option for early-stage, hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC). Extending Standard TAM by 5 additional years (Extended TAM) can improve survival and BC recurrences. In postmenopausal women, the use of extended aromatase inhibitors (Extended AI) after Standard TAM is an alternative to Extended TAM. This study examines the cost-effectiveness (CE) of extending Standard TAM with Extended TAM vs. Extended AI in postmenopausal HR+ early-stage BC patients. Three treatments were assessed: (1) Standard TAM; (2) Extended TAM; (3) Extended AI through a Markov model using a Canadian health system perspective, lifetime time-horizon, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and a 5 % discount rate for future costs and utilities. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated, and the impact of parameter uncertainty was assessed through probabilistic sensitivity analyses (SA) using conventional CE thresholds. The estimated total per person costs in 2012 Canadian dollars [$1.00 CAD = $0.99 US 2012] were the least for Extended TAM ($8,623 CAD) and most for Extended AI ($9,432 CAD). Extended AI was the most effective regimen, while Standard TAM was the least. Extended AI was cost-effective at conventional thresholds vs. Extended TAM (ICER: $3,402 CAD/QALY) which was robust to the SA. This study suggests that Extended AI and Extended TAM result in improved QALYs and lower healthcare costs vs Standard TAM. Extended AI results in the greatest improvement in QALYs and is the most cost-effective treatment alternative despite its higher drug costs.

  14. Dissecting the Biological Heterogeneity within Hormone Receptor Positive HER2 Negative Breast Cancer by Gene Expression Markers Identifies Indolent Tumors within Late Stage Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi S Prabhu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hormone receptor positive (HR+ breast cancers are a heterogeneous class with differential prognosis. Although more than half of Indian women present with advanced disease, many such patients do well. We have attempted identification of biologically indolent tumors within HR+HER2- tumors based on gene expression using histological grade as a guide to tumor aggression. 144 HR+HER2- tumors were divided into subclasses based on scores derived by using transcript levels of multiple genes representing survival, proliferation, and apoptotic pathways and compared to classification by Ki-67 labeling index (LI. Clinical characters and disease free survival were compared between the subclasses. The findings were independently validated in the METABRIC data set. Using the previously established estrogen receptor (ER down stream activity equation, 20% of the tumors with greater than 10% HR positivity by immunohistochemistry (IHC were still found to have inadequate ER function. A tumor aggression probability score was used to segregate the remainder of tumors into indolent (22% and aggressive (58% classes. Significant difference in disease specific survival was seen between the groups (P = .02. Aggression probability based subclassification had a higher hazard ratio and also independent prognostic value (P < .05. Independent validation of the gene panel in the METABRIC data set showed all 3 classes; indolent (24%, aggressive (68%, and insufficient ER signaling (7% with differential survival (P = .01. In agreement with other recent reports, biologically indolent tumors can be identified with small sets of gene panels and these tumors exist in a population with predominantly late stage disease.

  15. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  16. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk with your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  17. Progress in breast cancer: overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-01-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer...

  18. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, D.J. van; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Westenberg, A.H.; Wilt, J.H. de; Blanken-Peeters, C.F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This

  19. Adenoid cystic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenathan, James H; de la Roza, Gustavo

    2002-06-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare type of breast cancer that is generally reported in individual case reports or as series from major referral centers. To characterize early diagnostic criteria for adenoid cystic carcinoma and to determine whether breast-preserving surgery with radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for eradicating the disease, we reviewed clinical records of a large series of patients treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast at a large health maintenance organization (HMO) that includes primary care facilities and referral centers. Using the data bank of the Northern California Cancer Registry of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Region (KPNCR), we retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. Follow-up also was done for these patients. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast was diagnosed in 22 of 27,970 patients treated for breast cancer at KPNCR from 1960 through 2000. All 22 patients were female and were available for follow-up. Mean age of patients at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 37 to 94 years). In 17 (77%) of the women, a lump in the breast led to initial suspicion of a tumor; in 4 (23%) of the 22 patients, mammography led to suspicion of a tumor. Median tumor size was 20 mm. Pain was a prominent symptom. Surgical management evolved from radical and modified radical mastectomy to simple mastectomy or lumpectomy during the study period, during which time 1 patient died of previous ordinary ductal carcinoma of the contralateral breast, and 7 died of unrelated disease. At follow-up, 12 of the 13 remaining patients were free of disease; 1 patient died of the disease; and 1 patient remained alive despite late occurrence of lymph node and pulmonary metastases. Whether breast-preserving surgery with radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for treating adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast has not been determined.

  20. UTX promotes hormonally responsive breast carcinogenesis through feed-forward transcription regulation with estrogen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, G; Liu, X; Zhang, Y; Li, W; Liu, S; Chen, Z; Xu, B; Yang, J; He, L; Zhang, Z; Jin, T; Yi, X; Sun, L; Shang, Y; Liang, J

    2017-09-28

    UTX is implicated in embryonic development and lineage specification. However, how this X-linked histone demethylase contributes to the occurrence and progression of breast cancer remains to be clarified. Here we report that UTX is physically associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and functions in ER-regulated transcription. We showed that UTX coordinates with JHDM1D and CBP to direct H3K27 methylation-acetylation transition and to create a permissive chromatin state on ER targets. Genome-wide analysis of the transcriptional targets of UTX by ChIP-seq identified a set of genes such as chemokine receptor CXCR4 that are intimately involved in breast cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis. We demonstrated that UTX promotes the proliferation and migration of ER(+) breast cancer cells. Interestingly, UTX itself is transactivated by ER, forming a feed-forward loop in the regulation of hormone response. Indeed, UTX is upregulated during ER(+) breast cancer progression, and the expression level of UTX is positively correlated with that of CXCR4 and negatively correlated with the overall survival of ER(+) breast cancer patients. Our study identified a feed-forward loop between UTX and ER in the regulation of hormonally responsive breast carcinogenesis, supporting the pursuit of UTX as an emerging therapeutic target for the intervention of certain ER(+) breast cancer with specific epigenetic vulnerability.

  1. Effect of infertility treatment and pregnancy-related hormones on breast cell proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Anne; Matthews, Laura; Zelivianski, Stanislav; Hardy, Ashley; Jeruss, Jacqueline S

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer development involves a series of mutations in a heterogeneous group of proto-oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes that alter mammary cells to create a microenvironment permissive to tumorigenesis. Exposure to hormones during infertility treatment may have a mutagenic effect on normal mammary epithelial cells, high-risk breast lesions and early-stage breast cancers. Our goal was to understand the association between infertility treatment and normal and cancerous breast cell proliferation. MCF-10A normal mammary cells and the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 [estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, well differentiated] and HCC 1937 (ER-negative, aggressive, BRCA1 mutation) were treated with the weak ER activator clomiphene citrate and hormones that are increased during infertility treatment. Direct effects of treatment on cell proliferation and colony growth were determined. While clomiphene citrate had no effect on MCF-10A cells or MCF-7 breast cancer cells, it decreased proliferation of HCC 1937 versus untreated cells (P= 0.003). Estrogen had no effect on either MCF-10A or HCC 1937 cells but, as expected, increased cell proliferation (20-100 nM; P≤0.002) and colony growth (10-30 nM; Pinfertility regimens on ER-positive breast cancer cells and validate the potential protective effect of pregnancy-related exposure to hCG.

  2. Kindness Interventions in Enhancing Well-Being in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  3. Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-17

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  4. [Trisomy 21 and breast cancer: A genetic abnormality which protects against breast cancer?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel-Billard, C; Cordier, C; Tomasetto, C; Jégu, J; Mathelin, C

    2016-04-01

    Trisomy 21 (T21) is the most common chromosomal abnormality and one of the main causes of intellectual disability. The tumor profile of T21 patients is characterized by the low frequency of solid tumors including breast cancer. The objective of this work was to analyze the literature to find possible clues for the low frequency of breast cancer in T21 persons with a focus on one hand to the various risks and protective factors against breast cancer for women T21, and on the other hand to changes in the expression of different genes located on chromosome 21. T21 women have hormonal and societal risk factors for breast cancer: frequent nulliparity, lack of breastfeeding, physical inactivity and high body mass index. The age of menopause, earlier in T21 women, has a modest protective effect against breast cancer. The low rate of breast tumors in T21 women is probably mainly linked to the reduced life expectancy compared to the general population (risk of death before the age of onset of the majority of breast cancers) and the presence of a third chromosome 21, characterizing the disease. It might lead to the increased expression of a number of genes contributing directly or undirectly to tumor suppression, decreased tumor angiogenesis and increased cell apoptosis. Moreover, changes in the mammary stroma of persons T21 could have an inhibitory role on the development of breast tumors. The low frequency of breast cancers for T21 patients may not only be explained by hormonal and societal factors, but also by genetic mechanisms which could constitute an interesting axis of research in breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Five new cases of breast cancer in transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, L; Bowers, M; Lips, P; Konings, I R

    2015-12-01

    Cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people may be associated with the induction and growth stimulation of hormone-related malignancies. We report here five cases of breast cancer, three in female-to-male (FtoM) transsexual subjects and two in male-to-female (MtoF) transsexual subjects. In the general population the incidence of breast cancer increases with age and with duration of exposure to sex hormones. This pattern was not recognised in these five transsexual subjects. Tumours occurred at a relatively young age (respectively, 48, 41, 41, 52 and 46 years old) and mostly after a relatively short span of time of cross-sex hormone treatment (9, 9-10 but in one after 30 years). Occurrence of breast cancer was rare. As has been reported earlier, breast tumours may occur in residual mammary tissue after breast ablation in FtoM transsexual people. For adequate treatment and decisions on further cross-sex hormone treatment it is important to have information on the staging and histology of the breast tumour (type, grade and receptor status), with an upcoming role for the androgen receptor status, especially in FtoM transsexual subjects with breast cancer who receive testosterone administration. This information should be taken into account when considering further cross-sex hormone treatment. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Lifestyle factors and breast cancer in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkinen, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in Finland. It is often considered as a disease of affluent, Western societies with many known risk factors such as late age at first birth, small number of children, and sedentary lifestyle, among others. In addition, there are more novel exposures that are popular in modern Western societies and carry suspected carcinogenic potential, including use of hormonal contraceptives and use of cosmetics, such as hair dyes. The aim of the thesis was t...

  7. Breast Density and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Lebanese Population: Results from a Retrospective Multicenter Study

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Christine; Atallah, David; Safi, Joelle; Chahine, Georges; Haddad, Antoine; El Kassis, Nadine; Maalouly, Laura-Maria; Moubarak, Malak; Dib, Mary; Ghossain, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To study the distribution of breast mammogram density in Lebanese women and correlate it with breast cancer (BC) incidence. Methods Data from 1,049 women who had screening or diagnostic mammography were retrospectively reviewed. Age, menopausal status, contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), parity, breastfeeding, history of BC, breast mammogram density, and final BI-RADS assessment were collected. Breast density was analyzed in each age category and compared according t...

  8. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304810789

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may

  9. Clinical proteomics in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gast, M.C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer imposes a significant healthcare burden on women worldwide. Early detection is of paramount importance in reducing mortality, yet the diagnosis of breast cancer is hampered by a lack of adequate detection methods. In addition, better breast cancer prognostication may improve selection

  10. Breast cancer in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of these, 27. (25.2%) were aged 60 years ... and physician vigilance are keys to early detection and treatment of breast cancer in the elderly. INTRODUCTION ..... Law TM, Hesketli PJ, Porter KA, Lawn-Tsao L,. McAxiaw R and Lopez MJ. Breast cancer in eld ...

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage 0-IIB Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  13. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and radiotherapy after delivery. Even though early stage breast cancers have similar prognosis, advanced stage breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation have poorer prognosis than similar stage breast cancers diagnosed in non-pregnant women. Women who desire to become pregnant after treatment of breast cancer will have many conflicts. Although the most common concern is recurrence of breast cancer due to pregnancy, the studies conducted showed that pregnancy has no negative effect on breast cancer prognosis. In this review we search for the frequency of breast cancer during pregnancy, the histopathological findings, risk factor, diagnostic and treatment modalities. We reviewed the literature for evidence based findings to help consult the patients on the outcome of breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation, and also inform the patients who desire to become pregnant after breast cancer according to current evidences. PMID:24592003

  14. Obesity-associated Breast Cancer: Analysis of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    Several studies show that a significantly stronger association is obvious between increased body mass index (BMI) and higher breast cancer incidence. Furthermore, obese women are at higher risk of all-cause and breast cancer specific mortality when compared to non-obese women with breast cancer. In this context, increased levels of estrogens due to excessive aromatization activity of the adipose tissue, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, hyperactivation of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) pathways, adipocyte-derived adipokines, hypercholesterolemia and excessive oxidative stress contribute to the development of breast cancer in obese women. While higher breast cancer risk with hormone replacement therapy is particularly evident among lean women, in postmenopausal women who are not taking exogenous hormones, general obesity is a significant predictor for breast cancer. Moreover, increased plasma cholesterol leads to accelerated tumor formation and exacerbates their aggressiveness. In contrast to postmenopausal women, premenopausal women with high BMI are inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Nevertheless, life-style of women for breast cancer risk is regulated by avoiding the overweight and a high-fat diet. Estrogen-plus-progestin hormone therapy users for more than 5 years have elevated risks of both invasive ductal and lobular breast cancer. Additionally, these cases are more commonly node-positive and have a higher cancer-related mortality. Collectively, in this chapter, the impacts of obesity-related estrogen, cholesterol, saturated fatty acid, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, aromatase activity, leptin and insulin resistance on breast cancer patients are evaluated. Obesity-related prognostic factors of breast cancer also are discussed at molecular basis.

  15. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Schock, Helena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lehtinen, Matti; Pukkala, Eero; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Tanner, Minna; Kallio, Raija; Joensuu, Heikki; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva; Surcel, Helja-Marja

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy, parity, and circulating steroid hormone levels are associated with risk of breast cancer, but little is known about hormone concentrations during pregnancy and subsequent breast cancer risk. We evaluated early pregnancy (breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study in the Finnish Maternity Cohort. The cohort includes 98% of pregnancies registered in Finland since 1983. Individuals with samples collected in the first pregnancy leading to a live birth were eligible. Breast cancer cases (n = 1,199) were identified through linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry; 2,281 matched controls were selected using incidence density sampling. ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Hormone concentrations were not associated with breast cancer overall. Estradiol was positively associated with risk of breast cancer diagnosed age breast cancer diagnosed at age ≥40 [4th vs. 1st quartile OR 0.71 (0.51-1.00); Ptrend = 0.02]. Elevated concentrations of the steroid hormones were associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative tumors in women age pregnancy steroid hormones and risk of ER(-)/PR(-) breast cancer in women diagnosed age breast cancer diagnosed age ≥40. Further research on pregnancy hormones and risk of steroid receptor-negative cancers is needed to further characterize this association. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Prognosis of metastatic breast cancer: are there differences between patients with de novo and recurrent metastatic breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, D J A; van Kampen, R J W; Voogd, A C; Dercksen, M W; van den Berkmortel, F; Smilde, T J; van de Wouw, A J; Peters, F P J; van Riel, J M G H; Peters, N A J B; de Boer, M; Peer, P G M; Tjan-Heijnen, V C G

    2015-04-28

    We aimed to determine the prognostic impact of time between primary breast cancer and diagnosis of distant metastasis (metastatic-free interval, MFI) on the survival of metastatic breast cancer patients. Consecutive patients diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer in 2007-2009 in eight hospitals in the Southeast of the Netherlands were included and categorised based on MFI. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the prognostic impact of de novo metastatic breast cancer vs recurrent metastatic breast cancer (MFI ⩽24 months and >24 months), adjusted for age, hormone receptor and HER2 status, initial site of metastasis and use of prior (neo)adjuvant systemic therapy. Eight hundred and fifteen patients were included and divided in three subgroups based on MFI; 154 patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer, 176 patients with MFI 24 months. Patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer had a prolonged survival compared with patients with recurrent metastatic breast cancer with MFI 24 months (median, 29.4 vs 27.9 months, P=0.73). Adjusting for other prognostic factors, patients with MFI 24 months with de novo metastatic breast cancer no significant difference in mortality risk was found. The association between MFI and survival was seen irrespective of use of (neo)adjuvant systemic therapy. Patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer had a significantly better outcome when compared with patients with MFI 24 months, patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer had similar outcome.

  17. Soy food consumption and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourouti, Niki; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in female worldwide and occurs as an interaction of genes and diet. As regards diet numerous studies all over the world have associated the disease with many foods and nutrients including soy and its compounds. Soy food and soy products are rich in phytoestrogens, naturally occurring hormone-like compounds with weak estrogenic effects. Despite inconsistencies in the available data, an inverse association between soy food consumption and breast cancer is likely. However, it seems that this correlation is more obvious in Asian rather than Western populations, where the consumption of soy is already higher. Moreover, the vast majority of studies that demonstrate this inverse association are case-control studies, a fact that should be taken into account. In this review, the current scientific evidence relating breast cancer and soy consumption is reported through a systematic way. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How Can Cosmetics Cause Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Thrasher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are approximately 157 million women in America many of which use cosmetic products daily for anti-aging treatments and overall charismatic improvement in physical appearance. Breast cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer among women in America slightly trailing behind skin cancer. The research scientists oncologists and dermatologists of today have neglected the possible correlation between these cytologic illnesses and the daily behaviors of American women. This research paper is designed to promote awareness among American women and physicians so that modern women are educated on the role of their daily routine in breast cancer development. The integrity of cosmetic products is founded by common ingredients such as parabens retinol and even soy. The daily exposure of these potentially toxic substances can result in hormone imbalances mitotic disruptions genotoxic influences and collagen overproduction. Due to these circumstances the prognosis for most cosmetic-consuming modern women is grim in terms of breast carcinogenesis.

  19. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  20. Breast cancer in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, S.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Petri, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. Methods We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi......-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration. Results...... There were 86 SLE breast cancers and 4498 female SLE cancer-free controls. Patients were followed on average for 7.6 years. Versus controls, SLE breast cancer cases tended to be white and older. Breast cancer cases were similar to controls regarding anti-dsDNA positivity, disease activity, and most drug...

  1. Loss of steroid hormone receptors is common in malignant pleural and peritoneal effusions of breast cancer patients treated with endocrine therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, Willemijne A.M.E.; Schuurman, Karianne G.; Van Rossum, Annelot; Peeters, Ton; Hoeve, Natalie Ter; Zwart, Wilbert; van Diest, Paul J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075281775; Moelans, Cathy B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304810835; Linn, Sabine|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/166275549

    2017-01-01

    Discordance in estrogen receptor alpha (ERa), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor (AR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status between primary breast cancers and solid distant metastases ("conversion") has been reported previously. Even though metastatic spread to the

  2. A locus on 19p13 modifies risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is associated with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary S

    2010-01-01

    ) = 0.83, 95% CI 0.75-0.92, P(trend) = 0.0003) and an association with estrogen receptor-positive disease in the opposite direction (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14, P(trend) = 0.016). The five SNPs were also associated with triple-negative breast cancer in a separate study of 2,301 triple-negative cases...

  3. Population Attributable Risk of Modifiable and Nonmodifiable Breast Cancer Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Rulla M; Spiegelman, Donna; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Wang, Molin; Pazaris, Mathew; Willett, Walter C; Eliassen, A Heather; Hunter, David J

    2016-12-15

    We examined the proportions of multiple types of breast cancers in the population that were attributable to established risk factors, focusing on behaviors that are modifiable at menopause. We estimated the full and partial population attributable risk percentages (PAR%) by combining the relative risks and the observed prevalence rates of the risk factors of interest. A total of 8,421 cases of invasive breast cancer developed in postmenopausal women (n = 121,700) in the Nurses' Health Study from 1980-2010. We included the following modifiable risk factors in our analyses: weight change since age 18 years, alcohol consumption, physical activity level, breastfeeding, and menopausal hormone therapy use. Additionally, the following nonmodifiable factors were included: age, age at menarche, height, a combination of parity and age at first birth, body mass index at age 18 years, family history of breast cancer, and prior benign breast disease. When we considered all risk factors (and controlled for age), the PAR% for invasive breast cancers was 70.0% (95% confidence interval: 55.0, 80.7). When considering only modifiable factors, we found that changing the risk factor profile to the lowest weight gain, no alcohol consumption, high physical activity level, breastfeeding, and no menopausal hormone therapy use was associated with a PAR% of 34.6% (95% confidence interval: 22.7, 45.4). The PAR% for modifiable factors was higher for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers (PAR% = 39.7%) than for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers (PAR% = 27.9%). Risk factors that are modifiable at menopause account for more than one-third of postmenopausal breast cancers; therefore, a substantial proportion of breast cancer in the United States is preventable. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Environmental chemical exposures and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stanley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a hormone-sensitive condition with no single identifiable cause, breast cancer is a major health problem. It is characterized by a wide range of contributing factors and exposures occurring in different combinations and strengths across a lifetime that may be amplified during periods of enhanced developmental susceptibility and impacted by reproductive patterns and behaviours. The vast majority of cases are oestrogen-receptor positive and occur in women with no family history of the disease suggesting that modifiable risk factors are involved. A substantial body of evidence now links oestrogen-positive breast cancer with environmental exposures. Synthetic chemicals capable of oestrogen mimicry are characteristic of industrial development and have been individually and extensively assessed as risk factors for oestrogen-sensitive cancers. Existing breast cancer risk assessment tools do not take such factors into account. In the absence of consensus on causation and in order to better understand the problem of escalating incidence globally, an expanded, integrated approach broadening the inquiry into individual susceptibility breast cancer is proposed. Applying systems thinking to existing data on oestrogen-modulating environmental exposures and other oestrogenic factors characteristic of Westernisation and their interactions in the exposure, encompassing social, behavioural, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors, can assist in understanding cancer risks and the pursuit of prevention strategies. A new conceptual framework based on a broader understanding of the “system” that underlies the development of breast cancer over a period of many years, incorporating the factors known to contribute to breast cancer risk, could provide a new platform from which government and regulators can promulgate enhanced and more effective prevention strategies.

  5. [Synchronous bilateral breast cancer: experiences in the Mohammed VI Cancer Treatment Center, CHU Ibn Rochd, Casablanca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ahmadaye Ibrahim; Bendahhou, Karima; Mestaghanmi, Houriya; Saile, Rachid; Benider, Abdellatif

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous bilateral breast cancers (SBBC) are characterized by extensive clinical and morphological heterogeneity, with an frequency between 1.5 and 3.2%. Women treated for unilateral breast cancer are at higher risk of developing contralateral breast cancer. Screening and advances in breast imaging have improved detection rates of SBBC. Our study aims to analyze the epidemiological, clinical, histological and therapeutic features of bilateral breast cancer. We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with breast cancer treated at the Mohammed VI Center over a two year period. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using R. software. 31 patients had SBBC, representing 2.4% of breast cancer cases in our Center. The average age was 47.8 ± 8.4 years, 22.6% of patients used oral contraceptives. A family history of breast cancer was observed in 22.6% of cases. The most common histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma (58.1%), SBR grade II and III were common (38.7%). Hormone receptors were positive for progesterone (38.7%) and for estrogen (41.9%). HER2 was overexpressed in 20.0% of cases. 29.0% of patients received hormonal therapy and 3.2% targeted therapies. Our study showed that bilateral breast cancer represents a small percentage of all breast cancers but have specific clinical features that help to differentiate it from unilateral breast cancer.

  6. Pathology of hereditary breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    van der Groep, Petra; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 accounting for about 5% of all breast cancers. Other genes that include CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, STK11/LKB1, CDH1, NBS1, RAD50, BRIP1 and PALB2 have been described to be high or moderate penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes, all contributing to the hereditary breast cancer spe...

  7. Pregnancy-associated Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Ashley S

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer refers to breast cancer that is diagnosed during pregnancy or within the first postpartum year. The incidence is increasing as more women delay childbearing. Breast cancer can be safely diagnosed, staged, and treated during pregnancy while protecting the fetus and mother with excellent outcomes for both. Avoiding diagnostic delays is vital to prognosis. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, staging, management, and prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Relevant current literature is reviewed.

  8. Synergistic control of sex hormones by 17β-HSD type 7: a novel target for estrogen-dependent breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; Gérard, Catherine; Thériault, Jean-François; Poirier, Donald; Doillon, Charles J; Lin, Sheng-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) type 1 is known as a critical target to block the final step of estrogen production in estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Recent confirmation of the role of dyhydroxytestosterone (DHT) in counteracting estrogen-induced cell growth prompted us to study the reductive 17β-HSD type 7 (17β-HSD7), which activates estrone while markedly inactivating DHT. The role of DHT in breast cancer cell proliferation is demonstrated by its independent suppression of cell growth in the presence of a physiological concentration of estradiol (E2). Moreover, an integral analysis of a large number of clinical samples in Oncomine datasets demonstrated the overexpression of 17β-HSD7 in breast carcinoma. Inhibition of 17β-HSD7 in breast cancer cells resulted in a lower level of E2 and a higher level of DHT, successively induced regulation of cyclinD1, p21, Bcl-2, and Bik, consequently arrested cell cycle in the G(0)/G(1) phase, and triggered apoptosis and auto-downregulation feedback of the enzyme. Such inhibition led to significant shrinkage of xenograft tumors with decreased cancer cell density and reduced 17β-HSD7 expression. Decreased plasma E2 and elevated plasma DHT levels were also found. Thus, the dual functional 17β-HSD7 is proposed as a novel target for estrogen-dependent breast cancer by regulating the balance of E2 and DHT. This demonstrates a conceptual advance on the general belief that the major role of this enzyme is in cholesterol metabolism. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  10. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  11. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jennrich; Claus Schulte-Uebbing

    2016-01-01

    Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includ...

  12. Phytotherapy and Nutritional Supplements on Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent type of nonskin malignancy among women worldwide. In general, conventional cancer treatment options (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biological therapy, and hormone therapy are not completely effective. Recurrence and other pathologic situations are still an issue in breast cancer patients due to side effects, toxicity of drugs in normal cells, and aggressive behaviour of the tumours. From this point of view, breast cancer therapy and adjuvant methods represent a promising and challenging field for researchers. In the last few years, the use of some types of complementary medicines by women with a history of breast cancer has significantly increased such as phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements. Despite this, the use of such approaches in oncologic processes may be problematic and patient’s health risks can arise such as interference with the efficacy of standard cancer treatment. The present review gives an overview of the most usual phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements with application in breast cancer patients as adjuvant approach. Regardless of the contradictory results of scientific evidence, we demonstrated the need to perform additional investigation, mainly well-designed clinical trials in order to establish correlations and allow for further validated outcomes concerning the efficacy, safety, and clinical evidence-based recommendation of these products.

  13. Comparison of hormonal receptor and HER2 status between ultrasound-guided 14-gauge core needle biopsy and surgery in breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yun Joo; Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Ji; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the concordance of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) statuses between ultrasound (US)-guided 14-gauge core needle biopsy (CNB) and surgery and to analyze whether the clinicopathological and imaging features including those from mammography and ultrasonography can predict the concordance in breast cancer patients. The concordance of receptor status between CNB and surgery was assessed for 55 breast cancers in 55 women who underwent CNB before treatment. The clinicopathological and imaging features and the concordance rates were compared between the non-neoadjuvant chemotherapy (non-NAC) group and the NAC group according to the initial treatment. The concordance rates were analyzed according to the clinicopathological and imaging features, by using the chi-square or Fisher exact test and McNemar test for the categorical and the independent t-test for continuous variables. Among 55 women, 22 women (40%) were part of the non-NAC group and 33 women (60%) were part of the NAC group. The concordance rates were 0.86-1.00 in the non-NAC group and 0.76-0.88 in the NAC group. In all three receptors, the difference in the concordance rate between the two groups was not significant. In the NAC group, the absence of axillary lymph node metastasis (1.00, P=0.02) and visibility of cancer on mammography (0.93, P=0.04) showed the higher concordance of the HER2 status. Concordance of the receptor status between surgery and US-guided 14-gauge CNB was feasible in breast cancer patients. The absence of axillary lymph node metastasis after NAC and the visibility of cancer on mammography prior to NAC may be helpful for predicting the concordance of HER2 in breast cancer patients.

  14. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-08

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  15. Comprehensive Analysis of Hormone and Genetic Variation in 36 Genes Related to Steroid Hormone Metabolism in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, L.; Husing, A.; Setiawan, V. W.

    2011-01-01

    a pooled sample of 3852 pre- and postmenopausal Caucasian women from EPIC and NHS and 454 postmenopausal women from MEC.Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures were SHBG, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS), androstenedione, estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) as well as breast cancer risk...

  16. Budget impact analysis of everolimus for the treatment of hormone receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jipan; Diener, Melissa; De, Gourab; Yang, Hongbo; Wu, Eric Q; Namjoshi, Madhav

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the budget impact of everolimus as the first and second treatment option after letrozole or anastrozole (L/A) failure for post-menopausal women with hormone receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC). Pharmacy and medical budget impacts (2011 USD) were estimated over the first year of everolimus use in HR+, HER2- ABC from a US payer perspective. Epidemiology data were used to estimate target population size. Pre-everolimus entry treatment options included exemestane, fulvestrant, and tamoxifen. Pre- and post-everolimus entry market shares were estimated based on market research and assumptions. Drug costs were based on wholesale acquisition cost. Patients were assumed to be on treatment until progression or death. Annual medical costs were calculated as the average of pre- and post-progression medical costs weighted by the time in each period, adjusted for survival. One-way and two-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the model robustness. In a hypothetical 1,000,000 member plan, 72 and 159 patients were expected to be candidates for everolimus treatment as first and second treatment option, respectively, after L/A failure. The total budget impact for the first year post-everolimus entry was $0.044 per member per month [PMPM] (pharmacy budget: $0.058 PMPM; medical budget: -$0.014 PMPM), assuming 10% of the target population would receive everolimus. The total budget impacts for the first and second treatment options after L/A failure were $0.014 PMPM (pharmacy budget: $0.018; medical budget: -$0.004) and $0.030 PMPM (pharmacy budget: $0.040; medical budget: -$0.010), respectively. Results remained robust in sensitivity analyses. Assumptions about some model input parameters were necessary and may impact results. Increased pharmacy costs for HR+, HER2- ABC following everolimus entry are expected to be partially offset by reduced medical service costs. Pharmacy and total

  17. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  18. High fasting blood glucose and obesity significantly and independently increase risk of breast cancer death in hormone receptor-positive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicozzi, Pamela; Berrino, Franco; Sebastiani, Federica; Falcini, Fabio; Vattiato, Rosa; Cioccoloni, Francesca; Calagreti, Gioia; Fusco, Mario; Vitale, Maria Francesca; Tumino, Rosario; Sigona, Aurora; Budroni, Mario; Cesaraccio, Rosaria; Candela, Giuseppa; Scuderi, Tiziana; Zarcone, Maurizio; Campisi, Ildegarda; Sant, Milena

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of fasting blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis on risk of breast cancer death for cases diagnosed in five Italian cancer registries in 2003-2005 and followed up to the end of 2008. For 1607 Italian women (≥15 years) with information on BMI or blood glucose or diabetes, we analysed the risk of breast cancer death in relation to glucose tertiles (≤84.0, 84.1-94.0, >94.0 mg/dl) plus diabetic and unspecified categories; BMI tertiles (≤23.4, 23.5-27.3, >27.3 kg/m(2), unspecified), stage (T1-3N0M0, T1-3N+M0 plus T4anyNM0, M1, unspecified), oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) status (ER+PR+, ER-PR-, ER and PR unspecified, other), age, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, using multiple regression models. Separate models for ER+PR+ and ER-PR- cases were also run. Patients often had T1-3N0M0, ER+PR+ cancers and received chemotherapy or endocrine therapy; only 6% were M1 and 17% ER-PR-. Diabetic patients were older and had more often high BMI (>27 kg/m(2)), ER-PR-, M1 cancers than other patients. For ER+PR+ cases, with adjustment for other variables, breast cancer mortality was higher in women with high BMI than those with BMI 23.5-27.3 kg/m(2) (hazard ratio (HR)=2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-6.9). Breast cancer mortality was also higher in women with high (>94 mg/dl) blood glucose compared to those with glucose 84.1-94.0mg/dl (HR=2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.7). Our results provide evidence that in ER+PR+ patients, high blood glucose and high BMI are independently associated with increased risk of breast cancer death. Detection and correction of these factors in such patients may improve prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reproductive factors and breast cancer risk. Do they differ according to age at diagnosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Gerber, Mariette

    2002-01-01

    Studies yielding results on risk factors stratified by age at diagnosis or menopausal status were reviewed to better understand the role of hormonal factors and to determine whether reproductive events influence breast cancer risk differently according to age at diagnosis of breast cancer. Through a Medline/Pubmed search, 26 articles providing risk estimates by age at diagnosis of breast cancer or by menopausal status were analysed. A decrease of about 9% of breast cancer risk was found for e...

  20. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Savino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  1. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fissore MariaF

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  2. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  3. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  4. Cytokines, Neovascularization and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Rationale Angiogenesis is important in the growth and metastases of human breast cancer . We hypothesize that this process is under the control of...staining patern seen in invasive cancer , in situ cancer , and benign breast tissue. Note that staining was graded as the most intensly staining area. The...blocked, tumors do not grow or metastasize . The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that breast cancer cells are capable of participating in this

  5. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Fissore MariaF; Liguori StefaniaA; Savino Francesco; Oggero Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity,...

  6. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Savino; Stefania A. Liguori; Fissore, Maria F.; Roberto Oggero

    2009-01-01

    Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, ...

  7. Triple negative breast cancer: the role of metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, S J R; Rhodes, A

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of breast cancer in Malaysia and other Asian countries is on the increase, reflecting lifestyle changes some of which are known risk factors for the development of breast cancer. Most breast cancers are amenable to adjuvant therapies that target hormone receptors or HER2 receptors on the surface of the cancer cells and bring about significant improvement in survival. However, approximately 17% of Malaysian women with breast cancer, present with tumours that are devoid of these receptors and are consequently termed 'triple negative' breast cancers. These triple negative breast cancers typically occur in women of a younger age than receptor positive cancers, are predominantly of high grade tumours and the prognosis is usually poor. There is therefore a pressing need to understand the biological pathways that drive these tumours, in order that effective strategies are developed to treat these aggressive tumours. With the increasing affluence of developing countries, obesity and Type II Diabetes are also on the rise. These diseases are associated with an increased risk of developing a range of cancers including those of the breast. In particular, the metabolic syndrome has been shown to be associated with triple negative breast cancer. This article reviews some of the metabolic pathways and biomarkers which have been shown to be aberrantly expressed in triple negative breast cancer and highlights some of the ongoing work in this area.

  8. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  9. Exercise adherence in a randomized trial of exercise on aromatase inhibitor arthralgias in breast cancer survivors: the Hormones and Physical Exercise (HOPE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arem, Hannah; Sorkin, Mia; Cartmel, Brenda; Fiellin, Martha; Capozza, Scott; Harrigan, Maura; Ercolano, Elizabeth; Zhou, Yang; Sanft, Tara; Gross, Cary; Schmitz, Kathryn; Neogi, Tuhina; Hershman, Dawn; Ligibel, Jennifer; Irwin, Melinda L

    2016-08-01

    Up to 50 % of postmenopausal breast cancer survivors taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs) experience AI-associated arthralgias, or joint pain, which causes many to stop taking AIs and may inhibit exercise, despite known health benefits. We thus evaluated exercise adherence and factors associated with better exercise adherence in breast cancer survivors experiencing AI-induced arthralgia in the (HOPE) year long randomized controlled trial. We included 61 HOPE women randomized to exercise (150 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and twice-weekly supervised strength training). Our main outcomes were aerobic exercise measured with daily activity logs, attendance at supervised exercise sessions, and changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, measured maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). We examined means and standard deviations (SDs) for exercise adherence by demographic and medical characteristics and used the t test for mean differences. We also examined predictors of adherence using linear regression. On average, at the end of the year long trial, women reported 119 (SD 78) min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and participated in 70 % of supervised exercise training sessions. After adjustment for other factors that influence adherence, at 6 months postrandomization, only baseline VO2max was associated with higher aerobic exercise levels and at 12 months, only older age predicted better supervised exercise training attendance. Breast cancer survivors taking AIs and experiencing arthralgia are able to initiate and maintain a year long exercise program, regardless of other factors that influence activity levels. Breast cancer survivors can exercise at levels that have been shown to improve AI-associated arthralgia.

  10. Positron emission tomography of tumour [{sup 18}F]fluoroestradiol uptake in patients with acquired hormone-resistant metastatic breast cancer prior to oestradiol therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruchten, Michel van; Schroeder, Carolien P.; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de; Hospers, Geke A.P. [University of Groningen, Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen (Netherlands); Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Vries, Erik F.J. de [University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-10-15

    Whereas anti-oestrogen therapy is widely applied to treat oestrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer, paradoxically, oestrogens can also induce tumour regression. Up-regulation of ER expression is a marker for oestrogen hypersensitivity. We, therefore, performed an exploratory study to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) with the tracer 16α-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-17β-oestradiol ({sup 18}F-FES) as potential marker to select breast cancer patients for oestradiol therapy. Eligible patients had acquired endocrine-resistant metastatic breast cancer that progressed after ≥2 lines of endocrine therapy. All patients had prior ER-positive histology. Treatment consisted of oestradiol 2 mg, three times daily, orally. Patients underwent {sup 18}F-FES-PET/CT imaging at baseline. Tumour {sup 18}F-FES-uptake was quantified for a maximum of 20 lesions and expressed as maximum standardised uptake value (SUV{sub max}). CT-scan was repeated every 3 months to evaluate treatment response. Clinical benefit was defined as time to radiologic or clinical progression ≥24 weeks. {sup 18}F-FES uptake, quantified for 255 lesions in 19 patients, varied greatly between lesions (median 2.8; range 0.6-24.3) and between patients (median 2.5; range 1.1-15.5). Seven (37 %) patients experienced clinical benefit of oestrogen therapy, eight progressed (PD), and four were non-evaluable due to side effects. The positive and negative predictive value (PPV/NPV) of {sup 18}F-FES-PET for response to treatment were 60 % (95 % CI: 31-83 %) and 80 % (95 % CI: 38-96 %), respectively, using SUV{sub max} >1.5. {sup 18}F-FES-PET may aid identification of patients with acquired antihormone resistant breast cancer that are unlikely to benefit from oestradiol therapy. (orig.)

  11. Ribociclib with letrozole vs letrozole alone in elderly patients with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer in the randomized MONALEESA-2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonke, Gabe S; Hart, Lowell L; Campone, Mario; Erdkamp, Frans; Janni, Wolfgang; Verma, Sunil; Villanueva, Cristian; Jakobsen, Erik; Alba, Emilio; Wist, Erik; Favret, Anne M; Bachelot, Thomas; Hegg, Roberto; Wheatley-Price, Paul; Souami, Farida; Sutradhar, Santosh; Miller, Michelle; Germa, Caroline; Burris, Howard A

    2017-10-22

    Determine the efficacy and safety of first-line ribociclib plus letrozole in elderly patients with HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer. 668 postmenopausal women with HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer and no prior systemic therapy for advanced disease were enrolled in the Phase III MONALEESA-2 trial (NCT01958021); 295 patients were aged ≥ 65 years. Patients were randomized to ribociclib (600 mg/day; 3-weeks-on/1-week-off) plus letrozole (2.5 mg/day) or placebo plus letrozole until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, death, or treatment discontinuation. The primary endpoint was PFS, which was evaluated in elderly (≥ 65 years) and younger ( 10% more frequent in the ribociclib plus letrozole vs placebo plus letrozole arm in both subgroups; most events were grade 1/2. In elderly patients, grade 1/2 anemia and fatigue were > 10% more frequent in the ribociclib plus letrozole vs placebo plus letrozole arm and discontinuation rates were similar in both arms. Addition of ribociclib to letrozole is a valid therapeutic option for elderly patients with HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer in the first-line setting.

  12. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  13. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nodes . The axillary nodes are the first place breast cancer is likely to spread. During breast surgery, some ... if cancer cells are present. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. So, it is more ...

  14. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  15. Sex Steroid Hormones in Serum and Tissue of Benign and Malignant Breast Tumor Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam A. Mady

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of breast tumors to synthesize sex steroid hormones is well recognized and their local production is thought to play a role in breast cancer development and growth. The aim of this study was to estimate local intra-tumoral and circulating levels of Estrone (E1, Estrone Sulfate (E1S, Estradiol (E2, Estriol (E3, and Testosterone (T in 33 pre- and postmenopausal women with primary breast cancer in comparison to 12 pre- and postmenopausal women with benign breast tumors. The mean levels of the studied sex hormones were higher in serum and tumor tissue of breast cancer women than those with benign breast tumors apart from Testosterone which showed a significant decrease in pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer (P < 0.001 for follicular phase, P < 0.001 for luteal phase, and P < 0.001 for postmenopausal. The levels of the five hormones were significantly higher intra-tumoral than in serum of both benign and malignant breast tumor women with E1S as the predominant estrogen. There was only a positive significant correlation between serum and tumor tissue levels of E1 (rs = 0.52, P < 0.05 for follicular; rs = 0.63, P < 0.05 for luteal and rs = 0.58, P < 0.05 for postmenopausal and a significant correlation between serum and tumor tissue of T (rs = 0.64, P < 0.05 for follicular; rs = -0.51, P < 0.05 for luteal and rs = -0.81, P < 0.04 for postmenopausal.

  16. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two