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Sample records for breast cancer correlation

  1. US correlation for MRI-detected breast lesions in women with familial risk of breast cancer.

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    Sim, L.S.; Hendriks, J.H.C.L.; Bult, P.; Fook-Chong, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the value of US correlation for MRI-detected breast lesions in women with familial risk of breast cancer. METHODS: From an initial dataset of 245 women with positive family history who had breast cancer surveillance involving mammography or MRI between November 1994 and February 2001

  2. ZFX Overexpression in Breast Cancer Positively Correlates with Metastasis

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    Mahboube Ganji-Arjenaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the third most frequent cause of cancer death, breast cancer is a common disease worldwide. Most of the patients are being diagnosed in the stage that conventional treatments are not effective, and invasion and metastases lead to death. Therefore, identification of novel molecular markers to improve early diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of the breast cancer is a necessity. Zinc finger X-linked (ZFX gene is a member of ZFY family, which they upregulation has been demonstrated in several types of cancer. The aim of this study was to assess ZFX gene expression in Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues of the breast cancer invasive ductal carcinoma and to investigate its correlation with clinicopathological parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 52 tumor and non-tumor breast specimens were evaluated for ZFX gene expression using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Total RNA extraction was performed using RNeasy FFPE kit (Qiagene. complementary DNA (cDNA synthesis was performed using PrimeScript-RT Master Mix (Takara. The PCR mixture containing SYBR® Premix Ex Taq ™ II (Takara Bio Inc., Otsu, Japan, was run on the Rotor-gene 3000 (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany Results: The ZFX expression increased significantly in breast tumor tissues compared with non-tumor breast tissues. We further showed that there was a positive correlation between the ZFX gene expression level and lymphatic invasion. Conclusion: ZFX might be used as a potential biomarker to monitor breast carcinoma progression. Further studies to determine the mechanism of action of ZFX is needed to unravel the role of this gene in breast cancer pathogenesis.

  3. Correlations between diffusion-weighted imaging and breast cancer biomarkers

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    Martincich, Laura; Deantoni, Veronica; Bertotto, Ilaria; Liotti, Michele; Regge, Daniele [Unit of Radiology, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Redana, Stefania; Rossi, Valentina; Aglietta, Massimo; Montemurro, Filippo [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Division of Medical Oncology, Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Kubatzki, Franziska; Ponzone, Riccardo [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Division of Gynecological Oncology, Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Sarotto, Ivana [Unit of Pathology, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Candiolo, Turin (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    We evaluated whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) provided by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) varies according to biological features in breast cancer. DWI was performed in 190 patients undergoing dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for local staging. For each of the 192 index cancers we studied the correlation between ADC and classical histopathological and immunohistochemical breast tumour features (size, histological type, grade, oestrogen receptor [ER] and Ki-67 expression, HER2 status). ADC was compared with immunohistochemical surrogates of the intrinsic subtypes (Luminal A; Luminal B; HER2-enriched; triple-negative). Correlations were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. A weak, statistically significant correlation was observed between ADC values and the percentage of ER-positive cells (-0.168, P = 0.020). Median ADC values were significantly higher in ER-negative than in ER-positive tumours (1.110 vs 1.050 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, P = 0.015). HER2-enriched tumours had the highest median ADC value (1.190 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, range 0.950-2.090). Multiple comparisons showed that this value was significantly higher than that of Luminal A (1.025 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s [0.700-1.340], P = 0.004) and Luminal B/HER2-negative (1.060 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s [0.470-2.420], P = 0.008) tumours. A trend towards statistical significance (P = 0.018) was seen with Luminal B/HER2-positive tumours. ADC values vary significantly according to biological tumour features, suggesting that cancer heterogeneity influences imaging parameters. (orig.)

  4. Correlative Study on MRI Morphologic Features,Pathology, and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Chen; Shuigen Gong; Weiguo Zhang; Jinhua Chen; Shuangwu He; Baohua Liu; Zengpeng Li

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the correlation among MRI morphologic features,pathology, and molecular biology of breast cancer.METHORDS MRI was used to analyze the morphologic features of breast cancers of 78 patients before operation. The mastectomy specimens of the breast neoplasms were immunohistochemically stained, and the expression of the estrogen (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), C-erbB-2, P53, and the distribution of microvessel density (MVD) measured. The pathologic results were compared with the MRI features.RESULTS Among the 80 breast cancers, ER positive expression was positively correlated with the spicular contour of breast cancers (P<0.01),while showing a significant inverse correlation with the T-stage (P<0.05). CerbB-2 and P53 positive expression were positively correlated with the necrotic center of the cancers (P<0.05). The expression of PR was not significantly correlated with the spicular contour, obscure margin, necrotic center, and T-stage of these cancers (P>0.05). Among 41 breast cancers examined with dynamic contrast enhanced MR, there was a positive correlation between the spatial distribution of the contrast agent and MVD(P<0.01).CONCLUSION To a certain extent there is some correlation among the MRI morphologic features, pathology, and molecular biological factors in breast cancer. The biological behavior and prognosis of breast cancer can be assessed based on MRI features.

  5. What Is Breast Cancer?

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    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  6. CORRELATION BETWEEN SERUM HER-2 ONCOPROTEIN AND PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER

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    Peng Yuan; Bing-he Xu; Da-tong Chu

    2004-01-01

    Objective To detect serum HER-2 oncoprotein levels in patients with operable and metastatic breast cancers, and to study the correlations between serum HER-2 level and lymph node status as well as other clinical parameters.Methods A total of 120 women were studied consisting of 10 healthy volunteers, 31 benign breast disease, 53 operable breast cancer, and 26 metastatic breast cancer patients. The levels of serum HER-2 were measured using an enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results The mean serum HER-2 levels were 9.6 + 1.5 ng/mL in healthy volunteers, 11.9 + 1.6 ng/mL in benign breast disease, 13.2 + 4.2 ng/mL in operable breast cancer, and 30.5 + 30.8 ng/mL in metastatic breast cancer patients. The former is much lower than the latter three (P=0.02, 0.001, 0.03, respectively). If using 15 ng/mL as a normal baseline, elevated serum HER-2 levels were observed in none of the healthy volunteers as well as patients with benign disease, but in 18.9% (10/53)operable breast cancer patients and 61.5% (16/26) metastatic patients. In patients with operable breast cancer, there was a positive correlation between serum concentrations of HER-2 and the size of primary rumor (P < 0.05), whereas there was no correlation between serum concentration and axillary lymph node or estrogen receptor status. In patients with metastatic disease, there was no correlation with site of metastases (P > 0.05).Conclusion Serum HER-2 level was strongly correlated with rumor loads and clinical stages, thus acting as a promising predictor of cancer recurrence in breast cancer patients.

  7. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

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    Fahad A. Al-Amri

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ⩾50 years and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause <50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.

  8. Correlation between Twist expression and multidrug resistance of breast cancer cell lines

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    Yue-Xi Wang; Xiao-Mei Chen; Jun Yan; Zhi-Ping Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation between Twist expression and multidrug resistance of breast cancer cell lines. Methods:Human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, cisplatin-resistant human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7/DDP, doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7/Adr and taxol-resistant human breast cancer cell lines MCF/PTX were cultured, Twist in human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 was overexpressed and treated with doxorubicin, and then cell viability and expression levels of EMT marker molecules and related signaling pathway molecules were detected. Results:mRNA contents and protein contents of Twist in drug-resistant breast cancer cell lines MCF-7/DDP, MCF-7/Adr and MCF/PTX were higher than those in MCF-7 cell lines;after doxorubicin treatment, inhibitory rates of cell viability in MCF-7 cell lines were higher than those in MCF-7/Adr and MCF-7/Twist cell lines;E-cadherin expression levels in MCF-7/Adr cell lines and MCF-7/Twist cell lines were lower than those in MCF-7 cell lines, and mRNA contents and protein contents of N-cadherin, Vimentin, TGF-β, Smad, Wnt,β-catenin, TNF-αand NF-kB were higher than those in MCF-7 cell lines. Conclusion:Increased expression of Twist is associated with the occurrence of drug resistance in breast cancer cells.

  9. Loss of heterozygosity and its correlation with expression profiles in subclasses of invasive breast cancers.

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    Wang, Zhigang C; Lin, Ming; Wei, Lee-Jen; Li, Cheng; Miron, Alexander; Lodeiro, Gabriella; Harris, Lyndsay; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Tanenbaum, David M; Meyerson, Matthew; Iglehart, James D; Richardson, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Gene expression array profiles identify subclasses of breast cancers with different clinical outcomes and different molecular features. The present study attempted to correlate genomic alterations (loss of heterozygosity; LOH) with subclasses of breast cancers having distinct gene expression signatures. Hierarchical clustering of expression array data from 89 invasive breast cancers identified four major expression subclasses. Thirty-four of these cases representative of the four subclasses were microdissected and allelotyped using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism detection arrays (Affymetrix, Inc.). LOH was determined by comparing tumor and normal single nucleotide polymorphism allelotypes. A newly developed statistical tool was used to determine the chromosomal regions of frequent LOH. We found that breast cancers were highly heterogeneous, with the proportion of LOH ranging widely from 0.3% to >60% of heterozygous markers. The most common sites of LOH were on 17p, 17q, 16q, 11q, and 14q, sites reported in previous LOH studies. Signature LOH events were discovered in certain expression subclasses. Unique regions of LOH on 5q and 4p marked a subclass of breast cancers with "basal-like" expression profiles, distinct from other subclasses. LOH on 1p and 16q occurred preferentially in a subclass of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. Finding unique LOH patterns in different groups of breast cancer, in part defined by expression signatures, adds confidence to newer schemes of molecular classification. Furthermore, exclusive association between biological subclasses and restricted LOH events provides rationale to search for targeted genes.

  10. Breast Cancer Overview

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    ... Cancer > Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  11. Cross-cultural correlations of childhood growth and adult breast cancer.

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    Micozzi, M S

    1987-08-01

    International differences in breast cancer incidence and mortality, and studies on Japanese migrants to the United States, point to the importance of environmental factors, including diet and nutrition, in the etiology of breast cancer. Some studies have suggested that dietary patterns in early life are important to the long-term risk of breast cancer. Given that human growth is partially a function of early dietary intake, cross-cultural correlations between breast cancer rates and anthropometric variables measured at different times in childhood provide additional information about the association of early nutrition and cancer. In this study, the associations between food consumption and anthropometric variables, and childhood growth patterns (attained size at age) and adult breast cancer rates, were considered. Data from cross-sectional growth studies conducted during the years 1956-1971 on children aged 6-18 years were obtained for age-specific stature, sitting height, weight, triceps skinfold thickness, arm and chest circumferences, and biacromial and biiliac diameters. National food consumption data were obtained from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and socioeconomic status indicators from the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Cancer incidence data for the years 1972-1977 were obtained from regional cancer registries reported by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and mortality data for 1978 were obtained from national cancer registries around the world. Significant correlations were seen between national food consumption data and childhood growth (attained size at age); between cancer incidence and age-specific stature (r = 0.68), weight (r = 0.59), triceps skinfold thickness (r = 0.78), and biacromial width (r = 0.84); and between mortality and age-specific stature (r = 0.77), weight (r = 0.75), and biacromial width (r = 0.78). In general, the correlation coefficients of the observed anthropometric

  12. Overexpression of leptin and leptin receptors in breast cancer positively correlates with clinicopathological features

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    XIA Xiang-hou; GU Jun-chao; BAI Qing-yang; YU Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ Obesity has been reported to increase postmenopausal breast cancer risk by 30% to 50%, and obese breast cancer patients have been shown to present more aggressive breast cancer pathological features.

  13. Breast Cancer

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    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  14. Surgery for Breast Cancer

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    ... Cancer During Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment ... removed (breast reconstruction) Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main ...

  15. Correlates of misperception of breast cancer risk among Korean-American Women.

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    Kim, Jiyun; Huh, Bo Yun; Han, Hae-Ra

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate the factors associated with misperception of breast cancer risk, including unrealistic optimism and unrealistic pessimism, among Korean-American women (KAW). Baseline data were collected between March 2010 and October 2011 from 421 KAW aged 40-65 years who participated in a community-based randomized intervention trial designed to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Multivariate multinomial regression was performed to identify correlates of misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW. A total of 210 KAW (49.9%) had breast cancer risk perception consistent with their objective risk, whereas 50.1% of KAW in the study had some form of misperception of risk. Specifically, 167 participants (39.7%) were unrealistically optimistic about their own breast cancer risk; 44 (10.5%) were unrealistically pessimistic. In multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, living with a partner and higher education were significantly associated with higher odds of having unrealistic optimism. High social support is associated with a lower likelihood of having a pessimistic risk perception. Higher worry is associated with a higher likelihood of having unrealistic pessimism. Misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW and related factors must be considered when developing behavioral interventions for this population.

  16. Reproducibility of mean nuclear volume and correlation with mean nuclear area in breast cancer

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    Baak, J P; Ladekarl, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that quantitative, histopathologic features obtained from a carefully selected area in the tumor section ("selective" approach) have a strong prognostic value in breast cancer. On the other hand, it was found that mean nuclear volume estimation in the whole area...... as to their intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility in 22 invasive breast cancer cases. The mean nuclear volume (nuclear vv) was assessed both in the most atypical area (AREA) (selected on morphologic criteria) and in the whole tumor section (TOTAL). Furthermore, the correlation with mean nuclear (profile) area...... reproducible and strongly correlated with nuclear vv assessed in the TOTAL. In invasive breast cancer assessments in the whole tumor section can be used if delineation of the measurement area cannot be done easily. In small areas with a limited number of nuclei (eg, microinvasive parts) MNA can be easier...

  17. High expression of FOXR2 in breast cancer correlates with poor prognosis.

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    Song, Haiping; He, Wenshan; Huang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Huiqiong; Huang, Tao

    2016-05-01

    Forkhead box protein R2 (FOXR2) is associated with human central nervous system neoplasms. However, the expression level of FOXR2 in breast cancer specimens remains largely unknown. To identify whether FOXR2 can serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining were utilized to detect the expression of FOXR2. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of FOXR2 in breast cancer samples were novelty higher compared to non-tumorous breast tissues. IHC results revealed FOXR2 expression was significantly correlated to classifications tumor size (p = 0.007) and Ki-67 (p = 0.019). The patients with high expression of FOXR2 had a significantly poor prognosis compared to those of low expression (p = 0.003), especially in the patients with tumor size ≥2 cm (p = 0.006) and lymph node metastasis status (p = 0.004). Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that FOXR2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer patients (p = 0.035). This study first identifies that FOXR2 may be an important molecular marker for diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer.

  18. High chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 expression correlates with poor outcome in patients with breast cancer.

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    Hsu, Nicholas C; Nien, Pei-Yung; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Chu, Pei-Yi; Hou, Ming-Feng

    2013-11-15

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), a transmembrane proteoglycan originally identified in melanoma cells, has been reported to be expressed in breast cancer cells. This study was performed to examine the expression and significance of CSPG4 in a cohort of breast cancer patients. Immunohistochemical analysis of CSPG4 was performed on tissue microarrays constructed from tissue specimens from 240 breast cancer patients. CSPG4 staining was correlated with clinical and pathological characteristics, overall survival (OS), and disease recurrence. Contradicting to a previous report, our results showed that high CSPG4 expression was not related to triple-negative status of breast cancer patients. The Kaplan-Meier method showed that high CSPG4 expression was significantly associated with shorter time to recurrence (TTR). Patients with high CSPG4 expression had poorer OS and shorter TTR in a multivariate survival analysis after adjustment for stage, tumor grade, expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, and HER2 overexpression. This study showed that high CSPG4 expression correlates with disease recurrence and OS in breast cancers.

  19. Correlation between Expression of P38 MAPK-Signaling and uPA in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanchun Han; Luying Liu; Dongxia Yan; Guihua Wang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the expression of phosphorylated p38 mitogen.Activated protein kinase(p-p38)and uPA and the correlation of their expression with breast cancer Clinic.patholodiCal characteristics,and to investigate the role of the p38MAPK-signaling pathway in regulating uPA expression in breast cancer cells.METHODS Immunohistochemistry(S-P)was used to test the expression of P-p38 and uPA in 60 specimens of breast cancer tissues.Western blots were adopted to detect expression of the p-p38 and uPA proteins in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells.And uPA expression after treatment with SB203580,a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK.RESULTS The positive rate of the P.P38 protein and uPA protein expression in the breast cancer tissues was 56.7% and 60.0%.Respectively.The expression of P.P38 was positively related to the expression of uPA(r=0.316,P0.05).The expression of p-p38 and uPA in MDA. MB-231 cells was higher than that in MCF.7 cells.SB203580 inhibited the p38 MAPK pathway and reduced uPA protein expression.CONCLUSI0N The p38 MAPK-signaling pathway promotes breast cancer malignant progression by up.Regulating uPA expression,and it may be an important process in breast cancer invasion and metastasis.

  20. Breast cancer screening

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    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  1. Correlations between the MEG-A3 gene and incidence of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xinming; Guo, Feng; Sun, Qinghui

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the interrelations between MEG-A3 gene and incidence of breast cancer. The expression of MEG-A3 gene in the tissue samples of patients with breast cancer and normal controls at RNA and protein levels was determined. Subsequently, the relative expression of RNA for the same patient was measured at different time-points (1, 3, 6, 8, 12 and 24 months), and the protein expression levels were determined using western blotting. The results showed that, the mRNA level in MEG-A3 gene of samples of patients with breast cancer was significantly higher than that of normal women (pA3 gene expression increased apparently with the prolongation and aggravation of the disease. In conclusion, there is a close correlation between MEG-A3 gene and the incidence of breast cancer; thus, MEG-A3 gene contributes to the occurrence and deterioration of breast cancer to some extent. It provides a theoretical basis for later disease treatment.

  2. Maspin expression is frequent and correlates with basal markers in triple-negative breast cancer

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    Sagara Yasuaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maspin is a unique member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily and its expression is found in myoepithelial cells of normal mammary glands; therefore, it has been considered to be a myoepithelial marker. We previously reported that maspin was frequently expressed in biologically aggressive breast cancers. In turn, triple-negative (TN breast cancer is a subtype of tumor with aggressive clinical behavior and shows frequent expression of basal markers. We hypothesized that maspin expression may be frequent and correlate with basal rather than myoepithelial markers in TN breast cancer. Methods Paraffin-embedded 135 TN invasive ductal carcinoma tissue samples were immunohistochemically investigated using the Dako Envision+ kit and primary antibodies for maspin, basal (CK5/6, EGFR, CK14 and myoepithelial markers (p63, CD10. The correlation between maspin expression and relapse-free survival (RFS was investigated by the log-rank test. Results The positive rate for maspin was 85.9% and significantly correlated with younger age (P = 0.0015, higher histological grade (P = 0.0013, CK5/6 positivity (P P = 0.0034 and the basal-like subtype defined by CK5/6, EGFR and CK14 positivity (P = 0.013. The positive rates for CK5/6, EGFR, CK14, CD10 and p63 were 59.2%, 48.9%, 34.1%, 17.8% and 12.6%, respectively. There was no significant correlation between maspin expression and RFS. Conclusions The positive rate for maspin is the highest among known basal and myoepithelial markers, and strongly correlates with basal markers in TN breast cancer. These results suggested that maspin could be a candidate for a therapeutic target for TN breast cancer.

  3. BREAST CANCER RISK EVALUATION - A CORRELATION BETWEEN MAMMOGRAPHIC DENSITY AND THE GAIL MODEL

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    George Baytchev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Gail model is a statistical tool, which assesses breast cancer probability, based on nonmodifiable risk factors. In contrast, the evaluation of mammographic breast density is an independent and dynamic risk factor influenced by interventions modifying breast cancer risk incidence. The aim of the present study is to compare the possibilities for risk factor integration and analysis and to search for a correlation between mammographic density and the Gail model for breast cancer risk evaluation. The subject of this prospective study is a cohort of 107 women at ages from 37 to 71 years, who have had benign breast diseases, digital mammograms, and Gail model risk evaluation. Mammographic density is evaluated in craniocaudal projection subjectively visually and objectively using the computer imaging software. (Image J software The Gail risk evaluation is completed using the standardized NCI questionnaire (Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool. In concordance with the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RAD by ACR, mammographic density is evaluated using a four-grade scale. Low density D1 (less than 25% was determined in 24 cases, D2 (25-50% in 36 cases, D3 (51-75% in 31 cases and high density D4 (greater than 75% in 16 cases. According to the Gail model, 80 (74,8% of the examined patients did not have an increased risk (less than 1,67% for a five-year period, whereas the remaining 27 (25,2% had a statistically significant increase in risk (greater than 1,67% for a five-year period. Women with increased risk more often present with denser breast (34% with D3, D4 versus 18,3% for D1, D2. The Gail model does not adequately explain the correlation between breast density and statistically calculated risk. The development of more detailed tools, which take into consideration breast density, as well as other risk factors, may be helpful for a more accurate evaluation of the individual risk for breast cancer.

  4. Correlation between cytological and histological grading of breast cancer and its role in prognosis

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    Pal, Shweta; Gupta, Mohan Lal

    2016-01-01

    Context: Assigning grade to breast cancer on FNAC provides prognostic information and guides optimal therapy. Aims: The present study was undertaken to grade breast carcinoma on cytology by Robinson's grading system and correlate it with Elstons modified Bloom Richardson histological grading system. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study done on fifty cases of breast cancer reported on cytology. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients who underwent FNAC and mastectomy for breast carcinoma were cytologically and histologically graded. Correlation between cytological and histological grading system was determined. Sensitivity and specificity of Robinson's cytological grading system was calculated in each grade. All cases evaluated for presence of metastasis to axillary lymph nodes. Statistical Analysis Used: Correlation between cytological and histological grading was established using the non parametric Spearman’ s correlation coefficient. Results: Concordance rate between cytological and histological grade was 78%. The coefficient of correlation between cytological grade and histological grade was 0.804 and P value was <0.001 which indicated a strong correlation and significant association between the cytological and histological grade. Sensitivity was maximum in cytological grade I tumors (100%) and least in cytological grade III tumors (45.45%). Specificity was maximum in cytological grade III tumors (94.87%) and least in cytological grade II tumors (72.72%). The incidence of axillary lymph node metastasis was maximum in cytological grade III tumors and grade I tumors. Conclusions: Cytological grade strongly predicts histological grade and is useful in selecting neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:28028331

  5. Breast Cancer Research Update

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    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National Cancer Institute ... Addressing Breast Cancer's Unequal Burden / Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Issue: Volume 11 Number 4 Page ...

  6. Expression of BNIP3 in invasive breast cancer: correlations with the hypoxic response and clinicopathological features

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    de Weger Roel A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3 is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family induced under hypoxia. Low or absent expression has recently been described in human tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, resulting in poor prognosis. Little is known about BNIP3 expression in invasive breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of BNIP3 in invasive breast cancer at the mRNA and protein level in correlation with the hypoxic response and clinicopathological features. Methods In 40 cases of invasive breast cancer, BNIP3 mRNA in situ hybridization was performed on frozen sections with a digoxigenin labeled anti-BNIP3 probe. Paraffin embedded sections of the same specimens were used to determine protein expression of BNIP3, Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α and its downstream targets Glucose Transporter 1 (Glut-1 and Carbonic Anhydrase (CAIX by immunohistochemistry. Results BNIP3 mRNA was expressed in 16/40 (40% of the cases and correlated with BNIP3 protein expression (p = 0.0218. Neither BNIP3 protein nor mRNA expression correlated with expression of HIF-1α expression or its downstream targets. Tumors which showed loss of expression of BNIP3 had significantly more often lymph node metastases (82% vs 39%, p = 0.010 and showed a higher mitotic activity index (p = 0.027. BNIP3 protein expression was often nuclear in normal breast, but cytoplasmic in tumor cells. Conclusion BNIP3 expression is lost in a significant portion of invasive breast cancers, which is correlated with poor prognostic features such as positive lymph node status and high proliferation, but not with the hypoxic response.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Breast Cancer and Correlation with Prognostic Factors

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    Chang, Yun-Woo; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Wha; Lee, Min Hyuk (College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea)); Lee, Hye Kyung (Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang Bucheon Hospital, Kyonggi (Korea)); Yang, Seung Boo (Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang Gumi Hospital, Kyungbook (Korea)); Kim, Yongbae (Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Chungnam (Korea)); Seo, Dae Young (Dept. of Computer Engineering (KO) Polytechnic Univ., Kyonggi (Korea))

    2009-11-15

    Background: Prognostic factors of breast cancer have been used for the prediction of clinical outcome or selection of patients for complementary treatment. Some of the imaging features of breast cancer, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are associated with these prognostic factors. Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between dynamic enhanced MR features and prognostic factors of clinical outcome of breast cancer. Material and Methods: A total of 136 patients with 151 breast cancers underwent 1.5T dynamic MR imaging with the use of a dynamic T1-weighted three-dimensional fast low-angle shot (FLASH) subtraction imaging technique. Morphological and kinetic analyses of MR features were evaluated using the American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) MRI lexicon. Pathological prognostic factors were correlated with MR imaging characteristics, including tumor size, histological grade, lymph node status, expression of estrogen receptor (ER), expression of progesterone receptor (PR), expression of c-erbB2, determination of Ki-67 index, and microvascular density (MVD), using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Results: Based on univariate and multivariate analyses, spiculated tumor margins correlated significantly with lower histological grade (I-II) and positive PR expression. Rim enhancement was significantly correlated with high histological grade, presence of axillary lymph node metastasis, large tumor size, increased Ki-67 index, and increased MVD. Early peak enhancement, as seen on the first scan after contrast medium injection, was correlated with negative ER expression. Conclusion: The presence of a lesion with a spiculated margin may predict a relatively good prognosis, and the presence of a lesion with rim enhancement may predict a relatively poor prognosis

  8. Study on the Correlation between Breast Hyperplasia and Breast Cancer%乳腺增生与乳腺癌相关性研究

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    王桂玲; 任连成; 刘春香

    2014-01-01

    To study analyzed the correlation between breast hyperplasia and breast cancer.Methods:Our hospital from April 2008 to April 2013 examination of 2000 women were analyzed,of which 150 cases were diagnosed as breast hyperplasia,clinical data were retrospectively analyzed,breast hyperplasia four years every 3~6 months once a month back for review.Results:150 cases of patients with breast hyperplasia,breast adenosis 56 cases (37.33%),sclerosing adenosis,35 cases (23.33%),55 cases of breast cystic hyperplasia (36.67%),4 cases (2.67%) patients developed breast cancer.Statistical analysis showed that the incidence of breast cancer and breast hyperplasia maximum ages were 51 and 31 to 40 years of age and older.Breast cancer and breast hyperplasia in patients with irregular menstruation correlation study found that breast cancer menstruation 1.71%,14.07%hyperplasia menstruation.Breast cancer and breast-feeding mode (P>0.05),and mammary gland hyperplasia associated with breast-feeding methods,not lactating mammary gland hyperplasia patients were significantly higher than lactating mammary gland hyperplasia patients (P0.05),而乳腺增生与哺乳方式相关,未哺乳患者乳腺增生发生率明显高于哺乳患者乳腺增生发生(P<0.05)。结论:乳腺增生患者有可能转变为乳腺癌,而主要诱因是导管和乳腺上皮增生及非典型性增生,临床需加强对乳腺疾病的预防指导,避免因诱因引导形成乳腺癌,从而充分保障广大女性生命安全与生活质量。

  9. Elevated APOBEC3B Correlates with Poor Outcomes for Estrogen-Receptor-Positive Breast Cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Sieuwerts (Anieta); S. Willis (Scooter); M.J. Burns (Michael); M.P. Look (Maxime); M.E.M.-V. Gelder (Marion E. Meijer-Van); A. Schlicker (Andreas); D.A.M. Heideman (Danielle); H. Jacobs (Heinz); L. Wessels (Lodewyk); B. Leyland-Jones (Brian); K.P. Gray (Kathryn); J.A. Foekens (John); R.S. Harris (Reuben); J.W.M. Martens (John)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecent observations connected DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B to the genetic evolution of breast cancer. We addressed whether APOBEC3B is associated with breast cancer clinical outcomes. APOBEC3B messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were related in 1,491 primary breast cancers to disease-free (DF

  10. Correlation of clinico-pathologic and radiologic parameters of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: As of today, there is no validated standard method to assess clinical response of breast cancer to neo- adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT. Some centers use clinical dimensions while others use radiological measurements to evaluate response according to RECIST criteria. Aims: The aim was to correlate and compare the clinical, radiological, and pathological parameters for assessing the tumor response in patients of breast cancer receiving NACT. Settings and Design: Single institution, prospective nonrandomized study conducted over a 2-year period. Materials and Methods: Patients with diagnosed breast cancer were assessed for response to NACT prior to surgery using clinical and radiological techniques. This was correlated with pathological reponse which was assessed by measuring gross dimensions and Miller-Payne grading of response to chemotherapy. Statistical Analysis Used: Spearman′s rho nonparametric. RESULTS: Fifty two patients completed the evaluation (out of 313 cases of ca breast treated during the same period with a median age of 52.5 years. We noted a 26.9% clinical complete response (CR and 19.2% had pathological CR. Clinical evaluation had a sensitivity and specificity of 73.5% and 88.5% respectively compared to 14.2% and 100% respectively for radiological assessment. Conclusions: Clinical assessment of response to NACT shows a higher sensitivity compared to radiological assessment. However the overall low sensitivity and specificity rates of clinical assessment mandate a search for a better method of evaluation.

  11. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  12. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  13. FGFR2 protein expression in breast cancer: nuclear localisation and correlation with patient genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Alastair M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in intron 2 of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Type 2 (FGFR2 gene, including rs2981582, contribute to multifactorial breast cancer susceptibility. The high risk polymorphism haplotype in the FGFR2 gene has been associated with increased mRNA transcription and altered transcription factor binding but the effect on FGFR2 protein expression is unknown. 40 breast tumours were identified from individuals with known rs2981582 genotype. Tumour sections were stained for FGFR2 protein expression, and scored for nuclear and cytoplasmic staining in tumour and surrounding normal tissue. Findings FGFR2 immunohistochemistry demonstrated variable nuclear staining in normal tissue and tumour tissue, as well as consistent cytoplasmic staining. We did not find an association between nuclear staining for FGFR2 and genotype, and there was no association between FGFR2 staining and estrogen or progestogen receptor status. There was an association between presence of nuclear staining for FGFR2 in normal tissue and presence of nuclear staining in the adjacent tumour (Fishers exact test, p = 0.002. Conclusions Variable nuclear staining for FGFR2 in breast cancer, but an absence of correlation with rs2981582 genotype suggests that the mechanism of action of polymorphisms at the FGFR2 locus may be more complex than a direct effect on mRNA expression levels in the final cancer. The effect may relate to FGFR2 function or localisation during breast development or tumourigenesis. Nuclear localisation of FGFR2 suggests an important additional role for this protein in breast development and breast cancer, in addition to its function as a classical cell surface receptor.

  14. Correlating transcriptional networks to breast cancer survival: a large-scale coexpression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Colin; Madden, Stephen F; Doolan, Padraig; Aherne, Sinead T; Joyce, Helena; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Gallagher, William M; Hennessy, Bryan T; Moriarty, Michael; Crown, John; Kennedy, Susan; Clynes, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) is a powerful 'guilt-by-association'-based method to extract coexpressed groups of genes from large heterogeneous messenger RNA expression data sets. We have utilized WGCNA to identify 11 coregulated gene clusters across 2342 breast cancer samples from 13 microarray-based gene expression studies. A number of these transcriptional modules were found to be correlated to clinicopathological variables (e.g. tumor grade), survival endpoints for breast cancer as a whole (disease-free survival, distant disease-free survival and overall survival) and also its molecular subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, HER2+ and basal-like). Examples of findings arising from this work include the identification of a cluster of proliferation-related genes that when upregulated correlated to increased tumor grade and were associated with poor survival in general. The prognostic potential of novel genes, for example, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2S (UBE2S) within this group was confirmed in an independent data set. In addition, gene clusters were also associated with survival for breast cancer molecular subtypes including a cluster of genes that was found to correlate with prognosis exclusively for basal-like breast cancer. The upregulation of several single genes within this coexpression cluster, for example, the potassium channel, subfamily K, member 5 (KCNK5) was associated with poor outcome for the basal-like molecular subtype. We have developed an online database to allow user-friendly access to the coexpression patterns and the survival analysis outputs uncovered in this study (available at http://glados.ucd.ie/Coexpression/).

  15. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in breast cancer correlates with immunohistochemically defined subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Hye Ryoung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Seon [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keon Wook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya; Chang, Jung Min; Bae, Min Sun; Kim, Won Hwa; Lee, Su Hyun; Seo, Mirinae; Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi Young [Konkuk University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin You [Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To determine whether a correlation exists between maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and the subtypes of breast cancer. This retrospective study involved 548 patients (mean age 51.6 years, range 21-81 years) with 552 index breast cancers (mean size 2.57 cm, range 1.0-14.5 cm). The correlation between {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in PET/CT, expressed as SUV{sub max}, and immunohistochemically defined subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive and triple negative) was analyzed. The mean SUV{sub max} value of the 552 tumours was 6.07 ± 4.63 (range 0.9-32.8). The subtypes of the 552 tumours were 334 (60 %) luminal A, 66 (12 %) luminal B, 60 (11 %) HER2 positive and 92 (17 %) triple negative, for which the mean SUV{sub max} values were 4.69 ± 3.45, 6.51 ± 4.18, 7.44 ± 4.73 and 9.83 ± 6.03, respectively. In a multivariate regression analysis, triple-negative and HER2-positive tumours had 1.67-fold (P < 0.001) and 1.27-fold (P = 0.009) higher SUV{sub max} values, respectively, than luminal A tumours after adjustment for invasive tumour size, lymph node involvement status and histologic grade. FDG uptake was independently associated with subtypes of invasive breast cancer. Triple-negative and HER2-positive breast cancers showed higher SUV{sub max} values than luminal A tumours. circle {sup 18} F-FDG PET demonstrates increased tissue glucose metabolism, a hallmark of cancers. (orig.)

  16. Neogenin expression may be inversely correlated to the tumorigenicity of human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sung-Won

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neogenin is expressed in cap cells that have been suggested to be mammary stem or precursor cells. Neogenin is known to play an important role in mammary morphogenesis; however its relationship to tumorigenesis remains to be elucidated. Methods To compare the expression levels of neogenin in cells with different tumorigenicity, the expression levels in M13SV1, M13SV1R2 and M13SV1R2N1 cells, which are immortalized derivatives of type I human breast epithelial cells, were evaluated. Then we measured the expression level of neogenin in paired normal and cancer tissues from eight breast cancer patients. Tissue array analysis was performed for 54 human breast tissue samples with different histology, and the results were divided into four categories (none, weak, moderate, strong by a single well-trained blinded pathologist and statistically analyzed. Results The nontumorigenic M13SV1 cells and normal tissues showed stronger expression of neogenin than the M13SV1R2N1 cells and the paired cancer tissues. In the tissue array, all (8/8 of the normal breast tissues showed strong neogenin expression, while 93.5% (43/46 of breast cancer tissues had either no expression or only moderate levels of neogenin expression. There was a significant difference, in the expression level of neogenin, in comparisons between normal and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (p Conclusion Neogenin may play a role in mammary carcinogenesis as well as morphogenesis, and the expression may be inversely correlated with mammary carcinogenicity. The value of neogenin as a potential prognostic factor needs further evaluation.

  17. Correlation of HER2 overexpression with histopathologic features in breast cancer: a two- year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foruhesh Tehrani Z

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second most common cause of death from cancer in women. HER2 is an epidermal growth factor receptor which plays a substantial role in pathogenesis of breast cancer and also a target for new antineoplastic drug Herceptin. This study was conducted for determining the correlation between HER2 overexpression and histopathologic characteristics of breast cancer and also degree of intraobserver and interobserver agreement in scoring of Immnohistochemistry (IHC slides between pathologists in samples referred to pathology ward."n"nMethods: This study was conducted as a descriptive cross sectional study. Among the breast cancer samples referred to pathology ward in Shariati Hospital in Tehran, Iran. 140 samples have been selected sequentially using simple non-random sampling method. All the information has been extracted using medical records and pathology reports."n"nResults: This study showed significant difference between diagnosis and HER2 status (p<0.05. Significant difference observed between lymph node invasion and HER2 status (p<0.05. Positive significant association between the size and tumor grade with HER2 status (r=0.188, p=0.026, Significant difference

  18. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer, ... Prevention Early Detection and Diagnosis Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Treatment Breast Reconstruction Surgery Living as a Breast ...

  19. WE-E-BRE-10: Level of Breast Cancer Stem Cell Correlated with Tumor Radioresistence: An Indication for Individualized Breast Cancer Therapy Adapted to Cancer Stem Cell Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, S; Pajonk, F; McCloskey, S; Low, D; Kupelian, P; Steinberg, M; Sheng, K [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purposes: The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in a solid tumor could result in poor tumor control probability. The purposes are to study CSC radiosensitivity parameters α and β and their correlation to CSC levels to understand the underlying radioresistance mechanisms and enable individualized treatment design. Methods: Four established breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, MDA-MB-231, and SUM159PT) were irradiated in vitro using single radiation doses of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 Gy. The fractions of CSCs in each cell lines were determined using cancer stem cell markers. Mammosphere assays were also performed to better estimate the number of CSCs and represent the CSC repopulation in a human solid tumor. The measured cell surviving fractions were fitted using the Linear-quadratic (LQ) model with independent fitting parameters: α-TC, β-TC (TCs), α-CSC, β-CSC (CSCs), and fs (the percentage of CSCs in each sample). Results: The measured fs increased following the irradiation by MCF-7 (0.1%), T47D (0.9%), MDA-MB-231 (1.18%) and SUM159T (2.46%), while decreasing surviving curve slopes were observed, indicating greater radioresistance, in the opposite order. The fitting yielded the radiosensitive parameters for the MCF-7: α-TC=0.1±0.2Gy{sup −1}, β-TC= 0.08 ±0.14Gy{sup −2}, α-CSC=0.04±0.07Gy{sup −1}, β-CSC =0.02±0.3Gy{sup −2}; for the SUM159PT, α-TC=0.08±0.25 Gy{sup −1}, β-TC=0.02±0.02Gy{sup −2}, α-CSC=0.04±0.18Gy{sup −1}, β-CSC =0.004±0.24Gy{sup −2}. In the mammosphere assay, where fs were higher than the corresponding cell line assays, there was almost no shoulder found in the surviving curves (more radioresistant in mammosphere assays) yielding β-CSC of approximately 0. Conclusion: Breast cancer stem cells were more radioresistant characterized by smaller α and β values compared to differentiated breast cancer cells. Percentage of breast cancer stem cells strongly correlated to overall tumor radioresistance. This observation

  20. Correlating transcriptional networks with pathological complete response following neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Lv, Qiao-Li; Yu, Jing; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Li-Hua; Cheng, Yu; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between gene co-expression modules and responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer by using a systematic biological approach. The gene expression profiles and clinico-pathological data of 508 (discovery set) and 740 (validation set) patients with breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis was performed and identified seven co-regulated gene modules. Each module and gene signature were evaluated with logistic regression models for pathological complete response (pCR). The association between modules and pCR in each intrinsic molecular subtype was also investigated. Two transcriptional modules were correlated with tumor grade, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, and chemotherapy response in breast cancer. One module that constitutes upregulated cell proliferation genes was associated with a high probability for pCR in the whole (odds ratio (OR) = 5.20 and 3.45 in the discovery and validation datasets, respectively), luminal B, and basal-like subtypes. The prognostic potentials of novel genes, such as MELK, and pCR-related genes, such as ESR1 and TOP2A, were identified. The upregulation of another gene co-expression module was associated with weak chemotherapy responses (OR = 0.19 and 0.33 in the discovery and validation datasets, respectively). The novel gene CA12 was identified as a potential prognostic indicator in this module. A systems biology network-based approach may facilitate the discovery of biomarkers for predicting chemotherapy responses in breast cancer and contribute in developing personalized medicines.

  1. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  2. CORRELATION OF BREAST CANCER AND SERUM HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL LEVEL: A SINGLE CENTRE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common site specific cancer in women. Lots of etiological factors have been suggested regarding its causation. The risk is influenced by obesity, parity, exogenous and endogenous hormones, exposure to chemicals and radiation and many more. Various studies suggest that as HDL-C seems to be cardio protective, it is also protective for breast cancer. Serum HDL-C levels are found to be low in breast cancer patients. We studied this hypothesis in local population of Southern Rajasthan and nearby region to see if low serum HDL-C is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. We studied serum HDL-C level in 50 female patients of breast cancer along with their menopausal status and compared it to their respective controls. We found that breast cancer patients had significantly low level of serum HDL-C and presented in advanced stage of cancer. It supports that low serum HDL-C level is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. So one should think about those dietary and lifestyle measures, which maintain high serum HDL-C level so that it might become preventive measure for breast cancer.

  3. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  4. Expression of connective tissue growth factor in male breast cancer: clinicopathologic correlations and prognostic value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miangela M Lacle

    Full Text Available Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2 is a member of the CCN family of secreted proteins that are believed to play an important role in the development of neoplasia. In particular, CTGF has been reported to play an important role in mammary tumorigenesis and to have prognostic value in female breast cancer (FBC. The aim of the present study was to investigate clinicopathologic correlations and prognostic value of CTGF in male breast cancer (MBC and to compare these findings with FBC. For this, we studied CTGF protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 109 MBC cases and 75 FBC cases. In MBC, stromal CTGF expression was seen in the majority of the cases 78% (85/109 with high expression in 31/109 cases (28.4%, but expression in tumor cells was only seen in 9.2% (10/109 of cases. High stromal CTGF expression correlated with high grade and high proliferation index (>15% assessed by MIB-1 immunohistochemical staining. CTGF expression in tumor epithelial cells did not correlate with any of the clinicopathologic features. In FBC, stromal CTGF expression positively correlated with mitotic count and tumor CTGF expression was associated with triple negative status of the tumor (p = 0.002. Neither stromal nor tumor epithelial cell CTGF expression had prognostic value in MBC and FBC. In conclusion, stromal CTGF expression was seen in a high percentage of MBC and was correlated with high grade and high proliferation index. In view of the important role of the microenvironment in cancer progression, this might suggest that stromal CTGF could be an interesting target for novel therapies and molecular imaging. However, the lack of association with prognosis warrants caution. The potential role of CTGF as a therapeutic target for triple negative FBC deserves to be further studied.

  5. Correlation between low neuraminidase blood levels and a predisposition toward family-related breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, R E; Laraja, R D; Imran-Ul-Hag; Saber, A A; Nadkarni, M

    1996-11-01

    It has been shown that high sialic acid levels are often found in conjunction with breast cancer, and these high concentrations are thought to be due to deficiency of the enzyme neuraminidase. The study proposes to elicit a relationship between low levels of blood neuraminidase and a family history of breast cancer. Neuraminidase blood levels were measured in 30 healthy women between the ages of 35 and 65 years with no evidence of a family history of breast cancer (control group), and in 33 healthy women between the ages of 35 to 65 years, all of whom had immediate members of their families with breast cancer (study group). The mean level of the blood neuraminidase was found to be 1.375 units in the control group. On the other hand, the mean level for the study group was 1.256 units. The difference between the two groups is statistically significant, (P value breast cancer.

  6. Correlation between the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor c and C-erbB-2 in human breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuxian Qu; Zhendong Zheng; Zhaozhe Liu; Liang Liu; Miao Zhang; Yaling Han; Xiaodong Xie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to study the transcription level of VEGF-C in human breast cancer tissue, and explore the correlations with the expression of C-erbB-2.Methods: The expression of VEGF-C mRNA in 51 cases of human breast cancer was assessed by hybridization in situ. The expressions of C-erbB-2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry.Results:The positive rate of VEGF-C mRNA was 54.9% in 51 cases of breast cancer. The transcription level had correlation with tumor size and status of lymph nodes (P < 0.05). The expression of VEGF-C mRNA had a positive correlation with the expression of C-erbB-2 (P < 0.05).Conclusion: The up-expression of VEGF-C has a significant correlation with the malignancy level and clinical stage of breast cancer. The combined detection of VEGF-C, C-erbB-2 may help to estimate the prognosis of patients with breast cancer and study on thetherapeutic implications.

  7. Quantitative and correlation analysis of the DNA methylation and expression of DAPK in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Youzhi; Li, Shuiqin; Wang, Qingshui; Chen, Ling; Wu, Kunlin; Huang, Yide

    2017-01-01

    Background Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK) is an important tumor suppressor kinase involved in the regulation of multiple cellular activities such as apoptosis and autophagy. DNA methylation of DAPK gene was found in various types of cancers and often correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics. However, the mRNA and protein expression of DAPK in the same sample was rarely measured. Thus, it was unclear if the correlation between DAPK gene methylation and clinicopathological parameters was due to the loss of DAPK expression. Methods In this study, the DNA methylation rate, mRNA and protein expression of DAPK was quantitatively detected in 15 pairs of breast cancer patient samples including tumor (T) and adjacent non-tumor (N) tissues. Results The correlation between DNA methylation rate and mRNA expression, together with the correlation between mRNA and protein expression, was calculated. No correlation was observed between any levels using either the measurement value of each sample or the T/N ratio of each pair. Discussion These data suggested that the DNA methylation status of DAPK did not correlate well with its mRNA or protein expression. Extra caution is needed when interpreting the DNA methylation data of DAPK gene in clinical studies.

  8. Protein Biomarkers for Breast Cancer Risk Are Specifically Correlated with Local Steroid Hormones in Nipple Aspirate Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Ali; Fatokun, Tolulope; Ivancic, David; Chatterton, Robert T; Khan, Seema A; Wang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The local endocrine environment of the breast may have stronger relations to breast cancer risk than systemic hormones. Nipple aspiration fluid (NAF) provides a window into this milieu. We hypothesized that the correlations between proteins and steroid hormones in NAF are stronger, and specific relationships may reveal links to breast cancer risk. NAF and blood samples were obtained simultaneously from 54 healthy women and from the contralateral unaffected breast of 60 breast cancer patients. The abundance of five proteins, superoxide dismutase (SOD1), C-reactive protein (CRP), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL40), cathepsin D (CatD), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in NAF was measured using ELISA. The NAF and serum concentrations of estradiol, estrone, progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrostrerone (DHEA) were measured using ELISA or RIA. The correlations between proteins and hormones revealed that NAF proteins correlated with each other: SOD1 with CRP (R = 0.276, P = 0.033) and CatD (R = 0.340, P = 0.0036), and bFGF with CRP (R = 0.343, P = 0.0021). NAF proteins displayed significant correlations with NAF steroids, but not with serum steroids: SOD1 with DHEA (R = 0.333, P = 0.019), YKL40 with testosterone (R = 0.389, P = 0.0012), and bFGF negatively correlated with testosterone (R = -0.339, P = 0.015). The regulation of YKL40 and bFGF by testosterone was confirmed in breast cancer cell lines. In summary, NAF proteins were more strongly related to local hormone levels than to systematic hormone levels. Some proteins were specifically correlated with different NAF steroids, suggesting that these steroids may contribute to breast cancer risk through different mechanisms.

  9. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome. Treatment for male breast cancer is usually ...

  10. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed.

  11. Triple-negative breast cancer: correlation between imaging and pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Eun Sook; Lee, Byung Hee [Korea Cancer Centre Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Hyun-A; Noh, Woo-Chul [Korea Cancer Centre Hospital, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Min Suk [Korea Cancer Centre Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Sang-Ah [Kangwon National University, Department of Preventive Medicine, Kangwon-do (Korea)

    2010-05-15

    This study was designed to investigate the mammography and ultrasound findings of triple-negative breast cancer and to compare the results with characteristics of ER-positive/PR-negative/HER2-negative breast cancer and ER-negative/PR-negative/HER2-positive breast cancer. From January 2007 to October 2008, mammography and ultrasound findings of 245 patients with pathologically confirmed triple-negative (n = 87), ER-positive/PR-negative/HER2-negative (n = 93) or ER-negative/PR-negative/HER2-positive breast cancers (n = 65) were retrospectively reviewed. We also reviewed pathological reports for information on the histological type, histological grade and the status of the biological markers. Triple-negative breast cancers showed a high histological grade. On mammography, triple-negative breast cancers usually presented with a mass (43/87, 49%) or with focal asymmetry (19/87, 22%), and were less associated with calcifications. On ultrasound, the cancers were less frequently seen as non-mass lesions (12/87, 14%), more likely to have circumscribed margins (43/75, 57%), were markedly hypoechoic (36/75, 57%) and less likely to show posterior shadowing (4/75, 5%). Among the three types of breast cancers, ER-negative/PR-negative/HER2-positive breast cancers most commonly had associated calcifications (52/65, 79%) on mammography and were depicted as non-mass lesions (21/65, 32%) on ultrasound. Our results suggest that the imaging findings might be useful in diagnosing triple-negative breast cancer. (orig.)

  12. Downregulation of the long noncoding RNA EGOT correlates with malignant status and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shou-Ping; Zhang, Jin-Feng; Sui, Shi-Yao; Bai, Nan-Xia; Gao, Song; Zhang, Guang-Wen; Shi, Qing-Yu; You, Zi-Long; Zhan, Chao; Pang, Da

    2015-12-01

    Eosinophil granule ontogeny transcript (EGOT) is a long noncoding RNA involved in the regulation of eosinophil granule protein transcript expression. However, little is known about the role of EGOT in malignant disease. This study aimed to assess the potential role of EGOT in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the expression levels of EGOT in 250 breast cancerous tissues and 50 adjacent noncancerous tissues. The correlation of EGOT expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis was also analyzed. EGOT expression was lower in breast cancer compared with the adjacent noncancerous tissues (P prognosis for overall survival (P = 0.040), and this result was further validated in a larger cohort from a public database. Multivariate analysis suggested that low levels of EGOT were a poor independent prognostic predictor for breast cancer patients (HR = 1.857, 95 % CI = 1.032-3.340, P = 0.039). In conclusion, EGOT may play an important role in breast cancer progression and prognosis and may serve as a new potential prognostic target in breast cancer patients.

  13. Polymorphism (ALA16VAL) correlates with regional lymph node status in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, Claudia Giuliano; da Silva, Leonardo Leiria de Moura; Toscani, Nadima Vieira; Zettler, Cláudio Galleano; Gottlieb, Maria Gabriela do Valle; Alexandre, Cláudio Osmar Pereira; Graudenz, Márcia Silveira; Mânica da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice

    2010-01-15

    We studied the possible association between Ala16Val manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene genotypes and breast cancer lymph node status because previous investigations suggested an association between the AA genotype and breast cancer. We included 281 women (188 controls and 93 cases of invasive breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastasis (LN+) and without lymph node metastasis (LN-). DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tumor tissue or peripheral blood leukocytes, and MnSOD polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. In addition, the immunohistochemical profile (p53, Ki-67 and estrogen/progesterone receptors) was also compared between invasive breast cancer groups and different MnSOD genotypes. The frequency of the VV genotype was higher in the LN+ group than in the control and LN- groups (chi(2)=5.081, P=0.02). Subjects with LN+ breast cancer (LN+ group) showed a higher incidence of VV genotype carriers associated with positive Ki-67 marker. Subjects with LN+ breast cancer (LN+ group) showed a higher incidence of VV genotype carriers associated with negative p53 marker. Despite the fact that the AA genotype is well established as being associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, the VV genotype may be associated with a higher metastatic potential, suggesting that MnSOD imbalance is the condition associated with carcinogenesis.

  14. JAM-A expression positively correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, Elaine A; McGee, Sharon F; Jirstrom, Karin; Doyle, Emma M; Brennan, Donal J; Landberg, Goran; Dervan, Peter A; Hopkins, Ann M; Gallagher, William M

    2009-09-15

    The cell-cell adhesion protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) influences epithelial cell morphology and migration. As migration is required for tumor cell invasion and metastasis, we sought to elucidate the role of JAM-A in invasive breast cancer. A breast cancer tissue microarray was analyzed for JAM-A protein expression, in parallel with analysis of JAM-A gene expression data from a breast cancer clinical dataset. Our data demonstrate a novel association between JAM-A gene and protein upregulation and poor prognosis in breast cancer. To mechanistically dissect this process, we used lentiviral technology to stably knock down JAM-A gene expression by shRNA in MCF7 breast cancer cells, which express high-endogenous levels of JAM-A. We also antagonized JAM-A function in wild-type MCF7 cells using an inhibitory antibody that blocks JAM-A dimerization. Knockdown or functional antagonism of JAM-A decreased breast cancer cell migration in scratch-wound assays. Reductions in beta1-integrin protein levels were observed after JAM-A-knockdown in MCF7 cells, suggesting a mechanism for reduced motility after loss of JAM-A. Consistent with this hypothesis, tissue microarray analysis of beta1-integrin protein expression in invasive breast cancer tissues revealed a trend toward high beta1-integrin protein levels being indicative of poor prognosis. Twenty-two percent of patients were observed to coexpress high levels of JAM-A and beta1-integrin protein, and MDA-MB-231 breast cells stably overexpressing JAM-A showed an increase in beta1-integrin protein expression. Our results are consistent with a previously unreported role for JAM-A overexpression as a possible mechanism contributing to progression in primary breast cancer; and a potential therapeutic target.

  15. Correlation between p53 Status, DNA Ploidy, Proliferation Rate and Nuclear Morphology in Breast Cancer. An Image Cytometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Friedrich

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to detect differences in the nuclear morphology of tumours and tumour cell populations with different p53 expression in correlation with DNA ploidy and proliferation rate. The paraffin sections from routinely processed samples of 88 breast cancers were immunostained with the monoclonal p53‐antibody DO‐1. After localization and evaluation with a scoring system the sections were destained and stained by the Feulgen method. The nuclei were relocated automatically and measured by means of the image cytometry workstation. Significant differences between the tumours and tumour cell populations with different p53 expression were found in the euploid tumours as well as in the aneuploid tumours and in the breast cancers with a high proliferation rate. The breast cancers with a low immunoreactive score (IRS 1–4 differ from the negative cancers as well as from the cancers with a higher immunoreactive score (IRS 5–12. Evaluating the nuclear populations of the p53 positive cancers, there were differences in the features of the chromatin amount and distribution in the groups of the euploid breast cancers and in cancer with a high proliferation rate. In contrast, the nuclear populations of the aneuploid cancers did not show any differences in their nuclear morphology.

  16. Argonaute 2 Expression Correlates with a Luminal B Breast Cancer Subtype and Induces Estrogen Receptor Alpha Isoform Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne K. Conger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα signaling pathways are frequently disrupted in breast cancer and contribute to disease progression. ERα signaling is multifaceted and many ERα regulators have been identified including transcription factors and growth factor pathways. More recently, microRNAs (miRNAs are shown to deregulate ERα activity in breast carcinomas, with alterations in both ERα and miRNA expression correlating to cancer progression. In this study, we show that a high expression of Argonaute 2 (AGO2, a translation regulatory protein and mediator of miRNA function, correlates with the luminal B breast cancer subtype. We further demonstrate that a high expression of AGO2 in ERα+ tumors correlates with a poor clinical outcome. MCF-7 breast cancer cells overexpressing AGO2 (MCF7-AGO2 altered ERα downstream signaling and selective ERα variant expression. Enhanced ERα-36, a 36 kDa ERα isoform, protein and gene expression was observed in vitro. Through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, we demonstrate decreased basal expression of the full-length ERα and progesterone receptor genes, in addition to loss of estrogen stimulated gene expression in vitro. Despite the loss, MCF-7-AGO2 cells demonstrated increased estrogen stimulated tumorigenesis in vivo. Together with our clinical findings on AGO2 expression and the luminal B subtype, we suggest that AGO2 is a regulator of altered ERα signaling in breast tumors.

  17. Tight correlation between expression of the Forkhead transcription factor FOXM1 and HER2 in human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Arndt

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background FOXM1 regulates expression of cell cycle related genes that are essential for progression into DNA replication and mitosis. Consistent with its role in proliferation, elevated expression of FOXM1 has been reported in a variety of human tumour entities. FOXM1 is a gene of interest because recently chemical inhibitors of FOXM1 were described to limit proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cells in vitro, indicating that FOXM1 inhibitors could represent useful anticancer therapeutics. Methods Using immunohistochemistry (IHC we systematically analysed FOXM1 expression in human invasive breast carcinomas (n = 204 and normal breast tissues (n = 46 on a tissue microarray. Additionally, using semiquantitative realtime PCR, a collection of paraffin embedded normal (n = 12 and cancerous (n = 25 breast tissue specimens as well as benign (n = 3 and malignant mammary cell lines (n = 8 were investigated for FOXM1 expression. SPSS version 14.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results FOXM1 was found to be overexpressed in breast cancer in comparison to normal breast tissue both on the RNA and protein level (e.g. 8.7 fold as measured by realtime PCR. We found a significant correlation between FOXM1 expression and the HER2 status determined by HER2 immunohistochemistry (P P = 0.110. Conclusion FOXM1 may represent a novel breast tumour marker with prognostic significance that could be included into multi-marker panels for breast cancer. Interestingly, we found a positive correlation between FOXM1 expression and HER2 status, pointing to a potential role of FOXM1 as a new drug target in HER2 resistant breast tumour, as FOXM1 inhibitors for cancer treatment were described recently. Further studies are underway to analyse the potential interaction between FOXM1 and HER2, especially whether FOXM1 directly activates the HER2 promoter.

  18. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  19. Optimized acquisition scheme for multi-projection correlation imaging of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Amarpreet S.; Samei, Ehsan; Saunders, Robert S.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Singh, Swatee

    2008-03-01

    We are reporting the optimized acquisition scheme of multi-projection breast Correlation Imaging (CI) technique, which was pioneered in our lab at Duke University. CI is similar to tomosynthesis in its image acquisition scheme. However, instead of analyzing the reconstructed images, the projection images are directly analyzed for pathology. Earlier, we presented an optimized data acquisition scheme for CI using mathematical observer model. In this article, we are presenting a Computer Aided Detection (CADe)-based optimization methodology. Towards that end, images from 106 subjects recruited for an ongoing clinical trial for tomosynthesis were employed. For each patient, 25 angular projections of each breast were acquired. Projection images were supplemented with a simulated 3 mm 3D lesion. Each projection was first processed by a traditional CADe algorithm at high sensitivity, followed by a reduction of false positives by combining geometrical correlation information available from the multiple images. Performance of the CI system was determined in terms of free-response receiver operating characteristics (FROC) curves and the area under ROC curves. For optimization, the components of acquisition such as the number of projections, and their angular span were systematically changed to investigate which one of the many possible combinations maximized the sensitivity and specificity. Results indicated that the performance of the CI system may be maximized with 7-11 projections spanning an angular arc of 44.8°, confirming our earlier findings using observer models. These results indicate that an optimized CI system may potentially be an important diagnostic tool for improved breast cancer detection.

  20. HER2 and β-catenin protein location: importance in the prognosis of breast cancer patients and their correlation when breast cancer cells suffer stressful situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello-Carrión, F Darío; Shortrede, Jorge E; Alvarez-Olmedo, Daiana; Cayado-Gutiérrez, Niubys; Castro, Gisela N; Zoppino, Felipe C M; Guerrero, Martín; Martinis, Estefania; Wuilloud, Rodolfo; Gómez, Nidia N; Biaggio, Verónica; Orozco, Javier; Gago, Francisco E; Ciocca, Leonardo A; Fanelli, Mariel A; Ciocca, Daniel R

    2015-02-01

    In human breast cancer, β-catenin localization has been related with disease prognosis. Since HER2-positive patients are an important subgroup, and that in breast cancer cells a direct interaction of β-catenin/HER2 has been reported, in the present study we have explored whether β-catenin location is related with the disease survival. The study was performed in a tumor bank from patients (n = 140) that did not receive specific anti-HER2 therapy. The proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry in serial sections, 47 (33.5%) patients were HER2-positive with a long follow-up. HER2-positive patients that displayed β-catenin at the plasma membrane (completely surrounding the tumour cells) showed a significant better disease-free survival and overall survival than the patients showing the protein on other locations. Then we explored the dynamics of the co-expression of β-catenin and HER2 in human MCF-7 and SKBR3 cells exposed to different stressful situations. In untreated conditions MCF-7 and SKBR3 cells showed very different β-catenin localization. In MCF-7 cells, cadmium administration caused a striking change in β-catenin localization driving it from plasma membrane to cytoplasmic and perinuclear areas and HER2 showed a similar localization patterns. The changes induced by cadmium were compared with heat shock, H2O2 and tamoxifen treatments. In conclusion, this study shows the dynamical associations of HER2 and β-catenin and their changes in subcellular localizations driven by stressful situations. In addition, we report for the first time the correlation between plasma membrane associated β-catenin in HER2-positive breast cancer and survival outcome, and the importance of the protein localization in breast cancer samples.

  1. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 activation correlates with HER2 overexpression and mediates estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell growth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Caiazza, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane glycerol-phospholipids to release arachidonic acid as the first step of the eicosanoid signaling pathway. This pathway contributes to proliferation in breast cancer, and numerous studies have demonstrated a crucial role of cyclooxygenase 2 and prostaglandin E(2) release in breast cancer progression. The role of cPLA(2)alpha activation is less clear, and we recently showed that 17beta-estradiol (E2) can rapidly activate cPLA(2)alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Overexpression or gene amplification of HER2 is found in approximately 30% of breast cancer patients and correlates with a poor clinical outcome and resistance to endocrine therapy. This study reports the first evidence for a correlation between cPLA(2)alpha enzymatic activity and overexpression of the HER2 receptor. The activation of cPLA(2)alpha in response to E2 treatment was biphasic with the first phase dependent on trans-activation through the matrix metalloproteinase-dependent release of heparin-bound epidermal growth factor. EGFR\\/HER2 heterodimerization resulted in downstream signaling through the ERK1\\/2 cascade to promote cPLA(2)alpha phosphorylation at Ser505. There was a correlation between HER2 and cPLA(2)alpha expression in six breast cancer cell lines examined, and inhibition of HER2 activation or expression in the SKBR3 cell line using herceptin or HER2-specific small interfering RNA, respectively, resulted in decreased activation and expression of cPLA(2)alpha. Pharmacological blockade of cPLA(2)alpha using a specific antagonist suppressed the growth of both MCF-7 and SKBR3 cells by reducing E2-induced proliferation and by stimulating cellular apoptosis and necrosis. This study highlights cPLAalpha(2) as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in endocrine-dependent and endocrine-independent breast cancer.

  2. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  3. Expression of Gli1 correlates with the transition of breast cancer cells to estrogen-independent growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jieying; Chen, Guangchun; Cao, Dongmei; Li, Yidong; Diao, Fei; Cai, Haoyu; Jin, Yiduo; Lu, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The failure of breast cancer treatment is largely due to the development of estrogen independence. Current data illustrate that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling may play an important role in breast cancer development. Here, we show that the expression of the Hh effector protein, Gli1 was significantly higher in estrogen-independent breast cancer cells than in estrogen-dependent cells. Our data showed for the first time that stable expression of Gli1 in ER positive breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D can induce estrogen-independent proliferation and promote G1/S phase transition, which associated with cyclin-Rb axi. Gli1 can also attenuate the response of proliferation to estrogenic stimulation, which was correlated with down-regulation of expression of ERalpha and PR, as well as down-regulation of transactivation of ERalpha. Our results suggest that up-regulation of Gli1 in breast cancer cells may be one of the mechanisms responsible for developing estrogen independence and this process may be regulated through down-regulation of expression and transactivation of ERalpha.

  4. Elevated APOBEC3B correlates with poor outcomes for estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Willis, Scooter; Burns, Michael B; Look, Maxime P; Meijer-Van Gelder, Marion E; Schlicker, Andreas; Heideman, Marinus R; Jacobs, Heinz; Wessels, Lodewyk; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Gray, Kathryn P; Foekens, John A; Harris, Reuben S; Martens, John W M

    2014-12-01

    Recent observations connected DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B to the genetic evolution of breast cancer. We addressed whether APOBEC3B is associated with breast cancer clinical outcomes. APOBEC3B messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were related in 1,491 primary breast cancers to disease-free (DFS), metastasis-free (MFS), and overall survival (OS). For independent validation, APOBEC3B mRNA expression was associated with patient outcome data in five additional cohorts (over 3,500 breast cancer cases). In univariate Cox regression analysis, increasing APOBEC3B expression as a continuous variable was associated with worse DFS, MFS, and OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20, 1.21, and 1.24, respectively; all P DFS (continuous variable: HR = 1.29, P = .001; dichotomized at the median level, HR = 1.66, P = .0002). This implies that APOBEC3B is a marker of pure prognosis in ER + disease. These findings were confirmed in the analyses of five independent patient sets. In these analyses, APOBEC3B expression dichotomized at the median level was associated with adverse outcomes (METABRIC discovery and validation, 788 and 706 ER + cases, disease-specific survival (DSS), HR = 1.77 and HR = 1.77, respectively, both P DFS, HR = 1.57, P = 2.46E-04; NKI295, 181 ER + cases, DFS, HR = 1.72, P = .054; and BIG 1-98, 1,219 ER + cases, breast-cancer-free interval (BCFI), HR = 1.42, P = 0.0079). APOBEC3B is a marker of pure prognosis and poor outcomes for ER + breast cancer, which strongly suggests that genetic aberrations induced by APOBEC3B contribute to breast cancer progression.

  5. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  6. THE CORRELATIONS OF RETINOIC ACID RECEPTOR-α AND ESTROGEN RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELL LINES AND TUMORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余黎明; 邵志敏; 蔡三军; 韩企夏; 沈镇宙

    1998-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor-α(RAR α) plays a major role in the growth inhibitory effect of retinoic acid on human breast cancer ceils, may be it could serve as an indicator to guide the treatment and prevent of breast cancer with retinoic acid in ciiinc. All previous researchs were based on observing the changes ofRAR a mRAN expression. In this study, the expression of RAR a in human breast cell lines was studied by Northern Blot, Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry in mRNA level and protein level. Results showed that RAR a protein expression was correlated with RAR a mRNA expression. RAR α mRNA expression was higher in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human breast cancer cell lines than in ER-negative ones. So was RAR α protein expression. Both RAR α mRNA amd RAR α protein expression were associated with ER status. The expression of RAR α and the relationship between RAR α and ER status were also determined by immunohistochemistry in 58 human primary breast cancer tumors. 37 (63.8%) tumors were ER-positive and of these 28 (75. 7%) were also RAR α -positive. The coexpression of ER and RAR α was statistleally significant (P<0. 01, by X2 contingency analysis), It was reported that RAR α expression in cultured breast cancer ceils was regulated by estrogen acting via the ER. Our study demonstrated that RAR α expression may be modulated in breast cancer in vivo by estrogen via ER.

  7. Correlation between the Expression of Aquaporin 1 and Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1 in Breast Cancer Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiejun YIN; Shiying YU; Liang XIAO; Jun ZHANG; Chong LIU; Yunping LU; Chengping LIU

    2008-01-01

    The correlation between aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF 1) in breast cancer tissues was preliminarily studied. In 155 cases of breast cancer, the expression levels of AQP1 were detected by immunohistochemisty in HIF1-positive group or HIF1-negative group, and the correlation between AQP1 and HIF1 was analyzed. The overexpression of AQP1 and HIF1 were observed in 155 cases of breast cancer tissues. The expression level of AQP1 in HIF1-positive group was significantly higher than that in HIF1-negative group. The positive expression rate of AQP1 was 296.55±24.67 and 168.37±37.53 in HIF1-positive group and HIF1-negative group respectively with the difference being very significant between them (P<0.001). It was concluded that AQP1 was overexpressed in the HIF1-positive group and there were some correlations between AQP1 and HIF1, suggesting they interact each other and regulate the oncogenesis of breast cancer.

  8. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ducts that carry milk to the nipples, and fat. During puberty, women begin developing more breast tissue, and men do not. But because men are born with a small amount of breast tissue, they can develop breast cancer. Types of breast cancer diagnosed in men include: Cancer ...

  9. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  10. High expression of miR-21 in tumor stroma correlates with increased cancer cell proliferation in human breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Lene; Balslev, Eva; Jørgensen, Stine

    2011-01-01

    Low-risk and high-risk breast cancer patients are stratified primarily according to their lymph node (LN) status and grading. However, some low-risk patients relapse, and some high-risk patients have a favorable clinical outcome, implying a need for better prognostic and predictive tests. Micro...... RNAs are often aberrantly expressed in cancer and microRNA-21 is upregulated in a variety of cancers, including breast cancer. High miR-21 levels have been associated with poor prognosis. To determine the cellular localization of miR-21 and to compare its expression levels with histopathological...... features, we performed in situ hybridization and semi-quantitative assessment of the miR-21 signal on 12 LN negative grade I (assumed low risk), and 12 LN positive grade II (high risk) breast cancers. miR-21 was predominantly seen in cancer associated fibroblast-like cells, with no difference in expression...

  11. Bmi-1 promotes invasion and metastasis, and its elevated expression is correlated with an advanced stage of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung Hsiang-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B-lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region-1 (Bmi-1 acts as an oncogene in various tumors, and its overexpression correlates with a poor outcome in several human cancers. Ectopic expression of Bmi-1 can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and enhance the motility and invasiveness of human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NPECs, whereas silencing endogenous Bmi-1 expression can reverse EMT and reduce the metastatic potential of nasopharyngeal cancer cells (NPCs. Mouse xenograft studies indicate that coexpression of Bmi-1 and H-Ras in breast cancer cells can induce an aggressive and metastatic phenotype with an unusual occurrence of brain metastasis; although, Bmi-1 overexpression did not result in oncogenic transformation of MCF-10A cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of Bmi-1-mediated progression and the metastasis of breast cancer are not fully elucidated at this time. Results Bmi-1 expression is more pronouncedly increased in primary cancer tissues compared to matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. High Bmi-1 expression is correlated with advanced clinicopathologic classifications (T, N, and M and clinical stages. Furthermore, a high level of Bmi-1 indicates an unfavorable overall survival and serves as a high risk marker for breast cancer. In addition, inverse transcriptional expression levels of Bmi-1 and E-cadherin are detected between the primary cancer tissues and the matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Higher Bmi-1 levels are found in the cancer tissue, whereas the paired adjacent non-cancer tissue shows higher E-cadherin levels. Overexpression of Bmi-1 increases the motility and invasive properties of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells, which is concurrent with the increased expression of mesenchymal markers, the decreased expression of epithelial markers, the stabilization of Snail and the dysregulation of the Akt/GSK3β pathway. Consistent with these

  12. Correlation between NK function and response to trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spadi Rosella

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody selectively directed against Her2 and approved for the treatment of Her2 overexpressing breast cancer patients. Its proposed mechanisms of action include mediation of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC by triggering FcγRIII on natural killer (NK cells. This study addresses the correlation between overall NK function and trastuzumab's clinical activity. Subjects and methods Clinical and immunological responses were assessed in 26 patients receiving trastuzumab monotherapy as maintenance management after chemotherapy (8 mg/kg load and then standard doses of 6 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Cytotoxic activity against the MHC class I-negative standard NK target K562 cell line and HER2-specific ADCC against a trastuzumab-coated Her2-positive SKBR3 cell line were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC harvested after the first standard dose. After six months, seventeen patients were scored as responders and nine as non-responders according to the RECIST criteria, while Progression-Free Survival (PFS was calculated during a 12 months follow-up. Results The responders had significantly higher levels of both NK and ADCC activities (p Conclusion One of the mechanisms of action of trastuzumab is NK cell-mediated ADCC lysis of the Her2-positve target cell. We show here that its potency is correlated with the short-term response to treatment, whereas longer protection against tumor expansion seems to be mediated by pure NK activity.

  13. Expression of Notch1 Correlates with Breast Cancer Progression and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xun; Zhang, Mingsheng; Wu, Hua; Xu, Hanxiao; Han, Na; Chu, Qian; Yu, Shiying; Chen, Yuan; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have evaluated the significance of Notch1 expression in breast cancer, but the results have ever been disputed. By using 21 studies involving 3867 patients, this meta-analysis revealed that the expression of Notch1 was significantly higher in breast cancer than in normal tissues (OR=7.21; 95%CI, 4.7-11.07) and that higher Notch1 expression was associated with transition from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive cancer (OR=3.75; 95% CI, 1.8-7.78). Higher Notch1 activity was observed in the basal subtype of breast cancer (OR=2.53; 95% CI, 1.18-5.43). Moreover, patients with Notch1 overexpression exhibited significantly worse overall and recurrence-free survival. Our meta-analysis suggests that Notch inhibitors may be useful in blocking the early progression of DCIS and that the outcomes of clinical trials for Notch1-targeting therapeutics could be improved by the molecular stratification of breast cancer patients.

  14. Expression of Notch1 Correlates with Breast Cancer Progression and Prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Yuan

    Full Text Available Various studies have evaluated the significance of Notch1 expression in breast cancer, but the results have ever been disputed. By using 21 studies involving 3867 patients, this meta-analysis revealed that the expression of Notch1 was significantly higher in breast cancer than in normal tissues (OR=7.21; 95%CI, 4.7-11.07 and that higher Notch1 expression was associated with transition from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS to invasive cancer (OR=3.75; 95% CI, 1.8-7.78. Higher Notch1 activity was observed in the basal subtype of breast cancer (OR=2.53; 95% CI, 1.18-5.43. Moreover, patients with Notch1 overexpression exhibited significantly worse overall and recurrence-free survival. Our meta-analysis suggests that Notch inhibitors may be useful in blocking the early progression of DCIS and that the outcomes of clinical trials for Notch1-targeting therapeutics could be improved by the molecular stratification of breast cancer patients.

  15. Correlation between dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and histopathology in the measurement of tumor and breast volume and their ratio in breast cancer patients: a prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qian; YE Jing-ming; XU Ling; DUAN Xue-ning; ZHAO Jian-xin; LIU Yin-hua

    2012-01-01

    Background Earlier studies have examined the association between the diameter of primary tumors measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology in breast cancer patients.However,the diameter does not completely describe the dimensions of the breast tumor or its volumetric proportion relative to the whole breast.The association between breast tumor volume/breast volume ratios measured by these two techniques has not been reported.Methods Seventy-three patients were recruited from female patients with primary breast tumors admitted to our center between January and December 2010.They were divided into two groups.Group A (n=46) underwent modified radical mastectomy (MRM),and Group B (n=27) underwent preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy before MRM.They were examined by dynamic-contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to measure breast volumes (BVs),tumor volumes (TVs),and tumor volume/breast volume ratios (TV/BV).These measurements were compared with histopathology results after MRM,and the associations between MRI and pathology were analyzed by linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis.Results For Group A,the correlation coefficients for BVs,TVs,and TV/BV ratios measured by the two techniques were 0.938,0.921,and 0.897 (all P <0.001),respectively.For Group B,the correlation coefficients for BVs,TVs,and TV/BV ratios were 0.936,0.902,and 0.869 (all P<0.01),respectively.The results suggest statistically significant correlations between these parameters measured by the two techniques for both groups.Conclusion For these patients,BVs,TVs,and TV/BV ratios measured by DCE-MRI significantly correlated with those determined by histopathology.

  16. Breast cancer awareness

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is rising among women in many European countries, affecting up to 1 in 16 women and has become the most common cause of cancer in European women. In Malta breast cancer is the commonest oncological cause of death in females. In fact 5.2% of all deaths in females in 2010 was from breast cancer.

  17. Diagnostic and prognostic correlates of preoperative FDG PET for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinh-Hung, Vincent [University of Geneva, Department of Imaging and Medical Information Sciences, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Geneva, Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Everaert, Hendrik [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Lamote, Jan; Vanhoeij, Marian; Verfaillie, Guy [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Surgery, UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Voordeckers, Mia; Parijs, Hilde van; Ridder, Mark de [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Radiotherapy, UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Fontaine, Christel [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Medical Oncology UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Vees, Hansjoerg; Ratib, Osman [University of Geneva, Department of Imaging and Medical Information Sciences, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Vlastos, Georges [University of Geneva, Department of Surgical Senology, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    To explore the preoperative utility of FDG PET for the diagnosis and prognosis in a retrospective breast cancer case series. In this retrospective study, 104 patients who had undergone a preoperative FDG PET scan for primary breast cancer at the UZ Brussel during the period 2002-2008 were identified. Selection criteria were: histological confirmation, FDG PET performed prior to therapy, and breast surgery integrated into the primary therapy plan. Patterns of increased metabolism were recorded according to the involved locations: breast, ipsilateral axillary region, internal mammary chain, or distant organs. The end-point for the survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards was disease-free survival. The contribution of prognostic factors was evaluated using the Akaike information criterion and the Nagelkerke index. PET positivity was associated with age, gender, tumour location, tumour size >2 cm, lymphovascular invasion, oestrogen and progesterone receptor status. Among 63 patients with a negative axillary PET status, 56 (88.9 %) had three or fewer involved nodes, whereas among 41 patients with a positive axillary PET status, 25 (61.0 %) had more than three positive nodes (P < 0.0001). In the survival analysis of preoperative characteristics, PET axillary node positivity was the foremost statistically significant factor associated with decreased disease-free survival (hazard ratio 2.81, 95% CI 1.17-6.74). Preoperative PET axillary node positivity identified patients with a higher burden of nodal involvement, which might be important for treatment decisions in breast cancer patients. (orig.)

  18. Correlation of Baseline BCL-2 mRNA Expression and Clinical Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihantono Prihantono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer. Tumor resistance to apoptosis usually caused by deregulation of the expression of BCL-2 family protein or mutation of the tumor suppressor gene p53. Over expression of Bcl-2 is commonly found in various types of cancer including breast cancer. Studies mentioned that analysis of Bcl-2 might predict response to selected endocrine and chemotherapies. This study is conducted to evaluate the correlation of BCL-2 mRNA expression and clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Longitudinal study is used in this research, 30 subjects of breast cancer tissue samples prechemotherapy using cyclophosphamide-adriamycin-5FU regiment. Detection of mRNA expression of BCL-2 using qRT-PCR techniques. Evaluation of clinical response to chemotherapy is using RECIST criteria. Mean value of BCL-2 mRNA expression in breast cancer patients was 9.917± 2.568. Mean value of BCL-2 mRNA expression of responsive group was 9.887± 2.731. Mean value of BCL-2 mRNA expression of nonresponsive group was 10.017±2.122. Mean value of responsive group were lower than nonresponsive group, but there was no significant correlation between baseline mRNA expression of BCL-2 with clinical response to chemotherapy, value of r=0.378, p=0.223 (p>0.05. this study shows that there was no significant correlation between baseline expression of mRNA BCL-2 with clinical response to chemotherapy.

  19. Correlation between Slug transcription factor and miR-221 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambertini Elisabetta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer and its metastatic progression is mainly directed by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT, a phenomenon supported by specific transcription factors and miRNAs. Methods In order to investigate a possible correlation between Slug transcription factor and miR-221, we performed Slug gene silencing in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and evaluated the expression of genes involved in supporting the breast cancer phenotype, using qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and wound healing assays were employed to determine a functional link between these two molecules. Results We showed that Slug silencing significantly decreased the level of miR-221 and vimentin, reactivated Estrogen Receptor α and increased E-cadherin and TRPS1 expression. We demonstrated that miR-221 is a Slug target gene, and identified a specific region of miR-221 promoter that is transcriptionally active and binds the transcription factor Slug “in vivo”. In addition, we showed that in Slug-silenced cells, wich retained residual miR-221 (about 38%, cell migration was strongly inhibited. Cell migration was inhibited, but to a less degree, following complete knockdown of miR-221 expression by transfection with antagomiR-221. Conclusions We report for the first time evidence of a correlation between Slug transcription factor and miR-221 in breast cancer cells. These studies suggest that miR-221 expression is, in part, dependent on Slug in breast cancer cells, and that Slug plays a more important role than miR-221 in cell migration and invasion.

  20. Electrophysiological correlates of information processing in breast-cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Schagen, Sanne B; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Boogerd, Willem; Hamburger, Hans L; van Dam, Frits S A M

    2005-11-01

    Cognitive deficits are found in a number of breast-cancer patients who have undergone adjuvant (Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, and 5-Fluorouracil (CMF)) chemotherapy, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The objective of this study is to investigate information processing in these patients with concurrent registration of brain activity. Twenty-six breast-cancer patients treated with adjuvant CMF chemotherapy and a control group of 23 stage I breast-cancer patients not treated with chemotherapy were examined. Mean time since treatment for the CMF patients was 5.1 years after the last CMF course, and for the control patients 3.6 years after termination of radiotherapy. An information processing task was administered with concurrent EEG registration. Reaction times and the amplitudes and latencies of an Event Related Potential component (P3) in different task conditions related to input, central, and output processing of information were studied. Significant differences in latency and amplitude of the P3 component were found between the treatment groups with an earlier and reduced P3 in the chemotherapy group. Patients treated with chemotherapy had longer reaction times (although not significantly different) than the control group on all task conditions. Our data provide further evidence for long-term neurocognitive problems in breast-cancer patients treated with adjuvant (CMF) chemotherapy and offer new information regarding abnormalities in brain functioning in these patients.

  1. Clinical correlates of 'BRCAness' in triple-negative breast cancer of patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, A.M.M.; Rijn, C. van; Smits, M.M.; Mulder, L.; Laddach, N.; Savola, S.P.; Wesseling, J.; Rodenhuis, S.; Imholz, A.L.; Lips, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously reported an array comparative genomic hybridization profile that identifies triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC), with BRCA1 dysfunction and a high sensitivity to intensified dose bifunctional alkylating agents. To determine the effect of conventional-dose chemotherap

  2. Affluence and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0.624). The multivariate general linear model with income as covariate, 5-year survival by race as a dependent variable, showed a significant effect of income and White race on 5-year survival (p breast cancer

  3. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  4. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  5. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000): 317-323

  6. The far-upstream element-binding protein 2 is correlated with proliferation and doxorubicin resistance in human breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Ying; Gu, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Chao; Wang, Hua; Ni, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Yu, Xia-Fei; Yang, Li-Yi; He, Zhi-Xian; Mao, Guo-Xin; Yang, Shu-Yun

    2016-07-01

    Far-upstream element (FUSE)-binding protein 2 (FBP2) was a member of single-stranded DNA-binding protein family; it played an important role in regulating transcription and post-transcription and is involved in the regulation of C-MYC gene expression in liver tumors. However, the role of FBP2 in breast cancer and its mechanism has not been studied yet. Here, we discovered that FBP2 was up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that up-regulated FBP2 was highly associated with tumor grade, Ki-67, and poor prognosis, which was an independent prognostic factor for survival of breast cancer patients. At the cellular level, we found that FBP2 was correlated with cell cycle progression by accelerating G1/S transition, and knockdown of FBP2 could weaken cell proliferation, anchorage-independent cell growth, while enhancing the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin. More importantly, we found that activation of PI3K/AKT pathway could phosphorylate FBP2, and then make FBP2 shuttle from cytoplasm into the nucleus, which was the main mechanism of breast cancer cell proliferation and drug resistance. Taken together, our findings supported the notion that FBP2 might via PI3K/AKT pathway influence breast cancer progression and drug resistance, which might provide a new target for the design of anti-cancer drugs for breast cancer patients.

  7. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention en español Cáncer de mama You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear ...

  8. bc-GenExMiner 3.0: new mining module computes breast cancer gene expression correlation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jézéquel, Pascal; Frénel, Jean-Sébastien; Campion, Loïc; Guérin-Charbonnel, Catherine; Gouraud, Wilfried; Ricolleau, Gabriel; Campone, Mario

    2013-01-01

    We recently developed a user-friendly web-based application called bc-GenExMiner (http://bcgenex.centregauducheau.fr), which offered the possibility to evaluate prognostic informativity of genes in breast cancer by means of a 'prognostic module'. In this study, we develop a new module called 'correlation module', which includes three kinds of gene expression correlation analyses. The first one computes correlation coefficient between 2 or more (up to 10) chosen genes. The second one produces two lists of genes that are most correlated (positively and negatively) to a 'tested' gene. A gene ontology (GO) mining function is also proposed to explore GO 'biological process', 'molecular function' and 'cellular component' terms enrichment for the output lists of most correlated genes. The third one explores gene expression correlation between the 15 telomeric and 15 centromeric genes surrounding a 'tested' gene. These correlation analyses can be performed in different groups of patients: all patients (without any subtyping), in molecular subtypes (basal-like, HER2+, luminal A and luminal B) and according to oestrogen receptor status. Validation tests based on published data showed that these automatized analyses lead to results consistent with studies' conclusions. In brief, this new module has been developed to help basic researchers explore molecular mechanisms of breast cancer. DATABASE URL: http://bcgenex.centregauducheau.fr

  9. Expression of Eph receptor A10 is correlated with lymph node metastasis and stage progression in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Eph receptor A10 (EphA10) is a valuable breast cancer marker that is highly expressed in breast cancer tissues by comparison with normal breast tissues, as we previously reported. However, the role of EphA10 expression in breast cancer is not well understood. Here, we have analyzed the expression of EphA10 at the mRNA- and protein-level in clinical breast cancer tissues and then evaluated the relationship with clinicopathological parameters for each sample. EphA10 mRNA expression was quantifi...

  10. Correlation of breast recurrence (inflammatory type or not) after breast conserving surgery with radiation therapy and clinicopathological factors in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Reiki [Kumamoto City Hospital (Japan); Koyama, Hiroki

    1998-09-01

    To clarify risk factors for breast recurrence of inflammatory type after breast conserving therapy, we examined clinicopathological findings and therapies given after initial surgery. Nine cases of inflammatory breast recurrence out of 133 recurrent cases collected from a collaborative group supported by a grant-in-aid for Cancer Research by Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (7-24, Chairman: H. Koyama) were analyzed by a case control study. And forty-three recurrent cases in Kumamoto City Hospital were also analyzed similarly. Inflammatory breast recurrence after breast conserving surgery is characterized as follows: Most cases have negative surgical margin and may be unresponsive to radiation therapy, unlike non-inflammatory breast recurrence. Lymph node metastasis is involved in recurrence, but the difference in patients with only distant metastasis was positive lymphatic invasion. Distant metastasis coexisted at the time of recurrence, and secondary surgery was impossible in most cases. The prognosis after recurrence was unfavorable. These findings suggest that inflammatory recurrence is manifestation of so-called ``occult`` inflammatory breast cancer. (author)

  11. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  12. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have revolutionized breast cancer treatment: tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Bernard Fisher, M.D., of the University of ... breast tumors. Dr. Slamon and his colleagues developed trastuzumab (Herceptin). Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody, was the first ...

  13. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer How Does Breast Cancer Form? Changes or mutations in DNA can cause ... requests, please contact permissionrequest@cancer.org . More In Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention Early Detection ...

  14. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 in breast cancer - correlation with traditional prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampelj Maja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 play a key role in tumour invasion and metastasis. High levels of both proteolytic enzymes are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between traditional prognostic factors and uPA and PAI-1 expression in primary tumour of breast cancer patients.

  15. Induction of Wnt-inducible signaling protein-1 correlates with invasive breast cancer oncogenesis and reduced type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinke, David J

    2014-01-01

    Innate and type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity function as important extracellular control mechanisms that maintain cellular homeostasis. Interleukin-12 (IL12) is an important cytokine that links innate immunity with type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity. We recently observed in vitro that tumor-derived Wnt-inducible signaling protein-1 (WISP1) exerts paracrine action to suppress IL12 signaling. The objective of this retrospective study was three fold: 1) to determine whether a gene signature associated with type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity was correlated with overall survival, 2) to determine whether WISP1 expression is increased in invasive breast cancer, and 3) to determine whether a gene signature consistent with inhibition of IL12 signaling correlates with WISP1 expression. Clinical information and mRNA expression for genes associated with anti-tumor immunity were obtained from the invasive breast cancer arm of the Cancer Genome Atlas study. Patient cohorts were identified using hierarchical clustering. The immune signatures associated with the patient cohorts were interpreted using model-based inference of immune polarization. Reverse phase protein array, tissue microarray, and quantitative flow cytometry in breast cancer cell lines were used to validate observed differences in gene expression. We found that type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity was correlated with increased survival in patients with invasive breast cancer, especially in patients with invasive triple negative breast cancer. Oncogenic transformation in invasive breast cancer was associated with an increase in WISP1. The gene expression signature in invasive breast cancer was consistent with WISP1 as a paracrine inhibitor of type 1 cell-mediated immunity through inhibiting IL12 signaling and promoting type 2 immunity. Moreover, model-based inference helped identify appropriate immune signatures that can be used as design constraints in genetically engineering better pre

  16. Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Older age • B RCA2 gene mutation • F amily history of breast cancer • Gynecomastia (enlargement of the breast tissue) • Klinefelter’s syndrome (a genetic condition related to high levels ...

  17. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  18. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  19. Estimated amount of 24-hour urine sodium excretion is positively correlated with stomach and breast cancer prevalence in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yong Chul; Koo, Ho Seok; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the association between the prevalence of cancer, particularly stomach cancer, and the amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion estimated from spot urine specimens. The study included 19,083 subjects who took part in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey between 2009 and 2011. The total amount of urine sodium excreted in a 24-hr period was estimated by using two equations based on the values for spot urine sodium and creatinine. In subjects who had an estimated 24-hr urine sodium excretion of more than two standard deviations above the mean (group 2), the prevalence of stomach cancer was higher than in subjects with lower 24-hr sodium excretion (group 1). By using the Tanaka equation to estimate it, the prevalence of stomach cancer was 0.6% (114/18,331) in group 1, whereas it was 1.6% (9/568) in group 2 (P=0.006). By using the Korean equation, the prevalence was 0.6% (115/18,392) in group 1, and 1.6% in group 2 (8/507) (P=0.010). By using the Tanaka equation, breast cancer in women is more prevalent in group 2 (1.9%, 6/324) than group 1 (0.8%, 78/9,985, P=0.039). Higher salt intake, as defined by the estimated amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion, is positively correlated with a higher prevalence of stomach or breast cancer in the Korean population.

  20. Breast cancer nodal metastasis correlates with tumour and lymph node methylation profiles of Caveolin-1 and CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevizos, Leonidas; Kataki, Agapi; Derventzi, Anastasia; Gomatos, Ilias; Loutraris, Christos; Gloustianou, Georgia; Manouras, Andreas; Konstadoulakis, Manousos M; Zografos, George

    2014-06-01

    DNA methylation is the best characterised epigenetic change so far. However, its role in breast cancer metastasis has not as yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between the methylation profiles characterising primary tumours and their corresponding positive or negative for metastasis lymph nodes (LN) and correlate these with tumour metastatic potential. Methylation signatures of Caveolin-1, CXCR4, RAR-β, Cyclin D2 and Twist gene promoters were studied in 30 breast cancer primary lesions and their corresponding metastasis-free and tumour-infiltrated LN with Methylation-Specific PCR. CXCR4 and Caveolin-1 expression was further studied by immunohistochemistry. Tumours were typified by methylation of RAR-β and hypermethylation of Cyclin-D2 and Twist gene promoters. Tumour patterns were highly conserved in tumour-infiltrated LN. CXCR4 and Caveolin-1 promoter methylation patterns differentiated between node-negative and metastatic tumours. Nodal metastasis was associated with tumour and lymph node profiles of extended methylation of Caveolin-1 and lack of CXCR4 hypermethylation. Immunodetection studies verified CXCR4 and Caveolin-1 hypermethylation as gene silencing mechanism. Absence of Caveolin-1 expression in stromal cells associated with tumour aggressiveness while strong Caveolin-1 expression in tumour cells correlated with decreased 7-year disease-free survival. Methylation-mediated activation of CXCR4 and inactivation of Caveolin-1 was linked with nodal metastasis while intratumoral Caveolin-1 expression heterogeneity correlated with disease progression. This evidence contributes to the better understanding and, thereby, therapeutic management of breast cancer metastasis process.

  1. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer.

  2. Negative Expression of Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule (MCAM Correlated with Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartika Nurwenda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is breast cancer that demonstrate the absence of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. TNBC has an aggressive behaviour, high frequency of metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes and recurrence, and poor prognosis. Metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes will affect the rate of survival and recurrence in TNBC. Melanoma cell adhession molecule (MCAM is a membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is involved in the cells binding, which later became known as the marker for the progression and metastasis of melanoma and carcinoma of the prostate. However, MCAM role in mammary carcinoma still controversial. The aim of this study was to assess correlation between MCAM expression with incidence of metastatic to axillary lymph nodes in TNBC. This research was conducted during January 1st 2010–April 31st 2015 at Pathology Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. This study used a cross-sectional design, using lambda correlation test. MCAM immunohistochemical staining performed on 56 samples of paraffin blocks of TNBC group that did not metastasized and has metastasized to the axillary lymph nodes. A total of 22 of 28 (78.6% of TNBC metastatic to axillary lymph nodes have histoskor MCAM value <4 (negative, whereas 16 of 28 (57.1% of TNBC non-metastatic have histoskor value ≥ 4 (positive. Negative expression of MCAM correlated with TNBC that had metastasized to axillary lymph nodes, although not the only factor that influenced them.

  3. MMP-9 and MMP-2 gelatinases and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 inhibitors in breast cancer: correlations with prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinga, D C; Blidaru, A; Condrea, Ileana; Ardeleanu, Carmen; Dragomir, Cristina; Szegli, G; Stefanescu, Maria; Matache, Cristiana

    2006-01-01

    The goal of our study was to analyse the prognostic values for some matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in breast cancer. We evaluated the activity and the expression levels of MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in malignant versus benign fresh breast tumor extracts. For this purpose, gelatinzymography, immunoblotting and ELISA were used to analyse the activity and expression of MMPs and TIMPs. We found that MMP-9 expression level and activity are increased in malignant tumors. In addition, MMP-9/TIMP-1 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio values obtained by us were significantly different in malignant tumors compared to benign tumors. We suggest that the abnormal MMP-9/TIMP-1 balance plays a role in the configuration of breast invasive carcinoma of no special type and also in tumor growth, while altered MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio value could be associated with lymph node invasion and used as a prognostic marker in correlation with Nottingham Prognostic Index. Finally, we showed that in malignant tumors high expression of estrogen receptors is associated with enhanced activity of MMP-2 and increased bcl- 2 levels, while high expression of progesterone receptors is correlated with low TIMP-1 protein levels.

  4. Breast cancer statistics, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population.

  5. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . 2014;160:271-281. PMID: 24366376 www.ncbi. ... Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . [Epub ahead of print 12 January 2016] doi: ...

  6. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  7. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  9. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  10. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  11. Review of Breast Cancers That Can Mimic a Cystic Component: Ultrasonographic and Pathologic Correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yun Woo; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Wha [Dept. of Radiology, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Whan [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Seung Bo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    We illustrate the sonographic findings of malignant breast masses that can mimic a cystic component with pathologic correlations. The disease entities presented in this study include infiltrating ductal carcinoma, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), papillary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, metaplastic carcinoma, and a malignant phyllodes tumor. Malignant masses with a cystic component are often characterized by well-circumscribed round, oval, or lobular masses, thereby appearing benign on ultrasonography. On pathology, the cystic component of a malignant mass is identified by cystic degeneration, hemorrhage, necrosis, or ductal dilatation. If the mass is well-circumscribed with a cystic component, a biopsy should be considered in the analysis of the solid component within a mass.

  12. 乳腺癌患者中医体质临床研究%Clinical Study on Correlation between Breast Cancer and Traditional Chinese Medical Constitution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 田欢; 莫婷; 岳双冰; 李清勤

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究乳腺癌患者中医体质分布特点,中医体质和乳腺癌的相关性.方法:采用流行病学病例对照研究,通过问卷调查法对乳腺癌患者和正常人群进行中医体质判别分析.结果:2组人群的体质构成比有统计学意义(P<0 05),乳腺癌患者的气郁质、瘀血质、痰湿质构成比高于正常人群组,是乳腺癌的主要体质影响因素(P<0 05).结论:乳腺癌患者的主要影响体质类型为气郁质、瘀血质、痰湿质.%Objective:To study the distribution of Traditional Chinese Medical( TCM ) constitution of patients with breast cancer and to analyze the correlation between TCM constitution and breast cancer. Methods: The pre-designed questionnaire and the method of case-control were used to classify and analyze the TCM constitution of breast cancer patients and normal population to understand the correlation between TCM constitution and breast cancer. Results: The ratio of constitution type in two groups had statistical difference ( P < 0. 05 ), and the constitution of qi stagnation and phlegm wetness and blood stasis in breast cancer patients was higher in ratio than normal population. The three types are the main factors affecting breast cancer ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: The major relevant TCM constitution of breast cancer patients is qi stagnation , phlegm wetness , blood stasis.

  13. A retrospective review of the metabolic syndrome in women diagnosed with breast cancer and correlation with estrogen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, Sarah V; Douglas Case, L; Lawrence, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    Women diagnosed with obesity and breast cancer have an increased risk of recurrence and death (Protani et al., Breast Cancer Res Treat 123:627-635, 1). Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome--a pathophysiologically distinct inflammatory process comprised of central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. The relationship of obesity as a risk factor for breast cancer is complex with a protective effect for younger women in contrast to a risk for older women (Kabat et al., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:2046-2053, 2; Ursin et al., Epidemiology 6:137-141, 3). The metabolic syndrome has been associated with the risk of cancer, and pro-inflammatory circulating factors may be associated with risk of more aggressive breast cancer (Capasso et al., Cancer Biol Ther 10:1240-1243, 4; Healy et al., Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 22:281-288, 5; Laukkanen et al., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:1646-1650, 6). We conducted a retrospective review of 860 breast cancer patients to determine the relationship between estrogen receptor status and the metabolic syndrome. We collected the relevant metabolic diagnoses, medications, physical findings, and laboratory values and adapted the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria to define the metabolic syndrome retrospectively. No relationship was found between estrogen receptor status and the individual components of the metabolic syndrome. Based on findings in the medical records, 15% of the women with breast cancer had the metabolic syndrome, and 26% of the women were considered obese, 16% hyperglycemic, 54% hypertensive, and 30% dyslipidemic. The metabolic syndrome was associated with advanced age and African-American race (P metabolic syndrome was marginally associated with estrogen receptor-positive tumors (P = 0.054). Our findings do not support the concern that the metabolic syndrome may contribute to more biologically aggressive breast cancer.

  14. Expression of beclin-1 in the microenvironment of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: correlation with prognosis and the cancer-stromal interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Morikawa

    Full Text Available We examined the pathobiological properties of beclin-1, which is a key regulator of autophagosome formation in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, with a particular focus on the cancer microenvironment. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that cancer cells and stromal mesenchymal cells expressed beclin-1 in 68 and 38 of 115 invasive ductal cancers, respectively. Expression of beclin-1 in cancer or stromal cells alone did not correlate with patient prognosis. In contrast, loss of beclin-1 in cancer cells and overexpression in stromal mesenchymal cells was associated with local cancer recurrence, postoperative lymph node metastasis, and a poor disease-free survival rate. A comprehensive gene expression analysis was performed on a co-culture of breast cancer cells and mesenchymal stromal cells, that latter of which either expressed beclin-1 or was depleted of beclin-1 by siRNA. Notably, siRNA-mediated downregulation of beclin-1 in mesenchymal cells co-cultured with breast cancer cells decreased the levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines, their receptors, and collagen receptors. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that reduction of stromal beclin-1 expression decreased the expression of IL-1β and collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2. Microenvironmental IL-1β is believed to play an important role in tumor invasion. Recent work has also indicated that overexpression of DDR2 contributes to breast cancer invasion and lymph node metastasis. Taken together, these findings indicate beclin-1 expression in the stroma might be important for shaping the breast cancer microenvironment and thus could be a potent molecular target in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

  15. Frequent alterations of SLIT2-ROBO1-CDC42 signalling pathway in breast cancer: clinicopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Rittwika; Mukherjee, Nupur; Dasgupta, Hemantika; Islam, Md Saimul; Alam, Neyaz; Roy, Anup; Das, Priyobrata; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the role of SLIT2-ROBO1/2-CDC42 signalling pathways in development of breast cancer (BC). Primary BC samples (n = 150), comprising of almost equal proportion of four subtypes were tested for molecular alterations of SLIT2, ROBO1, ROBO2 and CDC42, the key regulator genes of this pathway. Deletion and methylation frequencies of the candidate genes were seen in the following order: deletion, SLIT2 (38.6%) > ROBO1 (30%) > ROBO2 (7.3%); methylation, SLIT2 (63.3%) > ROBO1 (26.6%) >ROBO2 (9.3%). Majority (80%, 120/150) of the tumours showed alterations (deletion/methylation) in at least one of the candidate genes. Overall, alterations of the candidate genes were as follows: SLIT2, 75.3% (101/150); ROBO1, 45.3% (68/150); ROBO2, 15.3% (23/150). Significantly, higher alteration of SLIT2 locus was observed in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) over HER2 subtype (P = 0.0014). Similar trend is also seen in overall alterations of SLIT2 and/or ROBO1, in TNBC than HER2 subtype (P = 0.0012); of SLIT2 and/or ROBO2 in TNBC than luminal A (P = 0.014) and HER2 subtype (P = 0.048). Immunohistochemical analysis of SLIT2, ROBO1/2 showed reduced expression, concordant with their molecular alterations. Also, high expression of total CDC42 (49/52; 94.2%) and reduced expression of phospho Serine-71 CDC42 (41/52; 78.8%) was observed. Coalterations of SLIT2 and/or ROBO1, SLIT2 and/or ROBO2 had significant association with reduced expression of phospho Serine-71 CDC42 (P = 0.0012-0.0038). Alterations of SLIT2 and/or ROBO1, reduced expression of phospho Serine-71 CDC42 predicted poor survival of BC patients. Results indicate the importance of SLIT2-ROBO1-CDC42 signalling pathway in predicting tumour progression.

  16. Automated tubule nuclei quantification and correlation with oncotype DX risk categories in ER+ breast cancer whole slide images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Bucheli, David; Janowczyk, Andrew; Romero, Eduardo; Gilmore, Hannah; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-03-01

    Early stage estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer (BCa) treatment is based on the presumed aggressiveness and likelihood of cancer recurrence. The primary conundrum in treatment and management of early stage ER+ BCa is identifying which of these cancers are candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy and which patients will respond to hormonal therapy alone. This decision could spare some patients the inherent toxicity associated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Oncotype DX (ODX) and other gene expression tests have allowed for distinguishing the more aggressive ER+ BCa requiring adjuvant chemotherapy from the less aggressive cancers benefiting from hormonal therapy alone. However these gene expression tests tend to be expensive, tissue destructive and require physical shipping of tissue blocks for the test to be done. Interestingly breast cancer grade in these tumors has been shown to be highly correlated with the ODX risk score. Unfortunately studies have shown that Bloom-Richardson (BR) grade determined by pathologists can be highly variable. One of the constituent categories in BR grading is the quantification of tubules. The goal of this study was to develop a deep learning neural network classifier to automatically identify tubule nuclei from whole slide images (WSI) of ER+ BCa, the hypothesis being that the ratio of tubule nuclei to overall number of nuclei would correlate with the corresponding ODX risk categories. The performance of the tubule nuclei deep learning strategy was evaluated with a set of 61 high power fields. Under a 5-fold cross-validation, the average precision and recall measures were 0:72 and 0:56 respectively. In addition, the correlation with the ODX risk score was assessed in a set of 7513 high power fields extracted from 174 WSI, each from a different patient (At most 50 high power fields per patient study were used). The ratio between the number of tubule and non-tubule nuclei was computed for each WSI. The results suggests that for BCa

  17. Correlations of differentially expressed gap junction connexins Cx26, Cx30, Cx32, Cx43 and Cx46 with breast cancer progression and prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivett Teleki

    Full Text Available Connexins and their cell membrane channels contribute to the control of cell proliferation and compartmental functions in breast glands and their deregulation is linked to breast carcinogenesis. Our aim was to correlate connexin expression with tumor progression and prognosis in primary breast cancers.Meta-analysis of connexin isotype expression data of 1809 and 1899 breast cancers from the Affymetrix and Illumina array platforms, respectively, was performed. Expressed connexins were also monitored at the protein level in tissue microarrays of 127 patients equally representing all tumor grades, using immunofluorescence and multilayer, multichannel digital microscopy. Prognostic correlations were plotted in Kaplan-Meier curves and tested using the log-rank test and cox-regression analysis in univariate and multivariate models.The expression of GJA1/Cx43, GJA3/Cx46 and GJB2/Cx26 and, for the first time, GJA6/Cx30 and GJB1/Cx32 was revealed both in normal human mammary glands and breast carcinomas. Within their subfamilies these connexins can form homo- and heterocellular epithelial channels. In cancer, the array datasets cross-validated each other's prognostic results. In line with the significant correlations found at mRNA level, elevated Cx43 protein levels were linked with significantly improved breast cancer outcome, offering Cx43 protein detection as an independent prognostic marker stronger than vascular invasion or necrosis. As a contrary, elevated Cx30 mRNA and protein levels were associated with a reduced disease outcome offering Cx30 protein detection as an independent prognostic marker outperforming mitotic index and necrosis. Elevated versus low Cx43 protein levels allowed the stratification of grade 2 tumors into good and poor relapse free survival subgroups, respectively. Also, elevated versus low Cx30 levels stratified grade 3 patients into poor and good overall survival subgroups, respectively.Differential expression of Cx43 and Cx

  18. 黑龙江地区女性乳腺密度与乳腺癌的风险因素相关性研究%Correlation between breast density and breast cancer risk factors in Hei-longjiang area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 史春颖; 杨予川; 李睿; 刘源; 崔春玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between breast cancer and breast density in Heilongjiang region .Methods X-ray data and epidemiological data of 487 women from June 2010 to November 2010 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University were col-lected, including 105 cases of breast cancer and 382 cases of healthy controls ( breast benign disease ) .Breast imaging reporting and data system recommended by americaradiology doctors was the standard for evaluation of breast density , breast density percentage was used to analyze the relationship between different levels of mammary gland photography density and breast canc -er risk factors .Results Based on 487 cases of mammary X-ray data , breast density was statis-tically different between breast cancer groups and healthy controls in Heilongjiang area , the oc-currence of breast cancer was associated with a high breast density , menopausal status did not affect breast density;breast density was associated with menarche age and history of lactation . Conclusion Breast X-ray photography density is associated with breast cancer risk factors .%目的:探讨黑龙江地区乳腺癌与其乳腺密度是否存在相关性。方法收集2010年6月至2010年11月哈尔滨医科大学附属第一医院就诊的487例黑龙江地区女性的乳腺钼靶X线检查资料及流行病学资料,其中105例为乳腺癌,382例为健康对照组,以美国放射医师学会推荐的乳腺影像报告和数据系统( breast imaging reporting and data system ,BI-RADS)作为评估乳腺密度的标准,以乳腺密度百分比分析不同等级乳腺摄影密度和乳腺癌危险因素的关系。结果乳腺癌组与健康对照组乳腺密度有统计学差异。绝经状态未对乳腺密度产生影响;乳腺密度与初潮年龄、哺乳史相关。结论乳腺X线摄影密度与乳腺癌危险因素均相关联。

  19. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NPCR 2017 CDC National Cancer Conference Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  20. Cytosolic phospholipase A2-alpha expression in breast cancer is associated with EGFR expression and correlates with an adverse prognosis in luminal tumours.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Caiazza, F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The eicosanoid signalling pathway promotes the progression of malignancies through the production of proliferative prostaglandins (PGs). Cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) activity provides the substrate for cyclooxygenase-dependent PG release, and we have previously found that cPLA(2)alpha expression correlated with EGFR\\/HER2 over-expression in a small number of breast cancer cell lines. METHODS: The importance of differential cPLA(2)alpha activity in clinical breast cancer was established by relating the expression of cPLA(2)alpha in tissue samples from breast cancer patients, and two microarray-based gene expression datasets to different clinicopathological and therapeutic parameters. RESULTS: High cPLA(2)alpha mRNA expression correlated with clinical parameters of poor prognosis, which are characteristic of highly invasive tumours of the HER2-positive and basal-like subtype, including low oestrogen receptor expression and high EGFR expression. High cPLA(2)alpha expression decreased overall survival in patients with luminal cancers, and correlated with a reduced effect of tamoxifen treatment. The cPLA(2)alpha expression was an independent predictive parameter of poor response to endocrine therapy in the first 5 years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study shows a role of cPLA(2)alpha in luminal breast cancer progression, in which the enzyme could represent a novel therapeutic target and a predictive marker.

  1. Breast Cancer In Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  2. Hormone receptors in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, K. P M; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are critical for the growth and development of breast tissue as well as of breast cancer. The importance of the role estrogens in breast cancer has been delineated for more than 100 years. The analysis of its expression has been used not only to classify breast cancers but

  3. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...

  4. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... means they developed from cells that line the milk ducts of the breast and then spread beyond ...

  5. Recurrent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can help you cope with distress include: Art therapy Dance or movement therapy Exercise Meditation Music ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/recurrent-breast-cancer/basics/definition/CON-20032432 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  6. The breast cancer conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    For decades, rates of breast cancer have been going up faster in rich countries than in poor ones. Scientists are beginning to understand more about its causes but unanswered questions remain. Patrick Adams reports.

  7. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various me...

  8. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  9. RUNX2 correlates with subtype-specific breast cancer in a human tissue microarray, and ectopic expression of Runx2 perturbs differentiation in the mouse mammary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura McDonald

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RUNX2, a master regulator of osteogenesis, is oncogenic in the lymphoid lineage; however, little is known about its role in epithelial cancers. Upregulation of RUNX2 in cell lines correlates with increased invasiveness and the capacity to form osteolytic disease in models of breast and prostate cancer. However, most studies have analysed the effects of this gene in a limited number of cell lines and its role in primary breast cancer has not been resolved. Using a human tumour tissue microarray, we show that high RUNX2 expression is significantly associated with oestrogen receptor (ER/progesterone receptor (PR/HER2-negative breast cancers and that patients with high RUNX2 expression have a poorer survival rate than those with negative or low expression. We confirm RUNX2 as a gene that has a potentially important functional role in triple-negative breast cancer. To investigate the role of this gene in breast cancer, we made a transgenic model in which Runx2 is specifically expressed in murine mammary epithelium under the control of the mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV promoter. We show that ectopic Runx2 perturbs normal development in pubertal and lactating animals, delaying ductal elongation and inhibiting lobular alveolar differentiation. We also show that the Runx2 transgene elicits age-related, pre-neoplastic changes in the mammary epithelium of older transgenic animals, suggesting that elevated RUNX2 expression renders such tissue more susceptible to oncogenic changes and providing further evidence that this gene might have an important, context-dependent role in breast cancer.

  10. RUNX2 correlates with subtype-specific breast cancer in a human tissue microarray, and ectopic expression of Runx2 perturbs differentiation in the mouse mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Laura; Ferrari, Nicola; Terry, Anne; Bell, Margaret; Mohammed, Zahra M; Orange, Clare; Jenkins, Alma; Muller, William J; Gusterson, Barry A; Neil, James C; Edwards, Joanne; Morris, Joanna S; Cameron, Ewan R; Blyth, Karen

    2014-05-01

    RUNX2, a master regulator of osteogenesis, is oncogenic in the lymphoid lineage; however, little is known about its role in epithelial cancers. Upregulation of RUNX2 in cell lines correlates with increased invasiveness and the capacity to form osteolytic disease in models of breast and prostate cancer. However, most studies have analysed the effects of this gene in a limited number of cell lines and its role in primary breast cancer has not been resolved. Using a human tumour tissue microarray, we show that high RUNX2 expression is significantly associated with oestrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)/HER2-negative breast cancers and that patients with high RUNX2 expression have a poorer survival rate than those with negative or low expression. We confirm RUNX2 as a gene that has a potentially important functional role in triple-negative breast cancer. To investigate the role of this gene in breast cancer, we made a transgenic model in which Runx2 is specifically expressed in murine mammary epithelium under the control of the mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) promoter. We show that ectopic Runx2 perturbs normal development in pubertal and lactating animals, delaying ductal elongation and inhibiting lobular alveolar differentiation. We also show that the Runx2 transgene elicits age-related, pre-neoplastic changes in the mammary epithelium of older transgenic animals, suggesting that elevated RUNX2 expression renders such tissue more susceptible to oncogenic changes and providing further evidence that this gene might have an important, context-dependent role in breast cancer.

  11. Correlation among bioimpedance analysis, sonographic and circumferential measurement in assessment of breast cancer-related arm lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y H; Seo, K S

    2014-09-01

    New approaches for assessment of lymphedema using ultrasonography (US) have been introduced recently and are reported to be reliable and simple. Ultrasonography provides detailed information about physical properties of the tissue in addition to volume and size. There have been only limited studies comparing bioimpedance analysis (BIA), US, and circumferential measurement (CM), which is considered a standard measurement. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between US, BIA, and CM. Twenty-eight patients with lymphedema after breast cancer surgery underwent BIA, US, and CM. Impedance, which reflects the amount of extracellular fluid, was measured with 1 kHz frequency in affected and unaffected arms. Circumferences were measured at 10cm proximal and distal to the elbow and a truncated cone method used to calculate estimated volumes for upper arm and forearm. We found that interlimb forearm subcutis thickness differences measured by US were highly correlated with CM measurements and that interlimb upper arm subcutis thickness differences measured by US were moderately correlated with CM measurements and BIA ratios. However, the interlimb ratio of compressibility measured by US showed no or only weak correlation with impedance measurements and circumferential measurements. Our results also show that compressibility measured by US could not be predicted from BIA or CM measurements despite a high degree of concordance among subcutis thickness measured by US, CM, and BIA.

  12. Angiogenesis in male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan Rani

    2005-03-01

    significant difference in MVD between levels of the different clinico-pathological variables. MVD was strongly and significantly correlated between AMC, CMC and HMC for CD31, CD34, and CD105 (p Conclusion Microvascular density does not appear to be an independent prognostic factor in male breast cancer. However, the likelihood of death for men with breast cancer is increased in the presence of increased age at diagnosis and advanced tumor size. This is perhaps linked to inherent tumor vasculature, which is strongly related throughout a tumor section.

  13. High numbers of differentiated effector CD4 T cells are found in patients with cancer and correlate with clinical response after neoadjuvant therapy of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péguillet, Isabelle; Milder, Maud; Louis, Delphine; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Dorval, Thierry; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Scholl, Suzy M; Lantz, Olivier

    2014-04-15

    CD4(+) T cells influence tumor immunity in complex ways that are not fully understood. In this study, we characterized a population of human differentiated effector CD4(+) T cells that is defined by low levels of the interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-7 receptors (CD25(-)CD127(-)). We found that this cell population expands in patients with various types of cancer, including breast cancer, to represent 2% to 20% of total CD4(+) blood T lymphocytes as compared with only 0.2% to 2% in healthy individuals. Notably, these CD25(-)CD127(-)CD4 T cells expressed effector markers such as CD244 and CD11b with low levels of CD27, contrasting with the memory phenotype dominating this population in healthy individuals. These cells did not cycle in patients, nor did they secrete IL-10 or IL-17, but instead displayed cytotoxic features. Moreover, they encompassed oligoclonal expansions paralleling an expansion of effector CD8(+) T cells that included tumor antigen-specific T cells. During neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer, we found that the increase in CD25(-)CD127(-) CD4(+) T cells correlated with tumor regression. This observation suggested that CD4(+) T cells included tumor antigen-specific cells, which may be generated by or participate in tumor regressions during chemotherapy. In summary, our results lend support to the hypothesis that CD4(+) T cells are involved in human antitumor responses.

  14. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Family history of breast cancer  specifically mother or sister diagnosed with breast cancer  Not the same as genetic risk for breast cancer...treatment. Table 5 presents sociodemographic variables for the first 20 SIS participants. The majority of participants were African American, unmarried

  15. Breast Cancer Basics and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in both men and women, although male breast cancer is rare. The Breasts Inside a woman's breast are 15 to 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe contains many smaller sections called lobules. These are groups of tiny glands that make breast milk. Breast milk flows through thin tubes called ducts ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions breast cancer breast cancer Enable ...

  17. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, D.J. van; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Westenberg, A.H.; Wilt, J.H. de; Blanken-Peeters, C.F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimoda

  18. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  19. Apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities and high serum levels of circulating nucleosomes and DNA in blood correlate with breast cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasimir-Bauer Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As cell-free circulating DNA exists predominantly as mono- and oligonucleosomes, the focus of the current study was to examine the interplay of circulating nucleosomes, DNA, proteases and caspases in blood of patients with benign and malignant breast diseases. Methods The concentrations of cell-free DNA and nucleosomes as well as the protease and caspase activities were measured in serum of patients with benign breast disease (n = 20, primary breast cancer (M0, n = 31, metastatic breast cancer (M1, n = 32, and healthy individuals (n = 28 by PicoGreen, Cell Death Detection ELISA, Protease Fluorescent Detection Kit and Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay, respectively. Results Patients with benign and malignant tumors had significantly higher levels of circulating nucleic acids in their blood than healthy individuals (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001, whereas these levels could not discriminate between benign and malignant lesions. Our analyses of all serum samples revealed significant correlations of circulating nucleosome with DNA concentrations (p = 0.001, nucleosome concentrations with caspase activities (p = 0.008, and caspase with protease activities (p = 0.0001. High serum levels of protease and caspase activities associated with advanced tumor stages (p = 0.009. Patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer had significantly higher nucleosome levels in their blood than node-negative patients (p = 0.004. The presence of distant metastases associated with a significant increase in serum nucleosome (p = 0.01 and DNA levels (p = 0.04, and protease activities (p = 0.008. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that high circulating nucleic acid concentrations in blood are no indicators of a malignant breast tumor. However, the observed changes in apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities along with the elevated serum levels of nucleosomes and DNA in blood are linked to breast cancer progression.

  20. Regulator of G protein signaling 20 correlates with clinicopathological features and prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Jin, Wenxu; Cai, Yefeng; Yang, Fang; Chen, Endong; Ye, Danrong; Wang, Qingxuan; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2017-04-08

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive tumor subtype lacking effective prognostic indicators or therapeutic targets. Therefore, finding a novel molecular biomarker for TNBC to achieve target therapy and predict its prognosis is crucial in preventing inappropriate treatment. Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) families of protein can negatively regulate signaling of heterotrimeric G proteins and are known to be upregulated in various tumors. In this study, we demonstrated that RGS20 was more highly expressed in TNBC tumor tissue than in adjacent normal tissue by analyzing the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database. However, RGS20 expression was low in all breast cancer and luminal breast cancer patients. Validated by the TCGA cohort, RGS20 was upregulated in lymph node-positive TNBC compared with that in lymph node-negative breast cancer. High expression of RGS20 had a risk of lymph node metastasis, ki-67 > 14%, poor N stage, and poor clinical stage in the immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays. Moreover, K-M plot analysis showed that TNBC patients with high RGS20 expression had poor relapse-free survival. In summary, the findings revealed that RGS20 was a special TNBC oncogene that promoted tumor progression and influenced TNBC prognosis. This study is the first to show that RGS20 was a special oncogene, and its high expression was significantly associated with the progression and prognosis of TNBC. RGS20 may be a novel molecular biomarker for the targeted therapy and prognosis of TNBC.

  1. The overexpression and altered localization of the atypical protein kinase C lambda/iota in breast cancer correlates with the pathologic type of these tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yasuyuki; Akimoto, Kazunori; Nagashima, Yoji; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Shirai, Sumiko; Chishima, Takashi; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sasaki, Takeshi; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Aoki, Ichiro; Ohno, Shigeo; Shimada, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the common malignant diseases among women in Japan as well as in western countries, and its incidence continues to increase. Normal mammary duct epithelial cells exhibit a well-organized apicobasal polarity, which forms the basis for their specific structure and function. Although the loss of epithelial cell polarity is one of the major changes that occur during the progression of tumor cells, including breast cancer, the underlying molecular mechanisms for this, as well as their relationship to other changes such as increased proliferation and metastasis, remain to be elucidated. The atypical protein kinase C lambda/iota (aPKC lambda/iota) is involved in several signal transduction pathways, including the establishment of epithelial cell polarity. In this study we evaluated the expression and localization of aPKC lambda/iota in breast cancer by immunohistochemistry and compared our findings with the clinicopathologic factors associated with the tumor specimens. We detected aPK Clambda/iota protein overexpression in 88 of the 110 breast cancer cases (80.0%) under study, expect for decreased expression in a few cases. The immunoreactivity of aPK Clambda/iota was generally weak in ductal carcinoma in situ, but strong in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC; P = .022). The correlation between apical or cytoplasmic aPKC lambda/iota localization and tumor pathologic type (ie, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ. or IDC) was also demonstrated (P < .001). These results thus indicate that the normal apicobasal polarity is lost upon the progression of a breast lesion to IDC. This is also the first evidence to show aPKC lambda/iota overexpression in breast cancer and demonstrates that its localization is associated with the trend of pathologic type of the tumor.

  2. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  3. Role of KCNMA1 in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oeggerli

    Full Text Available KCNMA1 encodes the α-subunit of the large conductance, voltage and Ca(2+-activated (BK potassium channel and has been reported as a target gene of genomic amplification at 10q22 in prostate cancer. To investigate the prevalence of the amplification in other human cancers, the copy number of KCNMA1 was analyzed by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH in 2,445 tumors across 118 different tumor types. Amplification of KCNMA1 was restricted to a small but distinct fraction of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer with the highest prevalence in invasive ductal breast cancers and serous carcinoma of ovary and endometrium (3-7%. We performed an extensive analysis on breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMA of 1,200 tumors linked to prognosis. KCNMA1 amplification was significantly associated with high tumor stage, high grade, high tumor cell proliferation, and poor prognosis. Immunofluorescence revealed moderate or strong KCNMA1 protein expression in 8 out of 9 human breast cancers and in the breast cancer cell line MFM223. KCNMA1-function in breast cancer cell lines was confirmed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings and proliferation assays, using siRNA-knockdown, BK channel activators such as 17ß-estradiol and the BK-channel blocker paxilline. Our findings revealed that enhanced expression of KCNMA1 correlates with and contributes to high proliferation rate and malignancy of breast cancer.

  4. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  5. The correlation between Ki-67 with other prognostic factors in breast cancer: A study in Iranian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Hamid Madani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Despite the fact that breast cancer (BC is a major health issue, very few studies describe its characteristics in the Middle East. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use and value of Ki-67 as a prognostic marker in BC and associations between Ki-67, clinical, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Subjects and Methods: In a retrospective study, 260 BC women and invasive ductal carcinoma were included to our study in Kermanshah city, Iran. Age, tumor size, lymph node involvement, histological grade, nuclear grade, and vascular invasion were other factors that determined in a lot of patients. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 47.6 years (range, 24-84 years with 100% female. Of 243 patients that tumor size was determined for them, 207 patients (85.2% had tumor size ≥ 2 cm, and 36 patients (14.8% had size <2 cm and also of 237 patients, 47 patients (19.8%, 140 (59.1%, and 50 (21.1% had histological grades I, II, and III, respectively. There is significant correlation between Ki-67 with nuclear grade, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, and p53 (P < 0.05. Based on this result, more patients with Ki-67 ≥ 20% have higher nuclear grade, p53-positive, and HER2-positive. There was correlation between Ki-67 with type of tumor (P = 0.009. Conclusions: The higher Ki-67 has a direct significant correlation with higher nuclear grade, p53-positive, and HER2-positive. Furthermore, triple negative patients have higher Ki-67 compared to other subtypes.

  6. Early detection of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles-Carlson, B

    1989-01-01

    Timely, comprehensive screening for breast cancer is a major, though often overlooked, component of primary health care for women. This article reviews the scientific rationale for screening and outlines the current recommendations of the American Cancer Society and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force regarding the use of mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE). Nursing interventions to decrease barriers to effective screening are discussed, and an expanded role of nurses in breast cancer screening is proposed.

  7. Cytosolic phospholipase A2-α expression in breast cancer is associated with EGFR expression and correlates with an adverse prognosis in luminal tumours.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Caiazza, F

    2011-01-18

    The eicosanoid signalling pathway promotes the progression of malignancies through the production of proliferative prostaglandins (PGs). Cytosolic phospholipase A(2)α (cPLA(2)α) activity provides the substrate for cyclooxygenase-dependent PG release, and we have previously found that cPLA(2)α expression correlated with EGFR\\/HER2 over-expression in a small number of breast cancer cell lines.

  8. Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristina Pilekær

    Each year approximately 4,800 Danish women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Several clinical and pathological factors are used as prognostic and predictive markers to categorize the patients into groups of high or low risk. Around 90% of all patients are allocated to the high risk group...... clinical courses, and they may be useful as novel prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer. The aim of the present project was to predict the development of metastasis in lymph node negative breast cancer patients by RNA profiling. We collected and analyzed 82 primary breast tumors from patients who...... and the time of event. Previous findings have shown that high expression of the lncRNA HOTAIR is correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. We validated this finding by demonstrating that high HOTAIR expression in our primary tumors was significantly associated with worse prognosis independent...

  9. Breast cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, J L; Berkowitz, G S

    1988-10-15

    The various risk factors for breast cancer have been recognized for many years. A table lists these established breast cancer risk factors together with the approximate magnitude of the increase in risk associated with them. Breast cancer incidence rates increase with age throughout the life span in Western countries, although the rate of increase is greater up to age 50 years than after 50 years. Breast cancer is more common among women in upper rather than lower social classes, among women who never have been married, among women living in urban areas, among women living in the northern US than in the southern US, and among whites than blacks, at least among those over age 50. Women in North American and Northern European countries have the highest risk for breast cancer, women in Southern European and Latin American countries are at intermediate risk, and women in Africa and Asian countries have the lowest risk. Yet, rapid rates of increase in incident rates have been noted in recent years in many Asian, Central European, and some South American countries. The later the age at which a woman has her 1st full-term pregnancy, the higher her risk for breast cancer; the earlier the age at menarche and the later the age at menopause the higher the risk; and among women who have a premenopausal oophorectomy, the earlier the age at which this occurs the lower the risk. Among postmenopausal women, obesity is associated with an increase in risk. Lactation is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Some current research is considering potential risk factors that have not been well studied in the past, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), emotional stress, exposure to electric power, and lack of physical activity. Other areas of current research reviewed here include radiation, mammographic parenchymal patterns, a high-fat diet, use of oral contraceptives (OCs), use of estrogen

  10. Adipocytokines and breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Wen-wen; FU Chun-li; SUN Yu; WU Qing; CHEN Li

    2007-01-01

    Background Many researches suggested that obesity increased the risk of breast cancer, but the mechanism was currently unknown. Adipocytokines might mediate the relationship. Our study was aimed to investigate the relationship between serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin and the onset, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.Methods Blood samples were collected from 80 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipids, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were assayed simultaneously.Results Serum levels of adiponectin ((8.60±2.92) mg/L vs (10.37±2.81) mg/L, P=0.001) and HDL-c were significantly decreased in breast cancer patients in comparison to controls. Serum levels of resistin ((26.35±5.36) μg/L vs (23.32±4.75)μg/L, P=0.000), leptin ((1.35±0.42) μg/L vs (1.06±0.39) μg/L, P=0.003), FBG and triglyceride (TG) in breast cancer patients were increased in contrast to controls, respectively. However, we did not find the significant difference of the serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin between premenopausal breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P=0.091, 0.109 and 0.084, respectively). The serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were significantly different between patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and those without LNM (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.006, respectively).The stepwise regression analysis indicated that the tumor size had the close correlation with leptin (R2=0.414, P=0.000)and FBG (R2=0.602, P=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced serum levels of adiponectin (OR:0.805;95%CI: 0.704-0.921; P=0.001), HDL (OR: 0.087; 95%CI: 0.011-0.691, P=0.021), elevated leptin (OR:2.235;95%CI:1.898-4.526; P=0.004) and resistin (OR: 1.335; 95%CI: 1.114-2.354; P=0.012) increased the risk for

  11. Breast Cancer in Art Painting

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an emotive cancer. It is a disease that affects a visible sexual organ and it is the commonest single cause of death of women between 40 and 60 years of age. Nevertheless, this type of cancer was infrequently depicted in art paintings. In this article the themes from the breast cancer in famous art paintings are discussed.

  12. Metabolic profiling of breast cancer: Differences in central metabolism between subtypes of breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmann, Lucas; Schlimpert, Manuel; Halbach, Sebastian; Erbes, Thalia; Stickeler, Elmar; Kammerer, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Although the concept of aerobic glycolysis in cancer was already reported in the 1930s by Otto Warburg, the understanding of metabolic pathways remains challenging especially due to the heterogeneity of cancer. In consideration of four different time points (1, 2, 4, and 7 days of incubation), GC-MS profiling of metabolites was performed on cell extracts and supernatants of breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, -453, BT-474) with different sub classification and the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. To the exclusion of trypsinization, direct methanolic extraction, cell scraping and cell disruption was executed to obtain central metabolites. Major differences in biochemical pathways have been observed in the breast cancer cell lines compared to the breast epithelial cell line, as well as between the breast cancer cell lines themselves. Characteristics of breast cancer subtypes could be correlated to their individual metabolic profiles. PLS-DA revealed the discrimination of breast cancer cell lines from MCF-10A based on elevated amino acid levels. The observed metabolic signatures have great potential as biomarker for breast cancer as well as an improved understanding of subtype specific phenomenons of breast cancer.

  13. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  14. Hormones and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    pathway of El metabolism may be altered by dietary (in particular, cruciferous vegetables ) and other factors (54-58). In this project we compared the... Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Giske Ursin, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Southern California School of Medicine Los Angeles...TYPE AND DATES COVERED I October 1997 Final (30 Sep 94 - 29 Sep 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hormones and Breast Cancer DAMD17-94-J

  15. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    tion of tumor cells with red indicating the highest density of tumor cells at the primary tumor (4th mammary fat pad ) and purple/blue showing the...Idea Award Elaine Hardman and Philippe Georgel “ Maternal Consumption of Omega 3 Fatty Acids to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk in Offspring” FY09

  16. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MBC Radiation Therapy for MBC Surgery for MBC Yoga and MBC Side Effects Bone Health and MBC Bone Pain and MBC ... Yoga Poses Special Situations Yoga and Lymphedema Risk Yoga and Metastatic Breast Cancer Side Effects Anemia Bone Loss Bone Pain Chemobrain Depression and ...

  17. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  18. Progestins and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge R

    2007-10-01

    Progestins exert their progestational activity by binding to the progesterone receptor (form A, the most active and form B, the less active) and may also interact with other steroid receptors (androgen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, estrogen). They can have important effects in other tissues besides the endometrium, including the breast, liver, bone and brain. The biological responses of progestins cover a very large domain: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, water and electrolyte regulation, hemostasis, fibrinolysis, and cardiovascular and immunological systems. At present, more than 200 progestin compounds have been synthesized, but the biological response could be different from one to another depending on their structure, metabolism, receptor affinity, experimental conditions, target tissue or cell line, as well as the biological response considered. There is substantial evidence that mammary cancer tissue contains all the enzymes responsible for the local biosynthesis of estradiol (E(2)) from circulating precursors. Two principal pathways are implicated in the final steps of E(2) formation in breast cancer tissue: the 'aromatase pathway', which transforms androgens into estrogens, and the 'sulfatase pathway', which converts estrone sulfate (E(1)S) into estrone (E(1)) via estrone sulfatase. The final step is the conversion of weak E(1) to the potent biologically active E(2) via reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity. It is also well established that steroid sulfotransferases, which convert estrogens into their sulfates, are present in breast cancer tissues. It has been demonstrated that various progestins (e.g. nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone) as well as tibolone and their metabolites can block the enzymes involved in E(2) bioformation (sulfatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in breast cancer cells. These substances can also stimulate the sulfotransferase activity which converts estrogens into the biologically

  19. Mindfulness Meditation or Survivorship Education in Improving Behavioral Symptoms in Younger Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors (Pathways to Wellness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    Cancer Survivor; Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  20. SPOCK1 Is a Novel Transforming Growth Factor-β-Induced Myoepithelial Marker That Enhances Invasion and Correlates with Poor Prognosis in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li-Ching; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Lu, Yueh-Tong; Lien, Huang-Chun

    2016-01-01

    In addition to contraction, myoepithelia have diverse paracrine effects, including a tumor suppression effect. However, certain myoepithelial markers have been shown to contribute to tumor progression. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is involved in the transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to contractile myofibroblasts. We investigated whether TGF-β can upregulate potential myoepithelial markers, which may have functional and clinicopathological significance in breast cancer. We found that TGF-β induced SPOCK1 expression in MCF10A, MCF12A, and M10 breast cells and demonstrated SPOCK1 as a novel myoepithelial marker that was immunolocalized within or beneath myoepithelia lining ductolobular units. A functional study showed that overexpression of SPOCK1 enhanced invasiveness in mammary immortalized and cancer cells. To further determine the biological significance of SPOCK1 in breast cancer, we investigated the expression of SPOCK1 in 478 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cases through immunohistochemistry and correlated the expression with clinicopathological characteristics. SPOCK1 expression was significantly correlated with high pathological tumor size (P = 0.012), high histological grade (P = 0.013), the triple-negative phenotype (P = 0.022), and the basal-like phenotype (P = 0.026) and was correlated with a significantly poorer overall survival on univariate analysis (P = 0.001, log-rank test). Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that SPOCK1 expression maintained an independent poor prognostic factor of overall survival. Analysis of SPOCK1 expression on various non-IDC carcinoma subtypes showed an enrichment of SPOCK1 expression in metaplastic carcinoma, which is pathogenetically closely related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In conclusion, we identified SPOCK1 as a novel TGF-β-induced myoepithelial marker and further demonstrated that SPOCK1 enhanced invasion in breast cancer cells and correlated with poor prognosis in breast

  1. Evaluation of p53, HoxD10, and E-Cadherin Status in Breast Cancer and Correlation with Histological Grade and Other Prognostic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Sekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Study of tumor molecular characteristics is necessary to understand both the risk of breast cancer recurrence and the response to therapy. Aims. To evaluate p53, HoxD10, and E-cadherin status in breast cancer and to correlate with histological grade and other prognostic factors. Material and Methods. The study was conducted in 60 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma NOS with 20 cases belonging to each grade and evaluation of p53 was done by IHC and that of HoxD10 and E Cadherin status by PCR and correlation was done with histological grade and other prognostic factors. Result. p53 expression was seen in 71.67% (43/60 of the tumors. HoxD10 gene was downregulated in 46.67% (28/60 of the tumors. p53 overexpression and lower HoxD10 mRNA levels showed statistically significant association higher histological grade of the tumor (P<0.05. CDH1 gene mutation was seen in 60% (15/25 of the tumors. No significant association was found between p53 expression, HoxD10 gene, CDH1 gene mutation, and other prognostic factors. Conclusion. p53 over expression and lower HoxD10 mRNA levels were found to be significantly associated with higher grade tumours. This suggests that p53 and HoxD10 gene play an important tumor suppressor role and the loss of which results in breast cancer progression.

  2. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  3. Co-expression of tenascin-C and vimentin in human breast cancer cells indicates phenotypic transdifferentiation during tumour progression: correlation with histopathological parameters, hormone receptors, and oncoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandachi, N; Hauser-Kronberger, C; Moré, E; Wiesener, B; Hacker, G W; Dietze, O; Wirl, G

    2001-02-01

    Loss of epithelial morphology and the acquisition of mesenchymal characteristics are typical for carcinoma cells in tumour progression. In human breast carcinomas, up-regulation of tenascin-C (TN-C) and vimentin (Vim) is frequently observed in cancer cells and correlates with increased malignancy. Thus, it is possible that TN-C is co-expressed with Vim, representing cancer cells that have undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This study examined 128 breast carcinomas using immunohistochemical techniques to demonstrate that mammary cancer cells are a prominent source of both TN-C and Vim. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between TN-C and Vim expression in cancer cells. TN-C expression also correlated positively with overexpression of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein and down-regulation of oestrogen receptors (ERs). Eleven human mammary cancer cell lines and two 'normal' cell lines were examined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Co-expression of TN-C and Vim was detected in the carcinosarcoma cell line HS 578T, SK-BR-3 (B), fibroblast-like MDA-MB-231 cells, and the myoepithelial cell line HBL 100. These findings suggest that TN-C and Vim, when co-expressed in mammary carcinoma cells, represent regulator genes likely to be involved in EMT during mammary carcinogenesis.

  4. [Occult multicentric breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vtorushin, S V; Zab'ialova, M V; Glushchenko, S A; Perel'muter, V M; Slonimskaia, E M

    2009-01-01

    The study included 92 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer (T2-4N0-2M0-1). In 38 cases, tumor growth was unicentric while histologically identifiable ones as multicentric in 44. Multicentricity mostly occurred in cases of macroscopically-identifiable nodes located in the central segments of the breast. Clinically-identifiable nodes of multicentric tumor growth measured more than 3 cm. Multicentric tumors were mostly grade III, featured lower expression of sex hormone receptors and positive Her2 status.

  5. Breast cancer prognosis predicted by nuclear receptor-coregulator networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Tram B; Eriksson, Natalie A; Graham, Dinny; Funder, John W; Simpson, Evan R; Kuczek, Elizabeth S; Clyne, Colin; Leedman, Peter J; Tilley, Wayne D; Fuller, Peter J; Muscat, George E O; Clarke, Christine L

    2014-07-01

    Although molecular signatures based on transcript expression in breast cancer samples have provided new insights into breast cancer classification and prognosis, there are acknowledged limitations in current signatures. To provide rational, pathway-based signatures of disrupted physiology in cancer tissues that may be relevant to prognosis, this study has directly quantitated changed gene expression, between normal breast and cancer tissue, as a basis for signature development. The nuclear receptor (NR) family of transcription factors, and their coregulators, are fundamental regulators of every aspect of metazoan life, and were rigorously quantified in normal breast tissues and ERα positive and ERα negative breast cancers. Coregulator expression was highly correlated with that of selected NR in normal breast, particularly from postmenopausal women. These associations were markedly decreased in breast cancer, and the expression of the majority of coregulators was down-regulated in cancer tissues compared with normal. While in cancer the loss of NR-coregulator associations observed in normal breast was common, a small number of NR (Rev-ERBβ, GR, NOR1, LRH-1 and PGR) acquired new associations with coregulators in cancer tissues. Elevated expression of these NR in cancers was associated with poorer outcome in large clinical cohorts, as well as suggesting the activation of ERα -related, but ERα-independent, pathways in ERα negative cancers. In addition, the combined expression of small numbers of NR and coregulators in breast cancer was identified as a signature predicting outcome in ERα negative breast cancer patients, not linked to proliferation and with predictive power superior to existing signatures containing many more genes. These findings highlight the power of predictive signatures derived from the quantitative determination of altered gene expression between normal breast and breast cancers. Taken together, the findings of this study identify networks

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  7. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  8. Braving Breast Cancer: Just Do It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Braving Breast Cancer: Just Do It! Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents Breast cancer survivor Jana Brightwell, pictured here on the NIH ...

  9. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  10. Antioxidant capacity of food mixtures is not correlated with their antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan; Meckling, Kelly A; Marcone, Massimo F

    2013-12-01

    Combining different foods may produce additive, synergistic, or antagonistic interactions that may modify certain physiological effects (i.e., anticancer properties). For investigating these interactions and potential synergetic combinations, thirteen foods from three categories, including fruits (raspberries, blackberries, apples, grapes), vegetables (broccoli, tomatoes, mushrooms, purple cauliflowers, onions), and legumes (soy beans, adzuki beans, red kidney beans, black beans), were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Grape, onion, and adzuki bean showed maximal growth inhibition of MCF-7 from the fruit, vegetable, and legume groups, respectively. When these three foods were combined in pairs, unique interactions were observed that were not seen when individual extracts were used. Combining onion and grape resulted in a synergistic antiproliferative effect (APE) against MCF-7 compared with either onion or grape treatment alone. In contrast, combining grape and adzuki bean resulted in an antagonistic interaction. Additionally, four antioxidant assays (total phenolic contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) were further used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities (AC) of individual foods and their combinations. Combining raspberry and adzuki bean extracts demonstrated synergistic AC in all four assays, but they did not show synergistic APE against the MCF-7 cells. Combining broccoli and soy produced antioxidant antagonism, but did not have an antagonistic APE against MCF-7. The synergistic or antagonistic AC of food mixtures did not correlate with the synergistic or antagonistic APE against MCF-7. Further investigation is to determine the mechanisms of these interactions and to predict and enhance the therapeutic benefits of foods and food components through strategic food combinations.

  11. Metabolic syndrome and breast cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezgen, G; Roach, E C; Kizilarslanoglu, M C; Petekkaya, I; Altundag, K

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the most important cause of cancer-related deaths among women. This disease is on the rise in Turkey. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and high blood sugar. Several studies have examined the association of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome with breast cancer. More recent studies have shown it to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. It has also been associated with poorer prognosis, increased incidence, a more aggressive tumor phenotype. Basic research studies are now in progress to illuminate the molecular pathways and mechanisms that are behind this correlation. Given the fact that all of the components of metabolic syndrome are modifiable risk factors, preventive measures must be established to improve the outcome of breast cancer patients. In this review we set the background by taking into account previous studies which have identified the components of metabolic syndrome individually as breast cancer risk factors. Then we present the latest findings which elaborate possible explanations regarding how metabolic syndrome as a single entity may affect breast cancer risk.

  12. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  13. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  14. The Breast Cancer DNA Interactome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Sugumar A, Liu YC, Xia Q , Koh YS, Matsuo K. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein 3 and the risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a...stimulates autophagy and promotes the survival of breast cancer cells exposed to adverse microenvironments. Oncogene 32(19): 2412 2420. 29. Mehta HH, Gao Q ...Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0474 TITLE: The Breast Cancer DNA Interactome PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew R. Hoffman CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION

  15. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed.

  16. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  17. Role of ornithine decarboxylase in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wensheng Deng; Xian Jiang; Yu Mei; Jingzhong Sun; Rong Ma; Xianxi Liu; Hui Sun; Hui Tian; Xueying Sun

    2008-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis that decarboxylates ornithine to putrescine, has become a promising target for cancer research. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of ODC in breast cancer. We detected expression of ODC in breast cancer tissues and four breast cancer cell lines, and transfected breast cancer cells with an adenoviral vector carrying antisense ODC (rAd-ODC/Ex3as) and examined their growth and migration.ODC was overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and cell lines compared with non-tumor tissues and normal breast epithelial celis,and there was a positive correlation between the level of ODC mRNA and the staging of tumors.The expression of ODC correlated with cyclin D1,a cell cycle protein,in synchronized breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.Gene transfection of rAd-ODC/Ex3as markedly down-regulated expression Of ODC and cyclin D1,resulting in suppression of proliferation and cell cycle arrest at G0-G1 phase,and the inhibifion of colony formation,an anchorage-independent growth pattern,and the migratory ability of MDA-MB-231 cells.rAd-ODC/Ex3as also markedly reduced the concentration of putrescine,but not spermidine or spermine,in MDA-MB-231 cells.The results suggested that the ODC gene might act as aprognostic factor for breast cancer and it could be a promising therapeutic target.

  18. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  19. Tumor-derived CCL-2 and CXCL-8 as possible prognostic markers of breast cancer: correlation with estrogen and progestrone receptor phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, H M; Maher, Sara; Abdel-Aty, Asmaa; Saad, A; Kazem, A; Demian, S R

    2009-01-01

    Prognosis of breast cancer is believed to be a multifactorial process best achieved by complex factors including host and tumor-derived biomarkers together with traditional clinicopathological parameters and tumor histologic markers. The present study aimed at evaluating the prognostic significance of chemokine ligand-2 (CCL-2) and interleukin-8 (CXCL-8) expression in extracts of breast carcinomas through correlation with clinicopathological aspects as well as estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) phenotyping. The study was conducted on 30 Egyptian breast cancer patients diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and subjected to modified radical mastectomy. Excised tissues were used to prepare tissue sections and extracts for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Expression of CCL-2 and CXCL-8 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 26 patients had invasive ductal carcinoma, grades II and III with metastasis to axillary lymph nodes and ER and PR positive phenotype. Expression of CCL-2 and CXCL-8 was significantly influenced by patient's age, menopausal status, nodal involvement, tumor grade and the ER phenotype. In contrast, it was not affected by either tumor size or PR staining pattern. Both chemokines correlated positively to each other and to tumor grade and negatively to age, menopausal status of patients and ER phenotyping. It is concluded that the angiogenic chemokine CXCL-8 and the macrophage chemoattractant CCL-2 might be useful prognostic markers where their routine follow up might be of importance in assessment of tumor aggressiveness in clinical settings.

  20. Is there different correlation with prognostic factors between “non-mass” and “mass” type invasive ductal breast cancers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Lei, E-mail: jiang_belinder@sina.com [Radiology Department, Beijing Hospital, Peking University, The Ministry of Health, Dahua Road 1#, East District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhou, Yiming, E-mail: zhou_belly@sina.com [Radiology Department, Chaoyang Hospital, Capital University, Baijiazhuang Road 8#, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China); Wang, Zheng, E-mail: wangzhengmay@163.com [Pathology Department, Beijing Hospital, Peking University, The Ministry of Health, Dahua Road 1#, East District, Beijing 100730 (China); Lu, Xu, E-mail: luxu01@sina.cn [Surgery Department, Beijing Hospital, Peking University, The Ministry of Health, Dahua Road 1#, East District, Beijing 100730 (China); Chen, Min, E-mail: chenmin62@yahoo.com [Radiology Department, Beijing Hospital, Peking University, The Ministry of Health, Dahua Road 1#, East District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhou, Cheng, E-mail: Chengzhou2000@yahoo.com [Radiology Department, Beijing Hospital, Peking University, The Ministry of Health, Dahua Road 1#, East District, Beijing 100730 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate the association between non-mass type breast cancer and common clinical–pathological prognostic factors, compared with mass type breast cancer. Materials and methods: After institutional review board approval, retrospective blind review of contrast-enhanced breast MRI was carried out for 88 histologically proven breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients, presenting from January 2008 to December 2011. Two radiologists assessed the images of each lesion for the morphologic enhancement type [mass enhancement or non-mass-like enhancement (NMLE)] and the distribution/internal enhancement of NMLE. Two pathologists evaluated the histological grade of IDC, presence or absence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lymph node status, presence or absence of vascular invasion, and expression status of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)/HER-2/p53 tumor suppressor gene (p53)/Ki-67. Inter-observer agreement was assessed with kappa test. Chi-square test and Spearman rank correlation were performed to explore the associations of morphologic enhancement type with the age, lesion size and the above pathological prognostic factors Results: Inter-observer agreement was excellent, with kappa > 0.75. Morphologic enhancement type was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.02), with NMLE more commonly seen in women less than 50 y/o. The size of NMLE was larger than that of mass and, with the increase of lesion size, proportion of NMLE among the cases increased (P = 0.001). NMLE was also significantly correlated with low histologic grade of IDC (P = 0.003) and presence of DCIS (P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between morphologic enhancement type and lymph node status, vascular invasion, ER/PR/HER-2/p53/Ki-67 status. The histological grade was higher in clumped enhancement than non-clumped (P = 0.011). There was no correlation between enhancement distribution and prognostic factors Conclusions: Non-mass type breast cancer may

  1. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  2. Presence of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins Correlates With Tumor-Promoting Effects of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyun Park

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The stroma of breast cancer can promote the disease’s progression, but whether its composition and functions are shared among different subtypes is poorly explored. We compared stromal components of a luminal [mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV–Neu] and a triple-negative/basal-like [C3(1–Simian virus 40 large T antigen (Tag] genetically engineered breast cancer mouse model. The types of cytokines and their expression levels were very different in the two models, as was the extent of innate immune cell infiltration; however, both models showed infiltration of innate immune cells that expressed matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, an extracellular protease linked to the progression of many types of cancer. By intercrossing with Mmp9 null mice, we found that the absence of MMP9 delayed tumor onset in the C3(1-Tag model but had no effect on tumor onset in the MMTV-Neu model. We discovered that protein levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1, an MMP9 substrate, were increased in C3(1-Tag;Mmp9−/− compared to C3(1-Tag;Mmp9+/+ tumors. In contrast, IGFBP-1 protein expression was low in MMTV-Neu tumors regardless of Mmp9 status. IGFBP-1 binds and antagonizes IGFs, preventing them from activating their receptors to promote cell proliferation and survival. Tumors from C3(1-Tag;Mmp9−/− mice had reduced IGF-1 receptor phosphorylation, consistent with slower tumor onset. Finally, gene expression analysis of human breast tumors showed that high expression of IGFBP mRNA was strongly correlated with good prognosis but not when MMP9 mRNA was also highly expressed. In conclusion, MMP9 has different effects on breast cancer progression depending on whether IGFBPs are expressed.

  3. Diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of experimental breast cancer bone metastases – A correlation study with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Maximilian [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Seyler, Lisa; Bretschi, Maren; Semmler, Wolfhard [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bäuerle, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.baeuerle@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Radiology, University Medical Center Erlangen, Palmsanlage 5, 90154 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To validate imaging parameters from diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with immunohistology and to non-invasively assess microstructure of experimental breast cancer bone metastases. Materials and methods: Animals bearing breast cancer bone metastases were imaged in a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner. HASTE sequences were performed to calculate apparent diffusion coefficients. Saturation recovery turbo FLASH sequences were conducted while infusing 0.1 mmol/l Gd–DTPA for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to quantify parameters amplitude A and exchange rate constant k{sub ep}. After imaging, bone metastases were analyzed immunohistologically. Results: We found correlations of the apparent diffusion coefficients from diffusion-weighted imaging with tumor cellularity as assessed with cell nuclei staining. Histological vessel maturity was correlated negatively with parameters A and k{sub ep} from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Tumor size correlated inversely with cell density and vessel permeability as well as positively with mean vessel calibers. Parameters from the rim of bone metastases differed significantly from values of the center. Conclusion: In vivo diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in experimental bone metastases provide information about tumor cellularity and vascularity and correlate well with immunohistology.

  4. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Madam , The project entitled INCREASING BREAST CANCER SURVEILLANCE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS includes activities involving human...B b- d § fr. Thomisonwill Work e .y .With’Dra) Vdldf naTir, W and y Bo • rganif Janidorf on data a"_`l- ssi reatihfiutfor pres~entatidns and publi

  5. The morphologies of breast cancer cell lines in three-dimensional assays correlate with their profiles of gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenny, Paraic A; Lee, Genee Y; Myers, Connie A;

    2007-01-01

    large scale comparison of the transcriptional profiles and 3D cell culture phenotypes of a substantial panel of human breast cancer cell lines. Each cell line adopts a colony morphology of one of four main classes in 3D culture. These morphologies reflect, at least in part, the underlying gene...... expression profile and protein expression patterns of the cell lines, and distinct morphologies were also associated with tumor cell invasiveness and with cell lines originating from metastases. We further demonstrate that consistent differences in genes encoding signal transduction proteins emerge when even...

  6. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  7. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  8. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  9. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a met...

  10. Circadian clocks and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeman, Victoria; Jack L. Williams; Meng, Qing-Jun; Streuli, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks respond to environmental time cues to coordinate 24-hour oscillations in almost every tissue of the body. In the breast, circadian clocks regulate the rhythmic expression of numerous genes. Disrupted expression of circadian genes can alter breast biology and may promote cancer. Here we overview circadian mechanisms, and the connection between the molecular clock and breast biology. We describe how disruption of circadian genes contributes to cancer via multiple mechanisms, an...

  11. The Adoption of New Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Modalities Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Breast Cancer: Clinical Correlates and Cost Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Kenneth B. [Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center, Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Soulos, Pamela R. [Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center, Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Herrin, Jeph [Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center, Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Health Research and Educational Trust, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Yu, James B. [Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center, Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Long, Jessica B. [Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center, Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Dostaler, Edward [Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); and others

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: New radiation therapy modalities have broadened treatment options for older women with breast cancer, but it is unclear how clinical factors, geographic region, and physician preference affect the choice of radiation therapy modality. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database to identify women diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer from 1998 to 2007 who underwent breast-conserving surgery. We assessed the temporal trends in, and costs of, the adoption of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and brachytherapy. Using hierarchical logistic regression, we evaluated the relationship between the use of these new modalities and patient and regional characteristics. Results: Of 35,060 patients, 69.9% received conventional external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Although overall radiation therapy use remained constant, the use of IMRT increased from 0.0% to 12.6% from 1998 to 2007, and brachytherapy increased from 0.7% to 9.0%. The statistical variation in brachytherapy use attributable to the radiation oncologist and geographic region was 41.4% and 9.5%, respectively (for IMRT: 23.8% and 22.1%, respectively). Women undergoing treatment at a free-standing radiation facility were significantly more likely to receive IMRT than were women treated at a hospital-based facility (odds ratio for IMRT vs EBRT: 3.89 [95% confidence interval, 2.78-5.45]). No such association was seen for brachytherapy. The median radiation therapy cost per treated patient increased from $5389 in 2001 to $8539 in 2007. Conclusions: IMRT and brachytherapy use increased substantially from 1998 to 2007; overall, radiation therapy costs increased by more than 50%. Radiation oncologists played an important role in treatment choice for both types of radiation therapy, whereas geographic region played a bigger role in the use of IMRT than brachytherapy.

  12. Homeobox transcription factor muscle segment homeobox 2 (Msx2) correlates with good prognosis in breast cancer patients and induces apoptosis in vitro.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lanigan, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    The homeobox-containing transcription factor muscle segment homeobox 2 (Msx2) plays an important role in mammary gland development. However, the clinical implications of Msx2 expression in breast cancer are unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the potential clinical value of Msx2 as a breast cancer biomarker and to clarify its functional role in vitro.

  13. [Therapeutic advances in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, B C

    2006-04-01

    The treatment of breast cancer has made significant improvements during the past ten years. For early breast cancer with a clinically negative axilla sentinel node biopsy has become the preferred approach. For endocrine therapy of postmenopausal patients the selective aromatase inhibitors have become standard in metastatic as well as in early breast cancer. Trastuzumab (Herceptin) plays an important role in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer in the metastatic and since 2005 also in the adjuvant setting. When chemotherapy is used to treat metastatic breast cancer drug combinations are superior to monotherapy only in terms of response rates. By contrast, in the adjuvant setting combination drug therapy is the standard. New methods of tissue analysis including expression patterns of mRNA and proteins are promising research strategies to further advance the field.

  14. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  15. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  16. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  17. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  18. Evaluation and correlation of risk recurrence in early breast cancer assessed by Oncotype DX(®), clinicopathological markers and tumor cell dissemination in the blood and bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Bahriye; Bankfalvi, Agnes; Heubner, Martin; Kimmig, Rainer; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine

    2013-11-01

    The Oncotype DX(®) assay is a validated genomic test that predicts the likelihood of breast cancer recurrence, patient survival within ten years of diagnosis and the benefit of chemotherapy in early-stage, node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Further markers of recurrence include disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow (BM) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood, particularly stemness-like tumor cells (slCTCs). In this study, Oncotype DX, DTCs, CTCs and slCTCs were used to evaluate the risk of recurrence in 68 patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, early-stage breast cancer. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were analyzed for the expression of 16 cancer genes and 5 reference genes by Oncotype DX, yielding a recurrence score (RS). G2 tumors were evaluated for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)/plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI1) and Ki-67. Two BM aspirates were analyzed by immunocytochemistry for DTCs using the pan-cytokeratin antibody A45-B/B3. CTCs and slCTCs in the blood were detected using the AdnaTest BreastCancer, AdnaTest EMT and the AdnaTest TumorStemCell. Oncotype DX was performed in 68 cases, yielding a low RS in 30/68 patients (44%), an intermediate RS in 29/68 patients (43%) and a high RS in 9/68 patients (13%). DTCs were detected in 19/68 patients (28%), CTCs in 13/68 patients (19%) and slCTCs in 26/68 (38%) patients. Moreover, 8/68 patients (12%) with G2 tumors were positive for uPA, 6/68 (9%) for PAI1 and 21/68 (31%) for Ki-67. Ki-67, progesterone receptor (PR) and G3 tumors were significantly correlated with RS (P<0.001; P=0.006; and P=0,002, respectively), whereas no correlation was identified between DTCs, CTCs, slCTCs and RS. Ki-67 may support therapeutic decisions in cases where Oncotype DX is not feasible. Larger patient cohorts are required to estimate the additional detection of DTCs and CTCs for the determination of risk recurrence.

  19. Cadmium concentration in biological media of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumylaite, Loreta; Bogusevicius, Algirdas; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Baranauskiene, Dale; Kregzdyte, Rima; Pranys, Darius; Poskiene, Lina

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to determine and compare cadmium (Cd) concentration in different biological media of breast cancer and benign breast tumor patients. Concentration of Cd was determined in breast tissue, urine, and blood of 57 breast cancer and 51 benign tumor patients. Two samples of breast tissue from each patient, i.e., tumor and healthy tissue were taken for the analysis. Cd in biological media was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (Perkin-Elmer, Zeeman 3030). The mean Cd concentration in breast cancer patients was 0.053 μg/g (95% confidence intervals, CI 0.042-0.065) for tumor sample and 0.02 μg/g (95% CI 0.014-0.026) for healthy breast tissue sample (P 0.05). Cd content in malignant tumor significantly differed from that in benign tumor (P Cancer patients with positive estrogen receptors (ERs) had significantly greater concentration of breast tissue Cd compared to patients with negative ERs (P = 0.035). Adjusted for creatinine, Cd in urine was significantly higher in cancer patients than in controls (P cancer patients, a positive Spearman's correlation was found between Cd in tumor and healthy breast tissue, blood (r = 0.44 and r = 0.39, respectively, P cancer patients and number of cigarettes smoked during lifetime was suggestive (r = 0.59, P = 0.075). The data obtained show higher concentration of cadmium in breast tumor and urine of cancer patients and support a possible relationship between cadmium and breast cancer.

  20. Cancerous versus noncancerous breasts. A comparative morphological analysis of the entire glandular tree of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnelli, R; Squartini, F

    1989-01-01

    Cancerous and clinically normal autopsy obtained breasts were collected in order to compare the physiopathological profile of both types of glandular tree. Each breast was visualized by whole thin sections and observed under a stereomicroscope with removal of the more interesting changes for histology. The comparison was made between 67 atrophic cancerous breasts and 88 atrophic control breasts. The results were as follows: 25% of the cancerous breasts versus 47% of control breasts showed no changes, atypical lobules, microfoci of "in situ" and/or infiltrating cancer were present in 46% of cancerous breasts and in 16% of control breasts, showing a significant correlation with clinical cancer. All other types of functional and proliferative changes, variously associated each other, were found in 29% of cancerous and in 37% of control breasts. Our morphological data agree completely with the statements in follow-up studies carried out on benign breast biopsies. The significant differences in the physiopathological profile of the glandular tree between "normal" and cancerous breasts, confirms that some changes are causally related to clinical cancer.

  1. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  2. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  3. Soy food consumption and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourouti, Niki; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in female worldwide and occurs as an interaction of genes and diet. As regards diet numerous studies all over the world have associated the disease with many foods and nutrients including soy and its compounds. Soy food and soy products are rich in phytoestrogens, naturally occurring hormone-like compounds with weak estrogenic effects. Despite inconsistencies in the available data, an inverse association between soy food consumption and breast cancer is likely. However, it seems that this correlation is more obvious in Asian rather than Western populations, where the consumption of soy is already higher. Moreover, the vast majority of studies that demonstrate this inverse association are case-control studies, a fact that should be taken into account. In this review, the current scientific evidence relating breast cancer and soy consumption is reported through a systematic way.

  4. NASA SMART Probe: Breast Cancer Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Robert W.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    There is evidence in breast cancer and other malignancies that the physiologic environment within a tumor correlates with clinical outcome. We are developing a unique percutaneous Smart Probe to be used at the time of needle biopsy of the breast. The Smart Probe will simultaneously measure multiple physiologic parameters within a breast tumor. Direct and indirect measurements of tissue oxygen levels, blood flow, pH, and tissue fluid pressure will be analyzed in real-time. These parameters will be interpreted individually and collectively by innovative neural network techniques using advanced intelligent software. The goals are 1) develop a pecutaneous Smart Probe with multiple sensor modalities and applying advanced Information Technologies to provide real time diagnostic information of the tissue at tip of the probe, 2) test the percutaneous Smart Probe in women with benign and malignant breast masses who will be undergoing surgical biopsy, 3) correlate probe sensor data with benign and malignant status of breast masses, 4) determine whether the probe can detect physiologic differences within a breast tumor, and its margins, and in adjacent normal breast tissue, 5) correlate probe sensor data with known prognostic factors for breast caner, including tumor size, tumor grade, axillary lymph node metastases, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status.

  5. Down-regulation of c9orf86 in human breast cancer cells inhibits cell proliferation, invasion and tumor growth and correlates with survival of breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Yang Li

    Full Text Available C9orf86 which is a novel subfamily within the Ras superfamily of GTPases, is overexpressed in the majority of primary breast tumors. Few functional studies have focused on the C9orf86 protein; therefore, in this study, we explored the role of C9orf86 in breast carcinogenesis. In our study, we found that silencing of C9orf86 by siRNA in MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cells resulted in suppressed cell proliferation as well as in vitro cell invasion capabilities. Moreover, knockdown of C9orf86 inhibited tumor growth in nude mice. Cell cycle and apoptotic assays showed that the anti-proliferative effect of C9orf86-siRNA was mediated by arresting cells in the G1 phase and promoting apoptosis. In addition, we found that patients with high levels of C9orf86 expression showed a significant trend towards worse survival compared to patients with low C9orf86 expression (P = 0.002. These results provide evidence that C9orf86 represents a novel and clinically useful biomarker for BC patients and plays an important role during the progression of BC.

  6. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  7. Breast Cancer Center Support Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    also occur with increased frequency in gene carriers, such prostate cancer. First-degree relatives of individuals with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation have...Tumor M 36 Asian Prostate Cancer M 52 Caucasian Ovarian Cancer F 56 Caucasian Cervical Cancer F 43 Caucasian Breast Cancer F 45 Caucasian Cancer of...address transportation barriers, alternate mechanisms were put in place for provision of parking and taxi vouchers. It was expected that many of the women

  8. The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Protein Autovac in Patients with Brest Cancer CPharmexa). This trial was initiated in June 2003. The PBCC accrued 5 of the planned 11 patients. This...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-01-1-0374 TITLE: The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium...3. DATES COVERED 1 AUG 2001 - 31 JUL 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  9. Correlativity study on mammographic features and c-erbB-2 of breast cancer%乳腺癌钼靶X线表现与c-erbB-2癌基因相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马捷; 左敏; 孙国平

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlativity between mammographic features and c-erbB-2 of breast cancer.Methods: The mammographic features of 165 patients,including calcification,distinct,esion concentration,breast cysitic hyperplasia accompanied,were studied comparatively with c-erbB-2 gene stained with immunohistochemical technique.Results: Of 165cases,calcification impression was 84 cases (50.91%),indistinct 80 cases (48.40%),lesions were concentrated of 87 case(52.73%),accompanied breast cysitic hyperplasia 85 cases (51.52%).Conclusion: Mammographic features of breast cancer could show the status of c-erbB-2,the positive chance is higher with calcification,indistinct,lesion concentration and accompanied breast cysitic hyperplasia.

  10. CDH1 germline mutations and hereditary lobular breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Giovanni; Intra, Mattia; Trentin, Chiara; Veronesi, Paolo; Galimberti, Viviana

    2016-04-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is an autosomal dominant inherited disease associated of CDH1 germline mutations (that encodes for the E-cadherin protein), and lobular breast cancer is the second most frequent type of neoplasia. Recently, novel E-cadherin constitutional alterations have been identified in pedigree clustering only for lobular breast carcinoma without evidence of diffuse gastric tumors and in absence of BRCA1/2 mutations. This first evidence opens novel questions about the inherited correlation between diffuse gastric and lobular breast cancers. In this brief review we revise the literature data about the CDH1 mutation frequency affecting exclusively lobular breast cancer, providing clinical recommendation for asymptomatic mutation carriers.

  11. Tumor metabolism and perfusion ratio assessed by 18F-FDG PET/CT and DCE-MRI in breast cancer patients: Correlation with tumor subtype and histologic prognostic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Young-Sil [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Ajou University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Doo Kyoung [Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yong Sik; Han, Sehwan [Department of Surgery, Ajou University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hee, E-mail: medhand@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • In non-triple negative breast cancer, metabolic parameter (SUVmax) was significantly correlated with perfusion parameters (Kep and Ve). • In triple negative cancers, any perfusion parameters did not correlated with metabolic parameters. • Higher SUVmax, higher SUVmax/Ktrans, higher MTV50/Ktrans, higher TLG50/Ktrans, higher TLG50/Ve ratios were significantly correlated with TNBC. • In triple negative breast cancer, perfusion and metabolic parameters are not significantly correlated. • Triple negative breast cancer showed higher metabolic–perfusion ratios compared to non-triple negative breast cancer. - Abstract: Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate whether breast cancer with high metabolic–perfusion ratio would be associated with poor histopathologic prognostic factors and whether triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) would show high metabolic–perfusion ratio compared to non-triple negative breast cancer (non-TNBC). Methods: From March 2011 to November 2011, 67 females with invasive ductal carcinoma of breast who underwent both MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT were included. Perfusion parameters including Ktrans, Kep and Ve were acquired from Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Metabolic parameters including the standardized uptake value (SUV) and volumetric metabolic parameters including metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were obtained from F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT). Results: In non-TNBC, SUVmax was significantly correlated with Kep (ρ = 0.298, p = 0.036) and Ve (ρ = −0.286, p = 0.044). In TNBC, there was no significant correlation between all perfusion and metabolic parameters. Compared to non-TNBC, higher SUVmax (10.2 vs 5.3, p < 0.001), higher SUVmax/Ktrans (56.02 vs 20.3, p < 0.001), higher MTV50/Ktrans (7.8 vs 16.54, p < 0.001), higher TLG50/Ktrans (36.49 vs 12.3, p < 0.001), higher TLG50/Ve (91.34 vs 27.1 p = 0.022) were

  12. Expression of the Apoptosis Inhibitor Survivin and its correlation with Thymidine Kinase and Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ping WU; Yun-Feng ZHOU; Zhi-Guo LUO; Ming-Sheng ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Many molecular factors have been demonstrated to interfere with cellular proliferation and programmed cell death. One of these factors is a recently discovered member of the "inhibitor of apoptosis protein(IAP)" called survivin. Survivin is abundantly expressed in most solid and hematologic malignancies, but undetectable in normal adult tissues. Interference with survivin function induces pleiotropic cell-division defects and apoptosis. Cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK) is a marker for proliferating cells and TK is one of several key enzymes involved in DNAmetabolism that phosphorylates thymidine to thymidine mono-phosphate. This study was aimed to detect the expression of suvivin and TK in breast cancer, and to explore a possible relationship between survivin expression and axillary lymph node metastasis.

  13. The morphologies of breast cancer cell lines in three-dimensionalassays correlate with their profiles of gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, Paraic A.; Lee, Genee Y.; Myers, Connie A.; Neve, RichardM.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Spellman, Paul T.; Lorenz, Katrin; Lee, Eva H.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, MinaJ.

    2007-01-31

    3D cell cultures are rapidly becoming the method of choice for the physiologically relevant modeling of many aspects of non-malignant and malignant cell behavior ex vivo. Nevertheless, only a limited number of distinct cell types have been evaluated in this assay to date. Here we report the first large scale comparison of the transcriptional profiles and 3D cell culture phenotypes of a substantial panel of human breast cancer cell lines. Each cell line adopts a colony morphology of one of four main classes in 3D culture. These morphologies reflect, at least in part, the underlying gene expression profile and protein expression patterns of the cell lines, and distinct morphologies were also associated with tumor cell invasiveness and with cell lines originating from metastases. We further demonstrate that consistent differences in genes encoding signal transduction proteins emerge when even tumor cells are cultured in 3D microenvironments.

  14. Epigenetics and Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An T. Vo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several of the active compounds in foods, poisons, drugs, and industrial chemicals may, by epigenetic mechanisms, increase or decrease the risk of breast cancers. Enzymes that are involved in DNA methylation and histone modifications have been shown to be altered in several types of breast and other cancers resulting in abnormal patterns of methylation and/or acetylation. Hypermethylation at the CpG islands found in estrogen response element (ERE promoters occurs in conjunction with ligand-bonded alpha subunit estrogen receptor (Erα dimers wherein the ligand ERα dimer complex acts as a transcription factor and binds to the ERE promoter. Ligands could be 17-β-estradiol (E2, phytoestrogens, heterocyclic amines, and many other identified food additives and heavy metals. The dimer recruits DNA methyltransferases which catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM to 5′-cytosine on CpG islands. Other enzymes are recruited to the region by ligand-ERα dimers which activate DNA demethylases to act simultaneously to increase gene expression of protooncogenes and growth-promoting genes. Ligand-ERα dimers also recruit histone acetyltransferase to the ERE promoter region. Histone demethylases such as JMJD2B and histone methyltransferases are enzymes which demethylate lysine residues on histones H3 and/or H4. This makes the chromatin accessible for transcription factors and enzymes.

  15. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  16. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the survival of women who have had breast cancer in the past. Lactation (breast milk production) and breast-feeding should be stopped if ... methotrexate , may occur in high levels in breast milk and may harm the nursing baby. Women ... Breast cancer does not appear to harm the unborn baby. ...

  17. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the survival of women who have had breast cancer in the past. Lactation (breast milk production) and breast-feeding should be stopped if ... methotrexate , may occur in high levels in breast milk and may harm the nursing baby. Women ... Breast cancer does not appear to harm the unborn baby. ...

  18. The methyltransferase EZH2 is not required for mammary cancer development, although high EZH2 and low H3K27me3 correlate with poor prognosis of ER-positive breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woo Kyun; Yoo, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Ji Shin; Kim, Young; Chung, Ik-Joo; Park, Min Ho; Yoon, Jung Han; Furth, Priscilla A; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2015-10-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) catalyzes trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and its demethylation is catalyzed by UTX. EZH2 levels are frequently elevated in breast cancer and have been proposed to control gene expression through regulating repressive H3K27me3 marks. However, it is not fully established whether breast cancers with different levels of H3K27me3, EZH2 and UTX exhibit different biological behaviors. Levels of H3K27me3, EZH2 and UTX and their prognostic significance were evaluated in 146 cases of breast cancer. H3K27me3 levels were higher in HER2-negative samples. EZH2 expression was higher in cancers that were LN+, size > 20mm, and with higher tumor grade and stage. Using a Cox regression model, H3K27me3 levels and EZH2 expression were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival for all the breast cancers studied as well as the ER-positive subgroup. The combination of low H3K27me3 and high EZH2 expression levels were significantly associated with shorter survival. UTX expression was not significantly associated with prognosis and there were no correlations between H3K27me3 levels and EZH2/UTX expression. To determine if EZH2 is required to establish H3K27me3 marks in mammary cancer, Brca1 and Ezh2 were deleted in mammary stem cells in mice. Brca1-deficient mammary cancers with unaltered H3K27me3 levels developed in the absence of EZH2, demonstrating that EZH2 is not a mandatory H3K27 methyltransferase in mammary neoplasia and providing genetic evidence for biological independence between H3K27me3 and EZH2 in this tissue.

  19. Mitotic activity index in interval breast cancers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, R.P.R.; Bult, P.; Noppen, C.M.; Boetes, C.; Ruers, T.J.M.; Wobbes, Th.

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: The Mitotic Activity Index (MAI) is a strong prognostic factor for disease free survival in breast cancer. The MAI is lower in screen detected tumours, correlating with less aggressive biological behaviour in this group. In this study the MAI is compared between screen detected, interval and s

  20. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , Sara ... cancer treatments. Breast cancer treatments include the following: Chemotherapy involves drugs that are intended to kill the ...

  1. Miscellaneous syndromes and their management: occult breast cancer, breast cancer in pregnancy, male breast cancer, surgery in stage IV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colfry, Alfred John

    2013-04-01

    Surgical therapy for occult breast cancer has traditionally centered on mastectomy; however, breast conservation with whole breast radiotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection has shown equivalent results. Patients with breast cancer in pregnancy can be safely and effectively treated; given a patient's pregnancy trimester and stage of breast cancer, a clinician must be able to guide therapy accordingly. Male breast cancer risk factors show strong association with BRCA2 mutations, as well as Klinefelter syndrome. Several retrospective trials of surgical therapy in stage IV breast cancer have associated a survival advantage with primary site tumor extirpation.

  2. Breast Cancer Types: What Your Type Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what treatments are most effective. Parts of the breast where cancer begins include: Milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer. This type of cancer forms in the lining of a milk duct within your breast. The ducts carry breast ...

  3. Fibroblast TGF-Beta Signaling in Breast Development and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    breast cancer [46]. In this study, Gli1 expression was primarily noted in cancer cells and correlated with another Hedgehog ligand, Sonic Hedge- hog. This...44]. The Hedgehog pathway, which is essential for normal mammary gland development, is also essential for mainte- nance of the CD44+/CD24low...and those active in cancer. Future studies should focus on the pathways, such as TGF-, Hedgehog and chemokines, in breast cancer development and

  4. Socio-Demographic and Cognitive Determinants of Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the causes of cancer death among women. In developed countries, one out of every nine women is diagnosed with this type of cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic and cognitive determinants related to breast cancer screening among Iranian women’s based on the protection motivation theory (PMT. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 385 women’s aged 35 to 50 years old referred to health centers in Abadan city, the southwest of Iran, during 2016. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlation, and logistic regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. The mean age of respondents was 39.12 years [95% CI: 38.72, 39.53], ranged from 35 to 50 years. Almost 7.5% and 19.1% of the participants had mammography and self-breast examination during last year. Age, education and positive history of breast cancer among family were the best socio-demographic predictive factors of breast cancer screening. Also among theoretical constructs of PMT, perceived severity and self-efficacy were the best predictors on breast cancer screening. Based on our result, it seems that designing and implementation of educational programs to increase seriousness about side effect of breast cancer and increase self-efficacy toward breast cancer screening behavior may be usefulness of the results in order to prevent of breast cancer.

  5. Health Management of Breast Cancer Survivors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Li; Juan Chen; Zhendong Chen

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is defined as a chronic disease.Increasing amounts of attention have been paid to the health management of breast cancer survivors. An important issue is how to find the most appropriate method of follow-up in order to detect long-term complications of treatment, local recurrence and distant metastasis and to administer appropriate treatment to the survivors with recurrence in a timely fashion. Different oncology organizations have published guidelines for following up breast cancer survivors. However, there are few articles on this issue in China. Using the published follow-up guidelines,we analyzed their main limitations and discussed the content,follow-up interval and economic benefits of following up breast cancer survivors in an effort to provide suggestions to physicians.Based on a large number of clinical trials, we discussed the role of physical examination, mammography, liver echograph, chest radiography, bone scan and so on. We evaluated the effects of the above factors on detection of distant disease, survival time,improvement in quality of life and time to diagnosis of recurrence.The results of follow-up carried out by oncologists and primary health care physicians were compared. We also analyzed the correlation factors for the cost of such follow-up. It appears that follow-up for breast cancer survivors can be carried out effectively by trained primary health care physicians. If anything unusual arises, the patients should be transferred to specialists.

  6. Consumer Health Education. Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.

    This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…

  7. Prognostic values of Notch receptors in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junming; Song, Fangbin; Jin, Tao; Qin, Jun; Wu, Junyi; Wang, Min; Wang, Ye; Liu, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Notch receptors are frequently deregulated in several human malignancies including human breast cancer. Activation of Notch has been reported to cause mammary carcinomas in mice. However, the prognostic value of individual Notch receptors in breast cancer (BC) patients remains elusive. In the current study, we investigated the prognostic value of Notch receptors in human BC patients. More specifically, we investigated the prognostic value of four Notch receptors in breast cancer patients through "the Kaplan-Meier plotter" (KM plotter) database, in which updated gene expression data and survival information are from a total of 3554 breast cancer patients. Our results showed that Notch1 messenger RNA (mRNA) high expression was correlated to worsen overall survival (OS) in PgR-negative BC patients. Notch2, Notch3, and Notch4 mRNA high expressions were found to be correlated to better OS for all breast cancer patients. Notch2 was also found to be correlated to better OS in lymph node-negative breast cancer patients and HER2-positive breast cancer patients. These results will be useful for better understanding of the heterogeneity and complexity in the molecular biology of breast cancer and for developing tools to more accurately predict their prognosis and design their customized treatment strategies.

  8. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000830.htm Understanding your breast cancer risk To use the sharing features ...

  9. Nonestrogenic drugs and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, D A; Jick, H; Hunter, J R; Stergachis, A; Madsen, S

    1982-08-01

    The relation between breast cancer and selected nonestrogenic drugs was evaluated in the Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Seattle, Washington, a prepaid health care organization with computerized information on diagnoses and outpatient drug use. No important positive associations with breast cancer were found in a follow-up study of 302 women aged 35-74 years. These women were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 1977-1980 and were studied in relation to exposure in the six months prior to diagnosis to one or more of the following drugs: diazepam, digitalis glycosides, medroxyprogesterone acetate, methyldopa, metronidazole, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, thiazides, thyroid/levothyroxine sodium, or spironolactone. A modest association between recent reserpine use and breast cancer was present (risk ratio = 1.7, 90% confidence interval 0.9-3.3).

  10. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  11. Breast cancer. Part 3: advanced cancer and psychological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the last article in this 3-part series on breast cancer. The previous two articles have outlined the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging, and treatment for breast cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment. The series concludes by giving information on advanced disease, including when a patient presents late with a fungating breast lesion, or if the disease has metastasized from the breast to other organs. Lymphoedema is also described and discussed, and the latter half of this article discusses psychological implications of breast cancer, from diagnosis through the individual treatments.

  12. MRI Background Parenchymal Enhancement Is Not Associated with Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bennani-Baiti

    Full Text Available Previously, a strong positive association between background parenchymal enhancement (BPE at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and breast cancer was reported in high-risk populations. We sought to determine, whether this was also true for non-high-risk patients.540 consecutive patients underwent breast MRI for assessment of breast findings (BI-RADS 0-5, non-high-risk screening (no familial history of breast cancer, no known genetic mutation, no prior chest irradiation, or previous breast cancer diagnosis and subsequent histological work-up. For this IRB-approved study, BPE and fibroglandular tissue FGT were retrospectively assessed by two experienced radiologists according to the BI-RADS lexicon. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to explore associations between BPE, FGT, age and final diagnosis of breast cancer. Subsequently, multivariate logistic regression analysis, considering covariate colinearities, was performed, using final diagnosis as the target variable and BPE, FGT and age as covariates.Age showed a moderate negative correlation with FGT (r = -0.43, p<0.001 and a weak negative correlation with BPE (r = -0.28, p<0.001. FGT and BPE correlated moderately (r = 0.35, p<0.001. Final diagnosis of breast cancer displayed very weak negative correlations with FGT (r = -0.09, p = 0.046 and BPE (r = -0.156, p<0.001 and weak positive correlation with age (r = 0.353, p<0.001. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the only independent covariate for prediction of breast cancer was age (OR 1.032, p<0.001.Based on our data, neither BPE nor FGT independently correlate with breast cancer risk in non-high-risk patients at MRI. Our model retained only age as an independent risk factor for breast cancer in this setting.

  13. Metals and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D; Storchan, Geoffrey B; Parodi, Daniela A; Martin, Mary Beth

    2013-03-01

    Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-α. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breast cancer.

  14. Frequent alterations of SLIT2–ROBO1–CDC42 signalling pathway in breast cancer: clinicopathological correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RITTWIKA BHATTACHARYA; NUPUR MUKHERJEE; HEMANTIKA DASGUPTA; MD. SAIMUL ISLAM; NEYAZ ALAM; ANUP ROY; PRIYOBRATA DAS; SUSANTA ROY CHOUDHURY; CHINMAY KUMAR PANDA

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the role of SLIT2–ROBO1/2–CDC42 signalling pathways in development of breast cancer (BC). Primary BC samples (n = 150), comprising of almost equal proportion of four subtypes were tested for molecular alterations of SLIT2, ROBO1, ROBO2 and CDC42, the key regulator genes of this pathway. Deletion and methylation frequencies of the candidate genes were seen in the following order: deletion, SLIT2 (38.6%) > ROBO1 (30%)> ROBO2 (7.3%); methylation, SLIT2 (63.3%) > ROBO1 (26.6%) >ROBO2 (9.3%). Majority (80%, 120/150) of the tumours showed alterations (deletion/methylation) in at least one of the candidate genes. Overall, alterations of the candidate genes were as follows: SLIT2, 75.3% (101/150); ROBO1, 45.3% (68/150); ROBO2, 15.3% (23/150). Significantly, higher alteration of SLIT2 locus was observed in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) over HER2 subtype (P = 0.0014). Similar trend is also seen in overall alterations of SLIT2 and/or ROBO1, in TNBC than HER2 subtype (P = 0.0012); of SLIT2 and/or ROBO2 in TNBC than luminal A (P = 0.014) and HER2 subtype (P = 0.048). Immunohistochemical analysis of SLIT2, ROBO1/2 showed reduced expression, concordant with their molecular alterations. Also, high expression of total CDC42 (49/52; 94.2%) and reduced expression of phospho Serine-71 CDC42 (41/52; 78.8%) was observed. Coalterations of SLIT2 and/or ROBO1, SLIT2 and/or ROBO2 had significant association with reduced expression of phospho Serine-71 CDC42 (P = 0.0012–0.0038). Alterations of SLIT2 and/or ROBO1, reduced expression of phospho Serine-71 CDC42 predicted poor survival of BC patients. Results indicate the importance of SLIT2–ROBO1–CDC42 signalling pathway in predicting tumour progression.

  15. Positive predictive value of additional synchronous breast lesions in whole-breast ultrasonography at the diagnosis of breast cancer: clinical and imaging factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Hyun Kim

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: BWBU can detect additional synchronous malignancy at the diagnosis of breast cancer with a relatively high PPV, especially when mammography findings are correlated with ultrasonographic findings.

  16. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer.

  17. An essay on sexual frustration as the cause of breast cancer in women: how correlations and cultural blind spots conceal causal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuger, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The main premise of this hypothesis is that breast cancer is caused by sexual frustration. Sexual frustration is triggered by multiple forms of dissonance between the absence or lack of sexual reward and the (un)conscious motivation to obtain these sexual rewards. I assume that neural and hormonal processes are capable of adjusting or distorting biologically active forms of specific sex hormones depending on experienced sexual stimuli. I hypothesize that prolonged sexual frustration will ultimately lead via aberrantly metabolized sex hormones to the development of breast cancer. Human female sexual behavior research links sexual frustration with breast cancer risk. The distinction between human female sexual behavior and reproduction is crucial to understand breast cancer risk. Current explanations are focused on reproduction. However, human female sexual behavior is causal in breast cancer development and androgens rather than estrogens are crucial for sexual behaviors in women. Social learning is the main determinant of human sexual behaviors that is why cultural and social processes are very important to understand breast cancer risk. Epidemiologists should evaluate breast cancer risk based on cultural female attitudes towards sexually related issues. Female mate choices should be examined for (un)conscious cultural, ethnic, religious, and socio-economic pressure to make a thorough assessment of breast cancer risk. Closer examination of (un)conscious female copulation strategies reveal that they are potential sources of sexual frustration in specific groups of women. Postmenopausal women seem vulnerable for self-fulfilling prophecies about post reproductive sexuality, body image, and negative perceptions of menopause which may cause sexual frustrations.

  18. Expression of the hypoxia-inducible monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 is increased in triple negative breast cancer and correlates independently with clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyen, J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre A. Lacassagne, Nice (France); Trastour, C. [Department of Gynecology, Archet II Hospital, 06202 Nice (France); Ettore, F.; Peyrottes, I.; Toussant, N. [Department of Pathology, Centre A. Lacassagne, Nice (France); Gal, J. [Department of Medical Statistics, Centre A. Lacassagne, Nice (France); Ilc, K.; Roux, D. [Institute for Research on Cancer and Aging (IRCAN), University of Nice, Centre A. Lacassagne, 06189 Nice (France); Parks, S.K. [Centre Scientifique de Monaco (CSM) (Monaco); Ferrero, J.M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre A. Lacassagne, Nice (France); Pouysségur, J., E-mail: jacques.pouyssegur@unice.fr [Institute for Research on Cancer and Aging (IRCAN), University of Nice, Centre A. Lacassagne, 06189 Nice (France); Centre Scientifique de Monaco (CSM) (Monaco)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Glycolytic markers are highly expressed in triple negative breast cancers. • Lactate/H{sup +} symporter MCT4 demonstrated the strongest deleterious impact on survival. • MCT4 should serve as a new prognostic factor in node-negative breast cancers. - Abstract: Background: {sup 18}Fluor-deoxy-glucose PET-scanning of glycolytic metabolism is being used for staging in many tumors however its impact on prognosis has never been studied in breast cancer. Methods: Glycolytic and hypoxic markers: glucose transporter (GLUT1), carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), monocarboxylate transporter 1 and 4 (MCT1, 4), MCT accessory protein basigin and lactate-dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) were assessed by immunohistochemistry in two cohorts of breast cancer comprising 643 node-negative and 127 triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) respectively. Results: In the 643 node-negative breast tumor cohort with a median follow-up of 124 months, TNBC were the most glycolytic (≈70%), followed by Her-2 (≈50%) and RH-positive cancers (≈30%). Tumoral MCT4 staining (without stromal staining) was a strong independent prognostic factor for metastasis-free survival (HR = 0.47, P = 0.02) and overall-survival (HR = 0.38, P = 0.002). These results were confirmed in the independent cohort of 127 cancer patients. Conclusion: Glycolytic markers are expressed in all breast tumors with highest expression occurring in TNBC. MCT4, the hypoxia-inducible lactate/H{sup +} symporter demonstrated the strongest deleterious impact on survival. We propose that MCT4 serves as a new prognostic factor in node-negative breast cancer and can perhaps act soon as a theranostic factor considering the current pharmacological development of MCT4 inhibitors.

  19. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening ... Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer Basics and ... and Diagnosis / Staging and Treatment / Selected National Cancer Institute Breast ...

  20. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic...

  1. Genomic profiling of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anjita; Singh, Alok Kumar; Maurya, Sanjeev Kumar; Rai, Rajani; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Mohan; Shukla, Hari S

    2009-05-01

    Genome study provides significant changes in the advancement of molecular diagnosis and treatment in Breast cancer. Several recent critical advances and high-throughput techniques identified the genomic trouble and dramatically accelerated the pace of research in preventing and curing this malignancy. Tumor-suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes, DNA-repair genes, carcinogen-metabolism genes are critically involved in progression of breast cancer. We reviewed imperative finding in breast genetics, ongoing work to segregate further susceptible genes, and preliminary studies on molecular profiling.

  2. Microwaves for breast cancer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdelhamid Elkayal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is potentially an effective method for the treatment of cancer, especially breast cancer tumors. One of the most attractive attributes of hyperthermia is the possibility of providing therapeutic benefit noninvasively, minimizing side effects. To be effective, a hyperthermia treatment must selectively heat the cancerous tissue, elevating the temperature in the tumor without exposing healthy tissue to excessive temperature elevations. In this paper, a suggested simple model of Annular Phased Array (APA using eight half wavelength linear dipoles is presented. New software (COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS is used to calculate the temperature distribution inside a model of a three layered breast (skin, breast tissue, and tumor. In addition, the effect of changing the amplitude and phases of the array elements on the temperature distributions and the conditions on the values of the phases are demonstrated in order to achieve the objective of hyperthermia for breast tumor treatment.

  3. CORRELATION BETWEEN CLINICAL PATHOLOGY OF LUMINAL B BREAST CANCER AND DETERMINATION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR, PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR AND HER2 EXPRESSION COMBINED WITH NUCLEAR MORPHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, D; Wang, Y L; Wang, Y F; Yang, L; Zhang, L; Tang, C; Xie, W; Ma, Y

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer, one of the most common malignant tumors in females, draws little attention because of its untypical symptoms and signs, so the disease is usually confirmed too late, in an advanced stage. Based on the detection of nuclear morphology parameters of luminal B breast cancer, this study explored how pathological features relate to estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). A quantity of 354 breast cancer specimens with follow-up records from the department of pathology in the First People’s Hospital of Nantong and the Tumor Hospital of Nantong were selected as research subjects. Nuclear parameters of specimens stained by hematoxylin and eosin were measured by imaging analysis software. It was found that breast cancer can be divided into four types, luminal B, luminal A, HER2 over-expression and basal-like type based on immunohistochemical results of three antibodies, i.e, ER, PR and HER2. A total of 113 patients (31.8%) were confirmed with luminal B breast cancer, mostly in histological stage II; the difference of nuclear morphology was of statistical significance between ER+/PR+ and ER-/PR- (Pbreast cancer, luminal B had the lowest brain metastasis rate, while HER2 over-expression subtype was found with the highest rate of lung and pleura metastasis. Besides, luminal B possessed longer disease-free survival (DFS) than basal-like (Pbreast cancer.

  4. Reduced selenium-binding protein 1 in breast cancer correlates with poor survival and resistance to the anti-proliferative effects of selenium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Supplemental dietary selenium is associated with reduced incidence of many cancers. The antitumor function of selenium is thought to be mediated through selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1. However, the significance of SELENBP1 expression in breast cancer is still largely unknown. A total of 95 normal and tumor tissues assay and 12 breast cancer cell lines were used in this study. We found that SELENBP1 expression in breast cancer tissues is reduced compared to normal control. Low SELENBP1 expression in ER(+ breast cancer patients was significantly associated with poor survival (p<0.01, and SELENBP1 levels progressively decreased with advancing clinical stages of breast cancer. 17-β estradiol (E2 treatment of high SELENBP1-expressing ER(+ cell lines led to a down-regulation of SELENBP1, a result that did not occur in ER(- cell lines. However, after ectopic expression of ER in an originally ER(- cell line, down-regulation of SELENBP1 upon E2 treatment was observed. In addition, selenium treatment resulted in reduced cell proliferation in endogenous SELENBP1 high cells; however, after knocking-down SELENBP1, we observed no significant reduction in cell proliferation. Similarly, selenium has no effect on inhibition of cell proliferation in low endogenous SELENBP1 cells, but the inhibitory effect is regained following ectopic SELENBP1 expression. Furthermore, E2 treatment of an ER silenced high endogenous SELENBP1 expressing cell line showed no abolishment of cell proliferation inhibition upon selenium treatment. These data indicate that SELENBP1 expression is regulated via estrogen and that the cell proliferation inhibition effect of selenium treatment is dependent on the high level of SELENBP1 expression. Therefore, the expression level of SELENBP1 could be an important marker for predicting survival and effectiveness of selenium supplementation in breast cancer. This is the first study to reveal the importance of monitoring SELENBP1 expression

  5. Gene transcriptional networks integrate microenvironmental signals in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ren; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2011-04-01

    A significant amount of evidence shows that microenvironmental signals generated from extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, soluble factors, and cell-cell adhesion complexes cooperate at the extra- and intracellular level. This synergetic action of microenvironmental cues is crucial for normal mammary gland development and breast malignancy. To explore how the microenvironmental genes coordinate in human breast cancer at the genome level, we have performed gene co-expression network analysis in three independent microarray datasets and identified two microenvironment networks in human breast cancer tissues. Network I represents crosstalk and cooperation of ECM microenvironment and soluble factors during breast malignancy. The correlated expression of cytokines, chemokines, and cell adhesion proteins in Network II implicates the coordinated action of these molecules in modulating the immune response in breast cancer tissues. These results suggest that microenvironmental cues are integrated with gene transcriptional networks to promote breast cancer development.

  6. What Is Breast Cancer in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the breast are glandular tissue (they make breast milk in women), so cancers starting in these areas are sometimes called adenocarcinomas. ... invasive) lobular carcinoma (ILC) This type of breast cancer starts in ... that, in women, produce breast milk) and grows into the fatty tissue of the ...

  7. Breast Cancer Risk Estimation Using Parenchymal Texture Analysis in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikejimba, Lynda C.; Kontos, Despina; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2010-10-01

    Mammographic parenchymal texture has been shown to correlate with genetic markers of developing breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel x-ray imaging technique in which tomographic images of the breast are reconstructed from multiple source projections acquired at different angles of the x-ray tube. Compared to digital mammography (DM), DBT eliminates breast tissue overlap, offering superior parenchymal tissue visualization. We hypothesize that texture analysis in DBT could potentially provide a better assessment of parenchymal texture and ultimately result in more accurate assessment of breast cancer risk. As a first step towards validating this hypothesis, we investigated the association between DBT parenchymal texture and breast percent density (PD), a known breast cancer risk factor, and compared it to DM. Bilateral DBT and DM images from 71 women participating in a breast cancer screening trial were analyzed. Filtered-backprojection was used to reconstruct DBT tomographic planes in 1 mm increments with 0.22 mm in-plane resolution. Corresponding DM images were acquired at 0.1 mm pixel resolution. Retroareolar regions of interest (ROIs) equivalent to 2.5 cm3 were segmented from the DBT images and corresponding 2.5 cm2 ROIs were segmented from the DM images. Breast PD was mammographically estimated using the Cumulus scale. Overall, DBT texture features demonstrated a stronger correlation than DM to PD. The Pearson correlation coefficients for DBT were r = 0.40 (pbreast cancer risk assessment in the future.

  8. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  9. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-analysis techniques. Dose-response analyses by number of prescriptions were also performed. Analyses were repeated investigating propranolol use before cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: The combined study population included 55,252 and 133,251 breast cancer patients in the analysis of breast cancer-specific and all...

  10. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  11. Alternative Dosing of Exemestane Before Surgery in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage 0-II Estrogen Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  12. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  13. Lung cancer after treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorigan, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Howell, Anthony; Thatcher, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Improvements in the outcome of breast cancer mean that more patients are living longer and are, therefore, at risk of developing a second malignancy. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of the risk of lung cancer arising in patients previously treated for early stage breast cancer. We review data on the effect of treatment factors (ie, surgery type, radiotherapy technique, and adjuvant chemotherapy) and patient factors (ie, age and smoking) on the risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer. The evidence suggests that older radiotherapy techniques were associated with a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer in the ipsilateral lung, but there is no clear evidence of an increased risk with modern techniques. Smoking is an important risk factor, and increases the risk of lung cancer in those receiving radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not significantly associated with an increased risk. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with time elapsed since treatment, but any effect of age at treatment is unclear.

  14. 乳腺癌MRI形态学表现与预后因子的相关性%Correlation of Morphological MRI Features with Prognostic Factors in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯伟娜

    2013-01-01

    本文旨在评价MRI对乳腺癌的诊断价值,在此基础上进一步分析乳腺癌MRI表现与预后因子的相关性,为乳腺癌的早期诊断、临床制订个体化治疗方案及预后评估提供更多的信息和依据。%This paper aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of MRI in breast cancer.On the basis of further analysis of correlation of MRI features with prognostic factors in breast cancer, the paper provides more information for the early diagnosis of breast cancer and clinical formulate individualized treatment plan.

  15. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer SusceptibilitySuzanne. E. FentonUS EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  17. Automated assessment of bilateral breast volume asymmetry as a breast cancer biomarker during mammographic screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alex C.; Hitt, Austin; Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia

    2013-03-01

    The biological concept of bilateral symmetry as a marker of developmental stability and good health is well established. Although most individuals deviate slightly from perfect symmetry, humans are essentially considered bilaterally symmetrical. Consequently, increased fluctuating asymmetry of paired structures could be an indicator of disease. There are several published studies linking bilateral breast size asymmetry with increased breast cancer risk. These studies were based on radiologists' manual measurements of breast size from mammographic images. We aim to develop a computerized technique to assess fluctuating breast volume asymmetry in screening mammograms and investigate whether it correlates with the presence of breast cancer. Using a large database of screening mammograms with known ground truth we applied automated breast region segmentation and automated breast size measurements in CC and MLO views using three well established methods. All three methods confirmed that indeed patients with breast cancer have statistically significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of their breast volumes. However, statistically significant difference between patients with cancer and benign lesions was observed only for the MLO views. The study suggests that automated assessment of global bilateral asymmetry could serve as a breast cancer risk biomarker for women undergoing mammographic screening. Such biomarker could be used to alert radiologists or computer-assisted detection (CAD) systems to exercise increased vigilance if higher than normal cancer risk is suspected.

  18. Automated assessment of bilateral breast volume asymmetry as a breast cancer biomarker during mammographic screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alex C [ORNL; Hitt, Austin N [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The biological concept of bilateral symmetry as a marker of developmental stability and good health is well established. Although most individuals deviate slightly from perfect symmetry, humans are essentially considered bilaterally symmetrical. Consequently, increased fluctuating asymmetry of paired structures could be an indicator of disease. There are several published studies linking bilateral breast size asymmetry with increased breast cancer risk. These studies were based on radiologists manual measurements of breast size from mammographic images. We aim to develop a computerized technique to assess fluctuating breast volume asymmetry in screening mammograms and investigate whether it correlates with the presence of breast cancer. Using a large database of screening mammograms with known ground truth we applied automated breast region segmentation and automated breast size measurements in CC and MLO views using three well established methods. All three methods confirmed that indeed patients with breast cancer have statistically significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of their breast volumes. However, statistically significant difference between patients with cancer and benign lesions was observed only for the MLO views. The study suggests that automated assessment of global bilateral asymmetry could serve as a breast cancer risk biomarker for women undergoing mammographic screening. Such biomarker could be used to alert radiologists or computer-assisted detection (CAD) systems to exercise increased vigilance if higher than normal cancer risk is suspected.

  19. Correlating two-photon excited fluorescence imaging of breast cancer cellular redox state with seahorse flux analysis of normalized cellular oxygen consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Wright, Heather J.; Chan, Nicole; Tran, Richard; Razorenova, Olga V.; Potma, Eric O.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-06-01

    Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging of the cellular cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide is widely used to measure cellular metabolism, both in normal and pathological cells and tissues. When dual-wavelength excitation is used, ratiometric TPEF imaging of the intrinsic cofactor fluorescence provides a metabolic index of cells-the "optical redox ratio" (ORR). With increased interest in understanding and controlling cellular metabolism in cancer, there is a need to evaluate the performance of ORR in malignant cells. We compare TPEF metabolic imaging with seahorse flux analysis of cellular oxygen consumption in two different breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). We monitor metabolic index in living cells under both normal culture conditions and, for MCF-7, in response to cell respiration inhibitors and uncouplers. We observe a significant correlation between the TPEF-derived ORR and the flux analyzer measurements (R=0.7901, p<0.001). Our results confirm that the ORR is a valid dynamic index of cell metabolism under a range of oxygen consumption conditions relevant for cancer imaging.

  20. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  1. The correlation between telomerase activity and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in valproic acid-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Vafaiyan

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that cell viability of MCF-7 cells was decreased after treatment with VPA, probably through a reduction of telomerase activity and an increase in Bax/bcl-2 ratio. Therefore, it could be concluded that VPA is a potent anti-cancer agent for breast cancer cells through inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of apoptosis.

  2. Multi-epitope Folate Receptor Alpha Peptide Vaccine, Sargramostim, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Bilateral Breast Carcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma; Unilateral Breast Carcinoma

  3. Correlation of high {sup 18}F-FDG uptake to clinical, pathological and biological prognostic factors in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groheux, David; Moretti, Jean-Luc; Hindie, Elif [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saint-Louis Hospital,Assistance publique Hopitaux de Paris, Paris Cedex 10 (France); IUH, Doctoral School, University of Paris VII, Paris (France); Giacchetti, Sylvie; Espie, Marc; Hamy, Anne-Sophie; Cuvier, Caroline [Breast Diseases Unit, Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Paris (France); Porcher, Raphael [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Biostatistics and Medical Information, Paris (France); Lehmann-Che, Jacqueline [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Biochemistry, Paris (France); Roquancourt, Anne de [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Vercellino, Laetitia [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saint-Louis Hospital, Assistance publique Hopitaux de Paris, Paris Cedex 10 (France)

    2011-03-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the main clinicopathological and biological prognostic factors of breast cancer on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. Only women with tumours larger than 20 mm (T2-T4) were included in order to minimize bias of partial volume effect. In this prospective study, 132 consecutive women received FDG PET/CT imaging before starting neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) were compared to tumour characteristics as assessed on core biopsy. There was no influence of T and N stage on SUV. Invasive ductal carcinoma showed higher SUV than lobular carcinoma. However, the highest uptake was found for metaplastic tumours, representing 5% of patients in this series. Several biological features usually considered as bad prognostic factors were associated with an increase in FDG uptake: the median of SUV{sub max} was 9.7 for grade 3 tumours vs 4.8 for the lower grades (p < 0.0001); negativity for oestrogen receptors (ER) was associated with higher SUV (ER+ SUV = 5.5; ER- SUV = 7.6; p = 0.003); triple-negative tumours (oestrogen and progesterone receptor negative, no overexpression of c-erbB-2) had an SUV of 9.2 vs 5.8 for all others (p = 0005); p53 mutated tumours also had significantly higher SUV (7.8 vs 5.0; p < 0.0001). Overexpression of c-erbB-2 had no effect on the SUV value. Knowledge of the factors influencing uptake is important when interpreting FDG PET/CT scans. Also, findings that FDG uptake is highest in those patients with poor prognostic features (high grade, hormone receptor negativity, triple negativity, metaplastic tumours) is helpful to determine who are the best candidates for baseline staging. (orig.)

  4. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  5. In utero exposure and breast cancer development: an epigenetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jacob; Hodsdon, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitous and detrimental disease of breast cancer requires continual research into new and alternative forms of treatment and prevention. The emerging field of epigenetics is beginning to unfold an array of contemporary approaches to reduce the risk and improve the clinical approach to breast cancer. The information contained in this non-systematic review highlights and expands on the estrogen-based model of breast cancer epigenetics to provide an overview of epigenetic alterations induced by nutrition and environmental exposure. The majority of evidence suggests that various sources of excess estrogen correlate to future breast cancer development. In addition, maternal macro- and micronutrient balance appear to play a role in genomic regulation, and preliminary data suggest that specific superfoods, such as blueberries, have a protective epigenetic effect. Identifying the influence of environmental toxicants, hormonal exposure, maternal nutrition, and maternal disease on fetal epigenetics may have potential for development of new therapeutic approaches for the prevention of breast cancer.

  6. Prediction of Breast Cancer using Rule Based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Kumar SINGH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work proposes a model for prediction of breast cancer using the classification approach in data mining. The proposed model is based on various parameters, including symptoms of breast cancer, gene mutation and other risk factors causing breast cancer. Mutations have been predicted in breast cancer causing genes with the help of alignment of normal and abnormal gene sequences; then predicting the class label of breast cancer (risky or safe on the basis of IF-THEN rules, using Genetic Algorithm (GA. In this work, GA has used variable gene encoding mechanisms for chromosomes encoding, uniform population generations and selects two chromosomes by Roulette-Wheel selection technique for two-point crossover, which gives better solutions. The performance of the model is evaluated using the F score measure, Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC by plotting points (Sensitivity V/s 1- Specificity.

  7. The nanomechanical signature of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plodinec, Marija; Loparic, Marko; Monnier, Christophe A.; Obermann, Ellen C.; Zanetti-Dallenbach, Rosanna; Oertle, Philipp; Hyotyla, Janne T.; Aebi, Ueli; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Lim, Roderick Y. H.; Schoenenberger, Cora-Ann

    2012-12-01

    Cancer initiation and progression follow complex molecular and structural changes in the extracellular matrix and cellular architecture of living tissue. However, it remains poorly understood how the transformation from health to malignancy alters the mechanical properties of cells within the tumour microenvironment. Here, we show using an indentation-type atomic force microscope (IT-AFM) that unadulterated human breast biopsies display distinct stiffness profiles. Correlative stiffness maps obtained on normal and benign tissues show uniform stiffness profiles that are characterized by a single distinct peak. In contrast, malignant tissues have a broad distribution resulting from tissue heterogeneity, with a prominent low-stiffness peak representative of cancer cells. Similar findings are seen in specific stages of breast cancer in MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice. Further evidence obtained from the lungs of mice with late-stage tumours shows that migration and metastatic spreading is correlated to the low stiffness of hypoxia-associated cancer cells. Overall, nanomechanical profiling by IT-AFM provides quantitative indicators in the clinical diagnostics of breast cancer with translational significance.

  8. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  9. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is unknow

  10. Interleukin 18 expression in the primary breast cancer tumour tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahida Srabović

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the presence and expression levels of the IL-18 in the primary breast cancer tissue in relation to the unchangedbreast tissue in same patients and the breast tissue in patients withbenign breast disease, as well as the correlation between the IL-18 expression levels and pathohistological factors, including thecorrelation between IL-18 expression and the estrogens and progesterone receptor status. Methods This prospective randomized study was conducted at the Policlinic for Laboratory Diagnostics of the University Clinical Centre of Tuzla. 50 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer and 20 patients with benign breast diseases were included in the study. The tree-step immunohistochemical staining was used for testing the levels of IL-18 expression and hormone receptor status. Results IL-18 was present in the breast cancer tumour, in the surrounding unchanged tissue of the same patients and in the breast tissue of patients with benign breast tumour and other benign breast disease. The expression of this interleukin was signiicantly higher in breast cancer tumour tissue as compared to its expression in surrounding unchanged tissue of the same patients (p<0,05, whereas IL-18 expression was not signiicantly higher in breast cancer tumours compared to its expression in breast tissue of the patients with benign breast diseases (p=0,057. There was no signiicant correlation between IL-18 expression and the lymph node status, and between IL-18 expression and the pathohistological factors. Conclusion The results suggest possible involvement of IL-18 in complex mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis.

  11. CYTOKINE-PRODUCING RESERVE OF IMMUNOCOMPETENT CELLS FROM BLOOD AND INVASIVE DUCTAL BREAST CANCER TISSUES: ITS CORRELATION WITH HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF MALIGNANT NEOPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Arkhipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate a relationship between cytokine-producing reserve of invasive ductal cancer cells and its microenvironment, and cytokine-producing reserve of immunocompetent blood cells (IBC, as well as with histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of breast cancer. Using ELISA method we investigated the spontaneous and stimulated with polyclonal activators (PA cytokine-producing reserve of IBC and biopsy specimens from invasive ductal cancer (adenocarcinoma in 34 women. Appropriate values were expressed by the Influence Index of polyclonal activators (IIPA upon cytokine production (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, IL-1β, IL-1ra, TNFα, IFNγ, G-CSF, GM-CSF, VEGF-A, MCP-1. In tumor biopsies, we studied expression of VEGF-A, estrogen receptor, progesteron receptor and pro-proliferation marker Ki-67 by means of immunohistochemical method. Activation values of blood IBC in most cases, except of IL-18, IL-1β and MCP-1, were higher than appropriate effects upon cytokine production by tumor tisuues. Meanwhile, the IIPA activation index upon IL-18 (a proinflammatory and prooncogene cytokine production by tumor cells and its microenvironment proved to be elevated, as compared to appropriate IIPA by the blood IBC. Statistical studies showed a direct correlation between IIPA and cytokine production in tumor supernates, IIPA of VEGF-A expression in tumor tissue, with pathohistological parameters and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and Ki-67 proliferation marker. A high positive correlation was obtained between IIPA TNFα production by the tumor tissue, and degree of tumor vascularization.We have revealed a negative correlation between IIPA for IL-6, MCP-1 and Ki-67 marker of cell proliferation. A direct correlation was found between IIPA values for IL-1ra/IL-1β production ratios in blood cells, and IIPA for VEGF-A expression in adenocarcinoma tissues, thus indicating to probable

  12. The B7-H1 (PD-L1 T Lymphocyte-Inhibitory Molecule Is Expressed in Breast Cancer Patients with Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma: Correlation with Important High-Risk Prognostic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Ghebeh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available B7-H1 molecule increases the apoptosis of tumorreactive T lymphocytes and reduces their immunogenicity. Breast cancer is the second most common cause of mortality after lung cancer. Direct evidence linking B7-H1 with cancer has been shown in several malignancies; however, its expression in breast cancer has not been investigated. We used immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of the B7-H1 molecule in 44 breast cancer specimens and to study its correlation with patients' clinicopathological parameters. The expression of B7-H1 was shown in 22 of 44 patients and was not restricted to the tumor epithelium (15 of 44, 34% in tumor cells, but was also expressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL; 18 of 44, 41%. Interestingly, intratumor expression of B7-H1 was significantly associated with histologic grade IIInegative (P = .012, estrogen receptor-negative (P = .036, and progesterone receptor-negative (P = .040 patients. In addition, the expression of B7-H1 in TIL was associated with large tumor size (P = .042, histologic grade III (P=.015, positivity of Her2/neu status (P=.019, and severe tumor lymphocyte infiltration (P = .001. Taken together, these data suggest that B7-H1 may be an important risk factor in breast cancer patients and may represent a potential immunotherapeutic target using monoclonal antibody against the B7-H1 molecule.

  13. The B7-H1 (PD-L1)T Lymphocyte-Inhibitory Molecule Is Expressed in Breast Cancer Patients with Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma: Correlation with Important High-Risk Prognostic Factors1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebeh, Hazem; Mohammed, Shamayel; Al-Omair, Abeer; Qattan, Amal; Lehe, Cynthia; Al-Qudaihi, Ghofran; Elkum, Naser; Alshabanah, Mohamed; Amer, Suad Bin; Tulbah, Asma; Ajarim, Dahish; Al-Tweigeri, Taher; Dermime, Said

    2006-01-01

    Abstract B7-H1 molecule increases the apoptosis of tumor-reactive T lymphocytes and reduces their immunogenicity. Breast cancer is the second most common cause of mortality after lung cancer. Direct evidence linking B7-H1 with cancer has been shown in several malignancies; however, its expression in breast cancer has not been investigated. We used immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of the B7-H1 molecule in 44 breast cancer specimens and to study its correlation with patients' clinicopathological parameters. The expression of B7-H1 was shown in 22 of 44 patients and was not restricted to the tumor epithelium (15 of 44, 34% in tumor cells), but was also expressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL; 18 of 44, 41%). Interestingly, intratumor expression of B7-H1 was significantly associated with histologic grade III-negative (P = .012), estrogen receptor-negative (P = .036), and progesterone receptor-negative (P = .040) patients. In addition, the expression of B7-H1 in TIL was associated with large tumor size (P = .042), histologic grade III (P = .015), positivity of Her2/neu status (P = .019), and severe tumor lymphocyte infiltration (P = .001). Taken together, these data suggest that B7-H1 may be an important risk factor in breast cancer patients and may represent a potential immunotherapeutic target using monoclonal antibody against the B7-H1 molecule. PMID:16611412

  14. The B7-H1 (PD-L1) T lymphocyte-inhibitory molecule is expressed in breast cancer patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma: correlation with important high-risk prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebeh, Hazem; Mohammed, Shamayel; Al-Omair, Abeer; Qattan, Amal; Lehe, Cynthia; Al-Qudaihi, Ghofran; Elkum, Naser; Alshabanah, Mohamed; Bin Amer, Suad; Tulbah, Asma; Ajarim, Dahish; Al-Tweigeri, Taher; Dermime, Said

    2006-03-01

    B7-H1 molecule increases the apoptosis of tumor-reactive T lymphocytes and reduces their immunogenicity. Breast cancer is the second most common cause of mortality after lung cancer. Direct evidence linking B7-H1 with cancer has been shown in several malignancies; however, its expression in breast cancer has not been investigated. We used immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of the B7-H1 molecule in 44 breast cancer specimens and to study its correlation with patients' clinicopathological parameters. The expression of B7-H1 was shown in 22 of 44 patients and was not restricted to the tumor epithelium (15 of 44, 34% in tumor cells), but was also expressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL; 18 of 44, 41%). Interestingly, intratumor expression of B7-H1 was significantly associated with histologic grade III-negative (P = .012), estrogen receptor-negative (P = .036), and progesterone receptor-negative (P = .040) patients. In addition, the expression of B7-H1 in TIL was associated with large tumor size (P = .042), histologic grade III (P = .015), positivity of Her2/neu status (P = .019), and severe tumor lymphocyte infiltration (P = .001). Taken together, these data suggest that B7-H1 may be an important risk factor in breast cancer patients and may represent a potential immunotherapeutic target using monoclonal antibody against the B7-H1 molecule.

  15. Secretory breast cancer. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, A; Maggi, S; Bersigotti, L; Lazzarin, G; Nuccetelli, E; Amanti, C

    2013-04-01

    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor initially described in children but occurring equally in adult population. This unusual breast cancer subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases. However, surgery is still considered the most appropriate treatment for this pathology. We describe the case of a 50 -year-old woman who has undergone a breast conservative surgery for a little tumor, preoperatively diagnosticated by a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a well differentiated infiltrating carcinoma.

  16. Molecular-Genetic Aspects of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasteva M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women. Advances in breast cancer knowledge have deciphered the involvement of a number of tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes in disease pathogenesis. These genes are part of the complex biochemical pathways, which enable cell cycle control and maintenance of genome integrity. Their function may be disrupted as a result of alterations in gene sequence or misregulation of gene expression including alterations in DNA methylation pattern. The present review summarizes the main findings on major breast cancer related genes BRCA1/2, p53, ATM, CHEK2, HER2, PIK3CA and their tumorigenic inactivation/activation. The potential clinical importance of these genes with respect to patients’ prognosis and therapy are also discussed. The possible implication of other putative breast cancer related genes is also outlined. The first elaborate data on the genetic and epigenetic status of the above mentioned genes concerning Bulgarian patients with the sporadic form of the disease are presented. The studies indicate for a characteristic mutational spectrum in some of the genes for the Bulgarian patients and specific correlation between the status of different genes and clinicopathological characteristics.

  17. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  18. Evaluation of the expression of stem cell markers in human breast cancer reveals a correlation with clinical progression and metastatic disease in ductal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tracey Amanda; Jiang, Wen Guo

    2014-01-01

    The tumor stem cell theory could explain how patients with metastatic disease show clinical relapse several months after starting treatment due to the survival of a small group of cells with unique characteristics. We examined the distribution and expression of a panel of stem cell markers in human breast cancer primary tumors. Human breast tissues were processed for immunohistochemistry, and RNA was extracted for analysis by quantitative-PCR. Immunohistochemical assay revealed that CD44 was strongly expressed in background endothelia and epithelia. CD133 expression was lost in tumor-associated endothelial cells. Conversely, CD49b was strongly stained in the tumors, associated vessels and ducts but was weakly stained in the background epithelia. q-PCR analysis revealed that CD44 and PSCA were reduced in patients with poor outcome (metastatic disease and death from breast cancer), with a marked reduction in ductal carcinoma, particularly with metastasis to bone although these did not reach significant difference. CD133 was significantly reduced in patients with metastatic disease and was also significantly reduced in patients with ductal carcinoma/bone metastasis. Conversely, CD49F was increased in patients with a poor outcome and those with ductal cancer and bone metastases. This is the first study to determine the distribution and expression pattern of these stem cell markers in human breast cancer. There was a significant association between loss of expression and metastatic disease in patients with breast cancer. Such differential expression may play a part in breast cancer disease progression, and suggests that the current stem cell theory may not hold true for all cancer types.

  19. Reduced selenium-binding protein 1 in breast cancer correlates with poor survival and resistance to the anti-proliferative effects of selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Feng; Younes, Mamoun; Liu, Hao; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi

    2013-01-01

    Supplemental dietary selenium is associated with reduced incidence of many cancers. The antitumor function of selenium is thought to be mediated through selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1). However, the significance of SELENBP1 expression in breast cancer is still largely unknown. A total of 95 normal and tumor tissues assay and 12 breast cancer cell lines were used in this study. We found that SELENBP1 expression in breast cancer tissues is reduced compared to normal control. Low SELENBP1 expression in ER(+) breast cancer patients was significantly associated with poor survival (pcancer. 17-β estradiol (E2) treatment of high SELENBP1-expressing ER(+) cell lines led to a down-regulation of SELENBP1, a result that did not occur in ER(-) cell lines. However, after ectopic expression of ER in an originally ER(-) cell line, down-regulation of SELENBP1 upon E2 treatment was observed. In addition, selenium treatment resulted in reduced cell proliferation in endogenous SELENBP1 high cells; however, after knocking-down SELENBP1, we observed no significant reduction in cell proliferation. Similarly, selenium has no effect on inhibition of cell proliferation in low endogenous SELENBP1 cells, but the inhibitory effect is regained following ectopic SELENBP1 expression. Furthermore, E2 treatment of an ER silenced high endogenous SELENBP1 expressing cell line showed no abolishment of cell proliferation inhibition upon selenium treatment. These data indicate that SELENBP1 expression is regulated via estrogen and that the cell proliferation inhibition effect of selenium treatment is dependent on the high level of SELENBP1 expression. Therefore, the expression level of SELENBP1 could be an important marker for predicting survival and effectiveness of selenium supplementation in breast cancer. This is the first study to reveal the importance of monitoring SELENBP1 expression as a potential biomarker in contributing to breast cancer prevention and treatment.

  20. Pathologic Findings in MRI-Guided Needle Core Biopsies of the Breast in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Siziopikou, K. P.; P. Jokich; Cobleigh, M.

    2011-01-01

    The role of MRI in the management of breast carcinoma is rapidly evolving from its initial use for specific indications only to a more widespread use on all women with newly diagnosed early stage breast cancer. However, there are many concerns that such widespread use is premature since detailed correlation of MRI findings with the underlying histopathology of the breast lesions is still evolving and clear evidence for improvements in management and overall prognosis of breast cancer patients...

  1. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uden, D J P; van Laarhoven, H W M; Westenberg, A H; de Wilt, J H W; Blanken-Peeters, C F J M

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimodal therapeutic approach has significantly improved patient survival. However, the median overall survival among women with IBC is still poor. By elucidating the biologic characteristics of IBC, new treatment options may become available. We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language literature on IBC through computerized literature searches. The objective of the current review is to present an overview of the literature related to the biology, imaging and multidisciplinary treatment of inflammatory breast cancer.

  2. Breast Hemangioma: MR Appearance with Histopathological Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Ameen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast hemangioma is a rare tumor and when small, it may be difficult to diagnose using conventional imaging techniques. In this report the MR appearance is described with histopathological correlation.

  3. Reconstruction for breast cancer in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is a disease many will experience. Depending on the size of the cancer, the size of the host breast, and whether it is multi-focal, a mastectomy may be recommended as part of the treatment. If this is the case, an immediate breast reconstruction may be offered. This article will describe the three main types of breast reconstruction and discuss pertinent issues regarding this, including complications, surgery to the other (contraleteral) breast and potential psychological implications of this surgery.

  4. Fucosylation of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 by FUT1 correlates with lysosomal positioning and autophagic flux of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Keng-Poo; Ho, Ming-Yi; Cho, Huan-Chieh; Yu, John; Hung, Jung-Tung; Yu, Alice Lin-Tsing

    2016-08-25

    Alpha1,2-fucosyltransferases, FUT1 and FUT2, which transfer fucoses onto the terminal galactose of N-acetyl-lactosamine via α1,2-linkage have been shown to be highly expressed in various types of cancers. A few studies have shown the involvement of FUT1 substrates in tumor cell proliferation and migration. Lysosome-associated membrane protein 1, LAMP-1, has been reported to carry alpha1,2-fucosylated Lewis Y (LeY) antigens in breast cancer cells, however, the biological functions of LeY on LAMP-1 remain largely unknown. Whether or not its family member, LAMP-2, displays similar modifications and functions as LAMP-1 has not yet been addressed. In this study, we have presented evidence supporting that both LAMP-1 and 2 are substrates for FUT1, but not FUT2. We have also demonstrated the presence of H2 and LeY antigens on LAMP-1 by a targeted nanoLC-MS(3) and the decreased levels of fucosylation on LAMP-2 by MALDI-TOF analysis upon FUT1 knockdown. In addition, we found that the expression of LeY was substantial in less invasive ER+/PR+/HER- breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and T47D) but negligible in highly invasive triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells, of which LeY levels were correlated with the levels of LeY carried by LAMP-1 and 2. Intriguingly, we also observed a striking change in the subcellular localization of lysosomes upon FUT1 knockdown from peripheral distribution of LAMP-1 and 2 to a preferential perinuclear accumulation. Besides that, knockdown of FUT1 led to an increased rate of autophagic flux along with diminished activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and enhanced autophagosome-lysosome fusion. This may be associated with the predominantly perinuclear distribution of lysosomes mediated by FUT1 knockdown as lysosomal positioning has been reported to regulate mTOR activity and autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that downregulation of FUT1, which leads to the perinuclear localization of LAMP-1 and 2, is correlated with increased

  5. Building a Better Model: A Personalized Breast Cancer Risk Model Incorporating Breast Density to Stratify Risk and Improve Application of Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    found high correlation (12); Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.93, 0.97, and 0.85 for volumetric breast density, breast volume, and fi...cancer risk, and her score on the four-point scale of accuracy of breast cancer knowledge, described above. The strongest single correlate for each...women (622 cases). Breast density measurement has been evaluated for accuracy using a second test set showing very good correlation with 2D methods

  6. Correlation of pretreatment serum tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) with prognosis in primary breast cancer%原发性乳腺癌患者治疗前血清TPS水平与预后之间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhong Zheng; Yan Chen; Minhua Hu; Yingying Lin; Yansong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the correlation of pretreatment serum tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) with prognosis in primary breast cancer. Methods: A total of 361 patients with grades Ⅰ-Ⅲ breast cancer had been followed up from January 2001 to February 2011. Serumal TPS level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate associations between pretreatment TPS level and clinicopathological parameters and patient outcomes. Results: First, at the univariate analysis, the expression of TPS was related with some clinicopathological traditional prognostic factors such as tumor size (P = 0.030), histologic grade (P = 0.001) and lymph node status (P = 0.008). Second, overall survival were significantly shorter among patients with elevated pretreatment serum TPS (P = 0.038). However, finally, multivariate Cox regression indicated that the level of pretreatment serum TPS was not an independent prognostic parameter for overall survival in primarily breast cancer patients (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The expression of pretreatment serum TPS is closely correlated with clinicopathology parameters and overall survival of patients with primarily breast cancer, but its level has no independent prognostic value.

  7. Metabolomics of Breast Cancer Using High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Correlations with 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haesung Yoon

    Full Text Available Our goal in this study was to find correlations between breast cancer metabolites and conventional quantitative imaging parameters using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS and to find breast cancer subgroups that show high correlations between metabolites and imaging parameters.Between August 2010 and December 2013, we included 53 female patients (mean age 49.6 years; age range 32-75 years with a total of 53 breast lesions assessed by the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. They were enrolled under the following criteria: breast lesions larger than 1 cm in diameter which 1 were suspicious for malignancy on mammography or ultrasound (US, 2 were pathologically confirmed to be breast cancer with US-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB 3 underwent 3 Tesla MRI with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT, and 4 had an attainable immunohistochemistry profile from CNB. We acquired spectral data by HR-MAS MRS with CNB specimens and expressed the data as relative metabolite concentrations. We compared the metabolites with the signal enhancement ratio (SER, maximum standardized FDG uptake value (SUV max, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC, and histopathologic prognostic factors for correlation. We calculated Spearman correlations and performed a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA to further classify patient groups into subgroups to find correlation differences between HR-MAS spectroscopic values and conventional imaging parameters.In a multivariate analysis, the PLS-DA models built with HR-MAS MRS metabolic profiles showed visible discrimination between high and low SER, SUV, and ADC. In luminal subtype breast cancer, compared to all cases, high SER, ADV, and SUV were more closely clustered by visual assessment. Multiple metabolites were correlated with SER and SUV in all cases. Multiple metabolites

  8. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  9. An update on inflammatory breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Thapaliya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer is one of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer. Once considered to be a uniformly fatal disease, treatment of this entity has evolved significantly over the last two decades. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathology, biologic underpinnings, radiologic advances, and treatment modalities for inflammatory breast cancer. Updates in surgical therapy, medical oncologic therapy and radiation therapy are reviewed. Emphasis is on cutting edge information regarding inflammatory breast cancer. The management of inflammatory breast cancer is best served by a multidisciplinary team. Continued research into molecular pathways and potential targets is imperative. Future clinical trials should include evaluation of conventional therapy with targeted therapies.

  10. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  11. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. CONCLUSION: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been...

  12. Alcohol and breast cancer: reconciling epidemiological and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhari, Samir; Hoek, Jan B

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Epidemiological studies have suggested a possible causative role of alcohol consumption as a risk factor for breast cancer. However, such conclusions should be interpreted with considerable caution for several reasons. While epidemiological studies can help identify the roots of health problems and disease incidence in a community, they are by necessity associative and cannot determine cause and effect relationships. In addition, all these studies rely on self-reporting to determine the amount and type of alcoholic beverage consumed, which introduces recall bias. This is documented in a recent study which stated that the apparent increased risk of cancer among light-moderate drinkers may be "substantially due to underreporting of intake." Another meta-analysis about alcohol and breast cancer declared "the modest size of the association and variation in results across studies leave the causal role of alcohol in question." Furthermore, breast cancer develops over decades; thus, correlations between alcohol consumption and breast cancer cannot be determined in epidemiological studies with windows of alcohol exposure that captures current or recent alcohol intake, after clinical diagnosis. Numerous risk factors are involved in breast carcinogenesis; some are genetic and beyond the control of a woman; others are influenced by lifestyle factors. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous and polygenic disease which is further influenced by epigenetic mechanisms that affect the transciptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, and ultimately breast cancer evolution. Environmental factors add another layer of complexity by their interactions with the susceptibility genes for breast cancer and metabolic diseases. The current state-of-knowledge about alcohol and breast cancer association is ambiguous and confusing to both a woman and her physician. Confronting the huge global breast cancer issue should be addressed by sound

  13. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or sacs) or they can be due to normal breast changes associated with hormone changes or aging. Girls who are beginning puberty might notice a lump underneath the nipple when their breasts start developing. Usually, this is a normal. You can ask a parent or your doctor ...

  14. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  15. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Düring, Maria; Henriksen, Trine Foged;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  16. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J.; Joshi, Amit D.; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I. Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of eviden

  17. Differences in fluorescence profiles from breast cancer tissues due to changes in relative tryptophan content via energy transfer: tryptophan content correlates with histologic grade and tumor size but not with lymph node metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-12-01

    The correlation between histologic grade, an increasingly important measure of prognosis for patients with breast cancer, and tryptophan levels from tissues of 15 breast carcinoma patients was investigated. Changes in the relative content of key native organic biomolecule tryptophan were seen from the fluorescence spectra of cancerous and paired normal tissues with excitation wavelengths of 280 and 300 nm. Due to a large spectral overlap and matching excitation-emission spectra, fluorescence resonance energy transfer from tryptophan-donor to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides-acceptor was noted. We used the ratios of fluorescence intensities at their spectral emission peaks, or spectral fingerprint peaks, at 340, 440, and 460 nm. Higher ratios correlated strongly with high histologic grade, while lower-grade tumors had low ratios. Large tumor size also correlated with high ratios, while the number of lymph node metastases, a major factor in staging, was not correlated with tryptophan levels. High histologic grade correlates strongly with increased content of tryptophan in breast cancer tissues and suggests that measurement of tryptophan content may be useful as a part of the evaluation of these patients.

  18. THE RELATION BETWEEN BREAST FEEDING AND BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Alavi Naini

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Second to the cardiovascular disease, cancer is the main cause of death in Iran. In this study some of the risk factors of breast cancer; especially the ones related to breastfeeding have been assessed. The study was a retrospective study of 100 women with breast cancer. The most important risk factors in breast cancer were number of children, age of mother on the first pregnancy. The result showed that the increase of breast cancer was related to women who stopped breastfeeding before age 24 months. Breastfeeding for more than 12 months will reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 25%. In general there was a reverse relationship between duration of breastfeeding and risk of cancer in premonopausal, but not in postmenopausal women.

  19. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development...

  20. Dietary fiber and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L A

    1999-01-01

    The Fiber Hypothesis which had its origins in the work of Burkitt and others in the early 1970's, focussed largely on fiber's beneficial effects on colon cancer and disorders of the gastric intestinal tract. In the 1980's it was proposed that fiber may also have beneficial effects on breast cancer and a rational for this was proposed involving modulation, by fiber, of the enterohepatic recirculation of estrogens. In the following the evidence from epidemiology, clinical interventions and animal model studies, supporting a role for fiber in breast cancer is critically reviewed. Evidence from animal model studies support the notion that supplementary fiber inhibits chemically-induced mammary tumorigenesis but do not support an estrogen-based mechanism. Some studies in human populations suggest modulation by estrogens and some do not. The aggregate data point to minor constituents present in fiber, such as isoflavones and phytate as the biologically active components of fiber which may be responsible for its anti cancer effects.

  1. Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes among Women in China: Practices, Knowledge, and Attitudes Related to Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast cancer is a major public health issue and the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women worldwide. Despite lower incidence rates than those living in Western countries, breast cancer incidence among Chinese women has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes toward and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods. This cross-sectional study examined the practices, knowledge, and attitudes toward breast cancer screening (BCS on a convenience sample of 400 Chinese women. Results. Among study participants, 75% of the women never had a mammogram and the top three barriers reported were low priority, feeling OK, and lack of awareness/knowledge toward breast cancer screening. The results from the logistic regression model showed increased self-efficacy; having performed monthly self-exams, and having had clinical breast exams in the past two years were significant correlates while demographic variables were not correlated with screening behaviors. Conclusion. The findings provide a foundation to better understand beliefs and practices of Chinese women toward BCS and highlight the critical need for general public, health professionals, and the health care system to work collaboratively toward improving the quality of breast cancer care in this population.

  2. Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R

    2013-01-01

    Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....

  3. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; van Overeem Hansen, Thomas; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...... of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making....

  4. Impact of screening mammography on breast cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyer, Archie; Baines, Cornelia; Miller, Anthony B

    2016-04-15

    The degree to which observed reductions in breast cancer mortality is attributable to screening mammography has become increasingly controversial. We examined this issue with three fundamentally different approaches: (i) Chronology--the temporal relationship of the onset of breast cancer mortality decline and the national implementation of screening mammography; (ii) Magnitude--the degree to which breast cancer mortality declined relative to the amount (penetration) of screening mammography; (iii) Analogy--the pattern of mortality rate reductions of other cancers for which population screening is not conducted. Chronology and magnitude were assessed with data from Europe and North America, with three methods applied to magnitude. A comparison of eight countries in Europe and North America does not demonstrate a correlation between the penetration of national screening and either the chronology or magnitude of national breast cancer mortality reduction. In the United States, the magnitude of the mortality decline is greater in the unscreened, younger women than in the screened population and regional variation in the rate of breast cancer mortality reduction is not correlated with screening penetrance, either as self-reported or by the magnitude of screening-induced increase in early-stage disease. Analogy analysis of United States data identifies 14 other cancers with a similar distinct onset of mortality reduction for which screening is not performed. These five lines of evidence from three different approaches and additional observations discussed do not support the hypothesis that mammography screening is a primary reason for the breast cancer mortality reduction in Europe and North America.

  5. Risk, characteristics, and prognosis of breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Veit-rubin, Nikolaus; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Vinh Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Bouchardy Magnin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.

  6. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  7. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard;

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  8. Correlation between {sup 18}F-FDG uptake on PET/CT and prognostic factors in triple-negative breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Hye Ryoung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Seon [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keon Wook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, In Ae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a correlation exists between {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and prognostic factors in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Between January 2009 and December 2013, 103 patients (mean age, 50.6 years) with primary TNBC (mean, 2.6 cm; range, 1.0-6.5 cm) underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging. Correlations between maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) on PET/CT and prognostic factors including tumour size, nodal status, histological grade, Ki-67 proliferation index, tumour suppressor p53, and 'basal-like' markers (epidermal growth factor receptor and CK 5/6) were assessed. The mean SUV{sub max} of the 103 tumours was 10.94 ± 5.25 (range: 2-32.8). There was a positive correlation between SUV{sub max} and Ki-67 (Spearman's rho = 0.29, P = 0.003) and tumour size (Spearman's rho = 0.27, P = 0.006), whereas this relationship was not observed in the nodal status, histological grade, p53 status and 'basal-like' phenotypes. In a multivariate regression analysis, Ki-67 (P < 0.001) and tumour size (P = 0.009) were significantly associated with SUV{sub max} in TNBCs. Increased {sup 18}F-FDG uptake on PET/CT was correlated with a high Ki-67 proliferation index and larger tumour size in TNBC. These results suggest a potential role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in identifying TNBC with more aggressive behaviour. (orig.)

  9. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    CSF. J Clin Invest 117, 1902 (Jul, 2007). 32. H. Yamaguchi et al., Milk fat globule EGF factor 8 in the serum of human patients of systemic lupus erythematosus . J Leukoc Biol 83, 1300 (May, 2008). ...comprehensive and systematic manner is the underlying principle of my goal to develop ’rational combination immunotherapy’ for breast cancer, one

  10. Mouse Stirs up Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen Pilcher; 孙雯

    2004-01-01

    @@ The humble house mouse could be more dangerous than we thought,according to a study that suggests a rodent① virus plays a role in the development of breast cancer. But the finding is contentious② and reignites③ a long-standing④wrangle⑤ about the potential⑥ causes of the disease.

  11. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard;

    2010-01-01

    tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria...

  12. Genetic determinants of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the gener

  13. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  14. Breast cancer with inguinal node recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Goyal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Surgery and irradiation for breast cancer may interfere with conventional pathways of spread, leading to bizarre patterns of dissemination through lymphatics or through hematogenous route. Lymphoscintigraphic studies may help identify nodal involvement. Other possible reasons could be occurrence of primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue retained in the vulva following involution of milk line. We describe a case of triple negative breast cancer, who developed contralateral breast cancer during treatment. Three years later, she developed isolated inguinal nodal metastases, which responded to local radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the patient relapsed after 2 years and could not be salvaged thereafter.

  15. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  16. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  17. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CYTO HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION OF BREAST LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayabharathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cancer of breast is the second most common cause of cancer in women. In the present era, late marriage, late child birth, shorter period of breast feeding and nulliparity or low parity have contributed to increase in the number of cases. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is a useful method for initial evaluation and diagnosis of breast cancers and it has the ability of providing necessary prognostic predictive information. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to evaluate t he accuracy of FNAC of breast lesions with histopathological correlation. To study the cytomorphological features of palpable breast lumps. To study the various cytological patterns in aspirates from breast lesions and to classify them into non - neoplastic, benign and malignant lesions. To correlate the cytology findings with subsequent histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. To establish accuracy and efficacy of aspiration cytology as an early and preoperative diagnostic aid. To compare the statistic al analysis of present study with other contemporary studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study includes the study of aspiration smears of all cases referred to the Department of Pathology, Andhra medical college, Visakhapatnam from various outpatient departments from King George Hospital, with a palpable breast lesion. True cut Biopsy and Mastectomy specimens for Histopathological correlation RESULTS: Out of 952 analyzed cases benign lesions were 691 (72.58%, malignant lesions were 146 (15. 33%,non - neoplastic lesions were common in the age group of 21 - 30 years, benign lesions in 21 - 30 years, and malignant lesions were common in the age group of 41 - 50 years. Majority of the patients were female with 913 (95.90% and male patents are 39 (4 .09%.The results of sensitivity (97.18%, specificity (98.74%, positive predictive value (97.18% and negative predictive value (98.74% with diagnostic accuracy of 98.26%. CONCLUSION: FNAC

  18. Death certification in cancer of the breast.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The cause of death entered on the death certificates of 193 patients originally diagnosed as having cancer of the breast was compared with information obtained from clinical records, cancer registry records, and necropsy findings to determine the accuracy of death certification and the proportion of patients who, though dying from another cause, still had overt signs of cancer of the breast. It was found that the overall error in certifying cause of death as breast cancer was small, being an ...

  19. Clinicopathological significance of PTPN12 expression in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xunyi [Breast Disease Diagnosis and Treatment Centre, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong Province (China); Yuan, Zhentao [Department of Anesthesiology, Shengli Oilfield Central Hospital, Dongying Shandong Province (China); Jiang, Dandan; Li, Funian [Breast Disease Diagnosis and Treatment Centre, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong Province (China)

    2012-10-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 12 (PTPN12) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene (TSG) that is frequently compromised in human triple-negative breast cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PTPN12 protein by patients with breast cancer in a Chinese population and the relationship between PTPN12 expression levels and patient clinicopathological features and prognosis. Additionally, we explored the underlying down-regulation mechanism from the perspective of an epigenetic alteration. We examined PTPN12 mRNA expression in five breast cancer cell lines using semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and detected PTPN12 protein expression using immunohistochemistry in 150 primary invasive breast cancer cases and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. Methylation-specific PCR was performed to analyze the promoter CpG island methylation status of PTPN12. PTPN12 was significantly down-regulated in breast cancer cases (48/150) compared to adjacent noncancerous tissues (17/150; P < 0.05). Furthermore, low expression of PTPN12 showed a significant positive correlation with tumor size (P = 0.047), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001), distant metastasis (P = 0.009), histological grade (P = 0.012), and survival time (P = 0.019). Additionally, promoter CpG island hypermethylation occurs more frequently in breast cancer cases and breast cancer cell lines with low PTPN12 expression. Our findings suggest that PTPN12 is potentially a methylation-silenced TSG for breast cancer that may play an important role in breast carcinogenesis and could potentially serve as an independent prognostic factor for invasive breast cancer patients.

  20. RECURRENCE PATTERN FOLLOWING BREAST - CONSERVING SURGERY FOR EARLY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the Local Recurrence and metastasis pattern after Breast - Conserving Surgery for early breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2014 in department of surgery in VIMS Bellary, 70 patients with stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma were treated with breast - conserving surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. In this study we investigated the prognostic value of clinical and pathological factors in early breast cancer patients treated with BCS. All of the surgeries were performed by a single surgical team. Recurrence and its risk factors were evaluated.

  1. Disparities in cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Reis Girianelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil according to socioeconomic and welfare indicators. METHODS Data on breast and cervical cancer mortality covering a 30-year period (1980-2010 were analyzed. The data were obtained from the National Mortality Database, population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database, and socioeconomic and welfare information from the Institute of Applied Economic Research. Moving averages were calculated, disaggregated by capital city and municipality. The annual percent change in mortality rates was estimated by segmented linear regression using the joinpoint method. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were conducted between average mortality rate at the end of the three-year period and selected indicators in the state capital and each Brazilian state. RESULTS There was a decline in cervical cancer mortality rates throughout the period studied, except in municipalities outside of the capitals in the North and Northeast. There was a decrease in breast cancer mortality in the capitals from the end of the 1990s onwards. Favorable socioeconomic indicators were inversely correlated with cervical cancer mortality. A strong direct correlation was found with favorable indicators and an inverse correlation with fertility rate and breast cancer mortality in inner cities. CONCLUSIONS There is an ongoing dynamic process of increased risk of cervical and breast cancer and attenuation of mortality because of increased, albeit unequal, access to and provision of screening, diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer.org Handling treatment The goal of any breast cancer treatment is to get rid of the cancer and offer the best possible chance of survival. But even the best treatments have side effects. ...

  3. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Stony Brook University found no association between exposure to electromagnetic fields from residential power use and breast cancer risk. 5 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Cancer-causing ... to naturally occurring and synthetic cancer, and designing ...

  4. Gene Expression Correlation for Cancer Diagnosis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbing Ling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor prognosis for late-stage, high-grade, and recurrent cancers has been motivating cancer researchers to search for more efficient biomarkers to identify the onset of cancer. Recent advances in constructing and dynamically analyzing biomolecular networks for different types of cancer have provided a promising novel strategy to detect tumorigenesis and metastasis. The observation of different biomolecular networks associated with normal and cancerous states led us to hypothesize that correlations for gene expressions could serve as valid indicators of early cancer development. In this pilot study, we tested our hypothesis by examining whether the mRNA expressions of three randomly selected cancer-related genes PIK3C3, PIM3, and PTEN were correlated during cancer progression and the correlation coefficients could be used for cancer diagnosis. Strong correlations (0.68≤r≤1.0 were observed between PIK3C3 and PIM3 in breast cancer, between PIK3C3 and PTEN in breast and ovary cancers, and between PIM3 and PTEN in breast, kidney, liver, and thyroid cancers during disease progression, implicating that the correlations for cancer network gene expressions could serve as a supplement to current clinical biomarkers, such as cancer antigens, for early cancer diagnosis.

  5. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  6. The correlation between triple negative breast cancer and androgen%三阴性乳腺癌与雄激素的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞华靖

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the difference of serum testosterone and androgen receptor(AR)concentrations between triple negative breast cancer patients and non-triple negative breast cancer patients and its clinical significance.differences and clini-cal significance.Methods According to the inclusion criteria,a total of 92 female patients were enrolled in the study including 42 patients with triple negative breast cancer and 50 patients with non-triple negative breast cancer.The patients recruited all seeked medical advice in hospital and diagnosed with primary breast cancer by using pathological method.Age,histological grade,patholog-ical stage,serum testosterone and AR concentrations were compared between triple negative breast and non-triple-negative group and statistically analyzed.Results Compared between triple negative breast and non-triple-negative group,the serum testosterone concentrations of triple negative breast was lower and the difference were statistically different(P <0.05);AR-positive rate of triple negative breast cancer group was 57%,AR-positive rate of non-triple-negative breast cancer was 82%,the difference was statistical-ly significant(P <0.05).Conclusion Androgen and AR may be a prognostic therapeutic target in triple negative breast cancer.%目的:探讨三阴性乳腺癌与非三阴性乳腺癌患者间睾酮和雄激素受体(AR)水平的差异及临床意义。方法按照纳入标准选取该院经病理确证为原发性乳腺癌的患者,共92例女性患者,其中三阴性乳腺癌42例,非三阴性乳腺癌50例,统计分析三阴性与非三阴性乳腺组患者年龄、组织学分级、病理分期、血清睾酮水平和 AR 的差异。结果三阴性乳腺癌组和非三阴性乳腺癌组比较,三阴性乳腺癌组血清睾酮水平低于非三阴性乳腺癌组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);三阴性乳腺癌组 AR 阳性率为57%,非三阴性乳腺癌 AR 阳性率为82%,

  7. DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC UTILITY OF SERUM PSA IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑群; 强水云; 李妙羡; 纪宗正

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in breast cancer women. Methods Using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay system, we measured the concentrations of these markers in the sera of 85 women with breast cancer and in 30 healthy women.Results Free PSA levels were significantly higher in women with breast cancer than healthy women (P <0. 05 ).The percentage of free PSA predominant subjects was 37. 6% in breast cancer patients and 3. 3% in healthy women.In women with breast cancer,total PSA positivity was 23.5% and free PSA positivity was 27. 1%. When compared to negatives,total PSA positive patients had a higher percentage of lymph node involvement tamours ( P >0. 05).However, patients with predominant free PSA had a higher percentage of early stage than patients with predominant PSA-ACT. Conclusion This study indicate clinical significance of preoperative measurement of serum total and free PSA in diagnosis and prognosis of women with breast cancer. The expression of KLKs is correlated with carcinogenesis of breast cancer.

  8. Breast-feeding after breast cancer: if you wish, madam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Hatem A; Bellettini, Giulia; Gelber, Shari; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2009-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor-affecting women during the child bearing period. With the rising trend in delaying pregnancy later in life, the issue of subsequent pregnancy and lactation following breast cancer diagnosis has been more frequently encountered. In this context, data is scarce particularly those addressing the issue of lactation. In this review, we discussed different endocrinal, clinical and biological aspects dealing with breast-feeding after breast cancer in an attempt to determine how safe and feasible this approach is.

  9. Education and Outreach for Breast Imaging and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    the project was the development of an educational intervention ( flip chart ) for physicians to use in the clinic setting when discussing breast...Procedure Scheduling on Breast Biopsy Patient Outcomes The first phase of this project is the development of an educational flip chart for...breast biopsy and breast cancer survivors to guide the content of the flip chart b) Develop outline and overall format c) Identify/develop

  10. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... carry these changes. Mammographic breast density : The glandular (milk-producing) and connective tissue of the breast are ...

  11. Dynamics of cancerous tissue correlates with invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Ann-Katrine Vransø; Wullkopf, Lena; Christensen, Amalie; Leijnse, Natascha; Tarp, Jens Magelund; Mathiesen, Joachim; Erler, Janine Terra; Oddershede, Lene Broeng

    2017-01-01

    Two of the classical hallmarks of cancer are uncontrolled cell division and tissue invasion, which turn the disease into a systemic, life-threatening condition. Although both processes are studied, a clear correlation between cell division and motility of cancer cells has not been described previously. Here, we experimentally characterize the dynamics of invasive and non-invasive breast cancer tissues using human and murine model systems. The intrinsic tissue velocities, as well as the divergence and vorticity around a dividing cell correlate strongly with the invasive potential of the tissue, thus showing a distinct correlation between tissue dynamics and aggressiveness. We formulate a model which treats the tissue as a visco-elastic continuum. This model provides a valid reproduction of the cancerous tissue dynamics, thus, biological signaling is not needed to explain the observed tissue dynamics. The model returns the characteristic force exerted by an invading cell and reveals a strong correlation between force and invasiveness of breast cancer cells, thus pinpointing the importance of mechanics for cancer invasion. PMID:28262796

  12. Dynamics of cancerous tissue correlates with invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Ann-Katrine Vransø; Wullkopf, Lena; Christensen, Amalie; Leijnse, Natascha; Tarp, Jens Magelund; Mathiesen, Joachim; Erler, Janine Terra; Oddershede, Lene Broeng

    2017-03-01

    Two of the classical hallmarks of cancer are uncontrolled cell division and tissue invasion, which turn the disease into a systemic, life-threatening condition. Although both processes are studied, a clear correlation between cell division and motility of cancer cells has not been described previously. Here, we experimentally characterize the dynamics of invasive and non-invasive breast cancer tissues using human and murine model systems. The intrinsic tissue velocities, as well as the divergence and vorticity around a dividing cell correlate strongly with the invasive potential of the tissue, thus showing a distinct correlation between tissue dynamics and aggressiveness. We formulate a model which treats the tissue as a visco-elastic continuum. This model provides a valid reproduction of the cancerous tissue dynamics, thus, biological signaling is not needed to explain the observed tissue dynamics. The model returns the characteristic force exerted by an invading cell and reveals a strong correlation between force and invasiveness of breast cancer cells, thus pinpointing the importance of mechanics for cancer invasion.

  13. Drug transporters in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Stenvang, Jan; Moreira, José

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances that have taken place in the past decade, including the development of novel molecular targeted agents, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of cancer treatment. In breast cancer, anthracyclines and taxanes are the two main chemotherapeutic options used on a routine...... basis. Although effective, their usefulness is limited by the inevitable development of resistance, a lack of response to drug-induced cancer cell death. A large body of research has resulted in the characterization of a plethora of mechanisms involved in resistance; ATP-binding cassette transporter...

  14. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    [[{"fid":"184","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400"," | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  15. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  16. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the standard of care for treating breast diseases and breast cancer. This approach integrates prevention , screening, diagnosis, treatment and...follow a healthy lifestyle ?” (submitted for publication clearance April 2015). Ellsworth RE, Mamula KA, Costantino NS, Deyarmin B, Kostyniak PJ, Chi...disorders. The project will continue utilizing a multidisciplinary approach as the standard of care for treating breast diseases and breast cancer. This

  17. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  18. Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161233.html Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens Greater self-esteem noted in ... interviewed to assess their mental health, perception of breast cancer risk, and levels of distress about breast cancer. The ...

  19. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  20. Awareness and practice of breast self examination among malaysian women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Siew Yim; Chew, S L

    2011-01-01

    Breast self-examination (BSE) is a self-generated, non-invasive and non-irradiative method of breast cancer detection. This paper documents Malaysian women's awareness and practice of regular BSE as a potent breast cancer detection tool. A pre-test post-test questionnaire survey on women diagnosed with breast cancer (n=66) was conducted. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were performed to correlate demographic variables, knowledge and regular practice of BSE. Findings showed that 80% of the breast cancer survivors self-detected the breast lumps, despite a high 85% of these women reporting they were never taught about BSE. More than 70% of the women maintained that lack of knowledge/skill on the proper practice of BSE was the key barrier to a more regular BSE practice. After an educational intervention on BSE and breast awareness, we found an increase report from 17% (at pre-test) to 67% (at post-test) of self reported monthly BSE practices. Provision of self-management education incorporating BSE, a readily available cheap method, should be introduced at primary care and breast clinics. This strategy promotes women's self-efficacy which contributes towards cancer control agenda in less resource available countries around Asia Pacific. Longer follow up may be crucial to examine the adherence to positive BSE behaviour.

  1. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  2. Strong Correlation of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1 Expression with Basal-Like Phenotype and Increased Lymphocytic Infiltration in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sewha; Park, Sanghui; Cho, Min Sun; Lim, Woosung; Moon, Byung-In; Sung, Sun Hee

    2017-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is an immunosuppressive enzyme involved in tumor immune escape. Blockade of the IDO1 pathway is an emerging modality of cancer immunotherapy. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks established therapeutic targets and may be a good candidate for this novel immunotherapeutic agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of the IDO1-expressing TNBC subset. A tissue microarray was constructed from 200 patients with TNBC. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for IDO1 and TNBC molecular subtype-surrogate markers (AR, GCDFP-15, claudin-3, E-cadherin, CK5/6, and EGFR) was performed using this tissue microarray. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to confirm the IDO1 mRNA expression level in 16 fresh-frozen TNBC samples. Two hundred TNBCs were classified into four subtypes based on surrogate IHC results: 22 luminal androgen receptor type (11.0%), 23 claudin-low type (11.4%), 103 basal-like type (51.5%), and 52 mixed type (26.0%). IDO1 positivity (defined as expression of >10% tumor cells) was observed in 37% of all TNBCs. IDO1 IHC expression was well correlated with mRNA expression. IDO1 positivity was significantly associated with smaller tumor size, dense stromal lymphocytic infiltration, and basal-like phenotype; however, it did not affect the patients' prognosis. IDO1 expression in basal-like TNBCs is considered an immune inhibitory signal that counterbalances active immunity and may reflect the high mutational load of these tumors. Our results suggest which patients with TNBC would be more efficaciously treated with IDO1 blockade. PMID:28123606

  3. Breast cancer in Singapore: some perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Lazaro, Ana Richelia; Thilagaratnam, Shyamala; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy among Singapore women, accounting for 29.7% of all female cancers, with an age-standardized rate of 54.9 per 100,000 per year. It has been the most frequent cancer in Singapore women for the last 30 years, with the highest rates previously reported in those aged between 45 and 49 years, but with a more recent observation of a change in peak age group to women in their late 50s. About 1,100 new cases are diagnosed annually and approximately 270 women die in Singapore each year from breast cancer. In the multiethnic population of Singapore, it has been noted that rising breast cancer incidence is consistent across all three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Indians). Singapore has among the highest breast cancer incidence in Asia. Possible explanations include rapid urbanization, improvement in socio-economic status, and adoption of a western lifestyle. Our experience with the Singapore breast screening pilot project (1994-1997) and the national breast-screening program (BreastScreen Singapore) has led to increased understanding of this disease in the country. Data from the pilot project showed that breast screening is just as effective in a predominantly Asian population as in the west. Early breast cancer accounted for most breast cancers detected, with pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) comprising 26% of all screen-detected cancers in the pilot study. In the currently on-going BreastScreen Singapore, DCIS forms >30% of all breast cancers among pre-menopausal women, a relatively high proportion probably accounted for partially by the greater participation of women aged between 40 and 49 years. Despite the ready availability of subsidized mammographic screening, there are still women in Singapore who present with locally advanced breast cancer. Clinical management of an increasing number of women with breast cancer embraces a multidisciplinary team-based approach, with regular discussions of therapeutic

  4. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-cause mortality were available for five and eight cohorts, respectively. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific and all-cause mortality by propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use. HRs were pooled across cohorts using meta...

  5. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M; Chen, John J; Kovach, John S

    2010-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  7. CYTOHISTOLOGICAL CORRELATIVE STUDY OF BREAST LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Breast lump is fairly common complaint in females for which patient seeks medical advice and becomes anxious about the diagnosis. Quick diagnosis by Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC relieves patient’s anxiety and assists in their pre - operative management a nd overall treatment . AIMS : To study the cytological spectrum of breast lesions in correlation with histological appearances to evaluate the utility of FNAC in the diagnosis of palpable breast lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Total of 180 cases were studied by FNAC of which 42 cases specimen was received for histopathology examination (HPE. Diagnostic accuracy was studied by statistical analysis. RESULTS : In this study of 42 cases of correlation , maximum cases were obtained for fibroadenoma followed by malignancy. FNAC diagnosis was consistent with HPE in 41 cases and inconsistent in one case. CONCLUSION : FNAC can reliably distinguish between benign and malignant conditions , neoplastic and non - neoplastic conditions. The result compared with other studies substantiate the findings of the series that FNAC of breast is a sensitive and specific modality that assist in diagnosis and management of breast lesions. KEYWORDS: FNAC ; breast lesions; HPE.

  8. Typhoid Vaccine in Testing Response to Immune Stress in Patients With Stage I-IIIA Breast Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Depression; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  9. 乳腺癌HPV感染与P16蛋白失活的临床意义%Clinical significance of correlation between expression of HPV and P16 protein in breast cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佩; 孟桂芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨乳腺癌人乳头状瘤病毒(HPV)感染与P16蛋白失活之间的相关性,为乳腺癌预防治疗提供帮助.方法选取医院2009年3月-2012年3月行外科手术治疗乳腺癌患者74例及纤维腺瘤患者70例,分别采集乳腺癌组织、癌旁组织、纤维腺瘤组织及纤维腺瘤旁正常组织,进行HPVDNA分子原位杂交以及P16蛋白免疫组织化学检测,比较不同组织HPV感染阳性率,HPV感染与乳腺癌腋窝淋巴结转移相关性,P16蛋白免疫组化阳性率以及乳腺癌组织HPV感染阳性与P16蛋白表达相关性等.结果 HPV感染阳性率乳腺癌组织为83.8%、癌旁组织为54.1%、纤维腺瘤组织为18.6%及纤维腺瘤旁正常组织为10.0%,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);HPV感染阳性率与乳腺癌腋窝淋巴结转移呈正相关关系,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);乳腺癌组织P16蛋白免疫组化阳性率为29.7%,明显低于癌旁组织的51.4%、纤维腺瘤组织的68.6%及纤维腺瘤旁正常组织的81.4%,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);而乳腺癌组织HPV感染阳性率与P16蛋白表达呈负相关关系,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论乳腺癌组织中HPV感染率高,且与抑癌基因P16蛋白表达呈负相关关系,其感染与否亦可作为评价乳腺癌预后的重要指标.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the correlation between expression of HPV and P16 protein in the patients with breast cancer so as to provide basis for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.METHODS A total of 74 patients with breast cancer and 70 patients with breast fibroadenoma were chosen in the period from Mar 2009to Mar 2012,then the breast cancer tissue,tissue adjacent breast cancer,fibroadenoma tissue,and normal tissue adjacent fibroadenoma were collected,and the positive rate of HPV infection in different tissues,the correlation of HPV infection with axillary lymph node metastasis,the positive

  10. Remodeling of the methylation landscape in breast cancer metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Reyngold

    Full Text Available The development of breast cancer metastasis is accompanied by dynamic transcriptome changes and dramatic alterations in nuclear and chromatin structure. The basis of these changes is incompletely understood. The DNA methylome of primary breast cancers contribute to transcriptomic heterogeneity and different metastatic behavior. Therefore we sought to characterize methylome remodeling during regional metastasis. We profiled the DNA methylome and transcriptome of 44 matched primary breast tumors and regional metastases. Striking subtype-specific patterns of metastasis-associated methylome remodeling were observed, which reflected the molecular heterogeneity of breast cancers. These divergent changes occurred primarily in CpG island (CGI-poor areas. Regions of methylome reorganization shared by the subtypes were also observed, and we were able to identify a metastasis-specific methylation signature that was present across the breast cancer subclasses. These alterations also occurred outside of CGIs and promoters, including sequences flanking CGIs and intergenic sequences. Integrated analysis of methylation and gene expression identified genes whose expression correlated with metastasis-specific methylation. Together, these findings significantly enhance our understanding of the epigenetic reorganization that occurs during regional breast cancer metastasis across the major breast cancer subtypes and reveal the nature of methylome remodeling during this process.

  11. [CHEK2-mutation in Dutch breast cancer families: expanding genetic testing for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, M.A.; Hes, F.J.; Zelst-Stams, W.A.G. van; Tol, M.P. van den; Seynaeve, C.; Oosterwijk, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    - In the majority of breast cancer families, DNA testing does not show BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and the genetic cause of breast cancer remains unexplained. - Routine testing for the CHEK2*1100delC mutation has recently been introduced in breast cancer families in the Netherlands. - The 1100delC muta

  12. 27-Hydroxycholesterol Links Hypercholesterolemia and Breast Cancer Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik R.; Wardell, Suzanne E.; Jasper, Jeff S.; Park, Sunghee; Suchindran, Sunil; Howe, Matthew K.; Carver, Nicole J.; Pillai, Ruchita V.; Sullivan, Patrick M.; Sondhi, Varun; Umetani, Michihisa; Geradts, Joseph; McDonnell, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancers and is associated with a decreased response of tumors to endocrine therapies. Here we show that 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27HC), a primary metabolite of cholesterol and an ER and Liver X receptor (LXR) ligand, increases ER-dependent growth and LXR-dependent metastasis in mouse models of breast cancer. The effects of cholesterol on tumor pathology required its conversion to 27HC by the cytochrome P450 oxidase CYP27A1, and were attenuated by treatment with CYP27A1 inhibitors. In human breast cancer specimens, CYP27A1 expression levels correlated with tumor grade. In high-grade tumors, both tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages exhibited high expression levels of the enzyme. Thus, lowering circulating cholesterol levels or interfering with its conversion to 27HC may be a useful strategy to prevent and/or treat breast cancer. PMID:24288332

  13. The p53 pathway in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gasco, Milena; Shami, Shukri; Crook, Tim

    2002-01-01

    p53 mutation remains the most common genetic change identified in human neoplasia. In breast cancer, p53 mutation is associated with more aggressive disease and worse overall survival. The frequency of mutation in p53 is, however, lower in breast cancer than in other solid tumours. Changes, both genetic and epigenetic, have been identified in regulators of p53 activity and in some downstream transcriptional targets of p53 in breast cancers that express wild-type p53. Molecular pathological an...

  14. Breast Cancer: Catch It with Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Heintz, Ph.D. Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM e-mail: MWilliamson@salud.unm.edu Breast cancer ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0566 TITLE: Breast Cancer : Catch It with Ultrasound...CONTRACT NUMBER Breast Cancer : Catch It with Ultrasound 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0566 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  15. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0359 TITLE: Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Sarat Chandarlapaty CONTRACTING...31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0359 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...mutations found in breast cancer using both structural and cell based assays. We have now have evidence for the effects of the most recurrent

  16. EFA6B antagonizes breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangari, Joséphine; Partisani, Mariagrazia; Bertucci, François; Milanini, Julie; Bidaut, Ghislain; Berruyer-Pouyet, Carole; Finetti, Pascal; Long, Elodie; Brau, Frédéric; Cabaud, Olivier; Chetaille, Bruno; Birnbaum, Daniel; Lopez, Marc; Hofman, Paul; Franco, Michel; Luton, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    One of the earliest events in epithelial carcinogenesis is the dissolution of tight junctions and cell polarity signals that are essential for normal epithelial barrier function. Here, we report that EFA6B, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Ras superfamily protein Arf6 that helps assemble and stabilize tight junction, is required to maintain apico-basal cell polarity and mesenchymal phenotypes in mammary epithelial cells. In organotypic three-dimensional cell cultures, endogenous levels of EFA6B were critical to determine epithelial-mesenchymal status. EFA6B downregulation correlated with a mesenchymal phenotype and ectopic expression of EFA6B hampered TGFβ-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Transcriptomic and immunohistochemical analyses of human breast tumors revealed that the reduced expression of EFA6B was associated with loss of tight junction components and with increased signatures of EMT, cancer stemness, and poor prognosis. Accordingly, tumors with low levels of EFA6B were enriched in the aggressive triple-negative and claudin-low breast cancer subtypes. Our results identify EFA6B as a novel antagonist in breast cancer and they point to its regulatory and signaling pathways as rational therapeutic targets in aggressive forms of this disease.

  17. Knowledge towards breast cancer among Libyan women in Tripoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A Taher

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that Libyan women have acceptable level of knowledge regarding breast cancer. However, improvement of the health systems and awareness regarding breast cancer is needed.

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CAREGIVER BURDEN IN CANCER CERVIX AND CANCER BREAST ILLNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasagopalan, Nappinnai, Solayappan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caregivers of individuals suffering from cancer illnesses are at risk of having subjected to mental health consequences. There is a paucity of data comparing the caregiver burden of cancer breast and cancer cervix patients. Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare the caregiver burden of cancer breast and cancer cervix patients. To study the association of caregiver burden with demographic factors like age, gender, duration of caregiving etc. Materials & Methods: This Cross sectional study is performed on the key relatives of patients of 31 cancer cervix and 31 cancer breast patients. Burden assessment schedule was used. Results: Our findings suggest burden is more in male caregivers of breast cancer patients. It is not so in caregivers of cancer cervix patients. Whenever the caregiver is closely related to the patients the burden is high in both groups. Whenever the burden scores were high the depression scores were also high. Treatment modalities as a whole correlates with burden scores in caregivers of breast cancer patients but not in cancer cervix patients. Conclusion: Caregivers with breast and cervical cancer patients are vulnerable if the caregiver is male, from low socioeconomical background, more closely related and when the patients received poor treatment modalities.

  19. The lipid peroxidation in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Piekarski, Janusz

    2010-06-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress (by using different biomarkers of lipid peroxidation--isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in patients with invasive breast cancer, patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group. We observed a statistically increased level of TBARS in plasma and isoprostanes in urine of patients with invasive breast cancer in comparison with a control group. The concentration of tested biomarkers in plasma or urine from patients with invasive breast cancer was also higher than in patients with benign breast diseases. Moreover, the levels of tested markers in patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group did not differ. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that free radicals induce peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid in patients with breast cancer.

  20. Diazepam use and progression of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinerman, R A; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R; Fraumeni, J F

    1984-03-01

    The relationship between diazepam and breast cancer was evaluated using data from a case-control study of breast cancer, in which 1075 cases and 1146 controls who were participants in a breast cancer screening program were interviewed. Diazepam use was negatively associated with extent of disease and lymph node involvement, and this effect seemed greatest for long-term users of diazepam. It is not certain to what extent these data reflect an ascertainment bias, an association with the reasons for which the drug was prescribed, or chance. Whatever the explanation, the findings do not support a previous contention that diazepam promotes or accelerates breast cancer growth.

  1. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, Ann B; Mitchell, Julie L

    2016-06-07

    This issue provides a clinical overview of breast cancer screening and prevention, focusing on risk assessment, screening, prevention, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  2. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    myocardial infarction among apparently healthy men. Circulation 101, 1767 (Apr 18, 2000). 33. E. A. Rakha, Pitfalls in outcome prediction of breast...cancer patients at diagnosis IL-6 plasma levels have been shown to be elevated in advanced metastatic BC patients (15, 31). To investigate whether the...plasma from BC patients was collected at diagnosis prior to surgery or any therapy. Interestingly, we found that IL-6 plasma levels were not

  3. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    be cultured in calcium‐ free DMEM supplemented with 1% FBS, cholera toxin (10 ng/ml), bovine insulin (3 μg/ml), hydrocortisone (0.5 μg/ml), EGF and...regimens for induction of optimal anti-tumor immunity. Then we will determine the optimal time to administer these regimens during disease ...node status. Breast Cancer Res Treat 60, 227 (Apr, 2000). 4. H. E. Kohrt et al., Profile of immune cells in axillary lymph nodes predicts disease -free

  4. Breast cancer management: Past, present and evolving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is known from ancient time,and the treatment strategy evolved as our understanding of the disease changed with time. In 460 BC Hippocrates described breast cancer as a humoral disease and presently after a lot of studies breast cancer is considered as a local disease with systemic roots. For most of the twentieth century Halsted radical mastectomy was the "established and standardized operation for cancer of the breast in all stages, early or late". New information about tumor biology and its behavior suggested that less radical surgery might be just as effective as the more extensive one. Eventually, with the use of adjuvant therapy likeradiation and systemic therapy, the extent of surgical resection in the breast and axilla got reduced further and led to an era of breast conservation. The radiation treatment of breast cancer has evolved from 2D to 3D Conformal and to accelarated partial breast irradiation, aiming to reduce normal tissue toxicity and overall treatment time. Systemic therapy in the form of hormone therapy, chemotherapy and biological agents is now a well-established modality in treatment of breast cancer. The current perspective of breast cancer management is based on the rapidly evolving and increasingly integrated study on the genetic, molecular , biochemical and cellular basis of disease. The challenge for the future is to take advantage of this knowledge for the prediction of therapeutic outcome and develop therapies and rapidly apply more novel biologic therapeutics.

  5. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  6. Breast Cancer 2012 - New Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, H-C; Lüftner, D; Lux, M P; Maass, N; Schütz, F; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Kümmel, S

    2012-07-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials.

  7. [THE EFFECT OF PREGNANCY ON BREAST CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shelly Tartakover; Shochet, Gali Epstein; Drucker, Liat; Lishner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Cancer and pregnancy coincide in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. One of the most common malignancies associated with pregnancy is breast cancer. Women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with metastatic disease and estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors than do non-pregnant women. Controversies exist regarding the effect of pregnancy on breast cancer prognosis. Some researchers suggest that pregnancy does not affect breast cancer prognosis, whereas others claim the opposite. Although PABC is usually discovered in an advanced stage, breast cancer metastasis on the placenta is a rare event. During cancer progression, the surrounding microenvironment co-evolves into an activated state through continuous communication with the malignant cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. The effect of pregnancy and placental environment on breast cancer biology is the issue of this review. Placental and cancer cells implantation processes share similar molecular pathways. This suggests that placental factors may affect breast cancer cells biology. Previously, we analyzed the effect of first trimester human placenta on breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells were co-cultured with placental explants during their implantation on matrigel substrate. We found that the placenta reduced ER expression on the cancer cells and induced their migration and invasion abilities. As a result of it, breast cancer cells migrated away from the placental implantation sites. Hormonal pathways were involved in these phenomena. These results may explain the high incidence of metastases during pregnancy in on the one hand and the rarity of metastases on the placenta on the other hand.

  8. Association between breast and thyroid cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association

  9. ERBB2 in cat mammary neoplasias disclosed a positive correlation between RNA and protein low expression levels: a model for erbB-2 negative human breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Santos

    Full Text Available Human ERBB2 is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 epithelial growth factor receptor. In human breast cancer (HBC, erbB-2 protein overexpression has been repeatedly correlated with poor prognosis. In more recent works, underexpression of this gene has been described in HBC. Moreover, it is also recognised that oncogenes that are commonly amplified or deleted encompass point mutations, and some of these are associated with HBC. In cat mammary lesions (CMLs, the overexpression of ERBB2 (27%-59.6% has also been described, mostly at the protein level and although cat mammary neoplasias are considered to be a natural model of HBC, molecular information is still scarce. In the present work, a cat ERBB2 fragment, comprising exons 10 to 15 (ERBB2_10-15 was achieved for the first time. Allelic variants and genomic haplotype analyses were also performed, and differences between normal and CML populations were observed. Three amino acid changes, corresponding to 3 non-synonymous genomic sequence variants that were only detected in CMLs, were proposed to damage the 3D structure of the protein. We analysed the cat ERBB2 gene at the DNA (copy number determination, mRNA (expression levels assessment and protein levels (in extra- and intra protein domains in CML samples and correlated the last two evaluations with clinicopathological features. We found a positive correlation between the expression levels of the ERBB2 RNA and erbB-2 protein, corresponding to the intracellular region. Additionally, we detected a positive correlation between higher mRNA expression and better clinical outcome. Our results suggest that the ERBB2 gene is post-transcriptionally regulated and that proteins with truncations and single point mutations are present in cat mammary neoplastic lesions. We would like to emphasise that the recurrent occurrence of low erbB-2 expression levels in cat mammary tumours, suggests the cat mammary neoplasias as a valuable model for erbB-2

  10. Long-term side effects of adjuvant breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast cancer accounts for one-third of all cancers in females and 24% of the patients are younger than 55 years of age. More than 10% all Dutch women will develop breast cancer and 70-80% of all breast cancer patients will survive over 5 years.

  11. Expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha) in human breast cancer correlates with low tumor grade, and inhibits tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardini, E; Agresti, R; Tagliabue, E;

    2000-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is controlled by a balance of tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Whereas the contribution of PTKs to breast tumorigenesis is the subject of intense scrutiny, the potential role of PTPs is poorly known. RPTPalpha is implicated in the activation......% of cases manifesting significant overexpression. High RPTPalpha protein levels correlated significantly with low tumor grade and positive estrogen receptor status. Expression of RPTPalpha in breast carcinoma cells led to growth inhibition, associated with increased accumulation in G0 and G1, and delayed...

  12. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are linked by ...

  13. Male breast cancer precursor lesions: analysis of the EORTC 10085/TBCRC/BIG/NABCG International Male Breast Cancer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebar, Shusma C; Slaets, Leen; Cardoso, Fatima; Giordano, Sharon H; Bartlett, John Ms; Tryfonidis, Konstantinos; Dijkstra, Nizet H; Schröder, Caroline P; van Asperen, Christi J; Linderholm, Barbro; Benstead, Kim; Dinjens, Winan Nm; van Marion, Ronald; van Diest, Paul J; Martens, John Wm; van Deurzen, Carolien Hm

    2017-04-01

    In men, data regarding breast cancer carcinogenesis are limited. The aim of our study was to describe the presence of precursor lesions adjacent to invasive male breast cancer, in order to increase our understanding of carcinogenesis in these patients. Central pathology review was performed for 1328 male breast cancer patients, registered in the retrospective joint analysis of the International Male Breast Cancer Program, which included the presence and type of breast cancer precursor lesions. In a subset, invasive breast cancer was compared with the adjacent precursor lesion by immunohistochemistry (n=83) or targeted next generation sequencing (n=7). Additionally, we correlated the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ with outcome. A substantial proportion (46.2%) of patients with invasive breast cancer also had an adjacent precursor lesion, mainly ductal carcinoma in situ (97.9%). The presence of lobular carcinoma in situ and columnar cell-like lesions were very low (cases with adjacent ductal carcinoma in situ (n=83), a complete concordance was observed between the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 status of both components. Next generation sequencing on a subset of cases with invasive breast cancer and adjacent ductal carcinoma in situ (n=4) showed identical genomic aberrations, including PIK3CA, GATA3, TP53, and MAP2K4 mutations. Next generation sequencing on a subset of cases with invasive breast cancer and an adjacent columnar cell-like lesion showed genomic concordance in two out of three patients. A multivariate Cox model for survival showed a trend that the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ was associated with a better overall survival, in particular in the Luminal B HER2+ subgroup. In conclusion, ductal carcinoma in situ is the most commonly observed precursor lesion in male breast cancer and its presence seems to be associated with a better outcome, in particular in Luminal B HER2+ cases. The rate of lobular carcinoma in situ and

  14. Analysis on correlation between the characteristic of breast cancer MRI and axillary lymph node metastasis%乳腺癌MRI的特征性表现与腋窝淋巴结转移的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢龙龙; 刘晟; 王维; 刘文; 简练; 彭和香

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the characteristic of breast cancer MRI and axillary lymph node metastasis, thus offering therapeutic schedule and prognosis in treating breast cancer.Materials and Methods:Forty-four cases of breast cancer were conifrmed by pathology and preoperative MR scan, twenty-six cases of these patients were conifrmed with ipsilateral axillary lymph node metastasis. Two experts read MRI image, and analyze the relationship between the ratio of different masses' short axis over long axis, dynamic enhanced MR features and the axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer.Results:(1) MR morphology analysis shows that the ratio of breast lumps' short axis over long axis has a negaive correlation with axillary lymphnode matastasis (t=5.892,P<0.05). (2) Edge reinforcement tumors' early intensive rate of breast cancer has positive correlation with axillary lymph node metastasis (t=3.966,P<0.01).Conclusion:The larger the ratio of breast lumps' short axis over long axis is, the smaller the possibility of axillary lymph node metastasis will be, the bigger edge reinforcement tumors' early intensive rate is, the greater the possibility of lymph node metastasis will be, and associated with poor prognosis. Therefore, axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer has good correlation with MR characteristic. MR examination can judge prognosis of breast cancer and axillary lymph node properties, then provide reference for effective treatment.%目的:探讨乳腺癌MRI的特征性表现与腋窝淋巴结转移的相关性,为乳腺癌淋巴结阳性患者治疗方案的选择及预后评估提供理论依据。材料与方法44例经病理证实为乳腺癌且均术前行MR扫描,其中26例患者证实有同侧腋窝淋巴结转移。由2名有经验的影像科医师阅读MRI,分析不同肿块的短径与长径之比、动态增强的特征与乳腺癌腋窝淋巴结转移的相关性。结果(1)MR形态学分析乳腺肿块短径

  15. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with

  16. Counterview: Pre-operative breast MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is not recommended for all patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solin, Lawrence J

    2010-02-01

    For the woman with a newly diagnosed early stage breast cancer, the routine use of pre-operative breast MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is not indicated beyond conventional breast imaging (i.e., mammography with correlation ultrasound as indicated). There is no consistent evidence that a pre-operative breast MRI confers a benefit to the patient by improving clinical outcomes or surgical procedures. In a meta-analysis of studies reporting on the use of pre-operative breast MRI for the patient with an established index cancer, multifocal or multicentric disease was found on breast MRI in 16% of the patients, a rate substantially higher than the rate of local recurrence after breast conserving surgery plus definitive radiation treatment. In the largest retrospective study of patients treated with breast conserving surgery plus radiation, no gain was found for adding a breast MRI to conventional breast imaging. No randomized clinical trial has been designed to evaluate long term clinical outcomes associated with adding a pre-operative breast MRI. Adding pre-operative breast MRI can alter clinical management in ways that are potentially harmful to patients, for example, increased ipsilateral mastectomies, increased contralateral prophylactic mastectomies, increased work-ups, and delay to definitive surgery. In summary, the routine use of pre-operative breast MRI is not warranted for the typical patient with a newly diagnosed early stage breast cancer.

  17. The cancer genetics and pathology of male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Siddhartha; Lakhani, Sunil R; Ottini, Laura; Fox, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon and poorly understood disease. Recent molecular studies have shown important differences from female breast cancer which are likely to influence treatment strategies from the current female-based management towards a more tailored approach. Significantly more MBCs than female breast cancers arise with an underlying germline cancer predisposition, and display a vastly different penetrance compared with females. Furthermore, the genophenotypical association of basal-like cancer with BRCA1 present in female breast cancer is not observed in male breast cancer. Differences in somatic changes between male and female breast cancer have also been reported, with particular enrichment of PIK3CA mutations and a paucity of TP53 mutations. In general, chromosomal-based changes, in particular regions of gains, are seen more frequently in male than female breast cancer and methylation is seen less frequently. Clinically, several molecular subtypes with prognostic relevance have been described, including chromosomal complex high and methylation high groups, and subgroups with profiling signatures pertaining to epithelial mesenchymal transition and hormonal therapy insensitivity. As with female breast cancer, attention to male specific multicentre trials based on the individual characteristics are needed, together with establishment of reliable preclinical models to understand more clearly the pathogenesis of male breast cancer and improve the general poor outcome of this disease.

  18. Interleukin-8 in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović-Raković, Nataša; Milovanović, Jelena

    2013-10-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine that has an autocrine and/or paracrine tumor-promoting role and significant potential as a prognostic and/or predictive cancer biomarker. In breast cancer, which is mostly determined by expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), IL-8 could play a specific role. IL-8 is highly expressed in ER- breast cancers, but it increases invasiveness and metastatic potential of both ER- and ER+ breast cancer cells. It is also highly expressed in HER2+ breast cancers. Because of the complex crosstalk between these receptors and IL-8, its role is mainly determined by delicate balance in their signaling pathways. Therefore, the main point of this review was to analyze the possible influence of IL-8 in breast cancer progression related to its interaction with ER and HER2 and the consequent therapeutic implications of these relations.

  19. Manganese superoxide dismutase and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Christensen, Mariann; Lash, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    cancer recurrence (BCR) among patients treated with cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy (Cyclo). We compared our findings with published studies using meta-analyses. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of BCR among women in Jutland, Denmark. Subjects were diagnosed with non......BACKGROUND: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inhibits oxidative damage and cancer therapy effectiveness. A polymorphism in its encoding gene (SOD2: Val16Ala rs4880) may confer poorer breast cancer survival, but data are inconsistent. We examined the association of SOD2 genotype and breast......-metastatic breast cancer from 1990-2001, received adjuvant Cyclo, and were registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. We identified 118 patients with BCR and 213 matched breast cancer controls. We genotyped SOD2 and used conditional logistic regression to compute the odds ratio (OR) and associated 95...

  20. Multicenter prospective study of magnetic resonance imaging prior to breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian; Liu Yinhua; Xu Ling; Duan Xuening; Li Ting; Qin Naishan; Kang Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background This multicenter prospective study aimed to assess the utility of dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer.Methods The research subjects were drawn from patients with primary early resectable breast cancer treated in the breast disease centers of six three-level hospitals in Beijing from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012.The participants were allocated to a breast-conserving surgery group (breast-conserving group) or a total mastectomy group (total mastectomy group).Enhanced MRI was used to measure breast volume,longest diameter of tumor and tumor volume.The correlations between these measurements and those derived from histopathologic findings were assessed.The relationships between the success rate of breast-conserving surgery and MRI-and pathology-based measurement results were statistically analyzed in the breast-conserving group.Results The study included 461 cases in the total mastectomy group and 195 in the breast-conserving group.Allocation to these groups was based on clinical indications and patient preferences.The cut-off for concurrence between MRI-and pathology-based measurements of the longest diameter of tumor was set at 0.3 cm.In the total mastectomy group,the confidence interval for 95% concurrence of these measurements was 35.41%-44.63%.Correlation coefficients for MRI and histopathology-based measurements of breast volume,tumor volume and tumor volume/breast volume ratio were r=0.861,0.569,and 0.600,respectively (all P <0.001).In the breast-conserving group,with 0.30 cm taken as the cut-off for concurrence,the 95% confidence interval for MRI and pathology-based measurements of the longest diameter of tumor was 29.98%-44.01%.The subjective and objective success rates for breast-conserving surgery were 100% and 88.54%,respectively.Conclusions There were significant correlations between dynamic enhanced MRI-and histopathology-based measurements of the longest

  1. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition......, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD......51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients...

  2. SIGNIFICANCE AND CORRELATION OF MAPK/ERK2 AND PI3-K IN HUMAN BREAST TUMORIGENESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ping; LI Bai-lin; ZHANG Ying; SONG Min; SONG Ji-ye

    2006-01-01

    Objective: MAPK ((Mitogen-actived Protein Kinase) and PI3-K (Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) pathways have been implicated in the mitogenic pathways regulating cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and transformation and thus involved in tumorigenesis. This study was designed to examined the protein expression, activity and mRNA levels of both ERK and PI3-K in a series of breast tumors and adjacent mammary glands, and to figure out the changes of ERK2 and PI3-K during the dynamic process of breast tumorigenesis. Methods: A series of breast tumors and adjacent mammary glands were collected at surgery, including 37 cases of breast cancer, 6 cases of atypical hyperplasia-breast carcinoma in situ and 15 cases of benign conditions. Western blot, kinase activity assay and RT-PCR were used to detect the protein expression, kinase activity and mRNA level, respectively. Results: The revels of protein, activity and mRNA of ERK2 were elevated during the stages of both initiation and progression. The increasing tendency in breast cancer was equal to atypical hyperplasia -in situ carcinoma, but higher than in benign lesion and adjacent normal mammary gland. PI3-K was activated during the stage of progression of breast cancer. An inverse correlation between the activity of PI3-K and ERK2 in breast cancer was found. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that ERK2 may perform its function during both the stages of breast cancer initiation and breast cancer progression, while PI3-K may exert its effect during the stage of breast cancer progression. Both PI3-k and ERK2 are involved in the tumorigenesis of breast cancer.

  3. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  4. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers after breast cancer . Ask your doctor for a survivorship care plan Talk with your doctor about ... Close Image of Previous Next Close Close Select A Hope Lodge Close Please share your thoughts about ...

  5. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  6. Evolution of surgical treatment for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Letyagin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main surgical interventions used to treat breast cancer. It defines the role and place of conservative surgery and describes current procedures for the organ-saving treatment of cancer at this site.

  7. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  8. Early Life and Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    adulthood in the 1958 British born cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66:1094-101. 52. Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and breast cancer risk. Cancer 1988; 62...Biomarkers Prey 2002;11: J Clin Nutr 1997;66:1094-101. 32. He Q Karlbergj. BMI in childhood and 207-10. 28. Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and its...breast cancer among young U.S. women. Epidemiology 1997; 8(5):559-565. (76) Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and breast cancer risk. Cancer 1988; 62(8

  9. A Role for Notch Signalling in Breast Cancer and Endocrine Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Acar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, there has been growing interest in the Notch signalling pathway within the breast cancer field. This interest stemmed initially from the observation that Notch signalling is aberrantly activated in breast cancer and its effects on various cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer stem cell activity. However more recently, elevated Notch signalling has been correlated with therapy resistance in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. As a result, inhibiting Notch signalling with therapeutic agents is being explored as a promising treatment option for breast cancer patients.

  10. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  11. EXPRESSION OF E-CADHERIN/CATENIN COMPLEX IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen; CUI Dong-xu; LIU Bao-lin; ZHANG Xiao-bo; MA Wen-feng; ZHANG Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To detect the expressions of E-cadherin, (-catenin and (-catenin and analyze the relationship between E- cadherin-catenin adhesion complex and clinicopathological features in breast cancer. Methods: The expressions of E-cadherin, (-cadherin and (-catenin in specimens of 54 breast cancer, 21 normal breast tissues around tumor, 15 breast hyperplasia of usual type and 15 breast atypical hyperplasia were detected by immunohistochemical method. Results: In 21 normal breast tissues, E-cadherin and (-catenin were expressed on cell membrane of ductal and acinic cells, showing cellular contour and border among cells. The staining character of the three proteins in breast hyperplasia of usual type was the same as that in normal breast tissue. In breast atypical hyperplasia, the abnormal expression rates of E-cadherin, (-catenin and (-catenin were 6.7%, 13.3% and 26.7%, respectively. The total abnormal expression rate of E-cadherin-catenin complex was 33.3%. In breast cancer, the abnormal expression rates of E-cadherin, (-catenin and (-catenin were 51.9%, 63.0% and 61.1%, respectively. The total abnormal expression rate of E-cadherin-catenin complex was 88.9%. Abnormal expression of E-cadherin and (-catenin were significantly correlated with histological grade. Abnormal expressions of (-catenin and (-catenin were significantly correlated with TNM staging, axillary lymph nodes metastasis and postoperative distant metastasis. Abnormal expression of E-cadherin-catenin complex was correlated with TNM staging, histological grade and axillary lymph nodes. Abnormal expression of (-catenin was negatively correlated with expression of HER-2. COX multiple factor analysis showed that E-cadherin or (-catenin or (-catenin was not independent prognostic indicator. Conclusion: Abnormal expressions of E-cadherin, (-catenin and (-catenin frequently occur in breast cancer. Abnormal expression of E-cadherin-catenin complex is correlated with differentiation disturbance and metastasis

  12. Breast Cancer During Pregnancy: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serden Ay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy breast cancer is rarely seen. In this case, when the patient was being operated for the right breast cancer which was diagnosed in the first exam, a left breast cancer was also detected in the operation. When the patient analysed retrospectively, lesion in the left breast could not detected because of the lactation period. Consequently,pregnancy patients must be re-examined after the lactation period to avoid any possible mistakes. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 492-494

  13. Urinary phytoestrogens and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkelaar, den I.; Keinan-Boker, L.; Veer, van't P.; Arts, C.J.M.; Adlercreutz, H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.; Peeters, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant substances that are structurally or functionally similar to estradiol. We report the associations of two major phytoestrogens, genistein and enterolactone, with breast cancer risk, using urinary specimens collected 1-9 years before breast cancer was diagnosed. The

  14. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  15. Loneliness May Sabotage Breast Cancer Survival: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162498.html Loneliness May Sabotage Breast Cancer Survival: Study Weak social ties linked to higher risk ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Loneliness may impede long-term breast cancer survival, a new study suggests. In the years after ...

  16. Gene Expression Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Giri D, Chen B, Gerald W Molecular Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Therapeutic Biomarkers Using Oligonucleotide Arrays Abstract presentation USCAP 2005. 5...Bone Metastasis. Submitted Lal P, Donaton M, Girl D, Chen B, Gerald W Molecular Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Therapeutic Biomarkers Using Oligonucleotide

  17. Paclitaxel and doxorubicin in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, J; Boesgaard, M; Paaske, T;

    1996-01-01

    be explored. Paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) has been demonstrated to be highly effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer, including those with anthracycline-resistant breast cancer, a fact that has led to efforts to combine paclitaxel and anthracyclines...

  18. New ways to optimize breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, Carolina Pia

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer patients without apparent distant metastases at the time of primary tumor removal, may later suffer from a distant relapse, indicating the presence of occult micrometastases at the time of diagnosis. Sensitive methods to detect micrometastatic breast cancer may be helpful in optimizing

  19. Breast cancer radiotherapy and cardiac risk

    OpenAIRE

    Anusheel Munshi; Kaustav Talapatra; Debanarayan Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women in the developed world and its incidence in the developing world is on the rise. Management of breast cancer requires a multimodality approach and an integration of the services of surgery, radiation, and medical oncology. Radiotherapy after mastectomy or breast conservation leads to reduction in local recurrence by two-thirds. Recent trials and metaanalyses have also demonstrated overall survival benefit with radiotherapy...

  20. Breast Cancer Diagnosed During Pregnancy: Adapting Recent Advances in Breast Cancer Care for Pregnant Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loibl, S.; Schmidt, A.; Gentilini, O.; Kaufman, B.; Kuhl, C.; Denkert, C.; Minckwitz, G. von; Parokonnaya, A.; Stensheim, H.; Thomssen, C.; Calsteren, K. van; Poortmans, P.; Berveiller, P.; Markert, U.R.; Amant, F.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer during pregnancy (BCP), although rare, is becoming more common and treatment should be as similar as possible to that for nonpregnant young patients with breast cancer. A group of specialists convened to review current guidelines and provide guidance on how recent advances in breast ca

  1. Breast thermography. A prognostic indicator for breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isard, H J; Sweitzer, C J; Edelstein, G R

    1988-08-01

    A prognostic classification for thermographic staging of breast cancer has been applied to a cohort of 70 patients from 5040 screenees enrolled in the Albert Einstein Medical Center (AEMC) Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP). A diagnosis of breast cancer was established in each case before December 31, 1980. None of the patients have been lost to follow-up which extended from a minimum of 6 to a maximum of 13 years. Survival rates for those with favorable, equivocal, and poor thermographic factors are compared with each other and with results in accordance with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification. As of December 31, 1986, there have been 22 (31.4%) deaths, all attributed to breast cancer. The thermographic scoring system clearly shows shorter survival for patients with poor thermographic prognostic factors, 30% surviving at 5 years and only 20% at 10 years compared with overall survival of 80% at 5 years and 70% at 10 years.

  2. The potential role of breast ductoscopy in breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarakbi, W Al; Escobar, Pedro F; Mokbel, Kefah

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer remains the most common malignancy among women in the Western world. Mammography, which is currently the main screening modality for early detection, has a low positive predictive value of only 25%, especially in young women with very dense breasts. Therefore, new screening approaches are needed for the early detection of breast cancer in all age groups. Mammary ductoscopy (MD) is a newly developed endoscopic technique that allows direct visualization and biopsy of the mammary ductal epithelium where most cancers originate. The procedure can be performed under local anesthesia in the office setting. At present, MD is used as a diagnostic adjunct in patients with pathological nipple discharge and to guide duct excision surgery. This article focuses on the potential of this technique in breast cancer screening and highlights its limitations in this context.

  3. Breast cancer. Part 2: present and future treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the second article in a series of three on breast cancer. Part 1 discussed breast anatomy, the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging. In this article, treatment for breast cancer is discussed. The article will follow the usual order of modalities in the trajectory, starting with surgery, then chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment, finishing with a discussion of future and biological treatments.

  4. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses......, in breast cancer survivors could regulate breast cancer cell viability in vitro. Methods: Blood samples were collected from breast cancer survivors, partaking in either a 6-month training intervention or across a 2 h acute exercise session. Changes in training parameters and systemic factors were evaluated...... and pre/post exercise-conditioned sera from both studies were used to stimulate breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro. Results: Six months of training increased VO2peak (16.4 %, p

  5. Insulin receptor what role in breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, V; Costantino, A; Belfiore, A

    1997-10-01

    It is commonly believed that the insulin receptor mainly mediates the metabolic effects of insulin, whereas the closely related IGF-I receptor is considered a major factor for the regulation of cell proliferation. Experimental and epidemiological evidence indicates, however, that insulin and insulin receptors may play an important role in breast cancer. This article reviews evidence indicating that (a) insulin receptors are overexpressed in human breast cancer, (b) insulin stimulates growth in breast cancer cells, (c) cells transfected with human insulin receptor may acquire a ligand-dependent transformed phenotype, and (d) breast cancer is associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. These findings may open new possibilities in breast cancer prevention, prognosis assessment, and therapy. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997; 8:306-312). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  6. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...... excluded a biased trial and included 600,000 women in the analyses. Three trials with adequate randomisation did not show a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality at 13 years (relative risk (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 1.02); four trials with suboptimal randomisation showed...... a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality with an RR of 0.75 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.83). The RR for all seven trials combined was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.87). We found that breast cancer mortality was an unreliable outcome that was biased in favour of screening, mainly because of differential...

  7. The a3 isoform of subunit a of the vacuolar ATPase localizes to the plasma membrane of invasive breast tumor cells and is overexpressed in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Kristina; Liberman, Rachel; Sun-Wada, GeHong; Wada, Yoh; Sgroi, Dennis; Naber, Stephen; Brown, Dennis; Breton, Sylvie; Forgac, Michael

    2016-07-19

    The vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are a family of ATP-driven proton pumps that acidify intracellular compartments and transport protons across the plasma membrane. Previous work has demonstrated that plasma membrane V-ATPases are important for breast cancer invasion in vitro and that the V-ATPase subunit a isoform a3 is upregulated in and critical for MDA-MB231 and MCF10CA1a breast cancer cell invasion. It has been proposed that subunit a3 is present on the plasma membrane of invasive breast cancer cells and is overexpressed in human breast cancer. To test this, we used an a3-specific antibody to assess localization in breast cancer cells. Subunit a3 localizes to the leading edge of migrating breast cancer cells, but not the plasma membrane of normal breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, invasive breast cancer cells express a3 throughout all intracellular compartments tested, including endosomes, the Golgi, and lysosomes. Moreover, subunit a3 knockdown in MB231 breast cancer cells reduces in vitro migration. This reduction is not enhanced upon addition of a V-ATPase inhibitor, suggesting that a3-containing V-ATPases are critical for breast cancer migration. Finally, we have tested a3 expression in human breast cancer tissue and mRNA prepared from normal and cancerous breast tissue. a3 mRNA was upregulated 2.5-47 fold in all breast tumor cDNA samples tested relative to normal tissue, with expression generally correlated to cancer stage. Furthermore, a3 protein expression was increased in invasive breast cancer tissue relative to noninvasive cancer and normal breast tissue. These studies suggest that subunit a3 plays an important role in invasive human breast cancer.

  8. Is clinical breast examination important for breast cancer detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, L.; Hogue, J.C.; Desbiens, C.; Poirier, B.; Poirier, E.; Boudreau, D.; Joyal, M.; Diorio, C.; Duchesne, N.; Chiquette, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening clinical breast examination (cbe) is controversial; the use of cbe is declining not only as a screening tool, but also as a diagnostic tool. In the present study, we aimed to assess the value of cbe in breast cancer detection in a tertiary care centre for breast diseases. Methods This retrospective study of all breast cancers diagnosed between July 1999 and December 2010 at our centre categorized cases according to the mean of detection (cbe, mammography, or both). A cbe was considered “abnormal” in the presence of a mass, nipple discharge, skin or nipple retraction, edema, erythema, peau d’orange, or ulcers. Results During the study period, a complete dataset was available for 6333 treated primary breast cancers. Cancer types were ductal carcinoma in situ (15.3%), invasive ductal carcinoma (75.7%), invasive lobular carcinoma (9.0%), or others (2.2%). Of the 6333 cancers, 36.5% (n = 2312) were detected by mammography alone, 54.8% (n = 3470) by mammography and cbe, and 8.7% (n = 551) by physician-performed cbe alone (or 5.3% if considering ultrasonography). Invasive tumours diagnosed by cbe alone were more often triple-negative, her2-positive, node-positive, and larger than those diagnosed by mammography alone (p < 0.05). Conclusions A significant number of cancers would have been missed if cbe had not been performed. Compared with cancers detected by mammography alone, those detected by cbe had more aggressive features. Clinical breast examination is a very low-cost test that could improve the detection of breast cancer and could prompt breast ultrasonography in the case of a negative mammogram. PMID:27536182

  9. [Association between cadmium and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumylaite, Loreta; Bogusevicius, Algirdas; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Pranys, Darius; Poskiene, Lina; Kregzdyte, Rima; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Asadauskaite, Rūta

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen, although some studies indicate a link between cadmium exposure and human breast cancer. The objective of this study was to assess cadmium concentration in breast tissue samples of patients with breast cancer and benign breast tumor. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The concentration of cadmium was determined in breast tissue samples of 21 breast cancer and 19 benign tumor patients. Two samples of breast tissue from each patient, i.e. tumor and normal tissue close to tumor, were taken for the analysis. Cadmium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (Perkin-Elmer, Zeeman 3030). RESULTS. In patients with breast cancer, the mean cadmium concentration was 33.1 ng/g (95% CI, 21.9-44.4) in malignant breast tissue and 10.4 ng/g (95% CI, 5.6-15.2) in normal breast tissue (P=0.002). In patients with benign tumor, the corresponding values were 17.5 ng/g (95% CI, 8.4-26.5) and 11.8 ng/g (95% CI, 5.1-18.5) (P=0.3144). There was a statistically significant difference in cadmium concentration between malignant and benign breast tissues (P=0.009). CONCLUSION. The data obtained show that cadmium concentration is significantly higher in malignant breast tissue as compared with normal breast tissue of the same women or benign breast tissue. Further studies are necessary to determine the association between cadmium concentration in malignant breast tissue and estrogen receptor level, and smoking.

  10. Multidisciplinary Meeting on Male Breast Cancer : Summary and Research Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korde, Larissa A.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Kamin, Leah; Giordano, Sharon; Domchek, Susan; Anderson, William F.; Bartlett, John M. S.; Gelmon, Karen; Nahleh, Zeina; Bergh, Jonas; Cutuli, Bruno; Pruneri, Giancarlo; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Gralow, Julie; Hortobagyi, Gabriel; Cardoso, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer diagnoses worldwide. Most data on male breast cancer comes from small single-institution studies, and because of the paucity of data, the optimal treatment for male breast cancer is not known. This article summari

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of Metastasis Suppression in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    and breast carcinoma metastasis, Wake Forest University Cancer Center, July 28 Molecular mechanisms controlling melanoma and breast carcinoma...Bowman Show, August 17 Molecular regulation of melanoma and breast carcinoma metastasis, Wake Forest University Cancer Center, July 28 Molecular...Institute, April 20, Pathology ofNeoplasia Cumberland Unit, American Cancer Society, April 19; Breast Cancer Research Ministerio de Sanidad y

  12. Use of proteomics for the early diagnosis fo breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, A.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality rates in The Netherlands are among the highest in Europe. To improve breast cancer survival, early detection is of vital importance. The introduction of the national breast cancer screening program has led to an improvement in stage distribution at diagnosis of breast cancer.

  13. Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Cisplatin in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szallasi, Zoltan Imre; Eklund, Aron Charles; Li, Qiyuan

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent not used routinely for breast cancer treatment. As a DNA cross-linking agent, cisplatin may be effective treatment for hereditary BRCA1-mutated breast cancers. Because sporadic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and BRCA1-associated breast cancer...

  14. Feasibility of breast cancer screening by PIXE analysis of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, N; Kabiri, Z; Kakuee, O; Saleh-Kotahi, M; Changizi, V; Fathollahi, V; Oliaiy, P; Omranipour, R

    2013-06-01

    To reveal the role of key elements present in the hair of breast cancer patients on cancer development, the levels of a number of elements in scalp hair samples of 82 people including healthy individuals, people suffering from benign breast disease, and breast cancer patients were measured by PIXE analysis. Pellets of hair samples were prepared and bombarded by 2.2 MeV proton beam of a 3-MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The number of incident ions hitting the sample was indirectly measured using the RBS spectrum of a thin Ag film placed in the beam path. The concentrations of S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Cu in the hair of healthy individuals were in agreement with those observed in the hair of hyperplasia and cancer patients within standard deviations. However, a lower average level of zinc was found in samples from hyperplasia and breast cancer patients. Strong positive correlations were found between iron and potassium as well as between calcium and potassium in the cancer patients. These results could be of significance in the screening for breast cancer.

  15. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  16. Loss of heterozygosity in bilateral breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, J; Man, S; Marafie, M; Carpenter, K; Pinder, S; Ellis, I O; Blamey, R W; Cross, G; Brook, J D

    2000-12-01

    Women who develop bilateral breast cancer at an early age are likely to harbour germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes. The aim of this study was to test for concordant genetic changes in left and right breast cancer of young women (age < 50) with bilateral breast cancer that may suggest an inherited breast cancer predisposition. Microsatellite markers were used to test for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in left and right tumours for 31 women with premenopausal bilateral breast cancer. Markers adjacent to or within candidate genes on 17p (p53), 17q (BRCA1), 13q (BRCA2), 11q (Ataxia Telangiectasia-ATM) and 3p (FHIT) were chosen. Mutational testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 was performed for cases where blood was available. Concordant LOH in both left and right tumours was demonstrated for at least one of the markers tested in 16/31(54%) cases. Where allelic loss was demonstrated for both left and right breast cancer, the same allele was lost on each occasion. This may suggest a common mutational event. Four cases showed concordant loss of alleles in both left and right breast cancer at D17S791 (BRCA1). BRCA1 mutations were identified in two of these cases where blood was available. Four cases showed concordant LOH at D13S155 (BRCA2). Concordant LOH was further demonstrated in seven cases for D11S1778 (ATM) and four cases for D3S1300 (which maps to the FHIT gene), suggesting a possible role for these tumour suppressor genes in this subgroup of breast cancer patients. No concordant allelic loss was demonstrated for D17S786 suggesting that germline mutations in p53 are unlikely in such cases of bilateral breast cancer.

  17. Serum sialic acid and CEA concentrations in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan-Ryan, A; Fennelly, J J; Jones, M; Cantwell, B; Duffy, M J

    1980-04-01

    The concentration of bound sialic acid in the sera of 56 normal subjects and 65 subjects with breast cancer was measured, in order to determine (1) whether serum sialic acid concentrations are raised in breast cancer and (2) whether the concentration of sialic acid in serum reflects tumour stage. The amount of sialic acid in serum was compared to serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) values. Urinary hydroxyproline and serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations were used as indicators of bone and liver involvement. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was also measured. Significantly elevated serum sialic acid concentrations were found in breast cancer, and showed correlation with tumour stage. Serum sialic acid values did not correlate with CEA values. The results suggest that measurement of serum sialic acid concentrations may be of adjunctive value in assessing tumour stage.

  18. PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic subtypes and effect of gemcitabine in advanced breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte Levin Tykjær; Nielsen, Torsten O; Bjerre, Karsten D

    2014-01-01

    chemotherapy were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Data analysis was performed independently by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) statistical core and all statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: RNA from 270 patients was evaluable; 84...... by NanoString nCounter. Statistical analyses were prespecified as a formal prospective-retrospective clinical trial correlative study. Using time to progression (TTP) as primary endpoint, overall survival (OS) and response rate as secondary endpoints, relationships between subtypes and outcome after......: A significantly improved and clinically important prolongation of survival was seen from the addition of gemcitabine to docetaxel in advanced basal-like breast cancer patients....

  19. [Male breast cancer: a challenge for urologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, C; Schmalfeldt, B; Gschwend, J E; Herkommer, K

    2010-09-01

    Male breast cancer (male BC) accounts for Klinefelter syndrome) and a positive family history for breast cancer. About 90% of male BC are invasive ductal carcinomas. Standard treatment for localized cancer is surgical removal. Adjuvant radiation and systemic therapy are the same as in women with breast cancer. Male BC expresses hormone receptors in about 90% of cases; therefore, tamoxifen is a therapeutic option. A future challenge for the urologist or andrologist is to diagnose the disease at an early stage to improve prognosis.

  20. CORRELATION BETWEEN LAMININ AND CATHEPSIN D EXPRESSIONS IN BREAST CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Feng; CHEN Wei-hong; ZHENG Jian-ming; HUANG Ling

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Laminin is a major glycoprotein component of basement membrance which is an important barrier to tumor cells which must be breeched before metastatic spread can occur. Proteolytic enzymes play an important role in mediating the passage of cancer cells through the basement membrane (BM) and extracellular matrix. We compared the patterns of laminin and cathepsin D (CD) expressions in a range of benign and malignant breast lesions to better understand the process of tumor progression. Methods: One hundred and sixty-two cases of breast samples comprising 18 fibroadeomas, 22 cases of fibrocystic disease, 96 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma and 26 carcinomas with intraductal components were evaluated for laminin and cathepsin D expressions by immunohistochemical staining. Results: The prevalence of CD positivity in both neoplastic and stromal cell components were significantly higher in higher histological grade tumors compared to lower grades (P<0.001). Various severity of BM disruption correlated with histological grade of the carcinomas (P<0.001). There was a negative correlation between the laminin expression and CD presence. Conclusion: In the process of cancer cell invasion and metastasis, the basement membrane is disrupted by proteinase secreted by cancer cells, especially by stroma cells of cancer.

  1. Suppression of Ovarian Function With Either Tamoxifen or Exemestane Compared With Tamoxifen Alone in Treating Premenopausal Women With Hormone-Responsive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  2. Expression of ADAM17 and HER-2 in breast cancer and their correlation%ADAM17与HER-2在乳腺癌中表达的意义及相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙泽辉; 张雪鹏; 韩旭; 胡宝山

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨解聚素-金属蛋白酶17(a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17,ADAM17)和原癌基因人表皮生长因子受体2(human epidermal growth factor receptor-2,HER-2)在乳腺癌中的表达及相关性,探索新的乳腺肿瘤标记物.方法 采用免疫组化法检测ADAM17和HER-2在正常乳腺组织及乳腺癌中的表达情况,并分析其表达与临床病理关系.结果 ADAM17和HER-2在正常乳腺组织中的表达以阴性为主,少部分呈弱阳性表达;而在乳腺癌中表达增高,以阳性表达为主,且强阳性占大部分,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),两者在乳腺癌中的表达存在正相关性.ADAM17与HER-2表达水平与乳腺癌患者的年龄及肿瘤大小无关,而与腋窝淋巴结转移有关.结论 ADAM17和HER-2在乳腺癌中的表达增高,且两者的表达水平均可反映癌细胞的淋巴结转移能力,因此ADAM17可成为一个乳腺癌靶向治疗的新靶点.%Objective To investigate the expressions and clinical significance of a disintegrin and metalloprotein- ase 17 ( ADAM17) and human epidermal growth factor receptor - 2 ( HER - 2) in human breast cancer; and to investigated the correlation between ADAM17 and HER - 2. Methods The expression of ADAM17 and HER - 2 in the normal breast tissue and breast cancer were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results ADAM17 and HER - 2 were negatively or weakly expressed in normal breast tissue, while the expression was positive in breast cancer. The ADAM17 and HER - 2 positive expression rates in breast cancer were significantly higher than those in normal tissues ( P <0. 05 ). There was no significant correlation between expression of ADAM17 or HER - 2 and the age of patients or tumor size. However, there was significant correlation between the expressions of ADAM17 or HER -2 and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions The expressions of ADAM17 and HER -2 are associated with the biological characteristics of breast cancer, indicating possible lymph

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  4. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PTEN AND CASPASE-3 EXPRESSIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-fei Yang; Yan Xin; Li-li Mao

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expressions of PTEN and Caspase-3 proteins in human breast carcinoma, and to evaluate their clinicopathological implications during the tumorigenesis and progression of breast cancer.Methods The expressions of PTEN and Caspase-3 proteins in 95 cases of breast cancer and 15 cases of benignbreast diseases were investigated immunohistochemically. Correlations between the expression of PTEN protein,Caspase-3 protein, and clinicopathological features of breast cancers were analyzed.Results The loss expression rate of PTEN protein in tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in benignbreast diseases (33.7% vs. 0, P 0. 05). In addition,the expression of PTEN protein had significantly positive correlation with the expression of Caspase-3 protein in breast cancer (P <0.01 ).Conclusion The combination detection of PTEN and Caspase-3 may serve as an important index to estimate the pathobiological behavior and pognosis of breast cancer.

  5. Multimodal optical imaging for detecting breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rakesh; Khan, Ashraf; Wirth, Dennis; Kamionek, Michal; Kandil, Dina; Quinlan, Robert; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate wide-field and high-resolution multimodal optical imaging, including polarization, reflectance, and fluorescence for the intraoperative detection of breast cancer. Lumpectomy specimens were stained with 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged. Wide-field reflectance images were acquired between 390 and 750 nm. Wide-field fluorescence images were excited at 640 nm and registered between 660 and 750 nm. High resolution confocal reflectance and fluorescence images were excited at 642 nm. Confocal fluorescence images were acquired between 670 nm and 710 nm. After imaging, the specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. Histological slides were compared with wide-field and high-resolution optical images to evaluate correlation of tumor boundaries and cellular morphology, respectively. Fluorescence polarization imaging identified the location, size, and shape of the tumor in all the cases investigated. Averaged fluorescence polarization values of tumor were higher as compared to normal tissue. Statistical analysis confirmed the significance of these differences. Fluorescence confocal imaging enabled cellular-level resolution. Evaluation and statistical analysis of MB fluorescence polarization values registered from single tumor and normal cells demonstrated higher fluorescence polarization from cancer. Wide-field high-resolution fluorescence and fluorescence polarization imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of breast cancers.

  6. Resilience and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that a relationship exists between quality of life (QoL and resilience in breast cancer patients, but few studies present information on the nature of this relationship of resilience on QoL. Our aim was to examine the relationship between resilience and quality of life in breast cancer patients. METHODS: QoL was measured in 218 consequent breast cancer patients, with EORTC - QLQ Core 30 questionnaire, and EORTC QLQ-BR23. The resilience was measured with Connor Davidson Resilience Scale. RESULTS: The global quality of life was positively correlated with the levels of resilience (R = 0.39 p < 0.001. All functional scales (physical, role, emotional, cognitive and social functioning was in a positive correlation with resilience. The symptoms severity (fatigue, nausea and vomitus, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, constipation, diarrhea, financial difficulties was in negative correlation with resilience. Less resilient breast cancer patients reported worse body image and future perspective and suffered from more severe adverse effects of systemic therapy, and arm/breast symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that psychological resilience affects different aspects of health-related quality of life. More resilient patients have significantly better quality of life in almost all aspects of QoL.

  7. Aetio-pathogenesis of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Haruna Abdulkareem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a literature review on the aetiology and pathogenesis of breast cancer, which is the most common cancer worldwide, and the second leading cause of cancer death, especially in Western countries. Several aetiological factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis, and include age, genetics, family history, diet, alcohol, obesity, lifestyle, physical inactivity, as well as endocrine factors. These factors act separately or together in the causation of breast cancer. More recently, triple negative breast cancer has been described in certain categories of patients and is associated with poorer prognosis and earlier recurrence compared with the conventional breast cancer. Therefore, adequate knowledge of these factors is important in identifying high risk groups and individuals, which will help in screening, early detection and follow-up. This will help to decrease the morbidity and mortality from this life-threatening disease.

  8. A family history of breast cancer will not predict female early onset breast cancer in a population-based setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, Geertruida H.; Jacobi, Catharina E.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Krol-Warmerdam, Elly M. M.; Blom, Jannet; van Asperen, Christi J.; Cornelisse, Cees J.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Brekelmans, Cecile T. M.; van Houwelingen, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: An increased risk of breast cancer for relatives of breast cancer patients has been demonstrated in many studies, and having a relative diagnosed with breast cancer at an early age is an indication for breast cancer screening. This indication has been derived from estimates based on data

  9. Endocrine resistance in breast cancer--An overview and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Robert; Tyson, John J; Dixon, J Michael

    2015-12-15

    Tumors that express detectable levels of the product of the ESR1 gene (estrogen receptor-α; ERα) represent the single largest molecular subtype of breast cancer. More women eventually die from ERα+ breast cancer than from either HER2+ disease (almost half of which also express ERα) and/or from triple negative breast cancer (ERα-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, and HER2-negative). Antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors are largely indistinguishable from each other in their abilities to improve overall survival and almost 50% of ERα+ breast cancers will eventually fail one or more of these endocrine interventions. The precise reasons why these therapies fail in ERα+ breast cancer remain largely unknown. Pharmacogenetic explanations for Tamoxifen resistance are controversial. The role of ERα mutations in endocrine resistance remains unclear. Targeting the growth factors and oncogenes most strongly correlated with endocrine resistance has proven mostly disappointing in their abilities to improve overall survival substantially, particularly in the metastatic setting. Nonetheless, there are new concepts in endocrine resistance that integrate molecular signaling, cellular metabolism, and stress responses including endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) that provide novel insights and suggest innovative therapeutic targets. Encouraging evidence that drug combinations with CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors can extend recurrence free survival may yet translate to improvements in overall survival. Whether the improvements seen with immunotherapy in other cancers can be achieved in breast cancer remains to be determined, particularly for ERα+ breast cancers. This review explores the basic mechanisms of resistance to endocrine therapies, concluding with some new insights from systems biology approaches further implicating autophagy and the UPR in detail, and a brief discussion of exciting new avenues and future prospects.

  10. Estimation of volumetric breast density for breast cancer risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.; Boyd, Norman F.; Jong, Roberta A.

    2000-04-01

    Mammographic density (MD) has been shown to be a strong risk predictor for breast cancer. Compared to subjective assessment by a radiologist, computer-aided analysis of digitized mammograms provides a quantitative and more reproducible method for assessing breast density. However, the current methods of estimating breast density based on the area of bright signal in a mammogram do not reflect the true, volumetric quantity of dense tissue in the breast. A computerized method to estimate the amount of radiographically dense tissue in the overall volume of the breast has been developed to provide an automatic, user-independent tool for breast cancer risk assessment. The procedure for volumetric density estimation consists of first correcting the image for inhomogeneity, then performing a volume density calculation. First, optical sensitometry is used to convert all images to the logarithm of relative exposure (LRE), in order to simplify the image correction operations. The field non-uniformity correction, which takes into account heel effect, inverse square law, path obliquity and intrinsic field and grid non- uniformity is obtained by imaging a spherical section PMMA phantom. The processed LRE image of the phantom is then used as a correction offset for actual mammograms. From information about the thickness and placement of the breast, as well as the parameters of a breast-like calibration step wedge placed in the mammogram, MD of the breast is calculated. Post processing and a simple calibration phantom enable user- independent, reliable and repeatable volumetric estimation of density in breast-equivalent phantoms. Initial results obtained on known density phantoms show the estimation to vary less than 5% in MD from the actual value. This can be compared to estimated mammographic density differences of 30% between the true and non-corrected values. Since a more simplistic breast density measurement based on the projected area has been shown to be a strong indicator

  11. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use....

  12. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyuan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges.

  13. [Vitamin D and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagykálnai, Tamás; Landherr, László; Nagy, András Csaba

    2014-07-13

    The active form of vitamin D, in conjunction with his own receptor, affect a multitude of biological processes in the cell (inter alia it influences the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes). There is an increasing volume of scientific publications examining the relationships between serum vitamin D levels, vitamin D supplementation and malignant diseases. Some articles suggest inverse relationship between the low serum levels of vitamin D and the breast cancer risk and mortality, whilst other publications do not support this view. Thus the present opinion is conflicted. Vitamin D can exert a beneficial influence on the symptoms and outcomes of a large number of ailments, but its role in affecting cancer is still not completely clear.

  14. Cytogenetic report of a male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, L R; Rogatto, S R; Rainho, C A

    1995-01-01

    The cytogenetic findings on G-banding in an infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma in a 69-year-old man are reported. The main abnormalities observed were trisomy of chromosomes 8 and 9 and structural rearrangement in the long arm of chromosome 17 (add(17)(q25)). Our results confirm the trisomy...... of chromosome 8 in the characterization of the subtype of ductal breast carcinomas and demonstrate that chromosome 17, which is frequently involved in female breast cancers, is also responsible for the development or progression of primary breast cancers in males....

  15. Cancer in the "cold" breast thermogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isard, H J

    1976-11-01

    The hallmark of the normal breast thermogram is relative symmetry of vascular configuration and thermal content with preservation of the breast contour. Accepted criteria of abnormality are predicated upon graphic and thermal asymmetry with emphasis placed upon elevated temperature, an increase in the number of discernible vessels, and distorted vascular patterns. The association of a confirmed breast cancer and an avascular thermogram has been labeled a false negative. Avascularity ("cold" breast), particularly in the lower half, with normal vessels in the same location of the opposite breast is suggested as an additional characteristic of abnormality. Illustrative cases are presented.

  16. The effect of country wealth on incidence of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and income per capita across countries. Data on breast cancer incidence in 52 countries were obtained from GLOBOCAN, along with economic indicators of gross domestic product per capita from the World Bank. Number of computed tomography scanners and magnetic resonance imaging (from World Health Organization) were used as a surrogate for technology and access to screening for cancer diagnosis. Statistical analyses for correlation and regression were performed, along with an analysis of variance (ANOVA). A strong positive association between breast cancer incidence and gross domestic product per capita, Pearson's r = 65.4 %, controlling latitude, density of computed tomography scanners and magnetic resonance imaging was found in countries of temperate zones. The estimated relationship suggests that 1 % higher gross domestic product per capita, within the temperate zones (latitudes), increases the expected age-standardized breast cancer incidence by about 35.6 % (p nations may have a higher incidence of breast cancer independent of geographic location and screening technology.

  17. Expression of Tyrosine Kinase Syk in Breast Cancer and Their Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DINGYong-bin; WUZheng-yan; WANGShui; FANPing; ZHAXiao-ming; ZHENGWei; LIUXiao-an

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the Syk mRNA expression in human breast cancer on tummor growth and metastasis, and the correlalion of the Syk gene expression with ER, PR, 1)53, and HER2/neu. Methods: Using se~i-RT-PCR,specimens from 40 breast cancer palients( tumor 1issues,adjacent normal tissues),and 15 filmmdenoma were detected for the expression of the Syk gene and level of Syk mRNA. Meanwhile, Eli, PR, P53, llER2/neu were detected in 40 tumor tissues from breast cancer with immunohistoch~mical staining. Resu/ts:Expression of the Syk gene was detected in all normal breast 1issues. Unlike normal breast tissue, 31 out of 40 breast cancer tissues did not show any detectable Syk mRNA expression,and there were significant differences in two groups(P <0.05).The level of Syk mRNA in the primary breast cancer 1issues was significantly lower than that in the adjacent non-cancerous breast tissues and benign fibroadenonm breast tissues( P < 0.05). Furthermore, only two breast cancer tissues in 18 pa ",tights with lymph node metastasis had the Syk mRNA expression. The Syk mRNA expression was negatively correlated to lymph nodemetastasis,HER2/neuproteinexpression(P<0.05). Conc/us/on.. The expression of the Syk gene may play an important role in suppressing growth and metastasis of breast cancer.

  18. Breast cancer onset in twins and women with bilateral disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartman, Mikael; Hall, Per; Edgren, Gustaf

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Little is known of the onset of breast cancer in high-risk populations. We investigated the risk of breast cancer in twin sisters and in the contralateral breast taking family history into consideration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed a Scandinavian population-based cohort of 2......,499 female twin pairs, in which at least one had a diagnosis of breast cancer and estimated the risk of breast cancer in the sister. Using a total of 11 million individuals in Sweden with complete family links, we identified 93,448 women with breast cancer and estimated the risk of a bilateral breast cancer....... RESULTS: The incidence of breast cancer in twin sisters of breast cancer patients was 0.64% per year and 0.42% per year in mono- and dizygotic twin sisters, respectively. In comparison, the risk of familial (affected first-degree relative) and nonfamilial bilateral breast cancer was 1.03% per year and 0...

  19. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed.

  20. GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer cells and patient breast cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Gowrishankar

    Full Text Available F18 2-Fluoro 2-deoxyglucose (FDG has been the gold standard in positron emission tomography (PET oncologic imaging since its introduction into the clinics several years ago. Seeking to complement FDG in the diagnosis of breast cancer using radio labeled fructose based analogs, we investigated the expression of the chief fructose transporter-GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells and human tissues. Our results indicate that GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer tissues as assessed by an extensive immunohistochemistry study. RT-PCR studies showed that the GLUT 5 mRNA was present at minimal amounts in breast cancer cell lines. Further knocking down the expression of GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells using RNA interference did not affect the fructose uptake in these cell lines. Taken together these results are consistent with GLUT 5 not being essential for fructose uptake in breast cancer cells and tissues.

  1. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Dunning, Alison M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Rosenberg, Efraim H.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J.; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N.; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.19, P = 8.88 x 10−16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16–1.32, P = 6.19 x 10−11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  2. Gamma-secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Patients With Advanced, Metastatic, or Recurrent Triple Negative Invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  3. 超声光散射诊断乳腺癌及其与VEGF表达的相关性研究%Diffused optical tomography with ultrasonography in diagnosis of breast cancer and correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红磊; 阙燕; 武力; 马大昌; 吴多明; 纪彩玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between synthesis diagnostic index (SDI) of diffused optical tomography(DOT) with ultrasonography(US) location detected preoperative and Vascular endothelial growth factor expression detected postoperative in breast cancer as well as their relationship with clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer. Methods: Conventional DOT with US were performed on 131 cases of breast benign mass and 142 cases of breast cancer. SDI was measured. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to estimate the optimal diagnostic threshold of breast cancer. The expression levels of VEGF was detected by SP immunohistochemistry. Analysis the correlation between SDI and the expression levels of VEGF. Analysis the correlation between SDI as well as the expression of HIF-1 α and clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer. Results: The mean value of SDI was 109.35 ± 48.03 in the breast benign mass and 190.87 ±60.33 in the breast cancer. There were significant difference between them (P<0.01). According to ROC curve analysis, the areas under ROC curve of SDI was 0.889, the SDI value greater than 141.2 was an optimal diagnostic threshold of breast cancer. The SDI was significantly higher in VEGF-positive breast cancer than in VEGF- negative breast cancer(P<0.01).The mean value of SDI and the expression levels of VEGF were significantly correlated with the tumor size, lymph node status ,clinical TNM stage and the expression levels of cerbB-2 (P<0.01), while had no correlation with the expression levels of ER and PR(P>0.05). Conclusion: As a new technology of functional imaging, DOT with US location might play a great role of early diagnosis and distinguishing benign from malignant tumor.%目的:探讨乳腺癌超声光散射断层成像综合诊断指数(SDI)与血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)的关系以及它们与乳腺癌临床病理特征的关系.方法:采用超声光散射

  4. The management of screen-detected breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muneer; Douek, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The increased use of mammography and introduction of breast screening programmes have resulted in a rise in clinically-occult breast cancer, with one-third of all breast carcinomata diagnosed being non-palpable. These types of cancer have a unique natural history and biology compared to symptomatic breast cancer and this needs to be taken into account when considering surgery and adjuvant treatment. The majority of studies demonstrating efficacy of adjuvant treatments are largely based on patients with symptomatic breast cancer. The current evidence for the role of surgery and adjuvant therapy for screen-detected breast cancer was reviewed in light of their improved prognosis, compared to symptomatic breast cancer.

  5. Targeting type Iγ phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase inhibits breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Wang, X; Xiong, X; Liu, Q; Huang, Y; Xu, Q; Hu, J; Ge, G; Ling, K

    2015-08-27

    Most deaths from breast cancer are caused by metastasis, a complex behavior of cancer cells involving migration, invasion, survival and microenvironment manipulation. Type Iγ phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPKIγ) regulates focal adhesion assembly and its phosphorylation at Y639 is critical for cell migration induced by EGF. However, the role of this lipid kinase in tumor metastasis remains unclear. Here we report that PIPKIγ is vital for breast cancer metastasis. Y639 of PIPKIγ can be phosphorylated by stimulation of EGF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), two promoting factors for breast cancer progression. Histological analysis revealed elevated Y639 phosphorylation of PIPKIγ in invasive ductal carcinoma lesions and suggested a positive correlation with tumor grade. Orthotopically transplanted PIPKIγ-depleted breast cancer cells showed substantially reduced growth and metastasis, as well as suppressed expression of multiple genes related to cell migration and microenvironment manipulation. Re-expression of wild-type PIPKIγ in PIPKIγ-depleted cells restored tumor growth and metastasis, reinforcing the importance of PIPKIγ in breast cancer progression. Y639-to-F or a kinase-dead mutant of PIPKIγ could not recover the diminished metastasis in PIPKIγ-depleted cancer cells, suggesting that Y639 phosphorylation and lipid kinase activity are both required for development of metastasis. Further analysis with in vitro assays indicated that depleting PIPKIγ inhibited cell proliferation, MMP9 secretion and cell migration and invasion, lending molecular mechanisms for the eliminated cancer progression. These results suggest that PIPKIγ, downstream of EGF and/or HGF receptor, participates in breast cancer progression from multiple aspects and deserves further studies to explore its potential as a therapeutic target.

  6. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  7. Diazepam and the risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, D W; Shapiro, S; Slone, D; Rosenberg, L; Helmrich, S P; Miettinen, O S; Stolley, P D; Levy, M; Schottenfeld, D

    1982-03-06

    The relation of breast cancer to diazepam use was evaluated in a case-control study of 1236 women with breast cancer and 728 control subjects with other malignancies. Compared to women who never used diazepam, the relative risk for women who used the drug at least 4 days per week for at least 6 months was estimated to be 0.9, with 95% confidence limits of 0.5 and 1.6. There was no apparent association for recent use, or for use in the distant past, although confidence intervals were fairly wide in these categories. The results were not explained by various potential confounding factors, including the major risk factors for breast cancer. The findings suggest that regular diazepam use does not increase the risk of breast cancer relative to other cancers.

  8. CYTOMORPHOLOGIC AL STUDY OF BREAST LESIONS WITH SONOMAMMOGRAPHIC CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and remains a major public health problem among women. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is a reliable diagnostic tool to assess the nature of palpable breast lesions . AIMS : To assess cytomorphological study of breast lesions, to classify smears into C1 - C5 and to correlate FNAC with biopsy, ultrasonography and mammography when available . MATERIALS AND METHODS : FNAC was done on 170 cases of breast lesions from September 2005 to Oct 2006 in the Department of Pathology , NSCB medical college, Jabalpur. Cases presenting with complaints of lump and pain were subjected to FNAC. Aspirations were done with 10ml syringe with a 22 gauge needle. Aspirates were smeared and air dried for MGG staining. RESULTS: Of the 170 cases malignancy accounted for 37.1%, benign lesion made up 50% and 10% constituted the gray zone (category C3 and C4.Most common benign lesion was fibroadenoma (48.8% followed by fibrocystic disease (13.3% and in malignant cases majority (80.9% ha d infiltrating duct carcinoma followed by lobular carcinoma and medullary carcinoma. Mammography and sonography was done in 74 cases prior to FNAC. Diagnostic accuracy with mammography was 81.8%. 5 malignant cases on histology were reported as suspicious o n radiology and 1 case was wrongly diagnosed as benign . CONCLUSION : Cytologic examination can confirm the presence of clinically suspected malignancies and classify the nature of atypical or suspicious lesion found on mammography. Active use of FNAC and so nomammography could cut down the number of surgical biopsies of benign breast lesions.

  9. Awareness is the first step in battle against breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, the majority of women diagnosed with breast cancer do not survive because their cancer is detected too late. Motunrayo Bello reports on the challenges of dealing with breast cancer in Nigeria.

  10. Adjuvant bisphosphonates in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadji, P; Coleman, R E; Wilson, C

    2016-01-01

    regulatory approval for either of these potential indications. This consensus paper provides a review of the evidence and offers guidance to breast cancer clinicians on the use of bisphosphonates in early breast cancer. Using the nominal group methodology for consensus, a systematic review of the literature...... significant benefits of bisphosphonates on the development of bone metastases and breast cancer mortality in post-menopausal women or those receiving ovarian suppression therapy. Therefore, the panel recommends that bisphosphonates (either intravenous zoledronic acid or oral clodronate) are considered as part...

  11. Noninvasive assessment of breast cancer risk using time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Abbate, Francesca; Villa, Anna; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2010-11-01

    Breast density is a recognized strong and independent risk factor for breast cancer. We propose the use of time-resolved transmittance spectroscopy to estimate breast tissue density and potentially provide even more direct information on breast cancer risk. Time-resolved optical mammography at seven wavelengths (635 to 1060 nm) is performed on 49 subjects. Average information on breast tissue of each subject is obtained on oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, water, lipids, and collagen content, as well as scattering amplitude and power. All parameters, except for blood volume and oxygenation, correlate with mammographic breast density, even if not to the same extent. A synthetic optical index proves to be quite effective in separating different breast density categories. Finally, the estimate of collagen content as a more direct means for the assessment of breast cancer risk is discussed.

  12. Psychological Adjustment in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Annette L; Bower, Julienne E

    2015-01-01

    Women living with a diagnosis of breast cancer constitute more than 20 % of the cancer survivor population in the United States. Research on trajectories of psychological adjustment in women recently diagnosed with breast suggests that the largest proportion of women evidences relatively low psychological distress either from the point of diagnosis or after a period of recovery. Substantial heterogeneity exists, however, and some women are at risk for lingering depression, anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence and other long-term psychological effects. Most women diagnosed with breast cancer also report a number of benefits that arise from their experience of cancer. Longitudinal studies have illuminated risk and protective factors for psychological adjustment in breast cancer survivors, which we describe in this chapter. Effective psychosocial interventions, as evidenced in randomized controlled trials, also are available for bolstering breast cancer-related adjustment. We offer directions for research to deepen the understanding of biological, psychological, and social contributors to positive adjustment in the context of breast cancer, as well as suggestions for the development of optimally efficient evidence-based psychosocial interventions for women living with the disease.

  13. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Inhibit Breast Cancer Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elizabeth G; Wailes, Elizabeth M; Levi-Polyachenko, Nicole H

    2016-02-01

    According to the American Cancer Society, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the US. Cancerous cells may have inadequate adhesions to the extracellular matrix and adjacent cells. Previous work has suggested that restoring these contacts may negate the cancer phenotype. This work aims to restore those contacts using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Varying concentrations of carboxylated MWNTs in water, with or without type I collagen, were dried to create a thin film upon which one of three breast cell lines were seeded: cancerous and metastatic MDA- MB-231 cells, cancerous but non-metastatic MCF7 cells, or non-cancerous MCF10A cells. Proliferation, adhesion, scratch and autophagy assays, western blots, and immunochemical staining were used to assess adhesion and E-cadherin expression. Breast cancer cells grown on a MWNT-collagen coated surface displayed increased adhesion and decreased migration which correlated with an increase in E-cadherin. This work suggests an alternative approach to cancer treatment by physically mediating the cells' microenvironment.

  14. Cryotherapy in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy and Nail Toxicity in Patients With Breast Cancer Who Are Receiving Paclitaxel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Pain; Peripheral Neuropathy; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  15. The normal breast epithelium of women with breast cancer displays an aberrant response to estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S A; Sachdeva, A; Naim, S; Meguid, M M; Marx, W; Simon, H; Halverson, J D; Numann, P J

    1999-10-01

    Breast epithelial response to estradiol may play an important role in breast cancer etiology. We have examined the relationship between serum estradiol and progesterone levels and normal breast epithelial expression of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, progesterone receptor (PgR), and epithelial proliferation (as reflected by the Ki-67 labeling index) in 121 women (50 newly diagnosed breast cancer cases and 71 benign breast disease controls). Simultaneous samples of grossly normal breast tissue and venous blood were obtained from women undergoing breast surgery. Serum estradiol and progesterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay; breast epithelial ER, PgR, and Ki-67 expression was measured by immunohistochemistry. Linear regression, controlled for patient age and ductal and lobular composition of the tissue, showed that the breast epithelium of control women displayed an inverse correlation between serum estradiol and ER-alpha, which was not seen in case women (P for the difference in regression slopes = 0.001). PgR expression displayed a significant positive correlation with serum estradiol in cases, but not in controls. Epithelial proliferation had no relationship to either estradiol or progesterone in both cases and controls but showed an inverse relationship with ER in controls and a direct relationship in cases (P for the difference in regression slopes = 0.066). These results suggest a dysregulation of hormonal response in the normal breast epithelium of high-risk women, with lack of regulation of ER by estradiol, increased estrogen responsiveness as reflected by PgR expression, and a dissociation of ER expression and proliferative response.

  16. A Discussion of Explanatory Discourses in Studies of Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    of statistical correlations between the incidence of breast cancer and the individuals’ social characteristics, risk behaviour or life-style factors. In this paper we document the development of the disease in Denmark, and discuss from a sociological point of view the assumptions underlying the various......Sociology of health research has often focused on quality of life and individual coping strategies of female breast cancer patients. Another important research field is the search for explanations of the disease. Here, epidemiologists and medical sociologists have concentrated on the study...

  17. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1......), and their ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... premenopausal 2:16a-OHE1 was suggestive of reduced breast cancer risk overall (study-adjusted ORIIIvsI=0.80; 95% CI: 0.49-1.32) and for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) subtype (ORIIIvsI=0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.84). Among postmenopausal women, 2:16a-OHE1 was unrelated to breast cancer risk (study-adjusted ORIIIvs...

  18. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Untch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM

  19. TOX3 mutations in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Owain Jones

    Full Text Available TOX3 maps to 16q12, a region commonly lost in breast cancers and recently implicated in the risk of developing breast cancer. However, not much is known of the role of TOX3 itself in breast cancer biology. This is the first study to determine the importance of TOX3 mutations in breast cancers. We screened TOX3 for mutations in 133 breast tumours and identified four mutations (three missense, one in-frame deletion of 30 base pairs in six primary tumours, corresponding to an overall mutation frequency of 4.5%. One potentially deleterious missense mutation in exon 3 (Leu129Phe was identified in one tumour (genomic DNA and cDNA. Whilst copy number changes of 16q12 are common in breast cancer, our data show that mutations of TOX3 are present at low frequency in tumours. Our results support that TOX3 should be further investigated to elucidate its role in breast cancer biology.

  20. Potential Biomarker of L type Amino Acid Transporter 1 in Breast Cancer Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zhongxing; Cho, Heidi T.; Williams, Larry; Zhu, Aizhi; Liang, Ke; Huang, Ke; Wu, Hui; Jiang, Chunsu; Hong, Samuel; Crowe, Ronald; Goodman, Mark M.; Shim, Hyunsuk [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta (United States)

    2011-06-15

    L type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is essential for the transport of large neutral amino acids. However, its role in breast cancer growth remains largely unknown. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether LAT1 is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. LAT1 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cell lines and tissues were analyzed. In addition, the effects of targeting LAT1 for the inhibition of breast cancer cell tumorigenesis were assessed with soft agar assay. The imaging of xenograft with 1 amino 3 [{sup 18F}]fluorocyclo butane 1 carboxylic acid ([{sup 18F}]FACBC) PET was assessed for its diagnostic biomarker potential. Normal breast tissue or low malignant cell lines expressed low levels of LAT1 mRNA and protein, while highly malignant cancer cell lines and high grade breast cancer tissue expressed high levels of LAT1. In addition, higher expression levels of LAT1 in breast cancer tissues were consistent with advanced stage breast cancer. Furtermore, the blockade of LAT1 with its inhibitor, 2 amino bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane 2 carboxylic acid (BCH), or the knockdown of LAT1 with siRNA, inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. A leucine analog, [{sup 18F}]FACBC, has been demonstrated to be an excellent PET tracer for the non invasive imaging og malignant breast cancer using an orthotopic animal model. The overexpression of LAT1 is required for the progression of breast cancer. LAT1 represents a potential biomarker for therapy and diagnosis of breast cancer. [{sup 18F}]FACBC that correlates with LAT1 function is a potential PET tracer for malignant breast tumor imaging.

  1. [Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer. Experience of the Rome Breast Cancer Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Lucio; Drago, Stefano; Vitelli, Carlo Eugenio; Santoni, Marcello; Gucciardo, Giacomo; Cabassi, Alessandro; Farina, Massimo; La Pinta, Massimo; Remedi, Massimiliano; Pagano, Giovanni; Silipod, Teresa; Terribile, Daniela; Stagnitto, Daniela; Grassi, Giovanni Battista

    2006-01-01

    We report our multicentric experience with sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer patients. Patients with breast cancer operated on from January 1999 to March 2005 in 6 different institutions in the Rome area were retrospectively reviewed. All patients gave written informed consent. 1440 consecutive patients were analysed, with a median age of 59 years (range: 33-81) and a median tumour diameter of 1.3 cm (range: 0.1-5). Patients underwent lymphatic mapping with Tc99 nanocolloid (N = 701; 49%), with Evans Blue (N = 70; 5%), or with a combined injection (N = 669, 46%). The majority of patients were mapped with an intradermal or subdermal injection (N = 1193; 84%), while an intraparenchymal or peritumoral injection was used in 41 (3%) and 206 patients (13%), respectively. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified in 1374/1440 cases (95.4%), and 2075 sentinel lymph nodes were analysed (average 1.5/patient). A total of 9305 additional non-sentinel lymph-nodes were removed (median 6/patient). Correlations between sentinel lymph nodes and final lymph node status were found in 1355/1374 cases (98.6%). There were 19 false-negative cases (5%). Lymph node metastases were diagnosed in 325 patients (24%). In this group, micrometastases (< 2 mm in diameter) were diagnosed in 103 cases (7.6%). Additionally, isolated tumour cells were reported in 61 patients (4,5%). In positive cases, additional metastases in non-sentinel lymph-nodes were identified in 117/325 cases after axillary dissection (36%). Axillary dissection was avoided in 745/1440 patients (52%). At a median follow-up of 36 months, only 1 axillary recurrence has been reported. Sentinel lymph node biopsy improves staging in women with breast cancer because it is accurate and reproducible, and allows detection of micrometastases and isolated tumour cells that would otherwise be missed. Our multicentric study confirms that this is the preferred axillary staging procedure in women with breast cancer.

  2. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average.

  3. Correlation of expression of ER,PR and c-erbB-2 with ultrasonographic features in invasive ductal cancer of breast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship of the expression level of estrogen receptor(ER),progesterone receptor(PR)and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2(HER-2,c-erbB-2)of breast invasive ductal carcinoma(IDC)with ultrasonographic characteristics.Methods Totally 104 patients with IDCs confirmed pathologically were involved in this study.ER,PR and c-erbB-2 expression in the IDC specimens was determined by immunohistochemical staining technique.The correlation between the ultrasonographic features and the ...

  4. Brachytherapy in breast cancer: an effective alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Skowronek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast conserving surgery (BCS with following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT of the conserved breast has become widely accepted in the last decades for the treatment of early invasive breast cancer. The standard technique of EBRT after BCS is to treat the whole breast up to a total dose of 42.5 to 50 Gy. An additional dose is given to treated volume as a boost to a portion of the breast. In the early stage of breast cancer, research has shown that the area requiring radiation treatment to prevent the cancer from local recurrence is the breast tissue that surrounds the area where the initial cancer was removed. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI is an approach that treats only the lumpectomy bed plus a 1-2 cm margin rather than the whole breast and as a result allows accelerated delivery of the radiation dose in four to five days. There has been a growing interest for APBI and various approaches have been developed under phase I-III clinical studies; these include multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy, balloon catheter brachytherapy, conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-EBRT and intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT. Balloon-based brachytherapy approaches include MammoSite, Axxent electronic brachytherapy, Contura, hybrid brachytherapy devices. Another indication for breast brachytherapy is reirradiation of local recurrence after mastectomy. Published results of brachytherapy are very promising. We discuss the current status, indications, and technical aspects of breast cancer brachytherapy.

  5. Interdisciplinary Research Training in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    University. An Internet-Based Low- Literacy Cancer Communication Intervention. $1,500, funded. * 2004- Pfizer Clear Health Communication Program. An...Internet-Based Low- Literacy Cancer Communication Intervention. $195,000, not funded. 0 2004- DOD Breast Cancer Research Program, Multidisciplinary...of Connecticut and Yale University. While providing didactic experience in advanced research, methodology, it allows the candidate to have sustained

  6. Innovative Strategies for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0223 TITLE: Innovative Strategies for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy ...studies (2). A promising approach in cancer treatment is adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells to redirect...multiple tissues. DISCUSSION Adoptive immunotherapy is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer , and observations from preclinical and

  7. Stat3 mediates expression of autotaxin in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeen Azare

    Full Text Available We determined that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 is tyrosine phosphorylated in 37% of primary breast tumors and 63% of paired metastatic axillary lymph nodes. Examination of the distribution of tyrosine phosphorylated (pStat3 in primary tumors revealed heterogenous expression within the tumor with the highest levels found in cells on the edge of tumors with relatively lower levels in the central portion of tumors. In order to determine Stat3 target genes that may be involved in migration and metastasis, we identified those genes that were differentially expressed in primary breast cancer samples as a function of pStat3 levels. In addition to known Stat3 transcriptional targets (Twist, Snail, Tenascin-C and IL-8, we identified ENPP2 as a novel Stat3 regulated gene, which encodes autotaxin (ATX, a secreted lysophospholipase which mediates mammary tumorigenesis and cancer cell migration. A positive correlation between nuclear pStat3 and ATX was determined by immunohistochemical analysis of primary breast cancer samples and matched axillary lymph nodes and in several breast cancer derived cell lines. Inhibition of pStat3 or reducing Stat3 expression led to a decrease in ATX levels and cell migration. An association between Stat3 and the ATX promoter, which contains a number of putative Stat3 binding sites, was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation. These observations suggest that activated Stat3 may regulate the migration of breast cancer cells through the regulation of ATX.

  8. Causative relationship between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer in various regions of Saudi Arabia: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Jamal M; Al-Saif, Ahmad M; Al-Karrawi, Mohammed A; Al-Sagair, Othman A

    2011-01-01

    The unwarranted connection between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer has gained new ground in recent years. Breast cancer in Saudi females accounts for approximately 21% of all cancers and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Saudi females is also 21.5%. DM is diagnosed in the age group of 30+ years with possible exposure to predisposing factors like hyperinsulinemia and obesity at younger age. Further, 12% of the breast cancer cases are diagnosed in the young females aged 20-34 years. Despite the readily available access to healthcare facilities in the Kingdom, a large number of diabetics, approximately 27.9%, were unaware of having diabetes mellitus. This subpopulation is quite susceptible of developing breast cancer at later age. This review discusses common etiological and predisposing factors for breast cancer and diabetes, regional distribution and possible correlation of diabetes and cancer in Saudi Arabia.

  9. Urban-rural disparity of breast cancer and socioeconomic risk factors in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Fei

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The primary aim of this work is the study of breast cancer disparity among Chinese women in urban vs. rural regions and its associations with socioeconomic factors. Data on breast cancer incidence were obtained from the Chinese cancer registry annual report (2005-2009. The ten socioeconomic factors considered in this study were obtained from the national population 2000 census and the Chinese city/county statistical yearbooks. Student's T test was used to assess disparities of female breast cancer and socioeconomic factors in urban vs. rural regions. Pearson correlation and ordinary least squares (OLS models were employed to analyze the relationships between socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence. It was found that the breast cancer incidence was significantly higher in urban than in rural regions. Moreover, in urban regions, breast cancer incidence remained relatively stable, whereas in rural regions it displayed an annual percentage change (APC of 8.55. Among the various socioeconomic factors considered, breast cancer incidence exhibited higher positive correlations with population density, percentage of non-agriculture population, and second industry output. On the other hand, the incidence was negatively correlated with the percentage of population employed in primary industry. Overall, it was observed that higher socioeconomic status would lead to a higher breast cancer incidence in China. When studying breast cancer etiology, special attention should be paid to environmental pollutants, especially endocrine disruptors produced during industrial activities. Lastly, the present work's findings strongly recommend giving high priority to the development of a systematic nationwide breast cancer screening program for women in China; with sufficient participation, mammography screening can considerably reduce mortality among women.

  10. Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JoEllen WELSH

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic data have demonstrated that breast cancer incidence is inversely correlated with indices of vitamin D status, including ultraviolet exposure, which enhances epidermal vitamin D synthesis. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is ex-pressed in mammary epithelial cells, suggesting that vitamin D may directly influ-ence sensitivity of the gland to transformation. Consistent with this concept, in vitro studies have demonstrated that the VDR ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), exerts negative growth regulatory effects on mammary epithelial ceils that contribute to maintenance of the differentiated phenotype. Furthermore, deletion of the VDR gene in mice alters the balance between proliferation and apoptosis in the mammary gland, which ultimately enhances its susceptibility to carcinogenesis.In addition, dietary supplementation with vitamin D, or chronic treatment with synthetic VDR agonists, reduces the incidence of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in rodents. Collectively, these observations have reinforced the need to further define the human requirement for vitamin D and the molecular actions of the VDR in relation to prevention of breast cancer.

  11. Correlation between clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography with histopathological exam in the determination of tumor size in breast cancer; Correlacao entre o exame clinico, a mamografia e a ultra-sonografia com o exame anatomopatologico na determinacao do tamanho tumoral no cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Fernanda Monteiro de Paula; Rezende, Cezar Alencar de Lima [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ginecologia e Obstetricia]. E-mail: fersiqueira75@yahoo.com.br; Barra, Alexandre de Almeida [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: to evaluate which method is the best to determine pre-surgically the size of breast cancer: clinical examination, mammography or ultrasonography, using as a reference the anatomopathological exam. Methods: this study has included 184 patients with palpable-or-not breast lesions, detected by mammography and ultrasonography, that were submitted to surgical resection of the tumor, with histopathological diagnosis of breast cancer. The same examiner evaluated clinically the largest tumoral diameter, through clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography, and the measurements obtained by each method were correlated with the maximum diameter obtained by the anatomopathological exam. The comparative analysis has been done by Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). Results: Pearson's correlation coefficient between the anatomopathological and the clinical exams was 0.8; between the anatomopathological exam and the mammography, 0.7; and between anatomopathological exam and ultrasonography 0.7 (p<0.05). Pearson's correlation coefficients among the methods evaluated were also calculated and r=0.7 was obtained between clinical exam and mammography, r=0.8 between clinical examination and ultrasonography, and r=0.8 between mammography and ultrasonography (p<0.05). Conclusions: clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography have presented high correlation with the anatomopathological measures, besides high correlations among themselves, what seems to show that they may be used as equivalent methods in the pre-surgical evaluation of the breast tumoral size. Nevertheless, due to specific limitations of each method, clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography should be seen as complementary to each other, in order to obtain a more accurate measurement of the breast cancer tumor.(author)

  12. MRI evaluation of the contralateral breast in patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Taneja; Amarnath Jena; Syed. Mohd. Shuaib Zaidi; Anuj Khurana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Contralateral breast cancer can be synchronous and/or metachronous in patients with cancer of one breast. Detection of a synchronous breast cancer may affect patient management. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast (DCE-MRI) is a sensitive technique for detecting contralateral lesions occult on the other imaging modalities in women already diagnosed with cancer of one breast. Aim: The aim was to assess the incidence of mammographically occult synchronous contralateral bre...

  13. [Special considerations in breast cancer treatment of an augmented breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Tóth, László; Sávolt, Akos; Kunos, Csaba; Pesthy, Pál; Bartal, Alexandra; Szabó, Eva; Kásler, Miklós

    2011-10-16

    Breast augmentation surgery involving the use of implants has been one of the most popular plastic surgical procedures for decades. As the multi-million female population who received breast implants ages, the risk of cancer is increasing rapidly, therefore the incidence of malignant disease in association with breast implants will increase as well. Although there is no relationship between tumor development and implants, these cases require special considerations in diagnostics, therapy and follow-up methods. Appropriate multidisciplinary treatment of tumors in augmented breasts corresponding with modern oncoplastic principles can only be accomplished based on adequate oncological, breast and plastic surgical knowledge. Supposing a possible increase of this condition in Hungary, too, authors provide a wide review of the literature on the special oncological and esthetic considerations, for the first time in Hungarian language.

  14. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieli-Conwright CM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength, negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass, increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, exercise, physical well-being

  15. MODERN VIEWS ON BILATERAL BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented modern literature data on the features of the pathogenesis, course, clinical and morphological expression and tumor characteristics, parameters and nodal metastasis of hematogenous bilateral breast cancer. Highlight the results of domestic and foreign studies in recent years to determine the prognostic factors and recurrence of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer. It was revealed that the frequency of bilateral breast tumor lesions varies widely, ranging from 0.1 to 20%, with metachronous tumors recorded significantly higher (69.6% than the synchronous (22.7%. The probability of occurrence of metachronous breast cancer is higher in women with a family history, as well as if they have a gene mutation BRCA-1. Found that the most common histological type of breast tumor with bilateral lesions is invasive ductal. However, the incidence of invasive lobular cancer and non-invasive lobular cancer is slightly higher among synchronous bilateral cancer compared with unilateral disease. Studies have shown that in a double-sided synchronous breast cancer tumor, as a rule, has a lower degree of differentiation, and the higher the expression level of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Relevance of the issue because the identification of patterns in the study of lymphatic and hematogenous features bilateral metastasis of mammary tumors provides a basis for speculation about the differences in the progression of neoplastic disease in these groups and is a cause for further detailed research in this area to identify and evaluate the prognosis and also the choice of tactics of such patients.

  16. Breast cancer and serum organochlorine residues

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier, Corinne; Albert, Adelin; Herman, Philippe; Hamoir, Etienne; Gaspard, Ulysse; Meurisse, Michel; Plomteux, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Background: Controversy still exists about the breast carcinogenic properties in humans of environmental xenoestrogens (organochlorines), justifying new investigations. Aims: To compare the blood levels of total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in samples collected at the time of breast cancer discovery, in order to avoid the potential consequences of body weight change ( after chemotherapy or radiotherapy) on the pesticide residue levels. Methods: Blood level...

  17. Ultrasound Elastography in Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, J.; Ewertsen, C; Sletting, S

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an established method for characterization of focal lesions in the breast. Different techniques and analyses of the images may be used for the characterization. This article addresses the use of ultrasound elastography in breast cancer diagnosis. In the first part...

  18. [Treatment of elderly patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaschburg, B.; Pedersen, A.; Tuxen, M.K.;

    2008-01-01

    The latest investigations have been searched in order to present new guidelines for the treatment of elderly patients with primary breast cancer. It is concluded that breast-conserving surgery should be offered as well as the sentinel node technique. Axillary lymph node dissection is not necessary...

  19. Genotyping and Phenotyping of Male Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornegoor, R.

    2012-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease and most of the knowledge has been extrapolated from females, although these entities are likely different. A better understanding of male breast carcinogenesis is crucial for developing novel targets suitable for personalized treatment. A major problem in studyi

  20. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y.; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C.

    2014-01-01

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort.

  1. Expression profiling predicts outcome in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernards, R.A.; Veer, L.J. van ’t; Dai, H.; Vijver, M.J. van de; He, Y.D.; Hart, A.A.M.; Friend, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Gruvberger et al. postulate, in their commentary published in this issue of Breast Cancer Research, that our “prognostic gene set may not be broadly applicable to other breast tumor cohorts”, and they suggest that “it may be important to define prognostic expression profiles separately in estrogen r

  2. Proteomic maps of breast cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyanova, Stefka; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kronqvist, Pauliina

    2016-01-01

    oestrogen receptor positive (luminal), Her2 positive and triple negative breast tumours and reached a quantitative depth of >10,000 proteins. These proteomic profiles identified functional differences between breast cancer subtypes, related to energy metabolism, cell growth, mRNA translation and cell...

  3. Breast cancer radiotherapy: controversies and prospectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-ming; WANG Yong-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Despite consensus on breast cancer radiotherapy, there are still some controversies over post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), appropriate sequence of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment, and radiotherapy after preoperative systemic therapy.

  4. Biology of breast cancer during pregnancy using genomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Hatem A; Brohée, Sylvain; Peccatori, Fedro A; Desmedt, Christine; Loi, Sherene; Lambrechts, Diether; Dell'Orto, Patrizia; Majjaj, Samira; Jose, Vinu; Rotmensz, Nicole; Ignatiadis, Michail; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Piccart, Martine; Viale, Giuseppe; Sotiriou, Christos

    2014-08-01

    Breast cancer during pregnancy is rare and is associated with relatively poor prognosis. No information is available on its biological features at the genomic level. Using a dataset of 54 pregnant and 113 non-pregnant breast cancer patients, we evaluated the pattern of hot spot somatic mutations and did transcriptomic profiling using Sequenom and Affymetrix respectively. We performed gene set enrichment analysis to evaluate the pathways associated with diagnosis during pregnancy. We also evaluated the expression of selected cancer-related genes in pregnant and non-pregnant patients and correlated the results with changes occurring in the normal breast using a pregnant murine model. We finally investigated aberrations associated with disease-free survival (DFS). No significant differences in mutations were observed. Of the total number of patients, 18.6% of pregnant and 23% of non-pregnant patients had a PIK3CA mutation. Around 30% of tumors were basal, with no differences in the distribution of breast cancer molecular subtypes between pregnant and non-pregnant patients. Two pathways were enriched in tumors diagnosed during pregnancy: the G protein-coupled receptor pathway and the serotonin receptor pathway (FDR pregnancy had higher expression of PD1 (PDCD1; P=0.015), PDL1 (CD274; P=0.014), and gene sets related to SRC (P=0.004), IGF1 (P=0.032), and β-catenin (P=0.019). Their expression increased almost linearly throughout gestation when evaluated on the normal breast using a pregnant mouse model underscoring the potential effect of the breast microenvironment on tumor phenotype. No genes were associated with DFS in a multivariate model, which could be due to low statistical power. Diagnosis during pregnancy impacts the breast cancer transcriptome including potential cancer targets.

  5. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening.

  6. The myth about contraceptives and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, J

    1993-03-18

    Science and modern medicine accord us many advantages, e.g., contraceptive drugs, but many people still do not use them. Contraceptive drugs include oral contraceptives and injectables. OCs are very effective and are associated with minor side effects (e.g., mood changes, breast tenderness, nausea, and changes in weight, mild headache, and spotting between periods), perhaps explaining why they are one of the most often used contraceptive in essentially every country. Women who smoke; are 35 years old; or either have or have a family history of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and use OCs are at higher risk of a cardiovascular episode. On the other hand, OCs protect against ovarian and endometrial cancers. Research does not yet confirm or disprove their effect on breast cancer development. OCs appear not to be linked to breast cancer through age 59. Yet, studies of women 45 years old suggest that OCs increases the breast cancer risk in these women who had their first menses before age 13 and used OCs for a long time before their first pregnancy. OCs may facilitate growth of breast tumors that other causes activated, and therefore, do not likely increase the overall risk. Researchers recognize the death of knowledge about breast cancer development, so they call for more research, including basic molecular, cellular, and biochemical studies. In Nigeria, breast cancer is rare, while deaths due to pregnancy and childbirth are common, indicating that OC use can prevent many female deaths. Prolonged breast feeding; later age at first menses; earlier age at menopause; earlier age at first full-term pregnancy larger families; low fat, high fiber diets; and thinness, all of which are common in developing countries, have a protective effect against breast cancer. Further, women in developing countries begin OC use later than women in developed countries.

  7. Psychiatric Problems in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munevver Tunel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a physical disorder with concurrent mental and social components. During cancer, the feelings of fear, hopelessness, guilt, helplessness, abandonment perceived as a crisis leading to destruction in the suffering person. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients is approximately 50% and most of disorders are related with the occurrence of cancer and cancer treatment. Majority of patients present with major depression, adjustment disorder, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, suicidial ideation, and delirium. Treatment of psychiatric disorders and cancer therapy should be conducted along with special consideration of drug interactions. This article reviews the adaptation process experienced by individuals during diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, it psychological effects, resulting psychiatric comorbidites and their treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 189-219

  8. Hypoxic conditions induce a cancer-like phenotype in human breast epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaapil, Marica; Helczynska, Karolina; Villadsen, René

    2012-01-01

    Solid tumors are less oxygenated than their tissue of origin. Low intra-tumor oxygen levels are associated with worse outcome, increased metastatic potential and immature phenotype in breast cancer. We have reported that tumor hypoxia correlates to low differentiation status in breast cancer. Less...... is known about effects of hypoxia on non-malignant cells. Here we address whether hypoxia influences the differentiation stage of non-malignant breast epithelial cells and potentially have bearing on early stages of tumorigenesis....

  9. 血清乳腺珠蛋白与乳腺癌的相关性及临床意义探讨%Investigation on the correlation and clinical significance of serum mammaglobin and breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超; 康炜; 李建华; 尤涛; 王永锋

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlations of serum human mammaglobin(hMAM)levels with the early diagnosis of breast cancer and cancer micro-metastasis and their clinical significance.Methods By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),the serum hMAM levels of 68 patients with breast cancer,40 patients with other cancers (1 0 patients with prostate cancer,1 0 patients with gastric cancer,1 0 patients with ovarian cancer and 1 0 patients with colorectal cancer),35 patients with benign breast disease and 40 healthy females (control group)were determined and analyzed comparatively.The 68 patients with breast cancer were classified according to TNM stage,whether existed the estrogen receptor (ER)expression,axillary lymph node metastasis and menopause.The cut-off value of serum hMAMin patients with breast cancer was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC)curve.Results The area under ROC curve of serum hMAM was 0.825,and the reliability in the diagnosis of breast cancer was 82.5% [95%confidence interval (CI):72.6%-92.4%].When the cut-off value for hMAM was 8.43 ng/mL,the sensitivity and specificity were 76.5% and 82.9%,respectively.Serum hMAM levels and positive rate in breast cancer group were significantly higher than those in benign breast disease group,other cancer group and control group (P0.05).The positive rates of serum hMAM ofⅢ and Ⅳ breast cancer patients (55% and 75%)were significantly higher than those ofⅠand Ⅱpatients (25%and 40%,P0.05). The positive rate of serum hMAM in breast cancer patients with axillary lymph node metastasis (88%)was significantly higher than those without metastasis (30%,P0.05).Regardless of whether existed ER expression,proto-oncogene C-erb-2 expression and menopause,serum hMAM levels and positive rate of patients with breast cancer had no difference (P>0.05 ).Conclusions The hMAM expression is related with the clinical stage and axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer.The determination of serum h

  10. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Jonathan [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Small, William [Loyola Univ. Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States). Stritch School of Medicine, Cardianl Bernardin Cancer Center; Woloschak, Gayle E. (ed.) [Northwestern Univ. Feinberg, Chicago, IL (United States). School of Medicine

    2015-10-01

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  11. Breast cancer in women using digoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggar, Robert J; Andersen, Louise Elisabeth; Kroman, Niels

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Digoxin use is associated with increased incidence of breast and uterus cancers. We postulated that digoxin use might affect tumor characteristics and increase relapse risk in women with breast cancer. METHODS: Incident breast cancer cases in Danish women (n = 49,312; 1995 to 2008......) were identified. Analyses were conducted in women 20 to 74 years old. Relapse hazard ratios (HR) were compared in women using and not using digoxin, adjusting for age, calendar period, protocol, tumor size, nodal involvement, histology grade, estrogen-receptor (ER) status, and anti-estrogen therapy...... in Cox regression models. RESULTS: At diagnosis, tumors in digoxin users were more likely ER+ (85.4% vs. 78.6%: P = 0.002) and have grade 1 ductal histology (37.2% vs. 25.7%; P = 0.004), compared to non-users. 45 relapses occurred in women already using digoxin at breast cancer diagnosis (1,487 person...

  12. [Postoperative inconveniences after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartner, R.; Callesen, T.; Kroman, N.

    2008-01-01

    The most common postoperative inconveniences after breast cancer surgery are pain, nausea and vomiting, which contribute to reduced patient satisfaction, prolonged hospital stays and delayed courses of rehabilitation. This article summarizes the literature regarding available procedure...

  13. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    of women offered screening compared to a population of women not offered screening for breast cancer. METHODS: One thousand women, aged 50-69 years, were randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System to receive part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1......): the sample consisted of 500 women living in a geographical area where screening mammography had been offered for more than 10 years and 500 women living in an area where the public health authorities had never invited women to breast cancer screening. RESULTS: A total of 759 women returned the questionnaire....... Those living in areas where screening was not offered reported more negative psychosocial aspects compared to women living in areas where screening was offered. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that women tend to perceive breast cancer screening as a reassuring preventive initiative. Alternatively...

  14. European Breast Cancer Service Screening Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast...... seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer...... cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated...

  15. Bringing Breast Cancer Technologies to Market | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR research is recognized in novel competition to encourage the commercialization of breast cancer inventions. Editor’s note: This article was originally published in CCR Connections (Volume 8, No. 1). The Breast Cancer Startup Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition, and was one of three finalists recognized by HHS Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell and Deputy Secretary Bill Corr. For more information on the Challenge, see previous article on the Poster website. Start-up companies are instrumental in bringing the fruits of scientific research to market. Recognizing an opportunity to bring entrepreneurial minds to bear on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, the Avon Foundation for Women partnered with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation to launch the Breast Cancer Startup Challenge.

  16. Dilemma of Pregnant Ladies with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainur Rashid Z

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gestational breast cancer (GBC or pregnancyassociatedbreast cancer was defined as breast cancerdiagnosed during pregnancy and within 1 year ofdelivery. Breast cancer is the second commonest cancerafter cervical seen in pregnancy and lactation.Nevertheless, the incidence is low and accounts forapproximately 1 in 3000 of pregnancies. A delay indiagnosis is common and 70% to 89% of patients withoperable primary lesions already have positive axillarylymph nodes. Breast cancer identified during pregnancycan be extremely distressing for the mother despite ithas similar course of disease and prognosis seen in nonpregnantwomen of the same age and stage of disease.Diagnostic and treatment options should be carefullydecided to prevent further harm to the mother or anypotential risk to the developing fetus.

  17. ALND for Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from a randomized clinical trial that compared axillary lymph node dissection versus no axillary lymph node dissection in women with breast cancer and only micrometastases in their sentinel lymph nodes.

  18. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Estrogen-alone hormone therapy does not increase the risk ...

  19. Developing phytoestrogens for breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mandy M; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jeffrey

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women, and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Chemoprevention using phytoestrogens (PEs) for breast cancer may be a valid strategy. PEs are phytochemicals with estrogen-like structures and can be classified into four types: isoflavones, lignans, stilbenes and coumestans. They are widely distributed in diet and herbs and have shown anti-cancer activity via mechanisms including estrogen receptor modulation, aromatase inhibition, and anti-angiogenesis. Genistein, daidzein and resveratrol are some of the most studied PE examples. Quality control in product manufacturing and clinical study design is a critical issue in developing them as clinically effective chemopreventive agents for breast cancer.

  20. Seroma formation after surgery for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Mandana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seroma formation is the most frequent postoperative complication after breast cancer surgery. We carried out a study to investigate the effect of various demographic, clinical and therapeutic variables on seroma formation. Patients and methods A retrospective cross sectional study of patients who underwent surgical therapy for breast cancer with either modified radical mastectomy (MRM or breast preservation (BP was carried out. The demographic data and clinical information were extracted from case records. Seroma formation was studied in relation to age, type of surgery, tumor size, nodal involvement, preoperative chemotherapy, surgical instrument (electrocautery or scalpel, use of pressure garment, and duration of drainage. The multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate odds ratios. Results A total of 158 patients with breast cancer were studied. The mean age of the patients was 46.3 years (SD ± 11.9. Seventy-three percent underwent modified radical mastectomy and the remaining 27% received breast preservation surgery. Seroma occurred in 35% of patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis an association of postoperative seroma formation was noted with modified radical mastectomy (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.01–7.90, P = 0.04. No other factor studied was found to significantly effect the seroma formation after breast cancer surgery. Conclusion The findings suggest that the type of surgery is a predicting factor for seroma formation in breast cancer patients.