Sample records for breast cancer combination

  1. Combined doxorubicin and paclitaxel in advanced breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, J; Boesgaard, M; Paaske, T


    BACKGROUND: Paclitaxel has shown activity in metastatic breast cancer, including anthracycline-resistant breast cancer. The efficacy, toxicity and optimal scheduling of the combination of the two drugs needs to be defined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty women with advanced breast cancer who had...

  2. Precision medicine and personalized breast cancer: combination pertuzumab therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds K


    Full Text Available Kerry Reynolds, Sasmit Sarangi, Aditya Bardia, Don S Dizon Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Trastuzumab (Herceptin, a monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2 (HER2, is the poster child for antibody-based targeted therapy in breast cancer. Pertuzumab, another humanized monoclonal antibody, binds to a different domain of HER2 and prevents the formation of HER2:HER3 dimers, which is the most potent heterodimer in the HER family. The combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab has synergistic activity, and is associated with improved clinical outcomes. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy originally as first-line therapy for metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer in 2012, and more recently as neoadjuvant therapy for localized disease in 2013. Pertuzumab is the first neoadjuvant drug to receive accelerated approval by the FDA based on pathological complete response as the primary end point. In this article, we review the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety, and current role of pertuzumab in the management of breast cancer, as well as ongoing clinical trials and future directions regarding the utility of pertuzumab as a personalized therapeutic option for HER2-positive breast cancer. In the coming years, we anticipate increased utilization of neoadjuvant trials for drug development, biomarker discovery, and validation, and envision conduct of personalized breast cancer clinics in which therapies will be routinely selected based on genetic alterations in the tumor. Regardless of the targeted therapy combinations employed based on tumor genomic profile, trastuzumab and pertuzumab will likely continue to form the backbone of the personalized regimen for HER2-positive breast cancer. Keywords: pertuzumab, HER2 breast cancer, personalized therapy

  3. Combining gene signatures improves prediction of breast cancer survival.

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    Xi Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several gene sets for prediction of breast cancer survival have been derived from whole-genome mRNA expression profiles. Here, we develop a statistical framework to explore whether combination of the information from such sets may improve prediction of recurrence and breast cancer specific death in early-stage breast cancers. Microarray data from two clinically similar cohorts of breast cancer patients are used as training (n = 123 and test set (n = 81, respectively. Gene sets from eleven previously published gene signatures are included in the study. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the relationship between breast cancer survival and gene expression on a particular gene set, a Cox proportional hazards model is applied using partial likelihood regression with an L2 penalty to avoid overfitting and using cross-validation to determine the penalty weight. The fitted models are applied to an independent test set to obtain a predicted risk for each individual and each gene set. Hierarchical clustering of the test individuals on the basis of the vector of predicted risks results in two clusters with distinct clinical characteristics in terms of the distribution of molecular subtypes, ER, PR status, TP53 mutation status and histological grade category, and associated with significantly different survival probabilities (recurrence: p = 0.005; breast cancer death: p = 0.014. Finally, principal components analysis of the gene signatures is used to derive combined predictors used to fit a new Cox model. This model classifies test individuals into two risk groups with distinct survival characteristics (recurrence: p = 0.003; breast cancer death: p = 0.001. The latter classifier outperforms all the individual gene signatures, as well as Cox models based on traditional clinical parameters and the Adjuvant! Online for survival prediction. CONCLUSION: Combining the predictive strength of multiple gene signatures improves

  4. Combination Drug Delivery Approaches in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun H. Lee


    Full Text Available Disseminated metastatic breast cancer needs aggressive treatment due to its reduced response to anticancer treatment and hence low survival and quality of life. Although in theory a combination drug therapy has advantages over single-agent therapy, no appreciable survival enhancement is generally reported whereas increased toxicity is frequently seen in combination treatment especially in chemotherapy. Currently used combination treatments in metastatic breast cancer will be discussed with their challenges leading to the introduction of novel combination anticancer drug delivery systems that aim to overcome these challenges. Widely studied drug delivery systems such as liposomes, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, and water-soluble polymers can concurrently carry multiple anticancer drugs in one platform. These carriers can provide improved target specificity achieved by passive and/or active targeting mechanisms.

  5. Combination Immunotherapy for the Treatment of High-Risk HER2-Positive Breast Cancer (United States)


    have withdrawn. Blood samples for immunologic monitoring are being collected in support of specific aims 2 and 3. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer ...inflammatory breast cancer (MD Anderson Cancer Center Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Program Seed Grant)  New active grant o Immunologic ...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0109 TITLE: Combination Immunotherapy for the Treatment of High-Risk HER2-Positive Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL

  6. Combination treatment of tamoxifen with risperidone in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lan Yeh

    Full Text Available Tamoxifen has long been used and still is the most commonly used endocrine therapy for treatment of both early and advanced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in pre- and post-menopause women. Tamoxifen exerts its cytotoxic effect primarily through cytostasis which is associated with the accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Apoptotic activity can also be exerted by tamoxifen which involves cleavage of caspase 9, caspase 7, caspase 3, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. Down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak have also been observed. In addition, stress response protein of GRP 94 and GRP 78 have also been induced by tamoxifen in our study. However, side effects occur during tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer patients. Researching into combination regimen of tamoxifen and drug(s that relieves tamoxifen-induced hot flushes is important, because drug interactions may decrease tamoxifen efficacy. Risperidone has been shown to be effective in reducing or eliminating hot flushes on women with hormonal variations. In this present study, we demonstrated that combination of tamoxifen with risperidone did not interfered tamoxifen-induced cytotoxic effects in both in vitro and in vivo models, while fluoxetine abrogated the effects of tamoxifen. This is the first paper suggesting the possibility of combination treatment of tamoxifen with risperidone in breast cancer patients, providing a conceivable resolution of tamoxifen-induced side effects without interfering the efficacy of tamoxifen against breast cancer.

  7. Mammography combined with breast dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of early breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakun He; Guohui Xu; Jin Ren; Bin Feng; Xiaolei Dong; Hao Lu; Changjiu He


    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the application of mammography combined with breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Methods Mammography and DCE-MRI were performed for 120 patients with breast cancer (malignant, 102; benign; 18). Results The sensitivity of mammography for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 66.67%, specificity was 77.78%, and accuracy was 68.33%. The sensitivity of MRI for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 94.12%, specificity was 88.89%, and accuracy was 93.33%. However, the sensitivity of mammography combined with DCE-MRI volume imaging with enhanced water signal (VIEWS) scanning for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 97.06%, specificity was 94.44%, and accuracy was 96.67%. Conclusion Mammography combined with DCE-MRI increased the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of diagnosing early breast cancer.

  8. Improving breast cancer outcome prediction by combining multiple data sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vliet, M.H.


    Cancer has recently become the number one cause of death in The Netherlands. Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer among females, with a lifetime risk of 12.8% (i.e. the 1 in 8 rule). As a result, more and more research is devoted to getting a better insight into cancer, and to further

  9. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer (United States)


    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  10. Combination Therapy Shows Promise for Treating Advanced Breast Cancer (United States)

    Adding the drug everolimus (Afinitor®) to exemestane helped postmenopausal women whose advanced breast cancer had stopped responding to hormonal therapy live about 4 months longer without the disease progressing than women who received exemestane alone.

  11. What Is Breast Cancer? (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  12. A Study of Neoadjuvant Paclitaxel in Combination With Bavituximab in Early- Stage Triple- Negative Breast Cancer (United States)


    Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms; Triple-Negative Breast Neoplasm; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Neoplasms; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

  13. Breast Cancer Overview (United States)

    ... Cancer > Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  14. Breast Cancer (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  15. Surgery for Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... Cancer During Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment ... removed (breast reconstruction) Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main ...

  16. Survey of the Role of Combined Screening Method with Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gharekhanloo


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and in recent years it is seen in younger ages. Because of dense breast tissue in these ages, the mammography sensitivity for breast cancer detection is reduced, so high quality ultrasonography (US as a combined screening method is effective. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the mammographic finding with the positive finding of ultrasonogarphy.Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study 300 cases were referred to the Mehr Medical Imaging Center for breast US and sonography of breast and axilla was performed. Mammography before or after US was also performed by another radiologist. All suspicious patients were referred for biopsy or surgery.Results: Mean age of patients was 46 y/o with the range of 32-76 y/o. Pathologic specimens approved malignancy in 21 patients and abscess in 1 patient. The most frequent symptom was palpable breast mass with mean diameter of 29 mm. Mean diameter of lymph nodes was 17.3 mm. Positive mammographic findings were seen in 85.7%and negative findings or only an asymmetric density in 14.3%.Conclusion: According to dense breast tissue especially in young women sensitivity of single screening by mammography is reduced in breast cancer detection, so combined screening with sonography and mammography especially in younger women improves the detection rate of breast carcinoma. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;17(4:57-60

  17. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer) (United States)


    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  18. Combination therapy targeting both cancer stem-like cells and bulk tumor cells for improved efficacy of breast cancer treatment. (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Narayanaswamy, Radhika; Ren, Huilan; Torchilin, Vladimir P


    Many types of tumors are organized in a hierarchy of heterogeneous cell populations. The cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) hypothesis suggests that tumor development and metastasis are driven by a minority population of cells, which are responsible for tumor initiation, growth and recurrences. The inability to efficiently eliminate CSCs during chemotherapy, together with CSCs being highly tumorigenic and invasive, may result in treatment failure due to cancer relapse and metastases. CSCs are emerging as a promising target for the development of translational cancer therapies. Ideal panacea for cancer would kill all malignant cells, including CSCs and bulk tumor cells. Since both chemotherapy and CSCs-specific therapy are insufficient to cure cancer, we propose combination therapy with CSCs-targeted agents and chemotherapeutics for improved breast cancer treatment. We generated in vitro mammosphere of 2 breast cancer cell lines, and demonstrated ability of mammospheres to grow and enrich cancer cells with stem-like properties, including self-renewal, multilineage differentiation and enrichment of cells expressing breast cancer stem-like cell biomarkers CD44(+)/CD24(-/low). The formation of mammospheres was significantly inhibited by salinomycin, validating its pharmacological role against the cancer stem-like cells. In contrast, paclitaxel showed a minimal effect on the proliferation and growth of breast cancer stem-like cells. While combination therapies of salinomycin with conventional chemotherapy (paclitaxel or lipodox) showed a potential to improve tumor cell killing, different subtypes of breast cancer cells showed different patterns in response to the combination therapies. While optimization of combination therapy is warranted, the design of combination therapy should consider phenotypic attributes of breast cancer types.

  19. Targeting breast cancer stem cells in triple-negative breast cancer using a combination of LBH589 and salinomycin. (United States)

    Kai, Masaya; Kanaya, Noriko; Wu, Shang V; Mendez, Carlos; Nguyen, Duc; Luu, Thehang; Chen, Shiuan


    The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of combining a histone deacetylase inhibitor (LBH589) and a breast cancer stem cells (BCSC)-targeting agent (salinomycin) as a novel combination therapy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We performed in vitro studies using the TNBC cell lines to examine the combined effect. We used the mammosphere and ALDEFLUOR assays to estimate BCSC self-renewal capacity and distribution of BCSCs, respectively. Synergistic analysis was performed using CalcuSyn software. For in vivo studies, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 ALDH1-positive cells were injected into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency gamma (NSG) mice. After tumor formation, mice were treated with LBH589, salinomycin, or in combination. In a second mouse model, HCC1937 cells were first treated with each treatment and then injected into NSG mice. For mechanistic analysis, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed using cell and tumor samples. HCC1937 cells displayed BCSC properties including self-renewal capacity, an ALDH1-positive cell population, and the ability to form tumors. Treatment of HCC1937 cells with LBH589 and salinomycin had a potent synergistic effect inhibiting TNBC cell proliferation, ALDH1-positive cells, and mammosphere growth. In xenograft mouse models treated with LBH589 and salinomycin, the drug combination effectively and synergistically inhibited tumor growth of ALDH1-positive cells. The drug combination exerted its effects by inducing apoptosis, arresting the cell cycle, and regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Combination of LBH589 and salinomycin has a synergistic inhibitory effect on TNBC BCSCs by inducing apoptosis, arresting the cell cycle, and regulating EMT; with no apparent associated severe toxicity. This drug combination could therefore offer a new targeted therapeutic strategy for TNBC and warrants further clinical study in patients with TNBC.

  20. Combination of TB lymphadenitis and metastatic LAP in breast cancer

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    Abdolhassan Talaiezadeh


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB may present as pulmonary and extra-pulmonary. TB lymphadenitis is the most common presentation of extra-pulmonary TB. TB lymphadenitis should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of different disorders such as metastatic lymphadenopathy. The reported patient was a 65-year-old lady with breast cancer and conglomerated and matted axillary lymphadenopathy who received chemotherapy. She presented with more extensive axillary LAP contrary to our expectation. Modified radical mastectomy was done and pathology analysis reported TB lymphadenitis associated with metastatic LAP. Under cover of anti-TB therapy adjuvant chemoradiation therapy was started. Accordingly, we recommend TB be ruled out in every patient who needs chemotherapy in the endemic region because chemotherapy may cause the extension of TB in the body.

  1. Breast cancer screening (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  2. Efficacy and safety of goserelin combined with adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang


    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of goserelin combined with chemotherapy for premenopausal women with breast cancer. Literatures were extracted from databases including Excerpta Medica Database, Springer, Pubmed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese Biological Medicine from their inception up to May 2014. The main efficacy measures were 5 years overall survival (OS, 10 years OS, 5 years disease free survival and 5 years progress free survival. Ten randomized comparison clinical trials were eligible in this study. The result showed that goserelin combined with chemotherapy group can improve the survival rate and decrease the incidence of arthralgia in postmenopausal breast cancer patients, respectively, compared to the control group. However, they can increase the occurrence of vomiting during the chemotherapy process. Compared with the simple chemotherapy, goserelin combined with chemotherapy can provide benefits for premenopausal women with breast cancer on improving the survival rate and reducing arthralgia.

  3. Combined effects of lapatinib and bortezomib in human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer cells and activity of bortezomib against lapatinib-resistant breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Ma, Chuandong; Niu, Xiuqing; Luo, Jianmin; Shao, Zhimin; Shen, Kunwei


    Lapatinib and bortezomib are highly active against breast cancer cells. Breast cancer patients who initially respond to lapatinib may eventually manifest acquired resistance to this treatment. Thus, the identification of novel agents that may prevent or delay the development of acquired resistance to lapatinib is critical. In the current study, we show that the combination of lapatinib and bortezomib results in a synergistic growth inhibition in human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer cells and that the combination enhances apoptosis of SK-BR-3 cells. Importantly, we found that the combination of lapatinib plus bortezomib more effectively blocked activation of the HER2 pathway in SK-BR-3 cells, compared with monotherapy. In addition, we established a model of acquired resistance to lapatinib by chronically challenging SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells with increasing concentrations of lapatinib. Here, we showed that bortezomib notably induced apoptosis of lapatinib-resistant SK-BR-3 pools and further inhibited HER2 signaling in the resistant cells. Taken together, the current data indicate a synergistic interaction between lapatinib and bortezomib in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and provide the rationale for the clinical evaluation of these two noncross-resistant targeted therapies. The combination of lapatinib and bortezomib may be a potentially novel approach to prevent or delay the onset of acquired resistance to lapatinib in HER2-overxpressing/estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers.

  4. Breast Cancer Research Update (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National Cancer Institute ... Addressing Breast Cancer's Unequal Burden / Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Issue: Volume 11 Number 4 Page ...

  5. Pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. (United States)

    Kawajiri, Hidemi; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kashiwagi, Shinichiro; Noda, Satoru; Onoda, Naoyoshi; Hirakawa, Kosei


    Overexpression of HER2 - found in approximately 15-20% of all breast cancers - is a negative prognostic factor. Although trastuzumab significantly improves the prognosis of HER2-positive breast cancer, half of the patients with metastatic breast cancer experience disease progression within 1 year. Pertuzumab is a novel HER2-targeted humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the dimerization domain of HER2 and acts synergically with trastuzumab in inhibiting tumor progression. The CLEOPATRA trial demonstrated that adding pertuzumab to trastuzumab plus docetaxel significantly prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival without increasing severe adverse events. Conclusively, pertuzumab was approved by the US FDA in June 2012 for use in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel for the treatment of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Furthermore, various clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pertuzumab combined with other cytotoxic agents are ongoing at present. Thus, pertuzumab has been becoming important for the treatment of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer.

  6. Immunotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer: checkpoint blockade, cancer vaccines, and future directions in combination immunotherapy. (United States)

    McArthur, Heather L; Page, David B


    Immunotherapy encompasses both vaccines that direct immune responses to tumor-associated antigens, and checkpoint blocking antibodies that inhibit immune system suppression by targeting key pathways mediated by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, programmed death 1 (PD-1), and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Both of these approaches currently are being explored as potential strategies for the treatment of breast cancer. Recent studies suggest that immunotherapy is poised to change the therapeutic landscape for some breast cancers. Specifically, overall response rates of 19% with PD-1/PD-L1-directed antibodies have been reported in 2 small studies of women with PD-L1-positive, heavily pretreated advanced triple-negative breast cancer. In combination with nab-paclitaxel, confirmed response rates were 46% in a PD-L1-unselected population in the first-line metastatic triple-negative breast cancer setting. Checkpoint-blocking antibodies also have been evaluated in small studies of women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer, and in women whose breast cancers lack PD-L1 expression, with more modest response rates. It has been hypothesized that some breast cancers are not inherently recognized by the immune system; however, preclinical and preliminary clinical data suggest that inherently modest immunogenicity may be overcome with novel vaccination strategies, as well as strategies that combine immune checkpoint blockade with methods of optimizing antigen presentation, such as tumor ablation, radiation, chemotherapy, or other approaches. If ongoing registrational trials support the use of immunotherapy, it could revolutionize the care of early-stage and metastatic breast cancer, and ideally improve cure rates.

  7. Combinations of parabens at concentrations measured in human breast tissue can increase proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Charles, Amelia K; Darbre, Philippa D


    The alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens), which are used as preservatives in consumer products, possess oestrogenic activity and have been measured in human breast tissue. This has raised concerns for a potential involvement in the development of human breast cancer. In this paper, we have investigated the extent to which proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells can be increased by exposure to the five parabens either alone or in combination at concentrations as recently measured in 160 human breast tissue samples. Determination of no-observed-effect concentrations (NOEC), lowest-observed-effect concentrations (LOEC), EC50 and EC100 values for stimulation of proliferation of MCF-7 cells by five parabens revealed that 43/160 (27%) of the human breast tissue samples contained at least one paraben at a concentration ≥ LOEC and 64/160 (40%) > NOEC. Proliferation of MCF-7 cells could be increased by combining all five parabens at concentrations down to the 50(th) percentile (median) values measured in the tissues. For the 22 tissue samples taken at the site of ER + PR + primary cancers, 12 contained a sufficient concentration of one or more paraben to stimulate proliferation of MCF-7 cells. This demonstrates that parabens, either alone or in combination, are present in human breast tissue at concentrations sufficient to stimulate the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro, and that functional consequences of the presence of paraben in human breast tissue should be assessed on the basis of all five parabens and not single parabens individually.

  8. Synergistic enhancement of breast cancer cell death using ultrasound-microbubbles in combination with cisplatin (United States)

    Jetha, Sheliza; Karshafian, Raffi


    Cisplatin (CDDP), an anti-cancer agent, can effectively treat several cancerous tumourstumors such as testicular, bladder, and ovarian cancers. CDDP binds to specific DNA bases causing 1,2-intrastrand cross-links, single strand and double strand breaks inducing apoptosis. However, the effectiveness of CDDP is limited in tumourtumors such as breast cancer due to drug resistance. In this study, the application of ultrasound-microbubble (USMB) in improving the therapeutic effect of CDDP in breast cancer cell line is investigated. Human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells in suspension (2×106 cells/mL concentration and 0.6 mL volume) were treated with CDDP (3 µM, 30 µM and 300 µM) and USMB at 0.5 MHz pulse centered frequency, 60 s insonation time, 16 µs pulse duration, 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency, and 1.7% v/v (volume concentration) of Definity microbubble agent. Following USMB treatment, cells were plated in 96-well plates for 24 and 48-hour incubation, after which cell viability was measured using MTT assay (VMTT). Cell viability decreased significantly with the combined treatment of CDDP and USMB compared to CDDP alone (pcancer cells. However, this enhanced effectiveness, in breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), is dependent on incubation time and cisplatin (CDDP) concentration.

  9. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia


    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  10. Gemcitabine Based Combination Regimens for Treatment of Refractory Advanced Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Li; DI Li-jun; SONG Guo-hong; JIA Jun; YU Jing; WANG Xiao-li; ZHU Yu-lin; JIANG Han-fang; LIANG Xu


    Objective:Anthracycline and taxane are the standard agents in combined chemotherapy of advanced breast cancer.However,when these agents based chemotherapy is failure,the selection of salvage regimen is still of problem.Gemcitabine,an active agent in both lung cancer and pancreas cancer,is demonstrated effective in breast caner.But there have been relatively less data of gemcitabine in anthracycline and/or taxane-resistant breast cancer.Therefore we employe this study to explore the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine based combination regimen in this population.Methods:From May 2002 to March 2006,28 patients with measurable lesion of advanced metastatic breast cancer who were resistant to prior anthracycline and taxane based chemotherapy were enrolled.Patients were treated with gemcitabine based combination chemotherapy with a median cycles of 3(range 2-6).Results:The overall response rate was 28.6%(8/28),with 1 CR(Complete response 3.5%)and 7 PRs(Partial response 25%).Stable disease was seen in 8 patients(28.6%)while disease progressed in 12 patiens(42.8%).The median time to progression was 4.5 m(range,2-23 m).The main toxicity included bone marrow depression,alopecia,mucositis and peripheral neurotoxicity.The grade 3 to 4 clinical adverse effect was leukopenia in 5 cases(17.9%)and thrombocytopenia in 8 cases(30%).Conclusion:Gemcitabine based combination regimens is feasible in anthracycline and taxane-resistant advanced breast cancer.The clinical response and TTP is acceptable with limited toxicity pattern.

  11. Learning about Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  12. DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients during combined chemotherapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Suarez, Patricia [Oncological Research Unit, Oncology Hospital, National Medical Center S-XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Av. Cuauhtemoc 330, Col. Doctores, 06725 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia [Biomedical Research Institute, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico); Gallegos-Hernandez, Francisco [Department of Clinical Oncology, Oncology Hospital, National Medical Center S-XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Mexico City (Mexico); Penarroja-Flores, Rubicelia; Toledo-Garcia, Jorge [Oncological Research Unit, Oncology Hospital, National Medical Center S-XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Av. Cuauhtemoc 330, Col. Doctores, 06725 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bravo, Jose Luis [Atmospheric Sciences Institute, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico); Rojas del Castillo, Emilio [Biomedical Research Institute, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico); Benitez-Bribiesca, Luis [Oncological Research Unit, Oncology Hospital, National Medical Center S-XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Av. Cuauhtemoc 330, Col. Doctores, 06725 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail:


    Combined chemotherapy is used for the treatment of a number of malignancies such as breast cancer. The target of these antineoplastic agents is nuclear DNA, although it is not restricted to malignant cells. The aim of the present study was to assess DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of breast cancer patients subjected to combined adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide, FEC), using a modified comet assay to detect DNA single-strand breaks (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DSB). Forty-one female patients with advanced breast cancer before and after chemotherapy and 60 healthy females participated in the study. Alkaline and neutral comet assays were performed in PBLs according to a standard protocol, and DNA tail moment was measured by a computer-based image analysis system. Breast cancer patients before treatment had higher increased background levels of SSB and DSB as compared to healthy women. During treatment, a significant increase in DNA damage was observed after the 2nd cycle, which persisted until the end of treatment. Eighty days after the end of treatment the percentage of PBLs with SSB and DSB remained elevated, but the magnitude of DNA damage (tail moment) returned to baseline levels. There was no correlation between PBL DNA damage and response to chemotherapy. DNA-SSB and DSB in PBLs are present in cancer patients before treatment and increase significantly after combined chemotherapy. No correlation with response to adjuvant chemotherapy was found. Biomonitoring DNA damage in PBLs of cancer patients could help prevent secondary effects and the potential risks of developing secondary cancers.

  13. The Chemopreventive Effect of Tamoxifen Combined with Celecoxib on DMBA chemically-Induced Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxu Liu; Huafeng Kang; Xijing Wang; Zhijun Dai; Fengjie Xue; Xinghuan Xue


    Objective: To investigate the chemopreventive effect of tamoxifen combined with a COX-2 selective inhibitor, celecoxib, on breast cancer in rats chemically induced by 7,12-dimethylben (a)anthracene (DMBA). Methods:DMBA was irrigated into the stomaches of SD female rats to build breast cancer model. A total of 120 rats were divided into four groups: control group, tamoxifen group, celecoxib group and combined group. The incidence rate, latent period, number and volume of breast cancer were detected and analyzed. Results:The tumor incidence rate of tamoxifen group (48.15%, 13/27) and celecoxib group (50.00%,14/28) were lower than that of control group (85.71%, 24/28), but higher than that of combined group (21.43%, 6/28). The tumor's latent period of tamoxifen group (97.54±1.85 d) and celecoxib group (96.79±2.89 d) were longer than that of control group (89.50±5.99 d), but shorter than that of combined group (103.67±3.39 d). The average tumor number of tamoxifen group (1.77±0.73) and celecoxib group (1.71±0.61) were less than that of control group (3.50±1.62), but more than that of combined group ( 1.17±0.42 ). The average tumor volume of tamoxifen group (1.78±0.71 cm3) and celecoxib group (2.05±1.04 cm3) were smaller than that of control group (6.42±3.96 cm3), but bigger than that of combined group (0.71±0.96 cm3) (P < 0.05 respectively).Conclusion:Celecoxib and tamoxifen are effective drugs in preventing the occurrence of rat breast cancer chemically induced by DMBA. Furthermore, combination of them has better chemopreventive effect.

  14. Combination of cold atmospheric plasma and iron nanoparticles in breast cancer: gene expression and apoptosis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalili A


    Full Text Available Azam Jalili,1 Shiva Irani,1 Reza Mirfakhraie2 1Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, 2Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Background: Current cancer treatments have unexpected side effects of which the death of normal cells is one. In some cancers, iron nanoparticles (NPs can be subjected to diagnosis and passive targeting treatment. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP has a proven induction of selective cell death ability. In this study, we have attempted to analyze the synergy between CAP and iron NPs in human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7.Materials and methods: In vitro cytotoxicity of CAP treatment and NPs in cells measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and cell death was shown by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and annexin V staining. Fluctuations in BAX and BCL-2 gene expression were investigated by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: MTT assay results showed that combination of plasma and iron NPs decreased the viability of cancer cells significantly (P<0.05. Real-time analysis showed that the combination therapy induced shifting the BAX/BCL-2 ratio in favor of apoptosis.Conclusion: Our data indicate that synergy between CAP and iron NPs can be applied in breast cancer treatment selectively. Keywords: breast cancer, cold atmospheric plasma, iron nanoparticles, BAX, BCL-2

  15. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis (United States)

    ... Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer, ... Prevention Early Detection and Diagnosis Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Treatment Breast Reconstruction Surgery Living as a Breast ...

  16. Combined effects of IL-8 and CXCR2 gene polymorphisms on breast cancer susceptibility and aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helal Ahmed N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL-8 is a prototype of the ELR+CXC chemokines that play an important role in the promotion and progression of many human cancers including breast cancer. We have recently showed the implication of polymorphism (-251 T/A of IL-8 gene in the susceptibility and prognosis of breast carcinoma. IL-8 acts through its CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors. CXCR2, expressed on the endothelial cells, is the receptor involved in mediating the angiogenic effects of ELR+CXC chemokines and in particular IL-8. In the current study, we investigated the susceptibility and prognostic implications of the genetic variation in CXCR2 in breast carcinoma. We also confirmed the implication of IL-8 (-251 T/A polymorphism in a larger cohort. Finally, we combined the IL-8 and CXCR2 variant alleles and analyzed their effects in breast cancer risk and prognosis. Methods We used the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction to characterize the variation of IL-8 and CXCR2 for 409 unrelated Tunisian patients with breast carcinoma and 301 healthy control subjects. To estimate the relative risks, Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for the known risk factors for breast cancer. Associations of the genetic marker with the rates of breast carcinoma-specific overall survival and disease-free survival were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A highly significant association was found between the homozygous CXCR2 (+ 1208 TT genotype (adjusted OR = 2.89; P = 0.008 and breast carcinoma. A significantly increased risk of breast carcinoma was associated with IL-8 (-251 A allele (adjusted OR = 1.86; P = 0.001. The presence of two higher risk genotypes (the TA and TT in IL-8, and the TT in CXCR2 significantly increased the risk of developing breast carcinoma (adjusted OR = 4.15; P = 0.0004. The CXCR2 (+ 1208 T allele manifested a significant association with an

  17. The importance of combining of ultrasound and mammography in breast cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svjetlana Mujagić


    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to analyse individual and combined sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound and mammography in breast cancer diagnosis and emphasize the importance of combining breast imaging modalities. Patients and methods. By means of a cross-sectional study, ultrasound and mammographic examinations of 148 women (mean age 51.6 ± 10.8 years with breast symptoms were analysed. All women underwent surgery and all lesions were examined by histopathology analysis which revealed the presence of 63 breast cancers, and 85 benign lesions. In relation to age, the women were separated in to a group under 50 years and a group 50 years and older. Ultrasound and mammographic findings were classified on the BI-RADS categorical scale of 1-5. Categories 1, 2 and 3 were considered negative, while categories 4 and 5 were positive for cancer. For statistical data processing the McNemar chi-square test for paired proportions was used. The differences on the level of p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. In the group under 50 years, the ultrasound sensitivity was significantly higher than the mammographic sensitivity (p=0.045, c2=4, without a statistically significant difference in specificity (p=0.24, c2=1.39. In the women over 50, a significant difference between sensitivity of ultrasound and mammography was not proved (p=0.68, c2=0.17, nor any difference in the specificities (p=0.15, c2=2.08. In the group consisting of all patients, the sensitivity of ultrasound was statistically significantly higher in comparison with the sensitivity of mammography (p=0.04, c2=4.27 with higher specificity (p=0.04, c2=4. By combining the two methods in all patients sensitivity of 96.8% was achieved, in patients up to 50 sensitivity was 90.47% and in patients over 50, sensitivity was 100%. When the two methods were combined in all patients, a decrease in specificity was noted. Conclusion. The combination of ultrasound and mammography

  18. Intrahepatic and systemic therapy with oxaliplatin combined with capecitabine in patients with hepatic metastases from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D L; Nørgaard, H; Weber Vestermark, Lene;


    The aim was to evaluate activity and toxicity of hepatic arterial infusion of oxaliplatin in combination with capecitabine in patients with metastatic breast cancer with liver metastases and limited extrahepatic disease....

  19. Breast Cancer Treatment (United States)

    ... Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  20. Predicting the Toxicity of Adjuvant Breast Cancer Drug Combination Therapy (United States)


    critical determinants of physiological processes (i.e., absorption, metabolism, excretion and tissue solubility phenomena ) [16]. Accordingly, PBPK models... Balis FM, Dedrick RL (1994) A pharmacokinetic model of topotecan clearance from plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. Cancer Res 54(19):5118–5122 38. Bradshaw

  1. Breast Cancer -- Male (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  2. An overview of the effective combination therapies for the treatment of breast cancer. (United States)

    Núñez, Cristina; Capelo, José Luis; Igrejas, Gilberto; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M; Lodeiro, Carlos


    Breast cancer (BC) is generally classified based on the receptors overexpressed on the cell nucleus, which include hormone receptors such as progesterone (PR) and estrogen (ER), and HER2. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a type of cancer that lacks any of these three types of receptor proteins (ER/PR/HER2). Tumor cells exhibit drug resistant phenotypes that decrease the efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatments. Generally, drug resistance has a genetic basis that is caused by an abnormal gene expression, nevertheless, there are several types of drug resistance: efflux pumps reducing the cellular concentration of the drug, alterations in membrane lipids that reduce cellular uptake, increased or altered drug targets, metabolic alteration of the drug, inhibition of apoptosis, repair of the damaged DNA, and alteration of the cell cycle checkpoints. The use of "combination therapy" is recognized as an efficient solution to treat human diseases, in particular, breast cancer. In this review, we give examples of different nanocarriers used to co-deliver multiple therapeutics (chemotherapeutic agent and nucleic acid) to drug-resistant tumor cells, and lastly, we give our recommendations for the future directions for the co-delivery treatments.

  3. Combined effect of CYP1B1, COMT, GSTP1, and MnSOD genotypes and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer


    Cerne, Jasmina-Ziva; Pohar-Perme, Maja; Novakovic, Srdjan; Frkovic-Grazio, Snjezana; Stegel, Vida; GERSAK, KSENIJA


    Objective Estrogen plays a key role in breast cancer development and functionally relevant genetic variants within the estrogen metabolic pathway are prime candidates for a possible association with breast cancer risk. We investigated the independent and the combined effects of commonly occurring polymorphisms in four genes encoding key proteins of estrogen metabolic pathway on their potential contribution to breast cancer risk. Methods We studied 530 breast cancer cases and 270 controls of t...

  4. Combined doxorubicin and paclitaxel in advanced breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, J; Boesgaard, M; Paaske, T;


    -550). The main toxicities were neutropenia, parestesia, nausea/vomiting, alopecia, myalgia and cardiotoxicity. Fifteen patients (50%) had reductions of left ventricular ejection fraction of below normal levels and 6 of these patients (20%) developed congestive heart failure. CONCLUSION: The combination...

  5. Male Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome. Treatment for male breast cancer is usually ...

  6. Breast cancer in pregnancy. (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael


    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed.

  7. A naringenin–tamoxifen combination impairs cell proliferation and survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatkevich, Talia; Ramos, Joseph; Santos-Sanchez, Idalys; Patel, Yashomati M., E-mail:


    Since over 60% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor positive (ER+), many therapies have targeted the ER. The ER is activated by both estrogen binding and phosphorylation. While anti-estrogen therapies, such as tamoxifen (Tam) have been successful they do not target the growth factor promoting phosphorylation of the ER. Other proliferation pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, (PI3K) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are activated in breast cancer cells and are associated with poor prognosis. Thus targeting multiple cellular proliferation and survival pathways at the onset of treatment is critical for the development of more effective therapies. The grapefruit flavanone naringenin (Nar) is an inhibitor of both the PI3K and MAPK pathways. Previous studies examining either Nar or Tam used charcoal-stripped serum which removed estrogen as well as other factors. We wanted to use serum containing medium in order to retain all the potential inducers of cell proliferation so as not to exclude any targets of Nar. Here we show that a Nar–Tam combination is more effective than either Tam alone or Nar alone in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that a Nar–Tam combination impaired cellular proliferation and viability to a greater extent than either component alone in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the use of a Nar–Tam combination requires lower concentrations of both compounds to achieve the same effects on proliferation and viability. Nar may function by inhibiting both PI3K and MAPK pathways as well as localizing ERα to the cytoplasm in MCF-7 cells. Our results demonstrate that a Nar–Tam combination induces apoptosis and impairs proliferation signaling to a greater extent than either compound alone. These studies provide critical information for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Nar–Tam impairs cell viability more effectively than

  8. Doxorubicin in combination with a small TGFbeta inhibitor: a potential novel therapy for metastatic breast cancer in mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Bandyopadhyay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggested that induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT might confer both metastatic and self-renewal properties to breast tumor cells resulting in drug resistance and tumor recurrence. TGFbeta is a potent inducer of EMT and has been shown to promote tumor progression in various breast cancer cell and animal models. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report that chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin activates TGFbeta signaling in human and murine breast cancer cells. Doxorubicin induced EMT, promoted invasion and enhanced generation of cells with stem cell phenotype in murine 4T1 breast cancer cells in vitro, which were significantly inhibited by a TGFbeta type I receptor kinase inhibitor (TbetaRI-KI. We investigated the potential synergistic anti-tumor activity of TbetaR1-KI in combination with doxorubicin in animal models of metastatic breast cancer. Combination of Doxorubicin and TbetaRI-KI enhanced the efficacy of doxorubicin in reducing tumor growth and lung metastasis in the 4T1 orthotopic xenograft model in comparison to single treatments. Doxorubicin treatment alone enhanced metastasis to lung in the human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 orthotopic xenograft model and metastasis to bone in the 4T1 orthotopic xenograft model, which was significantly blocked when TbetaR1-KI was administered in combination with doxorubicin. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that the adverse activation of TGFbeta pathway by chemotherapeutics in the cancer cells together with elevated TGFbeta levels in tumor microenvironment may lead to EMT and generation of cancer stem cells resulting in the resistance to the chemotherapy. Our results indicate that the combination treatment of doxorubicin with a TGFbeta inhibitor has the potential to reduce the dose and consequently the toxic side-effects of doxorubicin, and improve its efficacy in the inhibition of breast cancer growth and metastasis.

  9. Combining multifractal analyses of digital mammograms and infrared thermograms to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis (United States)

    Gerasimova-Chechkina, E.; Toner, B.; Marin, Z.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Argoul, F.; Khalil, A.; Gileva, O.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.


    We used a 1D wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method to analyze the temporal fluctuations of breast skin temperature recorded with an infrared (IR) camera from a panel of patients with breast cancer. This study shows that the multifractal complexity of temperature fluctuations observed in healthy breasts, is lost in the region of the malignant tumor in cancerous breasts. Then, we applied the 2D WTMM method to analyze the spatial fluctuations of breast density in the X-ray mammograms of the same patients. Compared to the correlated roughness fluctuations observed in the healthy areas, some clear loss of correlations is detected in malignant tumor foci. These physiological and architectural changes in the environment of malignant tumors detected in both thermograms and mammograms open new perspectives in computer-aided multifractal methods to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis.

  10. Breast Cancer Disparities (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  11. Assessing interactions between the associations of common genetic susceptibility variants, reproductive history and body mass index with breast cancer risk in the breast cancer association consortium: a combined case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Gaudet, Mia M; Spurdle, Amanda B;


    Several common breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants have recently been identified. We aimed to determine how these variants combine with a subset of other known risk factors to influence breast cancer risk in white women of European ancestry using case-control studies participating in th...

  12. Progestagen component in combined hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women and breast cancer risk: a debated clinical issue. (United States)

    Gadducci, Angiolo; Biglia, Nicoletta; Cosio, Stefania; Sismondi, Piero; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo


    The relevance of the progestagen component in combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for breast cancer risk has been long debated. In vitro studies have shown that progestins exert both genomic transcriptional and non-genomic effects that can enhance the proliferation, invasiveness and spread of breast cancer cells. According to a novel hypothesis, progestins can still activate cancer stem cells in patients with pre-existing, clinically undetected breast cancer. However, some experimental and clinical data suggest that different progestins may have a different impact on the pathophysiology of malignant breast cells. In vitro studies on estrogen receptor (ER)+ breast cancer cells have shown that the addition of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) to estradiol (E(2)) produces a significantly higher increase of the mRNA levels and activities of estrogen-activating enzymes aromatase, 17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 and sulfatase when compared with progesterone plus E(2). In randomised trial performed on ovariectomised adult female monkeys, oral E(2) plus MPA have resulted in a significantly greater proliferation of breast lobular and ductal epithelium when compared with placebo, whereas E(2) plus micronised progesterone have not. In the same experimental model, oral E(2) plus MPA have been found to induce the expression of genes encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands and downstream targets, whereas E(2) alone or E(2) plus micronised progesterone had no or modest effects on EGFR-related genes. In last years, some clinical studies on HRT users have shown that androgenic progestin- or MPA-based formulations are associated with an increased breast cancer incidence, whereas micronised progesterone- or dydrogesterone-based formulations are not. Further basic and clinical investigations on this topic are strongly warranted to elucidate whether the choice of the progestagen component in combined HRT could be of clinical relevance as for breast

  13. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  14. Breast cancer in men (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  15. Combination of Antiestrogens and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Breast Cancer Prevention. (United States)

    Manni, Andrea; El-Bayoumy, Karam; Skibinski, Christine G; Thompson, Henry J; Santucci-Pereira, Julia; Bidinotto, Lucas Tadeu; Russo, Jose


    The molecular and biological heterogeneity of human breast cancer emphasizes the importance of a multitargeted approach for effective chemoprevention. Targeting the estrogen receptor pathway alone with the antiestrogens, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene reduces the incidence of estrogen receptor positive tumors but is ineffective against the development of hormone independent cancers. Our preclinical data indicate that the administration of omega-3 fatty acids potentiates the antitumor effects of Tamoxifen by inhibiting multiple proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways, several of which interact with estrogen receptor signaling. The complementarity in the mechanism of antitumor action of Tamoxifen and omega-3 fatty acids is well supported by our signaling, genomic, and proteomic studies. Furthermore, administration of omega-3 fatty acids allows the use of lower and, hence, likely less toxic doses of Tamoxifen. If these findings are supported in the clinical setting, the combination of omega-3 fatty acids and anteistrogens may emerge as a promising, effective, and safe chemopreventive strategy to be tested in a large multi-institutional trial using breast cancer incidence as the primary endpoint.

  16. Evaluation of growth inhibitory response of Resveratrol and Salinomycin combinations against triple negative breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Rai, Girish; Suman, Shankar; Mishra, Sanjay; Shukla, Yogeshwer


    Resveratrol (RSVL) a dietary phytochemical showed to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. Recently, Salinomycin (SAL) has gained importance as cancer therapeutic value for breast cancer (BC), however, its superfluxious toxicity delimits the utility. Taking the advantage of RSVL, the therapeutic efficacy of RSVL and SAL combination was studied in vitro and in vivo system. Firstly, the synergistic combination dose of RSVL and SAL was calculated and further, the efficacy was examined by wound healing, and Western blots analysis. Further, in vivo study was performed to confirm the effect of colony formation and apoptosis detection by flow cytometry based assays. Further, the molecular mode of action was determined at both transcript and translational level by quantitative Real Time PCR combination in Ehrlich ascitic carcinoma model.The combination of IC20 (R20) of RSVL and IC10 (S10) dose of SAL showed best synergism (CI<1) with ∼5 fold dose advantage of SAL. Gene expression results at mRNA and protein level revealed that the unique combination of RSVL and SAL significantly inhibited epithelial mesenchymal transition (Fibronectin, Vimentin, N-Cadherin, and Slug); chronic inflammation (Cox2, NF-kB, p53), autophagy (Beclin and LC3) and apoptotic (Bax, Bcl-2) markers. Further, i n vivo study showed that low dose of SAL in combination with RSVL increased life span of Ehrlich ascitic mice. Overall, our study revealed that RSVL synergistically potentiated the anticancer potential of SAL against triple negative BC.

  17. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)


    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  18. In vitro and in vivo effects of combination of Trastuzumab (Herceptin) and Tamoxifen in breast cancer. (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Xia; Koay, Debbie C; Edwards, Andrea; Lu, Zhao; Mor, Gil; Ocal, Idris T; Digiovanna, Michael P


    Extensive interactions between estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and HER2 signaling pathways have been described. Using BT-474 human breast cancer cells, we have previously shown that the combination of tamoxifen (TAM) and Herceptin results in strong synergistic growth inhibition, enhancement of G(0)-G(1) cell cycle accumulation, inhibition of HER2 activity and a cytostatic effect without cell death. To further examine the underlying mechanism of synergy, we investigated the effect of this drug combination on ERalpha function and growth factor downstream signaling. TAM caused a small increase in ERalpha levels while Herceptin had no effect, and both drugs caused an increase in the level of Ser118-phosphorylated ERalpha. However, both TAM and Herceptin individually inhibited ERalpha transcriptional activity, although the combination did not have a greater effect than either single agent. Herceptin inhibited MAPK and Akt activity, while TAM had no effect on these either as a single agent or when added to Herceptin. Using a BALB/c athymic BT-474 in vivo xenograft model, the drug combination (Herceptin 0.3 mg/kg i.p. twice weekly, TAM 1.0 mg/mouse i.p. three times per week) showed a greater inhibition of tumor growth compared to either single agent. Tumor extracts and fixed sections were examined at the end of the treatment period for treatment-specific alterations: we noted a paradoxical proliferation-inducing effect of TAM that was reversed by the addition of Herceptin. Our results indicate that combined targeting of both peptide growth factor receptors and ERalpha represents a promising breast cancer treatment strategy.

  19. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer with pirarubicin versus epirubicin in combination with cyclophosphamide and docetaxel. (United States)

    Gu, Xi; Jia, Shi; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Wen-Hai


    Breast cancers (BC) are treated with surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is an emerging treatment option in many cancers and is given before primary therapy to shrink tumor size. The efficacy of NACT in varied settings of BC, such as inoperable tumors, borderline resectable tumors, and breast-conserving surgery, has been debated extensively in literature, and the results remain unclear and depended on a wide variety of factors such as cancer type, disease extent, and the specific combination of chemotherapy drugs. This study was performed to examine the efficacy, toxicity, and tolerability of pirarubicin (THP) and epirubicin (EPI) in combination with docetaxel and cyclophosphamide in a NACT setting for BC. A total of 48 patients with stage II or III breast cancers were randomly divided into two groups: THP group and EPI group. The patients in THP group received 2-4 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with DTC regimen (docetaxel, THP, cyclophosphamide), while patients in the EPI group received 2-4 cycles of DEC regimen (docetaxel, EPI, cyclophosphamide) before surgery. The incidence of adverse reactions and the efficacy of the treatment regimen were compared between the two groups. Prognostic evaluation indexes were estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, including the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The overall response rate in THP group was 83.3 %, and the EPI group showed a response rate of 79.2 %, with no statistically significant difference in response rate between the two groups. The incidence of cardiac toxicity, myelosuppression, nausea, and vomiting in the THP group was significantly lower than the EPI group (all P < 0.05). The incidence of hepatic toxicity, alopecia, and diarrhea in the THP group was also lower than the EPI group, but these differences were not statistically significant. The 5-year DFS and OS in THP versus EPI groups were 80 versus 76 % (DFS) and 86 versus 81 % (OS

  20. [Liver Atrophy and Failure Associated with Paclitaxel and Bevacizumab Combination Therapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer]. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mari; Ikeda, Masahiko; Kubo, Shinichiro; Tsukioki, Takahiro; Nakamoto, Shougo


    We managed 6 cases of severe liver atrophy and failure associated with paclitaxel and bevacizumab combination therapy (PB therapy)for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. In this case-controlstudy, we examined the records of these 6 patients to investigate past treatment, medication history, and degree of atrophy, and compared their data with that of 67 patients without liver atrophy. The degree of the liver atrophy used SYNAPSE VINCENT®of the image analysis software. The results showed that patients with liver atrophy had a longer pretreatment period than those without liver atrophy(33.5 months vs 15.5 months), and they also experienced a longer median time to treatment failure with PB therapy than other patients(11 months vs 6 months). The ratio of individuals presenting with diffuse liver metastasis among patients with liver metastasis was 80% with liver atrophy, compared to 8% without liver atrophy. The degree of liver atrophy was an average of 67%in terms of volume ratio before/after PB therapy(57-82%). The individualwith the greatest extent of liver atrophy died of liver failure, not as a result of breast cancer progression. The direct causal link between bevacizumab and liver atrophy and failure is unclear, but the individuals in this study had a long previous history of treatment, and diffuse liver metastases may develop in patients undergoing long periods of PB therapy, which may also cause liver atrophy; therefore, the possibility of liver failure should be considered in such cases.

  1. Male Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... ducts that carry milk to the nipples, and fat. During puberty, women begin developing more breast tissue, and men do not. But because men are born with a small amount of breast tissue, they can develop breast cancer. Types of breast cancer diagnosed in men include: Cancer ...

  2. A combination of trastuzumab and BAG-1 inhibition synergistically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Robson, Natalia; Yeomans, Alison; Bailey, Sarah; Laversin, Stephanie; Beers, Stephen; Sayan, A Emre; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Troppmair, Jakob; Packham, Graham; Cutress, Ramsey


    Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial.

  3. Breast cancer awareness



    The incidence of breast cancer is rising among women in many European countries, affecting up to 1 in 16 women and has become the most common cause of cancer in European women. In Malta breast cancer is the commonest oncological cause of death in females. In fact 5.2% of all deaths in females in 2010 was from breast cancer.

  4. Taxanes alone or in combination with anthracyclines as first-line therapy of patients with metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J.; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Buyse, Marc; Sledge, George; Carmichael, James; Lueck, Hans-Joachim; Mackey, John R.; Nabholtz, Jean-Marc; Paridaens, Robert; Biganzoli, Laura; Jassem, Jacek; Bontenbal, Marijke; Bonneterre, Jacques; Chan, Stephen; Basaran, Gul Atalay; Therasse, Patrick


    Purpose Taxanes (paclitaxel or docetaxel) have been sequenced or combined with anthracyclines (doxorubicin or epirubicin) for the first-line treatment of advanced breast cancer. This meta-analysis uses data from all relevant trials to detect any advantages of taxanes in terms of tumor response, prog

  5. [Therapeutic advances in breast cancer]. (United States)

    Pestalozzi, B C


    The treatment of breast cancer has made significant improvements during the past ten years. For early breast cancer with a clinically negative axilla sentinel node biopsy has become the preferred approach. For endocrine therapy of postmenopausal patients the selective aromatase inhibitors have become standard in metastatic as well as in early breast cancer. Trastuzumab (Herceptin) plays an important role in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer in the metastatic and since 2005 also in the adjuvant setting. When chemotherapy is used to treat metastatic breast cancer drug combinations are superior to monotherapy only in terms of response rates. By contrast, in the adjuvant setting combination drug therapy is the standard. New methods of tissue analysis including expression patterns of mRNA and proteins are promising research strategies to further advance the field.

  6. A phase 1/2 of a combination of cetuximab and taxane for "triple negative" breast cancer patients. (United States)

    Nechushtan, Hovav; Vainer, Gilad; Stainberg, Hana; Salmon, Asher Y; Hamburger, Tamar; Peretz, Tamar


    50-70% of tumors of the so called "triple negative" subtype of breast cancer express EGFR. We hypothesized that addition of anti EGFR to Taxanes will result in increased effectiveness in EGFR expressing tumors. Here we set out to obtain data regarding the safety, tolerability and also the effectivity of the combination of weekly Taxane treatments with Cetuximab -an anti EGFR antibody in this subgroup of breast cancer. 18 triple negative breast cancer patients were treated with weekly Cetuximab and Taxane therapy. Addition of Cetuximab resulted in controllable Dermatologic toxicity in most patients -with grade 3 in two patients. Some impressive results were noted including one CR, one near CR and regression of chemotherapy and radiation resistance skin metastasis. Median TTF -and overall survival -6 and 12 months. Administration of Taxane Cetuximab weekly therapy for triple negative breast cancer patients is feasible. Use of anti EGFR-Taxane combinations should be assessed in larger clinical trials in this patient population perhaps in a similar manner to the lung cancer patients only in those with strong EGFR expression.

  7. Use of Combination Thermal Therapy and Radiation in Breast-Conserving Treatment of Extensive Intraductal Breast Cancer (United States)


    heart size/Per- effusion/Constrictive heart failure wave inversion and ST sistent abnormality T peric~arditis/Maderato Sever. coastric- R changes... Sociedad Venezolana de Mastologia Major Committee Assignments: 1993- Medical Records Committee, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 1996- Drug Use...1993 Invited speaker, The University of New Mexico ,"Treatment of Breast Cancer: Mastectormy vs Less" and "Sterotactic Core Needle Biopsy", Albuquerque

  8. Breast cancer staging (United States)

    ... this page: // Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  9. A novel combination treatment for breast cancer cells involving BAPTA-AM and proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (United States)



    Glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa/binding immunoglobulin protein (GRP78/BIP) is a well-known endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein regulating ER stress by facilitating protein folding, assembly and Ca2+ binding. GRP78 is also a member of the heat shock protein 70 gene family and induces tumor cell survival and resistance to chemotherapeutics. Bortezomib is a highly specific 26S proteasome inhibitor that has been approved as treatment for patients with multiple myeloma. The present study first examined the dose- and time-dependent effects of bortezomib on GRP78 expression levels in the highly metastatic mouse breast cancer 4T1 cell line using western blot analysis. The analysis results revealed that GRP78 levels were significantly increased by bortezomib at a dose as low as 10 nM. Time-dependent experiments indicated that the accumulation of GRP78 was initiated after a 24 h incubation period following the addition of 10 nM bortezomib. Subsequently, the present study determined the half maximal inhibitory concentration of intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM (13.6 µM) on 4T1 cells. The combination effect of BAPTA-AM and bortezomib on the 4T1 cells was investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and WST-1 assays and an iCELLigence system. The results revealed that the combination of 10 nM bortezomib + 5 µM BAPTA-AM is more cytotoxic compared with monotherapies, including 10 nM bortezomib, 1 µM BAPTA-AM and 5 µM BAPTA-AM. In addition, the present results revealed that bortezomib + BAPTA-AM combination causes cell death through the induction of apoptosis. The present results also revealed that bortezomib + BAPTA-AM combination-induced apoptosis is associated with a clear increase in the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase/Jun amino-terminal kinase SAPK/JNK. Overall, the present results suggest that bortezomib and BAPTA-AM combination therapy may be a novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancer treatment

  10. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis (United States)

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  11. Breast Cancer and Infertility



    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000): 317-323

  12. Antitumor activity of Noscapine in combination with Doxorubicin in triple negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahavir B Chougule

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity and mechanism of action of Noscapine alone and in combination with Doxorubicin against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC. METHODS: TNBC cells were pretreated with Noscapine or Doxorubicin or combination and combination index values were calculated using isobolographic method. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining. Female athymic Nu/nu mice were xenografted with MDA-MB-231 cells and the efficacy of Noscapine, Doxorubicin and combination was determined. Protein expression, immunohistochemical staining were evaluated in harvested tumor tissues. RESULTS: Noscapine inhibited growth of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells with the IC(50 values of 36.16±3.76 and 42.7±4.3 µM respectively. The CI values (<0.59 were suggestive of strong synergistic interaction between Noscapine and Doxorubicin and combination treatment showed significant increase in apoptotic cells. Noscapine showed dose dependent reduction in the tumor volumes at a dose of 150-550 mg/kg/day compared to controls. Noscapine (300 mg/kg, Doxorubicin (1.5 mg/kg and combination treatment reduced tumor volume by 39.4±5.8, 34.2±5.7 and 82.9±4.5 percent respectively and showed decreased expression of NF-KB pathway proteins, VEGF, cell survival, and increased expression of apoptotic and growth inhibitory proteins compared to single-agent treatment and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Noscapine potentiated the anticancer activity of Doxorubicin in a synergistic manner against TNBC tumors via inactivation of NF-KB and anti-angiogenic pathways while stimulating apoptosis. These findings suggest potential benefit for use of oral Noscapine and Doxorubicin combination therapy for treatment of more aggressive TNBC.

  13. Rapid tumor necrosis and massive hemorrhage induced by bevacizumab and paclitaxel combination therapy in a case of advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono M


    Full Text Available Mayu Ono, Tokiko Ito, Toshiharu Kanai, Koichi Murayama, Hiroshi Koyama, Kazuma Maeno, Yasuhiro Mochizuki, Asumi Iesato, Toru Hanamura, Toshihiro Okada, Takayuki Watanabe, Ken-ichi ItoDivision of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery (II, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, JapanAbstract: Bevacizumab when combined with chemotherapy exerts significant activity against many solid tumors through tumor angiogenesis inhibition; however, it can induce severe side effects. We report the rare case of a 27-year-old premenopausal woman with locally advanced breast cancer that was marked by rapid tumor necrosis followed by massive hemorrhage shortly after bevacizumab and paclitaxel administration. On the basis of histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen and computed tomography findings, she was diagnosed with stage IV estrogen and progesterone receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-positive breast cancer with multiple organ metastases when she had entered gestational week 24. Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin®, fluorouracil therapy was initiated, but multiple liver metastases continued to progress. A healthy fetus was delivered by induced delivery and trastuzumab-based treatment was initiated. Although the multiple liver metastases were controlled successfully by trastuzumab combined with paclitaxel, the primary tumor continued to expand even after subsequent administration of three other treatment regimens including anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 agents and cytotoxic drugs. To inhibit primary tumor growth, a combination therapy with paclitaxel and bevacizumab was subsequently initiated. Following therapy initiation, however, the large tumor occupying the patient's entire left breast became necrotic and ulcerated rapidly. Furthermore, massive hemorrhage from the tumor occurred 5 weeks after bevacizumab-based therapy initiation. Although hemostasis was achieved by manual

  14. Breast Cancer (For Kids) (United States)

    ... With Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention en español Cáncer de mama You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear ...

  15. Applied research of the combination of indocyanine green and methylene blue in mapping sentinel lymph nodes for breast cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-Zhong Cui; Jie-Hui Yang; Cheng-Xin Pan


    Objective:To discuss the application value of combination of indocyanine green and methylene blue in sentinel lymph node biopsy for patients with breast cancer. Methods:A total of 200 cases of breast cancer patients were selected and randomly divided into test group and control group, each of 100 cases. The test group received indocyanine green and methylene blue as the lymphatic mapping tracers and the control group received methylene blue only. Intraoperative frozen section was performed, followed by conventional histopathology. Results:Thepositive rate, sensitivity, false negative rate, consistent rate and the Kappa values of the test group were 98%(98/100), 95.74%(45/47), 4.26%(2/47), 96.94%%(95/98) and 0.860, and 94%(94/100) and 86.96%(40/46), 13.04%(6/46), 93.62%(88/94) and 0.758 of control group;There were statistical significance between the differences of the positive rate, sensitivity, false negative rate, consistent rate and the Kappa values of test group and control group. Conclusion:Combination of indocyanine green and methylene blue for mapping sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients has the advantages of real-time visual and accurate positioning and can reduce the false negative rate, to provide the important evidence based medicine foundation for the surgical treatment of breast cancer.

  16. Effect of Kanglaite combined with chemotherapy on myelosuppression, immune function and tumor markers levels in patients with breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Pan; Hao Yu; Jian-Liang You


    Objective:To investigate the effect of Kanglaite combined with chemotherapy on myelosuppression, immune function and tumor markers levels in patients with breast cancer. Methods:A total of 90 breast cancer patients in our hospital were randomly divided into control group (45 cases) and observation group (45 cases). The two groups received CAF chemotherapy, and the observation group was additionally given Kanglaite injection (200 mL/d) for 2 weeks continuously. Both groups had chemotherapy for 6 courses. The effect on myelosuppression, immune function and tumor markers levels was detected and compared before and after treatment in two groups.Results:After treatment, myelosuppression was found in both groups, and the levels of leukocyte, hemoglobin and platelet decreased significantly compared with before treatment (P0.05), and the levels of immune function indexes (CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+) of the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the levels of two tumor markers (CEA, CA15-3) decreased significantly than before treatment in both groups (P<0.05), and the decrease amplitude in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Kanglaite combined with chemotherapy has evident therapeutic effect on breast cancer. It can alleviate the myelosuppression caused by chemotherapy, improve immune function, and reduce the concentration of tumor markers in patients with breast cancer.

  17. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg


    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  18. Clinical efficacy of breast-conserving surgery combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer: a report of 81 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yu CAO


    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with breast-conserving surgery for locally advanced breast cancer. Methods Eighty-one patients with locally advanced breast cancer were selected from those who were admitted into 309 Hospital of PLA from January 2009 to October 2013, consisting of 65 patients in stage Ⅲa and 16 in stage Ⅲb, and they were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with breast-conserving surgery. The clinical efficacy [complete response (CR, partial response (PR, stable disease (SD and progress disease (PD] was observed during follow-up. Results All the patients were followed-up for 12-60 months with a median of 34 months. There were 12 CR patients (14.8%, including 4 with pathological complete response (4.9%, and 52 PR patients (64.2%, 17 SD patients (21.0%. No PD was observed. The overall response rate(ORR was 79.0%(64/81. After follow-up for 12-60 months (median 34 months, distant metastasis to the lung, liver, meninges and bone occurred in 3 patients (3.7%, 3/81 and 1 of them died. Forty-eight patients received breastconserving surgery. The local recurrence rate was 6.3% (3/48. Assessment of cosmetic result was carried out in 48 patients who received breast-conserving surgery and comprehensive treatment for one year, and excellent results were obtained in 14.6% (7/48, good in 43.8% (21/48, and poor in 41.7% (20/48. Conclusions The therapeutic efficacy of locally advanced breast cancer is satisfactory by neoadjuvant chemotherapy and breast-conserving surgery. Standardization of excision and postoperative radiotherapy, systemic comprehensive treatment is the key to the success of the treatment. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.06.14

  19. Breast Cancer Rates by State (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  20. Report: Evaluation on diagnosis significance of single high frequency Ultrasonography and mammography and combination on Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Sun, Huifang; Wang, Bo; Ding, Changmao; Yu, Zhan; Gao, Jianbo


    To evaluate the diagnosis significance of single high-frequency ultrasonography and mammography and combination therapy of both on breast cancer. 352 cases of female breast cancer patients were selected from The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2012 to December 2014. Among the 352 patients, 124 patients had only performed high-frequency ultrasonography detection, 102 cases of patients were only conducted mammography, and 126 patients had applied the combination detection of high-frequency ultrasonography and mammography. The coincidence rate of single mammography detection was 79.4%, the misdiagnosis rate was 10.8%, and the missed diagnosis rate was 9.8%; the coincidence rate of single high frequency ultrasonography detection was 83.9%, the misdiagnosis rate was 11.5%, the missed diagnosis rate was 4.6%; the coincidence rate of combination of high frequency ultrasonography detection was 89.7%, the misdiagnosis rate was 6.3%, the missed diagnosis rate was 4.0%. The detection rate and missed diagnosis rate of combination diagnosis had statistical difference with single high frequency ultrasonography and single mammography. There was no statistical difference on misdiagnosis rate. mammography and high frequency ultrasonography respectively had their own advantages. The combination application of both had better diagnosis complementary, and could significantly improved the detection rate and accuracy rate on breast cancer, and decreased the misdiagnosis rate and missed diagnosis rate.

  1. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... have revolutionized breast cancer treatment: tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Bernard Fisher, M.D., of the University of ... breast tumors. Dr. Slamon and his colleagues developed trastuzumab (Herceptin). Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody, was the first ...

  2. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer? (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer How Does Breast Cancer Form? Changes or mutations in DNA can cause ... requests, please contact . More In Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention Early Detection ...

  3. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien


    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-analysis techniques. Dose-response analyses by number of prescriptions were also performed. Analyses were repeated investigating propranolol use before cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: The combined study population included 55,252 and 133,251 breast cancer patients in the analysis of breast cancer-specific and all...

  4. A combinational therapy of EGFR-CAR NK cells and oncolytic herpes simplex virus 1 for breast cancer brain metastases. (United States)

    Chen, Xilin; Han, Jianfeng; Chu, Jianhong; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Jianying; Chen, Charlie; Chen, Luxi; Wang, Youwei; Wang, Hongwei; Yi, Long; Elder, J Bradley; Wang, Qi-En; He, Xiaoming; Kaur, Balveen; Chiocca, E Antonio; Yu, Jianhua


    Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBMs) are common in patients with metastatic breast cancer and indicate a poor prognosis. These tumors are especially resistant to currently available treatments due to multiple factors. However, the combination of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified immune cells and oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) has not yet been explored in this context. In this study, NK-92 cells and primary NK cells were engineered to express the second generation of EGFR-CAR. The efficacies of anti-BCBMs of EGFR-CAR NK cells, oHSV-1, and their combination were tested in vitro and in a breast cancer intracranial mouse model. In vitro, compared with mock-transduced NK-92 cells or primary NK cells, EGFR-CAR-engineered NK-92 cells and primary NK cells displayed enhanced cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production when co-cultured with breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and MCF-7. oHSV-1 alone was also capable of lysing and destroying these cells. However, a higher cytolytic effect of EGFR-CAR NK-92 cells was observed when combined with oHSV-1 compared to the monotherapies. In the mice intracranially pre-inoculated with EGFR-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells, intratumoral administration of either EGFR-CAR-transduced NK-92 cells or oHSV-1 mitigated tumor growth. Notably, the combination of EGFR-CAR NK-92 cells with oHSV-1 resulted in more efficient killing of MDA-MB-231 tumor cells and significantly longer survival of tumor-bearing mice when compared to monotherapies. These results demonstrate that regional administration of EGFR-CAR NK-92 cells combined with oHSV-1 therapy is a potentially promising strategy to treat BCBMs.

  5. Overview of diagnostic/targeted treatment combinations in personalized medicine for breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessari A


    Full Text Available Anna Tessari,1 Dario Palmieri,2 Serena Di Cosimo11Division of Medical Oncology 1, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy; 2Molecular Biology and Cancer Genetics, Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Breast cancer includes a body of molecularly distinct subgroups, characterized by different presentation, prognosis, and sensitivity to treatments. Significant advances in our understanding of the complex architecture of this pathology have been achieved in the last few decades, thanks to new biotechnologies that have recently come into the research field and the clinical practice, giving oncologists new instruments that are based on biomarkers and allowing them to set up a personalized approach for each individual patient. Here we review the main treatments available or in preclinical development, the biomolecular diagnostic and prognostic approaches that changed our perspective about breast cancer, giving an overview of targeted therapies that represent the current standard of care for these patients. Finally, we report some examples of how new technologies in clinical practice can set in motion the development of new drugs.Keywords: breast cancer, biomarkers, gene expression profile, next generation sequencing, targeted therapy

  6. Progestins and breast cancer. (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge R


    inactive sulfates. The action of progestins in breast cancer is very controversial; some studies indicate an increase in breast cancer incidence, others show no difference and still others a significant decrease. Progestin action can also be a function of combination with other molecules (e.g. estrogens). In order to clarify and better understand the response of progestins in breast cancer (incidence, mortality), as well as in hormone replacement therapy or endocrine dysfunction, new clinical trials are needed studying other progestins as a function of the dose and period of treatment.

  7. Combined effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes contribute to increased breast cancer risk in premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Attas Omar S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both obesity and type 2 diabetes are among the risk factors for breast cancer development. Combined effect of these metabolic abnormalities on breast cancer risk however, has not been examined in premenopausal women. We tested this association in type 2 diabetic women, categorized as obese, overweight and normal body weight groups based on BMI. Design and methods A total of 101 subjects were included in this study. Serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, C reactive protein, leptin, TGF-α, adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA. Data were logarithmically transformed for variables not normally distributed. Analysis of variance with post-hoc Bonferroni was applied to compare the data between the groups. Simple and partial correlation coefficients between the variables were determined and a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationships between the variables of interest. Results Significantly increased levels of IL-6, C reactive protein, leptin and significantly decreased levels of adiponectin were found in obese group, while the levels of TNF-α and TGF-α were unaltered. A positive correlation between waist circumference and IL-6 was found in obese group. Similarly, C reactive protein, waist and hip circumferences were linearly correlated with BMI in obese group. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed several significant predictors for breast cancer risk. Conclusion Obesity and type 2 diabetes, owing to their effects on adipocytokines and inflammatory mediators, contribute to increased breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. This study emphasizes healthy life style and better management of these metabolic disorders to avoid the pathogenesis of breast cancer and of other chronic diseases.

  8. Metronomic Cyclophosphamide and Methotrexate Chemotherapy Combined with 1E10 Anti-Idiotype Vaccine in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Soriano


    Full Text Available The use of low doses of cytotoxic agents continuously for prolonged periods is an alternative for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer who have developed resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The combination of metronomic chemotherapy with therapeutic vaccines might increase the efficacy of the treatment. Twenty one patients with metastatic breast cancer in progression and a Karnosky index ≥60%, were treated with metronomic chemotherapy (50 mg of cyclophospamide orally daily and 2.5 mg of methotrexate orally bi-daily, in combination with five bi-weekly subcutaneous injections of 1 mg of aluminum hydroxide-precipitated 1E10 anti-idiotype MAb (1E10-Alum, followed by reimmunizations every 28 days. Five patients achieved objective response, eight showed stable disease and eight had disease progression. Median time to progression was 9,8 months, while median overall survival time was 12,93 months. The median duration of the response (CR+PR+SD was 18,43 months (12,20–24,10 months, being higher than 12 months in 76,9% of the patients. Overall toxicity was generally mild. Metronomic chemotherapy combined with 1E10-Alum vaccine immunotherapy might be a useful therapeutic option for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer due to its potential impact on survival and patient quality of live, low toxicity and advantages of the administration.

  9. Ganoderma lucidum Combined with the EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Erlotinib Synergize to Reduce Inflammatory Breast Cancer Progression. (United States)

    Suárez-Arroyo, Ivette J; Rios-Fuller, Tiffany J; Feliz-Mosquea, Yismeilin R; Lacourt-Ventura, Mercedes; Leal-Alviarez, Daniel J; Maldonado-Martinez, Gerónimo; Cubano, Luis A; Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M


    The high incidence of resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) targeted against EGFR and downstream pathways has increased the necessity to identify agents that may be combined with these therapies to provide a sustained response for breast cancer patients. Here, we investigate the therapeutic potential of Ganoderma lucidum extract (GLE) in breast cancer, focusing on the regulation of the EGFR signaling cascade when treated with the EGFR TKI, Erlotinib. SUM-149, or intrinsic Erlotinib resistant MDA-MB-231 cells, and a successfully developed Erlotinib resistant cell line, rSUM-149 were treated with increasing concentrations of Erlotinib, GLE, or their combination (Erlotinib/GLE) for 72h. Treatment effects were tested on cell viability, cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion. To determine tumor progression, severe combined immunodeficient mice were injected with SUM-149 cells and then treated with Erlotinib/GLE or Erlotinib for 13 weeks. We assessed the protein expression of ERK1/2 and AKT in in vitro and in vivo models. Our results show that GLE synergizes with Erlotinib to sensitize SUM-149 cells to drug treatment, and overcomes intrinsic and developed Erlotinib resistance. Also, Erlotinib/GLE decreases SUM-149 cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion. GLE increases Erlotinib sensitivity by inactivating AKT and ERK signaling pathways in our models. We conclude that a combinatorial therapeutic approach may be the best way to increase prognosis in breast cancer patients with EGFR overexpressing tumors.

  10. Pertuzumab: a review of its use for first-line combination treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. (United States)

    McCormack, Paul L


    Pertuzumab (Perjeta®) is a humanized anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody that binds to the extracellular dimerization subdomain of the HER2 receptor and reduces HER2 intracellular signalling by preventing HER2 from forming heterodimers with other HER receptors. Inhibition of HER2 signalling results in a reduction of tumour cell proliferation, invasiveness and survival. Pertuzumab and trastuzumab bind to different sites on the HER2 receptor and have complementary antitumour activities; they act synergistically in inhibiting the growth of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines in vitro. The efficacy of intravenous pertuzumab (840 mg loading dose, then 420 mg every 3 weeks) in combination with trastuzumab plus docetaxel in the first-line treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer was demonstrated in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, phase III CLEOPATRA trial. Pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel significantly increased independently assessed median progression-free survival (primary endpoint), objective response rate and overall survival compared with placebo in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel. Pertuzumab had an acceptable tolerability profile when added to trastuzumab and docetaxel in the pivotal CLEOPATRA trial. Thus, pertuzumab is a valuable addition to the growing list of anti-HER2 targeted therapies for breast cancer.

  11. Breast Cancer in Men (United States)

    ... Older age • B RCA2 gene mutation • F amily history of breast cancer • Gynecomastia (enlargement of the breast tissue) • Klinefelter’s syndrome (a genetic condition related to high levels ...

  12. Breast cancer risk and 6q22.33: combined results from Breast Cancer Association Consortium and Consortium of Investigators on Modifiers of BRCA1/2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kirchhoff

    Full Text Available Recently, a locus on chromosome 6q22.33 (rs2180341 was reported to be associated with increased breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ population, and this association was also observed in populations of non-AJ European ancestry. In the present study, we performed a large replication analysis of rs2180341 using data from 31,428 invasive breast cancer cases and 34,700 controls collected from 25 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC. In addition, we evaluated whether rs2180341 modifies breast cancer risk in 3,361 BRCA1 and 2,020 BRCA2 carriers from 11 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA. Based on the BCAC data from women of European ancestry, we found evidence for a weak association with breast cancer risk for rs2180341 (per-allele odds ratio (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, p = 0.023. There was evidence for heterogeneity in the ORs among studies (I(2 = 49.3%; p = <0.004. In CIMBA, we observed an inverse association with the minor allele of rs2180341 and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele OR = 0.89, 95%CI 0.80-1.00, p = 0.048, indicating a potential protective effect of this allele. These data suggest that that 6q22.33 confers a weak effect on breast cancer risk.

  13. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong


    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  14. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong


    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  15. A novel model to combine clinical and pathway-based transcriptomic information for the prognosis prediction of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Huang


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. With the increasing awareness of heterogeneity in breast cancers, better prediction of breast cancer prognosis is much needed for more personalized treatment and disease management. Towards this goal, we have developed a novel computational model for breast cancer prognosis by combining the Pathway Deregulation Score (PDS based pathifier algorithm, Cox regression and L1-LASSO penalization method. We trained the model on a set of 236 patients with gene expression data and clinical information, and validated the performance on three diversified testing data sets of 606 patients. To evaluate the performance of the model, we conducted survival analysis of the dichotomized groups, and compared the areas under the curve based on the binary classification. The resulting prognosis genomic model is composed of fifteen pathways (e.g., P53 pathway that had previously reported cancer relevance, and it successfully differentiated relapse in the training set (log rank p-value = 6.25e-12 and three testing data sets (log rank p-value < 0.0005. Moreover, the pathway-based genomic models consistently performed better than gene-based models on all four data sets. We also find strong evidence that combining genomic information with clinical information improved the p-values of prognosis prediction by at least three orders of magnitude in comparison to using either genomic or clinical information alone. In summary, we propose a novel prognosis model that harnesses the pathway-based dysregulation as well as valuable clinical information. The selected pathways in our prognosis model are promising targets for therapeutic intervention.

  16. In vitro investigation on the magnetic thermochemotherapy mediated by magnetic nanoparticles combined with methotrexate for breast cancer treatment. (United States)

    Zhao, Lingyun; Huo, Meijun; Liu, Jiayi; Yao, Zhu; Li, Danye; Zhao, Zhiwei; Tang, Jintian


    Cancer comprehensive treatment has been fully recognized as it can provide an effective multimodality approach for fighting cancers. In therapeutic oncology, hyperthermic adjuvant chemotherapy termed as thermochemotherapy plays an increasing role in multimodality cancer treatment. Currently, targeted nanothermotherapy is one of the effective hyperthermia approach based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which can be achieved by applying biocompatible nanoscaled metallic particles that convert electromagnetic energy into heat, for instance, magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) mediated by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Upon exposure under alternative magnetic field (AMF), SPIONs can generate heat through oscillation of their magnetic moment. Nowadays, clinical trials at phase II are now under investigations for MFH on patients in Germany and Japan and demonstrate very inspiring for cancer therapy. In this work we explore the feasibility and effectiveness of magnetic thermochemotherapy mediated by magnetic nanoparticles combined with methotrexate, an anti-cancer drug, for breast cancer comprehensive treatment. Amino silane coated MNPs as agent of MFH were prepared by the chemical precipitation method. Physiochemical characterizations on MNPs have been systematically carried out by various instrumental analyses. Inductive heating property of the MNPs was evaluated by monitoring the temperature increase of the MNPs suspension under AMF. The in-vitro cytotoxicity results on human breast cancer cell MCF-7 by CCK-8 assay indicated the bi-modal cancer treatment approach for combined MFH and chemotherapy is more effective than mono-modal treatment, indicating a thermal enhancement effect of hyperthermia on drug cytocoxicity. The magnetic thermochemotherapy mediated by MNPs combined with methotrexate can realize cancer comprehensive treatment thus has great potential in clinical application.

  17. Risk of Breast Cancer in Relation to Combined Effects of Hormone Therapy, Body Mass Index, and Alcohol Use, by Hormone-receptor Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Tjonneland, Anne; Keiding, Niels;


    BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption, increased body mass index (BMI), and hormone therapy are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, but their combined effects are not well understood. Because hormone therapy is effective for the relief of menopausal symptoms, the identification of "high...... therapy users across all BMI strata (P for interaction = 0.003). A markedly higher risk of breast cancer was also observed for alcohol combined with hormone therapy use compared with abstinent nonusers (P for interaction = 0.02). These effects were primarily restricted to ER-positive cases. Combined...... effects of hormone therapy/high BMI and hormone therapy/alcohol on serum estradiol and testosterone supported the hypothesis of a hormonal pathway linking these exposures to breast cancer. CONCLUSION: These analyses suggest an increased risk of breast cancer associated with hormone therapy use-a risk...

  18. Combined Wnt/β-Catenin, Met, and CXCL12/CXCR4 Signals Characterize Basal Breast Cancer and Predict Disease Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane D. Holland


    Full Text Available Prognosis for patients with estrogen-receptor (ER-negative basal breast cancer is poor, and chemotherapy is currently the best therapeutic option. We have generated a compound-mutant mouse model combining the activation of β-catenin and HGF (Wnt-Met signaling, which produced rapidly growing basal mammary gland tumors. We identified the chemokine system CXCL12/CXCR4 as a crucial driver of Wnt-Met tumors, given that compound-mutant mice also deficient in the CXCR4 gene were tumor resistant. Wnt-Met activation rapidly expanded a population of cancer-propagating cells, in which the two signaling systems control different functions, self-renewal and differentiation. Molecular therapy targeting Wnt, Met, and CXCR4 in mice significantly delayed tumor development. The expression of a Wnt-Met 322 gene signature was found to be predictive of poor survival of human patients with ER-negative breast cancers. Thus, targeting CXCR4 and its upstream activators, Wnt and Met, might provide an efficient strategy for breast cancer treatment.

  19. Combined Wnt/β-catenin, Met, and CXCL12/CXCR4 signals characterize basal breast cancer and predict disease outcome. (United States)

    Holland, Jane D; Györffy, Balázs; Vogel, Regina; Eckert, Klaus; Valenti, Giovanni; Fang, Liang; Lohneis, Philipp; Elezkurtaj, Sefer; Ziebold, Ulrike; Birchmeier, Walter


    Prognosis for patients with estrogen-receptor (ER)-negative basal breast cancer is poor, and chemotherapy is currently the best therapeutic option. We have generated a compound-mutant mouse model combining the activation of β-catenin and HGF (Wnt-Met signaling), which produced rapidly growing basal mammary gland tumors. We identified the chemokine system CXCL12/CXCR4 as a crucial driver of Wnt-Met tumors, given that compound-mutant mice also deficient in the CXCR4 gene were tumor resistant. Wnt-Met activation rapidly expanded a population of cancer-propagating cells, in which the two signaling systems control different functions, self-renewal and differentiation. Molecular therapy targeting Wnt, Met, and CXCR4 in mice significantly delayed tumor development. The expression of a Wnt-Met 322 gene signature was found to be predictive of poor survival of human patients with ER-negative breast cancers. Thus, targeting CXCR4 and its upstream activators, Wnt and Met, might provide an efficient strategy for breast cancer treatment.

  20. Effect of Shenqi fuzheng injection combined with chemotherapy on immune and hematopoietic function in treatment of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Fang Jia; Min Duan; Xin Duan


    Objective:To investigate the effect of shenqi fuzheng injection combined with chemotherapy on immune and hematopoietic function in the treatment of breast cancer.Methods: A total of 100 patients with breast cancer who admitted in our hospital were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group by half. The control group was treated with CAF chemotherapy, the observation group received Shenqi fuzheng injection based on the control group. Life quality, the changes of hematopoietic function (white blood cell, hemoglobin, platelet) and the immune function (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10) indexes of two groups were compared before and after treatment.Results: Before treatment, there were no significant differences in white blood cell, hemoglobin and platelet levels between the two groups (P>0.05); after treatment, white blood cell, hemoglobin and platelet levels in the observation group showed no significant changes compared with those before treatment (P > 0.05), each indexes in the control group were significantly decreased (P 0.05), the indexes in the observation group were significantly better than those in the control group after treatment (P < 0.05).Conclusions:Shenqi fuzheng injection combined with chemotherapy has significant effect in the treatment of breast cancer, and it is helpful to improve hematopoietic function and immune function.

  1. A Novel Multi-voxel Based Quantitation of Metabolites and Lipids Non-invasively Combined with Diffusion Weighted Imaging in Breast Cancer (United States)


    20. Bogner W, Gruber S, Pinker K, et al. Diffusion-weighted MR for Differentiation of Breast Lesions at 3.0 T: How Does Selection of Diffusion...Combined with Diffusion Weighted Imaging in Breast Cancer M. Albert Thomas, Neil Wilson, Jon Furuyama, Nanette DeBruhl and Lawrence Bassett Radiological

  2. Potentiated suppression of Dickkopf-1 in breast cancer by combined administration of the mevalonate pathway inhibitors zoledronic acid and statins. (United States)

    Göbel, Andy; Browne, Andrew J; Thiele, Stefanie; Rauner, Martina; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rachner, Tilman D


    The Wnt-inhibitor dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) promotes cancer-induced osteolytic bone lesions by direct inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and indirect activation of osteoclasts. DKK-1 is highly expressed in human breast cancer cells and can be suppressed by inhibitors of the mevalonate pathway such as statins and amino-bisphosphonates. However, supraphysiological concentrations are required to suppress DKK-1. We show that a sequential mevalonate pathway blockade using statins and amino-bisphosphonates suppresses DKK-1 more significantly than the individual agents alone. Thus, the reduction of the DKK-1 expression and secretion in the human osteotropic tumor cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MET, and MDA-BONE by zoledronic acid was potentiated by the combination with low concentrations of statins (atorvastatin, simvastatin, and rosuvastatin) by up to 75% (p cancer-derived DKK-1-mediated inhibition of osteogenic markers in C2C12 cells (p pathway blockade allows for the combined use of low concentration of statins and amino-bisphosphonates. This combination still significantly suppresses breast cancer-derived DKK-1 to levels where it can no longer inhibit Wnt-mediated osteoblast differentiation.

  3. OPUS: optoacoustic imaging combined with conventional ultrasound for breast cancer detection (United States)

    Haisch, C.; Zell, K.; Sperl, J. I.; Ketzer, S.; Vogel, M. W.; Menzenbach, P.; Niessner, R.


    Besides x-ray imaging, sonography is the most common method for breast cancer screening. The intention of our work is to develop optoacoustical imaging as an add-on to a conventional system. While ultrasound imaging reveals acoustical properties of tissue, optoacoustics generates an image of the distribution of optical absorption. Hence, it can be a valuable addition to sonography, because acoustical properties of different tissues show only a slight variation whereas the optical properties may differ strongly. Additionally, optoacoustics gives access to physiological parameters, like oxygen saturation of blood. For the presented work, we combine a conventional ultrasound system to a 100 Hz laser. The laser system consists of a Nd:YAG-laser at a wavelength of 532 nm with 7 ns pulse duration, coupled to a tunable Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) with a tuning rage from 680 nm to 2500 nm. The tunable laser source allows the selection of wavelengths which compromising high spectral information content with high skin transmission. The laser pulse is delivered fiber-optically to the ultrasound transducer and coupled into the acoustical field of view. Homogeneous illumination is crucial in order to achieve unblurred images. Furthermore the maximum allowed pulse intensities in accordance with standards for medical equipment have to be met to achieve a high signal to noise ration. The ultrasound instrument generates the trigger signal which controls the laser pulsing in order to apply ultrasound instrument's imaging procedures without major modifications to generate an optoacoustic image. Detection of the optoacoustic signal as well as of the classical ultrasound signal is carried out by the standard medical ultrasound transducer. The characterization of the system, including quantitative measurements, performed on tissue phantoms, is presented. These phantoms have been specially designed regarding their acoustical as well as their optical properties.

  4. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology


    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  5. Mitosis detection in breast cancer pathology images by combining handcrafted and convolutional neural network features. (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Cruz-Roa, Angel; Basavanhally, Ajay; Gilmore, Hannah; Shih, Natalie; Feldman, Mike; Tomaszewski, John; Gonzalez, Fabio; Madabhushi, Anant


    Breast cancer (BCa) grading plays an important role in predicting disease aggressiveness and patient outcome. A key component of BCa grade is the mitotic count, which involves quantifying the number of cells in the process of dividing (i.e., undergoing mitosis) at a specific point in time. Currently, mitosis counting is done manually by a pathologist looking at multiple high power fields (HPFs) on a glass slide under a microscope, an extremely laborious and time consuming process. The development of computerized systems for automated detection of mitotic nuclei, while highly desirable, is confounded by the highly variable shape and appearance of mitoses. Existing methods use either handcrafted features that capture certain morphological, statistical, or textural attributes of mitoses or features learned with convolutional neural networks (CNN). Although handcrafted features are inspired by the domain and the particular application, the data-driven CNN models tend to be domain agnostic and attempt to learn additional feature bases that cannot be represented through any of the handcrafted features. On the other hand, CNN is computationally more complex and needs a large number of labeled training instances. Since handcrafted features attempt to model domain pertinent attributes and CNN approaches are largely supervised feature generation methods, there is an appeal in attempting to combine these two distinct classes of feature generation strategies to create an integrated set of attributes that can potentially outperform either class of feature extraction strategies individually. We present a cascaded approach for mitosis detection that intelligently combines a CNN model and handcrafted features (morphology, color, and texture features). By employing a light CNN model, the proposed approach is far less demanding computationally, and the cascaded strategy of combining handcrafted features and CNN-derived features enables the possibility of maximizing the performance

  6. Breast cancer statistics, 2011. (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin


    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population.

  7. The effectiveness of nano chemotherapeutic particles combined with mifepristone depends on the PR isoform ratio in preclinical models of breast cancer


    Sequeira, Gonzalo Ricardo; Vanzulli, Silvia I; Rojas, Paola Andrea; Lamb, Caroline Ana; Colombo, Lucas Luis; May, Maria; Molinolo, Alfredo; Lanari, Claudia Lee Malvina


    There is clinical and experimental evidence suggesting that antiprogestins might be used for the treatment of selected breast cancer patients. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of albumin-bound paclitaxel (Nab-paclitaxel) and pegylated doxorubicin liposomes (PEG-LD) in combination with mifepristone (MFP) in experimental breast cancer models expressing different ratios of progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms A and B. We used two antiprogestin-responsive (PRA>PRB) and two resistant (PRA

  8. Breast cancer (United States)

    ... women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . 2014;160:271-281. PMID: 24366376 www.ncbi. ... Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . [Epub ahead of print 12 January 2016] doi: ...

  9. Breast cancer risk and 6q22.33: Combined results from breast cancer association consortium and consortium of investigators on modifiers of brca1/2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Kircchoff (Tomas); K. Offit (Kenneth); M.M. Gaudet (Mia); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); D.F. Easton (Douglas); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis); L. McGuffog (Lesley); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); A.M. Dunning (Alison); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); H. Flyger (Henrik); D. Kang (Daehee); K-Y. Yoo (Keun-Young); D-Y. Noh (Dong-Young); S.-H. Ahn (Sei-Hyun); T. Dörk (Thilo); P. Schürmann (Peter); J.H. Karstens (Johann); P. Hillemanns (Peter); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J.E. Olson (Janet); C. Vachon (Celine); A. Cox (Angela); I.W. Brock (Ian); G. Elliott (Graeme); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); A. Meindl (Alfons); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); C. Justenhoven (Christina); U. Hamann (Ute); Y-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); H.-P. Fischer; T. Brüning (Thomas); B. Pesch (Beate); V. Harth (Volker); S. Rabstein (Sylvia); A. Broeks (Annegien); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); L.J. Van 't Veer (Laura); L.M. Braaf (Linde); N. Johnson (Nichola); O. Fletcher (Olivia); L.J. Gibson (Lorna); J. Peto (Julian); C. Turnbull (Clare); S. Seal (Sheila); A. Renwick (Anthony); N. Rahman (Nazneen); P.-E. Wu (Pei-Ei); J-C. Yu (Jyh-Cherng); C.-N. Hsiung (Chia-Ni); C-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); M.C. Southey (Melissa); J.L. Hopper (John); F. Hammet (Fleur); T. van Dorpe (Thijs); A.-S. Dieudonné (Anne-Sophie); S. Hatse (Sigrid); D. Lambrechts (Diether); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); J.I. Rogov (Juri); D. Prokofieva (Daria); M. Bermisheva (Marina); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); P. Devilee (Peter); S. Margolin (Sara); A. Lindblom (Annika); R.L. Milne (Roger); J.I. Arias Pérez (José Ignacio); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J. Benítez (Javier); G. Severi (Gianluca); L. Baglietto (Laura); G.G. Giles (Graham); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); J. Beesley (Jonathan); X. Chen (Xiaoqing); H. Holland (Helene); S. Healey (Sue); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J. Kauppinen (Jaana); V. Kataja (Vesa); B.A. Agnarsson (Bjarni); M.A. Caligo (Maria); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); T. Heikinen (Tuomas); Z. Fredericksen (Zachary); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); S.M. Domchek (Susan); N. Loman (Niklas); P. Karlsson (Per); M.S. Askmalm (Marie); B. Melin (Beatrice); A. von Wachenfeldt (Anna); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); M. Verheus (Martijn); M.A. Rookus (Matti); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); R.A. Oldenburg (Rogier); M.J. Ligtenberg (Marjolijn); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); H.J.P. Gille (Hans); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); S. Peock (Susan); M. Cook (Margaret); C.T. Oliver (Clare); D. Frost (Debra); C. Luccarini (Craig); G. Pichert (Gabriella); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); D. Eccles (Diana); K.-R. Ong (Kai-Ren); J. Cook (Jackie); F. Douglas (Fiona); S.V. Hodgson (Shirley); D.G. Evans (Gareth); R. Eeles (Rosalind); B. Gold (Bert); X. Wang (Xianshu); C. Chu (Carol)


    textabstractRecently, a locus on chromosome 6q22.33 (rs2180341) was reported to be associated with increased breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, and this association was also observed in populations of non-AJ European ancestry. In the present study, we performed a large repli



    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  12. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  13. Efficiency and prognosis of whole brain irradiation combined with precise radiotherapy on triple-negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhong Wu


    Conclusion: After whole brain irradiation followed by IMRT or 3DCRT treatment, TN phenotype breast cancer patients with intracranial metastasis had high objective response rates but shorter survival time. With respect to survival in breast cancer patients with intracranial metastasis, the TN phenotype represents a significant adverse prognostic factor.

  14. Successful outcome after combined chemotherapeutic and surgical management in a case of esophageal cancer with breast and brain relapse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davide Adriano Santeufemia; Antonio Farris; Gianfranca Piredda; Giovanni Maria Fadda; Paolo Cossu Rocca; Salvatore Costantino; Giovanni Sanna; Maria Giuseppa Sarobba; Maria Antonietta Pinna; Carlo Putzu


    Esophageal cancer (EC) is a highly lethal disease. Approximately 50% of patients present with metastatic EC and most patients with localized EC will have local recurrence or develop metastases, despite potentially curative local therapy. The most common sites of distant recurrence are represented by lung, liver and bone while brain and breast metastases are rare. Usually patients with advanced disease are not treated aggressively and their median survival is six months. We report a woman patient who developed breast and brain metastases after curative surgery. We treated her with a highly aggressive chemotherapeutic and surgical combination resulting in a complete remission of the disease even after 11-year follow-up. We think that in super selected patients with more than one metastasis, when functional status is good and metastases are technically resectable, a surgical excision may be considered as a salvage option and chemotherapy should be delivered to allow a systemic control.

  15. Combined Phosphoproteomics and Bioinformatics Strategy in Deciphering Drug Resistant Related Pathways in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Deng


    Full Text Available Because of the absence of a clear therapeutic target for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC, conventional chemotherapy is the only available systemic treatment option for these patients. Despite chemotherapy treatment, TNBC patients still have worse prognosis when compared with other breast cancer patients. The study is to investigate unique phosphorylated proteins expressed in chemoresistant TNBC cell lines. In the current study, twelve TNBC cell lines were subjected to drug sensitivity assays against chemotherapy drugs docetaxel, doxorubicin, gemcitabine, and cisplatin. Based on their half maximal inhibitory concentrations, four resistant and two sensitive cell lines were selected for further analysis. The phosphopeptides from these cells were enriched with TiO2 beads and fractionated using strong cation exchange. 1,645 phosphoprotein groups and 9,585 unique phosphopeptides were identified by a high throughput LC-MS/MS system LTQ-Orbitrap. The phosphopeptides were further filtered with Ascore system and 1,340 phosphoprotein groups, 2,760 unique phosphopeptides, and 4,549 unique phosphosites were identified. Our study suggested that differentially phosphorylated Cdk5, PML, AP-1, and HSF-1 might work together to promote vimentin induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT in the drug resistant cells. EGFR and HGF were also shown to be involved in this process.

  16. New approaches in the management of advanced breast cancer – role of combination treatment with liposomal doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain RJ Macpherson


    Full Text Available Iain RJ Macpherson, TR Jeffry EvansBeatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow, United KingdomAbstract: Metastatic breast cancer (MBC remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. For three decades doxorubicin, alone or in combination with other cytotoxic agents, has been a mainstay of systemic therapy for MBC. However, its use is limited by cumulative cardiotoxicity. More recently liposomal formulations of doxorubicin have been developed which exhibit equal efficacy but reduced cardiotoxicity in comparison to conventional doxorubicin. The novel toxicity profile of liposomal doxorubicins has prompted their evaluation with various cytotoxic agents in patients with MBC. In addition, their favorable cardiac safety profile has prompted re-evaluation of concomitant therapy with doxorubicin and trastuzumab, a regimen of proven efficacy in MBC but previously considered to be associated with significant cardiotoxicity. We review clinical trial data addressing combination therapy with both pegylated and non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with MBC.Keywords: breast cancer, anthracycline, liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, cardiotoxicity

  17. Massage therapy alone and in combination with meditation for breast cancer patients undergoing autologous tissue reconstruction: A randomized pilot study. (United States)

    Dion, Liza J; Engen, Deborah J; Lemaine, Valerie; Lawson, Donna K; Brock, Charise G; Thomley, Barbara S; Cha, Stephen S; Sood, Amit; Bauer, Brent A; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L


    This study explored whether massage combined with meditation is more helpful than massage alone for women recovering from autologous tissue reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer. Forty patients were randomly assigned to either massage therapy or massage plus meditation on postoperative days 1 through 3. Outcome measures were 1) visual analog scale (VAS) scores for stress, anxiety, relaxation, insomnia, alertness, fatigue, tension, pain, mood, and energy, and 2) Perceived Stress Scale-14 scores. Nineteen patients in each group finished the study. Preintervention and postintervention mean total VAS scores improved significantly in both groups (P < .001), but no significant difference occurred between groups.

  18. Low dose reirradiation in combination with hyperthermia: a palliative treatment for patients with breast cancer recurring in previously irradiated areas. (United States)

    van der Zee, J; Treurniet-Donker, A D; The, S K; Helle, P A; Seldenrath, J J; Meerwaldt, J H; Wijnmaalen, A J; van den Berg, A P; van Rhoon, G C; Broekmeyer-Reurink, M P


    Ninety-seven patients with breast cancer recurring in a previously irradiated area (mean dose 44 Gy) were reirradiated in combination with hyperthermia and had evaluable tumor responses. In the reirradiation series, radiotherapy was given twice weekly in most patients, with a fraction size varying from 200 to 400 cGy, the total dose varying from 8 to 32 Gy. Hyperthermia was given following the radiotherapy fractions. The combined treatment resulted in 35% complete and 55% partial responses. Duration of response was median 4 months for partial response and 26 months for complete response, respectively. The median survival time for all patients was 12 months. Acute skin reaction was mild, with more than moderate erythema in only 14/97 patients. Thermal burns occurred in 44/97 patients, generally at sites where pain sensation was decreased, and therefore they did not cause much inconvenience. In the 19 patients who survived more than 2 years, no late radiation damage was observed. When patients who received a "high dose" (greater than 29 Gy and hyperthermia) were compared with those who received a "low dose" (less than 29 Gy and hyperthermia), a higher complete response rate was observed in the high dose group (58% vs. 24%), whereas no difference in acute toxicity was found. We conclude that reirradiation with 8 x 4 Gy in combination with hyperthermia twice weekly is a safe, effective and well tolerated method for palliative treatment of patients with breast cancer recurring in previously irradiated areas.

  19. Increased chemopreventive effect by combining arctigenin, green tea polyphenol and curcumin in prostate and breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Wang, Piwen; Wang, Bin; Chung, Seyung; Wu, Yanyuan; Henning, Susanne M; Vadgama, Jaydutt V


    The low bioavailability of most flavonoids limits their application as anti-carcinogenic agents in humans. A novel approach of treatment with a mixture of bioactive compounds that share molecular anti-carcinogenic targets may enhance the effect on these targets at low concentrations of individual compound, thereby overcoming the limitations of reduced bioavailability. We therefore investigated whether a combination of three natural products arctigenin (Arc), a novel anti-inflammatory lignan from the seeds of Arctium lappa, green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and curcumin (Cur) increases the chemopreventive potency of individual compounds. LNCaP prostate cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with 2-4 mg/L (about 5-10μM) Cur, 1μM Arc and 40μM EGCG alone or in combination for 48h. In both cell lines treatment with the mixture of Cur, Arc and EGCG synergistically increased the antiproliferative effect. In LNCaP cells both Arc and EGCG increased the pro-apoptotic effect of Cur. Whereas in MCF-7 cells Arc increased the cell apoptosis of Cur while EGCG enhanced cell cycle arrest of Cur at G0/G1 phase. The strongest effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were achieved by combining all three compounds in both cell lines. The combination treatment significantly increased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 proteins, decreased the activation of NFκB, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 pathways and cell migration compared to individual treatment. These results warrant in vivo studies to confirm the efficacy of this novel regimen by combining Arc and EGCG with Cur to enhance chemoprevention in both prostate and breast cancer.

  20. Therapeutic potential and critical analysis of trastuzumab and bevacizumab in combination with different chemotherapeutic agents against metastatic breast/colorectal cancer affecting various endpoints. (United States)

    Wahid, Mohd; Mandal, Raju K; Dar, Sajad A; Jawed, Arshad; Lohani, Mohtashim; Areeshi, Mohammad Y; Akhter, Naseem; Haque, Shafiul


    Researchers are working day and night across the globe to eradicate or at least lessen the menace of cancer faced by the mankind. The two very frequently occurring cancers faced by the human beings are metastatic breast cancer and metastatic colorectal cancer. The various chemotherapeutic agents like anthracycline, cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel, irinotecan, fluorouracil and leucovorin etc., have been used impressively for long. But the obstinate character of metastatic breast cancer and metastatic colorectal cancer needs more to tackle the threat. So, the scientists found the use of monoclonal antibodies trastuzumab (Herceptin(®)) and bevacizumab (Avastin(®)) for the same. The current study critically investigates the therapeutic potential of trastuzumab and bevacizumab in combination with various chemotherapeutic agents against metastatic breast cancer and metastatic colorectal cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the very first critical analysis showing percent wise increase in various positive endpoints like median time to disease progression, median survival, and progression free survival etc. for the treatment of metastatic breast/colorectal cancer using trastuzumab and bevacizumab in combination with different chemotherapeutic agents and provides the rational for the success and failure of the selected monoclonal antibodies.

  1. Breast Cancer in Young Women (United States)

    ... NPCR 2017 CDC National Cancer Conference Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  2. Breast Cancer In Women (United States)

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  3. Hormone receptors in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, K. P M; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.


    Steroid hormone receptors are critical for the growth and development of breast tissue as well as of breast cancer. The importance of the role estrogens in breast cancer has been delineated for more than 100 years. The analysis of its expression has been used not only to classify breast cancers but

  4. Angiogenic activity of breast cancer patients' monocytes reverted by combined use of systems modeling and experimental approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guex


    Full Text Available Angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth and cancer progression. TIE-2-expressing monocytes (TEM have been reported to critically account for tumor vascularization and growth in mouse tumor experimental models, but the molecular basis of their pro-angiogenic activity are largely unknown. Moreover, differences in the pro-angiogenic activity between blood circulating and tumor infiltrated TEM in human patients has not been established to date, hindering the identification of specific targets for therapeutic intervention. In this work, we investigated these differences and the phenotypic reversal of breast tumor pro-angiogenic TEM to a weak pro-angiogenic phenotype by combining Boolean modelling and experimental approaches. Firstly, we show that in breast cancer patients the pro-angiogenic activity of TEM increased drastically from blood to tumor, suggesting that the tumor microenvironment shapes the highly pro-angiogenic phenotype of TEM. Secondly, we predicted in silico all minimal perturbations transitioning the highly pro-angiogenic phenotype of tumor TEM to the weak pro-angiogenic phenotype of blood TEM and vice versa. In silico predicted perturbations were validated experimentally using patient TEM. In addition, gene expression profiling of TEM transitioned to a weak pro-angiogenic phenotype confirmed that TEM are plastic cells and can be reverted to immunological potent monocytes. Finally, the relapse-free survival analysis showed a statistically significant difference between patients with tumors with high and low expression values for genes encoding transitioning proteins detected in silico and validated on patient TEM. In conclusion, the inferred TEM regulatory network accurately captured experimental TEM behavior and highlighted crosstalk between specific angiogenic and inflammatory signaling pathways of outstanding importance to control their pro-angiogenic activity. Results showed the successful in vitro reversion of such an

  5. The telomerase inhibitor imetelstat alone, and in combination with trastuzumab, decreases the cancer stem cell population and self-renewal of HER2+ breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Koziel, Jillian E; Herbert, Brittney-Shea


    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for tumor progression, metastasis, and recurrence. HER2 overexpression is associated with increased CSCs, which may explain the aggressive phenotype and increased likelihood of recurrence for HER2(+) breast cancers. Telomerase is reactivated in tumor cells, including CSCs, but has limited activity in normal tissues, providing potential for telomerase inhibition in anti-cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a telomerase antagonistic oligonucleotide, imetelstat (GRN163L), on CSC and non-CSC populations of HER2(+) breast cancer cell lines. The effects of imetelstat on CSC populations of HER2(+) breast cancer cells were measured by ALDH activity and CD44/24 expression by flow cytometry as well as mammosphere assays for functionality. Combination studies in vitro and in vivo were utilized to test for synergism between imetelstat and trastuzumab. Imetelstat inhibited telomerase activity in both subpopulations. Moreover, imetelstat alone and in combination with trastuzumab reduced the CSC fraction and inhibited CSC functional ability, as shown by decreased mammosphere counts and invasive potential. Tumor growth rate was slower in combination-treated mice compared to either drug alone. Additionally, there was a trend toward decreased CSC marker expression in imetelstat-treated xenograft cells compared to vehicle control. Furthermore, the observed decrease in CSC marker expression occurred prior to and after telomere shortening, suggesting that imetelstat acts on the CSC subpopulation in telomere length-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Our study suggests addition of imetelstat to trastuzumab may enhance the effects of HER2 inhibition therapy, especially in the CSC population.

  6. Value of combined detection of serum miR-21,miR-195 and miR-222 in the diagnosis of early breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Zhao Zhang; Ying Li; De-Xiang Wu


    Objective:To study level of miRNA in the serum of early breast carcinoma patients and to evaluate the clinical diagnostic value of combined detection of early breast carcinoma. Methods:A total of 54 cases of early breast carcinoma, 58 cases of benign breast diseases and 70 cases of healthy physical examination women were selected as the research subjects, to analysis serum miR-21, miR-195 and miR-222 levels by fluorescence quantitative PCR method and to analyze the diagnostic value of single and combined detection in early breast cancer by receiver operating characteristic curve. Results:The relative expression levels of miR-21, miR-222 and miR-195 in early breast carcinoma patients were significantly higher than those in benign breast disease and healthy controls;there was no significant difference in the relative expression of miR-21, miR-222 and miR-195 in the benign breast disease group and healthy control group;receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that AUC of miR-21, miR-195 and miR-222 in the diagnosis of early breast carcinoma were 0.805, 0.86 and 0.848 respectively, the sensitivity were 63.3%, 70.0%and 70.0%, and the specificity were 86.7%, 93.3%and 90.0%;AUC, sensitivity and specificity of the combined detection were 0.974, 93.3%and 96.7%respectively. Conclusion:miR-21, miR-195 and miR-222 levels in serum of patients with early breast carcinoma rise, the combined detection of the 3 indicators have a high diagnostic value for early breast carcinoma, and contribute to early breast carcinoma screening and diagnosis.

  7. Paclitaxel and doxorubicin in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, J; Boesgaard, M; Paaske, T;


    be explored. Paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) has been demonstrated to be highly effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer, including those with anthracycline-resistant breast cancer, a fact that has led to efforts to combine paclitaxel and anthracyclines...

  8. Combined Methylene Blue Dye andRadioactive Tracer Technique for Sentinel Lymph Node Localization in Early Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasoul Talei


    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a technique used to identify the axillary node most likely to contain tumor cells that have metastasized from a primarycarcinoma of the breast. This technique provides accurate staging with fewer complications than axillary dissection and may result in decreased costs. We designed the present study to determine the accuracy and success rate of a combined blue dyeand radioactive tracer technique in sentinel node localization. Methods: This prospective study included 70 patients with early stage (tumor>5cm; T1, T2 operable breast cancer and nonpalpable axillary lymphadenopathy seen between 2005 and 2009. Patients underwent sentinel lymph node localization using 4mL of blue dye combined with radioactive colloid. After identification and removal of the sentinel node(s, the axilla was checked for any residual radioactivity. A sentinelnode was defined as any node that was hot, hot and blue or only blue.Results:The sentinel node was identified in 66 patients with a detection rate of 94.2%,and a mean of 1.5 sentinel nodes were identified and harvested (range of 1-4. In 23cases, the sentinel lymph node contained metastatic disease on pathological assessment.There was no pathological evidence of any metastases in the sentinel node in the remaining 43 patients. All sentinel lymph nodes were located in level I of the axillary region. In four patients, no sentinel lymph node was found, so axillary dissection was performed. The sensitivity of the procedure in predicting further axillary disease was 95.6% with a specificity of 97.6%.Conclusion: The present study describes the blue dye and radioisotope localization technique as successful in identifying the sentinel lymph node in early-stage breast cancer patients.

  9. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads


    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...

  10. Inflammatory Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... means they developed from cells that line the milk ducts of the breast and then spread beyond ...

  11. Recurrent Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... that can help you cope with distress include: Art therapy Dance or movement therapy Exercise Meditation Music ... . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  12. The breast cancer conundrum



    For decades, rates of breast cancer have been going up faster in rich countries than in poor ones. Scientists are beginning to understand more about its causes but unanswered questions remain. Patrick Adams reports.

  13. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer (United States)


    CSF. J Clin Invest 117, 1902 (Jul, 2007). 32. H. Yamaguchi et al., Milk fat globule EGF factor 8 in the serum of human patients of systemic lupus erythematosus . J Leukoc Biol 83, 1300 (May, 2008). ...comprehensive and systematic manner is the underlying principle of my goal to develop ’rational combination immunotherapy’ for breast cancer, one

  14. Inhibitory effects of combination of lycopene and genistein on 7,12- dimethyl benz(a)anthracene-induced breast cancer in rats. (United States)

    Sahin, Kazim; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Sahin, Nurhan; Akdemir, Fatih; Ozercan, Ibrahim; Bayraktar, Soley; Kucuk, Omer


    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. Carotenoids and soy isoflavones have been postulated to have breast cancer preventive effects. We investigated the potential preventive effects of lycopene and genistein, alone and in combination, on breast cancer development in female Wistar rats treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a carcinogen known to induce breast tumors. Mammary carcinogenesis was initiated by a single, oral gavage of DMBA (80 mg/kg body weight) at 55 days of animal age. Fifty female Wistar rats were divided into 5 experimental groups having 10 animals per group: Group 1 (normal control), Group 2 (DMBA control), Group 3 (DMBA + lycopene), Group 4 (DMBA + genistein), and Group 5 (DMBA + lycopene and genistein). Rats were fed either lycopene (20 mg /kg bw) or genistein (2 mg /kg bw) by oral gavage (3 times per week) starting 2 wk prior to DMBA injection. Treatment was continued for 20 wk. Rats treated with DMBA developed mammary tumors with 100% tumor incidence during the 20-wk study. Inhibition of mammary cancer incidence by lycopene (70%), genistein (60%) and their combination (40%) was observed. Tumor weight decreased by 48%, 61%, and 67%, and mean tumor volume decreased by 18%, 35%, and 65% with lycopene, genistein, and lycopene + genistein, respectively (P cancer development and was associated with a decrease in MDA, 8-isoprostane, and 8-OhdG levels and with an increase in serum lycopene and genistein levels. Animals administered DMBA developed breast cancer, which was associated with increased expression of Bcl-2 and decreased expression of Bax, caspase 3, and caspase 9 in mammary tissues. Administration of genistein and lycopene in combination was more effective in inhibiting DMBA-induced breast tumors and modulating the expression of apoptosis associated proteins than the administration of each agent alone. Our results suggest that lycopene and genistein are potent antioxidants and, when given in combination, offer

  15. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis



    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various me...

  16. Combining phenotypic and proteomic approaches to identify membrane targets in a ‘triple negative’ breast cancer cell type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rust Steven


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The continued discovery of therapeutic antibodies, which address unmet medical needs, requires the continued discovery of tractable antibody targets. Multiple protein-level target discovery approaches are available and these can be used in combination to extensively survey relevant cell membranomes. In this study, the MDA-MB-231 cell line was selected for membranome survey as it is a ‘triple negative’ breast cancer cell line, which represents a cancer subtype that is aggressive and has few treatment options. Methods The MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell line was used to explore three membranome target discovery approaches, which were used in parallel to cross-validate the significance of identified antigens. A proteomic approach, which used membrane protein enrichment followed by protein identification by mass spectrometry, was used alongside two phenotypic antibody screening approaches. The first phenotypic screening approach was based on hybridoma technology and the second was based on phage display technology. Antibodies isolated by the phenotypic approaches were tested for cell specificity as well as internalisation and the targets identified were compared to each other as well as those identified by the proteomic approach. An anti-CD73 antibody derived from the phage display-based phenotypic approach was tested for binding to other ‘triple negative’ breast cancer cell lines and tested for tumour growth inhibitory activity in a MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. Results All of the approaches identified multiple cell surface markers, including integrins, CD44, EGFR, CD71, galectin-3, CD73 and BCAM, some of which had been previously confirmed as being tractable to antibody therapy. In total, 40 cell surface markers were identified for further study. In addition to cell surface marker identification, the phenotypic antibody screening approaches provided reagent antibodies for target validation studies. This is illustrated

  17. Enhancing Hormonal Therapy for Breast Cancer by Combination with a Well-Known Approved Pharmaceutical with Little Toxicity (United States)


    enhancing the efficacy of tamoxifen in inhibiting breast tumors. Acknowledgments We would particularly like to thank Dr. Fred Schaufele for the careful ...cells. Anticancer Res 22(2A):1007–1009 9. Osborne CK, Kitten L, Arteaga CL (1989) Antagonism of chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity for human breast cancer

  18. The efficacy of 89Sr combined with 99Tc-MDP in the treatment of the advanced breast cancers with bone metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiuju Lin ; Wenhui Li


    Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the ef icacy of 89Sr combined with Technetium [99Tc] Methylene-diphosphonate Injection (99Tc-MDP) in the treatment of cancer pain in the advanced breast cancers with bone metastases. Methods: A total of 80 patients with various degrees of bone pain due to multiple metastases of breast cancer were treated with 89Sr combined with 99Tc-MDP. 89Sr was given intravenously at 4mCi on day 1 during the 3-month schedule. After 7 days, 99Tc-MDP was given at 22 mg/day on days 1–10 during the 1-month schedule, for 3 to 6 months. Results: The ef ective rate of relieving pain was 83.75%. The ef ective rate of curing bone metastases was 81.25%. So there was a significant improvement in the quality of life of the patients. Conclusion: 89Sr combined with 99Tc-MDP are ef ective in the treatment of cancer pain in the breast cancers with bone metastasis, and can obviously repair the bone destruction caused by metastases, thereby improving the quality of life in advanced breast cancer patients with bone metastases.

  19. Impact of Fixed-Dose Combination of Germacrone,Curdione, and Furanodiene on Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Kong


    Full Text Available Objective: Herb combination has been very popular in traditional medical prescriptions such as Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. Persistent efforts and attempts have been made to dissect the action mode of TCM in recent years, which has provided certain evidence for inter-herbal interactions. However, the interactions among different components in a single herb have been largely neglected.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the interactions among different components of a single herb were explored. The effect of three main sesquiterpenes (germacrone, curdione, furanodiene isolated from Curcuma WenyujinY.H.Chenet C Ling on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation alone or in combination with a fixed-dose-combination was investigated.Results: Furanodiene significantly inhibited cancer cell proliferation while germacrone and curdione showed no effect. Germacrone enhanced furanodiene’s anti-proliferative effect. Curdione showed no effect on furanodiene’s anti-proliferative effect but partly reversed the anti-proliferative effect of germacrone and furanodiene combined. The morphological and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm changes showed similar results. However, they demonstrated complicated interactions on the expression of apoptotic-related proteins and key signal transduction proteins.Conclusion: Unpredictable and complex interactions among different components in Curcuma WenyujinY.H.Chenet C Ling may exist. The intra-herb interactions should be taken into consideration when attempts are made to interpret the art of TCM formulation or other similar recipes.

  20. Clinical utility of the combination of lapatinib and letrozole in the management of hormone receptor-positive and HER2-positive advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merriam PA


    Full Text Available Priscilla Merriam, William M Sikov Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Breast cancers that overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2-positive [HER2+] tend to be biologically aggressive and associated with a poor prognosis, even those that coexpress receptors for estrogen and/or progesterone (hormone receptor-positive [HR+]. Optimal therapy for patients with “double-positive” (HR+/HER2+ breast cancers is still being defined. In this subset of patients, the efficacy of targeted endocrine therapies appears to be diminished by cross-activation or “crosstalk” between estrogen receptor-mediated gene transcription and pathways activated by other growth factor receptors, including HER2. Lapatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor which binds reversibly to the intracellular domains of the epidermal growth factor receptor and HER2, interfering with their ability to initiate signal transduction cascades that promote cancer cell proliferation, survival, and metastasis. In a recently published randomized, placebo-controlled Phase III study in postmenopausal HR+ metastatic breast cancer, the addition of lapatinib to the aromatase inhibitor letrozole significantly improved progression-free survival solely in women who were also HER2+. This article reviews the biology of “double-positive” breast cancers and the rationale underlying combining endocrine and HER2-targeted therapies, including the lapatinib/letrozole combination, for these tumors. Results from the Phase III trial are examined, as well as available data on other combinations of HR and HER2-targeted therapies. Ongoing trials and potential future applications of these combinations in both HR+/HER2+ and other subgroups of breast cancer patients are also discussed. Keywords: breast neoplasm, erbB2, estrogen receptor, letrozole, lapatinib

  1. Combined expression of metastasis related markers Naa10p, SNCG and PRL-3 and its prognostic value in breast cancer patients. (United States)

    Min, Li; Ma, Ruo-Lan; Yuan, Hua; Liu, Cai-Yun; Dong, Bing; Zhang, Cheng; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Li; Guo, Jian-Ping; Qu, Li-Ke; Shou, Cheng-Chao


    Combinations of multiple biomarkers representing distinct aspects of metastasis may have better prognostic value for breast cancer patients, especially those in late stages. In this study, we evaluated the protein levels of N-α-acetyltransferase 10 protein (Naa10p), synuclein-γ (SNCG), and phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) in 365 patients with breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. Distinct prognostic subgroups of breast cancer were identified by combination of the three biomarkers. The Naa10p+SNCG-PRL-3- subgroup showed best prognosis with a median distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) of 140 months, while the Naa10p-SNCG+PRL-3+ subgroup had the worst prognosis with a median DMFS of 60.5 months. Multivariate analysis indicated Naa10p, SNCG, PRL-3, and the TNM classification were all independent prognostic factors for both DMFS and overall survival (OS). The three biomarker combination of Naa10p, SNCG and PRL-3 performed better in patients with lymph node metastasis, especially those with more advanced tumors than other subgroups. In conclusion, the combined expression profile of Naa10p, SNCG and PRL-3, alone or in combination with the TNM classification system, may provide a precise estimate of prognosis of breast cancer patients.

  2. Combining peptide and DNA for protein assay: CRIP1 detection for breast cancer staging. (United States)

    Xie, Haona; Li, Hao; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoying; Yin, Yongmei; Li, Genxi


    In this work, a novel method for a protein assay is proposed which uses the specific protein-binding peptide of the target protein and sequence-specific DNA to interact with the target as the capture and detection probe, respectively. Meanwhile, since the DNA sequence can be coupled with gold nanoparticles to amplify the signal readout, a sensitive and easily operated method for protein assay is developed. We have also employed a transcription factor named as cysteine-rich intestinal protein 1 (CRIP1), which has been identified as an ideal biomarker for staging of breast cancer, as the model protein for this study. With the proposed method, CRIP1 can be determined in a linear range from 1.25 to 10.13 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 1.25 ng/mL. Furthermore, the proposed method can be directly used to assay CRIP1 in tissue samples. Owing to its desirable sensitivity, excellent reproducibility, and high selectivity, the proposed method may hold great potential in clinical practice in the future.

  3. Bevacizumab in combination with paclitaxel for HER-2 negative metastatic breast cancer: an economic evaluation. (United States)

    Dedes, Konstantin J; Matter-Walstra, Klazien; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C; Fink, Daniel; Brauchli, Peter; Szucs, Thomas D


    The addition of bevacizumab to weekly paclitaxel as primary chemotherapy for HER-2 negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) prolongs progression-free survival without a substantial increase of toxicity. A Markov cohort simulation was used to follow the clinical course of typical patients with MBC. Information on response rates and major adverse effects was derived, and transition probabilities were estimated, based on the results of the E2100 clinical trial. Direct costs were assessed from the perspective of the Swiss health system. The addition of bevacizumab to weekly paclitaxel is estimated to cost an additional 40,369euro and to yield a gain of 0.22 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 189,427euro/QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the willingness-to-pay threshold of 60,000euro was never reached. The addition of bevacizumab to paclitaxel in MBC patients is expensive given the clinical benefit in terms of QALYs gained.

  4. Normal breast physiology: the reasons hormonal contraceptives and induced abortion increase breast-cancer risk. (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Angela


    A woman gains protection from breast cancer by completing a full-term pregnancy. In utero, her offspring produce hormones that mature 85 percent of the mother's breast tissue into cancer-resistant breast tissue. If the pregnancy ends through an induced abortion or a premature birth before thirty-two weeks, the mother's breasts will have only partially matured, retaining even more cancer-susceptible breast tissue than when the pregnancy began. This increased amount of immature breast tissue will leave the mother with more sites for cancer initiation, thereby increasing her risk of breast cancer. Hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk by their proliferative effect on breast tissue and their direct carcinogenic effects on DNA. Hormonal contraceptives include estrogen-progestin combination drugs prescribed in any manner of delivery: orally, transdermally, vaginally, or intrauterine. This article provides the detailed physiology and data that elucidate the mechanisms through which induced abortion and hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk.

  5. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors (United States)


    Family history of breast cancer  specifically mother or sister diagnosed with breast cancer  Not the same as genetic risk for breast cancer...treatment. Table 5 presents sociodemographic variables for the first 20 SIS participants. The majority of participants were African American, unmarried

  6. Breast Cancer Basics and You (United States)

    ... in both men and women, although male breast cancer is rare. The Breasts Inside a woman's breast are 15 to 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe contains many smaller sections called lobules. These are groups of tiny glands that make breast milk. Breast milk flows through thin tubes called ducts ...

  7. Combined niclosamide with cisplatin inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor growth in cisplatin-resistant triple-negative breast cancer. (United States)

    Liu, Junjun; Chen, Xiaosong; Ward, Toby; Pegram, Mark; Shen, Kunwei


    Women with triple-negative breast cancer have worse prognosis compared to other breast cancer subtypes. Acquired drug resistance remains to be an important reason influencing triple-negative breast cancer treatment efficacy. A prevailing theory postulates that the cancer resistance and recurrence results from a subpopulation of tumor cells with stemness program, which are often insensitive to cytotoxic drugs such as cisplatin. Recent studies suggested that niclosamide, an anti-helminthic drug, has potential therapeutic activities against breast cancer stem cells, which prompts us to determine its roles on eliminating cisplatin-resistant cancer cells. Hence, we established a stable cisplatin-resistant MDA-MB-231 cell line (231-CR) through continuously exposure to increasing concentrations of cisplatin (5-20 μmol/l). Interestingly, 231-CR exhibited properties associated to epithelial-mesenchymal transition with enhanced invasion, preserved proliferation, increased mammosphere formation, and reduced apoptosis compared to naive MDA-MB-231 sensitive cells (231-CS). Importantly, niclosamide or combination with cisplatin inhibited both 231-CS and 231-CR cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, niclosamide reversed the EMT phenotype of 231-CR by downregulation of snail and vimentin. Mechanistically, niclosamide treatment in combination with or without cisplatin significantly inhibited Akt, ERK, and Src signaling pathways. In vivo study showed that niclosamide or combination with cisplatin could repress the growth of xenografts originated from either 231-CS or 231-CR cells, with prominent suppression of Ki67 expression. These findings suggested that niclosamide might serve as a novel therapeutic strategy, either alone or in combination with cisplatin, for triple-negative breast cancer treatment, especially those resistant to cisplatin.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer (United States)

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions breast cancer breast cancer Enable ...

  9. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, D.J. van; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Westenberg, A.H.; Wilt, J.H. de; Blanken-Peeters, C.F.


    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimoda

  10. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  11. Efficacy and Tolerability of Weekly Paclitaxel in Combination with High-dose Toremifene Citrate in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Toremifene citrate is expected to prevent drug resistance in cancer patients by inhibiting p-glycoprotein activity. The safety and efficacy of combination therapy with high-dose toremifene citrate and paclitaxel were investigated. Between December 2003 and June 2004, 15 women with a mean age of 53 years old with metastatic breast cancer were enrolled. The administration schedule was 80mg/m2 of paclitaxel given on Days 1, 8, and 15, and 120mg/day of toremifene citrate orally administered starting on Day 18. On Days 32 and 39, paclitaxel was concurrently administered again. Toxicities, response rate, and time to treatment failure were assessed. All patients had been treated with endocrine or chemotherapy. Grade 3 leukopenia occurred in 2 patients on the administration of paclitaxel alone, and grade 3 febrile neutropenia occurred in 1 patient given the combination therapy. There was no grade 3 or greater non-hematological toxicity. There was no complete response and 1 partial response, producing a response rate of 6.7%. Median time to treatment failure was 2.7 months. Combination therapy of paclitaxel and toremifene was safe and well tolerated with minimal toxicity. Further clinical trials targeting patients with functional p-glycoprotein are warranted.

  12. The Combination of α-Tocopheryl Succinate and Sodium Selenite on Breast Cancer: A Merit or a Demerit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa M. Badr


    Full Text Available α-Tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS, a mitochondria-targeting agent, induces apoptosis in malignant cells in vitro and in vivo. Selenite is a nutritional supplement that has been shown to stimulate apoptosis in cancer cells. This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of combined treatment of α-TOS and sodium selenite (SSe in vitro and in vivo and to explore their effect on apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer. The type of interaction between α-TOS and SSe was evaluated and levels of oxidative stress and apoptotic and autophagic markers were determined. SSe alone showed varying degrees of cytotoxicity on all the tested cell lines. Its combination with α-TOS was antagonistic in vitro in MCF7 and in vivo in mice bearing Ehrlich tumor compared to α-TOS-treated one. Combination of TOS with 2 μM of SSe increased the level of glutathione without changes in antiapoptotic markers Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 at 16 and 48 hrs. SSe decreased caspase 3 activity and protein level of caspases 7 and 9, while it increased autophagic markers beclin-1 and LC3B protein levels of MCF7 cells treated with α-TOS. In conclusion, SSe antagonizes α-TOS-induced apoptosis via inhibition of oxidative stress and promoting prosurvival machinery of autophagy.

  13. Combined UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 genotypes together with a stressful life event increase breast cancer risk



    Combined UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 genotypes together with a stressful life event increase breast cancer risk phone: +49-711-81015765 (Justenhoven, Christina) (Justenhoven, Christina) Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, University Tuebingen - Auerbachstrasse 112 - 70376 - Stuttgart - GERMANY (Justenhoven, Christina) Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, University Tuebingen - Auerbachstrasse 11...

  14. Affluence and Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E


    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0.624). The multivariate general linear model with income as covariate, 5-year survival by race as a dependent variable, showed a significant effect of income and White race on 5-year survival (p breast cancer

  15. Combined use of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and MRI for response monitoring of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengel, Kenneth E.; Loo, Claudette E. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Radiology, PO Box 90203, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koolen, Bas B.; Vogel, Wouter V.; Valdes Olmos, Renato A. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wesseling, Jelle; Lips, Esther H. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rutgers, Emiel J.T.; Vrancken Peeters, Marie Jeanne T.F.D. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Surgical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rodenhuis, Sjoerd [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Radiology, PO Box 90203, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology/Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    To explore the potential complementary value of PET/CT and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in predicting pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) of breast cancer and the dependency on breast cancer subtype. We performed {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and MRI examinations before and during NAC. The imaging features evaluated on both examinations included baseline and changes in {sup 18}F-FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on PET/CT, and tumour morphology and contrast uptake kinetics on MRI. The outcome measure was a (near) pathological complete response ((near-)pCR) after surgery. Receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the relationships between patient, tumour and imaging characteristics and tumour responses. Of 93 patients, 43 achieved a (near-)pCR. The responses varied among the different breast cancer subtypes. On univariate analysis the following variables were significantly associated with (near-)pCR: age (p = 0.033), breast cancer subtype (p < 0.001), relative change in SUVmax on PET/CT (p < 0.001) and relative change in largest tumour diameter on MRI (p < 0.001). The AUC for the relative reduction in SUVmax on PET/CT was 0.78 (95 % CI 0.68-0.88), and for the relative reduction in tumour diameter at late enhancement on MRI was 0.79 (95 % CI 0.70-0.89). The AUC increased to 0.90 (95 % CI 0.83-0.96) in the final multivariate model with PET/CT, MRI and breast cancer subtype combined (p = 0.012). PET/CT and MRI showed comparable value for monitoring response during NAC. Combined use of PET/CT and MRI had complementary potential. Research with more patients is required to further elucidate the dependency on breast cancer subtype. (orig.)

  16. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe


    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...... excluded a biased trial and included 600,000 women in the analyses. Three trials with adequate randomisation did not show a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality at 13 years (relative risk (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 1.02); four trials with suboptimal randomisation showed...... a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality with an RR of 0.75 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.83). The RR for all seven trials combined was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.87). We found that breast cancer mortality was an unreliable outcome that was biased in favour of screening, mainly because of differential...

  17. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie


    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  18. Combined effects of circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin d and Th1 and th2 cytokines on breast cancer estrogen receptor status. (United States)

    Yao, Song; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Quan, Lei; Gong, Zhihong; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Ambrosone, Christine B


    Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44-21.98), with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09). There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.

  19. Combined Effects of Circulating Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Th1 and Th2 Cytokines on Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Song, E-mail:; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E.; Zirpoli, Gary; Quan, Lei; Gong, Zhihong [Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Johnson, Candace S. [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Trump, Donald L. [Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Ambrosone, Christine B. [Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States)


    Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44−21.98), with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09). There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.

  20. Combined Effects of Circulating Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Th1 and Th2 Cytokines on Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yao


    Full Text Available Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44−21.98, with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09. There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.

  1. The combination of NVP-BKM120 with trastuzumab or RAD001 synergistically inhibits the growth of breast cancer stem cells in vivo. (United States)

    Yu, Feng; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Yunhui; Zhou, Yang; Guo, Rong; Bai, Jingchao; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Huilai; Zhang, Jin


    Deregulation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway is common in breast cancer and is frequently associated with resistance to both traditional chemotherapy and targeted drugs. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that a small subpopulation of self-renewing cells, the so called cancer stem cells (CSC), are responsible for the growth of drug resistant secondary tumors. As many CSCs have upregulated the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, preclinical and clinical studies are addressing the inhibition of this axis to target drug resistance. We evaluated the susceptibility of breast CSCs to NVP-BKM120 (BKM120), a new generation of PI3K-specific inhibitor, when used individually or in combination with trastuzumab or RAD001 both in vitro and in vivo. For this, a stem-like cell population (SC) was enriched from breast cancer cell lines after mammosphere cultures. We demonstrated that BKM120 inhibits growth, generation of drug-resistant derivatives and SC formation in a panel of four breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3 and CAL51. Importantly, BKM120 inhibits the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in SCs from these cell lines. When BKM120 was used in combination with trastuzumab, a targeted therapy to treat HER2-positive breast cancer, we found synergistic cell growth inhibition, generation of drug resistant cells as well as SC formation from SK-BR-3 cells. Importantly, SK-BR-3 xenograft-derived tumors showed marginal growth when the drug combination was used. We also found a similar synergistic anticancer effect of BKM120 in combination with RAD001, an mTOR inhibitor, when treating triple-negative breast cancer cells in vitro and in both MDA-MB-231 and CAL51- mouse xenografts. Moreover, mouse data indicate that these drug combinations are well tolerated and provide the proof-of-concept and rationale to initiate clinical trials in both HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer.

  2. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  3. Diagnosis of Breast Cancer using a Combination of Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network in Medical Infrared Thermal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ghayoumi zadeh


    Full Text Available Introduction This study is an effort to diagnose breast cancer by processing the quantitative and qualitative information obtained from medical infrared imaging. The medical infrared imaging is free from any harmful radiation and it is one of the best advantages of the proposed method. By analyzing this information, the best diagnostic parameters among the available parameters are selected and its sensitivity and precision in cancer diagnosis is improved by utilizing genetic algorithm and artificial neural network. Materials and Methods In this research, the necessary information is obtained from thermal imaging of 200 people, and 8 diagnostic parameters are extracted from these images by the research team. Then these 8 parameters are used as input of our proposed combinatorial model which is formed using artificial neural network and genetic algorithm. Results Our results have revealed that comparison of the breast areas; thermal pattern and kurtosis are the most important parameters in breast cancer diagnosis from proposed medical infrared imaging. The proposed combinatorial model with a 50% sensitivity, 75% specificity and, 70% accuracy shows good precision in cancer diagnosis. Conclusion The main goal of this article is to describe the capability of infrared imaging in preliminary diagnosis of breast cancer. This method is beneficial to patients with and without symptoms. The results indicate that the proposed combinatorial model produces optimum and efficacious parameters in comparison to other parameters and can improve the capability and power of globalizing the artificial neural network. This will help physicians in more accurate diagnosis of this type of cancer.

  4. Early detection of breast cancer. (United States)

    Nettles-Carlson, B


    Timely, comprehensive screening for breast cancer is a major, though often overlooked, component of primary health care for women. This article reviews the scientific rationale for screening and outlines the current recommendations of the American Cancer Society and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force regarding the use of mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE). Nursing interventions to decrease barriers to effective screening are discussed, and an expanded role of nurses in breast cancer screening is proposed.

  5. A prospective cohort study of the combined effects of physical activity and anthropometric measures on the risk of post-menopausal breast cancer. (United States)

    Bellocco, Rino; Marrone, Gaetano; Ye, Weimin; Nyrén, Olof; Adami, Hans-Olov; Mariosa, Daniela; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle


    Although keeping a healthy weight and being physically active are among the few modifiable risk factors for post-menopausal breast cancer, the possible interaction between these two risk factors remains to be established. We analyzed prospectively a cohort of 19,196 women who provided detailed self-report on anthropometric measures, physical activity and possible confounders at enrollment in 1997. We achieved complete follow-up through 2010 and ascertained 609 incident cases of post-menopausal invasive breast cancer. We calculated metabolic energy turnover (MET h/day) per day and fitted Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). The incidence of post-menopausal breast cancer among obese women (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) was 58 % higher (HR 1.58, CI 1.16-2.16) than in women of normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI day) had 40 % higher incidence of post-menopausal breast cancer (HR 1.40, CI 1.11-1.75) than those in the highest tertile (≥ 38.2 MET h/day). The excess incidence linked to these two factors seemed to combine in an approximately additive manner; the incidence among the most obese and sedentary women was doubled (HR 2.07, CI 1.31-3.25) compared with the most physically active women with normal weight. No heterogeneity of the physical activity-linked risk ratios across strata of BMI was detected (p value for interaction = 0.98). This prospective study revealed dose-dependent, homogenous inverse associations between post-menopausal breast cancer incidence and physical activity across all strata of BMI, and between post-menopausal breast cancer incidence and BMI across all strata of physical activity, with no evidence of additive or multiplicative interaction between the two, suggesting independent effects.

  6. Breast cancer epidemiology. (United States)

    Kelsey, J L; Berkowitz, G S


    The various risk factors for breast cancer have been recognized for many years. A table lists these established breast cancer risk factors together with the approximate magnitude of the increase in risk associated with them. Breast cancer incidence rates increase with age throughout the life span in Western countries, although the rate of increase is greater up to age 50 years than after 50 years. Breast cancer is more common among women in upper rather than lower social classes, among women who never have been married, among women living in urban areas, among women living in the northern US than in the southern US, and among whites than blacks, at least among those over age 50. Women in North American and Northern European countries have the highest risk for breast cancer, women in Southern European and Latin American countries are at intermediate risk, and women in Africa and Asian countries have the lowest risk. Yet, rapid rates of increase in incident rates have been noted in recent years in many Asian, Central European, and some South American countries. The later the age at which a woman has her 1st full-term pregnancy, the higher her risk for breast cancer; the earlier the age at menarche and the later the age at menopause the higher the risk; and among women who have a premenopausal oophorectomy, the earlier the age at which this occurs the lower the risk. Among postmenopausal women, obesity is associated with an increase in risk. Lactation is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Some current research is considering potential risk factors that have not been well studied in the past, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), emotional stress, exposure to electric power, and lack of physical activity. Other areas of current research reviewed here include radiation, mammographic parenchymal patterns, a high-fat diet, use of oral contraceptives (OCs), use of estrogen

  7. Missense Variants in ATM in 26,101 Breast Cancer Cases and 29,842 Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, O.; Johnson, N.; Silva, Andreá Lema Da;


    of breast cancer, explaining an estimated 0.03% of the excess familial risk of breast cancer. Impact: Testing the combined effects of rare missense variants in known breast cancer genes in large collaborative studies should clarify their overall contribution to breast cancer susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol...

  8. Q-TWiST analysis of lapatinib combined with capecitabine for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. (United States)

    Sherrill, B; Amonkar, M M; Stein, S; Walker, M; Geyer, C; Cameron, D


    The addition of lapatinib (Tykerb/Tyverb) to capecitabine (Xeloda) delays disease progression more effectively than capecitabine monotherapy in women with previously treated HER2+ metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The quality-adjusted time without symptoms of disease or toxicity of treatment (Q-TWiST) method was used to compare treatments. The area under survival curves was partitioned into health states: toxicity (TOX), time without symptoms of disease progression or toxicity (TWiST), and relapse period until death or end of follow-up (REL). Average times spent in each state, weighted by utility, were derived and comparisons of Q-TWiST between groups performed with varying combinations of the utility weights. Utility weights of 0.5 for both TOX and REL, that is, counting 2 days of TOX or REL as 1 day of TWiST, resulted in a 7-week difference in quality-adjusted survival favouring combination therapy (P=0.0013). The Q-TWiST difference is clinically meaningful and was statistically significant across an entire matrix of possible utility weights. Results were robust in sensitivity analyses. An analysis with utilities based on EQ-5D scores was consistent with the above findings. Combination therapy of lapatinib with capecitabine resulted in greater quality-adjusted survival than capecitabine monotherapy in trastuzumab-refractory MBC patients.

  9. Breast Cancer in Art Painting



    Breast cancer is an emotive cancer. It is a disease that affects a visible sexual organ and it is the commonest single cause of death of women between 40 and 60 years of age. Nevertheless, this type of cancer was infrequently depicted in art paintings. In this article the themes from the breast cancer in famous art paintings are discussed.

  10. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor


    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  11. Hormones and Breast Cancer. (United States)


    pathway of El metabolism may be altered by dietary (in particular, cruciferous vegetables ) and other factors (54-58). In this project we compared the... Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Giske Ursin, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Southern California School of Medicine Los Angeles...TYPE AND DATES COVERED I October 1997 Final (30 Sep 94 - 29 Sep 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hormones and Breast Cancer DAMD17-94-J

  12. Efficacy of the dietary histone deacetylase inhibitor butyrate alone or in combination with vitamin A against proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, F.O. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nagamine, M.K. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Conti, A. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chaible, L.M. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fontelles, C.C. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jordão Junior, A.A.; Vannucchi, H. [Divisão de Nutrição, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Dagli, M.L.Z. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bassoli, B.K.; Moreno, F.S.; Ong, T.P. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The combined treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and retinoids has been suggested as a potential epigenetic strategy for the control of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treatment with butyrate, a dietary HDACi, combined with vitamin A on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the crystal violet staining method. MCF-7 cells were plated at 5 x 10{sup 4} cells/mL and treated with butyrate (1 mM) alone or combined with vitamin A (10 µM) for 24 to 120 h. Cell proliferation inhibition was 34, 10 and 46% following treatment with butyrate, vitamin A and their combination, respectively, suggesting that vitamin A potentiated the inhibitory activities of butyrate. Furthermore, exposure to this short-chain fatty acid increased the level of histone H3K9 acetylation by 9.5-fold (Western blot), but not of H4K16, and increased the expression levels of p21{sup WAF1} by 2.7-fold (Western blot) and of RARβ by 2.0-fold (quantitative real-time PCR). Our data show that RARβ may represent a molecular target for butyrate in breast cancer cells. Due to its effectiveness as a dietary HDACi, butyrate should be considered for use in combinatorial strategies with more active retinoids, especially in breast cancers in which RARβ is epigenetically altered.

  13. Breast Cancer Research Program (United States)


    tion of tumor cells with red indicating the highest density of tumor cells at the primary tumor (4th mammary fat pad ) and purple/blue showing the...Idea Award Elaine Hardman and Philippe Georgel “ Maternal Consumption of Omega 3 Fatty Acids to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk in Offspring” FY09

  14. Living Beyond Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... MBC Radiation Therapy for MBC Surgery for MBC Yoga and MBC Side Effects Bone Health and MBC Bone Pain and MBC ... Yoga Poses Special Situations Yoga and Lymphedema Risk Yoga and Metastatic Breast Cancer Side Effects Anemia Bone Loss Bone Pain Chemobrain Depression and ...

  15. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  16. Breast Cancer 2012 - New Aspects. (United States)

    Kolberg, H-C; Lüftner, D; Lux, M P; Maass, N; Schütz, F; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Kümmel, S


    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials.

  17. Mindfulness Meditation or Survivorship Education in Improving Behavioral Symptoms in Younger Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors (Pathways to Wellness) (United States)


    Cancer Survivor; Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. High Ki-67 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF Protein Expression as Negative Predictive Factor for Combined Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Young Age Stage III Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sudarsa


    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer was, in general, a heterogeneous disease with diverse biological characteristics, types, subtypes and clinical behavior. Its treatment and management need to be personalized and individualized. Breast cancer in young ages, although rare, is usually a unique and more aggressive cancer associated with poorer prognosis. The combination of young age and advanced stages of breast cancer would make this particular breast cancer harder to treat and cure. Unfortunately, majority of Breast Cancer Patients in Bali were in younger ages, and at advanced stages, that the mainstay of treatment was neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by other treatment modalities. Improve prognosis only, those patients who had had a complete pathological response involving primary tumor and regional lymph nodes in the axilla. Several factors had been studied and contributed to breast cancer response to combined neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Usually, younger patients, was associated with high proliferation rate represented by Ki-67 and early distant metastasis represented by VEGF, which also had role as prognostic markers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high Ki-67 and VEGF expression correlate with response to NAC and hence, they would be important predictive factors for response to NAC. Method: This study was a cross-sectional and a nested case-control study of stage III breast cancers affecting patients 40 years of age or less, at Sanglah General Hospital and Prima Medika Hospital, conducted from September 1st, 2012 until March 31st, 2014. Clinical and pathology reports were traced and recorded from both hospitals; routine Immunohistochemistry (IHC examinations were performed by both pathology labs. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square test, Odds Ratio (OR, and logistic regression analysis with p<0.05. Results: There were 66 Stage III young breast cancer patients, where 35 (53% showed no or negative response and 31 (47

  19. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P


    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  20. Phase I trial of exemestane in combination with metformin and rosiglitazone in non-diabetic obese postmenopausal women with hormone receptor–positive metastatic breast cancer (United States)

    Esteva, Francisco J.; Moulder, Stacy L.; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M.; Ensor, Joe; Murray, James L.; Green, Marjorie C.; Koenig, Kimberly B.; Lee, Mong-Hong; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Yeung, Sai-Ching


    Purpose Obese women with breast cancer have worse prognosis than women with normal body mass index. Endocrine therapy resistance is in part mediated by insulin resistance in obese women with breast cancer. We investigated the tolerability and pharmacokinetics of exemestane in combination with metformin and rosiglitazone in non-diabetic overweight and obese postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive metastatic breast cancer. Methods Patients had previously received chemotherapy and endocrine therapy for breast cancer. Exemestane was given as 25 mg orally per day. Metformin (M) and rosiglitazone (R) were given twice daily. Dose level 1 consisted of M 1500 mg/day and R 6 mg/day. Dose level 2 consisted of M 2000 mg/day and R 8 mg/day. Plasma concentrations of exemestane were measured on days 1, 8, and 15. Results Twenty patients were enrolled. Fourteen patients received exemestane, metformin and rosiglitazone. Six patients received exemestane with metformin only (2000 mg/day). Both regimens were well tolerated at the highest doses tested, and there were no notable changes in plasma exemestane levels. Six patients (30%) had stable disease for 6 months or longer. Conclusions Oral daily administration of exemestane (25 mg) and metformin (2000 mg), with and without rosiglitazone (8 mg) daily was well tolerated. Exemestane pharmacokinetics were not altered by metformin and rosiglitazone. PMID:23053261

  1. [Occult multicentric breast cancer]. (United States)

    Vtorushin, S V; Zab'ialova, M V; Glushchenko, S A; Perel'muter, V M; Slonimskaia, E M


    The study included 92 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer (T2-4N0-2M0-1). In 38 cases, tumor growth was unicentric while histologically identifiable ones as multicentric in 44. Multicentricity mostly occurred in cases of macroscopically-identifiable nodes located in the central segments of the breast. Clinically-identifiable nodes of multicentric tumor growth measured more than 3 cm. Multicentric tumors were mostly grade III, featured lower expression of sex hormone receptors and positive Her2 status.

  2. Forequarter amputation for recurrent breast cancer


    Pundi, Krishna N.; AlJamal, Yazan N.; Ruparel, Raaj K.; Farley, David R.


    Introduction: Localized excision combined with radiation and chemotherapy represents the current standard of care for recurrent breast cancer. However, in certain conditions a forequarter amputation may be employed for these patients. Presentation of case: We present a patient with recurrent breast cancer who had a complicated treatment history including multiple courses of chemotherapy, radiation, and local surgical excision. With diminishing treatment options, she opted for a forequarter...

  3. A Phase I Study of Weekly Everolimus (RAD001) in Combination with Docetaxel in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer (United States)

    Moulder, Stacy; Gladish, Gregory; Ensor, Joe; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Murray, James L.; Booser, Daniel; Giordano, Sharon H.; Brewster, Abeena; Moore, Julia; Rivera, Edgardo; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Tran, Hai T.


    Background Inhibition of mTOR with everolimus may result improve efficacy of taxanes. Everolimus and docetaxel are both metabolized by CYP3A4, which could result in a pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction. Patients and Methods 15 patients with metastatic breast cancer were treated with docetaxel (doses of 40-75 mg/m2 IV on day 1 of a 21 day cycle) in combination with everolimus (doses ranging from 20-50 mg po on days 1 and 8 of a 21 day cycle) in a phase I trial using the continuous reassessment method (CRM) to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The first two patients developed DLT (neutropenic infection), prompting a mandatory dose reduction and PK evaluation of both everolimus and docetaxel for patients enrolled in subsequent dosing cohorts. Results 15 patients were treated. Dose limiting toxicity included grade 3 mucositis (n=1), prolonged grade 4 neutropenia (n=1), and grade 3 infection/febrile neutropenia (n=3). Day 8 of everolimus was commonly held for neutropenia despite a dose reduction in docetaxel to 40mg/m2. Eleven patients underwent complete PK evaluation for everolimus and 9 patients underwent complete PK evaluation for both everolimus and docetaxel. Widely variable changes in clearance were seen for both drugs and the study was terminated due to lack of efficacy and concerns regarding toxicity seen with the combination. Conclusion Weekly everolimus in combination with Q 3-week docetaxel was associated with excessive neutropenia and variable clearance of both drugs making combination therapy unpredictable, even at low doses of both drugs. PMID:22006179

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer) (United States)

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  5. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Brateman, Libby


    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  6. Braving Breast Cancer: Just Do It! (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Braving Breast Cancer: Just Do It! Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents Breast cancer survivor Jana Brightwell, pictured here on the NIH ...

  7. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors. (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann


    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  8. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P


    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  9. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.


    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  10. Breast cancer prognosis predicted by nuclear receptor-coregulator networks. (United States)

    Doan, Tram B; Eriksson, Natalie A; Graham, Dinny; Funder, John W; Simpson, Evan R; Kuczek, Elizabeth S; Clyne, Colin; Leedman, Peter J; Tilley, Wayne D; Fuller, Peter J; Muscat, George E O; Clarke, Christine L


    Although molecular signatures based on transcript expression in breast cancer samples have provided new insights into breast cancer classification and prognosis, there are acknowledged limitations in current signatures. To provide rational, pathway-based signatures of disrupted physiology in cancer tissues that may be relevant to prognosis, this study has directly quantitated changed gene expression, between normal breast and cancer tissue, as a basis for signature development. The nuclear receptor (NR) family of transcription factors, and their coregulators, are fundamental regulators of every aspect of metazoan life, and were rigorously quantified in normal breast tissues and ERα positive and ERα negative breast cancers. Coregulator expression was highly correlated with that of selected NR in normal breast, particularly from postmenopausal women. These associations were markedly decreased in breast cancer, and the expression of the majority of coregulators was down-regulated in cancer tissues compared with normal. While in cancer the loss of NR-coregulator associations observed in normal breast was common, a small number of NR (Rev-ERBβ, GR, NOR1, LRH-1 and PGR) acquired new associations with coregulators in cancer tissues. Elevated expression of these NR in cancers was associated with poorer outcome in large clinical cohorts, as well as suggesting the activation of ERα -related, but ERα-independent, pathways in ERα negative cancers. In addition, the combined expression of small numbers of NR and coregulators in breast cancer was identified as a signature predicting outcome in ERα negative breast cancer patients, not linked to proliferation and with predictive power superior to existing signatures containing many more genes. These findings highlight the power of predictive signatures derived from the quantitative determination of altered gene expression between normal breast and breast cancers. Taken together, the findings of this study identify networks

  11. The Breast Cancer DNA Interactome (United States)


    Sugumar A, Liu YC, Xia Q , Koh YS, Matsuo K. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein 3 and the risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a...stimulates autophagy and promotes the survival of breast cancer cells exposed to adverse microenvironments. Oncogene 32(19): 2412 2420. 29. Mehta HH, Gao Q ...Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0474 TITLE: The Breast Cancer DNA Interactome PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew R. Hoffman CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION

  12. Progress in breast cancer: overview. (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L


    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed.

  13. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia


    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  14. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  15. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A


    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1......), and their ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... premenopausal 2:16a-OHE1 was suggestive of reduced breast cancer risk overall (study-adjusted ORIIIvsI=0.80; 95% CI: 0.49-1.32) and for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) subtype (ORIIIvsI=0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.84). Among postmenopausal women, 2:16a-OHE1 was unrelated to breast cancer risk (study-adjusted ORIIIvs...

  16. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen


    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  17. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  18. [China faces a challenge of breast cancer prevention and control]. (United States)

    Zhang, B N; Chen, W Q; Zhang, X; Qiao, Y L


    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer is in an increasing trend. In contrast to the global breast cancer situation, the prevention and control is challenging in China. Some suggestions are presented to the project of breast cancer prevention and control in China. Combining the global screening experiences with the epidemiological features of Chinese female breast cancer, aims to improve the population screening and early detection rate. Standardizing clinical diagnosis and treatment practice, aims to increase the efficacy and decrease the mortality. Intervening lifestyle and dietary behaviors, and intends to reduce risk exposure and incidence. Building national breast cancer registry provides preventive strategies. Great efforts should be made to carry out large sample multicenter clinical trails and translational research on the prevention and cotrol of breast cancer coordiated by health care service and science and technology administrations. Breast cancer prevention and control has a long way to go in China.

  19. A combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine in an intensive dose-dense neoadjuvant chemotherapy schedule for locally advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Frai


    Full Text Available Objective: to improve the results of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT in patients with locally advanced (L A inoperable breast cancer (BC at baseline, by using the intensified combination CT at the interval being reduced between the administration of cytostatic dru gs to 2 weeks to give a chance to the patients to be surgically treated.Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 26 patients aged 33 to 75 years with L A BC. Paclitaxel was administered intravenously (IV over 3 hours at a dose of 175 mg/m2 on day 1, followed by gemcitabine, 2000 mg/m2, given by 30-minute IV infusion on day 1 every 2 w eeks. If the cytostatics were well tolerated and their effect increased, the treatment was continued up to 6 courses.Results. Eighteen (69.2% out of the 26 patients achieved the objective effect of treatment; of them 17 (65.4% had a partial remission and 1 (3.8 had a complete remission.The therapeutic pathomorphism of a tumor w as rated in 22 patients; fourth-degree tumor pathomorphism w as found in 2 (9% patien ts. The follow-up of patients w as 11 to 28 months (median, 20 months. The median time to progression w as not reached in the entire group of patients.Conclusion. A combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine in intensive dose-dense scheduling has a marked antitumor activity in BC andis characterized by its good tolerability without a pronounced myelosuppressive effect. This therapy regimen may be used as neoadjuvant CT.

  20. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors (United States)


    Madam , The project entitled INCREASING BREAST CANCER SURVEILLANCE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS includes activities involving human...B b- d § fr. Thomisonwill Work e .y .With’Dra) Vdldf naTir, W and y Bo • rganif Janidorf on data a"_`l- ssi reatihfiutfor pres~entatidns and publi

  1. A Novel Multivoxel-Based Quantitation of Metabolites and Lipids Noninvasively Combined with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Breast Cancer (United States)


    short measurement times for the diagnosis of breast cancer and improve the specificity of MR imaging (19-21). However, new technological developments...132: 2145–2147. 29. Maciejewski MW, Mobli M, Schuyler A, Stern A, Hoch J. Data sampling in multidimensional NMR: fundamentals and strategies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. NMR Biomed. 2014; 27: 191–201 200 31. Mobli M, Hoch JC. Maximum entropy spectral

  2. Effect of dendritic cell/cytokine-induced killer cell immunobiological cancer therapy combined with adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with triple-negative breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ranran Zhang; Dongchu Ma; Xiaodong Xie; Wanqing Xie Co-first author; Tao Han; Yongye Liu; Zhaozhe Liu; Fang Guo; Yaling Han; Zhenyu Ding; Yinghui Sun


    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the ef ect of dendritic cel (DC)/cytokine-in-duced kil er cel (CIK) immunobiological cancer therapy in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) who underwent adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods From January 2010 to October 2013, 120 patients with postoperative TNBC were recruited and included in the study. Patients were enrol ed in one of two groups according to whether they accepted DC/CIK immunobiological cancer therapy during adjuvant chemotherapy; the patients in the DC/CIK group underwent adjuvant chemotherapy combined with DC/CIK immunobiological cancer therapy, and the control group underwent adjuvant chemotherapy alone. When six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy and six cycles of DC/CIK immunobiological cancer therapy had been completed, dif erences between the two groups with regard to quality of life (QoL), immunological indicators (CD3, CD4, CD8, and NK cel levels), disease-free survival (DFS), and side ef ects of chemotherapy and DC/CIK treatment were evaluated. Results In the DC/CIK group, the proportion of NK cel s and CD3+ and CD4+ T-cel subgroups significantly increased, and the proportion of CD8+ cel s decreased when they were compared before and after DC/CIK therapy (P Conclusion The DC/CIK treatment had potential benefits for patients with TNBC compared with the con-trol group, and was not associated with any obvious side ef ects. Therefore, DC/CIK therapy is a safe and ef ective method for the treatment of TNBC.

  3. A Novel Combination of Thermal Ablation and Heat-Inducible Gene therapy for Breast Cancer Treatment (United States)


    11. Khokhlova, V.A., et al., Effects of nonlinear propagation, cavitation , and boiling in lesion formation by high intensity focused ultrasound in...intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been developed as an emerging non-invasive strategy for cancer treatment by thermal ablation of tumor tissue. The...Concepts, Seattle, WA) operating at its fundamental frequency (1.1 MHz) or its third harmonics (3.3 MHz). The ultrasound imaging system was a 5/7

  4. Evaluation of the prognosis as well as tumor marker levels and immune function of Fuzheng Xiaoliu decoction combined with paclitaxel treatment of advanced breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ping Huang; Jin-Ru Zhang; Xiao-Fang Li; Jian-Guo Wang


    Objective:To analyze the effect of Fuzheng Xiaoliu decoction combined with paclitaxel treatment of advanced breast cancer on the prognosis as well as tumor marker levels, immune function and so on.Methods:A total of 40 patients with advanced breast cancer were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=20), control group received conventional chemotherapy + paclitaxel treatment and observation group received conventional chemotherapy + paclitaxel + Fuzheng Xiaoliu decoction treatment. The survival of two groups of patients was followed up, and serum levels of tumor markers and sex hormones as well as immune function indexes were determined.Results:Progression-free survival and overall survival of observation group were longer than those of control group; after one course of treatment, serum VEGF-A, TK1, IGF-1, CerbB-2, CEA, CA15-3, CA125, E1 and E2 levels of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group while LH and FSH levels were significantly higher than those of control group; CD3+CD4+, CD8+CD28+, CD19+ and CD16+CD56+ expression levels in peripheral blood of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group while CD4+CD25+ and CD8+CD28- expression levels were significantly lower than those of control group.Conclusion:Fuzheng Xiaoliu decoction combined paclitaxel treatment of advanced breast cancer can reduce tumor malignancy and improve the body's immune function, and is of positive significance in optimizing treatment prognosis.

  5. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  6. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  7. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J


    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a met...

  8. Circadian clocks and breast cancer


    Blakeman, Victoria; Jack L. Williams; Meng, Qing-Jun; Streuli, Charles H


    Circadian clocks respond to environmental time cues to coordinate 24-hour oscillations in almost every tissue of the body. In the breast, circadian clocks regulate the rhythmic expression of numerous genes. Disrupted expression of circadian genes can alter breast biology and may promote cancer. Here we overview circadian mechanisms, and the connection between the molecular clock and breast biology. We describe how disruption of circadian genes contributes to cancer via multiple mechanisms, an...

  9. Stratification and therapeutic potential of PML in metastatic breast cancer (United States)

    Martín-Martín, Natalia; Piva, Marco; Urosevic, Jelena; Aldaz, Paula; Sutherland, James D.; Fernández-Ruiz, Sonia; Arreal, Leire; Torrano, Verónica; Cortazar, Ana R.; Planet, Evarist; Guiu, Marc; Radosevic-Robin, Nina; Garcia, Stephane; Macías, Iratxe; Salvador, Fernando; Domenici, Giacomo; Rueda, Oscar M.; Zabala-Letona, Amaia; Arruabarrena-Aristorena, Amaia; Zúñiga-García, Patricia; Caro-Maldonado, Alfredo; Valcárcel-Jiménez, Lorea; Sánchez-Mosquera, Pilar; Varela-Rey, Marta; Martínez-Chantar, Maria Luz; Anguita, Juan; Ibrahim, Yasir H.; Scaltriti, Maurizio; Lawrie, Charles H.; Aransay, Ana M.; Iovanna, Juan L.; Baselga, Jose; Caldas, Carlos; Barrio, Rosa; Serra, Violeta; dM Vivanco, Maria; Matheu, Ander; Gomis, Roger R.; Carracedo, Arkaitz


    Patient stratification has been instrumental for the success of targeted therapies in breast cancer. However, the molecular basis of metastatic breast cancer and its therapeutic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood. Here we show that PML is a novel target in aggressive breast cancer. The acquisition of aggressiveness and metastatic features in breast tumours is accompanied by the elevated PML expression and enhanced sensitivity to its inhibition. Interestingly, we find that STAT3 is responsible, at least in part, for the transcriptional upregulation of PML in breast cancer. Moreover, PML targeting hampers breast cancer initiation and metastatic seeding. Mechanistically, this biological activity relies on the regulation of the stem cell gene SOX9 through interaction of PML with its promoter region. Altogether, we identify a novel pathway sustaining breast cancer aggressiveness that can be therapeutically exploited in combination with PML-based stratification. PMID:27553708

  10. Classification of Breast Cancer Subtypes by combining Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Hauschild, Anne-Christin; Tan, Qihua;


    on the transcriptomic, but also on an epigenetic level. We compared so-called random forest derived classification models based on gene expression and methylation data alone, to a model based on the combined features and to a model based on the gold standard PAM50. We obtained bootstrap errors of 10...

  11. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens


    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  12. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per


    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  13. Combining different views of mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker of breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, S.; Karemore, Gopal; Chernoff, Konstantin

    analysis (LDA, QDA) where respectively Fisher criterion and Likelihood ratio were used as combination scores. LDA and QDA parameters were obtained from the training set. Performance was evaluated by AUC statistics. Correlations were analyses as Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient. RESULTS...... No significant difference in age was found between cases and controls. The AUC values for RMLO, LMLO, RCC and LCC views are respectively 0.604, 0.579, 0.602 and 0.605. Combination of views yielded RMLO & LMLO: 0.600; RCC & LCC: 0.612; RMLO & RCC: 0.632; LMLO & LCC: 0.623. The correlation of scores from...... contralateral views was 0.72-0.75. Scatter plots are shown below. CONCLUSION The MTR AUCs are a little lower than earlier reported probably due to the smaller training set. MTR scores obtained from two contralateral views correlated well, but not as highly as previously reported on density (>0.85). We conclude...

  14. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment


    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter


    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  15. Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer by Dietary Polyphenols. (United States)

    Mocanu, Maria-Magdalena; Nagy, Péter; Szöllősi, János


    The review will discuss in detail the effects of polyphenols on breast cancer, including both the advantages and disadvantages of the applications of these natural compounds. First, we focus on the characterization of the main classes of polyphenols and then on in vitro and in vivo experiments carried out in breast cancer models. Since the therapeutic effects of the administration of a single type of polyphenol might be limited because of the reduced bioavailability of these drugs, investigations on combination of several polyphenols or polyphenols with conventional therapy will also be discussed. In addition, we present recent data focusing on clinical trials with polyphenols and new approaches with nanoparticles in breast cancer. Besides the clinical and translational findings this review systematically summarizes our current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer effects of polyphenols, which are related to apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, plasma membrane receptors, signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms. At the same time the effects of polyphenols on primary tumor, metastasis and angiogenesis in breast cancer are discussed. The increasing enthusiasm regarding the combination of polyphenols and conventional therapy in breast cancer might lead to additional efforts to motivate further research in this field.

  16. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto. (United States)

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A


    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  17. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid (United States)


    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  18. Nucleolin overexpression in breast cancer cell sub-populations with different stem-like phenotype enables targeted intracellular delivery of synergistic drug combination. (United States)

    Fonseca, Nuno A; Rodrigues, Ana S; Rodrigues-Santos, Paulo; Alves, Vera; Gregório, Ana C; Valério-Fernandes, Ângela; Gomes-da-Silva, Lígia C; Rosa, Manuel Santos; Moura, Vera; Ramalho-Santos, João; Simões, Sérgio; Moreira, João Nuno


    Breast cancer stem cells (CSC) are thought responsible for tumor growth and relapse, metastization and active evasion to standard chemotherapy. The recognition that CSC may originate from non-stem cancer cells (non-SCC) through plastic epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition turned these into relevant cell targets. Of crucial importance for successful therapeutic intervention is the identification of surface receptors overexpressed in both CSC and non-SCC. Cell surface nucleolin has been described as overexpressed in cancer cells as well as a tumor angiogenic marker. Herein we have addressed the questions on whether nucleolin was a common receptor among breast CSC and non-SCC and whether it could be exploited for targeting purposes. Liposomes functionalized with the nucleolin-binding F3 peptide, targeted simultaneously, nucleolin-overexpressing putative breast CSC and non-SCC, which was paralleled by OCT4 and NANOG mRNA levels in cells from triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) origin. In murine embryonic stem cells, both nucleolin mRNA levels and F3 peptide-targeted liposomes cellular association were dependent on the stemness status. An in vivo tumorigenic assay suggested that surface nucleolin overexpression per se, could be associated with the identification of highly tumorigenic TNBC cells. This proposed link between nucleolin expression and the stem-like phenotype in TNBC, enabled 100% cell death mediated by F3 peptide-targeted synergistic drug combination, suggesting the potential to abrogate the plasticity and adaptability associated with CSC and non-SCC. Ultimately, nucleolin-specific therapeutic tools capable of simultaneous debulk multiple cellular compartments of the tumor microenvironment may pave the way towards a specific treatment for TNBC patient care.

  19. Aerobic Exercise, Estrogens, and Breast Cancer Risk (United States)


    include early age at menarche, late age at menopause and first childbirth, nulliparity, family history of breast cancer, benign breast disease, and al. (24), a four-cycle intervention consisting of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in combination with a caloric restrictive diet resulted in...vigorous exercise intervention independent of diet restriction and weight loss. We specifically sought to determine if the exercise intervention would

  20. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer. (United States)

    Darbre, P D


    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  1. Novel polyacrylate-based cationic nanoparticles for survivin siRNA delivery combined with mitoxantrone for treatment of breast cancer. (United States)

    Arami, Sanam; Mahdavi, Majid; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Fathi, Marziyeh; Hejazi, Mohammad-Saeid; Samadi, Nasser


    As a gene delivery method in breast cancer therapy, knocking down the undesired genes in the cancerous cells would be promising. Inhibitors of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family genes are some of the genes whose responsibility is inhibition of apoptosis in cells. Silencing these genes seems to be helpful directing the tumor cells to death. siRNA sequence designed against survivin anti-apoptotic gene can play this role if carried to the cytoplasm. Here we prepared a positive charged biocompatible nano-sized particle made up of a Fe3O4 core covered respectively by polyacrylate (PA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) layer, which could successfully deliver the siRNA into the MCF-7 cells. The particle structure was checked and having less than 50 nm diameter in size, positive charge and, safety towards MCF-7 cells besides being able to form nanoplexes with the siRNA strand helps it entering into the biologic assays part. The siRNA delivery evaluated via flowcytometry. Apoptosis induction was determined by DAPI staining. The efficiency of survivin gene knockdown was evaluated in mRNA and protein levels using Real time PCR and western blotting methods. Overall, the Fe3O4-PA-PEI nanoparticles can deliver siRNA effectively into the cytoplasm of the MCF-7 breast cancer cells and induce apoptosis.

  2. Breast Cancer Center Support Grant (United States)


    also occur with increased frequency in gene carriers, such prostate cancer. First-degree relatives of individuals with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation have...Tumor M 36 Asian Prostate Cancer M 52 Caucasian Ovarian Cancer F 56 Caucasian Cervical Cancer F 43 Caucasian Breast Cancer F 45 Caucasian Cancer of...address transportation barriers, alternate mechanisms were put in place for provision of parking and taxi vouchers. It was expected that many of the women

  3. Androgens and breast cancer in men and women. (United States)

    Dimitrakakis, Constantine


    Abundant clinical evidence suggests that androgens normally inhibit mammary epithelial proliferation and breast growth. Clinical and nonhuman primate studies support the notion that androgens inhibit mammary proliferation and, thus, may protect from breast cancer. On the other hand, administration of conventional estrogen treatment suppresses endogenous androgens and may, thus, enhance estrogenic breast stimulation and possibly breast cancer risk. Addition of testosterone to the usual hormone therapy regimen may diminish the estrogen/progestin increase in breast cancer risk, but the impact of this combined use on mammary gland homeostasis still needs evaluation.

  4. 乳腺超声与X线BI-RADS分类单独及联合应用对乳腺癌的诊断价值%The Diagnosis Value of Breast Ultrasonography and Mammography BI-RADS Classification Alone and Combined for Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春霞; 秦红风; 吕艳丽; 李毅


    目的:探讨乳腺超声与X线BI-RADS分类单独以及两者联合应用对乳腺癌的诊断价值.方法:回顾分析341例经穿刺活检或手术病理证实为乳腺癌患者的超声及X线BI-RADS分类及图像,比较超声与X线摄影BI-RADS分类单独以及两者联合对诊断乳腺癌的准确性.结果:超声诊断乳腺癌300例,诊断准确性为88.0%;X线诊断乳腺癌275例,诊断准确性为80.6%;两者联合诊断乳腺癌317例,诊断准确性为93.0%,与单独应用相比,联合应用能够提高诊断乳腺癌的准确性,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001).结论:超声与X线检查均为诊断乳腺癌的首选检查方法,采用BI-RADS分类,超声对乳腺癌的诊断准确性高于X线,而两者联合可以大大提高乳腺癌的诊断准确性.%Objective:To investigate the diagnosis value of breast ultrasonography and mammography BI-RADS classification alone and combined for breast cancer.Method:The breast ultrasonography and mammography data of 341 breast cancer cases diagnosed by core needle biopsy or open surgery were retrospectively analyzed.The accuracy of breast ultrasonography and mammography alone and combined for breast cancer were compared.Result:300 cases(88.0%) were diagnosed by breast ultrasonography alone,275 cases(80.6%) were diagnosed by breast mammography alone,317 cases(93.0%) were diagnosed by application of combined breast ultrasonography and mammography.Combination of breast ultrasonography and mammography could significantly improve the accuracy of diagnosis of breast cancer compared with the breast ultrasonography alone or breast mammography alone(P<0.001).Conclusion:Breast ultrasonography and mammography are routine imaging methods for breast cancer,the accuracy of breast ultrasonography for diagnosis of breast cancer is higher than breast mammography,and the combination of both methods can significantly improve accuracy of breast cancer diagnosis.

  5. The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium (United States)


    Protein Autovac in Patients with Brest Cancer CPharmexa). This trial was initiated in June 2003. The PBCC accrued 5 of the planned 11 patients. This...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-01-1-0374 TITLE: The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium...3. DATES COVERED 1 AUG 2001 - 31 JUL 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  6. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging in a Phase Ⅱ Study on Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Combining Rh-Endostatin with Docetaxel and Epirubicin for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianxin Jia, Junqing Xu, Weifeng Jiang, Minwen Zheng, Mengqi Wei, Jianghao Chen, Ling Wang, Yi Huan


    Full Text Available Background: Anti-angiogenesis is a promising therapeutic strategy for locally advanced breast cancer. We performed this phase II trial to evaluate the anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor effect of rh-endostatin combined with docetaxel and epirubicin in patients with locally advanced breast cancer by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in 70 previously untreated locally advanced breast cancer patients.Methods: The study population was randomly assigned to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel and epirubicin (neoadjuvant chemotherapy group or neoadjuvant chemotherapy combining rh-endostatin with docetaxel and epirubicin (neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group. The anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects of both regimens were evaluated by serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and microvessel density measurements after final surgery.Results: The results suggested a higher clinical objective response (90.9% vs. 67.7%, P = 0.021 and greater reductions in tumor size (67.2% vs. 55.9%, P = 0.000, Ki-67 proliferation index (32.79% vs. 12.47%, P = 0.000, tumor signal enhanced ratio (64% vs. 48%, P = 0.018, and Ktrans (67% vs. 39%, P = 0.026 in neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group than those in neoadjuvant chemotherapy group. In addition, the microvessel density value in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group was significantly lower than in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (18.67 ± 6.53 vs. 36.05 ± 9.64, P = 0.000. Moreover, the microvessel density value was significantly correlated with Ktrans after neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin treatment (r=0.88, P = 0.00.Conclusions: The neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin treatment significantly repressed angiogenesis in locally advanced breast cancer and synergistically enhanced the anti-tumor effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data including reductions in tumor size and Ktrans

  7. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome induced by combination therapy with tetrabenazine and tiapride in a Japanese patient with Huntington's disease at the terminal stage of recurrent breast cancer. (United States)

    Nozaki, Ichiro; Furukawa, Yutaka; Kato-Motozaki, Yuko; Ikeda, Tokuhei; Tagami, Atsuro; Takahashi, Kazuya; Ishida, Chiho; Komai, Kiyonobu


    We herein describe the case of an 81-year-old Japanese woman with neuroleptic malignant syndrome that occurred 36 days after the initiation of combination therapy with tiapride (75 mg/day) and tetrabenazine (12.5 mg/day) for Huntington's disease. The patient had been treated with tiapride or tetrabenazine alone without any adverse effects before the administration of the combination therapy. She also had advanced breast cancer when the combination therapy was initiated. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to combination therapy with tetrabenazine and tiapride has not been previously reported. Tetrabenazine should be administered very carefully in combination with other neuroleptic drugs, particularly in patients with a worsening general condition.

  8. Epigenetics and Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An T. Vo


    Full Text Available Several of the active compounds in foods, poisons, drugs, and industrial chemicals may, by epigenetic mechanisms, increase or decrease the risk of breast cancers. Enzymes that are involved in DNA methylation and histone modifications have been shown to be altered in several types of breast and other cancers resulting in abnormal patterns of methylation and/or acetylation. Hypermethylation at the CpG islands found in estrogen response element (ERE promoters occurs in conjunction with ligand-bonded alpha subunit estrogen receptor (Erα dimers wherein the ligand ERα dimer complex acts as a transcription factor and binds to the ERE promoter. Ligands could be 17-β-estradiol (E2, phytoestrogens, heterocyclic amines, and many other identified food additives and heavy metals. The dimer recruits DNA methyltransferases which catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM to 5′-cytosine on CpG islands. Other enzymes are recruited to the region by ligand-ERα dimers which activate DNA demethylases to act simultaneously to increase gene expression of protooncogenes and growth-promoting genes. Ligand-ERα dimers also recruit histone acetyltransferase to the ERE promoter region. Histone demethylases such as JMJD2B and histone methyltransferases are enzymes which demethylate lysine residues on histones H3 and/or H4. This makes the chromatin accessible for transcription factors and enzymes.

  9. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu


    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  10. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... the survival of women who have had breast cancer in the past. Lactation (breast milk production) and breast-feeding should be stopped if ... methotrexate , may occur in high levels in breast milk and may harm the nursing baby. Women ... Breast cancer does not appear to harm the unborn baby. ...

  11. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... the survival of women who have had breast cancer in the past. Lactation (breast milk production) and breast-feeding should be stopped if ... methotrexate , may occur in high levels in breast milk and may harm the nursing baby. Women ... Breast cancer does not appear to harm the unborn baby. ...

  12. Combinational effects of hexane insoluble fraction of Ficus septica Burm.F.and doxorubicin chemotherapy on T47D breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agung; Endro; Nugroho; Adam; Hermawan; Dyaningtyas; Dewi; Pamungkas; Putri; Anindya; Novika; Edy; Meiyanto


    Objective:To evaluate the effects of n-hexane insoluble fraction(HIF)of Ficus septica leaves in combination with doxorubicin on cytotoxicity,cell cycle and apoptosis induction of breast cancer T47D cell lines.Methods:The in vitro drugs-stimulated cytotoxic effects were determined using MTT assay.Analysis of cell cycle distribution was performed using flowcytometer and the data was analyzed using ModFit LT 3.0 program.Apoptosis assay was earned out by double staining method using ethydium bromide-acridin orange.The expression of cleaved-poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase(PARP)on T47D cell lines was identified using immunocytochemistry.Results:The combination exhibited higher inhibitory effect on cell growth than the single treatment of doxorubicin in T47D cells.In addition,combination of doxorubicin and HIF increased the incidence of cells undergoing apoptosis.HIF could improve doxorubicin cytotoxic effect by changing the accumulation of cell cycle phase from G2/M to G1 phase.The combination also exhibited upregulation of cleaved-PARP in T47D cells.Conclusions:Based on this results,HIF is potential to be developed as co-chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.However,the molecular mechanism need to be explored further.

  13. Combinational effects of hexane insoluble fraction of Ficus septica Burm. F. and doxorubicin chemotherapy on T47D breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agung Endro Nugroho; Adam Hermawan; Anindya Novika; Edy Meiyanto


    Objective: To evaluate the effects of n-hexane insoluble fraction (HIF) of Ficus septica leaves in combination with doxorubicin on cytotoxicity, cell cycle and apoptosis induction of breast cancer T47D cell lines. Methods: The in vitro drugs-stimulated cytotoxic effects were determined using MTT assay. Analysis of cell cycle distribution was performed using flowcytometer and the data was analyzed using ModFit LT 3.0 program. Apoptosis assay was carried out by double staining method using ethydium bromide-acridin orange. The expression of cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) on T47D cell lines was identified using immunocytochemistry. Results:The combination exhibited higher inhibitory effect on cell growth than the single treatment of doxorubicin in T47D cells. In addition, combination of doxorubicin and HIF increased the incidence of cells undergoing apoptosis. HIF could improve doxorubicin cytotoxic effect by changing the accumulation of cell cycle phase from G2/M to G1 phase. The combination also exhibited upregulation of cleaved-PARP in T47D cells. Conclusions: Based on this results, HIF is potential to be developed as co-chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, the molecular mechanism need to be explored further.

  14. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart (United States)

    ... American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , Sara ... cancer treatments. Breast cancer treatments include the following: Chemotherapy involves drugs that are intended to kill the ...

  15. Miscellaneous syndromes and their management: occult breast cancer, breast cancer in pregnancy, male breast cancer, surgery in stage IV disease. (United States)

    Colfry, Alfred John


    Surgical therapy for occult breast cancer has traditionally centered on mastectomy; however, breast conservation with whole breast radiotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection has shown equivalent results. Patients with breast cancer in pregnancy can be safely and effectively treated; given a patient's pregnancy trimester and stage of breast cancer, a clinician must be able to guide therapy accordingly. Male breast cancer risk factors show strong association with BRCA2 mutations, as well as Klinefelter syndrome. Several retrospective trials of surgical therapy in stage IV breast cancer have associated a survival advantage with primary site tumor extirpation.

  16. Detection of soluble ERBB2 in breast cancer cell lysates using a combined label-free/fluorescence platform based on Bloch surface waves. (United States)

    Sinibaldi, Alberto; Sampaoli, Camilla; Danz, Norbert; Munzert, Peter; Sibilio, Leonardo; Sonntag, Frank; Occhicone, Agostino; Falvo, Elisabetta; Tremante, Elisa; Giacomini, Patrizio; Michelotti, Francesco


    We report on the use of one-dimensional photonic crystals to detect clinically relevant concentrations of ERBB2/neu/Her2 in cell lysates. ERBB2 is a pivotal breast cancer biomarker and targetable oncogenic driver associated with aggressive breast cancer subtypes. To quantitate soluble ERBB2, we developed an optical platform that combines label-free and fluorescence detection modes. Such platform makes use of a sandwich assay in which the one-dimensional photonic crystals sustaining Bloch surface waves are tailored with a monoclonal antibody for highly specific biological recognition (BSW biochip). In a second step, a second antibody to ERBB2 quantitatively detects the bound analyte. The strategy of the present approach takes advantage of the combination of label-free and fluorescence techniques, making bio-recognition more robust and sensitive. In the fluorescence operation mode, the platform can attain the limit of detection 0.3ng/mL (1.5pM) for ERBB2 in cell lysates. Such resolution meets the international guidelines and recommendations (15ng/mL) for diagnostic ERBB2 assays that in the future may help to more precisely assign therapies counteracting cancer cell proliferation and metastatic spread.

  17. FDA Approval of Palbociclib in Combination with Fulvestrant for the Treatment of Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Walker, Amanda J; Wedam, Suparna; Amiri-Kordestani, Laleh; Bloomquist, Erik; Tang, Shengui; Sridhara, Rajeshwari; Chen, Wei; Palmby, Todd R; Fourie Zirkelbach, Jeanne; Fu, Wentao; Liu, Qi; Tilley, Amy; Kim, Geoffrey; Kluetz, Paul G; McKee, Amy E; Pazdur, Richard


    On February 19, 2016, the FDA approved palbociclib (Ibrance, Pfizer) for use in combination with fulvestrant (Faslodex, AstraZeneca) for the treatment of women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with disease progression following endocrine therapy. The approval was based on the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 521 pre- and postmenopausal women with HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced or MBC. Patients were randomized (2:1) to receive palbociclib plus fulvestrant (n = 347) or placebo plus fulvestrant (n = 174). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). A statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in PFS (9.5 months vs. 4.6 months) was observed in patients receiving palbociclib plus fulvestrant [HR 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36-0.59; P 20%) in patients treated with palbociclib were neutropenia, leukopenia, infections, fatigue, nausea, anemia, stomatitis, headache, diarrhea, and thrombocytopenia. This approval was granted in the context of a prior accelerated approval for palbociclib in combination with letrozole in patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer as initial endocrine-based therapy. Clin Cancer Res; 22(20); 4968-72. ©2016 AACR.

  18. Combined Detection of Breast Cancer Micrometastases in the Lymph Nodes and Bone Marrow Using Reverse-transcriptase chain Reaction and Southern Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The presence of lymph nodes and bone marrow micrometastases of patients with breast carcinoma by immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods has been strongly correlated to early recurrence and shorter overall survival. The aim of this study was to detect micrometastases in matched sample pairs of lymph nodes and the bone marrow of primary breast cancer patients using a more sensitive method, and compare with other clinical parameters. Methods: Cytokeratin 19 (CK-19) gene mRNA expression was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot hybridization. Human breast cancer cell line T47D was mixed with bone marrow cells at different proportions. The positive detection rate was compared among RT-PCR, Southern blotting and IHC methods. Results: Cytokeratin 19 gene was expressed in all 6 positive control samples, while the expression wasn't seen in 18 negative control samples. CK-19 IHC positive cells were detected at a dilution of one T47D cell in 5×105 bone marrow cells, while the sensitivity detected by PCR and Southern blot hybridization was at 1:5′ 104 and 1:106, respectively. In the samples from the 35 patients, we found CK-19 positive cells in 2 cases (5.7%) by IHC. CK-19 gene expression signal was detected in 14/35 (40%) by RT-PCR,and 17/35 (48.6%) by southern blotting. Four cases were micrometastases positive both in lymph node and bone marrow (11.4%). There was no correlation between CK-1 9 detection and other clinical parameters. Conclusion: combined detection of micrometastases in lymph node and bone marrow by RT-PCR and Southern blotting, using CK-19 as a biological marker, is a highly sensitive method for breast cancer.

  19. Role of cyclooxygenase-2 in breast cancer. (United States)

    Singh, Balraj; Lucci, Anthony


    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, is expressed in normal brain and kidney, activated macrophages, synoviocytes during inflammation, and malignant epithelial cells. COX-2 expression is stimulated by a number of inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, oncogenes, lipopolysaccharides, and tumor promoters. There is evidence that COX-2 plays a key role in tumorigenesis through stimulating epithelial cell proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis, stimulating angiogenesis, enhancing cell invasiveness, mediating immune suppression, and by increasing the production of mutagens. Results of several studies using mouse models of colon cancer and the results of clinical trials have shown COX-2 to be a useful target for the prevention and treatment of colon cancer. Studies with several other epithelial cancers involving different organ sites, e.g., breast, prostate, bladder, lung, and pancreas, suggest that COX-2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these cancers. In this review, we summarize the studies that pertain to the involvement of COX-2 in breast cancer. COX-2 overexpression affects the physiological processes at different organ sites in a similar manner, although specific effectors and targets of COX-2 may differ at different sites. Thus in reviewing the data on the involvement of COX-2 in breast cancer, we have also considered the findings regarding the role of COX-2 in other organ sites. Studies from mouse models of mammary tumorigenesis and from human breast cancer cell lines provide evidence that COX-2 overexpression plays an important role in the pathogenesis of malignant breast cancer in humans. Because of availability of effective and relatively safe COX-2 inhibitors, it should be soon possible to evaluate their effectiveness in the clinic for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. It is likely that the COX-2 inhibitors will be effective in the treatment regimens involving combination

  20. Breast Cancer Types: What Your Type Means (United States)

    ... what treatments are most effective. Parts of the breast where cancer begins include: Milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer. This type of cancer forms in the lining of a milk duct within your breast. The ducts carry breast ...

  1. Targeted Agents Active Against Breast Cancer: Q&A (United States)

    ALTTO was a clinical trial designed to determine whether the combination of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) and the drug lapatinib (Tykerb) was more effective in treating HER2/ErbB2-positive breast cancer when combined with chemotherapy.

  2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer--experience with the combined use of dye and radioactive tracer at Aarhus University Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Cathrine; Garne, Jens Peter; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt;


    -needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) were not included. For identifying the SLNs, a combination of Tc-99m-labelled human albumin (Solco-ALBU-RES) and blue dye (Patent Blue V) was used. No lymphoscintigraphy was performed. The SLN was successfully identified in 122 out of 124 (98%) patients and 66 (54%) patients were...... found to have metastatic involvement of the axillary lymph nodes. In 52 (79%) of these patients, the SLNs were the only nodes involved, 28 (54%) had micrometastasis only. The false-negative rate was 1.5%. This method has proven valid in the staging of the axilla in patients with breast cancer...

  3. Results of a conservative treatment combining induction (neoadjuvant) and consolidation chemotherapy, hormonotherapy, and external and interstitial irradiation in 98 patients with locally advanced breast cancer (IIIA-IIIB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquillat, C.; Baillet, F.; Weil, M.; Auclerc, G.; Housset, M.; Auclerc, M.; Sellami, M.; Jindani, A.; Thill, L.; Soubrane, C.


    Ninety-eight patients with locally advanced breast cancer (Stage IIIA-IIIB) were entered into a pilot study combining intensive induction (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy (VTMFAP) with or without hormonochemotherapy, external and interstitial radiotherapy, and consolidation chemotherapy with or without hormonochemotherapy. Tumor regression over 50% was observed in 91% patients after chemotherapy, and complete clinical remission occurred in 100% patients after irradiation. The rate of local relapse is 13%. The 3-year disease-free survival is 62% and 3-year global survival is 77%. Initial chemotherapeutic tumor regression greater than 75% is the main predictive factor for disease-free survival.

  4. Consumer Health Education. Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.

    This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…

  5. Clinical application research on the use of the Photon Therapeutic Apparatus combined with Hops extract compound ointment in treatment for breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yunzhu


    Full Text Available Objective: To research Carnation-87C photon theraapeutic apparatus combine with compound hops extract ointment in the clinical effect of breast cancer patients after operation with unhealed incision of skin flap necrosis. Method: The experimental group is treated by the conventional therapy and Carnation-87C photon therapeutic apparatus combine with compound hops extract ointment, while the control group is treated by the conventional therapy only, such as regular dressing change. The other treatments for two groups of patients are the same. Through 4 weeks’ treatment, the growth of fresh granulation tissue and healing time were observed between two groups. Results: There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05 in the growth of fresh granulation tissue and healing time between two groups of patients with non-healing skin flap necrosis after the operation. Conclusion: The treatment with the Carnation-87C photon therapeutic apparatus combine with compound hops extract ointment for breast cancer patients after operation with unhealed incision of skin flap necrosis is easy to operate with good curative effect, and it is worth popularizing in clinical application.

  6. Integrated profiling of basal and luminal breast cancers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adelaide, J.; Finetti, P.; Bekhouche, I.; Repellini, L.; Geneix, J.; Sircoulomb, F.; Charafe-Jauffret, E.; Cervera, N.; Desplans, J.; Parzy, D.; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Viens, P.; Jacquemier, J.; Birnbaum, D.; Bertucci, F.; Chaffanet, M.


    Basal and luminal are two molecular subtypes of breast cancer with opposite histoclinical features. We report a combined, high-resolution analysis of genome copy number and gene expression in primary basal and luminal breast cancers. First, we identified and compared genomic alterations in 45 basal

  7. Persistent neurocognitive problems after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreukels, B.P.C.; van Dam, F.S.A.M.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Boogerd, W.; Schagen, S.B.


    Background: Neurocognitive problems have been observed in a number of women previously treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. The present study aims to combine the results of neuropsychological and electrophysiological techniques collected in patients with breast cancer treated with c

  8. Understanding your breast cancer risk (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. ... page: // Understanding your breast cancer risk To use the sharing features ...

  9. Nonestrogenic drugs and breast cancer. (United States)

    Danielson, D A; Jick, H; Hunter, J R; Stergachis, A; Madsen, S


    The relation between breast cancer and selected nonestrogenic drugs was evaluated in the Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Seattle, Washington, a prepaid health care organization with computerized information on diagnoses and outpatient drug use. No important positive associations with breast cancer were found in a follow-up study of 302 women aged 35-74 years. These women were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 1977-1980 and were studied in relation to exposure in the six months prior to diagnosis to one or more of the following drugs: diazepam, digitalis glycosides, medroxyprogesterone acetate, methyldopa, metronidazole, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, thiazides, thyroid/levothyroxine sodium, or spironolactone. A modest association between recent reserpine use and breast cancer was present (risk ratio = 1.7, 90% confidence interval 0.9-3.3).

  10. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  11. Combination treatment of human umbilical cord matrix stem cell-based interferon-beta gene therapy and 5-fluorouracil significantly reduces growth of metastatic human breast cancer in SCID mouse lungs. (United States)

    Rachakatla, Raja Shekar; Pyle, Marla M; Ayuzawa, Rie; Edwards, Sarah M; Marini, Frank C; Weiss, Mark L; Tamura, Masaaki; Troyer, Deryl


    Umbilical cord matrix stem (UCMS) cells that were engineered to express interferon-beta (IFN-beta) were transplanted weekly for three weeks into MDA 231 breast cancer xenografts bearing SCID mice in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The UCMS cells were found within lung tumors but not in other tissues. Although both treatments significantly reduced MDA 231 tumor area in the SCID mouse lungs, the combined treatment resulted in a greater reduction in tumor area than by either treatment used alone. These results indicate that a combination treatment of UCMS-IFN-beta cells and 5-FU is a potentially effective therapeutic procedure for breast cancer.

  12. Breast cancer. Part 3: advanced cancer and psychological implications. (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the last article in this 3-part series on breast cancer. The previous two articles have outlined the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging, and treatment for breast cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment. The series concludes by giving information on advanced disease, including when a patient presents late with a fungating breast lesion, or if the disease has metastasized from the breast to other organs. Lymphoedema is also described and discussed, and the latter half of this article discusses psychological implications of breast cancer, from diagnosis through the individual treatments.

  13. Breast Cancer Detection Using Multilevel Thresholding

    CERN Document Server

    Rejani, Y Ireaneus Anna


    This paper presents an algorithm which aims to assist the radiologist in identifying breast cancer at its earlier stages. It combines several image processing techniques like image negative, thresholding and segmentation techniques for detection of tumor in mammograms. The algorithm is verified by using mammograms from Mammographic Image Analysis Society. The results obtained by applying these techniques are described.

  14. Environmental chemical exposures and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stanley


    Full Text Available As a hormone-sensitive condition with no single identifiable cause, breast cancer is a major health problem. It is characterized by a wide range of contributing factors and exposures occurring in different combinations and strengths across a lifetime that may be amplified during periods of enhanced developmental susceptibility and impacted by reproductive patterns and behaviours. The vast majority of cases are oestrogen-receptor positive and occur in women with no family history of the disease suggesting that modifiable risk factors are involved. A substantial body of evidence now links oestrogen-positive breast cancer with environmental exposures. Synthetic chemicals capable of oestrogen mimicry are characteristic of industrial development and have been individually and extensively assessed as risk factors for oestrogen-sensitive cancers. Existing breast cancer risk assessment tools do not take such factors into account. In the absence of consensus on causation and in order to better understand the problem of escalating incidence globally, an expanded, integrated approach broadening the inquiry into individual susceptibility breast cancer is proposed. Applying systems thinking to existing data on oestrogen-modulating environmental exposures and other oestrogenic factors characteristic of Westernisation and their interactions in the exposure, encompassing social, behavioural, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors, can assist in understanding cancer risks and the pursuit of prevention strategies. A new conceptual framework based on a broader understanding of the “system” that underlies the development of breast cancer over a period of many years, incorporating the factors known to contribute to breast cancer risk, could provide a new platform from which government and regulators can promulgate enhanced and more effective prevention strategies.

  15. Metals and breast cancer. (United States)

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D; Storchan, Geoffrey B; Parodi, Daniela A; Martin, Mary Beth


    Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-α. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breast cancer.

  16. Iodide transport and breast cancer. (United States)

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J


    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer.

  17. Resveratrol as MDR reversion molecule in breast cancer: An overview. (United States)

    Alamolhodaei, Nafiseh Sadat; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Ramezani, Mohammad; Hayes, A Wallace; Karimi, Gholamreza


    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide; therefore, a strategy to defeat breast cancer is an extremely important medical issue. One of the major challenges in this regard is multidrug resistance (MDR). Resveratrol, a well-known phytoestrogen, may be helpful as part of an overall strategy to defeat breast cancer. The mixed agonist and antagonist role of resveratrol for the estrogen receptor makes it a controversial but interesting molecule in cancer therapy, especially in hormone dependent cancers. Several in vitro investigations have suggested that resveratrol can reverse multidrug resistance. However, poor bioavailability of resveratrol is a potential limitation for resveratrol treatment and cancer outcome in vivo. Fortunately, combination therapy with other selected compounds improves resveratrol's bioavailability and/or a delay in its metabolism. This review summaries the available published literature dealing with the effects of resveratrol on multidrug resistance in cancer and more specifically, breast cancer.

  18. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening ... Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer Basics and ... and Diagnosis / Staging and Treatment / Selected National Cancer Institute Breast ...

  19. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer




    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic...

  20. Breast cancer cells can switch between estrogen receptor alpha and ErbB signaling and combined treatment against both signaling pathways postpones development of resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, Katrine; Norrie, Ida C; Emdal, Kristina Bennet


    The majority of breast cancers are estrogen responsive, but upon progression of disease other growth promoting pathways are activated, e.g., the ErbB receptor system. The present study focuses on resistance to the pure estrogen antagonist fulvestrant and strategies to treat resistant cells or even...... could be abrogated by combined therapy targeting both receptor systems. Thus, the present study indicates that upon development of antiestrogen resistance, antiestrogen treatment should be continued in combination with signal transduction inhibitors. Further, upfront combination of endocrine therapy...... circumvent development of resistance. Limited effects were observed when targeting EGFR and ErbB2 with the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab, whereas the pan-ErbB inhibitor CI-1033 selectively inhibited growth of fulvestrant resistant cell lines. CI-1033 inhibited Erk but not Akt...

  1. Genomic profiling of breast cancer. (United States)

    Pandey, Anjita; Singh, Alok Kumar; Maurya, Sanjeev Kumar; Rai, Rajani; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Mohan; Shukla, Hari S


    Genome study provides significant changes in the advancement of molecular diagnosis and treatment in Breast cancer. Several recent critical advances and high-throughput techniques identified the genomic trouble and dramatically accelerated the pace of research in preventing and curing this malignancy. Tumor-suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes, DNA-repair genes, carcinogen-metabolism genes are critically involved in progression of breast cancer. We reviewed imperative finding in breast genetics, ongoing work to segregate further susceptible genes, and preliminary studies on molecular profiling.

  2. Chrysin, Abundant in Morinda citrifolia Fruit Water-EtOAc Extracts, Combined with Apigenin Synergistically Induced Apoptosis and Inhibited Migration in Human Breast and Liver Cancer Cells. (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Wei, Yu-Xuan; Shen, Ma-Ching; Tu, Yu-Hsuan; Wang, Chia-Chi; Huang, Hsiu-Chen


    The composition of Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia) was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the anticancer effects of M. citrifolia extract evaluated in HepG2, Huh7, and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. M. citrifolia fruit extracts were obtained by using five different organic solvents, including hexane (Hex), methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), chloroform (CHCl3), and ethanol (EtOH). The water-EtOAc extracts from M. citrifolia fruits was found to have the highest anticancer activity. HPLC data revealed the predominance of chrysin in water-EtOAc extracts of M. citrifolia fruit. Furthermore, the combined effects of cotreatment with apigenin and chrysin on liver and breast cancer were investigated. Treatment with apigenin plus chrysin for 72-96 h reduced HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cell viability and induced apoptosis through down-regulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein-2 (Skp2) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) expression. However, the combination treatment for 36 h synergistically decreased MDA-MB-231 cell motility but not cell viability through down-regulation of MMP2, MMP9, fibronectin, and snail in MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, chrysin combined with apigenin also suppressed tumor growth in human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells xenograft through down-regulation of ki-67 and Skp2 protein. The experimental results showed that chrysin combined with apigenin can reduce HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 proliferation and cell motility and induce apoptosis. It also offers opportunities for exploring new drug targets, and further investigations are underway in this regard.

  3. Nanotrastuzumab in combination with radioimmunotherapy: Can it be a viable treatment option for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer with brain metastasis? (United States)

    Wang, Xuefei; Sun, Qiang; Shen, Songjie; Xu, Yali; Huang, Likun


    Brain metastasis of primary breast cancer (BCBM) has been rising during the last couple of decades. Approximately 25% of the patients with BCBM have a hormone receptor-negative, HER2-positive disease. Given the short life expectancy in patients with BCBM, researchers have tried many new approaches, including cesium-131(131Cs) brachytherapy, radretumab radioimmunotherapy and nanoparticles. Novel biological drug delivery techniques have successfully delivered nanobioconjugates across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, nanobioconjugates have significant toxicities and other drawbacks that prevent therapeutic concentrations of the active drug from being delivered to the brain lesions. Radretumab radioimmunotherapy combined with nanotrastruzumab can theoretically overcome this challenge. Radiotherapy can increase the BBB permeability, which can promote the transport and effect of nanotrastuzumab, reduce radretumab radioimmunotherapy dose and target patients with HER2-positive BCBM lesions more specifically. In this article, we propose that nanotrastuzumab in combination with radioimmunotherapy could be a viable treatment option for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer with brain metastasis.

  4. Combined deletion of Pten and p53 in mammary epithelium accelerates triple-negative breast cancer with dependency on eEF2K. (United States)

    Liu, Jeff C; Voisin, Veronique; Wang, Sharon; Wang, Dong-Yu; Jones, Robert A; Datti, Alessandro; Uehling, David; Al-awar, Rima; Egan, Sean E; Bader, Gary D; Tsao, Ming; Mak, Tak W; Zacksenhaus, Eldad


    The tumor suppressors Pten and p53 are frequently lost in breast cancer, yet the consequences of their combined inactivation are poorly understood. Here, we show that mammary-specific deletion of Pten via WAP-Cre, which targets alveolar progenitors, induced tumors with shortened latency compared to those induced by MMTV-Cre, which targets basal/luminal progenitors. Combined Pten-p53 mutations accelerated formation of claudin-low, triple-negative-like breast cancer (TNBC) that exhibited hyper-activated AKT signaling and more mesenchymal features relative to Pten or p53 single-mutant tumors. Twenty-four genes that were significantly and differentially expressed between WAP-Cre:Pten/p53 and MMTV-Cre:Pten/p53 tumors predicted poor survival for claudin-low patients. Kinome screens identified eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF2K) inhibitors as more potent than PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors on both mouse and human Pten/p53-deficient TNBC cells. Sensitivity to eEF2K inhibition correlated with AKT pathway activity. eEF2K monotherapy suppressed growth of Pten/p53-deficient TNBC xenografts in vivo and cooperated with doxorubicin to efficiently kill tumor cells in vitro. Our results identify a prognostic signature for claudin-low patients and provide a rationale for using eEF2K inhibitors for treatment of TNBC with elevated AKT signaling.

  5. Realizing the promise of breast cancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson E


    Full Text Available Erica Jackson, Hatem SolimanUniversity of South Florida/Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Breast cancer vaccines are being developed to stimulate adaptive antitumor immune responses in patients. These vaccines have the potential to treat breast cancer with minimal side effects and toxicity. However, many obstacles still need to be overcome to fully realize the vaccines' clinical benefit. A review of the literature was conducted to assess the use of vaccines in targeting transformed cells. Four vaccines currently under study were discussed, each summarizing the different vaccine platforms used to introduce target antigen to the patient's immune system. The advantages and disadvantages of each method were discussed, although no one method was found to be superior. Additional issues addressed included overcoming tumor-induced immunosuppression, immune evasion of transformed cells, the use of vaccines in combination therapy, and the challenges of using these vaccines in various clinical settings. Vaccines may be most effective in patients with minimal residual disease, as opposed to using them in the metastatic setting. Also, specific clinical trial design considerations for the use of vaccines in cancer patients, such as time-to-failure end points, were discussed. Understanding these various elements will be important to the translation of breast cancer vaccine therapy into routine clinical practice.Keywords: breast cancer, vaccine, immunotherapy, immune tolerance, peptide vaccine, dendritic cell vaccine

  6. Microwaves for breast cancer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdelhamid Elkayal


    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is potentially an effective method for the treatment of cancer, especially breast cancer tumors. One of the most attractive attributes of hyperthermia is the possibility of providing therapeutic benefit noninvasively, minimizing side effects. To be effective, a hyperthermia treatment must selectively heat the cancerous tissue, elevating the temperature in the tumor without exposing healthy tissue to excessive temperature elevations. In this paper, a suggested simple model of Annular Phased Array (APA using eight half wavelength linear dipoles is presented. New software (COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS is used to calculate the temperature distribution inside a model of a three layered breast (skin, breast tissue, and tumor. In addition, the effect of changing the amplitude and phases of the array elements on the temperature distributions and the conditions on the values of the phases are demonstrated in order to achieve the objective of hyperthermia for breast tumor treatment.

  7. Breast-conserving surgery and combined therapy for women breast cancer:a report of 216 cases%216例女性乳腺癌保乳手术及综合治疗的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianju Qin; Junxue Chen; Hongwei Zhang; Dafang Zhao; Hua Zhang; Wenjie Luo; Qian Huang; Shixian Lian; Hanxing Tong


    Objective:To explore the therapeutic effect and associated techniques of breast-conserving therapy on patients with clinical stage Ⅰand stage Ⅱ breasl cancer.Methods:216 female patients with breast cancer underwent breast-conserving therapy from December 1993 to October 2004.Their data were analyzed retrospectively.The breast-conserving therapy consisted of lumpectomy or quadrant removal of the breast,postoperative radiotherapy.chemotherapy and endocrine therapy.of them.209 patients underwent axillary lymph node dissection.Results:There were no operative complications.216patients were followed-up 3 to 147 months.the medial follow-up time was 78 months.The local recurrence rate was 1.85%.Two patients died and one of them was not related with breast cancer.Presence or absence of fibrosis,shape of breast,asymmetry,pigmentation and handle were taken into consideration for cosmetic evaluation by the patients and experienced breast surgeon.Breasts were scored cosmetically asexcellent and good in 199 patients.the rate of satisfactory was92.13%.Conclusion:Breast-conserving therapy for early breast cancer is a safe and effective therapy.It has less trauma and less complications and can also raise the quality of life in the patients.But we must obey the strict indications and reasonable techniques.

  8. Combined inhibition of glycolysis, the pentose cycle, and thioredoxin metabolism selectively increases cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human breast and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li


    Full Text Available Inhibition of glycolysis using 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG, 20 mM, 24–48 h combined with inhibition of the pentose cycle using dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 300 µM, 24–48 h increased clonogenic cell killing in both human prostate (PC-3 and DU145 and human breast (MDA-MB231 cancer cells via a mechanism involving thiol-mediated oxidative stress. Surprisingly, when 2DG+DHEA treatment was combined with an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH synthesis (l-buthionine sulfoximine; BSO, 1 mM that depleted GSH>90% of control, no further increase in cell killing was observed during 48 h exposures. In contrast, when an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR activity (Auranofin; Au, 1 µM, was combined with 2DG+DHEA or DHEA-alone for 24 h, clonogenic cell killing was significantly increased in all three human cancer cell lines. Furthermore, enhanced clonogenic cell killing seen with the combination of DHEA+Au was nearly completely inhibited using the thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 20 mM. Redox Western blot analysis of PC-3 cells also supported the conclusion that thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1 oxidation was enhanced by treatment DHEA+Au and inhibited by NAC. Importantly, normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC were not as sensitive to 2DG, DHEA, and Au combinations as their cancer cell counterparts (MDA-MB-231. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that inhibition of glycolysis and pentose cycle activity, combined with inhibition of Trx metabolism, may provide a promising strategy for selectively sensitizing human cancer cells to oxidative stress-induced cell killing.

  9. Evolution of systemic treatment for hormone-sensitive breast cancer: from sequential use of single agents to the upfront administration of drug combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Imyanitov


    Full Text Available Current standards of treatment of endocrine-dependent cancers (breast cancer (BC, prostate cancer imply sequential use of endocrine therapy and cytotoxic agents: it is believed, that steroid hormone antagonists cease the division of transformed cells and therefore make them resistant to other therapeutic modalities. It is important to recognize that conceptual investigations in this field were carried out dozens of years ago, and often involved relatively non-efficient drugs, imperfect laboratory tests, etc. There are several recent examples of combined use of endocrine therapy and other compounds. The addition of docetaxel (6 cycles to androgen deprivation resulted in significant improvement of overall survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer. Clinical trial involving the combined use of exemestane and everolimus demonstrated promising results. There are ongoing studies on inhibitors of cycline-dependent kinases. Use of these drugs in the beginning of endocrine therapy may significantly delay resistance to the antagonists of estrogen signaling.

  10. What Is Breast Cancer in Men? (United States)

    ... of the breast are glandular tissue (they make breast milk in women), so cancers starting in these areas are sometimes called adenocarcinomas. ... invasive) lobular carcinoma (ILC) This type of breast cancer starts in ... that, in women, produce breast milk) and grows into the fatty tissue of the ...

  11. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.


    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  12. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy (United States)


    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. Alternative Dosing of Exemestane Before Surgery in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage 0-II Estrogen Positive Breast Cancer (United States)


    Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  14. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. Lung cancer after treatment for breast cancer. (United States)

    Lorigan, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Howell, Anthony; Thatcher, Nick


    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Improvements in the outcome of breast cancer mean that more patients are living longer and are, therefore, at risk of developing a second malignancy. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of the risk of lung cancer arising in patients previously treated for early stage breast cancer. We review data on the effect of treatment factors (ie, surgery type, radiotherapy technique, and adjuvant chemotherapy) and patient factors (ie, age and smoking) on the risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer. The evidence suggests that older radiotherapy techniques were associated with a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer in the ipsilateral lung, but there is no clear evidence of an increased risk with modern techniques. Smoking is an important risk factor, and increases the risk of lung cancer in those receiving radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not significantly associated with an increased risk. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with time elapsed since treatment, but any effect of age at treatment is unclear.

  16. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.


    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer SusceptibilitySuzanne. E. FentonUS EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  18. Combination treatment with Grb7 peptide and Doxorubicin or Trastuzumab (Herceptin) results in cooperative cell growth inhibition in breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Pero, S C; Shukla, G S; Cookson, M M; Flemer, S; Krag, D N


    Grb7 has potential importance in the progression of cancer. We have previously identified a novel peptide that binds to the SH2 domain of Grb7 and inhibits its association with several different receptor tyrosine kinases. We have synthesised the Grb7 peptide, G7-18NATE, with two different cell penetrating peptides, Penetratin and Tat. In this study, we have shown that both Penetratin- and Tat-conjugated G7-18NATE peptides are able to inhibit the proliferation of SK-BR-3, ZR-75-30, MDA-MB-361 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. There was no significant effects on breast cancer MCF-7cells, non-malignant MCF 10A or 3T3 cells. In addition, there was no significant inhibition of proliferation by Penetratin or Tat alone or by their conjugates with arbitrary peptide sequence in any of the cell lines tested. We determined the EC50 of G7-18NATE-P peptide for SK-BR-3 cell proliferation to be 7.663 x 10(-6) M. Co-treatment of G7-18NATE-P peptide plus Doxorubicin in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells resulted in an additional inhibition of proliferation, resulting in 56 and 84% decreases in the Doxorubicin EC50 value in the presence of 5 x 10(-6) and 1.0 x 10(-5) M G7-18NATE-P peptide, respectively. Importantly, the co-treatment with Doxorubicin and the delivery peptide did not change the Doxorubicin EC50. Since Grb7 associates with ErbB2, we assessed whether the peptide inhibitor would have a combined effect with a molecule that targets ErbB2, Herceptin. Co-treatment of Herceptin plus 1.0 x 10(-5) M G7-18NATE-P peptide in SK-BR-3 cells resulted in a 46% decrease in the Herceptin EC50 value and no decrease following the co-treatment with Herceptin and penetratin alone. This Grb7 peptide has potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent alone, in combination with traditional chemotherapy, or in combination with other targeting molecules.

  19. Imaging patients with breast and prostate cancers using combined 18F NaF/18F FDG and TOF simultaneous PET/ MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iagaru, Andrei; Minamimoto, Ryogo; Jamali, Mehran; Barkodhodari, Amir; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Vasanawala, Shreyas [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (United States)


    Here we prospectively compared the combined 18F NaF/18F FDG PET/ MRI against 99mTc-MDP in patients with breast and prostate cancers. Twelve patients referred for 99mTc-MDP bone scans were prospectively enrolled from Oct 14 - Jan 15. The cohort included 6 men with prostate cancer and 6 women with breast cancer, 41 – 85 year-old (average 63 ± 15). 18F NaF (0.7-2.2 mCi, mean: 1.33 mCi) and 18F FDG (3.9-5.2 mCi, mean: 4.6 mCi) were subsequently injected from separate syringes. The PET/MRI was done 6-12 days (average 9.3 ± 3.2) after bone scan. The whole body MRI protocol consisted of T2-weighted, DWI, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. Lesions detected with each test were tabulated and the results were compared. All patients tolerated the PET/MRI exam, and PET image quality was diagnostic despite the marked reduction in the administered dosage of radiopharmaceuticals (80% less for 18F NaF and 67% less for 18F FDG). Five patients had no bone metastases identified on either scans. Bone scintigraphy and PET/MRI showed osseous metastases in 7 patients, but more numerous bone findings were noted on PET/MRI than on bone scintigraphy in 3 patients. Lesions outside the skeleton were identified by PET/MRI in 2 patients. The combined 18F NaF/18F FDG PET/MRI is superior to 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy for evaluation of skeletal disease extent. Further, it detected extra- skeletal disease that may change the management of these patients, while allowing a significant reduction in radiation exposure from lower dosages of PET radiopharmaceuticals administered. A combination of 18F NaF/18F FDG PET/MRI may provide the most accurate staging of patients with breast and prostate cancers prior to the start of treatment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu


    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  1. Outcome of combined modality treatment including neoadjuvant chemotherapy of 128 cases of locally advanced breast cancer: Data from a tertiary cancer center in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Raina


    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in many parts of India and the incidence varies from 12 to 31/100000, and is rising. Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC accounts for 30 - 35% of all cases of breast cancers in India. LABC continues to present a challenge and imposes a major health impact in our country. Materials and Methods: We carried out a analysis of our LABC patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT at our hospital over a 10-year period, from January 1995 to December 2004. We analyzed the response to NACT, disease-free survival (DFS, and overall survival (OS. Results: Patients with stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC were included. LABC comprised of 26.24% (609 patients of new patients. One hundred and twenty-eight (31.1% patients received NACT. Median age was 48 years and estrogen receptor was positive in 64%. Chemotherapy protocol was an FEC (5-Fluorouracil, Epirubicin, Cyclophosphamide regimen in the following doses: Cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, 5-FU 600 mg/m2, and Epirubicin 75 mg/m2 given every three weeks, six doses, followed by modified radical mastectomy (MRM and locoregional radiotherapy. The overall response rate (complete response (CR + partial response (PR was 84.4%, clinical CR (cCR was 13.3% and pathological CR (pCR was 7.8%. Median DFS and OS were 33 and 101 months, respectively. The disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS at five years were 41 and 58%, respectively. Conclusions: This study analyzes the outcome in patients who received NACT, in the largest number of LABC patients from a single center in India, and our results are comparable to the results reported from other centers.

  2. Multi-epitope Folate Receptor Alpha Peptide Vaccine, Sargramostim, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Breast Cancer (United States)


    Bilateral Breast Carcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma; Unilateral Breast Carcinoma

  3. 低分子肝素联合化疗治疗晚期乳腺癌%Low molecular heparin combined chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽丽; 刘力新; 张秀娟


    Objective: To observe the effect of low molecular heparin in combined with chemotherapy on blood clots markers D dimmers and fibrinogen in advanced breast cancer. Methods: Total of 42 patients with metastatic breast cancer were randomly divided into two groups, patients in group A received pachtaxel plus cisplatin; patients in group B received regimen TP combined with low molecular heparin 5000U subcutaneously injected ql2 hours per day, for 5 days. Group B: low molecular heparin and TP scheme chemotherapy group, on the base of drug in group A combined with low molecular heparin 5000U subcutaneous injection 12 hours 1 times, for five days. Results: There was no significant difference in low molecular heparin group D-dimers before and after chemotherapy. Level of fibrinogen after chemotherapy was significantly lower than the level before chemotherapy( P 0. 05 ). There was on significant differences in adverse reactions between 2 groups. Conclusion: The application of low molecular heparin combined chemotherapy can improve high pour - point state in advanced breast cancer without obvious adverse reactions.%目的:观察低分子肝素联合化疗对晚期乳腺癌的疗效及对血栓标志物(D二聚体、纤维蛋白原)的影响.方法:42例晚期乳腺癌患者随机分成两组.A组:TP化疗组,应用紫杉醇135mg/m2第1天静脉滴注,顺铂70 mg/m2第2天静脉滴注.B组:低分子肝素联合TP方案化疗组,在A组用药的基础上加用低分子肝素5000U 皮下注射 12小时1次,共用5天.结果:低分子肝素组D二聚体化疗前后无明显变化(P>0.05),纤维蛋白原化疗后明显低于化疗前水平(P0.05).低分子肝素组治疗的不良反应较单纯化疗组统计学差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论:应用低分子肝素联合化疗能改善晚期乳腺癌高凝状态,无明显不良反应.

  4. Combined experimental and statistical strategy for mass spectrometry based serum protein profiling for diagnosis of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne Kjærgaard; Vach, Werner; Jørgensen, Per E


    Serum protein profiling by mass spectrometry is a promising method for early detection of cancer. We have implemented a combined strategy based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) and statistical data analysis for serum protein profiling and applied...... of nine mass spectrometric protein profiles were obtained for each serum sample. A total of 533 common peaks were defined and represented a 'reference protein profile'. Among these 533 common peaks, we identified 72 peaks exhibiting statistically significant intensity differences ( p ... and specificity. We conclude that optimized serum sample handling and mass spectrometry data acquisition strategies in combination with statistical analysis provide a viable platform for serum protein profiling in cancer diagnosis....

  5. MicroRNA Related Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki


    Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer....... We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41......,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated...

  6. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini


    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  7. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel


    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is unknow

  8. Combined xanthorrhizol-curcumin exhibits synergistic growth inhibitory activity via apoptosis induction in human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimahtol Hawariah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that combined effect of natural products may improve the treatment effectiveness in combating proliferation of cancer cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility that the combination of xanthorrhizol and curcumin might show synergistic growth inhibitory effect towards MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells via apoptosis induction. The effective dose that produced 50% growth inhibition (GI50 was calculated from the log dose-response curve of fixed-combinations of xanthorrhizol and curcumin generated from the sulforhodamine B (SRB assay. The experimental GI50 value was used to determine the synergistic activity of the combination treatment by isobolographic analysis and combination-index method. Further investigation of mode of cell death induced by the combination treatment was conducted in the present study. Results Isobole analysis revealed that substances interaction was synergistic when xanthorrhizol and curcumin were added concurrently to the cultures but merely additive when they were added sequentially. The synergistic combination treatment was then applied to the cultures to investigate the mode of cell death induced by the treatment. Immunofluorescence staining using antibody MitoCapture™ revealed the possibility of altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential, which is one of the hallmark of apoptosis. Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining assay showed the rate of apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells to increase in response to the treatment. Apoptotic cell death was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay, where internucleosomal excision of DNA was induced upon treatment with xanthorrhizol-curcumin. Conclusion This is the first time the combined cytotoxic effect of xanthorrhizol and curcumin on MDA-MB-231 cells has been documented and our findings provide experimental support to the hypothesis that combined xanthorrhizol-curcumin showed synergistic growth inhibitory activity on

  9. Angiogenesis in male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan Rani


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a rare but aggressive and devastating disease. This disease presents at a later stage and in a more advanced fashion than its female counterpart. The immunophenotype also appears to be distinct when compared to female breast cancer. Angiogenesis plays a permissive role in the development of a solid tumor and provides an avenue for nutrient exchange and waste removal. Recent scrutiny of angiogenesis in female breast cancer has shown it to be of significant prognostic value. It was hypothesized that this holds true in invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast. In the context of male breast cancer, we investigated the relationship of survival and other clinico-pathological variables to the microvascular density of the tumor tissue. Methods Seventy-five cases of primary male breast cancer were identified using the records of the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency over a period of 26 years. Forty-seven cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast had formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks that were suitable for this study. All cases were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for the angiogenic markers (cluster designations 31 (CD31, 34 (CD34 and 105 (CD105, von Willebrand factor (VWF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Microvascular density (MVD was determined using average, centre, and highest microvessel counts (AMC, CMC, and HMC, respectively. Statistical analyses compared differences in the distribution of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD, tumor size, node status and age at diagnosis. In addition, MVD values were compared within each marker, between each marker, and were also compared to clinico-pathological data. Results Advanced age and tumor size were related to shorter survival times. There were no statistically significant differences in distributions of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD variables. There was no

  10. Secretory breast cancer. Case report. (United States)

    Lombardi, A; Maggi, S; Bersigotti, L; Lazzarin, G; Nuccetelli, E; Amanti, C


    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor initially described in children but occurring equally in adult population. This unusual breast cancer subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases. However, surgery is still considered the most appropriate treatment for this pathology. We describe the case of a 50 -year-old woman who has undergone a breast conservative surgery for a little tumor, preoperatively diagnosticated by a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a well differentiated infiltrating carcinoma.

  11. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer (United States)


    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  12. The role of vitamin D in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Tu Aung


    Full Text Available The biological role of vitamin D outside of calcium homeostasis is still under evaluation. The ability of vitamin D to inhibit cell proliferation and induce differentiation makes it a potential modifier of neoplastic transformation. Vitamin D affects the cell cycle, apoptosis, hormone receptors, angiogenesis, and hypoxia, all of which are related to the breast cancer growth, progression and metastasis. A large percentage of the industrial-world population is deficient in vitamin D. Epidemiological evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of breast cancer. Vitamin D may have synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects when combined with other therapeutic agents against breast cancer. Vitamin D appears to depress aromatase inhibitor by acting through cytochrome P 450. This evidence along with pre-clinical and clinical studies, justify the inclusion of vitamin D in future clinical trials related to breast cancer in order to determine its efficacy as a part of the breast cancer therapeutic armament.

  13. Gene-environment interaction and risk of breast cancer. (United States)

    Rudolph, Anja; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmidt, Marjanka K


    Hereditary, genetic factors as well as lifestyle and environmental factors, for example, parity and body mass index, predict breast cancer development. Gene-environment interaction studies may help to identify subgroups of women at high-risk of breast cancer and can be leveraged to discover new genetic risk factors. A few interesting results in studies including over 30,000 breast cancer cases and healthy controls indicate that such interactions exist. Explorative gene-environment interaction studies aiming to identify new genetic or environmental factors are scarce and still underpowered. Gene-environment interactions might be stronger for rare genetic variants, but data are lacking. Ongoing initiatives to genotype larger sample sets in combination with comprehensive epidemiologic databases will provide further opportunities to study gene-environment interactions in breast cancer. However, based on the available evidence, we conclude that associations between the common genetic variants known today and breast cancer risk are only weakly modified by environmental factors, if at all.

  14. Tobacco and Alcohol in Relation to Male Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Michael B; Guénel, Pascal; Gapstur, Susan M


    then combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Cigarette smoking status, smoking pack-years, duration, intensity, and age at initiation were not associated with male breast cancer risk. Relations with cigar and pipe smoking, tobacco chewing, and snuff use were also null. Recent alcohol consumption......BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly due to its relative rarity. Although tobacco and alcohol exposures are known carcinogens, their association with male breast cancer risk remains ill-defined. METHODS: The Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project consortium...... and average grams of alcohol consumed per day were also not associated with risk; only one subanalysis of very high recent alcohol consumption (>60 g/day) was tentatively associated with male breast cancer (ORunexposed referent = 1.29; 95% CI, 0.97-1.71; OR>0-

  15. Can the combination of flaxseed and its lignans with soy and its isoflavones reduce the growth stimulatory effect of soy and its isoflavones on established breast cancer? (United States)

    Power, Krista A; Thompson, Lilian U


    Consumption of phytoestrogen (PE)-rich foods (i. e., soy and flaxseed (FS)) is increasing because of their suggested health benefits. However, recent studies raise concern over the safety of soy and its isoflavones, particularly genistein (GEN), for postmenopausal breast cancer (BC), due to their potential stimulatory effects on human breast tissue and on the growth of existing tumors in rodents. FS, rich in PE lignans, which is metabolized to the mammalian lignans enterolactone (ENL) and enterodiol (END), has consistently been shown to have tumor inhibitory effects in a human clinical trial as well as rodent BC models. Using the preclinical athymic mouse postmenopausal BC model, combining FS with soy protein or GEN with END and ENL, was found to negate the tumor stimulatory effects of soy protein or GEN alone. The mechanism may be related to the modulation of estrogen receptor and MAPK signaling pathways. If these studies can be confirmed in clinical trials, then consumption of combined soy and FS, or their PEs, may reduce the tumor growth stimulatory effect of soy or GEN. This may indicate that if soy is consumed with lignan-rich foods, it may continue to induce its other beneficial health effects, without inducing adverse effect on postmenopausal BC.

  16. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview. (United States)

    van Uden, D J P; van Laarhoven, H W M; Westenberg, A H; de Wilt, J H W; Blanken-Peeters, C F J M


    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimodal therapeutic approach has significantly improved patient survival. However, the median overall survival among women with IBC is still poor. By elucidating the biologic characteristics of IBC, new treatment options may become available. We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language literature on IBC through computerized literature searches. The objective of the current review is to present an overview of the literature related to the biology, imaging and multidisciplinary treatment of inflammatory breast cancer.


    Yin, D; Wang, Y L; Wang, Y F; Yang, L; Zhang, L; Tang, C; Xie, W; Ma, Y


    Breast cancer, one of the most common malignant tumors in females, draws little attention because of its untypical symptoms and signs, so the disease is usually confirmed too late, in an advanced stage. Based on the detection of nuclear morphology parameters of luminal B breast cancer, this study explored how pathological features relate to estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). A quantity of 354 breast cancer specimens with follow-up records from the department of pathology in the First People’s Hospital of Nantong and the Tumor Hospital of Nantong were selected as research subjects. Nuclear parameters of specimens stained by hematoxylin and eosin were measured by imaging analysis software. It was found that breast cancer can be divided into four types, luminal B, luminal A, HER2 over-expression and basal-like type based on immunohistochemical results of three antibodies, i.e, ER, PR and HER2. A total of 113 patients (31.8%) were confirmed with luminal B breast cancer, mostly in histological stage II; the difference of nuclear morphology was of statistical significance between ER+/PR+ and ER-/PR- (Pbreast cancer, luminal B had the lowest brain metastasis rate, while HER2 over-expression subtype was found with the highest rate of lung and pleura metastasis. Besides, luminal B possessed longer disease-free survival (DFS) than basal-like (Pbreast cancer.

  18. Reconstruction for breast cancer in a nutshell. (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is a disease many will experience. Depending on the size of the cancer, the size of the host breast, and whether it is multi-focal, a mastectomy may be recommended as part of the treatment. If this is the case, an immediate breast reconstruction may be offered. This article will describe the three main types of breast reconstruction and discuss pertinent issues regarding this, including complications, surgery to the other (contraleteral) breast and potential psychological implications of this surgery.

  19. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer. (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina


    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer.

  20. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy (United States)


    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  1. An update on inflammatory breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Thapaliya


    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer is one of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer. Once considered to be a uniformly fatal disease, treatment of this entity has evolved significantly over the last two decades. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathology, biologic underpinnings, radiologic advances, and treatment modalities for inflammatory breast cancer. Updates in surgical therapy, medical oncologic therapy and radiation therapy are reviewed. Emphasis is on cutting edge information regarding inflammatory breast cancer. The management of inflammatory breast cancer is best served by a multidisciplinary team. Continued research into molecular pathways and potential targets is imperative. Future clinical trials should include evaluation of conventional therapy with targeted therapies.

  2. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt


    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. CONCLUSION: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been...

  3. Breast Cancer (For Kids) (United States)

    ... or sacs) or they can be due to normal breast changes associated with hormone changes or aging. Girls who are beginning puberty might notice a lump underneath the nipple when their breasts start developing. Usually, this is a normal. You can ask a parent or your doctor ...

  4. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  5. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  6. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Düring, Maria; Henriksen, Trine Foged;


    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  7. Measuring the biomechanical properties of the actin in MCF-7 breast cancer cell with a combined system of AFM and SIM (United States)

    You, Minghai; Chen, Jianling; Wang, Yuhua; Jiang, Ningcheng; Xie, Shusen; Yang, Hongqin


    Biomechanics of cell plays an important role in the behavior and development of diseases, which has a profound influence on the health, structural integrity, and function of cells. In this study, we proposed a method to assess the biomechanical properties in single breast cancer cell line MCF-7 by combining structured illumination microscopy (SIM) with atomic force microscopy (AFM). High resolution optical image of actin in MCF-7 cell and its elastography were obtained. The result shows that the quantitative resolution was improved by SIM, with 490 nm of conventional fluorescence image and 285 nm of reconstructed SIM image, which could give a precise location for AFM measurement. The elasticity of actin is about in the range of 10 1000 kPa. The proposed methods will be helpful in the understanding and clinical diagnosis of diseases at single cell level.

  8. 彩超联合钼靶x线在乳腺普查中的应用价值%The value of color Dopplor ultrasound and mammography combined for the diognsis of breast cancer in the breast image screening projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀荣; 朱长征


    Objective:To evaluate the value of color Dopplor ultrasound and mammography combined for the diagnosis of breast cancer in the breast image screening project.Methods:7084 persons had undergone mammography and color Dopplor ultrasound and the suiting rate of diagnosis with pathology were statistical y analysed.Results:Suilting rate of diagnosis by mammography was 86.8%;suit ing rate by color Dopplor ultrasound was 88.7%,there isn’t statistical y difference between them (p>0.05),the suiting rate of diagnosis of color Dopplor ultrasound combined mammography was 96.2%,which had marked significant compared with mammography and color Dopplor ultrasound alone (p<0.05).Conclusion:Physical examination with color Dopplor ultrasound and mammography is the best method for breast cancer screening.%目的:探讨彩超与钼靶x线联合应用在乳腺筛查中的应用价值。方法:对7084人进行乳腺钼靶及彩超检查,并与病理诊断结果对照进行统计学分析。结果:彩超与病理诊断总符合率88.7%,钼靶与病理诊断总符合率86.8%,两者差异无显著性(p>0.05),彩超联合钼靶的符合率为96.2%,与单钼靶及单独彩超相比均有显著性差异(p<0.05)。结论:临床触诊+钼靶+彩超的模式是目前进行乳腺普查的最佳模式。

  9. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J.; Joshi, Amit D.; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I. Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele


    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of eviden

  10. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in breast cancer families: Are there more breast cancer-susceptibility genes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serova, O.M.; Mazoyer, S.; Putet, N. [CNRS, Lyon (France)] [and others


    To estimate the proportion of breast cancer families due to BRCA1 or BRCA2, we performed mutation screening of the entire coding regions of both genes supplemented with linkage analysis of 31 families, 8 containing male breast cancers and 23 site-specific female breast cancer. A combination of protein-truncation test and SSCP or heteroduplex analyses was used for mutation screening complemented, where possible, by the analysis of expression level of BRCA1 and BRCA2 alleles. Six of the eight families with male breast cancer revealed frameshift mutations, two in BRCA1 and four in BRCA2. Although most families with female site-specific breast cancers were thought to be due to mutations in either BRCA1 or BRCA2, we identified only eight mutations in our series of 23 site-specific female breast cancer families (34%), four in BRCA1 and four in BRCA2. According to the posterior probabilities calculated for mutation-negative families, based on linkage data and mutation screening results, we would expect 8-10 site-specific female breast cancer families of our series to be due to neither BRCA1 nor BRCA2. Thus, our results suggest the existence of at least one more major breast cancer-susceptibility gene. 24 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Targeting Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer: Enzalutamide as a Novel Breast Cancer Therapeutic (United States)


    severe combined immunodeficient . Cells (1x106) in matrigel were injected into the fourth inguinal mammary glands of NOD-SCID-IL2Rgc–/– 5- to 6-week...defined a 50-mg dose of exemestane for use in combination with standard dose enzalutamide 160 mg/day - No apparent increase in frequency or severity ...Enzalutamide has clinical activity in breast cancer as a single agent and in combination with exemestane. Activity is seen in both triple


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Alavi Naini


    Full Text Available Second to the cardiovascular disease, cancer is the main cause of death in Iran. In this study some of the risk factors of breast cancer; especially the ones related to breastfeeding have been assessed. The study was a retrospective study of 100 women with breast cancer. The most important risk factors in breast cancer were number of children, age of mother on the first pregnancy. The result showed that the increase of breast cancer was related to women who stopped breastfeeding before age 24 months. Breastfeeding for more than 12 months will reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 25%. In general there was a reverse relationship between duration of breastfeeding and risk of cancer in premonopausal, but not in postmenopausal women.

  13. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson


    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  14. Evaluation of activity and combination strategies with the microtubule-targeting drug sagopilone in breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eEschenbrenner


    Full Text Available The molecular heterogeneity of cancer calls for individualized therapies to become the standard of care. The development of new therapeutic agents needs to include integrative translational research as early as possible. Target-specific compounds require specific diagnostic biomarker support. Tailored treatment approaches, such as specific schedules or combinations, can improve the therapeutic outcome of drugs with more general mode of action, i.e. the classical chemotherapy. Results from translational research will allow to define the optimal patient population, to tailor individual treatment and to choose treatment combinations on a rational basis.Sagopilone, a fully synthetic epothilone, is a microtubule-stabilizing agent optimized for high in vitro and in vivo activity against a broad range of tumor models, including those resistant to paclitaxel and other systemic treatments. Sagopilone development was accompanied by translational research studies to evaluate the molecular mode of action, to recognize mechanisms leading to resistance, to identify predictive response biomarkers and to establish a rationale for combination with different therapies.Here, we present an RNAi drug modifier screen interrogating 300 genes in four cancer cell lines. Defects of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC were identified to cause resistance against sagopilone-induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Potential biomarkers for resistance are SAC-defects like mutations in the SAC-kinase BUB1B and chromosomal heterogeneity and polyploidy since they imply an increased tolerance for aberrant mitosis. The RNAi drug modifier screen identified the enhancement of sagopilone-induced mitotic arrest by inhibition of the mitotic kinesin KIF2C (MCAK as potential combination strategy.These new findings are correlated with results from previous studies. We discuss successes and failures of our integrative preclinical development program and provide recommendations for future

  15. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard


    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development...

  16. Dietary fiber and breast cancer. (United States)

    Cohen, L A


    The Fiber Hypothesis which had its origins in the work of Burkitt and others in the early 1970's, focussed largely on fiber's beneficial effects on colon cancer and disorders of the gastric intestinal tract. In the 1980's it was proposed that fiber may also have beneficial effects on breast cancer and a rational for this was proposed involving modulation, by fiber, of the enterohepatic recirculation of estrogens. In the following the evidence from epidemiology, clinical interventions and animal model studies, supporting a role for fiber in breast cancer is critically reviewed. Evidence from animal model studies support the notion that supplementary fiber inhibits chemically-induced mammary tumorigenesis but do not support an estrogen-based mechanism. Some studies in human populations suggest modulation by estrogens and some do not. The aggregate data point to minor constituents present in fiber, such as isoflavones and phytate as the biologically active components of fiber which may be responsible for its anti cancer effects.

  17. Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R


    Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....

  18. Cancer of the breast. Radiation therapy. (United States)

    Mercado, R; Deutsch, M


    There are many questions that have to be answered concerning the role of radiotherapy in the management of primary breast cancer. Hopefully, prospective clinical trials will provide some answers, but more basic research into the biology of breast cancer and the host-tumor relationship will be needed. There are indications that radiotherapy alone, or following minimal extirpative surgery in selected cases, may be as effective for control of breast cancer as conventional mastectomies. The role of radiotherapy following segmental mastectomy, with or without axillary dissection, needs to be clarified. The possibility exists that high LET (linear energy transfer) radiation such as neutron or pi meson beams may provide better local control than conventional radiation. Thus, it may be possible to treat effectively all primary breast cancers with such radiations and obviate the need for any type of mastectomy. It remains to be demonstrated whether adjuvant chemotherapy is as effective as radiotherapy in preventing chest wall and regional node recurrences. If it is not, there may be a place for both adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of operable cancer of the breast. Likewise, effective chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy may increase the local and regional control achieved with radiotherapy alone and make more primary lesions suitable for treatment without mastectomy. Meyer (1970) recently called attention to the leukopenia and cellualr immune deficiency produced by irradiation to the thorax and mediastinum. Further study is necessary to define exactly how much immunosuppression results from radiotherapy, its clinical significance and what can be done to avoid or counter it. If Stjervsward's thesis (1974) concerning the deleterious effects of radiotherapy on survival is correct, then it is of great importance to identify those patients most likely to be adversely affected by radiotherapy. Conversely, it may be possible in the future to identify a

  19. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; van Overeem Hansen, Thomas; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard


    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...... of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making....

  20. The Proteomic Landscape of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T. Lawrence


    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by poor clinical outcomes and a shortage of targeted treatment options. To discover molecular features of triple-negative breast cancer, we performed quantitative proteomics analysis of twenty human-derived breast cell lines and four primary breast tumors to a depth of more than 12,000 distinct proteins. We used this data to identify breast cancer subtypes at the protein level and demonstrate the precise quantification of biomarkers, signaling proteins, and biological pathways by mass spectrometry. We integrated proteomics data with exome sequence resources to identify genomic aberrations that affect protein expression. We performed a high-throughput drug screen to identify protein markers of drug sensitivity and understand the mechanisms of drug resistance. The genome and proteome provide complementary information that, when combined, yield a powerful engine for therapeutic discovery. This resource is available to the cancer research community to catalyze further analysis and investigation.

  1. Risk, characteristics, and prognosis of breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma


    Veit-rubin, Nikolaus; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Vinh Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Bouchardy Magnin, Christine


    Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.

  2. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  3. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard;


    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  4. Adipocytokines and breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Wen-wen; FU Chun-li; SUN Yu; WU Qing; CHEN Li


    Background Many researches suggested that obesity increased the risk of breast cancer, but the mechanism was currently unknown. Adipocytokines might mediate the relationship. Our study was aimed to investigate the relationship between serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin and the onset, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.Methods Blood samples were collected from 80 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipids, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were assayed simultaneously.Results Serum levels of adiponectin ((8.60±2.92) mg/L vs (10.37±2.81) mg/L, P=0.001) and HDL-c were significantly decreased in breast cancer patients in comparison to controls. Serum levels of resistin ((26.35±5.36) μg/L vs (23.32±4.75)μg/L, P=0.000), leptin ((1.35±0.42) μg/L vs (1.06±0.39) μg/L, P=0.003), FBG and triglyceride (TG) in breast cancer patients were increased in contrast to controls, respectively. However, we did not find the significant difference of the serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin between premenopausal breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P=0.091, 0.109 and 0.084, respectively). The serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were significantly different between patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and those without LNM (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.006, respectively).The stepwise regression analysis indicated that the tumor size had the close correlation with leptin (R2=0.414, P=0.000)and FBG (R2=0.602, P=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced serum levels of adiponectin (OR:0.805;95%CI: 0.704-0.921; P=0.001), HDL (OR: 0.087; 95%CI: 0.011-0.691, P=0.021), elevated leptin (OR:2.235;95%CI:1.898-4.526; P=0.004) and resistin (OR: 1.335; 95%CI: 1.114-2.354; P=0.012) increased the risk for

  5. Mouse Stirs up Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen Pilcher; 孙雯


    @@ The humble house mouse could be more dangerous than we thought,according to a study that suggests a rodent① virus plays a role in the development of breast cancer. But the finding is contentious② and reignites③ a long-standing④wrangle⑤ about the potential⑥ causes of the disease.

  6. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard;


    tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria...

  7. Genetic determinants of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)


    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the gener

  8. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  9. Management of patients with metastatic breast cancer. (United States)

    Cruz Jurado, J; Richart Aznar, P; García Mata, J; Fernández Martínez, R; Peláez Fernández, I; Sampedro Gimeno, T; Galve Calvo, E; Murillo Jaso, L; Polo Marqués, E; García Palomo, A


    Hormone treatment is one of the key strategies in the management of metastatic breast cancer. Hormone treatment is one of the key strategies in the management of metastatic breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors (AI) have been extensively studied in this setting. This section summarizes the key data regarding the use of AI in advanced breast cancer. In postmenopausal women, AI are the first line of treatment for untreated patients, or those who had prior AI treatment and progress after 12 months of adjuvant therapy. A longer disease-free interval and absence of visceral disease is associated with a better response. If tumors recur in less than 12 months, it is recommended that tamoxifen (TAM) or the estrogen-receptor antagonist fulvestrant (FUL) treatment be initiated. In the second-line setting, the best option after progression is the administration of either FUL or TAM. In the third-line setting, reintroduction of AI is considered an acceptable option. In premenopausal women who have not received prior treatment or who have progressed after 12 months following adjuvant treatment, it is recommended to initiate therapy with a combination of TAM and a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analog. If there is treatment failure with the use of this combination, megestrol acetate or an LHRH agonist plus an AI may be reasonable alternatives. Intensive research is ongoing to understand the mechanisms of resistance to hormone therapy. In human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive-patients, combinations with HER2 antagonists are associated with significant clinical activity.

  10. Breast cancer with inguinal node recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Goyal


    Full Text Available Surgery and irradiation for breast cancer may interfere with conventional pathways of spread, leading to bizarre patterns of dissemination through lymphatics or through hematogenous route. Lymphoscintigraphic studies may help identify nodal involvement. Other possible reasons could be occurrence of primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue retained in the vulva following involution of milk line. We describe a case of triple negative breast cancer, who developed contralateral breast cancer during treatment. Three years later, she developed isolated inguinal nodal metastases, which responded to local radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the patient relapsed after 2 years and could not be salvaged thereafter.

  11. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue. (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles


    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  12. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer (United States)


    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. Death certification in cancer of the breast.



    The cause of death entered on the death certificates of 193 patients originally diagnosed as having cancer of the breast was compared with information obtained from clinical records, cancer registry records, and necropsy findings to determine the accuracy of death certification and the proportion of patients who, though dying from another cause, still had overt signs of cancer of the breast. It was found that the overall error in certifying cause of death as breast cancer was small, being an ...

  14. Cancer Stem Cells and Side Population Cells in Breast Cancer and Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Kelly M. [Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ (United Kingdom); Kirby, John A. [Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, 3rd Floor William Leech Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Lennard, Thomas W.J. [Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, 3rd Floor William Leech Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Meeson, Annette P., E-mail: [Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ (United Kingdom); North East England Stem Cell Institute, Bioscience Centre, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ (United Kingdom)


    In breast cancer it is never the primary tumour that is fatal; instead it is the development of metastatic disease which is the major cause of cancer related mortality. There is accumulating evidence that suggests that Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) may play a role in breast cancer development and progression. Breast cancer stem cell populations, including side population cells (SP), have been shown to be primitive stem cell-like populations, being long-lived, self-renewing and highly proliferative. SP cells are identified using dual wavelength flow cytometry combined with Hoechst 33342 dye efflux, this ability is due to expression of one or more members of the ABC transporter family. They have increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and apoptotic stimuli and have increased migratory potential above that of the bulk tumour cells making them strong candidates for the metastatic spread of breast cancer. Treatment of nearly all cancers usually involves one first-line agent known to be a substrate of an ABC transporter thereby increasing the risk of developing drug resistant tumours. At present there is no marker available to identify SP cells using immunohistochemistry on breast cancer patient samples. If SP cells do play a role in breast cancer progression/Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC), combining chemotherapy with ABC inhibitors may be able to destroy both the cells making up the bulk tumour and the cancer stem cell population thus preventing the risk of drug resistant disease, recurrence or metastasis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the Local Recurrence and metastasis pattern after Breast - Conserving Surgery for early breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2014 in department of surgery in VIMS Bellary, 70 patients with stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma were treated with breast - conserving surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. In this study we investigated the prognostic value of clinical and pathological factors in early breast cancer patients treated with BCS. All of the surgeries were performed by a single surgical team. Recurrence and its risk factors were evaluated.

  16. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis (United States)

    ... Handling treatment The goal of any breast cancer treatment is to get rid of the cancer and offer the best possible chance of survival. But even the best treatments have side effects. ...

  17. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk (United States)

    ... at Stony Brook University found no association between exposure to electromagnetic fields from residential power use and breast cancer risk. 5 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Cancer-causing ... to naturally occurring and synthetic cancer, and designing ...

  18. Variations in Cell Surfaces of Estrogen Treated Breast Cancer Cells Detected by A Combined Instrument for Far-Field and Near-Field Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perner


    Full Text Available The response of single breast cancer cells (cell line T‐47D to 17β‐estradiol (E2 under different concentrations was studied by using an instrument that allows to combine far‐field light microscopy with high resolution scanning near‐field (AFM/SNOM microscopy on the same cell. Different concentrations of E2 induce clearly different effects as well on cellular shape (in classical bright‐field imaging as on surface topography (atomic force imaging and absorbance (near‐field light transmission imaging. The differences range from a polygonal shape at zero via a roughly spherical shape at physiological up to a spindle‐like shape at un‐physiologically high concentrations. The surface topography of untreated control cells was found to be regular and smooth with small overall height modulations. At physiological E2 concentrations the surfaces became increasingly jagged as detected by an increase in membrane height. After application of the un‐physiological high E2 concentration the cell surface structures appeared to be smoother again with an irregular fine structure. The general behaviour of dose dependent differences was also found in the near‐field light transmission images. In order to quantify the treatment effects, line scans through the normalised topography images were drawn and a rate of co‐localisation between high topography and high transmission areas was calculated. The cell biological aspects of these observations are, so far, not studied in detail but measurements on single cells offer new perspectives to be empirically used in diagnosis and therapy control of breast cancers.

  19. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  20. Breast-feeding after breast cancer: if you wish, madam. (United States)

    Azim, Hatem A; Bellettini, Giulia; Gelber, Shari; Peccatori, Fedro A


    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor-affecting women during the child bearing period. With the rising trend in delaying pregnancy later in life, the issue of subsequent pregnancy and lactation following breast cancer diagnosis has been more frequently encountered. In this context, data is scarce particularly those addressing the issue of lactation. In this review, we discussed different endocrinal, clinical and biological aspects dealing with breast-feeding after breast cancer in an attempt to determine how safe and feasible this approach is.

  1. Education and Outreach for Breast Imaging and Breast Cancer Patients (United States)


    the project was the development of an educational intervention ( flip chart ) for physicians to use in the clinic setting when discussing breast...Procedure Scheduling on Breast Biopsy Patient Outcomes The first phase of this project is the development of an educational flip chart for...breast biopsy and breast cancer survivors to guide the content of the flip chart b) Develop outline and overall format c) Identify/develop

  2. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... carry these changes. Mammographic breast density : The glandular (milk-producing) and connective tissue of the breast are ...

  3. Drug transporters in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Stenvang, Jan; Moreira, José


    Despite the advances that have taken place in the past decade, including the development of novel molecular targeted agents, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of cancer treatment. In breast cancer, anthracyclines and taxanes are the two main chemotherapeutic options used on a routine...... basis. Although effective, their usefulness is limited by the inevitable development of resistance, a lack of response to drug-induced cancer cell death. A large body of research has resulted in the characterization of a plethora of mechanisms involved in resistance; ATP-binding cassette transporter...

  4. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    [[{"fid":"184","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400"," | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  5. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk



    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  6. Antitumor activity of Herceptin in combination with STEALTH liposomal cisplatin or nonliposomal cisplatin in a HER2 positive human breast cancer model. (United States)

    Colbern, G T; Hiller, A J; Musterer, R S; Working, P K; Henderson, I C


    Single agent antitumor activity of Herceptin, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against HER2, has been demonstrated in numerous preclinical and clinical studies. Additionally, combination therapy with Herceptin and chemotherapy (CRx) has demonstrated additive antitumor activity in both preclinical models and early clinical trials. STEALTH (pegylated) liposomal (PL) cisplatin, also known as SPI-077, is currently in clinical trials for a variety of solid tumors. The three studies reported here discuss the antitumor activity of the combination of Herceptin and nonliposomal cisplatin or PL-cisplatin in two xenograft tumor models, initiated from the cell lines, BT474 and MDA453, that overexpress the oncogene, HER2. Herceptin alone had significant antitumor activity in all three experiments (p cisplatin and PL-cisplatin were both effective antitumor agents but, at tolerable dose levels, PL-cisplatin was superior to nonliposomal cisplatin (p cisplatin or PL-cisplatin, was most significant at moderate doses of H (0.5 mg/kg, p cisplatin with Herceptin had statistically similar antitumor activity to that of nonliposomal cisplatin with Herceptin in all experiments. We conclude that combination therapy with PL-cisplatin and Herceptin results in significant antitumor activity with the potential for reducing toxicity in metastatic breast cancer patients.

  7. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence (United States)


    the standard of care for treating breast diseases and breast cancer. This approach integrates prevention , screening, diagnosis, treatment and...follow a healthy lifestyle ?” (submitted for publication clearance April 2015). Ellsworth RE, Mamula KA, Costantino NS, Deyarmin B, Kostyniak PJ, Chi...disorders. The project will continue utilizing a multidisciplinary approach as the standard of care for treating breast diseases and breast cancer. This

  8. 卵巢切除联合依西美坦治疗绝经前激素受体阳性晚期难治性乳腺癌%Bilateral oophorectomy combined with exemestane treating advanced refractory breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhong Wu; Yaojun Feng; Juan Xu; Yiping Gong; Biao Ma


    Objective: Taking tamoxifen orally is the main endocrine therapy of the premenopausal breast cancer with positive hormone receptor, but numerous patients developed to be advanced refractory breast cancer because of drug resistance.Our study investigated a role of the combination of bilateral oophorectomy and exemestane in the management of advanced refractory breast cancer. Methods: The bilateral oophorectomy was carried out in 17 patients. One week after the operation,exemestane was taken orally (25 mg/d). The median time to progression (TTP), the median survival time and the survival rate were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Results: Seventeen patients age ranged from 26 to 44 years (median, 36 years) were treated with an overall response rate of 64.70%, TTP was 8 months and the median survival time was 31 months.The survival rate of 1-year, 3 years and 5 years was 88.24%, 64.71%, 29.41%, respectively. There have no grade Ⅲ/Ⅳ side effects appeared. Conclusion: Bilateral oophorectomy combined with exemestane is safe and effective for advanced refractory premenopausal breast cancer with positive hormone receptor and it is well-tolerated.

  9. 乳腺高频钼靶X线联合乳管镜筛查乳腺癌%Ductoscopy combined X-ray mammography for breast cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯立文; 黄茂伦; 廖女珠; 李誉


    Objective Understand shunde Uistrict Foshan City,Guangdong Province in the incidence of breast cancer in women.Methods The joint selectivity ductoscopy examination of the clinical breast examination screening,breast X-ray radiography examination from March 2011 to January 2013,Shunde District,FoShan City,Guangdong Provice,3 600 bladder than 40 years old woman with breast cancer screening.Results Three thousand six hundred women were found in 10 cases of breast cancer,the detection rate of 278/100 000 (10/3 600).Breast clinical examination found 1 313 cases of breast abnormalities,142 cases of breast lumps,nipple discharge line fiberoptic ductoscopy to cheek the 100 cases,X-ray radiography examination of four and more than 72 cases,accounted for a total of 45.19% of the screening population (1 627/3 600).Conclusions Joint ductoscopy X-ray radiography examination of breast cancer screening in the normal population can help to detect early breast cancer,and to provide the basis for early clinical treatment.%目的 了解广东省佛山市顺德区城市妇女乳腺高频钼靶X线联合乳管镜筛查乳腺癌的情况.方法 2011年3月-2013年1月采用临床乳腺检查初筛,以及乳腺高频钼靶X线检查联合选择性乳管镜检查,对广东省佛山市顺德区3 600例40岁以上妇女进行了乳腺癌筛查.结果 3 600例妇女共检出乳腺癌10例,检出率为278/10万(10/3600).乳腺临床检查中发现乳腺异常1 313例、乳腺肿块142例、乳头溢液行乳管镜检查100例;乳腺高频钼靶X线检查4级及以上者72例,总共占筛查人群的45.19%(1 627/3 600).结论 通过乳管镜联合乳腺高频钼靶X线片在正常人群中进行乳腺癌筛查,有助于发现早期乳腺癌,为临床早期治疗提供依据.

  10. Doxorubicin plus paclitaxel in advanced breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, P; Boesgaard, M; Andersen, E


    between administration of a short infusion of doxorubicin followed by a 3-hour infusion of paclitaxel was evaluated. Included were patients with metastatic breast cancer, who received doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 followed by paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 at intervals of 30 minutes, 4 hours, and 24 hours every 3 weeks......The combination of bolus doxorubicin and paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) as a 3-hour infusion is highly active in patients with metastatic breast cancer, but it has considerable cardiotoxicity. In this ongoing study, the potential effect of increasing the interval....... As of February 1997, 34 patients have been enrolled, two patients are too early to evaluate, and 13 are continuing treatment. The preliminary response rate is 69% (95% confidence interval, 50% to 84%), ranging from 60% to 80% within the three schedules. The main toxicities consisted of grade 3/4 neutropenia...

  11. Recurrent breast cancer: presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. (United States)

    Jardines, L; Callans, L S; Torosian, M H


    Patients must be followed up closely after primary therapy for invasive breast cancer so that locoregional recurrences can be detected early. Once a recurrence has been detected, a thorough evaluation is indicated to exclude distant metastatic disease. If none is found, the patient may be a candidate for aggressive surgical intervention to render the patient disease-free. If distant disease is found, certain sites, such as the CNS or long bones, may warrant aggressive therapy because failure to treat these sites may lead to excessive morbidity. In most situations, patients with distant disease are treated with palliative measures. In selected instances, however, patients with metastatic breast cancer are candidates for aggressive intervention, including pulmonary or liver resection or high-dose chemotherapy in combination with autologous bone marrow transplantation, to rid the patient of the disease.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen


    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  13. Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens (United States)

    ... Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens Greater self-esteem noted in ... interviewed to assess their mental health, perception of breast cancer risk, and levels of distress about breast cancer. The ...

  14. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  15. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim


    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  16. Breast cancer in Singapore: some perspectives. (United States)

    Jara-Lazaro, Ana Richelia; Thilagaratnam, Shyamala; Tan, Puay Hoon


    Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy among Singapore women, accounting for 29.7% of all female cancers, with an age-standardized rate of 54.9 per 100,000 per year. It has been the most frequent cancer in Singapore women for the last 30 years, with the highest rates previously reported in those aged between 45 and 49 years, but with a more recent observation of a change in peak age group to women in their late 50s. About 1,100 new cases are diagnosed annually and approximately 270 women die in Singapore each year from breast cancer. In the multiethnic population of Singapore, it has been noted that rising breast cancer incidence is consistent across all three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Indians). Singapore has among the highest breast cancer incidence in Asia. Possible explanations include rapid urbanization, improvement in socio-economic status, and adoption of a western lifestyle. Our experience with the Singapore breast screening pilot project (1994-1997) and the national breast-screening program (BreastScreen Singapore) has led to increased understanding of this disease in the country. Data from the pilot project showed that breast screening is just as effective in a predominantly Asian population as in the west. Early breast cancer accounted for most breast cancers detected, with pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) comprising 26% of all screen-detected cancers in the pilot study. In the currently on-going BreastScreen Singapore, DCIS forms >30% of all breast cancers among pre-menopausal women, a relatively high proportion probably accounted for partially by the greater participation of women aged between 40 and 49 years. Despite the ready availability of subsidized mammographic screening, there are still women in Singapore who present with locally advanced breast cancer. Clinical management of an increasing number of women with breast cancer embraces a multidisciplinary team-based approach, with regular discussions of therapeutic

  17. Hormone Replacement Therapy After Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueck AO


    Full Text Available So far, patient samples in all studies investigating hormone replacement therapy (HRT after breast cancer have been small.Therefore, HRT should only be used if alternatives such as specifically not contraindicated phytopreparations or selective sero-tonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are not effective. This is primarily due to forensic reasons since clinical data on the risk ofalternatives (based on present evidence are even more sparse. Regarding HRT, four prospective randomized studies and at least15 observational studies after breast cancer are available. Only the HABITS study shows an increased risk of relapse. The authorssuggest that this is probably associated with the relatively high number of patients with HRT treatment after ER-positive cancersas well as due to the preferred use of estrogen/progestin-combined preparations. Based on the results of the randomized pla-cebo-controlled study Women’s Health Initiative (WHI as well as of at least 12 observational studies, the progestin componentseems to be mainly responsible for the probability of increased diagnosis frequency of primary breast cancer. However, no dataare available on the impact of progestin on the use of combined HRT after breast cancer. However, also with estrogen only anincreased risk of relapse must be expected and patients should be informed about it. This has to be concluded due to biologicalplausibility and observational studies although the estrogen-only arm in WHI did not show any increased primary risk. Thus, anyform of HRT should only be performed in exceptional cases, and treatment duration should be as short as possible with thelowest effective dose.

  18. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien;


    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-cause mortality were available for five and eight cohorts, respectively. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific and all-cause mortality by propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use. HRs were pooled across cohorts using meta...

  19. Systemic chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yannan Zhao; Biyun Wang


    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer among women worldwide and the most common cancer in China. Many factors influence the treatment strategy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Chemotherapy should be administered to patients with hormone receptor-negative tumors, symptomatic visceral metastasis, and a short disease-free interval. Sequential single-agent chemotherapy has similar efficacy as combination agents in terms of overall survival and quality of life. Anthracyclines are the cornerstone of first-line treatment for MBC, and taxanes represent the second treatment option after resistance. When progression or intolerable toxicity occurs after optimal treatment, the alternative treatments include capecitabine, vinorel-bine, and gemcitabine. Ixabepilone and eribulin are relatively new effective single agents. A combination of cytotoxic agents for patients with rapid clinical progression can further improve the overall response rate and time to progression compared to single-agent treatment. For patients with MBC who were pretreated with anthracyclines in the neoadjuvant/adjuvant setting, a taxane-containing regimen such as docetaxel plus capecitabine or gemcitabine plus paclitaxel should be administered. Platinum-based therapies such as cisplatin or carboplatin have a role in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. Meanwhile, the efficacy of the addition of targeted drugs such as iniparib, bevacizumab, and cetuximab to chemotherapy remains unproven. Maintenance chemotherapy is routinely recommended in clinical practice at present. Patients who were previously treated with paclitaxel and gemcitabine have better progression-free and overall survival with maintenance chemotherapy according to a Korean phase Ⅲ clinical trial. Sequential maintenance treatment with capecitabine monotherapy after capecitabine-based combination chemotherapy (X-based X) appears favorable based on a series of domestic studies.

  20. Targeted treatment of advanced and metastatic breast cancer with lapatinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Corkery


    Full Text Available Brendan Corkery1,2, Norma O’Donovan2, John Crown1,21St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; 2National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin, IrelandAbstract: Improved molecular understanding of breast cancer in recent years has led to the discovery of important drug targets such as HER-2 and EGFR. Lapatinib is a potent dual inhibitor of HER-2 and EGFR. Preclinical and phase I studies have shown activity with lapatinib in a number of cancers, including breast cancer, and the drug is well tolerated. The main known drug interactions are with paclitaxel and irinotecan. The most significant side-effects of lapatinib are diarrhea and adverse skin events. Rates of cardiotoxicity compare favorably with trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against HER-2. This paper focuses on lapatinib in advanced and metastatic breast cancer, which remains an important therapeutic challenge. Phase II and III studies show activity as monotherapy, and in combination with chemotherapy or hormonal agents. Results from these studies suggest that the main benefit from lapatinib is in the HER-2 positive breast cancer population. Combinations of lapatinib and trastuzumab are also being studied and show encouraging results, particularly in trastuzumab-refractory metastatic breast cancer. Lapatinib may have a specific role in treating HER-2 positive CNS metastases. The role of lapatinib as neoadjuvant therapy and in early breast cancer is also being evaluated.Keywords: HER-2, EGFR, erbB, lapatinib, Tykerb®, tyrosine kinase

  1. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients (United States)


    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk. (United States)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M; Chen, John J; Kovach, John S


    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  3. Typhoid Vaccine in Testing Response to Immune Stress in Patients With Stage I-IIIA Breast Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy (United States)


    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Depression; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  4. [CHEK2-mutation in Dutch breast cancer families: expanding genetic testing for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, M.A.; Hes, F.J.; Zelst-Stams, W.A.G. van; Tol, M.P. van den; Seynaeve, C.; Oosterwijk, J.C.


    - In the majority of breast cancer families, DNA testing does not show BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and the genetic cause of breast cancer remains unexplained. - Routine testing for the CHEK2*1100delC mutation has recently been introduced in breast cancer families in the Netherlands. - The 1100delC muta

  5. Combined 2-deoxy glucose and metformin improves therapeutic efficacy of sodium-iodide symporter-mediated targeted radioiodine therapy in breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee S


    Full Text Available Sushmita Chatterjee, Nirmal Thaker, Abhijit DeMolecular Functional Imaging Laboratory, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, IndiaAbstract: Radiosensitization using either metformin or 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG in various cancer cells has been reported. The present study reveals novel information on combining these drugs to enhance radiosensitization effect in breast cancer (BC cells. Responses to low-dose Cobalt60 radiation, as well as a newly emerged radioiodine therapy target for BC, that is, sodium-iodide symporter (NIS or SLC5A5 protein, are tested. As therapeutic potential of NIS in BC is often limited due to low uptake and fast efflux rate of iodine, the scope of these two radiosensitizers to further improve NIS-mediated 131I therapeutic efficacy is explored. Two BC cell lines, MCF-7, and MDA MB231 are tested to optimize minimal drug doses required for radiosensitization. A combination of 2 mM metformin and 20 mM 2-DG with 2 grey (Gy Cobalt60 radiation shows significant radiosensitization effect (P=0.0002. In cells treated with the combination therapy, increased γH2A.X foci formation was noted. Further, MCF-7 BC cells overexpressing NIS (MCF-7 NIS was established, and using the optimized drug concentrations, significant radiosensitization (P=0.0019 by 50 µ Ci 131I usage was found to be the case as well. Apoptosis data corroborates with the result of clonogenic assay showing significant increase in apoptotic population upon dual drug-mediated radiosensitization. In case of metformin treatment, lowered adenosine triphosphate (ATP content of the cell has been observed. The encouraging radiosensitization effect observed using combined 2-DG and metformin may aid in reducing Cobalt60 radiation exposure or for targeted radioiodine therapy in BC cells with NIS expression. This study indicates high potential of this drug combination in sensitizing BC cells for NIS

  6. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man


    Full Text Available Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  7. The p53 pathway in breast cancer


    Gasco, Milena; Shami, Shukri; Crook, Tim


    p53 mutation remains the most common genetic change identified in human neoplasia. In breast cancer, p53 mutation is associated with more aggressive disease and worse overall survival. The frequency of mutation in p53 is, however, lower in breast cancer than in other solid tumours. Changes, both genetic and epigenetic, have been identified in regulators of p53 activity and in some downstream transcriptional targets of p53 in breast cancers that express wild-type p53. Molecular pathological an...

  8. Breast Cancer: Catch It with Ultrasound (United States)


    Heintz, Ph.D. Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM e-mail: Breast cancer ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0566 TITLE: Breast Cancer : Catch It with Ultrasound...CONTRACT NUMBER Breast Cancer : Catch It with Ultrasound 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0566 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  9. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0359 TITLE: Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Sarat Chandarlapaty CONTRACTING...31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0359 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...mutations found in breast cancer using both structural and cell based assays. We have now have evidence for the effects of the most recurrent

  10. Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Haka, Abigail S.; Shafer-Peltier, Karen E.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Crowe, Joseph; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.


    We employ Raman spectroscopy to diagnose benign and malignant lesions in human breast tissue based on chemical composition. In this study, 130 Raman spectra are acquired from ex vivo samples of human breast tissue (normal, fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and infiltrating carcinoma) from 58 patients. Data are fit by using a linear combination model in which nine basis spectra represent the morphologic and chemical features of breast tissue. The resulting fit coefficients provide insight into the chemical/morphological makeup of the tissue and are used to develop diagnostic algorithms. The fit coefficients for fat and collagen are the key parameters in the resulting diagnostic algorithm, which classifies samples according to their specific pathological diagnoses, attaining 94% sensitivity and 96% specificity for distinguishing cancerous tissues from normal and benign tissues. The excellent results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to be applied in vivo to accurately classify breast lesions, thereby reducing the number of excisional breast biopsies that are performed. Author contributions: M.F., J.C., R.R.D., and M.S.F. designed research; A.S.H. and K.E.S.-P. performed research; A.S.H. and M.F. analyzed data; and A.S.H. wrote the paper.This paper was submitted directly (Track II) to the PNAS office.Abbreviations: DEH, ductal epithelial hyperplasia; ROC, receiver operating characteristic; N/C, nuclear-to-cytoplasm.

  11. Knowledge towards breast cancer among Libyan women in Tripoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A Taher


    Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that Libyan women have acceptable level of knowledge regarding breast cancer. However, improvement of the health systems and awareness regarding breast cancer is needed.

  12. The lipid peroxidation in breast cancer patients. (United States)

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Piekarski, Janusz


    The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress (by using different biomarkers of lipid peroxidation--isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in patients with invasive breast cancer, patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group. We observed a statistically increased level of TBARS in plasma and isoprostanes in urine of patients with invasive breast cancer in comparison with a control group. The concentration of tested biomarkers in plasma or urine from patients with invasive breast cancer was also higher than in patients with benign breast diseases. Moreover, the levels of tested markers in patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group did not differ. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that free radicals induce peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid in patients with breast cancer.

  13. Diazepam use and progression of breast cancer. (United States)

    Kleinerman, R A; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R; Fraumeni, J F


    The relationship between diazepam and breast cancer was evaluated using data from a case-control study of breast cancer, in which 1075 cases and 1146 controls who were participants in a breast cancer screening program were interviewed. Diazepam use was negatively associated with extent of disease and lymph node involvement, and this effect seemed greatest for long-term users of diazepam. It is not certain to what extent these data reflect an ascertainment bias, an association with the reasons for which the drug was prescribed, or chance. Whatever the explanation, the findings do not support a previous contention that diazepam promotes or accelerates breast cancer growth.

  14. Extended neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer combined with GM-CSF: effect on tumour-draining lymph node dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinedo, H.M.; Buter, J.; Luykx-de Bakker, S.A.; Pohlmann, P.R.; Hensbergen, Y. van; Heideman, D.A.M.; Diest, P.J. van; Gruijl, T.D. de; Wall, E. van der


    The effect of long-term administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on dendritic cell (DC) activation and survival in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) was studied. To this end, the number of activated DC (i.e. positive for the marker S100) in tumour

  15. MRI结合数字化钼靶诊断乳腺癌的临床研究%Clinical study of digital mammography,contrast-enhanced MRI as well as their combination in the diagnosis of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Ye; Mengsu Zeng; Fuhua Yan; Wei Feng; Meiling Zhou; Renchen Li; Wenfang Chen


    Objective:To compare the effectiveness of digital mammography and MRI in the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer and to assess the value of these modalities as well as the combination of the two.Methods:Sixty-seven patients with surgery and pathology proved breast lesion (malignant,n=32; benign,n=46) underwent digital mammography and MRI,the pulse sequences included T1WI,T2Wl,diffuse weighted imaging (DWI),and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI before surgery.Of the results of these two modalities,all lesions were classified into 5 groups according to BI-RADS classification,and the imaging findings were correlated to histopathology.The sensitivity and specificity of each modality as well as the combination of the two were calculated.Results:Of these 78 breasts lesions,The sensitivity was 78.13%% (25/32) for digital mammography and 93.75% (30/32) for MRI (P>0.05).The specificity was 73.91%% (34/46) and 89.13% (41/46) accordingly (P<0.05),both of them showed statistical difference.The sensitivity and specificity was 98.63% and 97.16% respectively as these two modalities were used in combination.Conclusion:Digital mammography in combination with MRI is helpful in the diagnosis of breast cancer,the sensitivity and specificity was enhanced when compared to that of single modality.

  16. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention. (United States)

    Nattinger, Ann B; Mitchell, Julie L


    This issue provides a clinical overview of breast cancer screening and prevention, focusing on risk assessment, screening, prevention, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  17. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer (United States)


    myocardial infarction among apparently healthy men. Circulation 101, 1767 (Apr 18, 2000). 33. E. A. Rakha, Pitfalls in outcome prediction of breast...cancer patients at diagnosis IL-6 plasma levels have been shown to be elevated in advanced metastatic BC patients (15, 31). To investigate whether the...plasma from BC patients was collected at diagnosis prior to surgery or any therapy. Interestingly, we found that IL-6 plasma levels were not

  18. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer (United States)


    be cultured in calcium‐ free DMEM supplemented with 1% FBS, cholera toxin (10 ng/ml), bovine insulin (3 μg/ml), hydrocortisone (0.5 μg/ml), EGF and...regimens for induction of optimal anti-tumor immunity. Then we will determine the optimal time to administer these regimens during disease ...node status. Breast Cancer Res Treat 60, 227 (Apr, 2000). 4. H. E. Kohrt et al., Profile of immune cells in axillary lymph nodes predicts disease -free

  19. Breast cancer management: Past, present and evolving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akram


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is known from ancient time,and the treatment strategy evolved as our understanding of the disease changed with time. In 460 BC Hippocrates described breast cancer as a humoral disease and presently after a lot of studies breast cancer is considered as a local disease with systemic roots. For most of the twentieth century Halsted radical mastectomy was the "established and standardized operation for cancer of the breast in all stages, early or late". New information about tumor biology and its behavior suggested that less radical surgery might be just as effective as the more extensive one. Eventually, with the use of adjuvant therapy likeradiation and systemic therapy, the extent of surgical resection in the breast and axilla got reduced further and led to an era of breast conservation. The radiation treatment of breast cancer has evolved from 2D to 3D Conformal and to accelarated partial breast irradiation, aiming to reduce normal tissue toxicity and overall treatment time. Systemic therapy in the form of hormone therapy, chemotherapy and biological agents is now a well-established modality in treatment of breast cancer. The current perspective of breast cancer management is based on the rapidly evolving and increasingly integrated study on the genetic, molecular , biochemical and cellular basis of disease. The challenge for the future is to take advantage of this knowledge for the prediction of therapeutic outcome and develop therapies and rapidly apply more novel biologic therapeutics.

  20. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha


    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  1. Prevention of osteoporosis after breast cancer. (United States)

    Reid, David M


    Breast cancer is a devastating illness but cure rates are increasing and as they do the secondary effects of breast cancer treatment on bone are becoming more prominent. Of particular concern is the increased fracture rates and dramatic bone loss seen in studies of patients undergoing therapy with aromatase inhibitors. Recently a UK Expert Group has drawn up guidelines for the prevention of bone loss. The main recommendations can be summarised as follows: Bone loss in women who experience a premature menopause due to treatment before the age of 45 or who are receiving ovarian suppression therapy is accelerated by the concomitant use of aromatase inhibitors. As they are at high risk of significant bone loss they should have a baseline dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment of BMD. As randomised clinical trials in postmenopausal women indicate that bisphosphonates prevent the bone loss and accelerated bone turnover associated with aromatase inhibitor therapy their use as the main preventative therapy is recommended, along with a healthy lifestyle and adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. Decisions on the initiation of treatment initiation should be based on a combination of risk factors for osteoporotic fracture and BMD levels. Due to the rate of bone loss associated with breast cancer treatments, and uncertainties about the interaction between aromatase inhibitor use and BMD for fracture risk, the thresholds for intervention have been set at a higher levels than generally recommended for postmenopausal osteoporosis.


    Matalon, Shelly Tartakover; Shochet, Gali Epstein; Drucker, Liat; Lishner, Michael


    Cancer and pregnancy coincide in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. One of the most common malignancies associated with pregnancy is breast cancer. Women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with metastatic disease and estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors than do non-pregnant women. Controversies exist regarding the effect of pregnancy on breast cancer prognosis. Some researchers suggest that pregnancy does not affect breast cancer prognosis, whereas others claim the opposite. Although PABC is usually discovered in an advanced stage, breast cancer metastasis on the placenta is a rare event. During cancer progression, the surrounding microenvironment co-evolves into an activated state through continuous communication with the malignant cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. The effect of pregnancy and placental environment on breast cancer biology is the issue of this review. Placental and cancer cells implantation processes share similar molecular pathways. This suggests that placental factors may affect breast cancer cells biology. Previously, we analyzed the effect of first trimester human placenta on breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells were co-cultured with placental explants during their implantation on matrigel substrate. We found that the placenta reduced ER expression on the cancer cells and induced their migration and invasion abilities. As a result of it, breast cancer cells migrated away from the placental implantation sites. Hormonal pathways were involved in these phenomena. These results may explain the high incidence of metastases during pregnancy in on the one hand and the rarity of metastases on the placenta on the other hand.

  3. Evaluation of host quality of life and immune function in breast cancer patients treated with combination of adjuvant chemotherapy and oral administration of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagashima Y


    Full Text Available Yukiko Nagashima,1 Noriko Maeda,2 Shigeru Yamamoto,2 Shigefumi Yoshino,2 Masaaki Oka21Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Shakaihoken Shimonoseki Kosei Hospital, Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi, Japan; 2Department of Digestive Surgery and Surgical Oncology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube City, Yamaguchi, JapanPurpose: Anthracycline-based chemotherapies for breast cancer are well known to have adverse effects and can also negatively affect host immune function. There is therefore a necessity for an adjuvant that maintains the quality of life (QOL and immune function of cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapies.Patients and methods: The present study investigated the effectiveness of the concomitant use of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract (LEM, an oral immunomodulator, with FEC75 (5-fluorouracil + epirubicin + cyclophosphamide therapy on host QOL and immune function in breast cancer patients with nodal metastases. Ten breast cancer patients with nodal metastases receiving surgery were enrolled in this study. Treatment with 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m2, epirubicin (75 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2 was performed every 21 days for two courses, and LEM (1800 mg/day by mouth was administered during the second course.Results: In the first course, hematological toxicity was observed and host QOL and immune function were exacerbated. In the second course, however, the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes did not decrease and host QOL was maintained. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activities of natural killer (NK and lymphokine-activated killer cells and the proportion of activated NK and NK T-cells in lymphocytes were maintained in the second course.Conclusion: It has been suggested that the concomitant use of LEM with FEC75 therapy can maintain host QOL and immune function, and offer important implications for an application of LEM as a useful oral adjuvant to anthracycline-based chemotherapies

  4. Association between breast and thyroid cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer S


    Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association

  5. Long-term side effects of adjuvant breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska


    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast cancer accounts for one-third of all cancers in females and 24% of the patients are younger than 55 years of age. More than 10% all Dutch women will develop breast cancer and 70-80% of all breast cancer patients will survive over 5 years.

  6. Carmustine and methotrexate in combination after whole brain radiation therapy in breast cancer patients presenting with brain metastases: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poujol Sylvain


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1999, patients presenting with brain metastases (BM from breast cancer (BC are treated in our institution with a carmustine (BCNU - methotrexate (MTX combination. We report here our clinical experience regarding this combination. Patients and Methods Patients were treated by a combination of BCNU 100 mg/m² on day 1 and MTX 600 mg/m² on day 1 and 15 of a 28 day cycle. Treatment was continued until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Results 50 patients were treated between 1999 and 2007. 94% of the patients presented with concomitant extra-cerebral disease. Median number of previous metastatic setting chemotherapy regimens was 2 (0-5. Median number of cycles was 3 (1-20. There were 11 objective responses (23% [95%CI 12-37] among 48 evaluable patients. Median progression-free survival and overall survival (OS were 4.2 (95%CI: 2.8-5.3 and 6.9 (4.2-10.7 months respectively, with a one-year OS rate of 32% (20-46. Median Relative Dose Intensity for BCNU and MTX were 0.98 (0.31-1.1 and 0.96 (0.57-1.66 respectively. There were 2 presumed treatment-related deaths. One patient developed febrile neutropenia. Performance status, BS-BM score and presence of liver metastases were associated with OS in univariate analysis. Conclusions This combination appears to be effective and well tolerated in good performance status BC patients presenting with BM.

  7. Stages of Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are linked by ...

  8. MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Breast Cancer with a Dedicated Breast Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merckel, Laura G., E-mail: [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Bartels, Lambertus W., E-mail: [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute (Netherlands); Koehler, Max O., E-mail: [Philips Healthcare (Finland); Bongard, H. J. G. Desiree van den, E-mail: [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiotherapy (Netherlands); Deckers, Roel, E-mail: [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P. Th. M., E-mail: [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Binkert, Christoph A., E-mail: [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland); Moonen, Chrit T., E-mail: [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute (Netherlands); Gilhuijs, Kenneth G. A., E-mail:; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den, E-mail: [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)


    Optimizing the treatment of breast cancer remains a major topic of interest. In current clinical practice, breast-conserving therapy is the standard of care for patients with localized breast cancer. Technological developments have fueled interest in less invasive breast cancer treatment. Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a completely noninvasive ablation technique. Focused beams of ultrasound are used for ablation of the target lesion without disrupting the skin and subcutaneous tissues in the beam path. MRI is an excellent imaging method for tumor targeting, treatment monitoring, and evaluation of treatment results. The combination of HIFU and MR imaging offers an opportunity for image-guided ablation of breast cancer. Previous studies of MR-HIFU in breast cancer patients reported a limited efficacy, which hampered the clinical translation of this technique. These prior studies were performed without an MR-HIFU system specifically developed for breast cancer treatment. In this article, a novel and dedicated MR-HIFU breast platform is presented. This system has been designed for safe and effective MR-HIFU ablation of breast cancer. Furthermore, both clinical and technical challenges are discussed, which have to be solved before MR-HIFU ablation of breast cancer can be implemented in routine clinical practice.

  9. The application of breast DCE-MRI combined with time signal curve in diagnosing early breast cancer%磁共振动态增强乳腺扫描及时间信号曲线结合在早期乳腺癌诊断中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakun He; Guohui Xu; Jing Ren; Min Wang; Jin Liu


    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the application value of breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging combined with time signal curve in diagnosis of early breast cancer. Methods:Conducted dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and drew the time signal curves of breast lesions in 60 patients with breast disease (malignant 46, benign 14). Results:Morphological features of malignant tumors mostly showed blurred or thin spiculate outlines, irregular shape or lobular signs, signal heterogeneity or peripheral enhancement in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Time signal curve showed type III or II. Morphologic features of benign tumors mostly showed clear edge, regular shape and homogeneous signal, or diffuse spot enhancement. Time signal curve showed type I or II. Conclusion:breast dynamic contrast enhanced scan in MRI can provide morphology and functional diagnosis information of the breast tissues. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI combined with time signal curve can further improve the accuracy of diagnosis of early breast cancer.

  10. Breast Imaging in Evaluation of Breast Cancer: Radiologist’s Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sedighi


    Full Text Available In every breast imaging, the radiologist confronts these questions:"n1. Finding the lesion"n2. Is the lesion real?"n3. Where the pathology lies"n4. What the lesion is "n5. What should be done about it?"nThe major objective in breast imaging is the detection of breast cancers at a small size and early stage in an effort to reduce mortality."nSome conditions limit evaluation of breast cancer imaging."nWhen additional mammographic views or ultrasound are unable to triangulate the location of a lesion, computed tomography can be very helpful for locating lesions three dimensionally. MRI with and without contrast is the other modality for evaluation of problematic cases or ambiguous findings in other modalities."nImplants present a problem for breast imaging in that they may prevent optimal visualization of the tissues."nA focal asymmetric density may merely represent an island of breast tissue. DCIS, with or without calcification, and metastatic axillary lymph nodes in a normal mammogram are some of the problematic cases of breast cancer."nThis presentation is expected to include real cases of breast cancer with the above-mentioned problems or unusual manifestations, which are resolved by a combination of different imaging modalities.    

  11. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk. (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C


    We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with

  12. A meta-analysis of combination therapy versus single-agent therapy in anthracycline- and taxane-pretreated metastatic breast cancer: results from nine randomized Phase III trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu L


    Full Text Available Liang Xu,1,2,* Xiaobo Wu,3,* Chun Hu,1,2 Zhiying Zhang,4 Le Zhang,1,2 Shujing Liang,1,2 Yingchun Xu,5 Fengchun Zhang1,2 1Department of Oncology, Suzhou Kowloon Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Suzhou, 2Department of Oncology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 3Prevention and Cure Center of Breast Disease, Third Hospital of Nanchang, Nanchang, 4Graduate School, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, 5Department of Oncology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nowadays, the philosophy of treating metastatic breast cancer (MBC is slowly evolving. Especially for the anthracycline- and taxane-pretreated MBC patients, no standard therapy exists in this setting. Whether to choose doublet agents or single agent as salvage treatment remains fiercely debated. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to resolve this problem. Databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library were searched for Phase III randomized clinical trials (published before August 2015 comparing the efficacy and adverse effects between the combination therapy and single-agent therapy in anthracycline- and taxane-pretreated MBC patients. The primary end point was the overall survival (OS, and the secondary end points were the progression-free survival (PFS, overall response rate (ORR, and grade 3 or 4 toxicities. The pooled hazard ratio (HR and pooled risk ratio (RR were used to evaluate the efficacy. Analyses were also performed to estimate the side effects and safety of both groups. In all, nine eligible randomized clinical trials were included in this meta-analysis. Improvements were proven in the doublet agents group on OS (HR 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84–0.96, P=0.002, PFS (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.76–0.88, P<0.001, and ORR (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.34–2.21, P<0.001. Notably, subgroup analysis

  13. The cancer genetics and pathology of male breast cancer. (United States)

    Deb, Siddhartha; Lakhani, Sunil R; Ottini, Laura; Fox, Stephen B


    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon and poorly understood disease. Recent molecular studies have shown important differences from female breast cancer which are likely to influence treatment strategies from the current female-based management towards a more tailored approach. Significantly more MBCs than female breast cancers arise with an underlying germline cancer predisposition, and display a vastly different penetrance compared with females. Furthermore, the genophenotypical association of basal-like cancer with BRCA1 present in female breast cancer is not observed in male breast cancer. Differences in somatic changes between male and female breast cancer have also been reported, with particular enrichment of PIK3CA mutations and a paucity of TP53 mutations. In general, chromosomal-based changes, in particular regions of gains, are seen more frequently in male than female breast cancer and methylation is seen less frequently. Clinically, several molecular subtypes with prognostic relevance have been described, including chromosomal complex high and methylation high groups, and subgroups with profiling signatures pertaining to epithelial mesenchymal transition and hormonal therapy insensitivity. As with female breast cancer, attention to male specific multicentre trials based on the individual characteristics are needed, together with establishment of reliable preclinical models to understand more clearly the pathogenesis of male breast cancer and improve the general poor outcome of this disease.

  14. Interleukin-8 in breast cancer progression. (United States)

    Todorović-Raković, Nataša; Milovanović, Jelena


    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine that has an autocrine and/or paracrine tumor-promoting role and significant potential as a prognostic and/or predictive cancer biomarker. In breast cancer, which is mostly determined by expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), IL-8 could play a specific role. IL-8 is highly expressed in ER- breast cancers, but it increases invasiveness and metastatic potential of both ER- and ER+ breast cancer cells. It is also highly expressed in HER2+ breast cancers. Because of the complex crosstalk between these receptors and IL-8, its role is mainly determined by delicate balance in their signaling pathways. Therefore, the main point of this review was to analyze the possible influence of IL-8 in breast cancer progression related to its interaction with ER and HER2 and the consequent therapeutic implications of these relations.

  15. Manganese superoxide dismutase and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Christensen, Mariann; Lash, Timothy L


    cancer recurrence (BCR) among patients treated with cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy (Cyclo). We compared our findings with published studies using meta-analyses. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of BCR among women in Jutland, Denmark. Subjects were diagnosed with non......BACKGROUND: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inhibits oxidative damage and cancer therapy effectiveness. A polymorphism in its encoding gene (SOD2: Val16Ala rs4880) may confer poorer breast cancer survival, but data are inconsistent. We examined the association of SOD2 genotype and breast......-metastatic breast cancer from 1990-2001, received adjuvant Cyclo, and were registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. We identified 118 patients with BCR and 213 matched breast cancer controls. We genotyped SOD2 and used conditional logistic regression to compute the odds ratio (OR) and associated 95...

  16. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko


    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition......, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD......51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients...

  17. All-trans retinoic acid stealth liposomes prevent the relapse of breast cancer arising from the cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Li, Ruo-Jing; Ying, Xue; Zhang, Yan; Ju, Rui-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Xing; Yao, Hong-Juan; Men, Ying; Tian, Wei; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Liang; Huang, Ren-Jie; Lu, Wan-Liang


    The relapse of cancer is mostly due to the proliferation of cancer stem cells which could not be eliminated by a standard chemotherapy. A new kind of all-trans retinoic acid stealth liposomes was developed for preventing the relapse of breast cancer and for treating the cancer in combination with a cytotoxic agent, vinorelbine stealth liposomes. In vitro studies were performed on the human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo evaluations were performed on the newly established relapse model with breast cancer stem cells. Results showed that the particle size of all-trans retinoic acid stealth liposomes was approximately 80nm, and the encapsulation efficiency was >90%. Breast cancer stem cells were identified with the CD44(+)/CD24(-) phenotype and characterized with properties: resistant to cytotoxic agent, stronger capability of proliferation, and stronger capability of differentiation. Inhibitory effect of all-trans retinoic acid stealth liposomes was more potent in cancer stem cells than in cancer cells. The mechanisms were defined to be two aspects: arresting breast cancer stem cells at the G(0)/G(1) phase in mitosis, and inducing the differentiation of breast cancer stem cells. The cancer relapse model was successfully established by xenografting breast cancer stem cells into NOD/SCID mice, and the formation and growth of the xenografted tumors were significantly inhibited by all-trans retinoic acid stealth liposomes. The combination therapy of all-trans retinoic acid stealth liposomes with vinorelbine stealth liposomes produced the strongest inhibitory effect to the relapse tumor model. It could be concluded that all-trans retinoic acid stealth liposomes could be used for preventing the relapse of breast cancer by differentiating cancer stem cells and arresting the cell-cycle, and for treating breast cancer as a co-therapy, thus providing a novel strategy for treating breast cancer and preventing relapse derived from breast cancer stem cells.

  18. α-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, alone and combined with trastuzumab, reduce HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cell growth but differentially regulate HER2 signaling pathways



    Background Diets rich in the n-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) have been shown to reduce breast tumor growth, enhance the effectiveness of the HER2-targeted drug trastuzumab (TRAS) and reduce HER2 signaling in mouse models. It is unclear whether this is due to direct effects of ALA or due to its long-chain n-3 fatty acids metabolites including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Methods The ability of HER2-overexpressing BT-474 human breast cancer cells to convert ALA to long-chain n-3 fatty ...

  19. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.


    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  20. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor (United States)

    ... cancers after breast cancer . Ask your doctor for a survivorship care plan Talk with your doctor about ... Close Image of Previous Next Close Close Select A Hope Lodge Close Please share your thoughts about ...

  1. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features (United States)

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  2. Evolution of surgical treatment for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Letyagin


    Full Text Available The paper considers main surgical interventions used to treat breast cancer. It defines the role and place of conservative surgery and describes current procedures for the organ-saving treatment of cancer at this site.

  3. Early Life and Risk of Breast Cancer (United States)


    adulthood in the 1958 British born cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66:1094-101. 52. Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and breast cancer risk. Cancer 1988; 62...Biomarkers Prey 2002;11: J Clin Nutr 1997;66:1094-101. 32. He Q Karlbergj. BMI in childhood and 207-10. 28. Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and its...breast cancer among young U.S. women. Epidemiology 1997; 8(5):559-565. (76) Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and breast cancer risk. Cancer 1988; 62(8

  4. Profile of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. (United States)

    Ehab, Moataz; Elbaz, Mohamad


    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Each year, thousands die either because of disease progression or failure of treatment. Breast cancer is classified into different subtypes based on the molecular expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These receptors represent important therapeutic targets either through monoclonal antibodies or through small-molecule inhibitors directed toward them. However, up to 40% of patients develop either a primary or a secondary resistance to the current treatments. Therefore, there is an urgent need for investigating new targets in order to overcome the resistance and/or enhance the current therapies. Cell cycle is altered in many human cancers, especially in breast cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), especially CDK4 and CDK6, play a pivotal role in cell cycle progression that makes them potential targets for new promising therapies. CDK inhibition has shown strong antitumor activities, ranging from cytostatic antiproliferative effects to synergistic effects in combination with other antitumor drugs. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the first-generation CDK inhibitors, recently, new CDK inhibitors have emerged that are more selective to CDK4 and CDK6 such as palbociclib, which is the most advanced CDK4/6 inhibitor in trials. In preclinical studies, palbociclib has shown a very promising antitumor activity, especially against ERα+ breast cancer subtype. Palbociclib has gained world attention, and US the Food and Drug Administration has accelerated its approval for first-line treatment in combination with letrozole for the first-line systematic treatment of postmenopausal women with ERα+/HER2- locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the potential role of CDK inhibition in breast cancer treatment, and focus on palbociclib progress from preclinical studies to clinical trials with mentioning the

  5. Increased risk of breast cancer in women bearing a combination of large CAG and GGN repeats in the exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene. (United States)

    González, Ana; Javier Dorta, F; Rodriguez, Germán; Brito, Buenaventura; Rodríguez, M A Del Cristo; Cabrera, Antonio; Díaz-Chico, Juan C; Reyes, Ricardo; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando; Nicolás Díaz-Chico, B


    The exon 1 of the human androgen receptor gene (AR) contains both CAG (polyglutamine) and GGN (polyglycine) repeat length polymorphisms. Large CAG repeats have been related to an increased risk of breast cancer (BC), whereas the influence of the GGN repeats is still unclear. Here, we have studied how the length of CAG and GGN repeats is associated with the risk of BC in a population from Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The study was carried out on 257 woman diagnosed with BC and 393 controls, nesting in the 'CDC of the Canary Islands' cohort study. The AR CAG and GGN genotyping was performed by means of PCR amplification with specific fluorescently labelled primers followed by a capillary electrophoresis. The allelic distribution of CAG and GGN polymorphisms was similar in cases and controls. The mean of short and long CAG and GGN alleles did not show differences between cases and controls and the same was true when the average length of both CAG alleles (CAG(n)) and GGN alleles (GGN(n)) was considered. However, when CAG(n) and GGN(n) were categorised using 22 and 24 repeats as the cut-off point, respectively, significant differences between cases and controls were observed. The CAG(n)>22 repeats were more frequent in cases than in controls, being associated with an increased risk of BC (OR=1.49; CI(95%)=1.06-2.09; p=0.021). No significant differences were found for categorised GGN(n). For CAG(n)/GGN(n) combinations, the highest BC risk was found to be associated with the CAG(n)>22/GGN(n)24 combination (OR=2.47; CI(95%)=1.37-4.46; p=0.003). In conclusion, our results indicate that longer CAG(n)/GGN(n) combinations increase the risk of BC and suggest that CAG and GGN AR polymorphisms should be considered in order to assess the BC risk.

  6. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer (United States)


    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  7. Breast Cancer During Pregnancy: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serden Ay


    Full Text Available During pregnancy breast cancer is rarely seen. In this case, when the patient was being operated for the right breast cancer which was diagnosed in the first exam, a left breast cancer was also detected in the operation. When the patient analysed retrospectively, lesion in the left breast could not detected because of the lactation period. Consequently,pregnancy patients must be re-examined after the lactation period to avoid any possible mistakes. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 492-494

  8. Urinary phytoestrogens and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkelaar, den I.; Keinan-Boker, L.; Veer, van't P.; Arts, C.J.M.; Adlercreutz, H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.; Peeters, H.M.


    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant substances that are structurally or functionally similar to estradiol. We report the associations of two major phytoestrogens, genistein and enterolactone, with breast cancer risk, using urinary specimens collected 1-9 years before breast cancer was diagnosed. The

  9. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl


    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  10. Loneliness May Sabotage Breast Cancer Survival: Study (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162498.html Loneliness May Sabotage Breast Cancer Survival: Study Weak social ties linked to higher risk ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Loneliness may impede long-term breast cancer survival, a new study suggests. In the years after ...

  11. Gene Expression Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression (United States)


    Giri D, Chen B, Gerald W Molecular Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Therapeutic Biomarkers Using Oligonucleotide Arrays Abstract presentation USCAP 2005. 5...Bone Metastasis. Submitted Lal P, Donaton M, Girl D, Chen B, Gerald W Molecular Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Therapeutic Biomarkers Using Oligonucleotide

  12. New ways to optimize breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, Carolina Pia


    Breast cancer patients without apparent distant metastases at the time of primary tumor removal, may later suffer from a distant relapse, indicating the presence of occult micrometastases at the time of diagnosis. Sensitive methods to detect micrometastatic breast cancer may be helpful in optimizing

  13. Breast cancer radiotherapy and cardiac risk


    Anusheel Munshi; Kaustav Talapatra; Debanarayan Dutta


    Breast cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women in the developed world and its incidence in the developing world is on the rise. Management of breast cancer requires a multimodality approach and an integration of the services of surgery, radiation, and medical oncology. Radiotherapy after mastectomy or breast conservation leads to reduction in local recurrence by two-thirds. Recent trials and metaanalyses have also demonstrated overall survival benefit with radiotherapy...

  14. Combination therapy of renal cell carcinoma or breast cancer patients with dendritic cell vaccine and IL-2: results from a phase I/II trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YongMan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ten cancer patients (Six renal cell carcinoma and four breast cancer patients were treated in a phase I/II study with a vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs and IL-2 to evaluate the DC vaccine-related toxicity and antigen-specific immune alteration. Methods Cancer patients were treated twice with autologous CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell-derived, GM-CSF/IFN-γ-differentiated DCs pulsed with autologous tumor lysate and KLH, by 4-week interval. Following each subcutaneous injection of therapeutic DCs, low-dose (200 MIU IL-2 was introduced for 14 consecutive days as an immune adjuvant. To determine the DC vaccine-induced immunological alterations, the KLH-specific lymphocyte proliferation, number of IFN-γ secreting T cells (ELISPOT assay, NK activity and the cytokine modulation were measured. Results Cultured-DCs expressing HLA-DR, CD11c, CD83, and B7.1/B7.2 produced IL-12p70. After vaccination, the patients tolerated it. Clinical response was observed in one RCC patient as stable disease. However DC-vaccine related antigen-specific immune responses including peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation and the number of IFN-r secreting cells were induced in six patients without clear correlation with clinical responses. Also NK activity was induced significantly in six patients after vaccination. DC vaccine-related decrease of TGF-β level or increase of IL-12p70 level and decline of CD4+CD25+ T cells were observed in three patients. However only in the RCC patient whose disease stabilized, combination of stimulatory as well as inhibitory immune alterations including induction of IFN-γ secreting T cell with reduction of CD4+ CD25+ T cell were correlated with clinical responses. Conclusion Data indicated that DC vaccine combined with IL-2 is well tolerated without major side effects. DC vaccine induced the specific immunity against introduced antigen. Combinatorial alterations of immunological parameters indicating

  15. Advancements of antisense oligonucleotides in treatment of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGShuan-Ping; SONGSan-Tai; 等


    Breast cancer is one kind of multi-gene related malignancy.Overexpression of some oncogenes such as HER-2(c-erbB-2,Neu),bcl-2/bcl-xL,protein kinase A(PKA),and transferrin receptor gene(TfR gene),etc significantly affect the prognosis of breast cancer.It was shown that specific suppression of the overexpressed genes above resulted in the improvement of the therapy of breast cancer.Antisense of useful tools for inhibiting the overexpression of specific oncogenes,was involved in the therapy of breast cancer in recent years. Data indicated that antisense oligonucleotides(ON)could inhibit specially the expression of the target genes on mRNA or protein levels in most of cases;some ON candidates showed encouraging therapeutic effects in vitro and in vivo on breast cancer cell lines or xenografts.Furthermore,the combination use of the antisense ON and normal chemotherapeutic agents indicated synergistic antitumor effects,which was probably the best utilization of antisense ON in the treatment of breast cancer.

  16. Why is this effective HSP90 inhibitor not being developed in HER2+ breast cancer? (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L


    Inhibition of the HSP90 chaperone leads to degradation of the HER2 receptor. The HSP90 inhibitor tanespimycin in combination with trastuzumab is active in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. This combination is one of several HER2-targeted therapies that will significantly improve the outcome of patients with this subtype of breast cancer.

  17. Breast Cancer Diagnosed During Pregnancy: Adapting Recent Advances in Breast Cancer Care for Pregnant Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loibl, S.; Schmidt, A.; Gentilini, O.; Kaufman, B.; Kuhl, C.; Denkert, C.; Minckwitz, G. von; Parokonnaya, A.; Stensheim, H.; Thomssen, C.; Calsteren, K. van; Poortmans, P.; Berveiller, P.; Markert, U.R.; Amant, F.


    Breast cancer during pregnancy (BCP), although rare, is becoming more common and treatment should be as similar as possible to that for nonpregnant young patients with breast cancer. A group of specialists convened to review current guidelines and provide guidance on how recent advances in breast ca

  18. Breast thermography. A prognostic indicator for breast cancer survival. (United States)

    Isard, H J; Sweitzer, C J; Edelstein, G R


    A prognostic classification for thermographic staging of breast cancer has been applied to a cohort of 70 patients from 5040 screenees enrolled in the Albert Einstein Medical Center (AEMC) Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP). A diagnosis of breast cancer was established in each case before December 31, 1980. None of the patients have been lost to follow-up which extended from a minimum of 6 to a maximum of 13 years. Survival rates for those with favorable, equivocal, and poor thermographic factors are compared with each other and with results in accordance with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification. As of December 31, 1986, there have been 22 (31.4%) deaths, all attributed to breast cancer. The thermographic scoring system clearly shows shorter survival for patients with poor thermographic prognostic factors, 30% surviving at 5 years and only 20% at 10 years compared with overall survival of 80% at 5 years and 70% at 10 years.

  19. The potential role of breast ductoscopy in breast cancer screening. (United States)

    Sarakbi, W Al; Escobar, Pedro F; Mokbel, Kefah


    Breast cancer remains the most common malignancy among women in the Western world. Mammography, which is currently the main screening modality for early detection, has a low positive predictive value of only 25%, especially in young women with very dense breasts. Therefore, new screening approaches are needed for the early detection of breast cancer in all age groups. Mammary ductoscopy (MD) is a newly developed endoscopic technique that allows direct visualization and biopsy of the mammary ductal epithelium where most cancers originate. The procedure can be performed under local anesthesia in the office setting. At present, MD is used as a diagnostic adjunct in patients with pathological nipple discharge and to guide duct excision surgery. This article focuses on the potential of this technique in breast cancer screening and highlights its limitations in this context.

  20. Breast cancer. Part 2: present and future treatment modalities. (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the second article in a series of three on breast cancer. Part 1 discussed breast anatomy, the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging. In this article, treatment for breast cancer is discussed. The article will follow the usual order of modalities in the trajectory, starting with surgery, then chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment, finishing with a discussion of future and biological treatments.

  1. Feasibility Study of EndoTAG-1, a Tumor Endothelial Targeting Agent, in Combination with Paclitaxel followed by FEC as Induction Therapy in HER2-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Ignatiadis

    Full Text Available EndoTAG-1, a tumor endothelial targeting agent has shown activity in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (BC in combination with paclitaxel.HER2-negative BC patients candidates for neoadjuvant chemotherapy were scheduled to receive 12 cycles of weekly EndoTAG-1 22mg/m2 plus paclitaxel 70mg/m2 followed by 3 cycles of FEC (Fluorouracil 500mg/m2, Epirubicin 100mg/m2, Cyclophosphamide 500mg/m2 every 3 weeks followed by surgery. Primary endpoint was percent (% reduction in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI estimated Gadolinium (Gd enhancing tumor volume at the end of EndoTAG-1 plus paclitaxel administration as compared to baseline. Safety, pathological complete response (pCR defined as no residual tumor in breast and axillary nodes at surgery and correlation between % reduction in MRI estimated tumor volume and pCR were also evaluated.Fifteen out of 20 scheduled patients were included: Six patients with estrogen receptor (ER-negative/HER2-negative and 9 with ER-positive/HER2-negative BC. Nine patients completed treatment as per protocol. Despite premedication and slow infusion rates, grade 3 hypersensitivity reactions to EndoTAG-1 were observed during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 6th weekly infusion in 4 patients, respectively, and required permanent discontinuation of the EndoTAG-1. Moreover, two additional patients stopped EndoTAG-1 plus paclitaxel after 8 and 9 weeks due to clinical disease progression. Two patients had grade 3 increases in transaminases and 1 patient grade 4 neutropenia. pCR was achieved in 5 of the 6 ER-/HER2- and in none of the 9 ER+/HER2- BC patients. The mean % reduction in MRI estimated tumor volume at the end of EndoTAG-1 plus paclitaxel treatment was 81% (95% CI, 66% to 96%, p<0.001 for the 15 patients that underwent surgery; 96% for patients with pCR and 73% for patients with no pCR (p = 0.04.The EndoTAG-1 and paclitaxel combination showed promising preliminary activity as preoperative treatment, especially in ER-/HER2

  2. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie


    Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses......, in breast cancer survivors could regulate breast cancer cell viability in vitro. Methods: Blood samples were collected from breast cancer survivors, partaking in either a 6-month training intervention or across a 2 h acute exercise session. Changes in training parameters and systemic factors were evaluated...... and pre/post exercise-conditioned sera from both studies were used to stimulate breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro. Results: Six months of training increased VO2peak (16.4 %, p

  3. Insulin receptor what role in breast cancer? (United States)

    Papa, V; Costantino, A; Belfiore, A


    It is commonly believed that the insulin receptor mainly mediates the metabolic effects of insulin, whereas the closely related IGF-I receptor is considered a major factor for the regulation of cell proliferation. Experimental and epidemiological evidence indicates, however, that insulin and insulin receptors may play an important role in breast cancer. This article reviews evidence indicating that (a) insulin receptors are overexpressed in human breast cancer, (b) insulin stimulates growth in breast cancer cells, (c) cells transfected with human insulin receptor may acquire a ligand-dependent transformed phenotype, and (d) breast cancer is associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. These findings may open new possibilities in breast cancer prevention, prognosis assessment, and therapy. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997; 8:306-312). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  4. [San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium -- highlights 2004]. (United States)

    Rody, A; V Minckwitz, G; Loibl, S; Kaufmann, M


    The adjuvant therapy of postmenopausal, hormonereceptor positive breast cancer patients with aromatase inhibitors in ATAC, ABCSG 8/ ARNO 95 and IES trial revealed just a benefit in terms of disease-free survival, but not for over-all survival. Thus MA-17 trial is so far the only study which could demonstrate a survival benefit for node positive disease by "extended adjuvant" therapy with letrozole. Node- and receptorpositive, postmenopausal women show a higher benefit by anthracycline containing chemotherapy in combination with tamoxifen, than by endocrine therapy alone. But tamoxifen should given sequentially to chemotherapy (Intergroup 0100/ SWOG-8814 trial). Adjuvant chemotherapy with three cycles FEC followed by three cycles docetaxel reveals a survival benefit compared to six cycles FEC, especially in women older than 50 years (PACS 01 trial). Furthermore there is evolving evidence that dose-dense, interval shortened chemotherapy is superior to standard chemotherapy in adjuvant setting. The impaired survival of receptornegative, nodalpositive breast cancer patients seems to be converted to a survival improvement compared with receptorpositive patients by modern adjuvant cytotoxic regimens (metaanalysis CALGB 8541, 9344, 9741). In primary systemic chemotherapy survival is strongly associated with the rate of pathohistological complete remissions (NSABP B-27). The combination of cytotoxic drugs has no further influence on survival, but the sequential administration of taxane increases the rate of pCR. A difference in survival stratified by pCR and non-pCR in breast and positive nodal status could not be detected, so that the number of involved lymph nodes seems to be the strongest prognostic factor and is independent of tumor response in the breast. The sentinel node biopsy is a safe and reliable method, but the rate of false negative findings depends on the pathohistological methods (NSABP B-32). The morbidity of this method is low compared with conventional

  5. Identification of a DMBT1 polymorphism associated with increased breast cancer risk and decreased promoter activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchatchou, Sandrine; Riedel, Angela; Lyer, Stefan;


    According to present estimations, the unfavorable combination of alleles with low penetrance but high prevalence in the population might account for the major part of hereditary breast cancer risk. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) has been proposed as a tumor suppressor for breast cancer...... and other cancer types. Genomewide mapping in mice further identified Dmbt1 as a potential modulator of breast cancer risk. Here, we report the association of two frequent and linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with increased breast cancer risk in women above the age of 60 years: DMBT1 c.-93C>T...

  6. Is clinical breast examination important for breast cancer detection? (United States)

    Provencher, L.; Hogue, J.C.; Desbiens, C.; Poirier, B.; Poirier, E.; Boudreau, D.; Joyal, M.; Diorio, C.; Duchesne, N.; Chiquette, J.


    Background Screening clinical breast examination (cbe) is controversial; the use of cbe is declining not only as a screening tool, but also as a diagnostic tool. In the present study, we aimed to assess the value of cbe in breast cancer detection in a tertiary care centre for breast diseases. Methods This retrospective study of all breast cancers diagnosed between July 1999 and December 2010 at our centre categorized cases according to the mean of detection (cbe, mammography, or both). A cbe was considered “abnormal” in the presence of a mass, nipple discharge, skin or nipple retraction, edema, erythema, peau d’orange, or ulcers. Results During the study period, a complete dataset was available for 6333 treated primary breast cancers. Cancer types were ductal carcinoma in situ (15.3%), invasive ductal carcinoma (75.7%), invasive lobular carcinoma (9.0%), or others (2.2%). Of the 6333 cancers, 36.5% (n = 2312) were detected by mammography alone, 54.8% (n = 3470) by mammography and cbe, and 8.7% (n = 551) by physician-performed cbe alone (or 5.3% if considering ultrasonography). Invasive tumours diagnosed by cbe alone were more often triple-negative, her2-positive, node-positive, and larger than those diagnosed by mammography alone (p < 0.05). Conclusions A significant number of cancers would have been missed if cbe had not been performed. Compared with cancers detected by mammography alone, those detected by cbe had more aggressive features. Clinical breast examination is a very low-cost test that could improve the detection of breast cancer and could prompt breast ultrasonography in the case of a negative mammogram. PMID:27536182

  7. Role of KCNMA1 in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oeggerli

    Full Text Available KCNMA1 encodes the α-subunit of the large conductance, voltage and Ca(2+-activated (BK potassium channel and has been reported as a target gene of genomic amplification at 10q22 in prostate cancer. To investigate the prevalence of the amplification in other human cancers, the copy number of KCNMA1 was analyzed by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH in 2,445 tumors across 118 different tumor types. Amplification of KCNMA1 was restricted to a small but distinct fraction of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer with the highest prevalence in invasive ductal breast cancers and serous carcinoma of ovary and endometrium (3-7%. We performed an extensive analysis on breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMA of 1,200 tumors linked to prognosis. KCNMA1 amplification was significantly associated with high tumor stage, high grade, high tumor cell proliferation, and poor prognosis. Immunofluorescence revealed moderate or strong KCNMA1 protein expression in 8 out of 9 human breast cancers and in the breast cancer cell line MFM223. KCNMA1-function in breast cancer cell lines was confirmed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings and proliferation assays, using siRNA-knockdown, BK channel activators such as 17ß-estradiol and the BK-channel blocker paxilline. Our findings revealed that enhanced expression of KCNMA1 correlates with and contributes to high proliferation rate and malignancy of breast cancer.

  8. Risk of second primary cancer among patients with early operable breast cancer registered or randomised in Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) protocols of the 77, 82 and 89 programmes during 1977-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, M.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Engholm, G.;


    Breast cancer survivors have increased risks of developing second primary cancers due to shared etiology, life style factors but also to primary breast cancer treatment. Among 53 418 patients registered by the population based Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) during 1977-2001, 31 818...... rates of the Danish population were used for calculation of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Time at risk was from diagnosis of breast cancer+1 year until death or through 2002. Risk for all second primary cancers combined was increased, SIR=1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.99-1.08). Sites...

  9. Combined photon-electron beams in the treatment of the supraclavicular lymph nodes in breast cancer: A novel technique that achieves adequate coverage while reducing lung dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, Ahmed, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman (Jordan); Mohamad, Issa; Dayyat, Abdulmajeed [Department of Radiation Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman (Jordan); Kanaa’n, Haitham [Section of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman (Jordan); Sarhan, Nasim [Department of Radiation Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman (Jordan); Roujob, Ibrahim [Section of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman (Jordan); Salem, Abdel-Fattah [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hashemite University, Zarqa (Jordan); Afifi, Shatha [Section of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman (Jordan); Jaradat, Imad; Mubiden, Rasmi; Almousa, Abdelateif [Department of Radiation Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman (Jordan)


    Radiation pneumonitis is a well-documented side effect of radiation therapy for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare combined photon-electron, photon-only, and electron-only plans in the radiation treatment of the supraclavicular lymph nodes. In total, 13 patients requiring chest wall and supraclavicular nodal irradiation were planned retrospectively using combined photon-electron, photon-only, and electron-only supraclavicular beams. A dose of 50 Gy over 25 fractions was prescribed. Chest wall irradiation parameters were fixed for all plans. The goal of this planning effort was to cover 95% of the supraclavicular clinical target volume (CTV) with 95% of the prescribed dose and to minimize the volume receiving ≥ 105% of the dose. Comparative end points were supraclavicular CTV coverage (volume covered by the 95% isodose line), hotspot volume, maximum radiation dose, contralateral breast dose, mean total lung dose, total lung volume percentage receiving at least 20 Gy (V{sub 20} {sub Gy}), heart volume percentage receiving at least 25 Gy (V{sub 25} {sub Gy}). Electron and photon energies ranged from 8 to 18 MeV and 4 to 6 MV, respectively. The ratio of photon-to-electron fractions in combined beams ranged from 5:20 to 15:10. Supraclavicular nodal coverage was highest in photon-only (mean = 96.2 ± 3.5%) followed closely by combined photon-electron (mean = 94.2 ± 2.5%) and lowest in electron-only plans (mean = 81.7 ± 14.8%, p < 0.001). The volume of tissue receiving ≥ 105% of the prescription dose was higher in the electron-only (mean = 69.7 ± 56.1 cm{sup 3}) as opposed to combined photon-electron (mean = 50.8 ± 40.9 cm{sup 3}) and photon-only beams (mean = 32.2 ± 28.1 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.114). Heart V{sub 25} {sub Gy} was not statistically different among the plans (p = 0.999). Total lung V{sub 20} {sub Gy} was lowest in electron-only (mean = 10.9 ± 2.3%) followed by combined photon-electron (mean = 13.8 ± 2.3%) and highest in photon

  10. [Association between cadmium and breast cancer]. (United States)

    Strumylaite, Loreta; Bogusevicius, Algirdas; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Pranys, Darius; Poskiene, Lina; Kregzdyte, Rima; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Asadauskaite, Rūta


    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen, although some studies indicate a link between cadmium exposure and human breast cancer. The objective of this study was to assess cadmium concentration in breast tissue samples of patients with breast cancer and benign breast tumor. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The concentration of cadmium was determined in breast tissue samples of 21 breast cancer and 19 benign tumor patients. Two samples of breast tissue from each patient, i.e. tumor and normal tissue close to tumor, were taken for the analysis. Cadmium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (Perkin-Elmer, Zeeman 3030). RESULTS. In patients with breast cancer, the mean cadmium concentration was 33.1 ng/g (95% CI, 21.9-44.4) in malignant breast tissue and 10.4 ng/g (95% CI, 5.6-15.2) in normal breast tissue (P=0.002). In patients with benign tumor, the corresponding values were 17.5 ng/g (95% CI, 8.4-26.5) and 11.8 ng/g (95% CI, 5.1-18.5) (P=0.3144). There was a statistically significant difference in cadmium concentration between malignant and benign breast tissues (P=0.009). CONCLUSION. The data obtained show that cadmium concentration is significantly higher in malignant breast tissue as compared with normal breast tissue of the same women or benign breast tissue. Further studies are necessary to determine the association between cadmium concentration in malignant breast tissue and estrogen receptor level, and smoking.

  11. Multidisciplinary Meeting on Male Breast Cancer : Summary and Research Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korde, Larissa A.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Kamin, Leah; Giordano, Sharon; Domchek, Susan; Anderson, William F.; Bartlett, John M. S.; Gelmon, Karen; Nahleh, Zeina; Bergh, Jonas; Cutuli, Bruno; Pruneri, Giancarlo; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Gralow, Julie; Hortobagyi, Gabriel; Cardoso, Fatima


    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer diagnoses worldwide. Most data on male breast cancer comes from small single-institution studies, and because of the paucity of data, the optimal treatment for male breast cancer is not known. This article summari

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Metastasis Suppression in Human Breast Cancer (United States)


    and breast carcinoma metastasis, Wake Forest University Cancer Center, July 28 Molecular mechanisms controlling melanoma and breast carcinoma...Bowman Show, August 17 Molecular regulation of melanoma and breast carcinoma metastasis, Wake Forest University Cancer Center, July 28 Molecular...Institute, April 20, Pathology ofNeoplasia Cumberland Unit, American Cancer Society, April 19; Breast Cancer Research Ministerio de Sanidad y

  13. Use of proteomics for the early diagnosis fo breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, A.W.J.


    Breast cancer mortality rates in The Netherlands are among the highest in Europe. To improve breast cancer survival, early detection is of vital importance. The introduction of the national breast cancer screening program has led to an improvement in stage distribution at diagnosis of breast cancer.

  14. Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Cisplatin in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szallasi, Zoltan Imre; Eklund, Aron Charles; Li, Qiyuan


    PURPOSE Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent not used routinely for breast cancer treatment. As a DNA cross-linking agent, cisplatin may be effective treatment for hereditary BRCA1-mutated breast cancers. Because sporadic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and BRCA1-associated breast cancer...

  15. Proteomic profiling of triple-negative breast carcinomas in combination with a three-tier orthogonal technology approach identifies Mage-A4 as potential therapeutic target in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabezón, Teresa; Gromova, Irina; Gromov, Pavel


    receptor 2 (Her2)-positive breast tumors. However, a significant proportion of primary breast cancers are negative for ER, progesterone receptor (PgR), and Her2, comprising the triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) group. Women with TNBC have a poor prognosis because of the aggressive nature of these tumors......-amenable sub-groups of TNBCs. We present here our results, including a large cumulative database of proteins based on the analysis of 78 TNBCs, and the identification and validation of one specific protein, Mage-A4, which was expressed in a significant fraction of TNBC and Her2-positive/ER negative lesions...... its presence in serum suggest novel management options for TNBC and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive/estrogen receptor negative patients bearing Mage-A4 positive tumors....

  16. Loss of heterozygosity in bilateral breast cancer. (United States)

    Kollias, J; Man, S; Marafie, M; Carpenter, K; Pinder, S; Ellis, I O; Blamey, R W; Cross, G; Brook, J D


    Women who develop bilateral breast cancer at an early age are likely to harbour germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes. The aim of this study was to test for concordant genetic changes in left and right breast cancer of young women (age < 50) with bilateral breast cancer that may suggest an inherited breast cancer predisposition. Microsatellite markers were used to test for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in left and right tumours for 31 women with premenopausal bilateral breast cancer. Markers adjacent to or within candidate genes on 17p (p53), 17q (BRCA1), 13q (BRCA2), 11q (Ataxia Telangiectasia-ATM) and 3p (FHIT) were chosen. Mutational testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 was performed for cases where blood was available. Concordant LOH in both left and right tumours was demonstrated for at least one of the markers tested in 16/31(54%) cases. Where allelic loss was demonstrated for both left and right breast cancer, the same allele was lost on each occasion. This may suggest a common mutational event. Four cases showed concordant loss of alleles in both left and right breast cancer at D17S791 (BRCA1). BRCA1 mutations were identified in two of these cases where blood was available. Four cases showed concordant LOH at D13S155 (BRCA2). Concordant LOH was further demonstrated in seven cases for D11S1778 (ATM) and four cases for D3S1300 (which maps to the FHIT gene), suggesting a possible role for these tumour suppressor genes in this subgroup of breast cancer patients. No concordant allelic loss was demonstrated for D17S786 suggesting that germline mutations in p53 are unlikely in such cases of bilateral breast cancer.

  17. Fluorescence-based microendoscopes for breast cancer ductoscopy (United States)

    Zeylikovich, Iosif; Tang, Guichen C.; Katz, A.; Budansky, Yury; Alfano, R. R.


    Recently microendoscopes are being developed as a tool to detection cancer or pre-cancerous lesions in the milk ducts of the human breast. The microendoscope can be inserted into the duct through the nipple. Integration of fluorescence spectroscopy into microendoscopy can provide an improved platform for real-time cancer detection followed by immediate intervention. Typically, the optical fibers employed by existing microendoscope systems transmit in the 450 to 900 nm range. A prototype system combining fluorescence spectroscopy with visible imaging by microendoscopy is described and preliminary measurements on ex vivo human breast tissues are presented. Image resolution and distortion are discussed.

  18. Thoraco-epigastric flap for breast reconstruction in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Zikiryakhodzhayev,


    Full Text Available Reconstructive surgery for breast cancer are an integral method of rehabilitation of cancer patients. Breast reconstruction may be delayed and instantaneous. The article presents a description of the thoraco-epigastric flap for breast reconstruction in cancer. The operation involves the replacement of the remote volume (after radical resection of the breast and the breast skin adjacent tissues adjacent to the inframammary crease from the side of the anterior abdominal wall. Surgery is indicated when the tumor in the lower parts of the breast, closest to the skin, in combination with small size breast cancer. The article presents a clinical example of this operation. Described in detail the operation, received a good cosmetic result. The advantage of the application of thoraco-epigastric flap is in the simplicity of the technique of its execution, good blood supply, donor wound is easily sutured due to the possible wide separating cellular adjacent skin and subcutaneous tissue. The disadvantage of this method is limited and the need for careful monitoring of perforating branches of the upper epigastric artery. Thus, thoraco-epigastric flap, can be applicable when performing reconstructive operations for breast cancer in compliance with the necessary requirements for the formation of the flap and the correct attitude to feeding the flap vessels, and virtually eliminates possible complications with the healing of the flap. Undoubtedly, reconstructive plastic surgery for breast cancer, during the testimony and technical capabilities, are an essential component of surgical treatment.

  19. Combined Immunohistochemistry of PLK1, p21, and p53 for Predicting TP53 Status: An Independent Prognostic Factor of Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Watanabe, Gou; Ishida, Takanori; Furuta, Akihiko; Takahashi, Shin; Watanabe, Mika; Nakata, Hideaki; Kato, Shunsuke; Ishioka, Chikashi; Ohuchi, Noriaki


    It is difficult to predict the TP53 status by p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC). We aimed to improve the accuracy of p53 IHC with p53-regulated proteins for predicting the TP53 mutation status. TP53 mutations were detected in 19 of 38 breast cancer patients (50%). Five of 7 cases of protein-truncating mutation of TP53 were completely negative for p53 IHC, whereas 11 of 12 cases of TP53 point mutation were strongly positive for p53 IHC. Therefore, to avoid false negatives, we extracted p53-dependent universally downregulated genes using microarray analysis from 38 breast cancer patients and 2 p53-inducible cell lines. From 9 commonly repressed genes, we evaluated 3 genes, baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5), polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), and BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase (BUB1), which were previously identified as p53-dependent repressed genes. PLK1≥Allred total score (TS) 5 showed the highest correlation with TP53 mutation. To decrease false positivity, we evaluated p21 IHC. Although strong staining of p21 was observed in 4 cases (10.5%), all 4 were wild-type TP53. Thus, p53 mutation-like (p53mt-like) IHC was identified by p53 TS7,8 with PLK1≥TS 5 and p21 TS≤6. p53 mt-like IHC correlated with TP53 mutation (predictive value=0.94). In other 157 breast cancer cases, p53 mt-like was an independent prognostic marker in multivariate analysis and a strong prognostic factor. Stratification with p53 mt-like IHC identified patients with a poorer prognosis. In conclusion, we identified reliable IHC conditions to predict the TP53 status of breast cancer patients.

  20. [Male breast cancer: a challenge for urologists]. (United States)

    Hofer, C; Schmalfeldt, B; Gschwend, J E; Herkommer, K


    Male breast cancer (male BC) accounts for Klinefelter syndrome) and a positive family history for breast cancer. About 90% of male BC are invasive ductal carcinomas. Standard treatment for localized cancer is surgical removal. Adjuvant radiation and systemic therapy are the same as in women with breast cancer. Male BC expresses hormone receptors in about 90% of cases; therefore, tamoxifen is a therapeutic option. A future challenge for the urologist or andrologist is to diagnose the disease at an early stage to improve prognosis.

  1. Treatment of locally advanced/locally recurrent breast cancer and inflammatory breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Masao [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan)


    This paper summarizes the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer, and locally recurrent breast cancer. A multidisciplinary approach considering subclinical distant metastases is needed to treat these types of breast cancer. Subclinical distant metastasis is observed in about 80% of case of locally advanced cancer, and treatment of subclinical distant metastases, e.g., by endocrinotherapy and chemotherapy, is therefore essential to improving the prognosis. The standard therapy for unresectable locally advanced breast cancer consists of induction chemotherapy with anthracyclines and local treatment with mastectomy or irradiation. Previous reports have stated that induction chemotherapy was effective in 60-80% of the primary lesions or lymph node metastasis, and the CR rates were in the 10-20% range. Combination therapy with induction chemotherapy clearly improved the outcome over local treatment alone. The usual irradiation dose is 50 to 60 Gy/5 to 7 weeks to the whole breast or the thoracic wall. Boost irradiation at a dose of 10 to 25 Gy is performed in unresectable cases. The boost irradiation dose to the lymph node area is usually 45 to 50 Gy/5 to 6 weeks in cases without gross lesions and 10 to 15 Gy in cases with gross lesions. Combination therapy consisting of conservative pectoral mastectomy and postoperative adjuvant chemo- endocrino-therapy (i.e., adjuvant therapy) has become the standard regimen for treating resectable locally advanced breast cancer, because it significantly improves the recurrence rate and survival rate compared to local treatment alone. Some clinical have studies indicated that neoadjuvant therapy (i.e., induction chemotherapy + surgery/radiation therapy) is comparable or superior to adjuvant therapy in terms of improving the prognosis. However, the efficacy and most appropriate method of breast-conserving therapy after induction chemotherapy are still unclear. More clinical trials are needed. It has been

  2. Suppression of Ovarian Function With Either Tamoxifen or Exemestane Compared With Tamoxifen Alone in Treating Premenopausal Women With Hormone-Responsive Breast Cancer (United States)


    Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  4. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer: a contrary thought. (United States)

    Speroff, Leon


    The most important unanswered question regarding postmenopausal hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer is whether hormone therapy initiates the growth of new breast cancers or whether the epidemiologic data reflect a hormonal impact on preexisting tumors. In this perspective I review the evidence favoring hormonal effects on preexisting tumors and suggest that exposure to combined estrogen and progestin is beneficial, causing greater differentiation and earlier detection of breast cancers.

  5. SNP-SNP interaction analysis of NF-κB signaling pathway on breast cancer survival


    Jamshidi, Maral; Nevanlinna, Heli; Van Dyck, Laurien


    In breast cancer, constitutive activation of NF-κB has been reported, however, the impact of genetic variation of the pathway on patient prognosis has been little studied. Furthermore, a combination of genetic variants, rather than single polymorphisms, may affect disease prognosis. Here, in an extensive dataset (n = 30,431) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, we investigated the association of 917 SNPs in 75 genes in the NF-κB pathway with breast cancer prognosis. We explored SNP-...

  6. Aetio-pathogenesis of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Haruna Abdulkareem


    Full Text Available This is a literature review on the aetiology and pathogenesis of breast cancer, which is the most common cancer worldwide, and the second leading cause of cancer death, especially in Western countries. Several aetiological factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis, and include age, genetics, family history, diet, alcohol, obesity, lifestyle, physical inactivity, as well as endocrine factors. These factors act separately or together in the causation of breast cancer. More recently, triple negative breast cancer has been described in certain categories of patients and is associated with poorer prognosis and earlier recurrence compared with the conventional breast cancer. Therefore, adequate knowledge of these factors is important in identifying high risk groups and individuals, which will help in screening, early detection and follow-up. This will help to decrease the morbidity and mortality from this life-threatening disease.

  7. A family history of breast cancer will not predict female early onset breast cancer in a population-based setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, Geertruida H.; Jacobi, Catharina E.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Krol-Warmerdam, Elly M. M.; Blom, Jannet; van Asperen, Christi J.; Cornelisse, Cees J.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Brekelmans, Cecile T. M.; van Houwelingen, Johannes C.


    Background: An increased risk of breast cancer for relatives of breast cancer patients has been demonstrated in many studies, and having a relative diagnosed with breast cancer at an early age is an indication for breast cancer screening. This indication has been derived from estimates based on data

  8. Estimation of volumetric breast density for breast cancer risk prediction (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.; Boyd, Norman F.; Jong, Roberta A.


    Mammographic density (MD) has been shown to be a strong risk predictor for breast cancer. Compared to subjective assessment by a radiologist, computer-aided analysis of digitized mammograms provides a quantitative and more reproducible method for assessing breast density. However, the current methods of estimating breast density based on the area of bright signal in a mammogram do not reflect the true, volumetric quantity of dense tissue in the breast. A computerized method to estimate the amount of radiographically dense tissue in the overall volume of the breast has been developed to provide an automatic, user-independent tool for breast cancer risk assessment. The procedure for volumetric density estimation consists of first correcting the image for inhomogeneity, then performing a volume density calculation. First, optical sensitometry is used to convert all images to the logarithm of relative exposure (LRE), in order to simplify the image correction operations. The field non-uniformity correction, which takes into account heel effect, inverse square law, path obliquity and intrinsic field and grid non- uniformity is obtained by imaging a spherical section PMMA phantom. The processed LRE image of the phantom is then used as a correction offset for actual mammograms. From information about the thickness and placement of the breast, as well as the parameters of a breast-like calibration step wedge placed in the mammogram, MD of the breast is calculated. Post processing and a simple calibration phantom enable user- independent, reliable and repeatable volumetric estimation of density in breast-equivalent phantoms. Initial results obtained on known density phantoms show the estimation to vary less than 5% in MD from the actual value. This can be compared to estimated mammographic density differences of 30% between the true and non-corrected values. Since a more simplistic breast density measurement based on the projected area has been shown to be a strong indicator


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahida Rasool


    Full Text Available The Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in females with many subtypes. Breast cancer can spread via hematogenous route as well as lymphatic routes. Knowledge of the lymphatic drainage of breast is required not only for the performance of surgical procedures but also in planning therapeutic radiation, predicting sites of locally recurrent disease.The lymphatic drainage of the breast is considered rich, and identification of the major pathways allows a surgeon to predict the sites most commonly containing lymph-borne metastases. Careful inspection and palpation of Axillary, supraclavicular and parasternal sites for nodal involvement is thoroughly performed for recording location, size, consistency, shape, mobility, fixation, and other characteristics of any palpable lymphadenopathy. Local implications of lymphatic obstruction can be Preau D orange appearance and edema while as distant manifestations can be involvement of Nodes along with dissemination to other organs.The further the lymphatic dissemination , the lesser the favourable prognosis . Pathologic stage combines the findings from pathologic examination of the resected primary breast cancer and axillary or other regional lymph nodes.This connotes the importance of Status of Lymphatics in Breast Cancer.

  10. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P


    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use....

  11. Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristina Pilekær

    Each year approximately 4,800 Danish women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Several clinical and pathological factors are used as prognostic and predictive markers to categorize the patients into groups of high or low risk. Around 90% of all patients are allocated to the high risk group...... clinical courses, and they may be useful as novel prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer. The aim of the present project was to predict the development of metastasis in lymph node negative breast cancer patients by RNA profiling. We collected and analyzed 82 primary breast tumors from patients who...... and the time of event. Previous findings have shown that high expression of the lncRNA HOTAIR is correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. We validated this finding by demonstrating that high HOTAIR expression in our primary tumors was significantly associated with worse prognosis independent...

  12. Combined treatment with vitamin C and methotrexate inhibits triple-negative breast cancer cell growth by increasing H2O2 accumulation and activating caspase-3 and p38 pathways. (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Wen; Liu, Hsiao-Chun; Yu, Yung-Luen; Hung, Yu-Ting; Wei, Chyou-Wei; Yiang, Giou-Teng


    Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used as both an anticancer and anti-rheumatoid arthritis drug. Although MTX has been used to inhibit the growth of many cancer cells, it cannot effectively inhibit growth of triple-negative breast cancer cells (TNBC cells). Vitamin C is an antioxidant that can prevent oxidative stress. In addition, vitamin C has been applied as adjunct treatment for growth inhibition of cancer cells. Recent studies indicated that combined treatment with vitamin C and MTX may inhibit MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell growth through G2/M elongation. However, the mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether combined treatment with low-dose vitamin C and MTX inhibits TNBC cell growth and to investigate the mechanisms of vitamin C/MTX-induced cytotoxicity. Neither low-dose vitamin C alone nor MTX alone inhibited TNBC cell growth. However, combined low-dose vitamin C and MTX had synergistic anti-proliferative/cytotoxic effects on TNBC cells. In addition, co-treatment increased H2O2 levels and activated both caspase-3 and p38 cell death pathways.

  13. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyuan Wu


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges.

  14. [Vitamin D and breast cancer]. (United States)

    Nagykálnai, Tamás; Landherr, László; Nagy, András Csaba


    The active form of vitamin D, in conjunction with his own receptor, affect a multitude of biological processes in the cell (inter alia it influences the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes). There is an increasing volume of scientific publications examining the relationships between serum vitamin D levels, vitamin D supplementation and malignant diseases. Some articles suggest inverse relationship between the low serum levels of vitamin D and the breast cancer risk and mortality, whilst other publications do not support this view. Thus the present opinion is conflicted. Vitamin D can exert a beneficial influence on the symptoms and outcomes of a large number of ailments, but its role in affecting cancer is still not completely clear.

  15. Cytogenetic report of a male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, L R; Rogatto, S R; Rainho, C A


    The cytogenetic findings on G-banding in an infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma in a 69-year-old man are reported. The main abnormalities observed were trisomy of chromosomes 8 and 9 and structural rearrangement in the long arm of chromosome 17 (add(17)(q25)). Our results confirm the trisomy...... of chromosome 8 in the characterization of the subtype of ductal breast carcinomas and demonstrate that chromosome 17, which is frequently involved in female breast cancers, is also responsible for the development or progression of primary breast cancers in males....

  16. Cancer in the "cold" breast thermogram. (United States)

    Isard, H J


    The hallmark of the normal breast thermogram is relative symmetry of vascular configuration and thermal content with preservation of the breast contour. Accepted criteria of abnormality are predicated upon graphic and thermal asymmetry with emphasis placed upon elevated temperature, an increase in the number of discernible vessels, and distorted vascular patterns. The association of a confirmed breast cancer and an avascular thermogram has been labeled a false negative. Avascularity ("cold" breast), particularly in the lower half, with normal vessels in the same location of the opposite breast is suggested as an additional characteristic of abnormality. Illustrative cases are presented.

  17. Diagnostic Value of Mammography Combined With Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Small Breast Cancer%钼靶乳腺摄影联合核磁共振对小乳腺癌的诊断价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To study and explore the clinical diagnostic value of molybdenum target mammography combined with magnetic resonance imaging of smal breast cancer. Methods A total of 120 patients with suspected smal breast cancer patients as the research object.Al patients underwent mammography and MRI scans,and mammography and magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis and pathologic diagnosis results,calculation of sensitivity,specificity and accuracy of molybdenum target X-ray photography,nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray mammography combined with nuclear magnetic resonance. Results Mammography combined with MRI detection sensitivity in the diagnosis of smal breast cancer was 98.13%,the specificity was 92.31%,accuracy was 97.50%,was significantly higher than that of mammography,magnetic resonance imaging(P<0.05). Conclusion In the clinical diagnosis of smal breast cancer with mammography combined with nuclear magnetic resonance diagnostic accuracy,can effectively detect smal breast cancerous foci.%目的:研究并探讨钼靶乳腺摄影联合核磁共振对小乳腺癌的临床诊断价值。方法选取120例疑似小乳腺癌患者作为此次研究的对象,所有患者均进行乳腺钼靶X线摄影,再进行核磁共振扫描,并将钼靶X线摄影、核磁共振的诊断结果与病理诊断结果进行对比,计算钼靶X线摄影、核磁共振以及钼靶X线摄影联合核磁共振的敏感性、特异性、准确性。结果钼靶X线摄影联合核磁共振检测对小乳腺癌的诊断敏感性为98.13%,特异性为92.31%,准确性为97.50%,均高于钼靶X线摄影、核磁共振(P<0.05)。结论在小乳腺癌的临床诊断中,采用乳腺钼靶X线摄影联合核磁共振进行诊断的诊断准确性较高,可有效检出微小的乳腺癌化灶。

  18. Endocrine resistance in breast cancer--An overview and update. (United States)

    Clarke, Robert; Tyson, John J; Dixon, J Michael


    Tumors that express detectable levels of the product of the ESR1 gene (estrogen receptor-α; ERα) represent the single largest molecular subtype of breast cancer. More women eventually die from ERα+ breast cancer than from either HER2+ disease (almost half of which also express ERα) and/or from triple negative breast cancer (ERα-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, and HER2-negative). Antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors are largely indistinguishable from each other in their abilities to improve overall survival and almost 50% of ERα+ breast cancers will eventually fail one or more of these endocrine interventions. The precise reasons why these therapies fail in ERα+ breast cancer remain largely unknown. Pharmacogenetic explanations for Tamoxifen resistance are controversial. The role of ERα mutations in endocrine resistance remains unclear. Targeting the growth factors and oncogenes most strongly correlated with endocrine resistance has proven mostly disappointing in their abilities to improve overall survival substantially, particularly in the metastatic setting. Nonetheless, there are new concepts in endocrine resistance that integrate molecular signaling, cellular metabolism, and stress responses including endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) that provide novel insights and suggest innovative therapeutic targets. Encouraging evidence that drug combinations with CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors can extend recurrence free survival may yet translate to improvements in overall survival. Whether the improvements seen with immunotherapy in other cancers can be achieved in breast cancer remains to be determined, particularly for ERα+ breast cancers. This review explores the basic mechanisms of resistance to endocrine therapies, concluding with some new insights from systems biology approaches further implicating autophagy and the UPR in detail, and a brief discussion of exciting new avenues and future prospects.

  19. Breast cancer onset in twins and women with bilateral disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartman, Mikael; Hall, Per; Edgren, Gustaf


    PURPOSE: Little is known of the onset of breast cancer in high-risk populations. We investigated the risk of breast cancer in twin sisters and in the contralateral breast taking family history into consideration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed a Scandinavian population-based cohort of 2......,499 female twin pairs, in which at least one had a diagnosis of breast cancer and estimated the risk of breast cancer in the sister. Using a total of 11 million individuals in Sweden with complete family links, we identified 93,448 women with breast cancer and estimated the risk of a bilateral breast cancer....... RESULTS: The incidence of breast cancer in twin sisters of breast cancer patients was 0.64% per year and 0.42% per year in mono- and dizygotic twin sisters, respectively. In comparison, the risk of familial (affected first-degree relative) and nonfamilial bilateral breast cancer was 1.03% per year and 0...

  20. Application value of color Doppler ultrasonography combined with MRI in diagnosis of small breast cancer%彩色多普勒超声联合MRI诊断小乳腺癌的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雁威; 何翠菊; 罗娅红


    Objective To compare the effectiveness of the color Doppler ultrasonography and MRI in the diagnosis of small breast cancer, and to assess the value of these modalities as well as the combination of the two.Methods A total of 99 cases (104 lesions) diagnosed as small breast cancer by surgery and pathology were both received ultrasonography and MRI examinations.'!lie imaging features of small breast cancer in the two imaging methods and the sensitivities of the two methods were analyzed.Results The sensitivity of two methods was no significant difference in the diagnosis of small breast cancer ( 1-2 cm ). The sensitivity in the diagnosis of small breast cancer (≤ 1 cm ) was 95.24% as the two modalities were used in combination. Ultrasonography was more sensitive for rnicroealcifieations in small breast cancer than MRI (P< 0.05).MRI was more sensitive for detecting rnulti—lesions and more accurate for extension of the lesion.Conclusion Ultrasonography is convenient and economic for the diagnosis of small breast cancer and should be the first choice method.The combination of ultrasonography and MRI will improve diagnostic accuracy of small breast cancer (≤ 1 cm ).%目的 探讨彩色多普勒超声、MRI及其联合应用对小乳腺癌的诊断价值.方法 回顾分析经手术病理证实的99例小乳腺癌患者(104个病灶)的彩色多普勒超声和MRI图像特征,比较二者分别诊断及联合应用诊断小乳腺癌的诊断准确率.结果 两种检查方式在诊断1~2 cm乳腺癌中敏感性比较差异无统计学意义,二者联合应用诊断≤1 cm的乳腺腺癌的敏感性为95.24%,明显高于单独使用MRI和彩色多普勒超声(P﹤0.05);超声对微小钙化的显示优于MRI(P﹤0.05),MRI对多灶性小乳癌的检出率明显高于超声.结论 彩色多普勒超声由于经济、便携可作为小乳腺癌的首选检查方法;联合应用超声和MIR检查有助于提高对≤1 cm乳腺癌的诊断准确率.MRI作为小乳腺癌术前评估不可替代.

  1. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk. (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J


    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed.

  2. An overview of pregnancy and fertility issues in breast cancer patients. (United States)

    Dabrosin, Charlotta


    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies of women in the reproductive years. In the Western world there is a trend towards delaying pregnancy to later in life, and in combination with an increased incidence of breast cancer an increased number of women are diagnosed with breast cancer before they have completed their reproductive plans. In addition, breast cancer during pregnancy may affect an increased number of women as the childbearing years are delayed. The survival rate after breast cancer has improved during the last decades, and many young breast cancer survivors will consider a pregnancy subsequent to the completion of adjuvant breast cancer therapy. Traditionally, many women are advised against a pregnancy due to a fear of increased risk of recurrence, especially women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Due to feasibility issues, evidence from large prospective randomized trials is missing regarding the safety of pregnancy after breast cancer. Today guidelines are based on cohort studies and population-based registry evidence with its limitations. Overall, data suggest that pregnancy after breast cancer therapy is safe, and the current evidence is summarized in this overview.

  3. GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer cells and patient breast cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Gowrishankar

    Full Text Available F18 2-Fluoro 2-deoxyglucose (FDG has been the gold standard in positron emission tomography (PET oncologic imaging since its introduction into the clinics several years ago. Seeking to complement FDG in the diagnosis of breast cancer using radio labeled fructose based analogs, we investigated the expression of the chief fructose transporter-GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells and human tissues. Our results indicate that GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer tissues as assessed by an extensive immunohistochemistry study. RT-PCR studies showed that the GLUT 5 mRNA was present at minimal amounts in breast cancer cell lines. Further knocking down the expression of GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells using RNA interference did not affect the fructose uptake in these cell lines. Taken together these results are consistent with GLUT 5 not being essential for fructose uptake in breast cancer cells and tissues.

  4. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer (United States)

    Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Dunning, Alison M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Rosenberg, Efraim H.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J.; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N.; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli


    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.19, P = 8.88 x 10−16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16–1.32, P = 6.19 x 10−11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  5. Gamma-secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Patients With Advanced, Metastatic, or Recurrent Triple Negative Invasive Breast Cancer (United States)


    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  6. The management of screen-detected breast cancer. (United States)

    Ahmed, Muneer; Douek, Michael


    The increased use of mammography and introduction of breast screening programmes have resulted in a rise in clinically-occult breast cancer, with one-third of all breast carcinomata diagnosed being non-palpable. These types of cancer have a unique natural history and biology compared to symptomatic breast cancer and this needs to be taken into account when considering surgery and adjuvant treatment. The majority of studies demonstrating efficacy of adjuvant treatments are largely based on patients with symptomatic breast cancer. The current evidence for the role of surgery and adjuvant therapy for screen-detected breast cancer was reviewed in light of their improved prognosis, compared to symptomatic breast cancer.

  7. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth


    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  8. Diazepam and the risk of breast cancer. (United States)

    Kaufman, D W; Shapiro, S; Slone, D; Rosenberg, L; Helmrich, S P; Miettinen, O S; Stolley, P D; Levy, M; Schottenfeld, D


    The relation of breast cancer to diazepam use was evaluated in a case-control study of 1236 women with breast cancer and 728 control subjects with other malignancies. Compared to women who never used diazepam, the relative risk for women who used the drug at least 4 days per week for at least 6 months was estimated to be 0.9, with 95% confidence limits of 0.5 and 1.6. There was no apparent association for recent use, or for use in the distant past, although confidence intervals were fairly wide in these categories. The results were not explained by various potential confounding factors, including the major risk factors for breast cancer. The findings suggest that regular diazepam use does not increase the risk of breast cancer relative to other cancers.

  9. Combination chemotherapy versus single-agent therapy as first- and second-line treatment in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensuu, H; Holli, K; Heikkinen, M;


    (n = 153) received weekly epirubicin (E) 20 mg/m2 until progression or until the cumulative dose of 1,000 mg/m2, followed by mitomycin (M) 8 mg/m2 every 4 weeks, and those in the combination chemotherapy arm (n = 150) were first given cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2, E 60 mg/m2, and fluorouracil 500 mg/m2...

  10. Breast cancer and possible mechanisms of therapy resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Florea


    Full Text Available Breast cancer represents one of the most common cancers in women and is a major life threatening illness found all over the world. Therapy approaches include irradiation and surgery, with chemotherapy considered an important strategy to treat breast cancer. Platinum based anticancer drugs, such as cisplatin (cis-di-amino-dichloride-platin, CDDP, carboplatin, orthoplatin, etc., have been successfully used in breast cancer therapy because they activate multiple mechanisms to induce apoptosis in tumor cells. Nevertheless, during chemotherapy, drug resistance frequently develops; this impairs the successful treatment of breast cancer and often leads to patients’ decease. While combinations of anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy regimens reduced the occurrence of drug resistance (e.g. doxorubicin + docetaxel, doxorubicin + cyclophosphamide, docetaxel + herceptin + carboplatin the molecular mechanism of those effects are not completely understood. Here we review possible mechanisms related to breast cancer treatment and resistance to current therapies as well as possible new therapeutic targets (e.g. calcium signaling which could be used in the future.

  11. Awareness is the first step in battle against breast cancer



    In developing countries, the majority of women diagnosed with breast cancer do not survive because their cancer is detected too late. Motunrayo Bello reports on the challenges of dealing with breast cancer in Nigeria.

  12. Adjuvant bisphosphonates in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadji, P; Coleman, R E; Wilson, C


    regulatory approval for either of these potential indications. This consensus paper provides a review of the evidence and offers guidance to breast cancer clinicians on the use of bisphosphonates in early breast cancer. Using the nominal group methodology for consensus, a systematic review of the literature...... significant benefits of bisphosphonates on the development of bone metastases and breast cancer mortality in post-menopausal women or those receiving ovarian suppression therapy. Therefore, the panel recommends that bisphosphonates (either intravenous zoledronic acid or oral clodronate) are considered as part...

  13. Metabolic syndrome and breast cancer: an overview. (United States)

    Gezgen, G; Roach, E C; Kizilarslanoglu, M C; Petekkaya, I; Altundag, K


    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the most important cause of cancer-related deaths among women. This disease is on the rise in Turkey. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and high blood sugar. Several studies have examined the association of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome with breast cancer. More recent studies have shown it to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. It has also been associated with poorer prognosis, increased incidence, a more aggressive tumor phenotype. Basic research studies are now in progress to illuminate the molecular pathways and mechanisms that are behind this correlation. Given the fact that all of the components of metabolic syndrome are modifiable risk factors, preventive measures must be established to improve the outcome of breast cancer patients. In this review we set the background by taking into account previous studies which have identified the components of metabolic syndrome individually as breast cancer risk factors. Then we present the latest findings which elaborate possible explanations regarding how metabolic syndrome as a single entity may affect breast cancer risk.

  14. Psychological Adjustment in Breast Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    Stanton, Annette L; Bower, Julienne E


    Women living with a diagnosis of breast cancer constitute more than 20 % of the cancer survivor population in the United States. Research on trajectories of psychological adjustment in women recently diagnosed with breast suggests that the largest proportion of women evidences relatively low psychological distress either from the point of diagnosis or after a period of recovery. Substantial heterogeneity exists, however, and some women are at risk for lingering depression, anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence and other long-term psychological effects. Most women diagnosed with breast cancer also report a number of benefits that arise from their experience of cancer. Longitudinal studies have illuminated risk and protective factors for psychological adjustment in breast cancer survivors, which we describe in this chapter. Effective psychosocial interventions, as evidenced in randomized controlled trials, also are available for bolstering breast cancer-related adjustment. We offer directions for research to deepen the understanding of biological, psychological, and social contributors to positive adjustment in the context of breast cancer, as well as suggestions for the development of optimally efficient evidence-based psychosocial interventions for women living with the disease.

  15. Pertuzumab in breast cancer: a systematic review. (United States)

    Zagouri, Flora; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Chrysikos, Dimosthenis; Zografos, Constantine G; Filipits, Martin; Bartsch, Rupert; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanassios; Psaltopoulou, Theodora


    Pertuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that represents the first among a new class of agents known as human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) dimerization inhibitors. This is the first systematic review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to synthesize all available data of pertuzumab in breast cancer. The search strategy retrieved 11 studies that evaluated pertuzumab. One study was conducted in the neoadjuvant setting (417 patients), whereas all the others dealt with patients with recurrent, metastatic, or refractory disease (1023 patients). Six studies were conducted in HER2(+) breast cancer population (1354 patients), whereas 5 studies (86 patients) were conducted in HER2(-) (or unknown HER2 status) disease. Pertuzumab is the most recent agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel for the treatment of patients with HER2(+) metastatic breast cancer who have not received prior anti-HER2 therapy or chemotherapy for metastatic disease. This approval has been based on data from a phase III Clinical Evaluation of Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab (CLEOPATRA) study. The antitumor activity with the significant reduction in the risk of progression or death, as reflected upon the increase of 6.1 months in median progression-free survival, indicates that pertuzumab may provide an avenue for achieving additional benefit for patients with HER2(+). Moreover, pertuzumab seems to have a putative role in the management of patients with HER2 who are resistant to trastuzumab. The promising role of pertuzumab in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings remains to be further investigated and established in the future.

  16. Appraisal of progenitor markers in the context of molecular classification of breast cancers. (United States)

    Haviv, Izhak


    Clinical management of breast cancer relies on case stratification, which increasingly employs molecular markers. The motivation behind delineating breast epithelial differentiation is to better target cancer cases through innate sensitivities bequeathed to the cancer from its normal progenitor state. A combination of histopathological and molecular classification of breast cancer cases suggests a role for progenitors in particular breast cancer cases. Although a remarkable fraction of the real tissue repertoire is maintained within a population of independent cell line cultures, some steps that are closer to the terminal differentiation state and that form a majority of primary human breast tissues are missing in the cell line cultures. This raises concerns about current breast cancer models.

  17. Cryotherapy in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy and Nail Toxicity in Patients With Breast Cancer Who Are Receiving Paclitaxel (United States)


    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Pain; Peripheral Neuropathy; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  18. Metabolic profiling of breast cancer: Differences in central metabolism between subtypes of breast cancer cell lines. (United States)

    Willmann, Lucas; Schlimpert, Manuel; Halbach, Sebastian; Erbes, Thalia; Stickeler, Elmar; Kammerer, Bernd


    Although the concept of aerobic glycolysis in cancer was already reported in the 1930s by Otto Warburg, the understanding of metabolic pathways remains challenging especially due to the heterogeneity of cancer. In consideration of four different time points (1, 2, 4, and 7 days of incubation), GC-MS profiling of metabolites was performed on cell extracts and supernatants of breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, -453, BT-474) with different sub classification and the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. To the exclusion of trypsinization, direct methanolic extraction, cell scraping and cell disruption was executed to obtain central metabolites. Major differences in biochemical pathways have been observed in the breast cancer cell lines compared to the breast epithelial cell line, as well as between the breast cancer cell lines themselves. Characteristics of breast cancer subtypes could be correlated to their individual metabolic profiles. PLS-DA revealed the discrimination of breast cancer cell lines from MCF-10A based on elevated amino acid levels. The observed metabolic signatures have great potential as biomarker for breast cancer as well as an improved understanding of subtype specific phenomenons of breast cancer.

  19. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Untch


    Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM

  20. TOX3 mutations in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Owain Jones

    Full Text Available TOX3 maps to 16q12, a region commonly lost in breast cancers and recently implicated in the risk of developing breast cancer. However, not much is known of the role of TOX3 itself in breast cancer biology. This is the first study to determine the importance of TOX3 mutations in breast cancers. We screened TOX3 for mutations in 133 breast tumours and identified four mutations (three missense, one in-frame deletion of 30 base pairs in six primary tumours, corresponding to an overall mutation frequency of 4.5%. One potentially deleterious missense mutation in exon 3 (Leu129Phe was identified in one tumour (genomic DNA and cDNA. Whilst copy number changes of 16q12 are common in breast cancer, our data show that mutations of TOX3 are present at low frequency in tumours. Our results support that TOX3 should be further investigated to elucidate its role in breast cancer biology.

  1. Three interrelated themes in current breast cancer research: gene addiction, phenotypic plasticity, and cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Cardiff, Robert D; Couto, Suzana; Bolon, Brad


    Recent efforts to understand breast cancer biology involve three interrelated themes that are founded on a combination of clinical and experimental observations. The central concept is gene addiction. The clinical dilemma is the escape from gene addiction, which is mediated, in part, by phenotypic plasticity as exemplified by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. Finally, cancer stem cells are now recognized as the basis for minimal residual disease and malignant progression over time. These themes cooperate in breast cancer, as induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition enhances self-renewal and expression of cancer stem cells, which are believed to facilitate tumor resistance.

  2. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses. (United States)

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile


    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average.

  3. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen Jeroen F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Methods Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. Results The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6 resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. Conclusions In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  4. Brachytherapy in breast cancer: an effective alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Skowronek


    Full Text Available Breast conserving surgery (BCS with following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT of the conserved breast has become widely accepted in the last decades for the treatment of early invasive breast cancer. The standard technique of EBRT after BCS is to treat the whole breast up to a total dose of 42.5 to 50 Gy. An additional dose is given to treated volume as a boost to a portion of the breast. In the early stage of breast cancer, research has shown that the area requiring radiation treatment to prevent the cancer from local recurrence is the breast tissue that surrounds the area where the initial cancer was removed. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI is an approach that treats only the lumpectomy bed plus a 1-2 cm margin rather than the whole breast and as a result allows accelerated delivery of the radiation dose in four to five days. There has been a growing interest for APBI and various approaches have been developed under phase I-III clinical studies; these include multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy, balloon catheter brachytherapy, conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-EBRT and intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT. Balloon-based brachytherapy approaches include MammoSite, Axxent electronic brachytherapy, Contura, hybrid brachytherapy devices. Another indication for breast brachytherapy is reirradiation of local recurrence after mastectomy. Published results of brachytherapy are very promising. We discuss the current status, indications, and technical aspects of breast cancer brachytherapy.

  5. Interdisciplinary Research Training in Breast Cancer (United States)


    University. An Internet-Based Low- Literacy Cancer Communication Intervention. $1,500, funded. * 2004- Pfizer Clear Health Communication Program. An...Internet-Based Low- Literacy Cancer Communication Intervention. $195,000, not funded. 0 2004- DOD Breast Cancer Research Program, Multidisciplinary...of Connecticut and Yale University. While providing didactic experience in advanced research, methodology, it allows the candidate to have sustained

  6. Innovative Strategies for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0223 TITLE: Innovative Strategies for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy ...studies (2). A promising approach in cancer treatment is adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells to redirect...multiple tissues. DISCUSSION Adoptive immunotherapy is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer , and observations from preclinical and

  7. Profile of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M


    Full Text Available Moataz Ehab,1 Mohamad Elbaz2,31Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy School, Helwan University, Egypt; 3Department of Pathology, The Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Each year, thousands die either because of disease progression or failure of treatment. Breast cancer is classified into different subtypes based on the molecular expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor, and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. These receptors represent important therapeutic targets either through monoclonal antibodies or through small-molecule inhibitors directed toward them. However, up to 40% of patients develop either a primary or a secondary resistance to the current treatments. Therefore, there is an urgent need for investigating new targets in order to overcome the resistance and/or enhance the current therapies. Cell cycle is altered in many human cancers, especially in breast cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs, especially CDK4 and CDK6, play a pivotal role in cell cycle progression that makes them potential targets for new promising therapies. CDK inhibition has shown strong antitumor activities, ranging from cytostatic antiproliferative effects to synergistic effects in combination with other antitumor drugs. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the first-generation CDK inhibitors, recently, new CDK inhibitors have emerged that are more selective to CDK4 and CDK6 such as palbociclib, which is the most advanced CDK4/6 inhibitor in trials. In preclinical studies, palbociclib has shown a very promising antitumor activity, especially against ERα+ breast cancer subtype. Palbociclib has gained world attention, and US the Food and Drug Administration has accelerated its approval for first-line treatment in combination with letrozole for the first-line systematic

  8. MRI evaluation of the contralateral breast in patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer


    Sangeeta Taneja; Amarnath Jena; Syed. Mohd. Shuaib Zaidi; Anuj Khurana


    Introduction: Contralateral breast cancer can be synchronous and/or metachronous in patients with cancer of one breast. Detection of a synchronous breast cancer may affect patient management. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast (DCE-MRI) is a sensitive technique for detecting contralateral lesions occult on the other imaging modalities in women already diagnosed with cancer of one breast. Aim: The aim was to assess the incidence of mammographically occult synchronous contralateral bre...

  9. [Special considerations in breast cancer treatment of an augmented breast]. (United States)

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Tóth, László; Sávolt, Akos; Kunos, Csaba; Pesthy, Pál; Bartal, Alexandra; Szabó, Eva; Kásler, Miklós


    Breast augmentation surgery involving the use of implants has been one of the most popular plastic surgical procedures for decades. As the multi-million female population who received breast implants ages, the risk of cancer is increasing rapidly, therefore the incidence of malignant disease in association with breast implants will increase as well. Although there is no relationship between tumor development and implants, these cases require special considerations in diagnostics, therapy and follow-up methods. Appropriate multidisciplinary treatment of tumors in augmented breasts corresponding with modern oncoplastic principles can only be accomplished based on adequate oncological, breast and plastic surgical knowledge. Supposing a possible increase of this condition in Hungary, too, authors provide a wide review of the literature on the special oncological and esthetic considerations, for the first time in Hungarian language.

  10. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieli-Conwright CM


    Full Text Available Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength, negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass, increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, exercise, physical well-being


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik


    Full Text Available Presented modern literature data on the features of the pathogenesis, course, clinical and morphological expression and tumor characteristics, parameters and nodal metastasis of hematogenous bilateral breast cancer. Highlight the results of domestic and foreign studies in recent years to determine the prognostic factors and recurrence of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer. It was revealed that the frequency of bilateral breast tumor lesions varies widely, ranging from 0.1 to 20%, with metachronous tumors recorded significantly higher (69.6% than the synchronous (22.7%. The probability of occurrence of metachronous breast cancer is higher in women with a family history, as well as if they have a gene mutation BRCA-1. Found that the most common histological type of breast tumor with bilateral lesions is invasive ductal. However, the incidence of invasive lobular cancer and non-invasive lobular cancer is slightly higher among synchronous bilateral cancer compared with unilateral disease. Studies have shown that in a double-sided synchronous breast cancer tumor, as a rule, has a lower degree of differentiation, and the higher the expression level of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Relevance of the issue because the identification of patterns in the study of lymphatic and hematogenous features bilateral metastasis of mammary tumors provides a basis for speculation about the differences in the progression of neoplastic disease in these groups and is a cause for further detailed research in this area to identify and evaluate the prognosis and also the choice of tactics of such patients.

  12. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer. (United States)

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher


    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 μg/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 μg/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 μg Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content

  13. [Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer. Experience of the Rome Breast Cancer Study Group]. (United States)

    Fortunato, Lucio; Drago, Stefano; Vitelli, Carlo Eugenio; Santoni, Marcello; Gucciardo, Giacomo; Cabassi, Alessandro; Farina, Massimo; La Pinta, Massimo; Remedi, Massimiliano; Pagano, Giovanni; Silipod, Teresa; Terribile, Daniela; Stagnitto, Daniela; Grassi, Giovanni Battista


    We report our multicentric experience with sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer patients. Patients with breast cancer operated on from January 1999 to March 2005 in 6 different institutions in the Rome area were retrospectively reviewed. All patients gave written informed consent. 1440 consecutive patients were analysed, with a median age of 59 years (range: 33-81) and a median tumour diameter of 1.3 cm (range: 0.1-5). Patients underwent lymphatic mapping with Tc99 nanocolloid (N = 701; 49%), with Evans Blue (N = 70; 5%), or with a combined injection (N = 669, 46%). The majority of patients were mapped with an intradermal or subdermal injection (N = 1193; 84%), while an intraparenchymal or peritumoral injection was used in 41 (3%) and 206 patients (13%), respectively. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified in 1374/1440 cases (95.4%), and 2075 sentinel lymph nodes were analysed (average 1.5/patient). A total of 9305 additional non-sentinel lymph-nodes were removed (median 6/patient). Correlations between sentinel lymph nodes and final lymph node status were found in 1355/1374 cases (98.6%). There were 19 false-negative cases (5%). Lymph node metastases were diagnosed in 325 patients (24%). In this group, micrometastases (< 2 mm in diameter) were diagnosed in 103 cases (7.6%). Additionally, isolated tumour cells were reported in 61 patients (4,5%). In positive cases, additional metastases in non-sentinel lymph-nodes were identified in 117/325 cases after axillary dissection (36%). Axillary dissection was avoided in 745/1440 patients (52%). At a median follow-up of 36 months, only 1 axillary recurrence has been reported. Sentinel lymph node biopsy improves staging in women with breast cancer because it is accurate and reproducible, and allows detection of micrometastases and isolated tumour cells that would otherwise be missed. Our multicentric study confirms that this is the preferred axillary staging procedure in women with breast cancer.

  14. Breast cancer and serum organochlorine residues


    Charlier, Corinne; Albert, Adelin; Herman, Philippe; Hamoir, Etienne; Gaspard, Ulysse; Meurisse, Michel; Plomteux, Guy


    Background: Controversy still exists about the breast carcinogenic properties in humans of environmental xenoestrogens (organochlorines), justifying new investigations. Aims: To compare the blood levels of total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in samples collected at the time of breast cancer discovery, in order to avoid the potential consequences of body weight change ( after chemotherapy or radiotherapy) on the pesticide residue levels. Methods: Blood level...

  15. Ultrasound Elastography in Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, J.; Ewertsen, C; Sletting, S


    Ultrasound elastography is an established method for characterization of focal lesions in the breast. Different techniques and analyses of the images may be used for the characterization. This article addresses the use of ultrasound elastography in breast cancer diagnosis. In the first part...

  16. [Treatment of elderly patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaschburg, B.; Pedersen, A.; Tuxen, M.K.;


    The latest investigations have been searched in order to present new guidelines for the treatment of elderly patients with primary breast cancer. It is concluded that breast-conserving surgery should be offered as well as the sentinel node technique. Axillary lymph node dissection is not necessary...

  17. Genotyping and Phenotyping of Male Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornegoor, R.


    Male breast cancer is a rare disease and most of the knowledge has been extrapolated from females, although these entities are likely different. A better understanding of male breast carcinogenesis is crucial for developing novel targets suitable for personalized treatment. A major problem in studyi

  18. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk


    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y.; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C.


    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort.

  19. Expression profiling predicts outcome in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernards, R.A.; Veer, L.J. van ’t; Dai, H.; Vijver, M.J. van de; He, Y.D.; Hart, A.A.M.; Friend, S.H.


    Gruvberger et al. postulate, in their commentary published in this issue of Breast Cancer Research, that our “prognostic gene set may not be broadly applicable to other breast tumor cohorts”, and they suggest that “it may be important to define prognostic expression profiles separately in estrogen r

  20. Proteomic maps of breast cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyanova, Stefka; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kronqvist, Pauliina


    oestrogen receptor positive (luminal), Her2 positive and triple negative breast tumours and reached a quantitative depth of >10,000 proteins. These proteomic profiles identified functional differences between breast cancer subtypes, related to energy metabolism, cell growth, mRNA translation and cell...