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Sample records for breast cancer classification

  1. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  2. Module-Based Breast Cancer Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuji; Xuan, Jianhua; Clarke, Robert; Ressom, Habtom W

    2013-01-01

    The reliability and reproducibility of gene biomarkers for classification of cancer patients has been challenged due to measurement noise and biological heterogeneity among patients. In this paper, we propose a novel module-based feature selection framework, which integrates biological network information and gene expression data to identify biomarkers not as individual genes but as functional modules. Results from four breast cancer studies demonstrate that the identified module biomarkers i...

  3. Classification of Breast Cancer Using SVM Classifier Technique

    OpenAIRE

    B.Senthil Murugan; S.Srirambabu; Santhosh Kumar. V

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a technique for classifying the breast cancer from mammogram. The proposed system aims at developing the visualization tool for detecting the breast cancer and minimizing the scheme of detection. The detection method is organized as follows: (a) Image Enhancement (b) Segmentation (c) Feature extraction (d) Classification using SVM classifier Technique. Image enhancement step concentrates on converting an image to more and better understandable level thereby applying Median...

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, S.A.; Lerski, R.A. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Medical Physics, Dundee (United Kingdom); Purdie, C.A.; Jordan, L.B. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Pathology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Vinnicombe, S. [University of Dundee, Division of Imaging and Technology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Martin, P. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Thompson, A.M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75 %, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5 %, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U). IHC classifications using COM features were also similar for training and test data (training: 57.2 %, AUROC = 0.754; test: 57.0 %, AUROC = 0.750). Hormone receptor positive and negative cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75 %, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5 %, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U). IHC classifications using COM features were also similar for training and test data (training: 57.2 %, AUROC = 0.754; test: 57.0 %, AUROC = 0.750). Hormone receptor positive and negative cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. (orig.)

  6. Clinicopathological classification and individualized treatment of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui; LIU Yin-hua; XU Ling; ZHAO Jian-xin; DUAN Xue-ning; YE Jing-ming; LI Ting

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinicopathological classification was proposed in the St.Gallen Consensus Report 2011.We conducted a retrospective analysis of breast cancer subtypes,tumor-nodal-metastatic (TNM) staging,and histopathological grade to investigate the value of these parameters in the treatment strategies of invasive breast cancer.Methods A retrospective analysis of breast cancer subtypes,TNM staging,and histopathological grading of 213 cases has been performed by the methods recommended in the St.Gallen International Expert Consensus Report 2011.The estrogen receptor (ER),progesterone receptor (PR),human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2),and Ki-67 of 213 tumor samples have been investigated by immunohistochemistry according to methods for classifying breast cancer subtypes proposed in the St.Gallen Consensus Report 2011.Results The luminal A subtype was found in 53 patients (24.9%),the luminal B subtype was found in 112 patients (52.6%),the HER2-positive subtype was found in 22 patients (10.3%),and the triple-negative subtype was found in 26 patients (12%).Histopathological grade and TNM staging differed significantly among the four subtypes of breast cancer (P<0.001).Conclusion It is important to consider TNM staging and histopathological grading in the treatment strategies of breast cancer based on the current clinicopathological classification methods.

  7. Sparse discriminant analysis for breast cancer biomarker identification and classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Shi; Daoqing Dai; Chaochun Liu; Hong Yan

    2009-01-01

    Biomarker identification and cancer classification are two important procedures in microarray data analysis. We propose a novel uni-fied method to carry out both tasks. We first preselect biomarker candidates by eliminating unrelated genes through the BSS/WSS ratio filter to reduce computational cost, and then use a sparse discriminant analysis method for simultaneous biomarker identification and cancer classification. Moreover, we give a mathematical justification about automatic biomarker identification. Experimental results show that the proposed method can identify key genes that have been verified in biochemical or biomedical research and classify the breast cancer type correctly.

  8. Classification for breast cancer diagnosis with Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Gao, Qishuo; Zhang, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote the development of the portable, low-cost and in vivo cancer diagnosis instrument, a miniature laser Raman spectrometer was employed to acquire the conventional Raman spectra for breast cancer detection in this paper. But it is difficult to achieve high discrimination accuracy. Then a novel method of adaptive weight k-local hyperplane (AWKH) is proposed to increase the classification accuracy. AWKH is an extension and improvement of K-local hyperplane distance nearest-neighbor (HKNN). It considers the features weights of the training data in the nearest neighbor selection and local hyperplane construction stage, which resolve the basic shortcoming of HKNN works well only for small values of the nearest-neighbor. Experimental results on Raman spectra of breast tissues in vitro show the proposed method can realize high classification accuracy. PMID:25071976

  9. Appraisal of progenitor markers in the context of molecular classification of breast cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Haviv, Izhak

    2011-01-01

    Clinical management of breast cancer relies on case stratification, which increasingly employs molecular markers. The motivation behind delineating breast epithelial differentiation is to better target cancer cases through innate sensitivities bequeathed to the cancer from its normal progenitor state. A combination of histopathological and molecular classification of breast cancer cases suggests a role for progenitors in particular breast cancer cases. Although a remarkable fraction of the re...

  10. A Dataset for Breast Cancer Histopathological Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanhol, Fabio A; Oliveira, Luiz S; Petitjean, Caroline; Heutte, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Today, medical image analysis papers require solid experiments to prove the usefulness of proposed methods. However, experiments are often performed on data selected by the researchers, which may come from different institutions, scanners, and populations. Different evaluation measures may be used, making it difficult to compare the methods. In this paper, we introduce a dataset of 7909 breast cancer histopathology images acquired on 82 patients, which is now publicly available from http://web.inf.ufpr.br/vri/breast-cancer-database. The dataset includes both benign and malignant images. The task associated with this dataset is the automated classification of these images in two classes, which would be a valuable computer-aided diagnosis tool for the clinician. In order to assess the difficulty of this task, we show some preliminary results obtained with state-of-the-art image classification systems. The accuracy ranges from 80% to 85%, showing room for improvement is left. By providing this dataset and a standardized evaluation protocol to the scientific community, we hope to gather researchers in both the medical and the machine learning field to advance toward this clinical application. PMID:26540668

  11. Basal cytokeratins and their relationship to the cellular origin and functional classification of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gusterson, Barry A.; Ross, Douglas T.; Heath, Victoria J; Stein, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    Recent publications have classified breast cancers on the basis of expression of cytokeratin-5 and -17 at the RNA and protein levels, and demonstrated the importance of these markers in defining sporadic tumours with bad prognosis and an association with BRCA1-related breast cancers. These important observations using different technology platforms produce a new functional classification of breast carcinoma. However, it is important in developing hypotheses about the pathogenesis of this tumo...

  12. TNM staging and classification (familial and nonfamilial of breast cancer in Jordanian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Atoum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Staging of breast tumor has important implications for treatment and prognosis. This study aims at pinpointing the frequency of each stage among familial and nonfamilial breast cancers. Materials and Methods : Ninety-nine Jordanian females diagnosed with familial and nonfamilial breast cancer between 2000 and 2002 were enrolled in this study All breast cancer cases were staged according to the TNM classification into in situ, early invasive, advanced invasive and metastatic. Results : Forty-three cases were familial breast cancer and 56 were nonfamilial. One female breast cancer was diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS cancer. Fifty cases were diagnosed in early stages of invasive breast cancer, of which 31 cases were familial, 29 cases were classified as advanced invasive, where 21 cases were nonfamilial and 19 cases were metastatic stage of breast cancer, with 16 nonfamilial cases. Stage 2b was the most common stage of early invasive cases and represented 48% of the early stage of breast cancer. On the other hand, among cases diagnosed with advanced invasive breast cancer, stage 3a was the most common stage and represented 89.6% of the advanced stage. Interestingly, all cases of stage 3a belonged to TNM stages of T2N2M0 and T3N1M0. The tumor size in all cases of Jordanian females diagnosed with advanced invasive breast cancer exceeded 2 cm in size due to selection bias from symptomatic women in our study. Conclusion : The incidence of nonfamilial breast cancer was slightly higher than that of the familial type amongst studied the Jordanian females studied. The early invasive stage of breast cancer was more common in the familial while the advanced invasive and metastatic breast cancer cases were encountered more often in the nonfamilial type. Our study was based on a small sample and symptomatic women. Therefore, more research with larger population samples is needed to confirm this conclusion.

  13. Prognostic Significance of Subtype Classification for Short- and Long-Term Survival in Breast Cancer: Survival Time Holds the Key

    OpenAIRE

    Ambs, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Stefan Ambs provides a perspective on a recent research article by Paul Pharoah and colleagues that evaluated the prognostic significance of immunohistochemical subtype classification in early breast cancer.

  14. Impact of full field digital mammography on the classification and mammographic characteristics of interval breast cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Mark, E-mail: marktknox@gmail.com; O’Brien, Angela, E-mail: angelaobrien@doctors.org.uk; Szabó, Endre, E-mail: endrebacsi@freemail.hu; Smith, Clare S., E-mail: csmith@mater.ie; Fenlon, Helen M., E-mail: helen.fenlon@cancerscreening.ie; McNicholas, Michelle M., E-mail: michelle.mcnicholas@cancerscreening.ie; Flanagan, Fidelma L., E-mail: fidelma.flanagan@cancerscreening.ie

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Digital mammography has changed the presentation of interval breast cancer. • Less interval breast cancers are associated with microcalcifications following FFDM. • Interval breast cancer audit remains a key feature of any breast screening program. - Abstract: Objective: Full field digital mammography (FFDM) is increasingly replacing screen film mammography (SFM) in breast screening programs. Interval breast cancers are an issue in all screening programs and the purpose of our study is to assess the impact of FFDM on the classification of interval breast cancers at independent blind review and to compare the mammographic features of interval cancers at FFDM and SFM. Materials and methods: This study included 138 cases of interval breast cancer, 76 following an FFDM screening examination and 62 following screening with SFM. The prior screening mammogram was assessed by each of five consultant breast radiologists who were blinded to the site of subsequent cancer. Subsequent review of the diagnostic mammogram was performed and cases were classified as missed, minimal signs, occult or true interval. Mammographic features of the interval cancer at diagnosis and any abnormality identified on the prior screening mammogram were recorded. Results: The percentages of cancers classified as missed at FFDM and SFM did not differ significantly, 10.5% (8 of 76) at FFDM and 8.1% (5 of 62) at SFM (p = .77). There were significantly less interval cancers presenting as microcalcifications (alone or in association with another abnormality) following screening with FFDM, 16% (12 of 76) than following a SFM examination, 32% (20 of 62) (p = .02). Conclusion: Interval breast cancers continue to pose a problem at FFDM. The switch to FFDM has changed the mammographic presentation of interval breast cancer, with less interval cancers presenting in association with microcalcifications.

  15. Impact of full field digital mammography on the classification and mammographic characteristics of interval breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Digital mammography has changed the presentation of interval breast cancer. • Less interval breast cancers are associated with microcalcifications following FFDM. • Interval breast cancer audit remains a key feature of any breast screening program. - Abstract: Objective: Full field digital mammography (FFDM) is increasingly replacing screen film mammography (SFM) in breast screening programs. Interval breast cancers are an issue in all screening programs and the purpose of our study is to assess the impact of FFDM on the classification of interval breast cancers at independent blind review and to compare the mammographic features of interval cancers at FFDM and SFM. Materials and methods: This study included 138 cases of interval breast cancer, 76 following an FFDM screening examination and 62 following screening with SFM. The prior screening mammogram was assessed by each of five consultant breast radiologists who were blinded to the site of subsequent cancer. Subsequent review of the diagnostic mammogram was performed and cases were classified as missed, minimal signs, occult or true interval. Mammographic features of the interval cancer at diagnosis and any abnormality identified on the prior screening mammogram were recorded. Results: The percentages of cancers classified as missed at FFDM and SFM did not differ significantly, 10.5% (8 of 76) at FFDM and 8.1% (5 of 62) at SFM (p = .77). There were significantly less interval cancers presenting as microcalcifications (alone or in association with another abnormality) following screening with FFDM, 16% (12 of 76) than following a SFM examination, 32% (20 of 62) (p = .02). Conclusion: Interval breast cancers continue to pose a problem at FFDM. The switch to FFDM has changed the mammographic presentation of interval breast cancer, with less interval cancers presenting in association with microcalcifications

  16. A novel subtype classification and risk of breast cancer by histone modification profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohua; Hu, Hanyang; He, Lin; Yu, Xueyuan; Liu, Xiangyu; Zhong, Rong; Shu, Maoguo

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer has been classified into several intrinsic molecular subtypes on the basis of genetic and epigenetic factors. However, knowledge about histone modifications that contribute to the classification and development of biologically distinct breast cancer subtypes remains limited. Here we compared the genome-wide binding patterns of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 between human mammary epithelial cells and three breast cancer cell lines representing the luminal, HER2, and basal subtypes. We characterized thousands of unique binding events as well as bivalent chromatin signatures unique to each cancer subtype, which were involved in different epigenetic regulation programs and signaling pathways in breast cancer progression. Genes linked to the unique histone mark features exhibited subtype-specific expression patterns, both in cancer cell lines and primary tumors, some of which were confirmed by qPCR in our primary cancer samples. Finally, histone mark-based gene classifiers were significantly correlated with relapse-free survival outcomes in patients. In summary, we have provided a valuable resource for the identification of novel biomarkers of subtype classification and clinical prognosis evaluation in breast cancers. PMID:27178334

  17. Artificial neural networks as classification and diagnostic tools for lymph node-negative breast cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eswari J, Satya; Chandrakar, Neha [National Institute of Technology Raipur, Raipur (India)

    2016-04-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used to develop a technique to classify lymph node negative breast cancer that is prone to distant metastases based on gene expression signatures. The neural network used is a multilayered feed forward network that employs back propagation algorithm. Once trained with DNA microarraybased gene expression profiles of genes that were predictive of distant metastasis recurrence of lymph node negative breast cancer, the ANNs became capable of correctly classifying all samples and recognizing the genes most appropriate to the classification. To test the ability of the trained ANN models in recognizing lymph node negative breast cancer, we analyzed additional idle samples that were not used beforehand for the training procedure and obtained the correctly classified result in the validation set. For more substantial result, bootstrapping of training and testing dataset was performed as external validation. This study illustrates the potential application of ANN for breast tumor diagnosis and the identification of candidate targets in patients for therapy.

  18. Breast tomosynthesis and digital mammography: a comparison of breast cancer visibility and BIRADS classification in a population of cancers with subtle mammographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose was to compare breast cancer visibility in one-view breast tomosynthesis (BT) to cancer visibility in one- or two-view digital mammography (DM). Thirty-six patients were selected on the basis of subtle signs of breast cancer on DM. One-view BT was performed with the same compression angle as the DM image in which the finding was least/not visible. On BT, 25 projections images were acquired over an angular range of 50 degrees, with double the dose of one-view DM. Two expert breast imagers classified one- and two-view DM, and BT findings for cancer visibility and BIRADS cancer probability in a non-blinded consensus study. Forty breast cancers were found in 37 breasts. The cancers were rated more visible on BT compared to one-view and two-view DM in 22 and 11 cases, respectively, (p<0.01 for both comparisons). Comparing one-view DM to one-view BT, 21 patients were upgraded on BIRADS classification (p<0.01). Comparing two-view DM to one-view BT, 12 patients were upgraded on BIRADS classification (p<0.01). The results indicate that the cancer visibility on BT is superior to DM, which suggests that BT may have a higher sensitivity for breast cancer detection. (orig.)

  19. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk factors. ...

  20. Two-Dimensional ARMA Modeling for Breast Cancer Detection and Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Schonfeld, Dan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new model-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for tumor detection and classification (cancerous v.s. benign) in breast images. Specifically, we show that (x-ray, ultrasound and MRI) images can be accurately modeled by two-dimensional autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) random fields. We derive a two-stage Yule-Walker Least-Squares estimates of the model parameters, which are subsequently used as the basis for statistical inference and biophysical interpretation of the breast image. We use a k-means classifier to segment the breast image into three regions: healthy tissue, benign tumor, and cancerous tumor. Our simulation results on ultrasound breast images illustrate the power of the proposed approach.

  1. Comparative Study of Classification Techniques on Breast Cancer FNA Biopsy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Rumbe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnostic detection of the cancerous cells in a patient is critical and may alter the subsequent treatment and increase the chances of survival rate. Machine learning techniques have been instrumental in disease detection and are currently being used in various classification problems due to their accurate prediction performance. Various techniques may provide different desired accuracies and it is therefore imperative to use the most suitable method which provides the best desired results. This research seeks to provide comparative analysis of Support Vector Machine, Bayesian classifier and other Artificial neural network classifiers (Backpropagation, linear programming, Learning vector quantization, and K nearest neighborhood on the Wisconsin breast cancer classification problem.

  2. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  3. Classification of Breast Cancer Subtypes by combining Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Hauschild, Anne-Christin; Tan, Qihua;

    2014-01-01

    Selecting the most promising treatment strategy for breast cancer crucially depends on determining the correct subtype. In recent years, gene expression profiling has been investigated as an alternative to histochemical methods. Since databases like TCGA provide easy and unrestricted access to gene......-20% and classification error of 1-50%, depending on breast cancer subtype and model. The gene expression model was clearly superior to the methylation model, which was also reflected in the combined model, which mainly selected features from gene expression data. However, the methylation model was able to identify...... unique features not considered as relevant by the gene expression model, which might provide deeper insights into breast cancer subtype differentiation on an epigenetic level....

  4. Modern classification of breast cancer: should we stick with morphology or convert to molecular profile characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Emad A; Ellis, Ian O

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer represents a heterogeneous group of tumors with varied morphologic and biological features, behavior, and response to therapy. The present routine clinical management of breast cancer relies on the availability of robust prognostic and predictive factors to support decision making. Breast cancer patients are stratified into risk groups based on a combination of classical time-dependent prognostic variables (staging) and biological prognostic and predictive variables. Staging variables include tumor size, lymph node stage, and extent of tumor spread. Classical biological variables include morphologic variables such as tumor grade and molecular markers such as hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. Although individual molecular markers were introduced in the field of breast cancer management many years ago, the concept of molecular classification was raised after the introduction of global gene expression profiling and the identification of multigene classifiers. Although there is no doubt that gene expression profiling technology has revolutionized the field of breast cancer research and have been widely expected to improve breast cancer prognostication, the unprecedented speed of progress and publicity associated with the introduction of these commercially-based multigene classifiers should not lead us to expect this technology to replace the classical classification systems. These multigene classifiers have the potential to complement traditional methods through provision of additional biological prognostic and predictive information in presently indeterminate risk groups. Here we present updated information on the present clinical value of classical clinicopathologic factors, molecular taxonomy, and multigene classifiers in routine patients management and provide some critical views and practical expectations. PMID:21654357

  5. Mastectomy or breast conserving surgery? Factors affecting type of surgical treatment for breast cancer – a classification tree approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical choice facing breast cancer patients is which surgical treatment – mastectomy or breast conserving surgery (BCS) – is most appropriate. Several studies have investigated factors that impact the type of surgery chosen, identifying features such as place of residence, age at diagnosis, tumor size, socio-economic and racial/ethnic elements as relevant. Such assessment of 'propensity' is important in understanding issues such as a reported under-utilisation of BCS among women for whom such treatment was not contraindicated. Using Western Australian (WA) data, we further examine the factors associated with the type of surgical treatment for breast cancer using a classification tree approach. This approach deals naturally with complicated interactions between factors, and so allows flexible and interpretable models for treatment choice to be built that add to the current understanding of this complex decision process. Data was extracted from the WA Cancer Registry on women diagnosed with breast cancer in WA from 1990 to 2000. Subjects' treatment preferences were predicted from covariates using both classification trees and logistic regression. Tumor size was the primary determinant of patient choice, subjects with tumors smaller than 20 mm in diameter preferring BCS. For subjects with tumors greater than 20 mm in diameter factors such as patient age, nodal status, and tumor histology become relevant as predictors of patient choice. Classification trees perform as well as logistic regression for predicting patient choice, but are much easier to interpret for clinical use. The selected tree can inform clinicians' advice to patients

  6. Improved prognostic classification of breast cancer defined by antagonistic activation patterns of immune response pathway modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elucidating the activation pattern of molecular pathways across a given tumour type is a key challenge necessary for understanding the heterogeneity in clinical response and for developing novel more effective therapies. Gene expression signatures of molecular pathway activation derived from perturbation experiments in model systems as well as structural models of molecular interactions ('model signatures') constitute an important resource for estimating corresponding activation levels in tumours. However, relatively few strategies for estimating pathway activity from such model signatures exist and only few studies have used activation patterns of pathways to refine molecular classifications of cancer. Here we propose a novel network-based method for estimating pathway activation in tumours from model signatures. We find that although the pathway networks inferred from cancer expression data are highly consistent with the prior information contained in the model signatures, that they also exhibit a highly modular structure and that estimation of pathway activity is dependent on this modular structure. We apply our methodology to a panel of 438 estrogen receptor negative (ER-) and 785 estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers to infer activation patterns of important cancer related molecular pathways. We show that in ER negative basal and HER2+ breast cancer, gene expression modules reflecting T-cell helper-1 (Th1) and T-cell helper-2 (Th2) mediated immune responses play antagonistic roles as major risk factors for distant metastasis. Using Boolean interaction Cox-regression models to identify non-linear pathway combinations associated with clinical outcome, we show that simultaneous high activation of Th1 and low activation of a TGF-beta pathway module defines a subtype of particularly good prognosis and that this classification provides a better prognostic model than those based on the individual pathways. In ER+ breast cancer, we find that

  7. Full Intelligent Cancer Classification of Thermal Breast Images to Assist Physician in Clinical Diagnostic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, AmirEhsan; Pak, Fatemeh; Firouzmand, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. The important key to treat the breast cancer is early detection of it because according to many pathological studies more than 75% - 80% of all abnormalities are still benign at primary stages; so in recent years, many studies and extensive research done to early detection of breast cancer with higher precision and accuracy. Infra-red breast thermography is an imaging technique based on recording temperature distribution patterns of breast tissue. Compared with breast mammography technique, thermography is more suitable technique because it is noninvasive, non-contact, passive and free ionizing radiation. In this paper, a full automatic high accuracy technique for classification of suspicious areas in thermogram images with the aim of assisting physicians in early detection of breast cancer has been presented. Proposed algorithm consists of four main steps: pre-processing & segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. At the first step, using full automatic operation, region of interest (ROI) determined and the quality of image improved. Using thresholding and edge detection techniques, both right and left breasts separated from each other. Then relative suspected areas become segmented and image matrix normalized due to the uniqueness of each person's body temperature. At feature extraction stage, 23 features, including statistical, morphological, frequency domain, histogram and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) based features are extracted from segmented right and left breast obtained from step 1. To achieve the best features, feature selection methods such as minimum Redundancy and Maximum Relevance (mRMR), Sequential Forward Selection (SFS), Sequential Backward Selection (SBS), Sequential Floating Forward Selection (SFFS), Sequential Floating Backward Selection (SFBS) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) have been used at step 3. Finally to classify and TH labeling procedures

  8. Pooling breast cancer datasets has a synergetic effect on classification performance and improves signature stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Vijver Marc J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Michiels et al. (Lancet 2005; 365: 488–92 employed a resampling strategy to show that the genes identified as predictors of prognosis from resamplings of a single gene expression dataset are highly variable. The genes most frequently identified in the separate resamplings were put forward as a 'gold standard'. On a higher level, breast cancer datasets collected by different institutions can be considered as resamplings from the underlying breast cancer population. The limited overlap between published prognostic signatures confirms the trend of signature instability identified by the resampling strategy. Six breast cancer datasets, totaling 947 samples, all measured on the Affymetrix platform, are currently available. This provides a unique opportunity to employ a substantial dataset to investigate the effects of pooling datasets on classifier accuracy, signature stability and enrichment of functional categories. Results We show that the resampling strategy produces a suboptimal ranking of genes, which can not be considered to be a 'gold standard'. When pooling breast cancer datasets, we observed a synergetic effect on the classification performance in 73% of the cases. We also observe a significant positive correlation between the number of datasets that is pooled, the validation performance, the number of genes selected, and the enrichment of specific functional categories. In addition, we have evaluated the support for five explanations that have been postulated for the limited overlap of signatures. Conclusion The limited overlap of current signature genes can be attributed to small sample size. Pooling datasets results in more accurate classification and a convergence of signature genes. We therefore advocate the analysis of new data within the context of a compendium, rather than analysis in isolation.

  9. Molecular classification and prognostication of 300 node-negative breast cancer cases: A tertiary care experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemin, K. M. Zuhara; Smitha, N. V.; Jojo, Annie; Vijaykumar, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The proportion of node-negative breast cancer patients has been increasing with improvement of diagnostic modalities and early detection. However, there is a 20–30% recurrence in node-negative breast cancers. Determining who should receive adjuvant therapy is challenging, as the majority are cured by surgery alone. Hence, it requires further stratification using additional prognostic and predictive factors. Subjects and Methods: Ours is a single institution retrospective study, on 300 node-negative breast cancer cases, who underwent primary surgery over a period of 7 years (2005–2011). We excluded all cases who took NACT. Prognostic factors of age, size, lymphovascular emboli, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2neu Ki-67, grade and molecular classification were analyzed with respect to those with and without early events (recurrence, metastases or second malignancy, death) using-Pearson Chi-square method and logistic regression method for statistical analysis. Results: Majority belonged to the age group of 50–70 years. On univariate analysis, size >5 cm (P = 0.03) and ER negativity had significant association (P = 0.05) for early failures; PR negativity and lymphovascular emboli (LVE) had borderline significance (P = 0.07). Multivariate analysis showed size >5 cm to be significant (P = 0.04) and LVE positivity showed borderline significant association (P = 0.07) with early failures. About 62% belonged to luminal category followed by basal-like (25%) in molecular classification. Conclusions: ER negativity, PR negativity, LVE/lymphovascular invasion positivity and size >5 cm (T3 and T4) are associated with poor prognosis in node-negative breast cancers. PMID:26981506

  10. Molecular classification and prognostication of 300 node-negative breast cancer cases: A tertiary care experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Zuhara Shemin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proportion of node-negative breast cancer patients has been increasing with improvement of diagnostic modalities and early detection. However, there is a 20-30% recurrence in node-negative breast cancers. Determining who should receive adjuvant therapy is challenging, as the majority are cured by surgery alone. Hence, it requires further stratification using additional prognostic and predictive factors. Subjects and Methods: Ours is a single institution retrospective study, on 300 node-negative breast cancer cases, who underwent primary surgery over a period of 7 years (2005-2011. We excluded all cases who took NACT. Prognostic factors of age, size, lymphovascular emboli, estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, HER2neu Ki-67, grade and molecular classification were analyzed with respect to those with and without early events (recurrence, metastases or second malignancy, death using-Pearson Chi-square method and logistic regression method for statistical analysis. Results: Majority belonged to the age group of 50-70 years. On univariate analysis, size >5 cm (P = 0.03 and ER negativity had significant association (P = 0.05 for early failures; PR negativity and lymphovascular emboli (LVE had borderline significance (P = 0.07. Multivariate analysis showed size >5 cm to be significant (P = 0.04 and LVE positivity showed borderline significant association (P = 0.07 with early failures. About 62% belonged to luminal category followed by basal-like (25% in molecular classification. Conclusions: ER negativity, PR negativity, LVE/lymphovascular invasion positivity and size >5 cm (T3 and T4 are associated with poor prognosis in node-negative breast cancers.

  11. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...

  12. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  13. Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  14. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... perform breast self-exams each month. However, the importance of self-exams for detecting breast cancer is ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  15. Improving breast cancer classification with mammography, supported on an appropriate variable selection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Noel; Guevara, Miguel A.; Silva, Augusto

    2013-02-01

    This work addresses the issue of variable selection within the context of breast cancer classification with mammography. A comprehensive repository of feature vectors was used including a hybrid subset gathering image-based and clinical features. It aimed to gather experimental evidence of variable selection in terms of cardinality, type and find a classification scheme that provides the best performance over the Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (AUC) scores using the ranked features subset. We evaluated and classified a total of 300 subsets of features formed by the application of Chi-Square Discretization, Information-Gain, One-Rule and RELIEF methods in association with Feed-Forward Backpropagation Neural Network (FFBP), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Decision Tree J48 (DTJ48) Machine Learning Algorithms (MLA) for a comparative performance evaluation based on AUC scores. A variable selection analysis was performed for Single-View Ranking and Multi-View Ranking groups of features. Features subsets representing Microcalcifications (MCs), Masses and both MCs and Masses lesions achieved AUC scores of 0.91, 0.954 and 0.934 respectively. Experimental evidence demonstrated that classification performance was improved by combining image-based and clinical features. The most important clinical and image-based features were StromaDistortion and Circularity respectively. Other less important but worth to use due to its consistency were Contrast, Perimeter, Microcalcification, Correlation and Elongation.

  16. Femur fracture classification in women with a history of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Chau

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Most femur fractures in women with prior breast cancer occurred in the hip. Among younger women and those experiencing diaphyseal fractures, a larger proportion were pathologic and some were found to be atypical. Further studies should examine risk factors for femur fracture in women with breast cancer with specific attention to fracture subtype and pharmacologic exposures.

  17. Breast cancer detection and classification in digital mammography based on Non-Subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) and Super Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Fatemeh; Kanan, Hamidreza Rashidy; Alikhassi, Afsaneh

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most perilous diseases among women. Breast screening is a method of detecting breast cancer at a very early stage which can reduce the mortality rate. Mammography is a standard method for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed for breast cancer detection and classification in digital mammography based on Non-Subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) and Super Resolution (SR). The presented algorithm includes three main parts including pre-processing, feature extraction and classification. In the pre-processing stage, after determining the region of interest (ROI) by an automatic technique, the quality of image is improved using NSCT and SR algorithm. In the feature extraction part, several features of the image components are extracted and skewness of each feature is calculated. Finally, AdaBoost algorithm is used to classify and determine the probability of benign and malign disease. The obtained results on Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) database indicate the significant performance and superiority of the proposed method in comparison with the state of the art approaches. According to the obtained results, the proposed technique achieves 91.43% and 6.42% as a mean accuracy and FPR, respectively. PMID:26206406

  18. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  19. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  20. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  1. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  2. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  3. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... click the brackets in the lower right-hand corner of the video screen. To reduce the videos, ... with breast cancer are under way. With early detection, and prompt and appropriate treatment, the outlook for ...

  4. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  5. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  6. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  9. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  10. Linear classifier and textural analysis of optical scattering images for tumor classification during breast cancer extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguizabal, Alma; Laughney, Ashley M.; Garcia Allende, Pilar Beatriz; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Wells, Wendy A.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2013-02-01

    Texture analysis of light scattering in tissue is proposed to obtain diagnostic information from breast cancer specimens. Light scattering measurements are minimally invasive, and allow the estimation of tissue morphology to guide the surgeon in resection surgeries. The usability of scatter signatures acquired with a micro-sampling reflectance spectral imaging system was improved utilizing an empirical approximation to the Mie theory to estimate the scattering power on a per-pixel basis. Co-occurrence analysis is then applied to the scattering power images to extract the textural features. A statistical analysis of the features demonstrated the suitability of the autocorrelation for the classification of notmalignant (normal epithelia and stroma, benign epithelia and stroma, inflammation), malignant (DCIS, IDC, ILC) and adipose tissue, since it reveals morphological information of tissue. Non-malignant tissue shows higher autocorrelation values while adipose tissue presents a very low autocorrelation on its scatter texture, being malignant the middle ground. Consequently, a fast linear classifier based on the consideration of just one straightforward feature is enough for providing relevant diagnostic information. A leave-one-out validation of the linear classifier on 29 samples with 48 regions of interest showed classification accuracies of 98.74% on adipose tissue, 82.67% on non-malignant tissue and 72.37% on malignant tissue, in comparison with the biopsy H and E gold standard. This demonstrates that autocorrelation analysis of scatter signatures is a very computationally efficient and automated approach to provide pathological information in real-time to guide surgeon during tissue resection.

  11. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  12. Computerized three-class classification of MRI-based prognostic markers for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether computerized analysis using three-class Bayesian artificial neural network (BANN) feature selection and classification can characterize tumor grades (grade 1, grade 2 and grade 3) of breast lesions for prognostic classification on DCE-MRI. A database of 26 IDC grade 1 lesions, 86 IDC grade 2 lesions and 58 IDC grade 3 lesions was collected. The computer automatically segmented the lesions, and kinetic and morphological lesion features were automatically extracted. The discrimination tasks-grade 1 versus grade 3, grade 2 versus grade 3, and grade 1 versus grade 2 lesions-were investigated. Step-wise feature selection was conducted by three-class BANNs. Classification was performed with three-class BANNs using leave-one-lesion-out cross-validation to yield computer-estimated probabilities of being grade 3 lesion, grade 2 lesion and grade 1 lesion. Two-class ROC analysis was used to evaluate the performances. We achieved AUC values of 0.80 ± 0.05, 0.78 ± 0.05 and 0.62 ± 0.05 for grade 1 versus grade 3, grade 1 versus grade 2, and grade 2 versus grade 3, respectively. This study shows the potential for (1) applying three-class BANN feature selection and classification to CADx and (2) expanding the role of DCE-MRI CADx from diagnostic to prognostic classification in distinguishing tumor grades.

  13. An iterated Laplacian based semi-supervised dimensionality reduction for classification of breast cancer on ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Shi, Jun; Zhou, Shichong; Lu, Minhua

    2014-01-01

    The dimensionality reduction is an important step in ultrasound image based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for breast cancer. A newly proposed l2,1 regularized correntropy algorithm for robust feature selection (CRFS) has achieved good performance for noise corrupted data. Therefore, it has the potential to reduce the dimensions of ultrasound image features. However, in clinical practice, the collection of labeled instances is usually expensive and time costing, while it is relatively easy to acquire the unlabeled or undetermined instances. Therefore, the semi-supervised learning is very suitable for clinical CAD. The iterated Laplacian regularization (Iter-LR) is a new regularization method, which has been proved to outperform the traditional graph Laplacian regularization in semi-supervised classification and ranking. In this study, to augment the classification accuracy of the breast ultrasound CAD based on texture feature, we propose an Iter-LR-based semi-supervised CRFS (Iter-LR-CRFS) algorithm, and then apply it to reduce the feature dimensions of ultrasound images for breast CAD. We compared the Iter-LR-CRFS with LR-CRFS, original supervised CRFS, and principal component analysis. The experimental results indicate that the proposed Iter-LR-CRFS significantly outperforms all other algorithms. PMID:25571036

  14. Choice of adjuvant drug therapy on the basis of the molecular classification of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Besova

    2014-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis identified some biological subtypes of breast cancer (BC): luminal A, luminal B, HER2 positive, and basal-like (including triple negative). The surrogate clinical and morphological criteria including the immunohistochemical determination of estrogen and progesterone receptors, the hyperexpression and/or amplification of HER2, Ki-67, or tumor grade (G) are used to identify the biological subtypes of BC in clinical practice. The biological subtypes are distinguished b...

  15. Computer-aided decision-making for early detection of breast cancers using fuzzy classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experts system DIDIMA was developed for timely detection of the early stage of breast cancer in women using the HEWLETT-PACKARD 9845 B computer in the BASIC programming language. The expert system is based on the theory of fuzzy sets. The parameters and structure of the fuzzy knowledge base is given. The system was introduced into practice and its possibilities are described for diagnosis and therapy. (E.S.)

  16. A new histological therapeutic classification system to predict eradicated and residual lymph nodes in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    MOROHASHI, SATOKO; YOSHIZAWA, TADASHI; SEINO, HIROKO; HIRAI, HIDEAKI; HAGA, TOSHIHIRO; OTA, RIE; Wu, Yunyan; Yoshida, Eri; HAKAMADA, KENICHI; Kijima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The indication for neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has recently broadened to include its use in the treatment of initial stage breast cancer. Axillary lymph node metastasis after NAC in breast cancer is a poor prognostic factor. Thus, the prediction of lymph node metastasis is important to estimate the prognosis of breast cancer patients after NAC. Therefore, we focused on residual carcinoma patterns of primary breast tumors after NAC and examined the correlation between the patterns and lymph...

  17. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other less common types of breast cancer include: Medullary Mucinous Tubular Metaplastic Papillary breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer is a faster-growing type of cancer that accounts for about 1% to 5% of all breast cancers. Paget’s disease is a type of cancer that begins in ...

  18. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  19. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  20. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men ... usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. Other breast symptoms can include Dimpled ...

  1. Carcinoma de mama: novos conceitos na classificação Breast cancer: new concepts in classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Serafin Couto Vieira

    2008-01-01

    and the basis for and improved breast cancer molecular taxonomy. Another important implication is that genetic profiling may lead to the identification of new target for therapy and better predictive markers are needed to guide difficult treatment decisions. Additionally, the current pathology classification system is suboptimal, since patients with identical tumor types and stage of disease present different responses to therapy and different overall outcomes. Basal breast tumor represents one of the most intriguing subtypes and is frequently associated with poor prognosis and absence of putative therapeutic targets. Then, the purpose of this review was to resume the most recent knowledge about the breast carcinoma classification and characterization.

  2. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  3. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains outstanding papers presented at the 3rd International Copenhagen Symposium on Detection of Breast Cancer, 1985. The Symposium was an opportunity to learn from extensive screening procedures carried out at outstanding centers in the United States, Sweden, the Netherlands, and England. Furthermore, the symposium dealt with new modalities such as ultrasonography, magnification techniques, and magnetic resonance; and very important contributions concerning self-examination, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and radiation risks were presented. A whole section was also dedicated to the highly important cooperation between radiologist, surgeon, and pathologist. (orig./MG)

  4. Breast Cancer Survival Defined by the ER/PR/HER2 Subtypes and a Surrogate Classification according to Tumor Grade and Immunohistochemical Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Parise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ER, PR, and HER2 are routinely available in breast cancer specimens. The purpose of this study is to contrast breast cancer-specific survival for the eight ER/PR/HER2 subtypes with survival of an immunohistochemical surrogate for the molecular subtype based on the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes and tumor grade. Methods. We identified 123,780 cases of stages 1–3 primary female invasive breast cancer from California Cancer Registry. The surrogate classification was derived using ER/PR/HER2 and tumor grade. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess differences in survival and risk of mortality for the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes and surrogate classification within each stage. Results. The luminal B/HER2− surrogate classification had a higher risk of mortality than the luminal B/HER2+ for all stages of disease. There was no difference in risk of mortality between the ER+/PR+/HER2− and ER+/PR+/HER2+ in stage 3. With one exception in stage 3, the ER-negative subtypes all had an increased risk of mortality when compared with the ER-positive subtypes. Conclusions. Assessment of survival using ER/PR/HER2 illustrates the heterogeneity of HER2+ subtypes. The surrogate classification provides clear separation in survival and adjusted mortality but underestimates the wide variability within the subtypes that make up the classification.

  5. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  6. Non-sentinel lymph node metastasis prediction in breast cancer with metastatic sentinel lymph node: impact of molecular subtypes classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Reyal

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To decipher the interaction between the molecular subtype classification and the probability of a non-sentinel node metastasis in breast cancer patients with a metastatic sentinel lymph-node, we applied two validated predictors (Tenon Score and MSKCC Nomogram on two large independent datasets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our datasets consisted of 656 and 574 early-stage breast cancer patients with a metastatic sentinel lymph-node biopsy treated at first by surgery. We applied both predictors on the whole dataset and on each molecular immune-phenotype subgroups. The performances of the two predictors were analyzed in terms of discrimination and calibration. Probability of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis was detailed for each molecular subtype. RESULTS: Similar results were obtained with both predictors. We showed that the performance in terms of discrimination was as expected in ER Positive HER2 negative subgroup in both datasets (MSKCC AUC Dataset 1 = 0.73 [0.69-0.78], MSKCC AUC Dataset 2 = 0.71 (0.65-0.76, Tenon Score AUC Dataset 1 = 0.7 (0.65-0.75, Tenon Score AUC Dataset 2 = 0.72 (0.66-0.76. Probability of non-sentinel node metastatic involvement was slightly under-estimated. Contradictory results were obtained in other subgroups (ER negative HER2 negative, HER2 positive subgroups in both datasets probably due to a small sample size issue. We showed that merging the two datasets shifted the performance close to the ER positive HER2 negative subgroup. DISCUSSION: We showed that validated predictors like the Tenon Score or the MSKCC nomogram built on heterogeneous population of breast cancer performed equally on the different subgroups analyzed. Our present study re-enforce the idea that performing subgroup analysis of such predictors within less than 200 samples subgroup is at major risk of misleading conclusions.

  7. [Breast cancer update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armuss, A

    2014-06-01

    Breast Cancer, with a life-time prevalence of about 10-12%, is the most common cancer in women. In 2013, the actress Angelina Jolie, by announcing she had a double mastectomy, increased the awareness of a family history of breast and ovarian cancer and the treatment available to reduce the inherited risks. In Germany, each year about 25 out of 100,000 women (age-standardized according to European Standard) die of the disease. The number of newly diagnosed cases is about 72,000 per year. In comparison, many other countries record higher levels. Investing in the development of new therapies has therefore been key for many years. Prevention programs, such as the mammography screening are publicly touted, in both cases with the aim to reduce breast cancer mortality. To accurately assess the risk in underwriting, it is important to know about the risk factors for the development of breast cancer, as well as the latest advances in prevention, therapy and their prognostic classification. The following article provides an overview. PMID:25000626

  8. Radiation therapy for brain metastases from breast cancer by histological classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred thirteen patients with metastatic brain tumor from breast cancer who were treated with external irradiation between 1989 and 1997 at Cancer Institute Hospital were studied. The patients were all histopathologically proven to have invasive ductal carcinoma (scirrhous type 54 cases, papillotubular type 18, solid-tubular type 41). The patients were evaluated for efficacy and histopathological subtypes. The time interval between the diagnosis of breast cancer and brain metastases was 53.6 months for the scirrhous type, 75.0 months for the papillotubular type, and 35.5 months for the solid-tubular type. The time interval between the diagnosis of initial distant metastases and brain metastases was 14.3 months for the scirrhous type, 22.5 months for the papillotubular type, and 12.5 months for the solid-tubular type. Efficacy rates (CR+PR) for external irradiation of the brain metastases were 40.0% for the scirrhous type, 66.7% for the papillotubular type, and 36.6% for the solid-tubular type. The papillotubular type had a favorable efficacy rate compared with the other two types. Median survival time (MST) from the start of treatment for brain metastases and one-year survival rate were 5 months and 11.1% for the scirrhous type, 7 months and 41.5% for the papillotubular type, and 4 months and 28.3% for the solid-tubular type, respectively. No statistically significant difference between survival rates was observed among the histopathological types. Univariate analysis showed performance status, number of metastatic tumors, and existence of extracranial metastases without bony metastasis to be significantly related to prognosis. Multivariate analysis showed only extracranial metastases without bony metastases to be related to prognosis. (author)

  9. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  10. Is standard breast-conserving therapy (BCT) in elderly breast cancer patients justified? A prospective measurement of acute toxicity according CTC-classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast conserving therapy (BCT) is an accepted treatment for early-stage breast cancer. This study aimed to measure prospectively acute radiation-related toxicity and to create a comprehensive data base for long-term temporal analyses of 3D conformal adjuvant radiotherapy. The specific aspect of age has been neglected by traditional research. Therefore, the impact of age on acute BCT toxicity should be also specifically adressed. Toxicity was measured in 109 patients at initiation (t1), during radiotherapy (t2-t7), and 6 weeks after treatment completion (t8) using a new topographic module. Organ systems were recorded in 15 scales and scored according to symptom intensity (grade 0-5) based on CTC (Common Toxicity Criteria) -classification. Radiotherapy was virtually CT-based planned and applied with 6-MeV-photons. Mean total dose was 60.1 Gy. Patients were stratified by age in 3 Groups: <50, 50-60, and >60 years. Registered toxicity was generally low. Mean overall-grade climbed from 0.29-0.40 (t1-t7), and dropped to 0.23 (t8). Univariate analyses revealed slightly higher toxicity in older (> 60 years) versus young patients (< 50 years) in 2 scales only: breast-symmetry (p = 0.033), and arm function (p = 0.007). However, in the scale 'appetite' toxicity was higher in younger (< 50 years) versus older (> 60 years) patients (p = 0.039). Toxicity differences in all other scales were not significant. Between older (> 60 years) and midaged patients (50-60 years) no significant differences in toxicity were found. This was also true for the comparison between young (< 50 years) versus midaged patient groups (50-60 years). The treatment concept of BCT for breast cancer is generally well tolerated. The toxicity-measurement with the new topographic module is feasible. Not modified standard treatment for BC should be performed in elderly women

  11. Can-CSC-GBE: Developing Cost-sensitive Classifier with Gentleboost Ensemble for breast cancer classification using protein amino acids and imbalanced data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Safdar; Majid, Abdul; Javed, Syed Gibran; Sattar, Mohsin

    2016-06-01

    Early prediction of breast cancer is important for effective treatment and survival. We developed an effective Cost-Sensitive Classifier with GentleBoost Ensemble (Can-CSC-GBE) for the classification of breast cancer using protein amino acid features. In this work, first, discriminant information of the protein sequences related to breast tissue is extracted. Then, the physicochemical properties hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of amino acids are employed to generate molecule descriptors in different feature spaces. For comparison, we obtained results by combining Cost-Sensitive learning with conventional ensemble of AdaBoostM1 and Bagging. The proposed Can-CSC-GBE system has effectively reduced the misclassification costs and thereby improved the overall classification performance. Our novel approach has highlighted promising results as compared to the state-of-the-art ensemble approaches. PMID:27061661

  12. Classification of breast tissue for protocols development in mammography exam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For accomplishment of a mammogram should be considered several factors such as equipment used and the classification of breast cancer patients. The density of the breast is different of patient to patient, thus making it difficult many precocious diagnostic of breast cancer. There is a significant variation in the breast to be radiographed, depending on several factors presented in the breast tissue of breast prosthesis with or without breasts or with implants. This work had as objective main to make a survey of the factors that influence in the classification of mammary fabrics. With this survey and classification it can be better adjusted the protocols which will be more efficient in the mammography exam, preventing excess of radiation dose, stress for the patient, economy of raw material, control of the quality and rapidity in the process of image attainment. (author)

  13. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie;

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight into the t......Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  14. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  15. Types of Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about this condition, see Inflammatory Breast Cancer . Paget disease of the nipple This type of breast cancer ... carcinoma (this is a type of metaplastic carcinoma) Medullary carcinoma Mucinous (or colloid) carcinoma Papillary carcinoma Tubular ...

  16. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention en español Cáncer de mama You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear ...

  17. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  18. Your Body After Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer , Coping with Cancer Your Body After Breast Cancer Article date: September 28, 2012 By Melissa Weber ... age 24, she was diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer in 2010. “I had no control over what ...

  19. A new histological therapeutic classification system to predict eradicated and residual lymph nodes in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohashi, Satoko; Yoshizawa, Tadashi; Seino, Hiroko; Hirai, Hideaki; Haga, Toshihiro; Ota, Rie; Wu, Yunyan; Yoshida, Eri; Hakamada, Kenichi; Kijima, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    The indication for neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has recently broadened to include its use in the treatment of initial stage breast cancer. Axillary lymph node metastasis after NAC in breast cancer is a poor prognostic factor. Thus, the prediction of lymph node metastasis is important to estimate the prognosis of breast cancer patients after NAC. Therefore, we focused on residual carcinoma patterns of primary breast tumors after NAC and examined the correlation between the patterns and lymph node metastasis. In this study, we examined 50 breast cancer specimens and associated dissected lymph nodes after NAC. We divided 40 cases into an eradicated lymph node group and a residual lymph node group to analyze residual carcinoma patterns of primary breast tumors. Residual carcinoma patterns were classified according to the cell density of carcinoma cells: dense, focal/nested and sporadic/in-situ. There were significant differences in residual carcinoma patterns (P<0.01) among the three pattern groups. There was a high incidence of dense patterns in the residual lymph node group and a high incidence of sporadic/in-situ patterns in the eradicated lymph node group. Analysis of residual carcinoma patterns of primary breast tumors and clinicopathological factors demonstrated that there were significant differences in tumor reduced ratio on CT (P<0.001), primary tumor area before NAC (P<0.01), primary tumor area after NAC (P<0.00001), intrinsic subtype (P<0.01), Ki-67 labeling index (P<0.01), histological grade (P<0.05) and mitotic count (P<0.01) between the dense and non-dense groups. Therefore, our results suggest that the residual carcinoma pattern is useful for predicting eradicated or residual lymph nodes and the malignant potential in breast cancer after NAC. PMID:26935647

  20. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  1. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  2. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer remains a common disease throughout the world. Here we review new knowledge about early breast cancer obtained during the past 5 years. The prognosis of early breast cancer is generally favorable. Especially, ductal carcinoma in situ has been regarded as a non-life-threatening disease. Therefore, early diagnosis and early onset of the treatment has been important. Early age at menarche, late age at first birth, and late age at menopause are related to breast cancer risk. Examination by mammography and ultrasonography is still the most effective means of detection for premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. Additionally, there have been important advances in MRI, sentinel lymph node biopsy, breast-conserving surgery, partial breast irradiation, neoadjuvant systemic therapy, and adjuvant systemic therapy. Another approach to keeping the disease under control is the elucidation of breast cancer's molecular biological features. Assessment of potential molecular targets can lead to early diagnosis and molecular targeted treatment. (author)

  3. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  4. Oxalate induces breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Castellaro, Andrés M.; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H.; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L.; Pucci, Oscar A.; Gil, German A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still l...

  5. Familial breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Phipps, R. F.; Perry, P M

    1988-01-01

    Familial breast cancer is important because of all the known risk factors associated with developing the disease. The one with the most predictability is a positive family history. It is also important because a family history causes anxiety in the families concerned, and young women will often ask their chance of developing the disease. This form of breast cancer accounts for 10% of causes and has factors that distinguish it from the sporadic variety. Relatives of familial breast cancer pati...

  6. Breast cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Thomas W.; Naylor, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumors are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to th...

  7. Reverse phase protein array based tumor profiling identifies a biomarker signature for risk classification of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Sonntag

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A robust subclassification of luminal breast cancer, the most common molecular subtype of human breast cancer, is crucial for therapy decisions. While a part of patients is at higher risk of recurrence and requires chemo-endocrine treatment, the other part is at lower risk and also poorly responds to chemotherapeutic regimens. To approximate the risk of cancer recurrence, clinical guidelines recommend determining histologic grading and abundance of a cell proliferation marker in tumor specimens. However, this approach assigns an intermediate risk to a substantial number of patients and in addition suffers from a high interobserver variability. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify a quantitative protein biomarker signature to facilitate risk classification. Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA were used to obtain quantitative expression data for 128 breast cancer relevant proteins in a set of hormone receptor-positive tumors (n = 109. Proteomic data for the subset of histologic G1 (n = 14 and G3 (n = 22 samples were used for biomarker discovery serving as surrogates of low and high recurrence risk, respectively. A novel biomarker selection workflow based on combining three different classification methods identified caveolin-1, NDKA, RPS6, and Ki-67 as top candidates. NDKA, RPS6, and Ki-67 were expressed at elevated levels in high risk tumors whereas caveolin-1 was observed as downregulated. The identified biomarker signature was subsequently analyzed using an independent test set (AUC = 0.78. Further evaluation of the identified biomarker panel by Western blot and mRNA profiling confirmed the proteomic signature obtained by RPPA. In conclusion, the biomarker signature introduced supports RPPA as a tool for cancer biomarker discovery.

  8. Breast cancer (metastatic)

    OpenAIRE

    Stebbing, Justin; Slater, Sarah; Slevin, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    Median survival from metastatic breast cancer is 12 months without treatment, but young people can survive up to 20 years with the disease, whereas in other metastatic cancers this would be considered very unusual.

  9. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  10. Neuroendocrine breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast l...

  11. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  12. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer: consensus statement for standardized diagnosis and treatment. Annals of Oncology 2011; 22(3):515-523. [PubMed Abstract] Fouad TM, Kogawa T, Reuben JM, Ueno NT. The role of inflammation in inflammatory breast cancer. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 2014; 816:53-73. [PubMed ...

  13. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer.

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  15. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  16. Breast Fine Needle Tumor Classification using Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmeen M. George; Bassant Mohamed Elbagoury; Hala H. Zayed; Roushdy, Mohamed I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an intelligent diagnosis system for breast cancer classification. Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines were being developed to classify the benign and malignant of breast tumor in fine needle aspiration cytology. First the features were extracted from 92 FNAC image. Then these features were presented to several neural network architectures to investigate the most suitable network model for classifying the tumor effectively. Four classi...

  17. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MatthewJNaylor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  18. Mammogram-based discriminant fusion analysis for breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Bao; Wang, Yun-Heng; Tang, Lin-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Mammogram-based classification is an important and effective way for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD)-based breast cancer diagnosis. In this paper, we present a novel discriminant fusing analysis (DFA)-based mammogram classification CAD-based breast cancer diagnosis. The discriminative breast tissue features are exacted and fused by DFA, and DFA achieves the optimal fusion coefficients. The largest class discriminant in the fused feature space is achieved by DFA for classification. Beside the detailed theory derivation, many experimental evaluations are implemented on Mammography Image Analysis Society mammogram database for breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:23153999

  19. Implementation of several mathematical algorithms to breast tissue density classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, C.; Redondo, M.; Tirao, G.

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of mammographic abnormality detection methods is strongly dependent on breast tissue characteristics, where a dense breast tissue can hide lesions causing cancer to be detected at later stages. In addition, breast tissue density is widely accepted to be an important risk indicator for the development of breast cancer. This paper presents the implementation and the performance of different mathematical algorithms designed to standardize the categorization of mammographic images, according to the American College of Radiology classifications. These mathematical techniques are based on intrinsic properties calculations and on comparison with an ideal homogeneous image (joint entropy, mutual information, normalized cross correlation and index Q) as categorization parameters. The algorithms evaluation was performed on 100 cases of the mammographic data sets provided by the Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina—Programa de Prevención del Cáncer de Mama (Department of Public Health, Córdoba, Argentina, Breast Cancer Prevention Program). The obtained breast classifications were compared with the expert medical diagnostics, showing a good performance. The implemented algorithms revealed a high potentiality to classify breasts into tissue density categories.

  20. Pregnancy After Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemignani; Petrek

    1999-05-01

    BACKGROUND: The issue of pregnancy following the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is important because the incidence of breast cancer is increasing in women of childbearing age. The fact that many women are delaying childbearing, whether for educational, professional, or personal reasons, increases the number of women who will undergo breast cancer treatment before completing childbearing. METHODS: Data on pregnancy in breast cancer survivors are limited and consist only of retrospective data. This paper reviews the published literature on the influence of subsequent pregnancy on breast cancer, including three recent large-scale population-based studies. RESULTS: The survival of women with breast carcinoma who subsequently become pregnant is not reported to be decreased in any of the published series. However, several biases may be present that justify the concern regarding the conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Further research on the safety of subsequent pregnancy after breast carcinoma treatment is needed. To address these issues, patients are currently being accrued for a large, prospective, multicenter study of young breast carcinoma patients. PMID:10758557

  1. Methylxanthines and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, C; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R N

    1987-10-15

    We investigated the relationship between methylxanthine consumption and breast cancer using data from a case-control study which included 1,510 cases and 1,882 controls identified through a nation-wide breast cancer screening program. There was no evidence of a positive association between methylxanthine consumption and risk of breast cancer. In fact, there was some suggestion of a negative association, particularly in women diagnosed after age 50. In addition, there was no evidence of increased risk with past or recent methylxanthine consumption, or with the consumption of caffeine or specific beverages, most notably brewed or instant caffeinated coffee and tea. PMID:3117709

  2. Cancer Hallmarks, Biomarkers and Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Liangjian; Li, Ting; Bai, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease encompassing multiple tumor entities, each characterized by distinct morphology, behavior and clinical implications. Besides estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, novel biomarkers have shown their prognostic and predictive values, complicating our understanding towards to the heterogeneity of such cancers. Ten cancer hallmarks have been proposed by Weinberg to characterize cancer and its carcinogenesis. By reviewing biomarkers and breast cancer molecular subtypes, we propose that the divergent outcome observed from patients stratified by hormone status are driven by different cancer hallmarks. 'Sustaining proliferative signaling' further differentiates cancers with positive hormone receptors. 'Activating invasion and metastasis' and 'evading immune destruction' drive the differentiation of triple negative breast cancers. 'Resisting cell death', 'genome instability and mutation' and 'deregulating cellular energetics' refine breast cancer classification with their predictive values. 'Evading growth suppressors', 'enabling replicative immortality', 'inducing angiogenesis' and 'tumor-promoting inflammation' have not been involved in breast cancer classification which need more focus in the future biomarker-related research. This review novels in its global view on breast cancer heterogeneity, which clarifies many confusions in this field and contributes to precision medicine. PMID:27390604

  3. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  4. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-18

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  5. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  6. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthesis Complementary Therapy Types of Complementary Therapy Acupuncture Art Therapy Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided ... SIGN UP FOR OUR MAILING LIST SIGN UP Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Living Beyond Breast Cancer Conference ...

  7. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the risk of breast cancer: Having an abortion. Making diet changes such as eating less fat or more ... does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Reviewers and Updates Editorial Boards ...

  8. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...

  9. Breast cancer risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Kamińska; Tomasz Ciszewski; Karolina Łopacka-Szatan; Paweł Miotła; Elżbieta Starosławska

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neopla...

  10. Diet and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-01-01

    Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability ...

  11. Women and breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Lippman, M E

    1987-01-01

    One in every 12 women will develop breast cancer; the incidence increases with age, dietary fat intake, caloric intake, height, and weight. The 10-year survival rate of breast cancer patients who refuse therapy is virtually zero. Segmental mastectomy plus radiation and lumpectomy, combined with systemic (adjuvant)chemotherapy, are alternatives under investigation at the National Institutes of Health that may increase the survival rate by decreasing metastatic complications.

  12. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Jin; Ping Mu

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various me...

  13. Tolerance to missing data using a likelihood ratio based classifier for computer-aided classification of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While mammography is a highly sensitive method for detecting breast tumours, its ability to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions is low, which may result in as many as 70% of unnecessary biopsies. The purpose of this study was to develop a highly specific computer-aided diagnosis algorithm to improve classification of mammographic masses. A classifier based on the likelihood ratio was developed to accommodate cases with missing data. Data for development included 671 biopsy cases (245 malignant), with biopsy-proved outcome. Sixteen features based on the BI-RADSTM lexicon and patient history had been recorded for the cases, with 1.3 ± 1.1 missing feature values per case. Classifier evaluation methods included receiver operating characteristic and leave-one-out bootstrap sampling. The classifier achieved 32% specificity at 100% sensitivity on the 671 cases with 16 features that had missing values. Utilizing just the seven features present for all cases resulted in decreased performance at 100% sensitivity with average 19% specificity. No cases and no feature data were omitted during classifier development, showing that it is more beneficial to utilize cases with missing values than to discard incomplete cases that cannot be handled by many algorithms. Classification of mammographic masses was commendable at high sensitivity levels, indicating that benign cases could be potentially spared from biopsy

  14. Biological markers of invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akiko; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Ando, Tomofumi; Fujii, Taku; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Saito, Junichi; Takahashi, Maiko; Hayashida, Tetsu; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-02-01

    Biological markers for breast cancer are biomolecules that result from cancer-related processes and are associated with particular clinical outcomes; they thus help predict responses to therapy. In recent years, gene expression profiling has made the molecular classification of breast cancer possible. Classification of breast cancer by immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and Ki-67 is standard practice for clinical decision-making. Assessments of hormone receptor expression and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression help estimate benefits from targeted therapies and have greatly improved prognoses for women with these breast cancer types. Although Ki-67 positivity is associated with an adverse outcome, its clear identification is an aid to optimal disease management. Standardization of testing methodology to minimize inter-laboratory measurement variations is a remaining issue. Multi-gene assays provide prognostic information and identify those most likely to benefit from systemic chemotherapy. Incorporating molecular profiles with conventional pathological classification would be more precise, and could enhance the clinical development of personalized therapy in breast cancer. PMID:26486826

  15. Influence of Texture and Colour in Breast TMA Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carrobles, M Milagro; Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Oscar; Salido, Jesús; García-Rojo, Marcial; González-López, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer diagnosis is still done by observation of biopsies under the microscope. The development of automated methods for breast TMA classification would reduce diagnostic time. This paper is a step towards the solution for this problem and shows a complete study of breast TMA classification based on colour models and texture descriptors. The TMA images were divided into four classes: i) benign stromal tissue with cellularity, ii) adipose tissue, iii) benign and benign anomalous structures, and iv) ductal and lobular carcinomas. A relevant set of features was obtained on eight different colour models from first and second order Haralick statistical descriptors obtained from the intensity image, Fourier, Wavelets, Multiresolution Gabor, M-LBP and textons descriptors. Furthermore, four types of classification experiments were performed using six different classifiers: (1) classification per colour model individually, (2) classification by combination of colour models, (3) classification by combination of colour models and descriptors, and (4) classification by combination of colour models and descriptors with a previous feature set reduction. The best result shows an average of 99.05% accuracy and 98.34% positive predictive value. These results have been obtained by means of a bagging tree classifier with combination of six colour models and the use of 1719 non-correlated (correlation threshold of 97%) textural features based on Statistical, M-LBP, Gabor and Spatial textons descriptors. PMID:26513238

  16. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  17. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  18. Breast cancer statistics and markers

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika Siva Donepudi; Kasturi Kondapalli; Seelam Jeevan Amos; Pavithra Venkanteshan

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO...

  19. Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  20. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  1. Breast cancer chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Sestak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trials with tamoxifen have clearly shown that the risk of developing oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer can be reduced by at least 50% with prophylactic agents. The current challenge is to find new agents which achieve this or better efficacy, but with fewer side effects. Recent results indicate that the SERM raloxifene has similar efficacy to tamoxifen, but leads to fewer endometrial cancers, gynecological symptoms, and thromboembolic events. Results for contralateral tumors in adjuvant trials suggest that aromatase inhibitors may be able to prevent up to 70%–80% of ER-positive breast cancers, and this is currently being investigated in two large prevention trials, one using anastrozole (IBIS-II and the other exemestane (MAP.3. New agents are needed for receptor negative breast cancer and several possibilities are currently under investigation.

  2. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk to your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  3. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Theresa; Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action, the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, and the optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention are summarized.

  4. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. The breast cancer genome - a key for better oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollan Hans

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular classification has added important knowledge to breast cancer biology, but has yet to be implemented as a clinical standard. Full sequencing of breast cancer genomes could potentially refine classification and give a more complete picture of the mutational profile of cancer and thus aid therapy decisions. Future treatment guidelines must be based on the knowledge derived from histopathological sub-classification of tumors, but with added information from genomic signatures when properly clinically validated. The objective of this article is to give some background on molecular classification, the potential of next generation sequencing, and to outline how this information could be implemented in the clinic.

  7. Breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabanek, P

    1988-01-01

    Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...

  8. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  9. 21 CFR 866.6040 - Gene expression profiling test system for breast cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cancer prognosis. (a) Identification. A gene expression profiling test system for breast cancer prognosis... previously diagnosed breast cancer. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control is... Profiling Test System for Breast Cancer Prognosis.” See § 866.1(e) for the availability of this...

  10. Virtual Weight Loss Program in Maintaining Weight in African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Cancer Survivor; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  11. 乳腺超声与X线BI-RADS分类单独及联合应用对乳腺癌的诊断价值%The Diagnosis Value of Breast Ultrasonography and Mammography BI-RADS Classification Alone and Combined for Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春霞; 秦红风; 吕艳丽; 李毅

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨乳腺超声与X线BI-RADS分类单独以及两者联合应用对乳腺癌的诊断价值.方法:回顾分析341例经穿刺活检或手术病理证实为乳腺癌患者的超声及X线BI-RADS分类及图像,比较超声与X线摄影BI-RADS分类单独以及两者联合对诊断乳腺癌的准确性.结果:超声诊断乳腺癌300例,诊断准确性为88.0%;X线诊断乳腺癌275例,诊断准确性为80.6%;两者联合诊断乳腺癌317例,诊断准确性为93.0%,与单独应用相比,联合应用能够提高诊断乳腺癌的准确性,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001).结论:超声与X线检查均为诊断乳腺癌的首选检查方法,采用BI-RADS分类,超声对乳腺癌的诊断准确性高于X线,而两者联合可以大大提高乳腺癌的诊断准确性.%Objective:To investigate the diagnosis value of breast ultrasonography and mammography BI-RADS classification alone and combined for breast cancer.Method:The breast ultrasonography and mammography data of 341 breast cancer cases diagnosed by core needle biopsy or open surgery were retrospectively analyzed.The accuracy of breast ultrasonography and mammography alone and combined for breast cancer were compared.Result:300 cases(88.0%) were diagnosed by breast ultrasonography alone,275 cases(80.6%) were diagnosed by breast mammography alone,317 cases(93.0%) were diagnosed by application of combined breast ultrasonography and mammography.Combination of breast ultrasonography and mammography could significantly improve the accuracy of diagnosis of breast cancer compared with the breast ultrasonography alone or breast mammography alone(P<0.001).Conclusion:Breast ultrasonography and mammography are routine imaging methods for breast cancer,the accuracy of breast ultrasonography for diagnosis of breast cancer is higher than breast mammography,and the combination of both methods can significantly improve accuracy of breast cancer diagnosis.

  12. Breast Cancer in Art Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Forma Ewa; Bernaciak Magdalena; Bryś Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an emotive cancer. It is a disease that affects a visible sexual organ and it is the commonest single cause of death of women between 40 and 60 years of age. Nevertheless, this type of cancer was infrequently depicted in art paintings. In this article the themes from the breast cancer in famous art paintings are discussed.

  13. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  14. Breast Cancer and Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Bardwell, Wayne A; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom in breast cancer patients and survivors. A rather nebulous concept, fatigue overlaps with sleepiness and depressed mood. In this chapter, we cover methods for assessing fatigue; describe the occurrence of fatigue before, during and after initial treatment; present possible underlying mechanisms of fatigue; and, enumerate approaches to its treatment.

  15. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  16. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  17. Progestins and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge R

    2007-10-01

    Progestins exert their progestational activity by binding to the progesterone receptor (form A, the most active and form B, the less active) and may also interact with other steroid receptors (androgen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, estrogen). They can have important effects in other tissues besides the endometrium, including the breast, liver, bone and brain. The biological responses of progestins cover a very large domain: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, water and electrolyte regulation, hemostasis, fibrinolysis, and cardiovascular and immunological systems. At present, more than 200 progestin compounds have been synthesized, but the biological response could be different from one to another depending on their structure, metabolism, receptor affinity, experimental conditions, target tissue or cell line, as well as the biological response considered. There is substantial evidence that mammary cancer tissue contains all the enzymes responsible for the local biosynthesis of estradiol (E(2)) from circulating precursors. Two principal pathways are implicated in the final steps of E(2) formation in breast cancer tissue: the 'aromatase pathway', which transforms androgens into estrogens, and the 'sulfatase pathway', which converts estrone sulfate (E(1)S) into estrone (E(1)) via estrone sulfatase. The final step is the conversion of weak E(1) to the potent biologically active E(2) via reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity. It is also well established that steroid sulfotransferases, which convert estrogens into their sulfates, are present in breast cancer tissues. It has been demonstrated that various progestins (e.g. nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone) as well as tibolone and their metabolites can block the enzymes involved in E(2) bioformation (sulfatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in breast cancer cells. These substances can also stimulate the sulfotransferase activity which converts estrogens into the biologically

  18. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-23

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  19. Breast cancer surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173

  20. Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: a comparison of classification methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nachabe, R.; Evers, D.; Hendriks, B.H.W.; Lucassen, G.W.; Van der Voort, M.; Wesseling, J.; Rutgers, E. J.; Vrancken Peeters, M.J.; Hage, J.A.van der; Oldenbeng, H.S.; Ruers, T.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the use of diffuse optical spectroscopy analysis of breast spectra acquired in the wavelength range from 500 to 1600 nm with a fiber optic probe. A total of 102 ex vivo samples of five different breast tissue types, namely adipose, glandular, fibroadenoma, invasive carcinoma and ductal

  1. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  2. A Ranking-Based Meta-Analysis Reveals Let-7 Family as a Meta-Signature for Grade Classification in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Oztemur, Yasemin; Bekmez, Tufan; Aydos, Alp; Yulug, Isik G; Bozkurt, Betul; Dedeoglu, Bala Gur

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most important causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide in women. In addition to gene expression studies, the progressing work in the miRNA area including miRNA microarray studies, brings new aspects to the research on the cancer development and progression. Microarray technology has been widely used to find new biomarkers in research and many transcriptomic microarray studies are available in public databases. In this study, the breast cancer miRNA and mRNA micro...

  3. Confocal Raman imaging for cancer cell classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Evelien; Van Dorpe, Pol; Stakenborg, Tim; Liu, Chengxun; Lagae, Liesbet

    2014-05-01

    We propose confocal Raman imaging as a label-free single cell characterization method that can be used as an alternative for conventional cell identification techniques that typically require labels, long incubation times and complex sample preparation. In this study it is investigated whether cancer and blood cells can be distinguished based on their Raman spectra. 2D Raman scans are recorded of 114 single cells, i.e. 60 breast (MCF-7), 5 cervix (HeLa) and 39 prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells and 10 monocytes (from healthy donors). For each cell an average spectrum is calculated and principal component analysis is performed on all average cell spectra. The main features of these principal components indicate that the information for cell identification based on Raman spectra mainly comes from the fatty acid composition in the cell. Based on the second and third principal component, blood cells could be distinguished from cancer cells; and prostate cancer cells could be distinguished from breast and cervix cancer cells. However, it was not possible to distinguish breast and cervix cancer cells. The results obtained in this study, demonstrate the potential of confocal Raman imaging for cell type classification and identification purposes.

  4. Pharmacokinetically Guided Everolimus in Patients With Breast Cancer, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors, or Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Mucositis; Oral Complications; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  5. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone ... be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), ...

  6. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  7. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  8. Tamoxifen Resistance in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Minsun

    2012-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a central component of the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer as a partial agonist of ER. It has been clinically used for the last 30 years and is currently available as a chemopreventive agent in women with high risk for breast cancer. The most challenging issue with tamoxifen use is the development of resistance in an initially responsive breast tumor. This review summarizes the roles of ER as the therapeutic target of tamoxifen in cancer treatment, clin...

  9. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Anna H.; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort stud...

  10. Dosimetry of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systemic therapy of breast cancer has also changed profoundly during the last 60 years, and in this time the integration of treatment modalities involve a major area of investigation. The dosimetry of breast cancer presents different complications which can range from the Physician's handling of the neoplasia up to the simple aspects of physical simulation, contour design, radiation fields, irregular surfaces and computer programs containing mathematical equations which differ little or largely with the reality of the radiation distribution into the volume to be irradiated. We have studied the problem using two types of measurements to determine how the radiation distribution is in irregular surfaces, and designing an easier skill to be used with each patient, in order to optimize the treatment with respect to the simulation and verification process. (author). 7 refs

  11. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  12. Breast cancer risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Marzena; Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  13. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  14. Understanding breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robin L

    2010-01-01

    With mammography firmly established as an integral part of efforts to reduce breast cancer mortality, many believe it is time to concentrate on prevention. Part of the multifaceted approach to preventing and treating this disease is unraveling its molecular, genetic and physiological makeup. Another aspect is ensuring that women have the information they need to make informed decisions about screening and treatment. Studies also point to the influence of nutrition, exercise, medicines and a patient's adherence to screening on cancer risk and recovery. PMID:20445140

  15. Comparison of Artificial Neural Network with Logistic Regression as Classification Models for Variable Selection for Prediction of Breast Cancer Patient Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Bourdès

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare multilayer perceptron neural networks (NNs with standard logistic regression (LR to identify key covariates impacting on mortality from cancer causes, disease-free survival (DFS, and disease recurrence using Area Under Receiver-Operating Characteristics (AUROC in breast cancer patients. From 1996 to 2004, 2,535 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer entered into the study at a single French centre, where they received standard treatment. For specific mortality as well as DFS analysis, the ROC curves were greater with the NN models compared to LR model with better sensitivity and specificity. Four predictive factors were retained by both approaches for mortality: clinical size stage, Scarff Bloom Richardson grade, number of invaded nodes, and progesterone receptor. The results enhanced the relevance of the use of NN models in predictive analysis in oncology, which appeared to be more accurate in prediction in this French breast cancer cohort.

  16. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  17. Epidemiology of male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Joli R; Moysich, Kirsten B; Swede, Helen

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer in men is a rare disease, accounting for approximately 1% of all breast cancer cases. Although the epidemiologic literature regarding female breast cancer is extensive, relatively little is known about the etiology of male breast cancer (MBC). This review is intended to summarize the existing body of evidence on genetic and epidemiologic risk factors for breast cancer in men. Overall, the epidemiology of MBC presents similarities with the epidemiology of female breast cancer. Major genetic factors associated with an increased risk of breast cancer for men include BRCA2 mutations, which are believed to account for the majority of inherited breast cancer in men, Klinefelter syndrome, and a positive family history. Suspected genetic factors include AR gene mutations, CYP17 polymorphism, Cowden syndrome, and CHEK2. Epidemiologic risk factors for MBC include disorders relating to hormonal imbalances, such as obesity, testicular disorders (e.g., cryptorchidism, mumps orchitis, and orchiectomy), and radiation exposure. Suspected epidemiologic risk factors include prostate cancer,prostate cancer treatment, gynecomastia, occupational exposures (e.g., electromagnetic fields, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high temperatures), dietary factors (e.g., meat intake and fruit and vegetable consumption), and alcohol intake. PMID:15668471

  18. Comprehensive copy number profiles of breast cancer cell model genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Shadeo, Ashleen; Lam, Wan L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide and consequently has been extensively investigated in terms of histopathology, immunochemistry and familial history. Advances in genome-wide approaches have contributed to molecular classification with respect to genomic changes and their subsequent effects on gene expression. Cell lines have provided a renewable resource that is readily used as model systems for breast cancer cell biology. A thorough characte...

  19. Breast cancer therapies weighed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even as the National Institutes of Health came under fire last week for giving short shrift to women in the institute's basic and clinical research programs, the report of a recent NIH consensus conference points up the need for more research on how to treat early breast cancer. Although the experts were able to agree on the best surgical treatment for women with early breast cancer, they couldn't resolve the more controversial issue of whether the patients should subsequently receive systemic treatment - chemotherapy or hormone therapy - to prevent recurrence of their disease. The panel reaffirmed that the removal of the lump and nearby lymph nodes, followed by irradiation, is just as effective as a mastectomy. But then came the contentious question: should women with early breast cancer, especially those without detectable lymph node metastases, receive drug therapy to prevent recurrence of the disease? Currently, 70% of such cancers are successfully treated with surgery and radiation alone. For this reason, about 2 years ago, the National Cancer Institute issued a clinical alert saying that addition treatment with drugs or hormones is a credible therapeutic option worthy of careful attention for all early stage patients. This pronouncement engendered a storm of criticism. A consensus panel concluded that in cases where tumors are 1 centimeter or less in diameter and no lymph nodes are affected, the likelihood of recurrence is so small that the benefits of adjuvant therapy would be insignificant. But for the patients with larger tumors, the panel concluded that the decision is an individual one that depends on personal preferences and a variety of prognostic factors that can help to indicate whether a woman is at high risk of having a recurrence and should therefore have adjuvant therapy

  20. Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kemp, W.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    At present, the risk of a woman developing invasive breast cancer during her life is about 1 in 8. This makes breast cancer the most prevalent type of cancer in women worldwide. As the risk of dying from breast cancer for a woman is about 1 in 36, early breast cancer detection and effective treatmen

  1. Automatic breast density classification using neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to studies, the risk of breast cancer directly associated with breast density. Many researches are done on automatic diagnosis of breast density using mammography. In the current study, artifacts of mammograms are removed by using image processing techniques and by using the method presented in this study, including the diagnosis of points of the pectoral muscle edges and estimating them using regression techniques, pectoral muscle is detected with high accuracy in mammography and breast tissue is fully automatically extracted. In order to classify mammography images into three categories: Fatty, Glandular, Dense, a feature based on difference of gray-levels of hard tissue and soft tissue in mammograms has been used addition to the statistical features and a neural network classifier with a hidden layer. Image database used in this research is the mini-MIAS database and the maximum accuracy of system in classifying images has been reported 97.66% with 8 hidden layers in neural network

  2. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Norman F.; Lisa J Martin; Bronskill, Michael; Martin J. Yaffe; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon

    2010-01-01

    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associat...

  3. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  4. Molecular profiling of breast cancer: portraits but not physiognomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancers differ in response to treatment and may have a divergent clinical course despite having a similar histopathological appearance. New technology using DNA microarrays provides a systematic method to identify key markers for prognosis and treatment response by profiling thousands of genes expressed in a single cancer. Microarray profiling of 38 invasive breast cancers now confirms striking molecular differences between ductal carcinoma specimens and suggests a new classification for oestrogen-receptor negative breast cancer. Future approaches will need to include methods for high-throughput clinical validation and the ability to analyze microscopic samples

  5. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  6. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt w...

  7. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  8. Breast cancers in elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Nearly half of the global total of breast cancer cases occurs in patients > 65 years of age. Advanced age at the diagnosis of breast cancer is associated with more favorable tumor biology, as indicated by increased hormone sensitivity, attenuated HER- 2/neu overexpression, and lower grades and proliferative indices Elderly patients, however, are more likely to present with larger and more advanced tumors, and recent reports suggest that lymph node involvement increases with age. Elderly patients care less likely to be treated according to accepted treatment guidelines and under treatment can, as a consequence, have a strong negative impact on survival.Breast cancer in elderly patients represents a great social problem and is expected to remain one of the most common cancers in the next half century. (author)

  9. Short-term outcome of primary operated early breast cancer by hormone and HER-2 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Prognostic subgroup classification of operable breast cancers using cDNA clustering of breast cancer-related genes resembles the classification based on the combined immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of the hormone and HER-2 receptors. We here report the short-term disease-free interval (DFI) of operable breast cancers by their joint hormone receptor/HER-2 phenotype. Patients and methods Short-term follow-up (FU) of ...

  10. Deep Learning for Identifying Metastatic Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dayong; Khosla, Aditya; Gargeya, Rishab; Irshad, Humayun; Beck, Andrew H

    2016-01-01

    The International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) held a grand challenge to evaluate computational systems for the automated detection of metastatic breast cancer in whole slide images of sentinel lymph node biopsies. Our team won both competitions in the grand challenge, obtaining an area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) of 0.925 for the task of whole slide image classification and a score of 0.7051 for the tumor localization task. A pathologist independently reviewed the same...

  11. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening...... from other factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical...

  12. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per;

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges...

  13. Proteomic maps of breast cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyanova, Stefka; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Cox, Juergen; Mann, Matthias; Geiger, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Systems-wide profiling of breast cancer has almost always entailed RNA and DNA analysis by microarray and sequencing techniques. Marked developments in proteomic technologies now enable very deep profiling of clinical samples, with high identification and quantification accuracy. We analysed 40 oestrogen receptor positive (luminal), Her2 positive and triple negative breast tumours and reached a quantitative depth of >10,000 proteins. These proteomic profiles identified functional differences between breast cancer subtypes, related to energy metabolism, cell growth, mRNA translation and cell-cell communication. Furthermore, we derived a signature of 19 proteins, which differ between the breast cancer subtypes, through support vector machine (SVM)-based classification and feature selection. Remarkably, only three proteins of the signature were associated with gene copy number variations and eleven were also reflected on the mRNA level. These breast cancer features revealed by our work provide novel insights that may ultimately translate to development of subtype-specific therapeutics. PMID:26725330

  14. Classification System for Identifying Women at Risk for Altered Partial Breast Irradiation Recommendations After Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalchik, Kristin V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Vallow, Laura A., E-mail: vallow.laura@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McDonough, Michelle [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Thomas, Colleen S.; Heckman, Michael G. [Section of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Peterson, Jennifer L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Adkisson, Cameron D. [Department of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Serago, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McLaughlin, Sarah A. [Department of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To study the utility of preoperative breast MRI for partial breast irradiation (PBI) patient selection, using multivariable analysis of significant risk factors to create a classification rule. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2009, 712 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI at Mayo Clinic Florida. Of this cohort, 566 were retrospectively deemed eligible for PBI according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-39 inclusion criteria using physical examination, mammogram, and/or ultrasound. Magnetic resonance images were then reviewed to determine their impact on patient eligibility. The patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated to determine risk factors for altered PBI eligibility after MRI and to create a classification rule. Results: Of the 566 patients initially eligible for PBI, 141 (25%) were found ineligible because of pathologically proven MRI findings. Magnetic resonance imaging detected additional ipsilateral breast cancer in 118 (21%). Of these, 62 (11%) had more extensive disease than originally noted before MRI, and 64 (11%) had multicentric disease. Contralateral breast cancer was detected in 28 (5%). Four characteristics were found to be significantly associated with PBI ineligibility after MRI on multivariable analysis: premenopausal status (P=.021), detection by palpation (P<.001), first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer (P=.033), and lobular histology (P=.002). Risk factors were assigned a score of 0-2. The risk of altered PBI eligibility from MRI based on number of risk factors was 0:18%; 1:22%; 2:42%; 3:65%. Conclusions: Preoperative bilateral breast MRI altered the PBI recommendations for 25% of women. Women who may undergo PBI should be considered for breast MRI, especially those with lobular histology or with 2 or more of the following risk factors: premenopausal, detection by palpation, and first-degree relative with a history of

  15. Classification System for Identifying Women at Risk for Altered Partial Breast Irradiation Recommendations After Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the utility of preoperative breast MRI for partial breast irradiation (PBI) patient selection, using multivariable analysis of significant risk factors to create a classification rule. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2009, 712 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI at Mayo Clinic Florida. Of this cohort, 566 were retrospectively deemed eligible for PBI according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-39 inclusion criteria using physical examination, mammogram, and/or ultrasound. Magnetic resonance images were then reviewed to determine their impact on patient eligibility. The patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated to determine risk factors for altered PBI eligibility after MRI and to create a classification rule. Results: Of the 566 patients initially eligible for PBI, 141 (25%) were found ineligible because of pathologically proven MRI findings. Magnetic resonance imaging detected additional ipsilateral breast cancer in 118 (21%). Of these, 62 (11%) had more extensive disease than originally noted before MRI, and 64 (11%) had multicentric disease. Contralateral breast cancer was detected in 28 (5%). Four characteristics were found to be significantly associated with PBI ineligibility after MRI on multivariable analysis: premenopausal status (P=.021), detection by palpation (P<.001), first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer (P=.033), and lobular histology (P=.002). Risk factors were assigned a score of 0-2. The risk of altered PBI eligibility from MRI based on number of risk factors was 0:18%; 1:22%; 2:42%; 3:65%. Conclusions: Preoperative bilateral breast MRI altered the PBI recommendations for 25% of women. Women who may undergo PBI should be considered for breast MRI, especially those with lobular histology or with 2 or more of the following risk factors: premenopausal, detection by palpation, and first-degree relative with a history of

  16. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-09

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  17. Breast cancer stem cells: implications for therapy of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Brian J.; Schmidt, Chris W.; Lakhani, Sunil R; Reynolds, Brent A.; Lopez, J. Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The concept of cancer stem cells responsible for tumour origin, maintenance, and resistance to treatment has gained prominence in the field of breast cancer research. The therapeutic targeting of these cells has the potential to eliminate residual disease and may become an important component of a multimodality treatment. Recent improvements in immunotherapy targeting of tumour-associated antigens have advanced the prospect of targeting breast cancer stem cells, an approach that might lead to...

  18. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  19. Mitochondrial Defects in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Salgado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play important roles in cellular energy metabolism, free radical generation, and apoptosis. Mitochondrial DNA has been proposed to be involved in carcinogenesis because of its high susceptibility to mutations and limited repair mechanisms in comparison to nuclear DNA. Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer type among women in the world and, although exhaustive research has been done on nuclear DNA changes, several studies describe a variety of mitochondrial DNA alterations present in breast cancer. In this review article, we to provide a summary of the mitochondrial genomic alterations reported in breast cancer and their functional consequences.

  20. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg;

    2014-01-01

    cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio......AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence...

  1. Breast cancer in Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women.To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 and June 30th 2009 patients presenting with breast lumps were assessed by clinical examination, imaging studies and pathological examination. Relevant clinical and pathological were recorded prospectively data on all patients with microscopically proven breast cancer. The cancers were graded according to the modified Bloom-Richardson system. Tissue immunoperoxidase stains for oestrogen, progesterone receptors and c-erb2 oncogene were performed with commercially prepared antigens and reagents.Nineteen thousand four hundred and twenty – three (19,423) patients were seen during the study period. There were 330 (1.7%) patients with histologically proven breast cancer. The mean age was 49.1 years. A palpable breast lump was detected in 248 patients (75.2%). Two hundred and eighty –one patients (85.2%) presented with Stages III and IV , 271 (82.1%) invasive and 230 ( 85.2%) high grade carcinomas. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 32 and 9 cases respectively. Her2 protein was positive in 11 cases. In Kumasi, as in other parts of Ghana, breast cancer affects mostly young pre-menopausal who present with advanced disease. The cancers have unfavourable prognostic features and are unlikely to respond to hormonal therapy. (au)

  2. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991

  3. MULTI LAYER ARCHITECTURE FOR BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Mishra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the dangerous cancers among women. Due to this, the rate of death increases every year. In order to ease the radiologist task and early detection of breast cancer, multilayer architecture based on dyadic wavelet transform and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM is proposed in this paper. The chain of processes includes; preprocessing, feature extraction and classification. The need for preprocessing is to remove the noise such as background and patient information in the digital mammograms that affects the classification accuracy of the proposed system. In the feature extraction stage, the textural properties of mammograms are extracted by dyadic wavelet transform in various scale of decomposition. In order to reduce the redundancy of dyadic wavelet coefficients, an efficient averaged sub-band concept is developed. Then the features energy and entropy are extracted from the averaged sub-band and fed into the classifier. The classification consists of series of components; the first layer classifies the given mammogram into either normal or abnormal, the second layer decides the type of abnormalities either mass or microcalcification and the final layer classifies the severity of the abnormality into benign or malignant using GMM classifier. The results show that the average classification accuracy obtained at each layer is more than 95% when using the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM database.

  4. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  5. Male breast cancer: is the scenario changing

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni Dhananjay M; Rodrigues Gabriel S; Kaur Kanchan; Contractor Kaiyumars B; Singhal Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The overall incidence of male breast cancer is around 1% of all breast cancers and is on the rise. In this review we aim to present various aspects of male breast cancer with particular emphasis on incidence, risk factors, patho-physiology, treatment, prognostic factors, and outcome. Methods Information on all aspects of male breast cancer was gathered from available relevant literature on male breast cancer from the MEDLINE database over the past 32 years from 1975 to 200...

  6. Molecular classification and treatment of breast cancer%乳腺癌的分子分型及其治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈毅作; 吴炅

    2008-01-01

    Gene profiling studies classify breast carcinomas into five subtypes: Luminal A, Luminal B, normal breast-like, HER-2 overexpressing and basal-like groups. HER-2 overexpressing indicates that they are resistible to the chemotherapy, especially the cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil(CMF) regi-mens, but are sensitive to the anthracycline containing chemotherapy. Lapatinib is still effective to patients who are resistible to herceptin. The basal-like subtype is sensitive to paclitaxel and anthracycline containing preop-erative chemotherapy. The basal-like group with caveolin-1 overexpressing has a good response and safety to the ABI-007. αB-crystallin is probably an independent prognostic indicator of the basal-like subtype.%基因微阵列分析将乳腺癌分为5个亚型:Luminal A、Luminal B、类似正常组织乳腺癌、HER-2阳性及基底样乳腺癌.HER-2高表达预示着对化疗尤其是CMF(环磷酰胺+甲氨蝶呤+5-氟尿嘧啶)方案的抵抗,而对蒽环类为基础药物的化疗方案敏感,拉帕替尼对于耐受赫赛汀的患者仍然有效.基底样亚型在术前化疗中对紫杉类和蒽环类化疗较为敏感.caveolin-1过度表达的基底样亚型乳腺癌对于新型紫杉醇ABI-007有较大的反应性和安全性.αB-晶体蛋白可能是基底样亚型乳腺癌独立的预后指标.

  7. Effects of childhood body size on breast cancer tumour characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although a role of childhood body size in postmenopausal breast cancer risk has been established, less is known about its influence on tumour characteristics. Methods We studied the relationships between childhood body size and tumour characteristics in a Swedish population-based case-control study consisting of 2,818 breast cancer cases and 3,111 controls. Our classification of childhood body size was derived from a nine-level somatotype. Relative risks were estimated by odds ra...

  8. Breast Cancer In Women Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  9. Breast Cancer and Women with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Breast Cancer and Women with Disabilities Language: English Español (Spanish) ... years old, get a mammogram every two years. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. And ...

  10. Portraits of breast cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesan Shridar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clustering analysis of microarray data is often criticized for giving ambiguous results because of sensitivity to data perturbation or clustering techniques used. In this paper, we describe a new method based on principal component analysis and ensemble consensus clustering that avoids these problems. Results We illustrate the method on a public microarray dataset from 36 breast cancer patients of whom 31 were diagnosed with at least two of three pathological stages of disease (atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC. Our method identifies an optimum set of genes and divides the samples into stable clusters which correlate with clinical classification into Luminal, Basal-like and Her2+ subtypes. Our analysis reveals a hierarchical portrait of breast cancer progression and identifies genes and pathways for each stage, grade and subtype. An intriguing observation is that the disease phenotype is distinguishable in ADH and progresses along distinct pathways for each subtype. The genetic signature for disease heterogeneity across subtypes is greater than the heterogeneity of progression from DCIS to IDC within a subtype, suggesting that the disease subtypes have distinct progression pathways. Our method identifies six disease subtype and one normal clusters. The first split separates the normal samples from the cancer samples. Next, the cancer cluster splits into low grade (pathological grades 1 and 2 and high grade (pathological grades 2 and 3 while the normal cluster is unchanged. Further, the low grade cluster splits into two subclusters and the high grade cluster into four. The final six disease clusters are mapped into one Luminal A, three Luminal B, one Basal-like and one Her2+. Conclusion We confirm that the cancer phenotype can be identified in early stage because the genes altered in this stage progressively alter further as the disease progresses through DCIS

  11. Quality indicators for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poortmans, Philip; Aznar, Marianne; Bartelink, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer has considerably changed over the years, from simple simulator-based 2-dimensional techniques to sophisticated image-guided individualized treatments, with maximally protected normal structures. This has led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of breast...

  12. Consumer Health Education. Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.

    This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…

  13. Male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottini, Laura; Palli, Domenico; Rizzo, Sergio; Federico, Mario; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Male breast cancer (MaleBC) is a rare disease, accounting for development; low-penetrance gene mutations (i.e. CHEK-2) are more common but involve a lower risk increase. About 90% of all male breast tumors have proved to be invasive ductal carcinomas, expressing high levels of hormone receptors with evident therapeutic returns. The most common clinical sign of BC onset in men is a painless palpable retroareolar lump, which should be evaluated by means of mammography, ultrasonography and core biopsy or fine needle aspiration (FNA). To date, there are no published data from prospective randomized trials supporting a specific therapeutic approach in MaleBC. Tumor size together with the number of axillary nodes involved are the main prognostic factors and should guide the treatment choice. Locoregional approaches include surgery and radiotherapy (RT), depending upon the initial clinical presentation. When systemic treatment (adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic) is delivered, the choice between hormonal and or chemotherapy (CT) should depend upon the clinical and biological features, according to the FBC management guidelines. However great caution is required because of high rates of age-related comorbidities. PMID:19427229

  14. Mammographic screening for breast cancer: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Warwick; Peters, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, BreastScreen Australia celebrated 20 years of mammographic screening for breast cancer in Australia. There has been a reduction in mortality from breast cancer over the last two decades, coincident with mammographic screening. However, there are concerns that mammographic screening may result in overdiagnosis of breast cancer and that the reduction in mortality from breast cancer is the result of better treatment rather than screening. This article reviews the evidence on which mammo...

  15. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... linking the development of this disease, in many cases, with exposure to the hormone estrogen. The focus of recent breast cancer prevention studies has been on testing the effectiveness of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). SERMs are ...

  16. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  17. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trials is available from the NCI website . Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Breast Cancer Treatment of locally advanced ... NIH). NIH is the federal government’s center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an ...

  19. Dormancy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banys M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Malgorzata Banys,1,2 Andreas D Hartkopf,1 Natalia Krawczyk,1 Tatjana Kaiser,1 Franziska Meier-Stiegen,1 Tanja Fehm,1 Hans Neubauer11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg, Hamburg, GermanyAbstract: Tumor dormancy describes a prolonged quiescent state in which tumor cells are present, but disease progression is not yet clinically apparent. Breast cancer is especially known for long asymptomatic periods, up to 25 years, with no evidence of the disease, followed by a relapse. Factors that determine the cell's decision to enter a dormant state and that control its duration remain unclear. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding how tumor cells circulating in the blood interact and extravasate into secondary sites and which factors might determine whether these cells survive, remain dormant, or become macrometastases. The mechanisms of tumor cell dormancy are still not clear. Two different hypotheses are currently discussed: tumor cells persist either by completely withdrawing from the cell cycle or by continuing to proliferate at a slow rate that is counterbalanced by cell death. Because dormant disseminated tumor cells may be the founders of metastasis, one hypothesis is that dormant tumor cells, or at least a fraction of them, share stem cell-like characteristics that may be responsible for their long half-lives and their suggested resistance to standard chemotherapy. Therefore, knowledge of the biology of tumor cell dormancy may be the basis from which to develop innovative targeted therapies to control or eliminate this tumor cell fraction. In this review, we discuss biological mechanisms and clinical implications of tumor dormancy in breast cancer patients.Keywords: tumor dormancy, disseminated tumor cell, circulating tumor cell, targeted therapy

  20. Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BRCA mutations, including prostate cancer , pancreatic cancer , and testicular cancer . Because breast cancer in men can be caused ... Breast Cancer In Men? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer ...

  1. A CAD System for Identification and Classification of Breast Cancer Tumors in DCE-MR Images Based on Hierarchical Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rastiboroujeni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a computer aided diagnosis (CAD system based on hierarchical convolutional neural networks (HCNNs to discriminate between malignant and benign tumors in breast DCE-MRIs. A HCNN is a hierarchical neural network that operates on two-dimensional images. A HCNN integrates feature extraction and classification processes into one single and fully adaptive structure. It can extract two-dimensional key features automatically, and it is relatively tolerant to geometric and local distortions in input images. We evaluate CNN implementation learning and testing processes based on gradient descent (GD and resilient back-propagation (RPROP approaches. We show that, proposed HCNN with RPROP learning approach provide an effective and robust neural structure to design a CAD base system for breast MRI, and has potential as a mechanism for the evaluation of different types of abnormalities in medical images.

  2. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  3. Leptomeningeal metastases in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Brian J.; Kesari, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) metastasis from breast cancer may be characterized as either parenchymal brain metastasis (BM) or leptomeningeal (LM) metastasis. BM are much more common (about 80% of all CNS metastases), and have been more extensively studied than LM. CNS metastasis in breast cancer has been associated with reduced overall survival, with the shortest survival generally observed in cases of LM. Here, we review the epidemiology, prognostic factors, diagnostic tools, currently avai...

  4. Update on inflammatory breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lerebours, Florence; Bieche, Ivan; Lidereau, Rosette

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is both the least frequent and the most severe form of epithelial breast cancer. The diagnosis is based on clinical inflammatory signs and is reinforced by pathological findings. Significant progress has been made in the management of IBC in the past 20 years. Yet survival among IBC patients is still only one-half that among patients with non-IBC. Identification of the molecular determinants of IBC would probably lead to more specific treatments and to improve...

  5. Endobronchial metastasis in breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Albertini, R E; Ekberg, N L

    1980-01-01

    Ten patients with endobronchial metastasis from primary breast cancer were found among 1200 fibreoptic bronchoscopies. Six of these patients had radiological signs suggesting bronchial obstruction. The diagnosis was verified in nine cases by means of bronchoscopic biopsy or cytology and in one by thoracotomy. Endobronchial metastasis should be considered when symptoms or chest films suggest endobronchial disease in a patient with a history of breast cancer.

  6. Soy Isoflavones Supplementation in Treating Women at High Risk For or With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-06

    BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  7. Clinical profile of patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Based on T. N. M classification, this study was conducted to evaluate the clinical presentation of carcinoma of breast in central part of rural Sindh. Design: This is a 5-year combined study i.e. 3 years retrospective and 2 years prospective. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at People's Medical College Hospital (PMCH) Nawabshah from June 1995 to May, 2000 for a period of five years. Subjects and Methods: Fifty patients having carcinoma breast and admitted to surgical department ware included in study. Results: Eighty four percent of these patients presented in advanced stage of the disease. Well established predisposing factors like early menarche, age at first pregnancy, breast feeding and number of children did not contribute to the risk of developing breast cancer in our patients. Conclusion: Majority of breast cancer patients present in advance stage of the disease, hence can not be benefited from modern methods of treatment. The reasons for this delayed presentation are multi fold and are discussed here. (author)

  8. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pelttari, Liisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possi...

  9. Accurate molecular classification of cancer using simple rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotoh Osamu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One intractable problem with using microarray data analysis for cancer classification is how to reduce the extremely high-dimensionality gene feature data to remove the effects of noise. Feature selection is often used to address this problem by selecting informative genes from among thousands or tens of thousands of genes. However, most of the existing methods of microarray-based cancer classification utilize too many genes to achieve accurate classification, which often hampers the interpretability of the models. For a better understanding of the classification results, it is desirable to develop simpler rule-based models with as few marker genes as possible. Methods We screened a small number of informative single genes and gene pairs on the basis of their depended degrees proposed in rough sets. Applying the decision rules induced by the selected genes or gene pairs, we constructed cancer classifiers. We tested the efficacy of the classifiers by leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV of training sets and classification of independent test sets. Results We applied our methods to five cancerous gene expression datasets: leukemia (acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL] vs. acute myeloid leukemia [AML], lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and leukemia (ALL vs. mixed-lineage leukemia [MLL] vs. AML. Accurate classification outcomes were obtained by utilizing just one or two genes. Some genes that correlated closely with the pathogenesis of relevant cancers were identified. In terms of both classification performance and algorithm simplicity, our approach outperformed or at least matched existing methods. Conclusion In cancerous gene expression datasets, a small number of genes, even one or two if selected correctly, is capable of achieving an ideal cancer classification effect. This finding also means that very simple rules may perform well for cancerous class prediction.

  10. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...

  11. Breast cancer with inguinal node recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Shikha Goyal; Tarun Puri; Pramod K Julka

    2015-01-01

    Surgery and irradiation for breast cancer may interfere with conventional pathways of spread, leading to bizarre patterns of dissemination through lymphatics or through hematogenous route. Lymphoscintigraphic studies may help identify nodal involvement. Other possible reasons could be occurrence of primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue retained in the vulva following involution of milk line. We describe a case of triple negative breast cancer, who developed contralateral breast can...

  12. Conservative treatment for breast cancer. Complications requiring reconstructive surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women who select conservative treatment for carcinoma of the breast (tumor excision followed by supervoltage radiation therapy) place a premium on breast preservation and aesthetics. When local control fails and they require a mastectomy, or when the aesthetic appearance is unacceptable, they may request breast reconstruction. The goal of this study is to evaluate a series of 10 patients who required reconstructive breast surgery after complications of conservative treatment. Patient classification: I. Breast or chest wall necrosis (3). II. Breast fibrosis and gross asymmetry (3). III. Local recurrence of breast cancer (5). IV. Positive margins after the initial lumpectomy (1). The mean age was 34 years. Radiation dosage average was 5252 rads with two patients receiving iridium-192 implant boosts. The reconstructive management was complex and usually required a major musculocutaneous flap because of the radiation effects

  13. [Immunotherapy opportunities in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusztai, Lajos; Ladányi, Andrea; Székely, Borbála; Dank, Magdolna

    2016-03-01

    The prognostic value of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer has long been recognized by histopathologists. These observations were reaffirmed by recent immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling studies that also revealed an association between greater chemotherapy sensitivity and extensive lymphocytic infiltration in early stage breast cancers treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. These results suggest that local anti-tumor immune response can at least partially control cancer growth and may mediate the antitumor effects of chemotherapy. However, until recently, there was no direct clinical evidence to demonstrate that enhancing anti-tumor immune response could lead to clinical benefit in breast cancer patients. The recent development of clinically effective immune checkpoint inhibitors made it possible to test the therapeutic impact of augmenting the local anti-tumor immune response. Two Phase I clinical trials using single agent anti-PD-1 (MK-3475, pembrolizumab) and anti-PD-L1 (MPDL3280A, atezolizumab) antibodies demonstrated close to 20% tumor response rates in heavily pretreated, metastatic, triple negative breast cancers. The most remarkable feature of the responses was their long duration. Several patients had disease control close to a year, or longer, which has not previously been seen with chemotherapy regimens in this patient population. A large number of clinical trials are currently underway with these and similar drugs in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant and metastatic settings to define the role of this new treatment modality in breast cancer. PMID:26934349

  14. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. DNA methylation markers for breast cancer prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dedeurwaerder, Sarah; Fuks, François

    2012-01-01

    Currently, most of the prognostic and predictive gene expression signatures emerging for breast cancer concern the tumor component. In Dedeurwaerder et al. we show that DNA methylation profiling of breast tumors is a particularly sensitive means of capturing features of the immune component of breast tumors. Most importantly, correlation is observed between T-cell marker genes and breast cancer clinical outcome.

  16. What Is Breast Cancer in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the breast are glandular tissue (they make breast milk in women), so cancers starting in these areas are sometimes called adenocarcinomas. ... collections of cells that, in women, produce breast milk) and grows into the ... about 2% of male breast cancers. This is because men do not usually have ...

  17. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  18. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  19. Aromatase Inhibitors and Other Compounds for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  20. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can breast cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes breast cancer? Many risk factors ... Genes have instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  1. Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  2. Breast Cancer: Match of Her Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer The Match of Her Life Past Issues / Spring - ... Martina Navratilova stays strong in her battle against breast cancer and her work to help Americans live healthier, ...

  3. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  4. Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview–for health professionals Research Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer On This Page Can antiperspirants or deodorants cause breast cancer? What do scientists know about the ingredients in ...

  5. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Targeted therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy ... fatigue, and pain at the injection site. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs and anti-androgens LHRH ...

  6. Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Distinguished Medical Service Award for their pioneering breast cancer research. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson, NIH In this ...

  7. Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159781.html Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise Moderate physical activity can ease stress that impairs ... to memory problems among breast cancer survivors, but exercise can help, according to new research. "We found ...

  8. Dilemma of Pregnant Ladies with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zainur Rashid Z; S Sulaiha S A; Lew K G; Nurhana S

    2009-01-01

    Gestational breast cancer (GBC) or pregnancyassociatedbreast cancer was defined as breast cancerdiagnosed during pregnancy and within 1 year ofdelivery. Breast cancer is the second commonest cancerafter cervical seen in pregnancy and lactation.Nevertheless, the incidence is low and accounts forapproximately 1 in 3000 of pregnancies. A delay indiagnosis is common and 70% to 89% of patients withoperable primary lesions already have positive axillarylymph nodes. Breast cancer identified during p...

  9. Sexuality After Breast Cancer: Need for Guideline

    OpenAIRE

    Vaziri, Sh; Lotfi Kashani, F

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical experiences have revealed that patients with breast cancer experience various sexual problems following their treatment. Breast cancer negatively impacts the sexual life of the afflicted couples, and as a traumatic event can influence women’s psychosexual functioning and intimate relationship. This review focuses on sexuality after breast cancer and on a growing need for bio-psycho-social guidelines for breast cancer treatment. Methods This study aims to review the literat...

  10. Energy Balance and Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Alecia; Matthews, Charles E.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Hui; Dai, Qi; Jin, Fan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that a pattern of behavioral exposures indicating positive energy balance [i.e., less exercise/sport activity, high body mass index (BMI), or high energy intake] would be associated with an increased breast cancer risk in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study, a population-based study of 1,459 incident breast cancer cases and 1,556 age frequency-matched controls. Participants completed in-person interviews that collected information on breast cancer risk factors, usual ...

  11. Physical activity and breast cancer survival

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunleye, Adeyemi A; Holmes, Michelle D.

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity improves quality of life after a breast cancer diagnosis, and a beneficial effect on survival would be particularly welcome. Four observational studies have now reported decreased total mortality among physically active women with breast cancer; the two largest have also reported decreased breast cancer specific mortality. The estrogen pathway and the insulin pathway are two potential mechanisms by which physical activity could affect breast cancer survival. Randomized trial...

  12. IMMUNOPHENOTYPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INFLAMMATORY BREAST CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. Berishvili; N. N. Tupitsyn; K. P. Laktionov

    2014-01-01

    The investigation enrolled 31 patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) treated at the N. N. Blokhin Cancer Research Center from 2006 to 2008. IBC is diagnosed on the basis of signs of rapid progression, such as localized or generalized breast induration, red- ness and edema. IBC accounts for less than 5% of all diagnosed breast cancers and is the most lethal form of primary breast cancer. We studied tumor markers of the immunophenotype of IBC and levels and subpopulations of immunocompe...

  13. Multicenter breast cancer collaborative registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Simon; Shats, Oleg; Fleissner, Elizabeth; Bascom, George; Yiee, Kevin; Copur, Mehmet; Crow, Kate; Rooney, James; Mateen, Zubeena; Ketcham, Marsha A; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Gleason, Michael; Kinarsky, Leo; Silva-Lopez, Edibaldo; Edney, James; Reed, Elizabeth; Berger, Ann; Cowan, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breast cancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breast cancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute's Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG(®)) Bronze Compatible product.The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breast cancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC). PMID:21918596

  14. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in one breast only) diagnosed after age 50 Grandmother with breast cancer diagnosed at age 75 Get ... breast cancer diagnosed at age 45 and paternal grandmother (father’s mother) with breast cancer diagnosed at age ...

  15. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures. (orig.)

  16. Breast Cancer Detection Using Interferometric MUSIC: Experimental and Numerical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ruvio, Giuseppe; Solimene, Raffaele; Cuccaro, Antonio; Gaetano, Domenico; Browne, Jacinta; Ammann, Max

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In microwave breast cancer detection, it is often beneficial to arrange sensors in close proximity to the breast. The resultant coupling generally changes the antenna response. As an a priori characterization of the radio frequency system becomes difficult, this can lead to severe degradation of the detection efficacy. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the advantages of adopting an interferometric multiple signal classification (I-MUSIC) approach due to its limited dependen...

  17. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. Fulvestrant and Palbociclib in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Breast Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  19. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... oncology nurse and a registered dietitian. Read More "Screening For Breast Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer ...

  20. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  1. Insights into Orphan Nuclear Receptors as Prognostic Markers and Novel Therapeutic Targets for Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Aesoy, Reidun; Colin D Clyne; Chand, Ashwini L.

    2015-01-01

    There is emerging evidence asserting the importance of orphan nuclear receptors (ONRs) in cancer initiation and progression. In breast cancer, there is a lot unknown about ONRs in terms of their expression profile and their transcriptional targets in the various stages of tumor progression. With the classification of breast tumors into distinct molecular subtypes, we assess ONR expression in the different breast cancer subtypes and with patient outcomes. Complementing this, we review evidence...

  2. Frequential versus spatial colour textons for breast TMA classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carrobles, M Milagro; Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Oscar; Salido, Jesús; García-Rojo, Marcial; Gonzández-López, Lucía

    2015-06-01

    Advances in digital pathology are generating huge volumes of whole slide (WSI) and tissue microarray images (TMA) which are providing new insights into the causes of cancer. The challenge is to extract and process effectively all the information in order to characterize all the heterogeneous tissue-derived data. This study aims to identify an optimal set of features that best separates different classes in breast TMA. These classes are: stroma, adipose tissue, benign and benign anomalous structures and ductal and lobular carcinomas. To this end, we propose an exhaustive assessment on the utility of textons and colour for automatic classification of breast TMA. Frequential and spatial texton maps from eight different colour models were extracted and compared. Then, in a novel way, the TMA is characterized by the 1st and 2nd order Haralick statistical descriptors obtained from the texton maps with a total of 241 × 8 features for each original RGB image. Subsequently, a feature selection process is performed to remove redundant information and therefore to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. Three methods were evaluated: linear discriminant analysis, correlation and sequential forward search. Finally, an extended bank of classifiers composed of six techniques was compared, but only three of them could significantly improve accuracy rates: Fisher, Bagging Trees and AdaBoost. Our results reveal that the combination of different colour models applied to spatial texton maps provides the most efficient representation of the breast TMA. Specifically, we found that the best colour model combination is Hb, Luv and SCT for all classifiers and the classifier that performs best for all colour model combinations is the AdaBoost. On a database comprising 628 TMA images, classification yields an accuracy of 98.1% and a precision of 96.2% with a total of 316 features on spatial textons maps. PMID:25499960

  3. Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Krishnappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer (PSBBC is a rare clinical entity. The reported incidence ranges between 0.3% and 12%. There are several controversial issues regarding PSBBC pertaining to the diagnostic criteria, nomenclature, and management policies. Materials and Methods: Fourteen cases of PSBBC treated between 2001 to 2010 at our institute were retrospectively analysed in regards to demographic data, management and follow up. Results: PSBBC constituted 0.19% of total breast cancer patients at our institute. Age ranged from 28 to 78 years. PSBBC were detected by clinical examination in eight cases and by mammography in six cases. Twelve patients underwent bilateral modified radical mastectomy, one had unilateral mastectomy on one side and breast conservation on the other side and one patient has bilateral breast conservation. Majority of patients belonged to stage 2 and stage 3. All patients were found to have invasive ductal carcinoma. Five cases were ER/PR positive and 8 patients were triple hormone receptor negative. Eight patients received unilateral and six received bilateral adjuvant radiotherapy. Nine patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. 5 patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Median follow up of patients was 15.4 months. Conclusion: PSBBC is a rare event warranting awareness and screening of the contralateral breast in patients with unilateral breast cancer. These patients require individualized treatment planning based on the tumor factors of the index lesion. Further multi institutional prospective studies are needed for adequate understanding of management of PSBBC.

  4. Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Stomach Resembling Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eo, Wan Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are infrequent, with an estimated incidence rate of approximately 0.3%. Gastric metastases usually are derived from lobular rather than from ductal breast cancer. The most frequent type of a breast cancer metastasis as seen on endoscopy to the stomach is linitis plastica; features of a metastatic lesion that resemble early gastric cancer (EGC) are extremely rare. In this report, we present a case of a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from an infi...

  5. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-24

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  6. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  7. Breast cancer. Selected legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynstra, N A

    1994-07-01

    Several legal and ethical issues may arise during the course of screening for and diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Among the most active legal areas are reimbursement for therapies deemed experimental by certain insurance companies, such as high dose chemotherapy/autologous bone marrow transplantation (HDCT/ABMT) and off-label drug use; these reimbursement issues are discussed. Legal issues in mammography screening and insurance coverage and legal issues relative to informed consent in breast cancer treatment also are discussed. PMID:8004625

  8. Breast cancer - background and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary is to provide the reader with a brief overview of the key concepts relating to epidemiology and etiology; clinical presentation and patterns of spread; Canadian guidelines for management; prognosis; and current Canadian screening recommendations in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. This information will enable the reader to have the appropriate background knowledge before delving into the subsequent articles in this special CJMRT breast cancer edition. A variety of references have been provided for readers who are interested in more than a skeleton version of the current literature. (author)

  9. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  10. Susceptibility to breast cancer Cuban families and intervention strategy proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In breast cancer, as in most cancers, mutations usually occur in somatic cells, but sometimes occur in germ cells. The carriers of these mutations germ have up to 80% risk of having the disease course of their lives and pass it on to their offspring, they are called hereditary cancers. In this work studied 50 tested history relatives of this neoplasm from consulting advice genetic hereditary breast cancer. The tree was made pedigree of the family of each test and been classified risk using the criteria of Hampel et al. Other malignancies were identified through the analysis of pedigrees and performed syndromic classification of families. It develops an algorithm for the care of breast cancer families hereditary and plotted strategies identified by risk taking that each category implies a different intervention. It recommended to continue studying the value of marking lesions subclinical and train staff to perform this technique for its widespread use in the country. (Author)

  11. Breast Cancer Biology and Ethnic Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality in New Zealand: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Lawrenson, Ross; Scott, Nina; Kim, Boa; Shirley, Rachel; Campbell, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Indigenous Māori women have a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We investigated differences in cancer biological characteristics and their impact on breast cancer mortality disparity between Māori and NZ European women. Materials and Methods Data on 2849 women with primary invasive breast cancers diagnosed between 1999 and 2012 were extracted from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register. Differences in distribution of cancer biologica...

  12. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  13. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  14. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  15. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  16. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J.; Joshi, Amit D.; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I. Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of eviden

  17. PCNA immunostaining in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, M C; Furnival, C M; Parsons, P G; Townsend, E

    1993-08-01

    Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) has been shown to be of prognostic value in patients with certain types of cancer. The aim of this study was to determine if the abundance of PCNA is inversely correlated with survival of patients with breast cancer. Paraffin blocks were available from 68 patients, all of whom had been followed clinically for at least 5 years. Sections from 20 patients showed no reactivity to PCNA and were excluded from the study because it was not possible to distinguish between true negatives and false negatives (those due to poor fixation of the original specimens). The PCNA index (the number of stained cancer cells as a percentage of the total number of cancer cells present) was calculated for the remaining 48 patients. Results were analysed by Wilcoxon's rank sum test (two tailed) and Pearson's correlation coefficient. There was no statistical difference between the PCNA indices of those patients dead from their disease within 5 years of diagnosis compared with those alive and without signs of breast cancer at 5 years. There was also no correlation between PCNA index and size of the cancer, involvement of axillary lymph nodes, time to recurrence or time to death. There was, however, a significant correlation between PCNA index and histological grade (P = 0.029). It appears that PCNA staining of stored paraffin sections is of little prognostic value in patients with breast cancer. PMID:8101708

  18. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Larner, F; Woodley, LN; Shousha, S; Moyes, A; Humphreys-Williams, E; Strekopytov, S; Halliday, AN; Rehkämper, M; Coombes, RC

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn i...

  19. Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size News » Filed under: Breast Cancer Report: Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990 Article date: ... American Cancer Society finds that death rates from breast cancer in the United States have dropped 34% since ...

  20. Prognostic value of breast cancer subtypes on breast cancer specific survival, distant metastases and local relapse rates in conservatively managed early stage breast cancer: a retrospective clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Sanpaolo, Pietro; Barbieri, Viviana; Genovesi, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    International audience To ascertain if breast cancer subtypes had prognostic effect on breast cancer specific survival, distant metastases and local relapse rates in women affected by early stage breast cancer.

  1. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Düring, Maria; Henriksen, Trine Foged;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  2. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  3. Nanoparticle-based Paclitaxel vs Solvent-based Paclitaxel as Part of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer (GeparSepto)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  4. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed By Aldesleukin and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Inflammatory Stage IIIB or Metastatic Stage IV Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  5. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard;

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development and...... optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria...

  6. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard;

    2010-01-01

    optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development and...

  7. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  8. Sexuality After Breast Cancer: Need for Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaziri Sh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical experiences have revealed that patients with breast cancer experience various sexual problems following their treatment. Breast cancer negatively impacts the sexual life of the afflicted couples, and as a traumatic event can influence women’s psychosexual functioning and intimate relationship. This review focuses on sexuality after breast cancer and on a growing need for bio-psycho-social guidelines for breast cancer treatment. Methods: This study aims to review the literature on management, psychological outcomes and sexual dysfunction in patients with breast cancer. Results: Although the benefits of the current treatment strategies are well established, many cancer survivors are at risk for developing psycho physiological symptoms including sexual dysfunction. Cancer and treatment-related factors can influence sexual functioning. We review current treatment -related side effects on sexual functioning such as desire, arousal and orgasm in breast cancer patients. Despite the impact of medical treatment on survival of patients with breast cancer, no satisfactory steps have been taken towards improving sexual functioning of these patients. Conclusion: Breast cancer affects many aspects of sexuality, including changes in physical functioning and in the perception of feminity. Sexual dysfunction following breast cancer should be diagnosed and managed as a systematic approach with multidisciplinary inputs. Healthcare professionals should assess the effects of medical and surgical treatment on the sexuality of breast cancer survivors.

  9. Adipocytokines and breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Wen-wen; FU Chun-li; SUN Yu; WU Qing; CHEN Li

    2007-01-01

    Background Many researches suggested that obesity increased the risk of breast cancer, but the mechanism was currently unknown. Adipocytokines might mediate the relationship. Our study was aimed to investigate the relationship between serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin and the onset, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.Methods Blood samples were collected from 80 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipids, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were assayed simultaneously.Results Serum levels of adiponectin ((8.60±2.92) mg/L vs (10.37±2.81) mg/L, P=0.001) and HDL-c were significantly decreased in breast cancer patients in comparison to controls. Serum levels of resistin ((26.35±5.36) μg/L vs (23.32±4.75)μg/L, P=0.000), leptin ((1.35±0.42) μg/L vs (1.06±0.39) μg/L, P=0.003), FBG and triglyceride (TG) in breast cancer patients were increased in contrast to controls, respectively. However, we did not find the significant difference of the serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin between premenopausal breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P=0.091, 0.109 and 0.084, respectively). The serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were significantly different between patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and those without LNM (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.006, respectively).The stepwise regression analysis indicated that the tumor size had the close correlation with leptin (R2=0.414, P=0.000)and FBG (R2=0.602, P=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced serum levels of adiponectin (OR:0.805;95%CI: 0.704-0.921; P=0.001), HDL (OR: 0.087; 95%CI: 0.011-0.691, P=0.021), elevated leptin (OR:2.235;95%CI:1.898-4.526; P=0.004) and resistin (OR: 1.335; 95%CI: 1.114-2.354; P=0.012) increased the risk for

  10. Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R;

    2013-01-01

    Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....

  11. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  12. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stimulate the growth of breast cancer cells: Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) bind to estrogen receptors , preventing estrogen from binding. Examples of SERMs approved by the FDA are tamoxifen (Nolvadex®), ... called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs), inhibit an enzyme ...

  13. Mouse Stirs up Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen Pilcher; 孙雯

    2004-01-01

    @@ The humble house mouse could be more dangerous than we thought,according to a study that suggests a rodent① virus plays a role in the development of breast cancer. But the finding is contentious② and reignites③ a long-standing④wrangle⑤ about the potential⑥ causes of the disease.

  14. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J;

    2015-01-01

    comparisons, including three loci at 1q21.2, DNAJC27, and CCDC91 at genome-wide significance level P < 5×10(-8). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides strong evidence that adult height is a risk factor for breast cancer in women and certain genetic factors and biological pathways affecting adult height have an...

  15. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  16. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard;

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  17. Mutation analysis of breast cancer gene BRCA among breast cancer Jordanian females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To screen mutations of the tumor suppressor breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) within 3 exons among Jordanian breast cancer females. A total of 135 Jordanian breast cancer females were genetically analyzed by denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) for mutation detection in 3 BRCA1 exons (2, 11 and 20) between 2000-2002 in Al-Basheer Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Of the studied patients 50 had a family history of breast cancer, 28 had a family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and 57 had no family history of any cancer. Five germline mutations were detected among breast cancer females with a family history of breast cancers (one in exon 2 and 4 mutations in exon 11). Another germline mutation (within exon 11) was detected among breast cancer females with family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and no mutation was detected among breast cancer females with no family history of any cancer or among normal control females. Screening mutations within exon 2, exon 11 and exon 20 showed that most screened mutations were within BRCA1 exon 11 among breast cancer Jordanian families with a family history of breast cancer. (author)

  18. Breast cancer with inguinal node recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgery and irradiation for breast cancer may interfere with conventional pathways of spread, leading to bizarre patterns of dissemination through lymphatics or through hematogenous route. Lymphoscintigraphic studies may help identify nodal involvement. Other possible reasons could be occurrence of primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue retained in the vulva following involution of milk line. We describe a case of triple negative breast cancer, who developed contralateral breast cancer during treatment. Three years later, she developed isolated inguinal nodal metastases, which responded to local radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the patient relapsed after 2 years and could not be salvaged thereafter

  19. Breast cancer with inguinal node recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Shikha; Puri, Tarun; Julka, Pramod K

    2015-03-01

    Surgery and irradiation for breast cancer may interfere with conventional pathways of spread, leading to bizarre patterns of dissemination through lymphatics or through hematogenous route. Lymphoscintigraphic studies may help identify nodal involvement. Other possible reasons could be occurrence of primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue retained in the vulva following involution of milk line. We describe a case of triple negative breast cancer, who developed contralateral breast cancer during treatment. Three years later, she developed isolated inguinal nodal metastases, which responded to local radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the patient relapsed after 2 years and could not be salvaged thereafter. PMID:25455282

  20. Bilateral breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Jun, Hwang Yoon; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical features of bilateral breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records(n=23) and mammograms (n=15) of 23 patients with bilateral breast cancer. Patients' age, location of the tumor and pathologic staging were determined from clinical records. Mammographic features were classified as spiculated mass, nonspiculated mass, mass with microcalcification, microcalcification only, asymmetric density, and normal. Of the 23 cases of bilateral breast cancer, 8(34.8%) were synchronous and 15(65.2%) were metachronous. Age at diagnosis of cancer in the first breast was between 27 and 59(mean 43) years ; there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between patients with synchronous and metachronous cancer. The mean interval between the diagnosis of each lesion of the metachronous pairs was 9.1 years. In 11 of 23 cases(48%), tumors were locaated in the same quadrant, and in the other 12 cases(52%), they were in different quadrant. At mammography, five of 15 metachronous cancers(33%) were similar in appearance and 10 pairs(67%) were different. In 4 of 23 cases(17%), cancer in the first breast was at stage 0 and stage 1, and in 13 of 23(57%), cancer in the second breast was at this same stage. In bilateral breast cancer, the two breasts frequently show different mammographic features. Cancer of the second breast was at an early stage; this suggest that regular examination and mammography are important and can allow early detection of contralateral breast cancer.

  1. Risk, Characteristics, and Prognosis of Breast Cancer after Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Veit-Rubin, Nikolaus; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Vinh Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Bouchardy Magnin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.

  2. RECURRENCE PATTERN FOLLOWING BREAST - CONSERVING SURGERY FOR EARLY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the Local Recurrence and metastasis pattern after Breast - Conserving Surgery for early breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2014 in department of surgery in VIMS Bellary, 70 patients with stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma were treated with breast - conserving surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. In this study we investigated the prognostic value of clinical and pathological factors in early breast cancer patients treated with BCS. All of the surgeries were performed by a single surgical team. Recurrence and its risk factors were evaluated.

  3. HSP90 Inhibitor AT13387 and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Advanced Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-08

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  4. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects more likely to occur after breast cancer treatment include: Lymphedema Post-mastectomy pain syndrome Chemo brain If the cancer comes back (recurs) If cancer does recur, your treatment options will depend on the location of the ...

  5. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  6. Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene1 (BRCA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiksiri, S.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene1 (BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene for breast and ovarian cancers. The gene locates at chromosome 17q21 and encodes for 1863 amino acids protein. It is believed that BRCA1 protein is involved in many functions such as DNA repair, centrosome replication, cell cycle checkpoint and replication of other genes. More than 800 mutations have been found in the population with an increased risk of cancer incidence in their families. Germ-line mutation of BRCA1 accounts for 5-10 percent of all breast cancer cases. Epigenetic modifications also reduce the function of normal BRCA1 gene. Several methods are used for laboratory diagnosis of cancer-related mutations. The development of breast cancer in carriers at risk with BRCA1 mutations may be prevented by suitable prevention plans such as breast cancer screening, ovarian cancer screening, surgery and cancer chemotherapy.

  7. Overactive Thyroid Linked to Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157203.html Overactive Thyroid Linked to Breast Cancer Risk But researchers added ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women who have an overactive thyroid gland might be at greater risk for breast ...

  8. Molecular Classification and Correlates in Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ogino, Shuji; Goel, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Molecular classification of colorectal cancer is evolving. As our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis improves, we are incorporating new knowledge into the classification system. In particular, global genomic status [microsatellite instability (MSI) status and chromosomal instability (CIN) status] and epigenomic status [CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status] play a significant role in determining clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of colorectal cancer. In thi...

  9. The Adjunctive Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Lung Yang; Huei-Lung Liang; Chen-Pin Chou; Jer-Shyung Huang; Huay-Ben Pan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and digital mammography (DM) for breast cancers. Materials and Methods. Fifty-seven female patients with pathologically proved breast cancer were enrolled. Three readers gave a subjective assessment superiority of the index lesions (mass, focal asymmetry, architectural distortion, or calcifications) and a forced BIRADS score, based on DM reading alone and with additional DBT information. The relevance between...

  10. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  11. Molecular genetics of breast cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurður Ingvarsson 1956

    1999-01-01

    Somatic changes in the genome of breast cancer cells include amplifications, deletions and gene mutations. Several chromosome regions harboring known oncogenes are found amplified in breast tumors. Despite the high number of chromosome regions deleted in breast tumors the functional relationship to known genes at these locations and cancer growth is mainly undiscovered. Mutations in two tumor suppressor genes (TSG) have been described in a subset of breast carcinomas. These TSG are the TP53, ...

  12. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  13. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  14. Triciribine Phosphate, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-13

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  15. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride and Cyclophosphamide Followed by Paclitaxel With or Without Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  16. Breast cancer and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism

  17. Primary breast lymphoma in the right breast during treatment for left breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuzawa Kengo; Kinoshita Tadahiko; Iwashita Yukio; Nishimura Ataru; Nagata Shigeyuki; Tashiro Hideya; Wakasugi Kenzo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary breast lymphoma is a rare condition, and distinguishing it from breast cancer is important because their treatments differ radically. Moreover, a recent report showed that mastectomy offered no benefit in the treatment of primary breast lymphoma. Case presentation A 59-year-old woman was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and local radiation after surgery for left breast cancer. She presented with a rapidly growing mass in the right breast at 20 months after surger...

  18. Noncoding RNAs in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Pang-Kuo; Wolfson, Benjamin; Zhou, Xipeng; Duru, Nadire; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Zhou, Qun

    2016-05-01

    The mammalian transcriptome has recently been revealed to encompass a large number of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that play a variety of important regulatory roles in gene expression and other biological processes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the best studied of the short noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), have been extensively characterized with regard to their biogenesis, function and importance in tumorigenesis. Another class of sncRNAs called piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) has also gained attention recently in cancer research owing to their critical role in stem cell regulation. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) of >200 nucleotides in length have recently emerged as key regulators of developmental processes, including mammary gland development. lncRNA dysregulation has also been implicated in the development of various cancers, including breast cancer. In this review, we describe and discuss the roles of sncRNAs (including miRNAs and piRNAs) and lncRNAs in the initiation and progression of breast tumorigenesis, with a focus on outlining the molecular mechanisms of oncogenic and tumor-suppressor ncRNAs. Moreover, the current and potential future applications of ncRNAs to clinical breast cancer research are also discussed, with an emphasis on ncRNA-based diagnosis, prognosis and future therapeutics. PMID:26685283

  19. Molecular classification of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, N-Y; Tan, P

    2016-05-01

    Gastric cancer (GC), a heterogeneous disease characterized by epidemiologic and histopathologic differences across countries, is a leading cause of cancer-related death. Treatment of GC patients is currently suboptimal due to patients being commonly treated in a uniform fashion irrespective of disease subtype. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and other genomic technologies, GCs are now being investigated in great detail at the molecular level. High-throughput technologies now allow a comprehensive study of genomic and epigenomic alterations associated with GC. Gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations, differential gene expression and epigenetic alterations are some of the genetic/epigenetic influences on GC pathogenesis. In addition, integrative analyses of molecular profiling data have led to the identification of key dysregulated pathways and importantly, the establishment of GC molecular classifiers. Recently, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) network proposed a four subtype classification scheme for GC based on the underlying tumor molecular biology of each subtype. This landmark study, together with other studies, has expanded our understanding on the characteristics of GC at the molecular level. Such knowledge may improve the medical management of GC in the future. PMID:26861606

  20. E-Cadherin as a diagnostic biomarker in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Singhai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: E-cadherin is expressed in most normal epithelial tissues. Selective loss of E-cadherin can cause dedifferentiation and invasiveness in human carcinomas, leading E-cadherin to be classified as a tumor suppressor. Loss of E-cadherin has been demonstrated in invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, but the relationship between E-cadherin expression and breast cancer histopathology and prognosis is less clear. Aim: Our objective was to assess loss of E-cadherin as a diagnostic breast cancer biomarker and as an aid to the sub-classification of invasive breast cancer. We also correlated the loss of expression of E-cadherin with various clinical and pathologic prognostic factors. Material and Methods: Breast cancer specimens after modified radical mastectomy were obtained from women who underwent surgery at Grant Medical College and Sir J.J Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, India between May 2007 and October 2010. We stained 276 breast cancers specimens with monoclonal antibodies to E-cadherin. The breast cancers were classified by histopathological type. Results: A statistical correlation of E-cadherin loss with a positive diagnosis of invasive lobular carcinoma was found, but there was no correlation with any prognostic tumor variables. A negative E-cadherin stain was a sensitive and specific biomarker to confirm the diagnosis of invasive lobular carcinoma (specificity 97.7%; negative predictive value 96.8%; sensitivity 88.1%; and positive predictive value 91.2%. Positive E-cadherin expression was also associated with tubulolobular carcinomas. Conclusions: E-cadherin immunohistochemistry is helpful in classifying breast cancer cases with indeterminate histopathologic features. E-cadherin loss is uncommon in non-lobular carcinomas but shows no correlation to currently established prognostic variables.

  1. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  2. Diet and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotepui, Manas

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  3. Immunohistochemical Expression of Survivin in Breast Carcinoma: Relationship with Clinico pathological Parameters, Proliferation and Molecular Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and Objective: Survivin is a novel member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene family. It is associated with more aggressive behavior and parameters of poor prognosis in most human cancers including gastric, colorectal and bladder carcinomas. However, conflicting data exist on its prognostic effect in breast cancer. This current study is designed to assess survivin expression in breast carcinoma relating results with clinico pathological parameters, proliferation (MIB-1) and molecular classification. Material and Methods: Our retrospective study com- prised of 65 archived cases of breast carcinoma. Samples from the tumor and the adjacent normal breast tissue were immuno stained for survivin and MIB-1. Nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin expression was evaluated in normal breast tissue and carcinoma regarding both the intensity and the percentage of positive cells. ER, PR, HER2 were used as surrogate markers to classify the cases into four molecular subtypes. Results: Survivin expression was detected in 78.5% of breast carcinomas. The adjacent normal breast tissue was immuno negative. Survivin expression showed significant association with increased tumor size ( p <0.0001), high histologic grade ( p =0.04), lymph node metastases ( p <0.001), advanced tumor stage ( p <0.0001), MIB-1 expression ( p =0.02), negative estrogen receptor status ( p =0.01) and negative progesterone receptor status ( p <0.0001). The subcellular localization of survivin significantly related to histologic grade, stage and lymph node involvement. The percentage of TNP (triple negative phenotype) and HER2+/ER-PR- tumors expressing survivin were significantly higher compared to the Luminal subtypes ( p =0.01). Conclusion: Survivin expression was associated with parameters of poor prognosis in breast cancer. Moreover, the cancer-specific expression of survivin, coupled with its importance in inhibiting cell death and in regulating cell division, makes it a potential target for novel

  4. 78 FR 61805 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... clinical breast exams. Whether you are looking for information about breast cancer prevention, treatment of... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9028 of September 30, 2013 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By... solidarity with those battling breast cancer and those at risk for breast cancer. This disease touches......

  5. [Breast cancer in Sub-Saharan African women: review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Madani; Antoine, Martine; André, Fabrice; Callard, Patrice; Bernaudin, Jean-François; Diallo, Dapa A

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer is the second most frequent cancer in Sub-Saharan African women with an incidence of 15-53 per 100,000 women. Using PubMed, we reviewed all the articles published on this topic between 1989 and 2009. Breast cancer is usually diagnosed in women younger than in developed countries (mean age: 42-53 years), with later stages (III or IV, i.e. with axillary nodes and distant metastases). Reported tumors are mostly invasive ductal carcinomas with aggressive characteristics: grade III histoprognosis, absence of hormonal receptors or HER2 expression. According to the new breast cancer classification, nearly half of these tumors should be classified as triple negative. However, studies are rare and require confirmation. In conclusion, data on epidemiology and biology of breast cancer in Sub-Saharan African women are still scarce and need more extensive studies. In these countries, the pattern of breast cancer will likely change in the future, according to the evolution of lifestyle namely urbanisation. There is a great need for commitment of research and clinical resources in Sub-Saharan Africa in order to develop specific strategies. PMID:21700549

  6. Skp2 is over-expressed in breast cancer and promotes breast cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenwen; Cao, Lulu; Sun, Zijia; Xu, Jing; Tang, Lin; Chen, Weiwei; Luo, Jiayan; Yang, Fang; Wang, Yucai; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-05-18

    The F box protein Skp2 is oncogenic. Skp2 and Skp2B, an isoform of Skp2 are overexpressed in breast cancer. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which Skp2B promotes the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Here, we determined the expression and clinical outcomes of Skp2 in breast cancer samples and cell lines using breast cancer database, and investigated the role of Skp2 and Skp2B in breast cancer cell growth, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We obtained Skp2 is significantly overexpressed in breast cancer samples and cell lines, and high Skp2 expression positively correlated with poor prognosis of breast cancer. Both Skp2 and Skp2B could promote breast cancer cell proliferation, inhibit cell apoptosis, change the cell cycle distribution and induce the increased S phase cells and therefore induce cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. Moreover, the 2 isoforms could both suppress PIG3 expression via independent pathways in the breast cancer cells. Skp2 suppressed p53 and inhibited PIG3-induced apoptosis, while Skp2B attenuated the function of PIG3 by inhibiting PHB. Our results indicate that Skp2 and Skp2B induce breast cancer cell development and progression, making Skp2 and Skp2B potential molecular targets for breast cancer therapy. PMID:27111245

  7. Menopausal hot flushes after breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fenlon, D.R.; Corner, J.L.; Haviland, J

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed to improve understanding of the natural history and impact of hot flushes after breast cancer. Data were collected from women participating in an RCT of relaxation to reduce the incidence of flushes from breast cancer follow-up clinics from two hospitals in South-East England. Repondents were 150 women experiencing hot flushes following completion of primary treatment for breast cancer. This study utilized a flush diary, the Hot Flushes and Night Sweats Questionnaire (HFNSQ...

  8. The p53 pathway in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gasco, Milena; Shami, Shukri; Crook, Tim

    2002-01-01

    p53 mutation remains the most common genetic change identified in human neoplasia. In breast cancer, p53 mutation is associated with more aggressive disease and worse overall survival. The frequency of mutation in p53 is, however, lower in breast cancer than in other solid tumours. Changes, both genetic and epigenetic, have been identified in regulators of p53 activity and in some downstream transcriptional targets of p53 in breast cancers that express wild-type p53. Molecular pathological an...

  9. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s) and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  10. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  11. Breast cancer and socio-economic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Chagpar, Anees B.; Mario Coccia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is twofold – on the one hand, to analyze the relationship between incidence of breast cancer, income per capita and medical equipment across countries; after that, the study here discusses the drivers of the incidence of breast cancer across countries in order to pinpoint differences and similarities. Methods: The indicators used are incidence of breast cancer based on Age-standardized rate (ASW); Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita by purchasing power parit...

  12. Does Diet Affect Breast Cancer Risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Michelle D; Willett, Walter C.

    2004-01-01

    The role of specific dietary factors in breast cancer causation is not completely resolved. Results from prospective studies do not support the concept that fat intake in middle life has a major relation to breast cancer risk. However, weight gain in middle life contributes substantially to breast cancer risk. Alcohol is the best established dietary risk factor, probably by increasing endogenous estrogen levels. Hypotheses relating diet during youth to risk decades later will be difficult to ...

  13. Adulthood lifetime physical activity and breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Peplonska, Beata; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hartman, Terryl J.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Blair, Aaron; Zatonski, Witold; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown that breast cancer risk is reduced 30% to 40% in highly physically active compared with inactive women. However, the effects of moderate activities, timing of activities, and intervening effects of other risk factors remain less clear. METHODS: We analyzed data on physical activity patterns in 2176 incident breast cancer cases and 2326 controls in a population-based breast cancer case-control study in Poland conducted in 2000-2003. Using unconditio...

  14. Pilot Implementation of Breast Cancer Early Detection Programs in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, Raúl; Díaz, Sandra; Sánchez, Oswaldo; Perry, Fernando; Piñeros, Marion; Poveda, César; Salguero, Edgar; Osorio, Dimelza

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is increasing in developing countries, and Colombia has a double burden from cervical and breast cancer. Suitable guidelines for breast cancer early detection are needed, and the Breast Health Global Initiative provides a favorable framework for breast cancer control in low resource nations. The Colombian National Cancer Institute developed evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer early detection in which coordinated early detection in symptomatic women and hospital-based scr...

  15. Prognostic factors of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prognostic factors must to be differentiated of the predictive ones. A prognostic factor is any measurement used at moment of the surgery correlated with the free interval of disease or global survival in the absence of the systemic adjuvant treatment and as result is able to correlate with the natural history of the disease. In contrast, a predictive factor is any measurement associated with the response to a given treatment. Among the prognostic factors of the breast cancer are included the clinical, histological, biological, genetic and psychosocial factors. In present review of psychosocial prognostic factors has been demonstrated that the stress and the depression are negative prognostic factors in patients presenting with breast cancer. It is essential to remember that the assessment of just one prognostic parameter is a help but it is not useful to clinical and therapeutic management of the patient.(author)

  16. Endocrine therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book results from a meeting of the ESO (European School of Oncology) Task Force on endocrine aspects of breast cancer. The contributions stem from some of the most outstanding researchers in Europe and highlight mainly methodological issues and new avenues for future research. The chapters on basic research deal primarily with experimental strategies for studying the relationship between steroid hormones, growth factors, and oncongenes. The clinically oriented chapters treat the methodology of clinical trials. Provocative questions are raised, such as: What are the pitfalls in endocrine trials? What does statistical proof mean? How can we consider a quality of life endpoint in the adjuvant setting? Two special reports deal with the controversial issues of chemoprevention in high-risk normal women and the optimization of the hormonal contribution to the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer. Topics considered included oncogenic transformations, radiotherapy, steroid hormones, cell proliferation, tamoxifen, and preventive medicine

  17. Gene Therapy in Human Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Abaan, Ogan D.

    2002-01-01

    Gene therapy, being a novel treatment for many diseases, is readily applicable for the treatment of cancer patients. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. There are many clinical protocols for the treatment of breast cancer, and gene therapy is now being considered within current protocols. This review will focus on the basic concepts of cancer gene therapy strategies (suicide gene, tumor suppressor gene, anti-angiogenesis, immunotherapy, oncolytic viruses and ribozyme/antisens...

  18. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  19. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  20. Breast cancer and the consumption of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, L; Miller, D R; Helmrich, S P; Kaufman, D W; Schottenfeld, D; Stolley, P D; Shapiro, S

    1985-09-01

    The hypothesis has been raised that coffee consumption may increase the incidence of breast cancer, based on the report that fibrocystic breast disease, a risk factor for breast cancer, regresses after abstention from coffee and other methylxanthines. The relation between recent coffee consumption and the risk of breast cancer was evaluated in a case-control study, based on interviews conducted 1975-1982 at several mainly eastern US teaching and community hospitals. The responses of 2,651 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer were compared with those of 1,501 controls with nonmalignant conditions and 385 controls with cancers at other sites. The relative risk estimates for levels of coffee drinking up to seven or more cups daily, relative to none, approximated 1.0 with narrow 95% confidence intervals. After allowance for confounding, the relative risk estimate for drinking at least five cups a day was 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.6) using the noncancer controls and 1.1 (0.7-1.6) using the cancer controls. Coffee consumption was not associated with an increase in the risk of breast cancer among women with a history of fibrocystic breast disease, nor were tea or decaffeinated coffee associated with an increase in the risk of breast cancer. The results suggest that the recent consumption of coffee does not influence the incidence of breast cancer. PMID:4025289

  1. Co-existent breast and renal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Üreyen, Orhan; Dadalı, Emrah; Akdeniz, Fırat; Şahin, Tamer; Tekeli, Mehmet Tahsin; Eliyatkın, Nuket; Postacı, Hakan; İLHAN, Enver

    2015-01-01

    The concomitant presence of breast cancer with one or more other types of cancer such as colon, vulva, lung, larynx, liver, uterus and kidneys has been presented in the literature. However, synchronous breast and renal cancer is very uncommon. Herein we present a woman with synchronous breast and renal cancer, and review the literature. A 77-year-old post-menopausal woman was admitted to our clinic complaining of left sided breast mass. On physical examination, there was a 3 cm palpable mass ...

  2. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  3. Breast cancer management: Past, present and evolving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is known from ancient time,and the treatment strategy evolved as our understanding of the disease changed with time. In 460 BC Hippocrates described breast cancer as a humoral disease and presently after a lot of studies breast cancer is considered as a local disease with systemic roots. For most of the twentieth century Halsted radical mastectomy was the "established and standardized operation for cancer of the breast in all stages, early or late". New information about tumor biology and its behavior suggested that less radical surgery might be just as effective as the more extensive one. Eventually, with the use of adjuvant therapy likeradiation and systemic therapy, the extent of surgical resection in the breast and axilla got reduced further and led to an era of breast conservation. The radiation treatment of breast cancer has evolved from 2D to 3D Conformal and to accelarated partial breast irradiation, aiming to reduce normal tissue toxicity and overall treatment time. Systemic therapy in the form of hormone therapy, chemotherapy and biological agents is now a well-established modality in treatment of breast cancer. The current perspective of breast cancer management is based on the rapidly evolving and increasingly integrated study on the genetic, molecular , biochemical and cellular basis of disease. The challenge for the future is to take advantage of this knowledge for the prediction of therapeutic outcome and develop therapies and rapidly apply more novel biologic therapeutics.

  4. Association between breast and thyroid cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association

  5. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-02

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  6. A resampling-based meta-analysis for detection of differential gene expression in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ergul Gulusan; Bozkurt Betul; Ozturk Ahmet; Kir Serkan; Konu Ozlen; Gur-Dedeoglu Bala; Yulug Isik G

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Accuracy in the diagnosis of breast cancer and classification of cancer subtypes has improved over the years with the development of well-established immunohistopathological criteria. More recently, diagnostic gene-sets at the mRNA expression level have been tested as better predictors of disease state. However, breast cancer is heterogeneous in nature; thus extraction of differentially expressed gene-sets that stably distinguish normal tissue from various pathologies pose...

  7. Long-term side effects of adjuvant breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast cancer accounts for one-third of all cancers in females and 24% of the patients are younger than 55 years of age. More than 10% all Dutch women will develop breast cancer and 70-80% of all breast cancer patients will survive over 5 years.

  8. Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases in Their Sentinel Lymph Nodes May Not Need Axillary Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and data sets for researchers Research by Cancer Type Find research about a specific cancer type Progress Annual Report ... Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home Cancer Types Breast Cancer Research Breast Cancer Patient Breast Cancer Treatment Male Breast ...

  9. Manganese superoxide dismutase and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann; Lash, Timothy;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inhibits oxidative damage and cancer therapy effectiveness. A polymorphism in its encoding gene (SOD2: Val16Ala rs4880) may confer poorer breast cancer survival, but data are inconsistent. We examined the association of SOD2 genotype and breast......-metastatic breast cancer from 1990-2001, received adjuvant Cyclo, and were registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. We identified 118 patients with BCR and 213 matched breast cancer controls. We genotyped SOD2 and used conditional logistic regression to compute the odds ratio (OR) and associated 95...... cancer recurrence (BCR) among patients treated with cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy (Cyclo). We compared our findings with published studies using meta-analyses. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of BCR among women in Jutland, Denmark. Subjects were diagnosed with non...

  10. Breast cancer in women using digoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggar, Robert J; Andersen, Louise Elisabeth; Kroman, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Digoxin use is associated with increased incidence of breast and uterus cancers. We postulated that digoxin use might affect tumor characteristics and increase relapse risk in women with breast cancer. METHODS: Incident breast cancer cases in Danish women (n = 49,312; 1995 to 2008...... Cox regression models. RESULTS: At diagnosis, tumors in digoxin users were more likely ER+ (85.4% vs. 78.6%: P = 0.002) and have grade 1 ductal histology (37.2% vs. 25.7%; P = 0.004), compared to non-users. 45 relapses occurred in women already using digoxin at breast cancer diagnosis (1,487 person...... cancers arising in digoxin-using women had better prognostic features. After adjustment for markers, overall breast cancer relapse risk in digoxin users was not increased significantly, although recurrence hazards for ER+ tumors were higher in the first year following diagnosis....

  11. Male breast cancer: is the scenario changing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Dhananjay M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall incidence of male breast cancer is around 1% of all breast cancers and is on the rise. In this review we aim to present various aspects of male breast cancer with particular emphasis on incidence, risk factors, patho-physiology, treatment, prognostic factors, and outcome. Methods Information on all aspects of male breast cancer was gathered from available relevant literature on male breast cancer from the MEDLINE database over the past 32 years from 1975 to 2007. Various reported studies were scrutinized for emerging evidence. Incidence data were also obtained from the IARC, Cancer Mondial database. Conclusion There is a scenario of rising incidence, particularly in urban US, Canada and UK. Even though more data on risk factors is emerging about this disease, more multi-institutional efforts to pool data with large randomized trials to show treatment and survival benefits are needed to support the existing vast emerging knowledge about the disease.

  12. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center

    OpenAIRE

    Connors, Shahnjayla K.; Goodman, Melody S.; Myckatyn, Terence; Margenthaler, Julie; Gehlert, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is an integral part of breast cancer treatment that positively impacts quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Although breast reconstruction rates have increased over time, African American women remain less likely to receive breast reconstruction compared to Caucasian women. National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers, specialized institutions with more standardized models of cancer treatment, report higher breast r...

  13. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  14. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  15. Mitochondria and Familial Predisposition to Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Weigl, Stefania; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome and functional alterations are related to various diseases including cancer. In all cases, the role of these organelles is associated with defects in oxidative energy metabolism and control of tumor-induced oxidative stress. The present study examines the involvement of mitochondrial DNA in cancer and in particular in breast cancer. Furthermore, since mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited, hereditary breast cancer has been focused on.

  16. Stem cells in human breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Oliveira, Lucinei; Jeffrey, Stefanie S; Ribeiro Silva, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Increasing data support cancer as a stem cell-based disease. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have beenfound in different human cancers, and recent evidenceindicates that breast cancer originates from and ismaintained by its own CSCs, as well as the normalmammary gland. Mammary stem cells and breast CSCshave been identified and purified in in vitroculturesystems, transplantation assays and/or by cell surfaceantigen identification. Cell surface markers enable thefunctional isolation of stem cells that...

  17. Patient-initiated breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the results of a breast cancer screening program sponsored by organizations at workplace or community locations. A comprehensive mobile breast cancer screening program, including education, breast physical examination, and mammography, was provided to 89 local organizations at $50.00 per examination over an 18-month period. The examination was patient initiated, following the ACS screening guidelines. Estimates of eligible women were provided by each organization. A total of 5,030 women at 89 organizations were screened for breast cancer. Approximately 25,727 women were eligible

  18. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative

  19. Identification of genes involved in breast cancer and breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolou P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Panagiotis Apostolou, Maria Toloudi, Ioannis Papasotiriou Research and Development Department, Research Genetic Cancer Centre Ltd, Florina, Greece Abstract: Breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in women. Great progress has been made in its treatment but relapse is common. One hypothesis to account for the high recurrence rates is the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple malignant cell types. This study aimed to determine genes that are expressed in breast cancer and breast CSCs and to investigate their correlation with stemness. RNA was extracted from established breast cancer cell lines and from CSCs derived from five different breast cancer patients. DNA microarray analysis was performed and any upregulated genes were also studied in other cancer types, including colorectal and lung cancer. For genes that were expressed only in breast cancer, knockdown-based experiments were performed. Finally, the gene expression levels of stemness transcription factors were measured. The outcome of the analysis indicated a group of genes that were aberrantly expressed mainly in breast cancer cells with stemness properties. Knockdown experiments confirmed the impact of several of these on NANOG, OCT3/4, and SOX2 transcription factors. It seems that several genes that are not directly related with hormone metabolism and basic signal transduction pathways might have an important role in relapse and disease progression and, thus, can be targeted for new treatment approaches for breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, cancer stem cells, stemness, DNA microarray

  20. Breast self examination and survival from breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Geyte, M.; Mant, D.; Vessey, M P; Jones, L.; Yudkin, P

    1992-01-01

    The survival of 616 women aged 15-59 with breast cancer, 226 of whom had been taught and practised breast self examination (BSE) prior to diagnosis and 390 of whom had not, is reported. Six year survival rates were 73.1% in the BSE taught group and 66.1% in other women (P = 0.07).

  1. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-05

    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  2. Endocurietherapy of breast cancer III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently introduced the implantation of Iridium192 as a method of local treatment of breast cancer in Austria. The afterloading technique is described. This modality should be used as a boost to the 'high-risk' areas following conservative breast surgery and combined with megavoltage external irradiation. Interstitial implantation may also be used as a primary form of treatment. A report on 35 patients is presented, 25 of whom underwent a curative schedule for T1-2, N0-1 tumors. 10 patients were treated individually. The aesthetic results are very pleasing. There were no severe complications and no early local recurrences. The interpretation of the results can be only in the form of trends because of the short follow-up time of 1 year. (Author)

  3. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950-80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiationinduced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer

  4. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...

  5. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  6. The Third International Inflammatory Breast Cancer Conference

    OpenAIRE

    van Golen, Kenneth L; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive and deadly form of breast cancer. Disease-specific research and conferences have been organized since 2008 with the intent to bring together experts in various disciplines. This report focus on the Third International IBC Conference held in Philadelphia on December 2012.

  7. Treatment of Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Rachel A; Anders, Carey K.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 10% to 15% of women with metastatic breast cancer will develop brain metastases. Treatment options for these women remain limited, particularly at the time of central nervous system (CNS) relapse following completion of initial CNS-directed therapy. Historically, prior studies have broadly examined systemic treatments for breast cancer brain metastases with mixed, but overall disappointing, results. More recently, studies have increasingly selected patients based on breast cance...

  8. Reproducibility of histologic classification of gastric cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Palli, D; Bianchi, S.; Cipriani, F; Duca, P; Amorosi, A; C. Avellini; A. Russo; Saragoni, A; P. Todde; Valdes, E.

    1991-01-01

    A panel review of histologic specimens was carried out as part of a multi-centre case-control study of gastric cancer (GC) and diet. Comparisons of diagnoses of 100 GCs by six pathologists revealed agreement in histologic classification for about 70-80% of the cancers. Concordance was somewhat higher when using the Lauren rather than the Ming or World Health Organization classification systems. Histologic types from reading biopsy tissue agreed with those derived from surgical specimens for 6...

  9. Defining the galaxy of gene expression in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent reports detailing the expression profiles of primary breast cancer have pointed to the utility of this approach in defining subclasses with distinct molecular configurations and clinical behaviour. Some of the subclasses can be predicted by current molecular tests: estrogen receptor status, p53 staining, and HER-2 overexpression. Others, however, are novel subgroups and may represent distinct cellular types. The results from two recent studies suggest common principles of classification by expression profiling. These principles are examined and the impact of these results on understanding the biology and the clinical behaviour of breast tumors is explored

  10. A review on metastatic breast cancer in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Alizadeh Otaghvar; Mostafa Hosseini; Adnan Tizmaghz; Ghazaal Shabestanipour; Hamid Noori

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is a disease of early breast cancer that usually occurs several years after the early breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. According to the new statistics in Iran 6160 breast cancers are diagnosed in the country each year and 1063 cases lead to death. In this paper, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment have been investigated. In this study, case–control clinical trials and open studies with adequate data were collected. Due to t...

  11. FGF receptor genes and breast cancer susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, D; Pineda, S; Michailidou, K;

    2014-01-01

    Background:Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying......, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression.Results:Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk...... that common variants in the other FGF receptors are not associated with risk of breast cancer to the degree observed for FGFR2....

  12. Breast-feeding and breast cancer in the offspring.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekbom, A.; C. C. Hsieh; Trichopoulos, D; Yen, Y. Y.; Petridou, E; Adami, H. O.

    1993-01-01

    The causation of breast cancer in certain strains of mice by a virus that can be transmitted vertically, through the milk produced during lactation, has led to the hypothesis that a similar phenomenon could exist in humans. There have been laboratory-based studies in humans suggesting that a virus may be involved in the etiology of female breast cancer although other investigations did not support this hypothesis. Descriptive data and epidemiologic evidence of ecologic nature do not indicate ...

  13. Depression in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Jovana; Nenadović, Milutin

    2016-06-30

    Breast cancer is the third most common illness in the world and the most frequent malignant disease with women. Cytotoxic therapy is connected to significant psychiatric adverse effects, and the appearance of depressive symptoms is the most common. The main goal is determining the degree of depression with breast cancer patients in the oncology ward of the University Clinical Hospital in Niš and its connection to their marital status, age, level of education, economic status and the number of therapy cycles. This research is a prospective study. The statistical data analysis included measures of descriptive and analytical statistics. The presence of depressive symptoms of different intensity was showed in 76.00% of the interviewees in group I, and the second included 77.4%. The frequency distributions show that 27.084% interviewees from the first group showed signs of depressive symptoms, while the second included 25%. The intensity of these symptoms categorizes them into the group of moderate to significantly expressed depressive states, so they require therapeutic treatment. Depression is significantly more often recorded with cancer patients receiving cytotoxic therapy; mild depression is the most common, followed by moderate and severe depression. PMID:27138829

  14. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-31

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. GDC-0941 and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Androgen Receptor-Negative Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-17

    Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  16. Validation of analytical breast cancer microarray analysis in medical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darweesh, Amal Said; Louka, Manal Louis; Hana, Maha; Rashad, Shaymaa; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Sharaf-Eldin, Ahmed; Kassim, Samar Kamal

    2014-10-01

    A previously reported microarray data analysis by RISS algorithm on breast cancer showed over-expression of the growth factor receptor (Grb7) and it also highlighted Tweety (TTYH1) gene to be under expressed in breast cancer for the first time. Our aim was to validate the results obtained from the microarray analysis with respect to these genes. Also, the relationship between their expression and the different prognostic indicators was addressed. RNA was extracted from the breast tissue of 30 patients with primary malignant breast cancer. Control samples from the same patients were harvested at a distance of ≥5 cm from the tumour. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis was done on all samples. There was a significant difference between the malignant and control tissues as regards Grb7 expression. It was significantly related to the presence of lymph node metastasis, stage and histological grade of the malignant tumours. There was a significant inverse relation between expression of Grb7 and expression of both oestrogen and progesterone receptors. Grb7 was found to be significantly related to the biological classification of breast cancer. TTYH1 was not expressed in either the malignant or the control samples. The RISS by our group algorithm developed was laboratory validated for Grb7, but not for TTYH1. The newly developed software tool needs to be improved. PMID:25182704

  17. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Sherman, Mark E;

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancers demonstrate substantial biological, clinical and etiological heterogeneity. We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes. Subtype...

  18. A case of synchronous multiple bilateral breast cancer after breast augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Chishima, Takashi; Harada, Fumi; Matsubara, Yuka

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer after breast augmentation is not rare, but cases of bilateral breast cancer after augmentation are not often reported. A 43-year-old woman attended our hospital because of a mass in her left breast. She had undergone breast augmentation by implants 4 years before at a cosmetic surgery clinic. There were operative scars in her bilateral axilla. A detailed examination revealed bilateral breast cancer, and we performed nipple-sparing mastectomy in both breasts. Sentinel lymph node ...

  19. Lymphedema: What Every Woman with Breast Cancer Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Lymphedema: What Every Woman With Breast Cancer Should Know ... for breast cancer may be at risk for lymphedema in the arm, breast, and chest. Here we ...

  20. Role of KCNMA1 in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oeggerli

    Full Text Available KCNMA1 encodes the α-subunit of the large conductance, voltage and Ca(2+-activated (BK potassium channel and has been reported as a target gene of genomic amplification at 10q22 in prostate cancer. To investigate the prevalence of the amplification in other human cancers, the copy number of KCNMA1 was analyzed by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH in 2,445 tumors across 118 different tumor types. Amplification of KCNMA1 was restricted to a small but distinct fraction of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer with the highest prevalence in invasive ductal breast cancers and serous carcinoma of ovary and endometrium (3-7%. We performed an extensive analysis on breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMA of 1,200 tumors linked to prognosis. KCNMA1 amplification was significantly associated with high tumor stage, high grade, high tumor cell proliferation, and poor prognosis. Immunofluorescence revealed moderate or strong KCNMA1 protein expression in 8 out of 9 human breast cancers and in the breast cancer cell line MFM223. KCNMA1-function in breast cancer cell lines was confirmed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings and proliferation assays, using siRNA-knockdown, BK channel activators such as 17ß-estradiol and the BK-channel blocker paxilline. Our findings revealed that enhanced expression of KCNMA1 correlates with and contributes to high proliferation rate and malignancy of breast cancer.

  1. Estrogen sulfotransferases in breast and endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge Raul

    2009-02-01

    Estrogen sulfotransferase is significantly more active in the normal breast cell (e.g., Human 7) than in the cancer cell (e.g., MCF-7). The data suggest that in breast cancer sulfoconjugated activity is carried out by another enzyme, the SULT1A, which acts at high concentration of the substrates. In breast cancer cells sulfotransferase (SULT) activity can be stimulated by various progestins: medrogestone, promegestone, and nomegestrol acetate, as well as by tibolone and its metabolites. SULT activities can also be controlled by other substances including phytoestrogens, celecoxib, flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, resveratrol), and isoflavones. SULT expression was localized in breast cancer cells, which can be stimulated by promegestone and correlated with the increase of the enzyme activity. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1), which acts at nanomolar concentration of estradiol, can inactivate most of this hormone present in the normal breast; however, in the breast cancer cells, the sulfotransferase denoted as SULT1A1 is mainly present, and this acts at micromolar concentrations of E(2). A correlation was postulated among breast cancer cell proliferation, the effect of various progestins, and sulfotransferase stimulation. In conclusion, it is suggested that factors involved in the stimulation of the estrogen sulfotransferases could provide new possibilities for the treatment of patients with hormone-dependent breast and endometrial cancers. PMID:19250196

  2. Radiotherapy for recurrent breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinico-radiobiological characteristics of radiotherapy for relapsed breast cancer were studied. Adequate choice of tissue mass to be exposed appeared much more important than any change in focal dose within 50-80 Gy, to achieve higher frequency of locoregional therapeutic effect. However, recurrent tumors more than 3 large lower radiosensitivity involving a sharp rise in the likelihood of dissemination. Radiotherapy for primary tumor did not affect the radiosensitivity of recurrent malignancies but slowed down the rate of its growth. Also, it might promote the dissemination acceleration

  3. Applying Data Mining Techniques to Improve Breast Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz, Joana; Marreiros, Goreti; Freitas, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    In the field of breast cancer research, and more than ever, new computer aided diagnosis based systems have been developed aiming to reduce diagnostic tests false-positives. Within this work, we present a data mining based approach which might support oncologists in the process of breast cancer classification and diagnosis. The present study aims to compare two breast cancer datasets and find the best methods in predicting benign/malignant lesions, breast density classification, and even for finding identification (mass / microcalcification distinction). To carry out these tasks, two matrices of texture features extraction were implemented using Matlab, and classified using data mining algorithms, on WEKA. Results revealed good percentages of accuracy for each class: 89.3 to 64.7 % - benign/malignant; 75.8 to 78.3 % - dense/fatty tissue; 71.0 to 83.1 % - finding identification. Among the different tests classifiers, Naive Bayes was the best to identify masses texture, and Random Forests was the first or second best classifier for the majority of tested groups. PMID:27498205

  4. Use of proteomics for the early diagnosis fo breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, A.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality rates in The Netherlands are among the highest in Europe. To improve breast cancer survival, early detection is of vital importance. The introduction of the national breast cancer screening program has led to an improvement in stage distribution at diagnosis of breast cancer.

  5. Recurrent read-through fusion transcripts in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Varley, Katherine E.; Gertz, Jason; Roberts, Brian S.; Davis, Nicholas S.; Bowling, Kevin M.; Kirby, Marie K.; Nesmith, Amy S.; Oliver, Patsy G.; Grizzle, William E.; Forero, Andres; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; LoBuglio, Albert F.; Myers, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Read-through fusion transcripts that result from the splicing of two adjacent genes in the same coding orientation are a recently discovered type of chimeric RNA. We sought to determine if read-through fusion transcripts exist in breast cancer. We performed paired-end RNA-seq of 168 breast samples, including 28 breast cancer cell lines, 42 triple negative breast cancer primary tumors, 42 estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer primary tumors, and 56 non-malignant breast tissue samples....

  6. Breast-conservation treatment of breast cancer in elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent 3 years, 8 elderly women with breast cancer of various stages were treated with breast-conservation treatment (BCT) combined with endocrine therapy and/or systemic chemotherapy mainly based on patients' obvious desire. Until now, one out of these 8 patients had died of heart failure with no evidence of breast cancer progression, and the other 7 patients are alive with no evidence of disease. As for side effects of the therapy, no severe sequelae have been experienced so far. Cosmetic results of the therapy were considerably sufficient. (author)

  7. Questionnaires in Identifying Upper Extremity Function and Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-24

    Musculoskeletal Complication; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-Related Toxicity

  8. Breast cancer and socio-economic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anees B. Chagpar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is twofold – on the one hand, to analyze the relationship between incidence of breast cancer, income per capita and medical equipment across countries; after that, the study here discusses the drivers of the incidence of breast cancer across countries in order to pinpoint differences and similarities. Methods: The indicators used are incidence of breast cancer based on Age-standardized rate (ASW; Gross domestic product (GDP per capita by purchasing power parity (current international $; computed tomography (CT for cancer diagnosis. Data include 52 countries. The statistical analysis is carried out by correlation, ANOVA and an econometric modeling based on a multiple regression model of the breast cancer incidence on two explanatory variables. Results: Partial correlation is higher: rbreast cancer, GDP  CT=60.3% (sign.0.00. The estimated relationship shows an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 0.05% for a GDP increase of 1% and an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 3.23% for a CT increase of 1%. ANOVA confirms that incidence of breast cancer is higher across richer countries, ceteris paribus.Conclusions: Empirical evidence shows that the breast cancer tends to be higher across richer countries, measured by GDP per capita and number of Computed Tomography. The main determinants of these findings can be due to several socio-economic factors, mainly localized in richer countries. In addition, this research may provide an alternative interpretation to the theory of Oh et al. (2010 on the influence of latitude on breast cancer, focusing on socio-economic factors rather than biologic root causes.

  9. Classification of breast density in X-ray mammography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Václav; Haindl, Michal

    New York, NY,: IEEE, 2015, s. 1-5. ISBN 978-1-4673-8457-5. [2015 International Workshop on Computational Intelligence for Multimedia Understanding (IWCIM). Praha (CZ), 29.10.2015-30.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Breast cancer * breast density * Mammography * MRF * ACR * BI-RADS Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/RO/haindl-0454449.pdf

  10. Screening for breast cancer post reduction mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate whether remodelling of the breast after breast reduction surgery has an effect on mammographic cancer detection. Methods and materials: For women who attended population-based screening between January 1998 to December 2007, data were extracted on their age, history of previous breast reduction, and the result of screening (recall for further assessment, cancer, or no cancer). The number of cancers detected, recalls per 1000 screens and the characteristics of the cancers detected in the two groups was compared. Results: In total 244,147 women with 736,219 screening episodes were reviewed. In the 4743 women who had a breast reduction, 51 breast cancers were detected [age standardized rate (ASR) of 4.28 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 3.11-5.46], compared with 4342 breast cancers in 239 404 women screened in the non-reduction group (ASR of 5.99 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 5.81-6.16). There were fewer cancers in the breast reduction group with a relative risk of 0.71. There was no significant difference in the rate of recall between the two groups, with a crude recall rate of 46.1 per 1000 screening episodes post-breast reduction compared with 50.7 per 1000 screening episodes for women without breast reduction. There was no significant difference in the pathological type or location of the cancer between the two groups of women. Conclusion: Postoperative breast changes following reduction mammoplasty do not significantly hinder analysis of the screening mammogram.

  11. The history of breast cancer advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Susan

    2003-01-01

    There have been four key steps in the advent of breast cancer advocacy: priming the market, engaging consumers, establishing political advocacy, and taking the advocacy mainstream. Breast cancer was surrounded by secrecy until the 1980s, when brave individuals such as former First Ladies Betty Ford and Nancy Reagan, and founder of the Susan G. Komen Foundation, Nancy Brinker (Susan Komen's sister), began speaking publicly about the personal impact of the disease, which increased awareness of breast cancer and made it more acceptable to talk about it openly. At the same time, statistics about breast cancer were presented in new ways that the public could understand. Public health advocates played a key role in the second step, engaging consumers, when they established guidelines in the 1980s that encouraged women to perform breast self-examinations (BSEs) and have screening mammograms and clinical breast examinations (CBEs). Other events that helped engage consumers were increased media coverage of breast cancer issues, the founding of the Komen Race for the Cure in 1983, and the establishment of other programs that both educated the public and raised funds. Funds from these efforts enabled advocates to hold educational forums and produce educational materials in different media and tailored to different audiences and to become active in the funding of research. The third step, political action, became possible when breast cancer advocates joined together in the 1980s and 1990s to work toward legislative, regulatory, and funding changes, such as passage of the Mammography Quality Standards Act and increased funding for the National Cancer Institute. These efforts contributed to a more than quadrupling of federal funding for breast cancer research in the 1990s. Going mainstream, the final step in the advocacy process, entailed establishing a solid base of support to ensure that the message about breast cancer stays strong and fresh. This has been achieved by engaging

  12. Breast Cancer and its Radiotherapeutic Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women after skin cancer. In Iran, the presentation age of this cancer is younger than the global average. There are different therapeutic methods for treatment of breast cancer and the choice of treatment depends on the stage of the disease as well as its type and characteristics. Therapeutic methods include surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, each consisting of a variety of techniques. The two main surgical techniques are lumpectomy and mastectomy. The main systemic methods are biological therapy (immunotherapy), hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy is mainly categorized into external-beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. In this paper, we present a brief review of the different types of breast cancer and their treatments using conventional and modern radiotherapy methods, as well as the treatment efficacy and side effects of breast radiotherapy.

  13. Aetio-pathogenesis of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Haruna Abdulkareem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a literature review on the aetiology and pathogenesis of breast cancer, which is the most common cancer worldwide, and the second leading cause of cancer death, especially in Western countries. Several aetiological factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis, and include age, genetics, family history, diet, alcohol, obesity, lifestyle, physical inactivity, as well as endocrine factors. These factors act separately or together in the causation of breast cancer. More recently, triple negative breast cancer has been described in certain categories of patients and is associated with poorer prognosis and earlier recurrence compared with the conventional breast cancer. Therefore, adequate knowledge of these factors is important in identifying high risk groups and individuals, which will help in screening, early detection and follow-up. This will help to decrease the morbidity and mortality from this life-threatening disease.

  14. Gene expression-based classifications of fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Maria; Peg, Vicente; Galván, Patricia; Tres, Alejandro; Cortés, Javier; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago; Rubio, Isabel T; Prat, Aleix

    2015-06-01

    Fibroepithelial tumors (FTs) of the breast are a heterogeneous group of lesions ranging from fibroadenomas (FAD) to phyllodes tumors (PT) (benign, borderline, malignant). Further understanding of their molecular features and classification might be of clinical value. In this study, we analysed the expression of 105 breast cancer-related genes, including the 50 genes of the PAM50 intrinsic subtype predictor and 12 genes of the Claudin-low subtype predictor, in a panel of 75 FTs (34 FADs, 5 juvenile FADs, 20 benign PTs, 5 borderline PTs and 11 malignant PTs) with clinical follow-up. In addition, we compared the expression profiles of FTs with those of 14 normal breast tissues and 49 primary invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs). Our results revealed that the levels of expression of all breast cancer-related genes can discriminate the various groups of FTs, together with normal breast tissues and IDCs (False Discovery Rate genes (e.g. CCNB1 and MKI67) and mesenchymal/epithelial-related (e.g. CLDN3 and EPCAM) genes were found to be most discriminative. As expected, FADs showed the highest and lowest expression of epithelial- and proliferation-related genes, respectively, whereas malignant PTs showed the opposite expression pattern. Interestingly, the overall profile of benign PTs was found more similar to FADs and normal breast tissues than the rest of tumours, including juvenile FADs. Within the dataset of IDCs and normal breast tissues, the vast majority of FADs, juvenile FADs, benign PTs and borderline PTs were identified as Normal-like by intrinsic breast cancer subtyping, whereas 7 (63.6%) and 3 (27.3%) malignant PTs were identified as Claudin-low and Basal-like, respectively. Finally, we observed that the previously described PAM50 risk of relapse prognostic score better predicted outcome in FTs than the morphological classification, even within PTs-only. Our results suggest that classification of FTs using gene expression-based data is feasible and might provide

  15. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1), and their...... ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Study-specific and combined multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated based on tertiles of estrogen metabolites. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit according to hormone receptor status.¿Results: Higher...

  16. Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristina Pilekær

    Each year approximately 4,800 Danish women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Several clinical and pathological factors are used as prognostic and predictive markers to categorize the patients into groups of high or low risk. Around 90% of all patients are allocated to the high risk group and...... clinical courses, and they may be useful as novel prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer. The aim of the present project was to predict the development of metastasis in lymph node negative breast cancer patients by RNA profiling. We collected and analyzed 82 primary breast tumors from patients who...... the time of event. Previous findings have shown that high expression of the lncRNA HOTAIR is correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. We validated this finding by demonstrating that high HOTAIR expression in our primary tumors was significantly associated with worse prognosis independent of...

  17. Advanced breast cancer. 2005-2007 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploratory study was conducted, observational (cohort study), application, in order to evaluate the performance of advanced breast cancer in Clinical and Surgical Teaching Hospital 'Jose Ramon Lopez Tabrane' during the period from January 2005 to December 2007. Our main objective was to understand the behavior of advanced cancer breast cancer in our midst in the aforementioned period. Our sample consisted of 44 patients, which was applied to the study Statistical analysis for the different variables used, expressing results in tables. The 4th and 5th decade of life, and the white skin color were variable representative in our sample. The right breast and upper quadrant outside were the most frequent sites of breast cancer. More than half of the patients had a tumor larger than 5 cm and metastatic nodes. Madden mastectomy was the most frequently used providing the greatest number of complications. We recommend the importance of breast self-examination and diagnosis preclinical use of mammography. (Author)

  18. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyuan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges.

  19. Cytogenetic report of a male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, L R; Rogatto, S R; Rainho, C A;

    1995-01-01

    chromosome 8 in the characterization of the subtype of ductal breast carcinomas and demonstrate that chromosome 17, which is frequently involved in female breast cancers, is also responsible for the development or progression of primary breast cancers in males.......The cytogenetic findings on G-banding in an infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma in a 69-year-old man are reported. The main abnormalities observed were trisomy of chromosomes 8 and 9 and structural rearrangement in the long arm of chromosome 17 (add(17)(q25)). Our results confirm the trisomy of...

  20. Breast reconstruction in conserving breast cancer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast conserving treatment (BCT) combined with radiotherapy have provedthe test of time as a sound oncological operation regarding survival andlocal recurrence. Successful BCT is a balance between adequate surgery andmaintaining the breast's appearance. Unsatisfactory outcome reaches 20-30% instandard techniques of BCD. Concepts described to widen the spectrum of BCT,have made an improvement of cosmetic outcome and facilitated a liberal safetymargin. Volume displacement techniques, such as glandular flap, mammoplasty,donut mastopexy and batwing mastopexy proved useful in large breasts andvolume replacement, such as latissimus dorsi flap and local flaps are ofgreat advantage to replace defects in small and medium sized breasts. Some ofthese techniques are simple, but comprehensive knowledge and training arerequired for sophisticated ones. The objectives of this article are to shedlight on different techniques adopted by surgeons to perform BCT inconjunction with various oncoplastic techniques and to discuss the factorsthat influence their applications to achieve best oncological and aestheticoutcome. (author)

  1. Eribulin mesylate in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer, Helena; Morilla, Idoia; Urruticoechea, Ander

    2013-11-01

    Eribulin mesylate is a synthetic analog of halichondrin B (a polyether macrolide isolated from a marine sponge). It is a nontaxane microtubule dynamics inhibitor with a novel mechanism of action. It is the first drug that has demonstrated an improvement in overall survival as a single agent compared with the physician's choice of currently available treatments in locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer, previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes. It has shown a good manageable tolerability profile. This drug has been approved by the US FDA and by the EMA for patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer who have received at least two chemotherapeutic regimens for advanced/metastatic disease. Prior therapy should have included an anthracycline and a taxane in either the adjuvant or metastatic setting unless patients were not suitable for these treatments. The aim of this article is to describe the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and the most relevant clinical trials in the development of this drug. PMID:24161305

  2. Understanding Lymphedema (For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Understanding Lymphedema: For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Lymphedema can be caused by surgery or radiation therapy ...

  3. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk ... June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women with a gene mutation known as BRCA1 have an increased risk ...

  4. Radiation as a cause of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening

  5. Radiation as a cause of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Silverstone, S.M.

    1976-09-01

    The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening.

  6. Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Saraiva P.P.; Figueiredo N.B.; Padovani C.R.; Brentani M.M.; Nogueira C.R.

    2005-01-01

    Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22) were analyze...

  7. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P;

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use....

  8. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:269-281, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27060854

  9. Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ≤5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). High similarities

  10. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Dunning, Alison M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Rosenberg, Efraim H.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J.; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N.; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.19, P = 8.88 x 10−16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16–1.32, P = 6.19 x 10−11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  11. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa M Pelttari

    Full Text Available Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS. We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259 and population controls (n = 3586 from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR: 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.11-1.19, P = 8.88 x 10-16 and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16-1.32, P = 6.19 x 10-11, compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk.

  12. GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer cells and patient breast cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Gowrishankar

    Full Text Available F18 2-Fluoro 2-deoxyglucose (FDG has been the gold standard in positron emission tomography (PET oncologic imaging since its introduction into the clinics several years ago. Seeking to complement FDG in the diagnosis of breast cancer using radio labeled fructose based analogs, we investigated the expression of the chief fructose transporter-GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells and human tissues. Our results indicate that GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer tissues as assessed by an extensive immunohistochemistry study. RT-PCR studies showed that the GLUT 5 mRNA was present at minimal amounts in breast cancer cell lines. Further knocking down the expression of GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells using RNA interference did not affect the fructose uptake in these cell lines. Taken together these results are consistent with GLUT 5 not being essential for fructose uptake in breast cancer cells and tissues.

  13. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  14. Increased risk for depression after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer or a...... major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...... were estimated with Poisson regression models. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with the two outcomes among patients with breast cancer. RESULTS: We identified 44,494 women with breast cancer. In the first year after diagnosis, the rate ratio for a hospital contact...

  15. Comparison of Back propagation neural network and Back propagation neural network Based Particle Swarm intelligence in Diagnostic Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz SADOUGHI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the most common cause of death in women all over the world. Use of computer technology supporting breast cancer diagnosing is now widespread and pervasive across a broad range of medical areas. Early diagnosis of this disease can greatly enhance the chances of long-term survival of breast cancer victims. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN as mainly method play important role in early diagnoses breast cancer. This paper studies Levenberg Marquardet Backpropagation (LMBP neural network and Levenberg Marquardet Backpropagation based Particle Swarm Optimization(LMBP-PSO for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The obtained results show that LMBP and LMBP based PSO system provides higher classification efficiency. But LMBP based PSO needs minimum training and testing time. It helps in developing Medical Decision System (MDS for breast cancer diagnosing. It can also be used as secondary observer in clinical decision making.

  16. Depression and conservative surgery for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauriceia C. L. de Medeiros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is prevalent among women and associated with reduced quality of life, and therefore it is important to determine its incidence in adult women, especially in those with breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of depression in women who underwent conservative surgery for breast cancer with or without breast reconstruction. METHODS: Seventy-five women aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled. Patients had undergone conservative surgery for breast cancer with immediate breast reconstruction (n = 25 or without breast reconstruction (n = 25 at least one year before the study. The control group consisted of 25 women without cancer, but of similar age and educational level distribution as the other two groups. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression. The collected data were assessed using analysis of variance and the χ2 test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in age (p = 0.72 or educational level (p = 0.20. A smaller number of patients had undergone the menopause (p = 0.02 in the control group than in other groups. There were no significant differences in occurrence of depression between groups (χ2=9.97; p = 0.126. CONCLUSÍON: Conservative surgery for breast cancer did not affect the occurrence of depression in women, regardless of whether breast reconstruction was performed.

  17. Future possibilities in the prevention of breast cancer: Fat and fiber and breast cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Ross L.

    2000-01-01

    The potential for a reduction in dietary fat or for an increase in dietary fiber to reduce breast cancer risk has been debated for some years. It is argued here that available research data, even though extensive, leave open hypotheses ranging from little or no potential to major public health potential for breast cancer prevention by means of these dietary maneuvers. Some elements of a research strategy for testing these and other dietary breast cancer prevention hypotheses are described.

  18. Breast cancer survival and season of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Dorthe; Bjerre, Karsten D; Tjønneland, Anne M;

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has been suggested to influence the incidence and prognosis of breast cancer, and studies have found better overall survival (OS) after diagnosis for breast cancer in summer-autumn, where the vitamin D level are expected to be highest. Objective To compare the prognostic...... outcome for early breast cancer patients operated at different seasons of the year. Design Open population-based cohort study. Setting Danish women operated 1978-2010. Cases 79 658 adjusted for age at surgery, period of surgery, tumour size, axillary lymph node status and hormone receptor status...

  19. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa. V.; Labbok, Miriam H; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common s...

  20. The Basic Facts of Korean Breast Cancer in 2012: Results from a Nationwide Survey and Breast Cancer Registry Database

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Zisun; Min, Sun Young; Yoon, Chan Seok; Jung, Kyu-Won; Ko, Beom Seok; Kang, Eunyoung; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Seokwon; Hur, Min Hee; ,

    2015-01-01

    The Korean Breast Cancer Society has constructed a nationwide breast cancer database through utilization of an online registration program. We have reported the basic facts about breast cancer in Korea in 2012, and analyzed the changing patterns in the clinical characteristics and management of breast cancer in Korea over the last 10 years. Data on patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer were collected for the year 2012 from 97 hospitals and clinics nationwide using a questionnaire survey...

  1. Heavy-ion mammography and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy-ion radiography is a new diagnostic imaging technique developed in our laboratory that produces superior density resolution at low radiation doses. Heavy-ion mammography has now emerged as a low-dose, safe, reliable, noninvasive diagnostic radiological procedure that can quantitate and image very small differences in soft tissue densities in the breast tissues of patients with clinical breast disease. The improved density resolution of heavy-ion mammography over conventional X-ray mammography and breast xerography provides the potential of detecting small breast cancers of less than 1 cm diameter. The radiation dose to the breast from carbon-ion mammorgraphy is about 50 mrad or less, and can potentially be only a fraction of this level. The results of the present clinical trial in progress of heavy-ion mammography in 37 patients, thus far studied, are extremely encouraging, and warrant continued study for application to the early diagnosis of breast cancer in women

  2. mTOR inhibition in management of advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Nag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mTOR pathway is becoming increasingly important in several cancers including breast cancer. This review will focus on the role of its inhibition in the management of advanced breast cancer.

  3. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival For some ... after Beginning 5 or 10 Years of Adjuvant Tamoxifen 5 Years 10 Years Risk of Recurrence 25. ...

  4. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as that of many other diseases and cancers. Testicular conditions Some studies have suggested that certain conditions, ... Breast Cancer In Men? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer ...

  5. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Untch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM

  6. TOX3 mutations in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Owain Jones

    Full Text Available TOX3 maps to 16q12, a region commonly lost in breast cancers and recently implicated in the risk of developing breast cancer. However, not much is known of the role of TOX3 itself in breast cancer biology. This is the first study to determine the importance of TOX3 mutations in breast cancers. We screened TOX3 for mutations in 133 breast tumours and identified four mutations (three missense, one in-frame deletion of 30 base pairs in six primary tumours, corresponding to an overall mutation frequency of 4.5%. One potentially deleterious missense mutation in exon 3 (Leu129Phe was identified in one tumour (genomic DNA and cDNA. Whilst copy number changes of 16q12 are common in breast cancer, our data show that mutations of TOX3 are present at low frequency in tumours. Our results support that TOX3 should be further investigated to elucidate its role in breast cancer biology.

  7. Radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an indispensible part of the management of all stages of breast cancer. In this article, the common indications for radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer (stages 0, I, and II) are reviewed, including whole-breast radiotherapy as part of breast-conserving treatment for early invasive breast cancer and pre-invasive disease of ductal carcinoma in situ, post-mastectomy radiotherapy, locoregional radiotherapy, and partial breast irradiation. Key clinical studies tha...

  8. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cassano, E; Rizzo, S; Bozzini, A; S. Menna; Bellomi, M

    2006-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely demonstrated. During the last few years, the introduction of ultrasound contrast media has been considered a promising tool for studying the vascular pattern of focal lesions within the breast. Our purpose was to assess whether contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound examination, performed using specific contrast imaging modes, can be helpful for detection and characterization of breast lesions, and for predi...

  9. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average. PMID:26758047

  10. Effects of irradiation for cervical cancer on subsequent breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research suggests that cervical cancer patients have a lower risk of breast cancer than women in the general population. Possible explanations include opposing risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, the effect of irradiation used to treat cervical cancer, or both. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between irradiation for cervical cancer and the subsequent development of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant relationship between radiation to the ovarian area and the risk of breast cancer in this study. However, the results were consistent with a 19% reduction in risk for women irradiated for cervical cancer when compared to nonirradiated women. In a dose-response analysis, there was a nonsignificant trend of decreased risk of breast cancer with increased radiation up to 1800 rad. There was no consistent pattern for higher doses. The trend, although nonsignificant, differed by age. Women <60 years of age at irradiation were generally at a lower risk of breast cancer than nonirradiated women. Women over 59 years were at an increased risk. There are some potentially important findings from this study which might influence medical care. These should be examined in the larger International Radiation Study

  11. Breast Cancer Risk Reduction, Version 2.2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevers, Therese B; Ward, John H; Arun, Banu K; Colditz, Graham A; Cowan, Kenneth H; Daly, Mary B; Garber, Judy E; Gemignani, Mary L; Gradishar, William J; Jordan, Judith A; Korde, Larissa A; Kounalakis, Nicole; Krontiras, Helen; Kumar, Shicha; Kurian, Allison; Laronga, Christine; Layman, Rachel M; Loftus, Loretta S; Mahoney, Martin C; Merajver, Sofia D; Meszoely, Ingrid M; Mortimer, Joanne; Newman, Lisa; Pritchard, Elizabeth; Pruthi, Sandhya; Seewaldt, Victoria; Specht, Michelle C; Visvanathan, Kala; Wallace, Anne; Bergman, Mary Ann; Kumar, Rashmi

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. To assist women who are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and their physicians in the application of individualized strategies to reduce breast cancer risk, NCCN has developed these guidelines for breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:26150582

  12. Aromatase inhibitor strategies in metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L McArthur

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Heather L McArthur, Patrick G MorrisBreast Cancer Medicine Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Despite ongoing therapeutic innovations, metastatic breast cancer (MBC remains a treatable but incurable disease. In the developed world, a diagnosis of MBC without a preceding diagnosis of early stage disease is a rare event. However, approximately one-third of women with early stage breast cancer ultimately experience a distant recurrence. Because the majority of breast cancers express estrogen and/or progesterone receptors and are accordingly considered hormone-sensitive, therapeutic strategies that interfere with hormone-mediated tumorigenesis have been a cornerstone of the breast cancer management paradigm for decades. Historically, the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen has been the most extensively studied and widely used hormone maneuver in breast cancer. However, a recent therapeutic innovation, namely the successful development of third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs, has had a dramatic impact on the treatment paradigm for women with hormone-sensitive MBC. Because of the demonstrated efficacy in postmenopausal breast cancer patients, the generally favorable side-effect profile, and the convenience of oral administration, AIs are now in widespread clinical use. Currently, there are three clinically available third-generation AIs: two reversible, nonsteroidal AIs, letrozole and anastrozole; and one irreversible, steroidal AI, exemestane. All three agents are at least as efficacious as tamoxifen as monotherapy for postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive MBC. Current clinical research aims to improve upon existing strategies by evaluating AIs in combination with systemic chemotherapy regimens and/or novel targeted agents. It is hoped that these therapeutic innovations will lead to ongoing improvements in quality of life parameters and ideally survival for women

  13. Development and comparative assessment of Raman spectroscopic classification algorithms for lesion discrimination in stereotactic breast biopsies with microcalcifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Barman, Ishan; Saha, Anushree; McGee, Sasha; Galindo, Luis H; Liu, Wendy; Plecha, Donna; Klein, Nina; Dasari, Ramachandra Rao; Fitzmaurice, Maryann

    2013-04-01

    Microcalcifications are an early mammographic sign of breast cancer and a target for stereotactic breast needle biopsy. Here, we develop and compare different approaches for developing Raman classification algorithms to diagnose invasive and in situ breast cancer, fibrocystic change and fibroadenoma that can be associated with microcalcifications. In this study, Raman spectra were acquired from tissue cores obtained from fresh breast biopsies and analyzed using a constituent-based breast model. Diagnostic algorithms based on the breast model fit coefficients were devised using logistic regression, C4.5 decision tree classification, k-nearest neighbor (k -NN) and support vector machine (SVM) analysis, and subjected to leave-one-out cross validation. The best performing algorithm was based on SVM analysis (with radial basis function), which yielded a positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 96% for cancer diagnosis. Importantly, these results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy provides adequate diagnostic information for lesion discrimination even in the presence of microcalcifications, which to the best of our knowledge has not been previously reported. PMID:22815240

  14. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieli-Conwright CM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength, negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass, increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, exercise, physical well-being

  15. MODERN VIEWS ON BILATERAL BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented modern literature data on the features of the pathogenesis, course, clinical and morphological expression and tumor characteristics, parameters and nodal metastasis of hematogenous bilateral breast cancer. Highlight the results of domestic and foreign studies in recent years to determine the prognostic factors and recurrence of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer. It was revealed that the frequency of bilateral breast tumor lesions varies widely, ranging from 0.1 to 20%, with metachronous tumors recorded significantly higher (69.6% than the synchronous (22.7%. The probability of occurrence of metachronous breast cancer is higher in women with a family history, as well as if they have a gene mutation BRCA-1. Found that the most common histological type of breast tumor with bilateral lesions is invasive ductal. However, the incidence of invasive lobular cancer and non-invasive lobular cancer is slightly higher among synchronous bilateral cancer compared with unilateral disease. Studies have shown that in a double-sided synchronous breast cancer tumor, as a rule, has a lower degree of differentiation, and the higher the expression level of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Relevance of the issue because the identification of patterns in the study of lymphatic and hematogenous features bilateral metastasis of mammary tumors provides a basis for speculation about the differences in the progression of neoplastic disease in these groups and is a cause for further detailed research in this area to identify and evaluate the prognosis and also the choice of tactics of such patients.

  16. Breast cancer and serum organochlorine residues

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier, Corinne; Albert, Adelin; Herman, Philippe; Hamoir, Etienne; Gaspard, Ulysse; Meurisse, Michel; Plomteux, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Background: Controversy still exists about the breast carcinogenic properties in humans of environmental xenoestrogens (organochlorines), justifying new investigations. Aims: To compare the blood levels of total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in samples collected at the time of breast cancer discovery, in order to avoid the potential consequences of body weight change ( after chemotherapy or radiotherapy) on the pesticide residue levels. Methods: Blood level...

  17. Breast cancer radiotherapy: controversies and prospectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-ming; WANG Yong-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Despite consensus on breast cancer radiotherapy, there are still some controversies over post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), appropriate sequence of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment, and radiotherapy after preoperative systemic therapy.

  18. Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help prevent or reduce the effects of lymphedema are discussed in the section " What happens after treatment for breast cancer in men? " If your arm is swollen, tight, or painful after lymph node surgery, be sure to tell someone ... lymphedema after breast surgery, see our document Lymphedema: What ...

  19. Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Screening Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…

  20. [Treatment of elderly patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaschburg, B.; Pedersen, A.; Tuxen, M.K.;

    2008-01-01

    The latest investigations have been searched in order to present new guidelines for the treatment of elderly patients with primary breast cancer. It is concluded that breast-conserving surgery should be offered as well as the sentinel node technique. Axillary lymph node dissection is not necessary...

  1. Ultrasound Elastography in Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, J.; Ewertsen, C; Sletting, S;

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an established method for characterization of focal lesions in the breast. Different techniques and analyses of the images may be used for the characterization. This article addresses the use of ultrasound elastography in breast cancer diagnosis. In the first part of the...

  2. Discovery and validation of breast cancer subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Bukholm Ida RK; Noh Dong-Young; Han Wonshik; Børresen-Dale Anne-Lise; Langerød Anita; Jeffrey Stefanie S; Kapp Amy V; Nicolau Monica; Brown Patrick O; Tibshirani Robert

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies demonstrated breast cancer tumor tissue samples could be classified into different subtypes based upon DNA microarray profiles. The most recent study presented evidence for the existence of five different subtypes: normal breast-like, basal, luminal A, luminal B, and ERBB2+. Results Based upon the analysis of 599 microarrays (five separate cDNA microarray datasets) using a ...

  3. Genotyping and Phenotyping of Male Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornegoor, R.

    2012-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease and most of the knowledge has been extrapolated from females, although these entities are likely different. A better understanding of male breast carcinogenesis is crucial for developing novel targets suitable for personalized treatment. A major problem in studyi

  4. Brain metastases of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Diane; Smith, Quentin R; Lockman, Paul R; Bronder, Julie; Gril, Brunilde; Chambers, Ann F; Weil, Robert J; Steeg, Patricia S

    Central nervous system or brain metastases traditionally occur in 10-16% of metastatic breast cancer patients and are associated with a dismal prognosis. The development of brain metastases has been associated with young age, and tumors that are estrogen receptor negative, Her-2+ or of the basal phenotype. Treatment typically includes whole brain irradiation, or either stereotactic radiosurgery or surgery with whole brain radiation, resulting in an approximately 20% one year survival. The blood-brain barrier is a formidable obstacle to the delivery of chemotherapeutics to the brain. Mouse experimental metastasis model systems have been developed for brain metastasis using selected sublines of human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. Using micron sized iron particles and MRI imaging, the fate of MDA-MB-231BR cells has been mapped: Approximately 2% of injected cells form larger macroscopic metastases, while 5% of cells remain as dormant cells in the brain. New therapies with permeability for the blood-brain barrier are needed to counteract both types of tumor cells. PMID:17473372

  5. Radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern is expressed over a recent U.K. newspaper report (The Times, 21 January 1977, 5) on the possible hazards of mammography, as women may over-react to the extent of refusing mammography. The problems of radiation risk estimates, particularly at low dose levels, are very briefly reviewed. Recent improvements in mammography techniques have minimised the radiation hazard. Conflicting reports of the mortality rates following mammography screening programmes are discussed. In England and Wales, breast cancer is the commonest cause of death in women aged 35 to 54, and it would be unfortunate if the possible benefits of screening were denied to this age group before the latest mammographic techniques have been fully evaluated. (U.K.)

  6. MRI evaluation of the contralateral breast in patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Taneja; Amarnath Jena; Syed. Mohd. Shuaib Zaidi; Anuj Khurana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Contralateral breast cancer can be synchronous and/or metachronous in patients with cancer of one breast. Detection of a synchronous breast cancer may affect patient management. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast (DCE-MRI) is a sensitive technique for detecting contralateral lesions occult on the other imaging modalities in women already diagnosed with cancer of one breast. Aim: The aim was to assess the incidence of mammographically occult synchronous contralateral bre...

  7. Autophagy Inhibition to Increase Radiosensitization in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Diana Hwang; El-Zein, Randa; Dave, Bhuvanesh

    2015-01-01

    Currently, many breast cancer patients with localized breast cancer undergo breast-conserving therapy, consisting of local excision followed by radiation therapy. Following radiation therapy, breast cancer cells are noted to undergo induction of autophagy, development of radioresistance, and enrichment of breast cancer stem cell subpopulations. It is hypothesized that inhibition of the cytoprotective autophagy that arises following radiation therapy increases radiosensitivity and confers long...

  8. Bringing Breast Cancer Technologies to Market | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR research is recognized in novel competition to encourage the commercialization of breast cancer inventions. Editor’s note: This article was originally published in CCR Connections (Volume 8, No. 1). The Breast Cancer Startup Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition, and was one of three finalists recognized by HHS Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell and Deputy Secretary Bill Corr. For more information on the Challenge, see previous article on the Poster website. Start-up companies are instrumental in bringing the fruits of scientific research to market. Recognizing an opportunity to bring entrepreneurial minds to bear on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, the Avon Foundation for Women partnered with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation to launch the Breast Cancer Startup Challenge.

  9. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Estrogen-alone hormone therapy does not increase the risk ...

  10. FastStats: Mammography/Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Mammography and Breast Cancer Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Mammography use Percent of women 40 years of age ...

  11. European Breast Cancer Service Screening Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig;

    2014-01-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast...... seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer...... cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated...

  12. Adjuvant Bisphosphonates for Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of a meta-analysis of randomized trials of bisphosphonates as adjuvant therapy for women with early-stage breast cancer that shows the drugs can reduce the rate of disease recurrence in bone.

  13. Dilemma of Pregnant Ladies with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainur Rashid Z

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gestational breast cancer (GBC or pregnancyassociatedbreast cancer was defined as breast cancerdiagnosed during pregnancy and within 1 year ofdelivery. Breast cancer is the second commonest cancerafter cervical seen in pregnancy and lactation.Nevertheless, the incidence is low and accounts forapproximately 1 in 3000 of pregnancies. A delay indiagnosis is common and 70% to 89% of patients withoperable primary lesions already have positive axillarylymph nodes. Breast cancer identified during pregnancycan be extremely distressing for the mother despite ithas similar course of disease and prognosis seen in nonpregnantwomen of the same age and stage of disease.Diagnostic and treatment options should be carefullydecided to prevent further harm to the mother or anypotential risk to the developing fetus.

  14. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  15. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Jonathan [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Small, William [Loyola Univ. Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States). Stritch School of Medicine, Cardianl Bernardin Cancer Center; Woloschak, Gayle E. (ed.) [Northwestern Univ. Feinberg, Chicago, IL (United States). School of Medicine

    2015-10-01

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  16. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening Mammography In November 2009, the United States Preventive ...

  17. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  19. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  20. IMMUNOPHENOTYPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INFLAMMATORY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Berishvili

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation enrolled 31 patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC treated at the N. N. Blokhin Cancer Research Center from 2006 to 2008. IBC is diagnosed on the basis of signs of rapid progression, such as localized or generalized breast induration, red- ness and edema. IBC accounts for less than 5% of all diagnosed breast cancers and is the most lethal form of primary breast cancer. We studied tumor markers of the immunophenotype of IBC and levels and subpopulations of immunocompetent tumor-infiltrating cells. We found that expression of HLA-DR is in negative correlation with MUC-1 expression and lymphoid cells tumor infiltration is asso- ciated with the increase in T-cell subpopulations.

  1. Treating Male Breast Cancer by Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ductal carcinoma in situ) Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is considered a pre-cancer because it has ... therapy to the remaining breast tissue. If the DCIS is estrogen receptor-positive, tamoxifen might be given ...

  2. Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breast Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breastcancer.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  3. Scintigraphic diagnosis of breast cancer in highly selected patients with dense breast and silicon breast augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparable diagnostic accuracy of 99mTc-sestamibi scintimammogram (SM) in patients with dense and fatty breasts was reported in the U. S and Canadian multicenter clinical trials (JNM 37 : p74-75, 1996). This is not the case with mammography which misses breast cancer in dense breasts often. The reported incidence of dense breast among Korean is about 50% as opposed to 25% in western population seen on mammograms. Therefore, dense breast would be more problematic in the evaluation of breast cancer among Korean. Thirty five highly selected patients with breast mass and 2 patients after silicon mammoplasty were evaluated by sonography (US), mammography (Mam) and SM. The patient's age ranged from 28 to 40 (average 34.6). Each patient received 20 mCi of 99mTc MIBI intravenously and in 5-10 min simultaneous prone lateral views were obtained for 10 min followed by a supine anterior view with arms up for 10 min. Interpretive criteria of breast cancer by SM was any focal increased uptake (mild-marked) within the breast (single or multiple). In two patients with silicon mammoplasty, US and Mam were not useful while SM excluded breast cancer although small (> 1.0 cm) lesion could not be completely excluded. In 19 patients with biopsy confirmed carcinoma (larger than 1.5 cm), The results of three modalities were the following. The remaining 15 patients considered to have benign diseases (76% by Mam, 93% by US, 93% by SM) and are being followed at the surgical clinic. In conclusion, SM is very useful in the evaluation of breast mass in highly selected patients with dense breast which is more common among Korean and in patients after silicon augmentation. Therefore, SM should be used more often in patients (especially young) with dense breast and after mammoplasty than mammography in the detection of breast cancer

  4. Scintigraphic diagnosis of breast cancer in highly selected patients with dense breast and silicon breast augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Bai, M. S.; Park, H. B.; Kim, S. Z.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The comparable diagnostic accuracy of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scintimammogram (SM) in patients with dense and fatty breasts was reported in the U. S and Canadian multicenter clinical trials (JNM 37 : p74-75, 1996). This is not the case with mammography which misses breast cancer in dense breasts often. The reported incidence of dense breast among Korean is about 50% as opposed to 25% in western population seen on mammograms. Therefore, dense breast would be more problematic in the evaluation of breast cancer among Korean. Thirty five highly selected patients with breast mass and 2 patients after silicon mammoplasty were evaluated by sonography (US), mammography (Mam) and SM. The patient's age ranged from 28 to 40 (average 34.6). Each patient received 20 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc MIBI intravenously and in 5-10 min simultaneous prone lateral views were obtained for 10 min followed by a supine anterior view with arms up for 10 min. Interpretive criteria of breast cancer by SM was any focal increased uptake (mild-marked) within the breast (single or multiple). In two patients with silicon mammoplasty, US and Mam were not useful while SM excluded breast cancer although small (> 1.0 cm) lesion could not be completely excluded. In 19 patients with biopsy confirmed carcinoma (larger than 1.5 cm), The results of three modalities were the following. The remaining 15 patients considered to have benign diseases (76% by Mam, 93% by US, 93% by SM) and are being followed at the surgical clinic. In conclusion, SM is very useful in the evaluation of breast mass in highly selected patients with dense breast which is more common among Korean and in patients after silicon augmentation. Therefore, SM should be used more often in patients (especially young) with dense breast and after mammoplasty than mammography in the detection of breast cancer.

  5. Phyto-oestrogens and breast cancer chemoprevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenol compounds of plant origin that exhibit a structural similarity to the mammalian steroid hormone 17β-oestradiol. In Asian nations the staple consumption of phyto-oestrogen-rich foodstuffs correlates with a reduced incidence of breast cancer. Human dietary intervention trials have noted a direct relationship between phyto-oestrogen ingestion and a favourable hormonal profile associated with decreased breast cancer risk. However, these studies failed to ascertain the precise effect of dietary phyto-oestrogens on the proliferation of mammary tissue. Epidemiological and rodent studies crucially suggest that breast cancer chemoprevention by dietary phyto-oestrogen compounds is dependent on ingestion before puberty, when the mammary gland is relatively immature. Phyto-oestrogen supplements are commercially marketed for use by postmenopausal women as natural and safe alternatives to hormone replacement therapy. Of current concern is the effect of phyto-oestrogen compounds on the growth of pre-existing breast tumours. Data are contradictory, with cell culture studies reporting both the oestrogenic stimulation of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell lines and the antagonism of tamoxifen activity at physiological phyto-oestrogen concentrations. Conversely, phyto-oestrogen ingestion by rodents is associated with the development of less aggressive breast tumours with reduced metastatic potential. Despite the present ambiguity, current data do suggest a potential benefit from use of phyto-oestrogens in breast cancer chemoprevention and therapy. These aspects are discussed

  6. Plasma Protein Carbonyls and Breast Cancer Risk in Sisters Discordant for Breast Cancer from the New York Site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Zipprich, Jennifer; Terry, Mary Beth; Liao, Yuyan; Agrawal, Meenakshi; Gurvich, Irina; Senie, Ruby; Santella, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are important in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including breast cancer. Several population-based case-control studies have demonstrated that various biomarkers of oxidative stress are associated with an increase in breast cancer risk. We selected sisters discordant for breast cancer (n=645) from the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry to explore factors that contribute to variation in plasma protein carbonyls, and to determine whether this bio...

  7. Insulin resistance and breast-cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, P F; Bonfrèr, J M; van Noord, P A; Hart, A A; de Jong-Bakker, M; Nooijen, W J

    1992-10-21

    Life-style has a major influence on the incidence of breast cancer. To evaluate the effects of life-style related metabolic-endocrine factors on breast cancer risk we conducted a case-control study comparing 223 women aged 38 to 75 years presenting with operable (stage I or II) breast cancer and 441 women of the same age having no breast cancer, who participated in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women reporting diabetes mellitus were excluded. Sera from 110 women of the same age group presenting with early stage melanoma, lymphoma or cervical cancer were used as a second 'other-cancer control group'. Serum levels of C-peptide were significantly higher in early breast cancer cases compared to controls. The same was found for the ratios C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine, indicating insulin resistance. Sex hormone binding globulin was inversely, triglycerides and available estradiol were positively related to C-peptide. Serum C-peptide levels were related to body mass index (BMI), and to waist/hip ratio (WHR), in particular in controls. However, the relative increase of C-peptide, C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine in cases was independent of BMI or WHR. The log relative risk was linearly related to the log C-peptide levels. Relative risk according to quintiles, and adjusted for age, family history, BMI and WHR, for women at the 80% level was 2.9 as compared with those at the 20% level for C-peptide. Elevated C-peptide or C-peptide to fructosamine values were not observed in the sera from women belonging to the 'other-cancer control group'. This study suggests that hyperinsulinemia with insulin resistance is a significant risk factor for breast cancer independent of general adiposity or body fat distribution. PMID:1399128

  8. Ovarian stimulation in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Elkin; González, Naira; Muñoz, Luis; Aguilar, Jesús; Velasco, Juan A García

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women under 50. Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have yielded an important decrease in mortality in the last 20 years. In many cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy develop side effects on the reproductive function. Therefore, before the anti-cancer treatment impairs fertility, clinicians should offer some techniques for fertility preservation for women planning motherhood in the future. In order to obtain more available oocytes for IVF, the ovary must be stimulated. New protocols which prevent exposure to increased estrogen during gonadotropin stimulation, measurements to avoid the delay in starting anti-cancer treatment or the outcome of ovarian stimulation have been addressed in this review. There is no evidence of association between ovarian stimulation and breast cancer. It seems that there are more relevant other confluent factors than ovarian stimulation. Factors that can modify the risk of breast cancer include: parity, age at full-term birth, age of menarche, and family history. There is an association between breast cancer and exogenous estrogen. Therefore, specific protocols to stimulate patients with breast cancer include anti-estrogen agents such as letrozole. By using letrozole plus recombinant follicular stimulating hormone, patients develop a multifollicular growth with only a mild increase in estradiol serum levels. Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) takes around 10 days, and we discuss new strategies to start COS as soon as possible. Protocols starting during the luteal phase or after inducing the menses currently prevent a delay in starting ovarian stimulation. Patients with breast cancer have a poorer response to COS compared with patients without cancer who are stimulated with conventional protocols of gonadotropins. Although many centres offer fertility preservation and many patients undergo ovarian stimulation, there are not enough studies to evaluate the recurrence, breast cancer

  9. Breast Cancer Chemoprevention: Old and New Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Cazzaniga; Bernardo Bonanni

    2012-01-01

    In 1976, Sporn has defined chemoprevention as “the use of pharmacologic or natural agents that inhibit the development of invasive breast cancer either by blocking the DNA damage that initiates carcinogenesis, or by arresting or reversing the progression of premalignant cells in which such damage has already occurred.” Although the precise mechanism or mechanisms that promote a breast cancer are not completely established, the success of several recent clinical trials in preventive settings i...

  10. Role of ornithine decarboxylase in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wensheng Deng; Xian Jiang; Yu Mei; Jingzhong Sun; Rong Ma; Xianxi Liu; Hui Sun; Hui Tian; Xueying Sun

    2008-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis that decarboxylates ornithine to putrescine, has become a promising target for cancer research. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of ODC in breast cancer. We detected expression of ODC in breast cancer tissues and four breast cancer cell lines, and transfected breast cancer cells with an adenoviral vector carrying antisense ODC (rAd-ODC/Ex3as) and examined their growth and migration.ODC was overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and cell lines compared with non-tumor tissues and normal breast epithelial celis,and there was a positive correlation between the level of ODC mRNA and the staging of tumors.The expression of ODC correlated with cyclin D1,a cell cycle protein,in synchronized breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.Gene transfection of rAd-ODC/Ex3as markedly down-regulated expression Of ODC and cyclin D1,resulting in suppression of proliferation and cell cycle arrest at G0-G1 phase,and the inhibifion of colony formation,an anchorage-independent growth pattern,and the migratory ability of MDA-MB-231 cells.rAd-ODC/Ex3as also markedly reduced the concentration of putrescine,but not spermidine or spermine,in MDA-MB-231 cells.The results suggested that the ODC gene might act as aprognostic factor for breast cancer and it could be a promising therapeutic target.

  11. Making Sense of Breast Cancer: A Narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Cudworth

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Despite an abundance of research in the field of psycho-oncology, there is little that has come from the discipline of counselling psychology placing importance on social justice-oriented work of 'giving voice' (by providing a space for storytelling) and 'consciousness raising'. This study explores the experience of breast cancer by generating and analysing individual stories of women with breast cancer. The wider objective of this research is to enhance psycholog...

  12. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Dieli-Conwright CM; Orozco BZ

    2015-01-01

    Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offs...

  13. Significance of immunohistochemistry in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zaha, Dana Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The biological characteristics of the tumour are used to estimate prognosis and select appropriate systemic therapy for patients with (breast) cancer. The advent of molecular technology has incorporated new biomarkers along with immunohistochemical and serum biomarkers. Immunohistochemical markers are often used to guide treatment decisions, to classify breast cancer into subtypes that are biologically distinct and behave differently, and both as prognostic and predictive factors. Steroid hor...

  14. Life satisfaction in women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that breast cancer carries many psychosocial consequences. For a deeper understanding of this topic, this study aims to analyze the relationship between life satisfaction, meaning in life, optimism, body image and depression in 55 women with breast cancer, organized into two groups: mastectomized and submitted to conservative surgery. The variables were characterized based on the results from the Auto-Actualização-SentidoVida [Self-Actualization-Life Meaning] sub-scale, the E...

  15. miRNome of inflammatory breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Maltseva, Diana V; Galatenko, Vladimir V; Samatov, Timur R.; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana O; Khaustova, Nadezhda A; Nechaev, Ilya N; Shkurnikov, Maxim U; Lebedev, Alexey E; Mityakina, Irina A; Kaprin, Andrey D; Schumacher, Udo; Tonevitsky, Alexander G

    2014-01-01

    Background Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an extremely malignant form of breast cancer which can be easily misdiagnosed. Conclusive prognostic IBC molecular biomarkers which are also providing the perspectives for targeted therapy are lacking so far. The aim of this study was to reveal the IBC-specific miRNA expression profile and to evaluate its association with clinicopathological parameters. Methods miRNA expression profiles of 13 IBC and 17 non-IBC patients were characterized using c...

  16. Diabetes, diabetes treatment and breast cancer prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Juhua; Virnig, Beth; Hendryx, Michael; Wen, Sijin; Chelebowski, Rowan; Chen, Chu; Rohan, Tomas; Tinker, Lesley; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Lessin, Lawrence; Margolis, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess the impact of pre-existing diabetes and diabetes treatment on breast cancer prognosis. 8,108 women with centrally confirmed invasive breast cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative diagnosed between 1998 and 2013 were followed through the date of death or September 20, 2013. Information on diabetes and diabetes therapy were obtained via self-report and face-to-face review of current medication containers, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regressi...

  17. Genetic determinants of breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingmei

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to identify genetic risk factors using both hypothesis-based and hypothesis-free approaches. In an attempt to identify common disease susceptibility alleles for breast cancer, we started off with a hypothesis-free approach, and performed a combined analysis of three genome-wide association studies (GWAS), involving 2,702 women of European ancestry with invasive breast cancer and 5,726 controls. As GWAS has been said to underperform for stu...

  18. Breast Cancer: Surgery at the South Egypt Cancer Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Ahmed A.S.; Mohamed Abou Elmagd Salem; Hamza Abbass

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI) hospital durin...

  19. Platinum Based Chemotherapy or Observation in Treating Patients With Residual Triple-Negative Basal-Like Breast Cancer Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  20. The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A renewal of the search for a link between breast cancer and thyroid disease has once again demonstrated an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with breast cancer. This is the most recent of many studies showing an association between a variety of thyroid disorders and breast cancer. Such an association is not surprising as both diseases are female predominant with a similar postmenopausal peak incidence. The significance of the presence of thyroid autoantibodies, particularly thyroid peroxidase antibodies, in serum from patients with breast cancer is unknown, but it has been suggested that antibody positivity is associated with better prognosis. One area in which thyroid and breast functions overlap is in the uptake and utilization of dietary iodide. Experimental findings showing the ability of iodine or iodine-rich seaweed to inhibit breast tumour development is supported by the relatively low rate of breast cancer in Japanese women who consume a diet containing iodine-rich seaweed. However, there is as yet no direct evidence that iodine, iodinated compounds, or a combination of iodine and selenium is the antimammary carcinogenic element in the Japanese diet. It remains to be resolved whether the perceived breast cancer–thyroid disease relationship is thyroid or iodine related or, in the case of thyroid autoantibodies, is the consequence of an immune response to the carcinoma. Is this response breast specific and does it relate to iodine status? These and many other questions await resolution before a definitive role in the natural history of breast carcinoma can be assigned to the thyroid

  1. SPECT imaging for breast cancer staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate staging in breast cancer, including tumour sizing and the assessment of nodal and distant metastases, is required in order to plan surgery and post-operative therapy. Medical imaging techniques have made an important contribution to the diagnosis of carcinoma of the breast and the evaluation of local, regional and distant metastases. The study is aimed at establishing certain aspects of the diagnostic importance and priority of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in breast cancer. SPECT was carried out just after planar scintigraphy and then after intravenous injection of different radiopharmaceuticals in 45 women with histologically confirmed post-operation breast cancer. In 21 patients under loco-regional control of the disease before and/or after surgery, planar mammoscintigraphy and SPECT were conducted after intravenous injection of 99Tcm-MIBI (methoxyisobutyl isonitrile) or 99Tcm-anti-CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) monoclonal antibody (MoAb). Bone SPECT was carried out in 24 patients when whole body scintigraphy was unable to determine the exact localization of bone metastatic lesions in the skull, thorax and pelvis. The results suggest that SPECT with 99Tcm-MIBI and 99Tcm-anti-CEA MoAb has high sensitivity and improves the results of conventional planar scintigraphy for breast cancer detection. Breast SPECT is a preferable method for tumour and lymph node imaging because of the excellent separation of the deep breast structures from the myocardium in the left breast and of the right breast from the liver, thus improving the resolution of small, deep seated lesions. SPECT improves breast cancer staging, and determines the tumour, nodule and metastasis categories, which are important for the treatment strategy and prognosis of the disease. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  2. BREAST CANCER: IS OBESITY A RISK FACTOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most epidemiological studies established obesity as an important risk factor for breast cancer. It is one of the few risk factors that women can modify. Now-a-days breast cancer is considered to be a life-style disease. The relation of obesity to breast cancer is complex one. Obesity is found to be associated with increased risk of cancer in post-menopausal women, but relation is reverse in pre-menopausal women. In these patients, obesity increases risk due to enhanced oestrogenic activity in obese females. Apart from it, other factors like Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1, Leptin has also been involved. Due to big breasts in obese females there is delay in seeking medical attention, delay in diagnosis, poor response to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and associated complication during treatment. We study the effect of obesity (Weight, BMI, WHR as a risk factor in occurrence of breast cancer in local population of Southern part of Rajasthan in India. We found no significant association between obesity and increased risk of breast cancer in local population of this region where women are multiparous, physically active and usually do not use exogenous hormones.

  3. Computer model challenges breast cancer treatment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsky, M W; Swartzendruber, D E; Bame, P D; Wardwell, R H

    1994-01-01

    The breast cancer treatment failure rate remains unacceptably high. The current breast cancer treatment paradigm, based primarily on Gompertzian kinetics and animal models, advocates short-course, intensive chemotherapy subsequent to tumor debulking, citing drug resistance and host toxicity as the primary reasons for treatment failure. To better understand treatment failure, we have studied breast cancer from the perspective of computer modeling. Our results demonstrate breast cancers grow in an irregular fashion; this differs from the Gompertzian mode of animal models and thus challenges the validity of the current paradigm. Clinical and laboratory data support the concept of irregular growth rather than the common claim that human tumors grow in a Gompertzian fashion. Treatment failure mechanisms for breast cancer appear to differ from those for animal models, and thus treatments optimize on animal models may not be optimal for breast cancer. A failure mechanism consistent with our results involves temporarily dormant tumor cells in anatomical or pharmacological sanctuary, which eventually result in aggressive metastatic disease. PMID:7994590

  4. Targeting γ-secretase in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Jianxun Han,1 Qiang Shen21Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 2Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: γ-secretase complexes are multisubunit protease complexes that perform the intramembrane cleavage of more than 60 type-I transmembrane proteins, including Notch receptors. Since dysregulated Notch signaling has been implicated in the tumorigenesis and progression of breast cancer, small molecule γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs are being tested for their therapeutic potential in breast cancer treatment in several clinical trials. Here, the structure of γ-secretase complex and the development of GSIs are briefly reviewed, the roles of Notch and several other γ-secretase substrates in breast cancer are discussed, and the difference between γ-secretase inhibition and Notch inhibition, as well as the side effects associated with GSIs, are described. A better understanding of molecular mechanisms that affect the responsiveness of breast cancer to GSI might help to develop strategies to enhance the antitumor activity and, at the same time, alleviate the side effects of GSI.Keywords: γ-secretase, GSI, Notch, breast cancer

  5. MRI for breast cancer: Current indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography is the only imaging study that has been proven in multiple large randomized trials to decrease breast cancer mortality. Mammography, however, has its limitations and, as such, other modalities that can complement it are being studied. One of these is dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI, which has emerged as an important adjunctive modality and is at present the most sensitive modality that we have to evaluate the breast. The American College of Radiology, in its 2004 practice guidelines, has outlined the 12 current indications for breast MRI. This manuscript reviews and provides examples of each of these

  6. Overexpression of centromere protein H is significantly associated with breast cancer progression and overall patient survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Ting Liao; Yan Feng; Men-Lin Li; Guang-Lin Liu; Man-Zhi Li; Mu-Sheng Zeng; Li-Bing Song

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide.This study aimed to analyze the expression of centromere protein H (CENP-H) in breast cancer and to correlate it with clinicopathologic data,including patient survival.Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Westem blotting to detect the expression of CENP-H in normal mammary epithelial cells,immortalized mammary epithelial cell lines,and breast cancer cell lines,we observed that the mRNA and protein levels of CENP-H were higher in breast cancer cell lines and in immortalized mammary epithelial cells than in normal mammary epithelial cells.We next examined CENP-H expression in 307 paraffin-embedded archived samples of clinicopathologically characterized breast cancer using immunohistochemistry,and detected high CENP-H expression in 134 (43.6%) samples.Statistical analysis showed that CENP-H expression was related with clinical stage (P = 0.001),T classification (P = 0.032),N classification (P =0.018),and Ki-67 (P<0.001).Patients with high CENP-H expression had short overall survival.Multivariate analysis showed that CENP-H expression was an independent prognostic indicator for patient survival.Our results suggest that CENP-H protein is a valuable marker of breast cancer progression and prognosis.

  7. The staging and classification of cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary theme of this chapter is to place in perspective the process and purpose of tumor staging for both the oncologist and the radiologist. The foundation used for this discussion will be the Manual for Staging of Cancer-1983, published by the American Joint Committee for Cancer. Because the specifics of staging and classification by body site will be the province of the chapters that follow, only a broad discussion of the principles and applications of this system is given

  8. Digital subtraction angiography for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed digital subtraction angiography (DSA) on 42 patients with breast diseases to investigate its efficiency. As a result we came to the following conclusions: 1. The sensitivity was well evaluated in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA) of breast. 2. IA-DSA could diagnose difficult cases like cancer which had undergone augmentation mammoplasty, or like Paget's disease and others. 3. DSA was a safe examination method. 4. The sensitivity of IA-DSA of breast cancer is superior to intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA). (author)

  9. Digital subtraction angiography for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsurumi, Kiyohiko; Okuyama, Nobuo

    1987-07-01

    We performed digital subtraction angiography (DSA) on 42 patients with breast diseases to investigate its efficiency. As a result we came to the following conclusions: 1. The sensitivity was well evaluated in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA) of breast. 2. IA-DSA could diagnose difficult cases like cancer which had undergone augmentation mammoplasty, or like Paget's disease and others. 3. DSA was a safe examination method. 4. The sensitivity of IA-DSA of breast cancer is superior to intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA).

  10. Radiogenic breast cancer risk and mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a general concern that the risks from mammography screening in inducting radiogenic breast cancer may outweigh the possible benefits to be derived from it. A review of epidemiological, case-control and cohort studies of radiogenic breast cancer, age-specific incidence and dose and dose-rate relationship reveals that such a fear is unfounded. The dose to the breast tissues in a quality assured mammography screening programme falls far below the levels that were observed to produce increased relative risk. The age-specific incidence rates also indicate that the need for mammography is for the women of age at which the relative risk is minimum

  11. Triple negative breast cancer: an Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Murtaza Akhtar, Subhrajit Dasgupta, Murtuza Rangwala Department of Surgery, NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in the world. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a recently identified biological variant with aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis. Data of hormonal status from the Indian population is scarce due to financial constraints in performing immunohistochemistry evaluation. The present study aims to prospectively analyze receptor status of all breast cancer patients and identify TNBC and compare their clinical profile and short term survival with other non-TNBC group. Materials and methods: All cytologically and histopathologically confirmed cases of carcinoma breast were prospectively enrolled. In a longitudinal study at tertiary care hospital in central India based on the hormonal status, they were further divided into TNBC and other groups. Comparison of risk factors, clinical profile and short-term survival was carried out. Results: A total 85 patients were enrolled and of them 37 (43.7% were TNBC. On comparing risk factors ie, age, age at menarche, total reproductive age, age at first child birth, and menopausal status – no statistical significance was observed between the TNBC and non-TNBC groups. But on comparison of clinical profile TNBC tumors were significantly large with majority of patients presenting as locally advanced breast cancer (83%. No statistical difference was observed in axillary lymph node status between two groups. TNBC tumors were histologically more aggressive (grade 3 compared to other groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in short term overall survival but all three deaths were observed in the TNBC group only and two local recurrences after surgery were observed in the TNBC group. Conclusion: TNBC forms a large proportion of carcinoma breast patients in a central

  12. Evidence based radiation oncology: Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is, similar to surgery, a local treatment. In the case of breast cancer, it is generally given after conservative or after more extensive, tumour and patient adapted, surgery. The target volumes can be the breast and/or the thoracic wall and/or the regional lymph node areas. The integration and the extent of radiotherapy as part of the comprehensive treatment of the breast cancer patient, including the amount of surgery and the sequencing with the systemic treatments, has to be well discussed with all medical specialists involved in treating breast cancer on a multidisciplinary basis. Guidelines for the appropriate prescription and execution of radiotherapy are of utmost importance. However, individualisation based on the individual patients' and tumours' characteristics should always be envisaged. Materials and methods: Based on a review of the literature the level of evidence that is available for the indications for radiotherapy is summarised, as well as the main clinical questions that are unanswered today. An overview of the recent and ongoing clinical trails in breast cancer will highlight some of the current ongoing debates. Conclusions: In the case of breast cancer, radiotherapy, given after as well conservative as extensive risk-adapted surgery, significantly reduces the risk of local and regional recurrences. Especially for patients with an intermediate to high absolute risk for local recurrences, a positive influence on overall survival has been shown, notably when appropriate radiotherapy techniques are used. Most important is that the best results that we can offer to our breast cancer patients for all clinical endpoints (local and regional control; quality of life; cosmetic results; survival) can be obtained by a multidisciplinary and patient-oriented approach, involving all those involved in the treatment of breast cancer patients

  13. The molecular subtype classification is a determinant of sentinel node positivity in early breast carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Reyal

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several authors have underscored a strong relation between the molecular subtypes and the axillary status of breast cancer patients. The aim of our work was to decipher the interaction between this classification and the probability of a positive sentinel node biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our dataset consisted of a total number of 2654 early-stage breast cancer patients. Patients treated at first by conservative breast surgery plus sentinel node biopsies were selected. A multivariate logistic regression model was trained and validated. Interaction covariate between ER and HER2 markers was a forced input of this model. The performance of the multivariate model in the training and the two validation sets was analyzed in terms of discrimination and calibration. Probability of axillary metastasis was detailed for each molecular subtype. RESULTS: The interaction covariate between ER and HER2 status was a stronger predictor (p = 0.0031 of positive sentinel node biopsy than the ER status by itself (p = 0.016. A multivariate model to determine the probability of sentinel node positivity was defined with the following variables; tumour size, lympho-vascular invasion, molecular subtypes and age at diagnosis. This model showed similar results in terms of discrimination (AUC = 0.72/0.73/0.72 and calibration (HL p = 0.28/0.05/0.11 in the training and validation sets. The interaction between molecular subtypes, tumour size and sentinel nodes status was approximated. DISCUSSION: We showed that biologically-driven analyses are able to build new models with higher performance in terms of breast cancer axillary status prediction. The molecular subtype classification strongly interacts with the axillary and distant metastasis process.

  14. 75 FR 62297 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8572 of October 1, 2010 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the... fight against breast cancer, it remains the most frequently diagnosed type of non-skin cancer and the... will be diagnosed and nearly 40,000 lives will be claimed. During National Breast Cancer...

  15. Breast cancer in Egypt: a fact sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Zawilla N

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor among women. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women; 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people.

  16. Emerging Breast Cancer Epidemic: Evidence from Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Akarolo-Anthony, Sally Nneoma Sarah; Adebamowo, Clement Adebayo

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is an increasingly important public health problem in developing countries, including Africa [1]. As public and professional awareness of the cancer problem has grown, so has interest in the pattern of disease presentation, its epidemiology and treatment outcome. To date, however, there has been limited research about breast cancer in Africa. In the absence of systematic population-based cancer registration, most information has come from small clinical and pathology case series and th...

  17. Towards Evidence-Based Management of Inherited Breast and Breast-Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Møller Pål

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Inherited breast-ovarian cancer was described in 1866. The underlying genetic defects in BRCA1/2 were demonstrated 128 years later. We now have 10 years of experience with genetic testing in BRCA kindreds. The majority of breast cancer kindreds (familial breast cancer) do not demonstrate ovarian cancer and are not associated with BRCA mutations. The effect of early diagnosis and treatment is monitored through international collaborations. BRCA1-associated breast cancer is biologicall...

  18. Exercise in patients coping with breast cancer: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Eyigor, Sibel; Kanyilmaz, Selcen

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women, but fortunately has high survival rates. Many studies have been performed to investigate the effects of exercise in patients diagnosed with breast cancer. There is evidence that exercise after the diagnosis of breast cancer improves mortality, morbidity, health related quality of life, fatigue, physical functioning, muscle strength, and emotional wellbeing. Based on scientific data, breast cancer patients should be recommended to parti...

  19. Molecular basis of the triple negative breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Feyda Nursal

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women and more than 1 million breast cancer cases are diagnosed each year all over the world. Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease in terms of its molecular structure, mutation type, metastase properties, clinical course and therapeutic response. Breast cancer is divided into subtypes based on expression properties of molecular markers as estrogen receptor, progestron receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Triple-...

  20. Comparison of breast cancer mucin (BCM) and CA 15-3 in human breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, M.B.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Wall, E. van der; Nortier, J.W.R.; Schornagel, J.H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Mucin (BCM) enzyme immunoassay utilizes two monoclonal antibodies (Mab), M85/34 and F36/22, for the identification of a mucin-like glycoprotein in serum of breast cancer patients. We have compared BCM with CA 15-3, another member of the human mammary epithelial antigen family. Seru

  1. Surgical Procedures for Breast Cancer - Mastectomy and Breast Conserving Therapy (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... performed BCT procedure in the United States and Canada. (See "Breast conserving therapy" .) Radiation therapy Invasive breast ... breast cancer The following organizations also provide reliable health ... and undertakings, oral or written, are hereby expressly superseded and canceled. ...

  2. Genomic tumor evolution of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Fumiaki; Saji, Shigehira; Toi, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Owing to recent technical development of comprehensive genome-wide analysis such as next generation sequencing, deep biological insights of breast cancer have been revealed. Information of genomic mutations and rearrangements in patients' tumors is indispensable to understand the mechanism in carcinogenesis, progression, metastasis, and resistance to systemic treatment of breast cancer. To date, comprehensive genomic analyses illustrate not only base substitution patterns and lists of driver mutations and key rearrangements, but also a manner of tumor evolution. Breast cancer genome is dynamically changing and evolving during cancer development course from non-invasive disease via invasive primary tumor to metastatic tumor, and during treatment exposure. The accumulation pattern of base substitution and genomic rearrangement looks gradual and punctuated, respectively, in analogy with contrasting theories for evolution manner of species, Darwin's phyletic gradualism, and Eldredge and Gould's "punctuated equilibrium". Liquid biopsy is a non-invasive method to detect the genomic evolution of breast cancer. Genomic mutation patterns in circulating tumor cells and circulating cell-free tumor DNA represent those of tumors existing in patient body. Liquid biopsy methods are now under development for future application to clinical practice of cancer treatment. In this article, latest knowledge regarding breast cancer genome, especially in terms of 'tumor evolution', is summarized. PMID:25998191

  3. Reproducibility of histologic classification of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palli, D.; Bianchi, S.; Cipriani, F.; Duca, P.; Amorosi, A.; Avellini, C.; Russo, A.; Saragoni, A.; Todde, P.; Valdes, E.

    1991-01-01

    A panel review of histologic specimens was carried out as part of a multi-centre case-control study of gastric cancer (GC) and diet. Comparisons of diagnoses of 100 GCs by six pathologists revealed agreement in histologic classification for about 70-80% of the cancers. Concordance was somewhat higher when using the Lauren rather than the Ming or World Health Organization classification systems. Histologic types from reading biopsy tissue agreed with those derived from surgical specimens for 65-75% of the 100 tumours. Intra-observer agreement in histologic classification, assessed by repeat readings up to 3 years apart by one pathologist, was 95%. The findings indicate that, although overall concordance was good, it is important to standardise diagnoses in multi-centre epidemiologic studies of GC by histologic type. PMID:2039701

  4. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godavarty A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anuradha Godavarty,1 Suset Rodriguez,1 Young-Jin Jung,2 Stephanie Gonzalez1 1Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE or self-breast examinations (SBEs. Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. Keywords: diffuse optical imaging, near-infrared, hand-held devices, breast cancer, prescreening, early detection 

  5. INHIBITION OF SPONTANEOUS APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵志敏; 江明; 吴炅; 余黎民; 韩企夏; 张延璆; 沈镇宙

    1996-01-01

    Breast tumorigenesis proceeds through an accumulation of specific genetic alteration. Breast malignant transformation is dependent on not only the rate of cell production but also on apoptcsis,a genetically prograined process of autonomous ceil death. We investigated whether breast tumorigenesis involved an altered susceptibility to apoptosis and proliferation by examining normal breast epithelium and breast cancer sampies. We found there is a great inhibition of spontaneous apoptosis in breast cancer ceils compared with normal breast epithelium. The inhibition of apoptosis in breast cancer may contribute to neoplastic transformation.

  6. Genetic determinants of postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjana, Einarsdottir

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer is overall the most common cancer in women worldwide and endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in the industrialized world. History of a first-degree relative with breast or endometrial cancer has been related to a twofold increase in risk of the respective diseases. Whilst genetic risk factors for endometrial cancer in general or for breast cancer in women not carrying any high-penetrance mutations are largely unknown, a polygenic model h...

  7. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, N; Mills, Jennifer; Lang, Edward; Dickson, Holli K; Hamann, Heidi A; Nosek, Brian A; Schiller, Joan H

    2015-01-01

    Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants' ratings (n = 1778) regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements) and from participants' opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements). Participants' responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (Plung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (Pcaregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care. PMID:26698307

  8. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sriram

    Full Text Available Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants' ratings (n = 1778 regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements and from participants' opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements. Participants' responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001. Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001. Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care.

  9. Computational Discrimination of Breast Cancer for Korean Women Based on Epidemiologic Data Only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chiwon; Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Boyoung; Bae, Jonghee; Lim, Min Hyuk; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K; Kim, Youdan; Kim, Sungwan

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cancer for Korean women and its incidence rate has been increasing annually. If early diagnosis were implemented with epidemiologic data, the women could easily assess breast cancer risk using internet. National Cancer Institute in the United States has released a Web-based Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool based on Gail model. However, it is inapplicable directly to Korean women since breast cancer risk is dependent on race. Also, it shows low accuracy (58%-59%). In this study, breast cancer discrimination models for Korean women are developed using only epidemiological case-control data (n = 4,574). The models are configured by different classification techniques: support vector machine, artificial neural network, and Bayesian network. A 1,000-time repeated random sub-sampling validation is performed for diverse parameter conditions, respectively. The performance is evaluated and compared as an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). According to age group and classification techniques, AUC, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and calculation time of all models were calculated and compared. Although the support vector machine took the longest calculation time, the highest classification performance has been achieved in the case of women older than 50 yr (AUC = 64%). The proposed model is dependent on demographic characteristics, reproductive factors, and lifestyle habits without using any clinical or genetic test. It is expected that the model could be implemented as a web-based discrimination tool for breast cancer. This tool can encourage potential breast cancer prone women to go the hospital for diagnostic tests. PMID:26240478

  10. Improved detection of breast cancer on FDG-PET cancer screening using breast positioning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of breast cancer by positron emission tomography cancer screening using a breast positioning device. Between January 2004 and January 2006, 1,498 healthy asymptomatic individuals underwent cancer screening by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) at our institution; 660 of 1498 asymptomatic healthy women underwent breast PET imaging in the prone position using the breast positioning device to examine the mammary glands in addition to whole-body PET imaging. All subjects that showed abnormal 18F-FDG uptake in the mammary glands were referred for further examination or surgery at our institution or a local hospital. Our data were compared with the histopathological findings or findings of other imaging modalities in our institution and replies from the doctors at another hospital. Of the 660 participants, 7 (1.06%) were found to have breast cancers at a curable stage. All the seven cancers were detected by breast PET imaging, but only five of these were detected by whole-body PET imaging; the other two were detected by breast PET imaging using the breast positioning device. In cancer screening, prone breast imaging using a positioning device may help to improve the detection rate of breast cancer. However, overall cancer including mammography and ultrasonography screening should be performed to investigate the false-negative cases and reduce false-positive cases. The effectiveness of prone breast PET imaging in cancer screening should be investigated using a much larger number of cases in the near future. (author)

  11. Characteristics of breast cancer in an incident cancer population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of film mammography is a source of concern to radiologists because neither the ribs nor retromammary space is included on the films in good quality examinations. One hundred seven incident cancers were detected in 10,034 self-referred women followed at the University of Michigan Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (UM-BCDDP) for 5 years. These cancers were analyzed for location on the film, method of detection, size, histology, and the number of films required for detection. Mammography alone detected 52 (49%) of the cancers, whereas physical examination alone detected 15 (14%). The other 40 cancers were detectable on both examinations. All of the 92 cancers detected by mammography were visible in both the mediolateral and the craniocaudal views. Mammography consistently detected cancer in the breast, regardless of tumor size, histologic type, or location within the breast

  12. Adipocyte activation of cancer stem cell signaling in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin; Wolfson; Gabriel; Eades; Qun; Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Signaling within the tumor microenvironment has a critical role in cancer initiation and progression. Adipocytes, one of the major components of the breast microenvironment,have been shown to provide pro-tumorigenic signals that promote cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Adipocyte secreted factors such as leptin and interleukin-6(IL-6) have a paracrine effect on breast cancer cells. In adipocyte-adjacent breast cancer cells, the leptin and IL-6 signaling pathways activate janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activatorof transcription 5, promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and upregulating stemness regulators such as Notch, Wnt and the Sex determining region Y-box 2/octamer binding transcription factor 4/Nanog signaling axis. In this review we will summarize the major signaling pathways that regulate cancer stem cells in breast cancer and describe the effects that adipocyte secreted IL-6 and leptin have on breast cancer stem cell signaling. Finally we will introduce a new potential treatment paradigm of inhibiting the adipocyte-breast cancer cell signaling via targeting the IL-6 or leptin pathways.

  13. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation with Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Is Feasible for Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhenyu; Wu, Sangang; Zhou, Juan; Li, Fengyan; Sun, Jiayan; Lin, Qin; Lin, Huanxin; Guan, Xunxing

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Several accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) techniques are being investigated in patients with early-stage breast cancer. The present study evaluated the feasibility, early toxicity, initial efficacy, and cosmetic outcomes of accelerated partial breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for Chinese female patients with early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery. Methods A total of 38 patients met the inclusion criteria and an accelerated partial breast in...

  14. Docetaxel, Carboplatin, Trastuzumab, and Pertuzumab With or Without Estrogen Deprivation in Treating Patients With Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Positive Operable or Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Early detection of breast cancer: benefits and risks of supplemental breast ultrasound in asymptomatic women with mammographically dense breast tissue. A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammographic screening alone will miss a certain fraction of malignancies, as evidenced by retrospective reviews of mammograms following a subsequent screening. Mammographic breast density is a marker for increased breast cancer risk and is associated with a higher risk of interval breast cancer, i.e. cancer detected between screening tests. The purpose of this review is to estimate risks and benefits of supplemental breast ultrasound in women with negative mammographic screening with dense breast tissue. A systematic search and review of studies involving mammography and breast ultrasound for screening of breast cancer was conducted. The search was performed for the period 1/2000-8/2008 within the data source of PubMed, DARE, and Cochrane databases. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were determined prospectively, and the Oxford evidence classification system for diagnostic studies was used for evidence level. The parameters biopsy rate, positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy, cancer yield for breast ultrasound alone, and carcinoma detection rate by breast density were extracted or constructed. The systematic search identified no randomized controlled trials or systematic reviews, six cohort studies of intermediate level of evidence (3b) were found. Only two of the studies included adequate follow-up of subjects with negative or benign findings. Supplemental breast ultrasound after negative mammographic screening permitted diagnosis of primarily invasive carcinomas in 0.32% of women in breast density type categories 2-4 of the American College of Radiology (ACR); mean tumor size for those identified was 9.9 mm, 90% with negative lymph node status. Most detected cancers occurred in mammographically dense breast ACR types 3 and 4. Biopsy rates were in the range 2.3%-4.7%, with PPV of 8.4-13.7% for those biopsied due to positive ultrasound, or about one third of the PPV of biopsies due to mammography. Limitations: The study populations included wide age ranges, and

  16. Occupation, occupational exposure to solvents and breast cancer analyse of two epidemiological breast cancer studies in male and women

    OpenAIRE

    Villeneuve, Sara

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the occupation and of occupational exposures to petroleum and chlorinated solvents using the data of two epidemiological studies on occupational risk factors of breast cancers in men and in women. Unlike female breast cancer (50,000 new cases per year inFrance), cancer of male breast cancer is a rare disease (

  17. Accuracy of Self-Reported Breast Cancer Information among Women from the Ontario Site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Andriana Barisic; Gord Glendon; Nayana Weerasooriya; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining complete medical record information can be challenging and expensive in breast cancer studies. The current literature is limited with respect to the accuracy of self-report and factors that may influence this. We assessed the agreement between self-reported and medical record breast cancer information among women from the Ontario site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Women aged 20–69 years diagnosed with incident breast cancer 1996–1998 were identified from the Ontario Cancer R...

  18. Hierarchical clustering of breast cancer methylomes revealed differentially methylated and expressed breast cancer genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Oncogenic transformation of normal cells often involves epigenetic alterations, including histone modification and DNA methylation. We conducted whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylomes of normal breast, fibroadenoma, invasive ductal carcinomas and MCF7. The emergence, disappearance, expansion and contraction of kilobase-sized hypomethylated regions (HMRs and the hypomethylation of the megabase-sized partially methylated domains (PMDs are the major forms of methylation changes observed in breast tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering of HMR revealed tumor-specific hypermethylated clusters and differential methylated enhancers specific to normal or breast cancer cell lines. Joint analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation data of normal breast and breast cancer cells identified differentially methylated and expressed genes associated with breast and/or ovarian cancers in cancer-specific HMR clusters. Furthermore, aberrant patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI was found in breast cancer cell lines as well as breast tumor samples in the TCGA BRCA (breast invasive carcinoma dataset. They were characterized with differentially hypermethylated XIST promoter, reduced expression of XIST, and over-expression of hypomethylated X-linked genes. High expressions of these genes were significantly associated with lower survival rates in breast cancer patients. Comprehensive analysis of the normal and breast tumor methylomes suggests selective targeting of DNA methylation changes during breast cancer progression. The weak causal relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression observed in this study is evident of more complex role of DNA methylation in the regulation of gene expression in human epigenetics that deserves further investigation.

  19. Progress in diagnosis of breast cancer: Advances in radiology technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mari Beth Linder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in females between the ages of 15 and 54, and the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Diagnosis begins with detection by breast examination (clinical breast exam or breast self-exam or by radiologic studies, like mammography. Many advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer have taken place in recent years. This article will review the history of radiologic advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Use of technological advancements in digital breast tomosynthesis, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound in breast cancer diagnosis will be presented. Advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic interventions when compared to older, traditional X-ray films will be discussed. It is important for all nurses, including radiology and oncology nurses, to be well informed about these varied diagnostic modalities, and appreciate the fact that advances in radiologic imaging technologies can yield improved outcomes for breast cancer patients.

  20. Is human cytomegalovirus associated with breast cancer progression?

    OpenAIRE

    Utrera-Barillas, Dolores; Valdez-Salazar, Hilda-Alicia; Gómez-Rangel, David; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Aguilera, Penélope; Gómez-Delgado, Alejandro; Ruiz-Tachiquin, Martha-Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) may be associated with breast cancer progression. However, the role of HCMV infection in breast cancer remains controversial. We aimed to assess whether HCMV genes (UL122 and UL83) could be detected in breast carcinomas and reinvestigated their possible association with breast cancer progression. DNA from paraffin-embedded tissues was analyzed by real-time PCR. We investigated 20 fibroadenomas and 27 primary breast carcinom...