WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast cancer chemoprevention

  1. Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer by Dietary Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, Maria-Magdalena; Nagy, Péter; Szöllősi, János

    2015-12-17

    The review will discuss in detail the effects of polyphenols on breast cancer, including both the advantages and disadvantages of the applications of these natural compounds. First, we focus on the characterization of the main classes of polyphenols and then on in vitro and in vivo experiments carried out in breast cancer models. Since the therapeutic effects of the administration of a single type of polyphenol might be limited because of the reduced bioavailability of these drugs, investigations on combination of several polyphenols or polyphenols with conventional therapy will also be discussed. In addition, we present recent data focusing on clinical trials with polyphenols and new approaches with nanoparticles in breast cancer. Besides the clinical and translational findings this review systematically summarizes our current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer effects of polyphenols, which are related to apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, plasma membrane receptors, signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms. At the same time the effects of polyphenols on primary tumor, metastasis and angiogenesis in breast cancer are discussed. The increasing enthusiasm regarding the combination of polyphenols and conventional therapy in breast cancer might lead to additional efforts to motivate further research in this field.

  2. Chemoprevention of breast cancer by dietary compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadodkar, Aditi S; Suman, Suman; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar; Damodaran, Chendil

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in the United States and many other countries. There is an immediate need for more effective and less toxic therapeutic and preventive strategies for many cancers, especially for breast cancer. Natural products are being tested with a hope of identifying novel potent molecules as anticancer agents. Phytochemicals and dietary compounds have been used for the treatment of various illnesses throughout history due to their safety, low toxicity, and general availability. Currently, many active phytochemicals are in clinical trials. Preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that daily consumption of dietary phytochemicals reduces the risk of several cancers. Phytochemicals can inhibit, delay, or reverse carcinogenesis by inducing detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes, by regulating inflammatory/proliferative signaling pathways, and by inducing apoptosis. This review article describes some of the potential natural cancer preventive compounds, along with a mechanistic discussion of their interactions with key cellular signal transduction pathways as well as their contribution to the suppression of breast cancer cell growth.

  3. Flavonoids, Breast Cancer Chemopreventive and/or Chemotherapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne Nde, Chantal Beatrice; Zingue, Stephane; Winter, Evelyn; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz; Michel, Thomas; Fernandez, Xavier; Njamen, Dieudonne; Clyne, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are secondary metabolites abundantly present in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. They possess diverse properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer. Epidemiologic studies suggest that an enrich flavonoids diet is linked to a decreased risk of breast cancer. These protective properties are due to the alteration of numerous signalling pathways involved in cancer-related phenomena such as inflammation and proliferation. Human clinical trials examining the effect of supplementation of some flavonoids on disease prevention have been conducted. There is no natural flavonoid that has been approved for the treatment of breast cancer. However, natural flavonoids served as lead compounds in the synthesis of cancer chemopreventive and/or therapeutic agents.

  4. Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer by Mimicking the Protective Effect of Early First Birth. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    densities and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998;7:1133-44. 4. Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA. Radiographic microcalcification ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-05-1-0390 TITLE: Chemoprevention of breast cancer by...REPORT TYPE Final addendum 3. DATES COVERED 2 May 2012 – 2 February 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chemoprevention of breast cancer by mimicking the

  5. Nanoencapsulation of pomegranate bioactive compounds for breast cancer chemoprevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirode, Amit B; Bharali, Dhruba J; Nallanthighal, Sameera; Coon, Justin K; Mousa, Shaker A; Reliene, Ramune

    2015-01-01

    Pomegranate polyphenols are potent antioxidants and chemopreventive agents but have low bioavailability and a short half-life. For example, punicalagin (PU), the major polyphenol in pomegranates, is not absorbed in its intact form but is hydrolyzed to ellagic acid (EA) moieties and rapidly metabolized into short-lived metabolites of EA. We hypothesized that encapsulation of pomegranate polyphenols into biodegradable sustained release nanoparticles (NPs) may circumvent these limitations. We describe here the development, characterization, and bioactivity assessment of novel formulations of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)–poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA–PEG) NPs loaded with pomegranate extract (PE) or individual polyphenols such as PU or EA. Monodispersed, spherical 150–200 nm average diameter NPs were prepared by the double emulsion–solvent evaporation method. Uptake of Alexa Fluor-488-labeled NPs was evaluated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells over a 24-hour time course. Confocal fluorescent microscopy revealed that PLGA–PEG NPs were efficiently taken up, and the uptake reached the maximum at 24 hours. In addition, we examined the antiproliferative effects of PE-, PU-, and/or EA-loaded NPs in MCF-7 and Hs578T breast cancer cells. We found that PE, PU, and EA nanoprototypes had a 2- to 12-fold enhanced effect on cell growth inhibition compared to their free counterparts, while void NPs did not affect cell growth. PU-NPs were the most potent nanoprototype of pomegranates. Thus, PU may be the polyphenol of choice for further chemoprevention studies with pomegranate nanoprototypes. These data demonstrate that nanotechnology-enabled delivery of pomegranate polyphenols enhances their anticancer effects in breast cancer cells. Thus, pomegranate polyphenols are promising agents for nanochemoprevention of breast cancer. PMID:25624761

  6. Nanoencapsulation of pomegranate bioactive compounds for breast cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirode, Amit B; Bharali, Dhruba J; Nallanthighal, Sameera; Coon, Justin K; Mousa, Shaker A; Reliene, Ramune

    2015-01-01

    Pomegranate polyphenols are potent antioxidants and chemopreventive agents but have low bioavailability and a short half-life. For example, punicalagin (PU), the major polyphenol in pomegranates, is not absorbed in its intact form but is hydrolyzed to ellagic acid (EA) moieties and rapidly metabolized into short-lived metabolites of EA. We hypothesized that encapsulation of pomegranate polyphenols into biodegradable sustained release nanoparticles (NPs) may circumvent these limitations. We describe here the development, characterization, and bioactivity assessment of novel formulations of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) NPs loaded with pomegranate extract (PE) or individual polyphenols such as PU or EA. Monodispersed, spherical 150-200 nm average diameter NPs were prepared by the double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Uptake of Alexa Fluor-488-labeled NPs was evaluated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells over a 24-hour time course. Confocal fluorescent microscopy revealed that PLGA-PEG NPs were efficiently taken up, and the uptake reached the maximum at 24 hours. In addition, we examined the antiproliferative effects of PE-, PU-, and/or EA-loaded NPs in MCF-7 and Hs578T breast cancer cells. We found that PE, PU, and EA nanoprototypes had a 2- to 12-fold enhanced effect on cell growth inhibition compared to their free counterparts, while void NPs did not affect cell growth. PU-NPs were the most potent nanoprototype of pomegranates. Thus, PU may be the polyphenol of choice for further chemoprevention studies with pomegranate nanoprototypes. These data demonstrate that nanotechnology-enabled delivery of pomegranate polyphenols enhances their anticancer effects in breast cancer cells. Thus, pomegranate polyphenols are promising agents for nanochemoprevention of breast cancer.

  7. New Approaches to Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sporn, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Triterpenoids, natural products related to steroids and retinolds, represent an important class of new structures for drug discovery, with potential applications in many fields of medicine, particularly cancer...

  8. New Approaches to Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sporn, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Triterpenoids, natural products related to steroids and retinoids, represent an important class of new structures for drug discovery, with potential applications in many fields of medicine, particularly cancer...

  9. Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer: The Paradox of Evidence versus Advocacy Inaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshanda Layeequr Rahman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Women who are at high risk of breast cancer can be offered chemoprevention. Chemoprevention strategies have expanded over the past decade and include selective receptor modulator inhibitors and aromatase inhibitors. Physicians are expected to provide individualized risk assessments to identify high risk women who may be eligible for chemoprevention. It is prudent that physicians utilize a shared decision approach when counseling high risk women about their preventive options. Barriers and misperceptions however exist with patient and physician acceptance of chemoprevention and continue to impede uptake of chemoprevention as a strategy to reduce breast cancer risk. Programs to increase awareness and elucidate the barriers are critical for women to engage in cancer prevention and promote chemoprevention adherence.

  10. Australian clinicians and chemoprevention for women at high familial risk for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keogh Louise A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Effective chemoprevention strategies exist for women at high risk for breast cancer, yet uptake is low. Physician recommendation is an important determinant of uptake, but little is known about clinicians' attitudes to chemoprevention. Methods Focus groups were conducted with clinicians at five Family Cancer Centers in three Australian states. Discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically. Results Twenty three clinicians, including genetic counselors, clinical geneticists, medical oncologists, breast surgeons and gynaecologic oncologists, participated in six focus groups in 2007. The identified barriers to the discussion of the use of tamoxifen and raloxifene for chemoprevention pertained to issues of evidence (evidence for efficacy not strong enough, side-effects outweigh benefits, oophorectomy superior for mutation carriers, practice (drugs not approved for chemoprevention by regulatory authorities and not government subsidized, chemoprevention not endorsed in national guidelines and not many women ask about it, and perception (clinicians not knowledgeable about chemoprevention and women thought to be opposed to hormonal treatments. Conclusion The study demonstrated limited enthusiasm for discussing breast cancer chemoprevention as a management option for women at high familial risk. Several options for increasing the likelihood of clinicians discussing chemoprevention were identified; maintaining up to date national guidelines on management of these women and education of clinicians about the drugs themselves, the legality of "off-label" prescribing, and the actual costs of chemopreventive medications.

  11. Breast cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of Camellia Sinensis (green tea): an updated review

    OpenAIRE

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Movahedi, Mino

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Camellia sinensis belongs to the plant family of Theaceae, native to East Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia, but naturalized in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to overview its anti-breast cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects. This review article is aimed to overview breast cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of Camellia sinensis (green tea). Methods This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed,...

  12. Estrogen- and stress-induced DNA damage in breast cancer and chemoprevention with dietary flavonoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Michiko T; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed female cancers and a leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Multiple factors are responsible for breast cancer and heritable factors have received much attention. DNA damage in breast cancer is induced by prolonged exposure to estrogens, such as 17β-estradiol, daily social/psychological stressors, and environmental chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs). DNA damage induced by estrogen and stress is an important factor in the pathogenesis and development of breast cancer and is now recognized as a critical provision for chemoprevention of breast cancer. In this review, we summarize the relationships between estrogen- and stress-induced DNA damage with regard to the pathogenesis and development of breast cancer. We also discuss recent investigations into chemoprevention using dietary flavonoids such as quercetin and isoflavones.

  13. Breast cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of Camellia Sinensis (green tea): an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Movahedi, Mino

    2017-02-01

    Camellia sinensis belongs to the plant family of Theaceae, native to East Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia, but naturalized in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to overview its anti-breast cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects. This review article is aimed to overview breast cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of Camellia sinensis (green tea). This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases. The initial search strategy identified around 108 references. In this study, 68 studies were accepted for further screening, and met all our inclusion criteria [in English, full text, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of Camellia sinensis and dated mainly from the year 1999 to 2016. The search terms were Camellia sinensis, chemopreventive, chemotherapeutic properties, pharmacological effects. The result of this study suggested that the catechin available in Camellia sinensis has properties which can prevent and treat breast cancer. It has also been shown to inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells and to block carcinogenesis. It was found that increased Camellia sinensis consumption may lower the risk of breast cancer. Camellia sinensis intake was shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer incidence. In addition, potential breast cancer chemopreventive effect of Camellia sinensis both in vivo and in vitro was highly confirmed. However, the evidence of low effect and no effect was observed. More clinical trial studies are needed to prove its anti-breast cancer activity decisively. Camellia sinensis is broadly utilized as a part of customary medication since antiquated time because of its cost adequacy, and fewer reaction properties. The studies demonstrated anti-breast cancer activity of Camellia sinensis and its component by adjusting cell signaling pathways such as angiogenesis, apoptosis, and transcription factor. Furthermore

  14. Chemoprevention of breast cancer in the older patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, S E

    2000-02-01

    Age is the most important risk factor for the development of breast cancer. The risk of breast cancer continues to increase in American women until the age of 80 years. A family history of breast cancer helps identify those who possibly have the highest risk of developing breast cancer; however, most women who develop breast cancer do not have a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer. Currently, the Gail model is a commonly used model to identify risk, and this model has now been validated in several populations of women undergoing screening for breast cancer. The first large-scale breast cancer prevention trial investigating the preventive effects of tamoxifen has demonstrated a decrease in the development of breast cancer by almost 50% in the women in the tamoxifen treatment arm as compared with those receiving placebo. The NSABP P-1 trial was the largest of the three tamoxifen breast cancer prevention trials and had the greatest power to detect a difference between the two treatment groups in breast cancer events. This trial also included the largest percentage of postmenopausal women. It is unclear why the Italian and Royal Marsden Hospital trials had negative results regarding the preventive effects of tamoxifen. These two trials were strikingly different from the NSABP P-1 trial, however, and they included a different population of women. The issues surrounding the use of HRT for treatment of hot flashes in the Italian and Royal Marsden Hospital trials adds to the controversy concerning the negative results of these trials. The new SERM, raloxifene, has shown promise in preliminary studies as a preventive agent for breast cancer. The STAR trial will open soon and will evaluate the efficacy of raloxifene in preventing breast cancer in a prospective fashion, comparing its efficacy with tamoxifen treatment. Other endpoints will evaluate side effects such as menopausal symptoms, endometrial cancer, thromboembolic events, and benefits regarding

  15. Breast cancer chemoprevention by dietary natural phenolic compounds: specific epigenetic related molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Chiou, Yi-Siou; Chen, Li-Hua; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a systemic malignant disease that is a major cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide. Recently, multiple lines of evidence from epidemiologic studies have suggested that epigenetic and genetic changes are involved in breast cancer development. In breast cancer patients, hormone receptor status, breast cancer stem-like cell population, and tumor microenvironment are reflective of breast cancer progression, drug resistance, and tumor recurrence. Strong relationships between a phytochemical-rich diet and a reversal of epigenetic alterations and/or modulated signaling pathways of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, and progression) suggest a potential approach for preventing breast cancer. Additionally, dietary consumption of natural phenolic compounds containing phytoestrogen properties exerts beneficial effects in breast cancer chemoprevention. In this review, we summarize the specific chemopreventive targets of representative phenolic compounds with an emphasis on their efficacy at interfering with epigenetic event related hormonal and nonhormonal signaling cascades that are responsible for multistage breast carcinogenesis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Personalizing Aspirin Use for Targeted Breast Cancer Chemoprevention in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardia, Aditya; Keenan, Tanya E; Ebbert, Jon O; Lazovich, DeAnn; Wang, Alice H; Vierkant, Robert A; Olson, Janet E; Vachon, Celine M; Limburg, Paul J; Anderson, Kristin E; Cerhan, James R

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the association of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with the incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer for risk subgroups defined by selected nonmodifiable or difficult to modify breast cancer risk factors in order to better understand the potential risk-benefit ratio for targeted chemoprevention. Postmenopausal women with no history of cancer on July 1, 1992 (N=26,580), were prospectively followed up through December 31, 2005, for breast cancer incidence (N=1581). Risk subgroups were defined on the basis of family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, age at menopause, parity/age at first live birth, personal history of benign breast disease, and body mass index. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs adjusted for other breast cancer risk factors were estimated using Cox models. Aspirin use was associated with a lower incidence of breast cancer for women with a family history of breast cancer (HR, 0.62 for 6 or more times per week vs never use; 95% CI, 0.41-0.93) and those with a personal history of benign breast disease (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.50-0.95) but not for women in higher-risk subgroups for age at menarche, age at menopause, parity/age at first live birth, or body mass index. In contrast, inverse associations with aspirin use were observed in all lower-risk subgroups. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use had no association with breast cancer incidence. On the basis of their increased risk of breast cancer, postmenopausal women with a family history of breast cancer or a personal history of benign breast disease could potentially be targeted for aspirin chemoprevention studies. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Breast cancer chemopreventive properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit extracts in a mouse mammary organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, R; Lansky, E P

    2004-08-01

    We previously reported anticancer effects of pomegranate extracts in human breast cancer cells in vitro and also chemopreventive activity of pomegranate fermented juice polyphenols (W) in a mouse mammary organ culture (MMOC). In the present study we decided to expand the MMOC investigations to also include an evaluation of the potential chemopreventive efficacy of a purified chromatographic peak of W (Peak B), and also of whole pomegranate seed oil. In brief, an MMOC was established according to a known method. For the first 10 days of culture, the glands were treated with pomegranate fermented juice polyphenols (W), a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) peak separated from W (peak B), or pomegranate seed oil (Oil, and on day 3, exposed to the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and for 10 days treated with the putative pomegranate chemopreventive. The glands were subsequently harvested and tumours counted by visual inspection. While W effected a 42% reduction in the number of lesions compared with control, peak B and pomegranate seed oil each effected an 87% reduction. The results highlight enhanced breast cancer preventive potential both for the purified compound peak B and for pomegranate seed oil, both greater than that previously reported for pomegranate fermented juice polyphenols.

  18. The chemopreventive action of equol enantiomers in a chemically induced animal model of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nadine M.; Belles, Carrie A.; Lindley, Stephanie L.; Zimmer-Nechemias, Linda D.; Zhao, Xueheng; Witte, David P.; Kim, Mi-Ok; Setchell, Kenneth D.R.

    2010-01-01

    We describe for the first time the chemopreventive effects of S-(−)equol and R-(+)equol, diastereoisomers with contrasting affinities for estrogen receptors (ERs). S-(−)equol, a ligand for ERβ, is an intestinally derived metabolite formed by many humans and by rodents consuming diets containing soy isoflavones. Whether the well-documented chemopreventive effect of a soy diet could be explained by equol's action was unclear because neither diastereoisomers had been tested in animal models of chemoprevention. Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 40–41 per group) were fed a soy-free AIN-93G diet or an AIN-93G diet supplemented with 250 mg/kg of S-(−)equol or R-(+)equol beginning day 35. On day 50, mammary tumors were induced by dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and thereafter, animals were palpated for number and location of tumors. On day 190, animals were killed and mammary tumors were removed and verified by histology, and the degree of invasiveness and differentiation was determined. S-(−)equol and R-(+)equol plasma concentrations measured on days 35, 100 and 190 by tandem mass spectrometry confirmed diet compliance and no biotransformation of either diastereoisomer. In this model, S-(−)equol had no chemopreventive action, nor was it stimulatory. In contrast, R-(+)equol compared with Controls reduced palpable tumors (P = 0.002), resulted in 43% fewer tumors (P = 0.004), increased tumor latency (88.5 versus 66 days, P = 0.003), and tumors were less invasive but showed no difference in pattern grade or mitosis. Both enantiomers had no effect on absolute uterine weight but caused a significant reduction in body weight gain. In conclusion, the novel finding that the unnatural enantiomer, R-(+)equol, was potently chemopreventive warrants investigation of its potential for breast cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:20110282

  19. Developmental windows of breast cancer risk provide opportunities for targeted chemoprevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Holly A.; Lyons, Traci R.; Giles, Erin D.; Borges, Virginia F.; Schedin, Pepper

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude of the breast cancer problem implores researchers to aggressively investigate prevention strategies. However, several barriers currently reduce the feasibility of breast cancer prevention. These barriers include the inability to accurately predict future breast cancer diagnosis at the individual level, the need for improved understanding of when to implement interventions, uncertainty with respect to optimal duration of treatment, and negative side effects associated with currently approved chemoprevention therapies. None-the-less, the unique biology of the mammary gland, with its postnatal development and conditional terminal differentiation, may permit the resolution of many of these barriers. Specifically, lifecycle-specific windows of breast cancer risk have been identified that may be amenable to risk-reducing strategies. Here, we argue for prevention research focused on two of these lifecycle windows of risk: postpartum mammary gland involution and peri-menopause. We provide evidence that these windows are highly amenable to targeted, limited duration treatments. Such approaches could result in the prevention of postpartum and postmenopausal breast cancers, correspondingly. PMID:23664839

  20. Chemopreventive and adjuvant therapeutic potential of pomegranate (Punica granatum) for human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Deuk; Mehta, Rajendra; Yu, Weiping; Neeman, Ishak; Livney, Talia; Amichay, Akiva; Poirier, Donald; Nicholls, Paul; Kirby, Andrew; Jiang, Wenguo; Mansel, Robert; Ramachandran, Cheppail; Rabi, Thangaiyan; Kaplan, Boris; Lansky, Ephraim

    2002-02-01

    Fresh organically grown pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) of the Wonderful cultivar were processed into three components: fermented juice, aqueous pericarp extract and cold-pressed or supercritical CO2-extracted seed oil. Exposure to additional solvents yielded polyphenol-rich fractions ('polyphenols') from each of the three components. Their actions, and of the crude whole oil and crude fermented and unfermented juice concentrate, were assessed in vitro for possible chemopreventive or adjuvant therapeutic potential in human breast cancer. The ability to effect a blockade of endogenous active estrogen biosynthesis was shown by polyphenols from fermented juice, pericarp, and oil, which inhibited aromatase activity by 60-80%. Fermented juice and pericarp polyphenols, and whole seed oil, inhibited 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 from 34 to 79%, at concentrations ranging from 100 to 1,000 microg/ml according to seed oil > fermented juice polyphenols > pericarp polyphenols. In a yeast estrogen screen (YES) lyophilized fresh pomegranate juice effected a 55% inhibition of the estrogenic activity of 17-beta-estradiol; whereas the lyophilized juice by itself displayed only minimal estrogenic action. Inhibition of cell lines by fermented juice and pericarp polyphenols was according to estrogen-dependent (MCF-7) > estrogen-independent (MB-MDA-231) > normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). In both MCF-7 and MB-MDA-231 cells, fermented pomegranate juice polyphenols consistently showed about twice the anti-proliferative effect as fresh pomegranate juice polyphenols. Pomegranate seed oil effected 90% inhibition of proliferation of MCF-7 at 100 microg/ml medium, 75% inhibition of invasion of MCF-7 across a Matrigel membrane at 10 microg/ml, and 54% apoptosis in MDA-MB-435 estrogen receptor negative metastatic human breast cancer cells at 50 microg/ml. In a murine mammary gland organ culture, fermented juice polyphenols effected 47% inhibition of cancerous

  1. Benefit/Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Chemoprevention With Raloxifene or Tamoxifen for Women Age 50 Years or Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Andrew N.; Yu, Binbing; Gail, Mitchell H.; Costantino, Joseph P.; Graubard, Barry I.; Vogel, Victor G.; Anderson, Garnet L.; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) demonstrated that raloxifene was as effective as tamoxifen in reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer (IBC) in postmenopausal women and had lower risks of thromboembolic events, endometrial cancer, and cataracts but had a nonstatistically significant higher risk of noninvasive breast cancer. There is a need to summarize the risks and benefits of these agents. Patients and Methods Baseline incidence rates of IBC and other health outcomes, absent raloxifene and tamoxifen, were estimated from breast cancer chemoprevention trials; the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program; and the Women's Health Initiative. Effects of raloxifene and tamoxifen were estimated from STAR and the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial. We assigned weights to health outcomes to calculate the net benefit from raloxifene compared with placebo and tamoxifen compared with placebo. Results Risks and benefits of treatment with raloxifene or tamoxifen depend on age, race, breast cancer risk, and history of hysterectomy. Over a 5-year period, postmenopausal women with an intact uterus had a better benefit/risk index for raloxifene than for tamoxifen. For postmenopausal women without a uterus, the benefit/risk ratio was similar. The benefits and risks of raloxifene and tamoxifen are described in tables that can help identify groups of women for whom the benefits outweigh the risks. Conclusion We developed a benefit/risk index to quantify benefits from chemoprevention with tamoxifen or raloxifene. This index can complement clinical evaluation in deciding whether to initiate chemoprevention and in comparing the benefits and risks of raloxifene versus tamoxifen. PMID:21537036

  2. Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Eva; Mao, Jenny T.; Lam, Stephen; Reid, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor. Former smokers are at a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer compared with lifetime never smokers. Chemoprevention refers to the use of specific agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent the process of carcinogenesis. This article reviews the major agents that have been studied for chemoprevention. Methods: Articles of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention trials were reviewed and summarized to obtain recommendations. Results: None of the phase 3 trials with the agents β-carotene, retinol, 13-cis-retinoic acid, α-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, acetylsalicylic acid, or selenium has demonstrated beneficial and reproducible results. To facilitate the evaluation of promising agents and to lessen the need for a large sample size, extensive time commitment, and expense, surrogate end point biomarker trials are being conducted to assist in identifying the most promising agents for later-stage chemoprevention trials. With the understanding of important cellular signaling pathways and the expansion of potentially important targets, agents (many of which target inflammation and the arachidonic acid pathway) are being developed and tested which may prevent or reverse lung carcinogenesis. Conclusions: By integrating biologic knowledge, additional early-phase trials can be performed in a reasonable time frame. The future of lung cancer chemoprevention should entail the evaluation of single agents or combinations that target various pathways while working toward identification and validation of intermediate end points. PMID:23649449

  3. [Coffee in Cancer Chemoprevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirthová, J; Gál, B; Smilek, P; Urbánková, P

    Coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including cancer. Its chemopreventive effect has been studied in vitro, in animal models, and more recently in humans. Several modes of action have been proposed, namely, inhibition of oxidative stress and damage, activation of metabolizing liver enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification processes, and anti-inflammatory effects. The antioxidant activity of coffee relies partly on its chlorogenic acid content and is increased during the roasting process. Maximum antioxidant activity is observed for medium-roasted coffee. The roasting process leads to the formation of several components, e.g., melanoidins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Coffee also contains two specific diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol, which have anticarcinogenic properties. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of various chemicals. Previous studies have reported that the chemopreventive components present in coffee induce apoptosis, inhibit growth and metastasis of tumor cells, and elicit antiangiogenic effects. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies showed that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of developing various malignant tumors. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and the experimental and epidemiological evidence supporting the chemopreventive effect of coffee.Key words: coffee - chemoprevention - antioxidative enzyme - detoxification enzyme - anti-inflammatory effect The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 11. 9. 2016Accepted: 24. 11. 2016.

  4. Chemopreventive and immunomodulatory effects of Murraya koenigii aqueous extract on 4T1 breast cancer cell-challenged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Abu, Nadiah; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Beh, Boon Kee; Ho, Wan Yong; Ebrahimi, Siamak; Yusof, Hamidah Mohd; Ky, Huynh; Tan, Sheau Wei; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2015-09-04

    The progression of breast cancer is increasing at an alarming rate, particularly in western countries. Meanwhile, the lower incidence in Asian countries could be attributed to the heavy incorporation of green leaves vegetables or spices in their diets. Murraya koenigii (MK) or often times known as curry leaves are common spice used mostly in tropical countries. Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of MK aqueous extract on 4T1 breast cancer cell-challenged mice were evaluated. Herein, cytotoxic activity of MK was first tested on 4T1 cells in vitroby MTT assay. Then, in vivo chemopreventive study was conducted where mice were fed with extracts prior to and after inducing the tumor (inoculation). Tumor size was monitored post-4T1 inoculation. At the end of experiment, histopathology of tumor sections, T cell immunophenotyping, tumor nitric oxide level, serum cytokine level and qPCR analysis on expression of iNOS, iCAM, NF-kB and c-MYC were performed. MK reduced the tumors' size and lung metastasis aside from inhibited the viability of 4T1 cells in vitro. Furthermore, it decreased the level of nitric oxide and inflammation-related cytokines and genes, including iNOS, iCAM, NF-kB and c-MYC. The results propose that, MK managed to inhibit the progression of tumor via immunostimulatory effect and inflammatory reaction within the tumor samples. This suggests that MKconsumption could be a savior in the search of new chemopreventive agents.

  5. Estrogen- and stress-induced DNA damage in breast cancer and chemoprevention with dietary flavonoid

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuda, Michiko T.; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed female cancers and a leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Multiple factors are responsible for breast cancer and heritable factors have received much attention. DNA damage in breast cancer is induced by prolonged exposure to estrogens, such as 17?-estradiol, daily social/psychological stressors, and environmental chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs). DNA damage induced by estroge...

  6. The Role of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in the Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Horn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence suggests that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs which act as cyclooxygenase (COX-2 inhibitors may reduce breast cancer incidence by up to 20%. These agents are often taken for pain relief by older women with osteoarthritis. Age is the major risk factor for breast cancer in women with 50% cases being diagnosed in those aged >65 years. NSAIDs reduce serum estradiol by 17% in post-menopausal women and since most of these who develop breast cancers have estrogen receptor positive tumours; this suggests a possible preventative role. Careful use of these agents could provide a strategy for both relief of symptoms of osteoarthritis and also breast cancer prevention. Instead of conducting a randomised trial, proof of efficacy could be from an adequately powered cohort study within the breast screening programme.

  7. Chemoprevention of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Ashish M; Lamm, Donald L

    2002-02-01

    The data presented herein, although highly supportive for a protective role of various nutrients against bladder cancer, are far from definitive. Many authorities question the validity of current recommendations for nutritional chemoprevention against bladder cancer. The reason for the wide variations reported in epidemiologic studies lies in the nature of observational studies. Dietary studies are limited in their conclusions because the protection afforded by the consumption of a particular nutrient may be multifactorial, with different components of the food exerting potential chemopreventive effects. Furthermore, measuring levels of nutrients in the food intake of populations is confounded by factors that might affect these levels and also the incidence of cancer. For example, vitamin A can come from animal or vegetarian sources. Because animal fat has been identified as a potential carcinogen in man, depending on the source of the vitamin, varying levels of protection might be deduced. In addition, chemoprevention studies using dietary supplements are expected to have mild effects, and large studies would be required to confirm statistical significance. Even with agents such as intravesical chemotherapy, only half the studies achieve statistical significance [29]. Prospective randomized trials with a large sample size, longer follow-up, and an extended duration of treatment are needed to clarify the association between micronutrients and cancer protection. With these caveats in mind, several recommendations can be made. Simple measures, such as drinking more fluids (especially water), can have a profound impact on the incidence of bladder cancer. Vitamins are being extensively studied in chemopreventive trials for different cancers. There is strong evidence for a chemoprotective effect of vitamin A in bladder cancer. The authors recommend 32,000 IU/day of vitamin A initially, with lower doses (24,000 IU) for persons less than 50 kg. Because liver toxicity is a

  8. Cancer chemoprevention by natural compounds

    OpenAIRE

    スズキ, マスミ; Masumi, SUZUI

    2007-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of natural compounds for the treatment and prevention of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. Several herb-derived components are currently evaluated in preclinical studies as potential cancer chemopreventive agents. We have recently found that several herbal plants in the Ryukyu Islands, or any other natural compound, have a potential chemopreventive effect on biomarkers of colon carcinogenesis and a growth inhibitory effect on human cancer cells...

  9. Diallyl trisulfide, a chemopreventive agent from Allium vegetables, inhibits alpha-secretases in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Violet A; Stan, Silvia D

    2017-03-18

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women throughout the course of their lifetime creating a demand for novel prevention strategies against this disease. The Notch signaling pathway is often aberrantly activated in human malignancies including breast cancer. Alpha secretases, including ADAM (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease) -10 and -17, are proteases that play a key role in the cleavage of cell surface molecules and subsequent ligand-mediated activation of Notch signaling pathway. High expression levels of ADAM10 and 17 have been clinically associated with a lower disease-free survival in breast cancer patients. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a bioactive organosulfide found in garlic and other Allium vegetables, on alpha secretases in breast cancer cells. Here we report for the first time that DATS inhibits the expression of ADAM10 and ADAM17 in estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 and estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and in Harvey-ras (H-Ras) transformed MCF10A-H-Ras breast epithelial cells. We also show that DATS induces a dose-dependent reduction in colony formation ability of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, suggesting a long-term effect of DATS on growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we show that DATS inhibits the Notch ligands Jagged-1 and Jagged-2 involved in activation of Notch signaling pathway. Collectively, these findings show that DATS targets Notch pathway components overexpressed in breast cancer tumors and may serve as a functionally relevant bioactive for breast cancer prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased chemopreventive effect by combining arctigenin, green tea polyphenol and curcumin in prostate and breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Piwen; Wang, Bin; Chung, Seyung; Wu, Yanyuan; Henning, Susanne M.; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2014-01-01

    The low bioavailability of most flavonoids limits their application as anti-carcinogenic agents in humans. A novel approach of treatment with a mixture of bioactive compounds that share molecular anti-carcinogenic targets may enhance the effect on these targets at low concentrations of individual compound, thereby overcoming the limitations of reduced bioavailability. We therefore investigated whether a combination of three natural products arctigenin (Arc), a novel anti-inflammatory lignan from the seeds of Arctium lappa, green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and curcumin (Cur) increases the chemopreventive potency of individual compounds. LNCaP prostate cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with 2–4 mg/L (about 5–10μM) Cur, 1μM Arc and 40μM EGCG alone or in combination for 48h. In both cell lines treatment with the mixture of Cur, Arc and EGCG synergistically increased the antiproliferative effect. In LNCaP cells both Arc and EGCG increased the pro-apoptotic effect of Cur. Whereas in MCF-7 cells Arc increased the cell apoptosis of Cur while EGCG enhanced cell cycle arrest of Cur at G0/G1 phase. The strongest effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were achieved by combining all three compounds in both cell lines. The combination treatment significantly increased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 proteins, decreased the activation of NFκB, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 pathways and cell migration compared to individual treatment. These results warrant in vivo studies to confirm the efficacy of this novel regimen by combining Arc and EGCG with Cur to enhance chemoprevention in both prostate and breast cancer. PMID:25243063

  11. Breast Cancer Metabolism and Mitochondrial Activity: The Possibility of Chemoprevention with Metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Cazzaniga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic reprogramming refers to the ability of cancer cells to alter their metabolism in order to support the increased energy request due to continuous growth, rapid proliferation, and other characteristics typical of neoplastic cells. It has long been believed that the increase of metabolic request was independent of the mitochondrial action but recently we know that mitochondrial activity together with metabolism plays a pivotal role in the regulation of the energy needed for tumor cell growth and proliferation. For these reasons the mitochondria pathways could be a new target for therapeutic and chemopreventive intervention. Metformin in particular is actually considered a promising agent against mitochondrial activity thanks to its ability to inhibit the mitochondrial complex I.

  12. Chemopreventive Effects of Morindia Citrifolia Juice (noni on Experimental Breast Cancer in Rats: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milena Serrano Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the effect of Morindia citrifolia juice (Tahitian Noni® in the development of breast cancer induced by carcinogen agent 7.12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA in rats. For this purpose, the breast cancer induction model 1.7-DMBA was used on Spraguey Dawley nulliparous rats of 35 days of age, randomly divided into three groups: group 1 control, which received no treatment, and groups 2 and 3, induced with DMBA at a dose of 55 mg/kg. The latter received a dose of noni juice of 4 ml/kg per day for 90 days. The results showed that a significant percentage (83.33% of the rats from the group induced with DMBA not treated with noni juice developed palpable breast tumors ( ≤ 2 cm of the ductal carcinoma in situ type and atypical ductal hyperplasia, compared to the other groups that did not develop any kind of tumors. In addition, it was found that rats that developed breast cancer had a lower weight gain and significantly increased water consumption (p < 0.05 compared to the other two groups. The results of the hematological and biochemical parameters showed no significant changes between groups. Histopathological changes compatible with liver toxicity were found in rats treated with noni juice. In conclusion, it was found in this preliminary study that noni juice has positive effects in modulating the development of breast cancer induced by DMBA.

  13. Quimioprevenção do câncer de mama Current status of breast cancer chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Marques de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    defined as the use of natural or synthetic chemical agents to reverse, suppress or prevent carcinogenic progression of invasive cancer. Drugs that act as chemoprevention agents for breast cancer are divided into two major groups: drugs that prevent Estrogen Receptor (ER - positive breast cancers [selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM, aromatase inhibitors GnKH agonists and phytoestrogens] and drugs that prevent ER - negative breast cancers [cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors, retinoids, statins, receptor tyrosine, kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibody against HER-2 and telomerase inhibitors]. Results from the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR, which compared the risk-reducing efficacy as well as toxicity of these two SERMs in a similar high-risk for breast cancer population, showed that Raloxifene is as effective as Tamoxifen in reducing the risk of non-invasive breast cancer (p=.83. It has a statistically significant lower risk of thromboembolic events and cataracts, however a non- statistically significant higher risk of noninvasive breast cancer. Based on promising data involving reduction of contralateral breast cancer risk in adjuvant studies, several aromatase inhibitors, including letrozole, anastrozole and exemestane, are being included in trials to evaluate their efficacy in breast cancer prevention in both case-control and cohort studies As such randomized studies to confirm this efficacy are needed. Positive results of several recent clinical trials for preventing breast cancer in high-risk populations suggest that chemoprevention is a rational and attractive strategy.

  14. Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanjoo Suh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E consists of eight different variants: α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols (saturated phytyl tail and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienols (unsaturated phytyl tail. Cancer prevention studies with vitamin E have primarily utilized the variant α-tocopherol. To no avail, a majority of these studies focused on variant α-tocopherol with inconsistent results. However, γ-tocopherol, and more recently δ-tocopherol, have shown greater ability to reduce inflammation, cell proliferation, and tumor burden. Recent results have shown that γ-enriched mixed tocopherols inhibit the development of mammary hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in animal models. In this review, we discuss the possible differences between the variant forms, molecular targets, and cancer-preventive effects of tocopherols. We recommend that a γ-enriched mixture, γ- and δ-tocopherol, but not α-tocopherol, are promising agents for breast cancer prevention and warrant further investigation.

  15. Chemopreventive activity of vitamin E in breast cancer: a focus on γ- and δ-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, Amanda K; Suh, Nanjoo

    2011-11-01

    Vitamin E consists of eight different variants: α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols (saturated phytyl tail) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienols (unsaturated phytyl tail). Cancer prevention studies with vitamin E have primarily utilized the variant α-tocopherol. To no avail, a majority of these studies focused on variant α-tocopherol with inconsistent results. However, γ-tocopherol, and more recently δ-tocopherol, have shown greater ability to reduce inflammation, cell proliferation, and tumor burden. Recent results have shown that γ-enriched mixed tocopherols inhibit the development of mammary hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in animal models. In this review, we discuss the possible differences between the variant forms, molecular targets, and cancer-preventive effects of tocopherols. We recommend that a γ-enriched mixture, γ- and δ-tocopherol, but not α-tocopherol, are promising agents for breast cancer prevention and warrant further investigation.

  16. Breast cancer risk in young women in the national breast screening programme: implications for applying NICE guidelines for additional screening and chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D Gareth; Brentnall, Adam R; Harvie, Michelle; Dawe, Sarah; Sergeant, Jamie C; Stavrinos, Paula; Astley, Susan; Wilson, Mary; Ainsworth, John; Cuzick, Jack; Buchan, Iain; Donnelly, Louise S; Howell, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    In the United Kingdom, women at moderate and high risk of breast cancer between the ages of 40 and 49 years are eligible for annual mammographic screening and preventive therapy with tamoxifen. Here, we estimate the numbers of women in a population eligible for this service and the proportion of breast cancers detected in this group compared with the whole population. Women screening in the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) completed a risk questionnaire. The proportion at moderate and high risk according to National Institute of Health Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines was estimated. An estimate was also made using a different model of risk estimation (Tyrer-Cuzick). The numbers of cancers detected in the moderate/high risk groups were compared with numbers detected in the whole population. Completed questionnaires were available for 4,360 women between ages 46 and 49 years. Thirty women [0.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.5-1.0%] were at high risk and 130 (3.0%, 2.5-3.5%) were at moderate risk according to NICE guidelines. Thirty-seven cancers were detected by mammography in the whole group. Five of these were found in the moderate-/high-risk group giving a 3.2-fold increase in detection compared with the standard risk group. More women were assigned to the moderate- or high-risk group using the Tyrer-Cuzick model (N = 384), but the numbers of cancers in this group were not appreciably increased (N = 8). Systematic assessment of family history in primary care or through population-based screening will identify appreciable numbers of women in their forties, eligible for additional surveillance and chemoprevention. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Nicotinamide for skin cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Diona L

    2017-08-01

    Nicotinamide (vitamin B 3 ) has a range of photoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo; it enhances DNA repair, reduces UV radiation-induced suppression of skin immune responses, modulates inflammatory cytokine production and skin barrier function and restores cellular energy levels after UV exposure. Pharmacological doses of nicotinamide have been shown to reduce actinic keratoses and nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence in high-risk individuals, making this a nontoxic and accessible option for skin cancer chemoprevention in this population. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  18. Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    described. 8 We used DNA chip technology to identify gene expression in the Genomics Core Laboratory at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center...and Tucker, M. The risk ofscribed above, genomic and proteomic methods are now being cancer associated with specific mutations of BRCAI and BRCA2...Bentley, R. C., effctie gaista humain ovariatn carcinoma xenograft and potentiates Walmer, D. K., Cline, M., Whitaker, R. S., Istier, P., Berchuck

  19. Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Cancer Res 1998;4:1345–55. [18] Kim Y-H, Dohi DF, Han G-R, Zou CP, Oridate N, Walsh GL, et al. Retinoid refractoriness occurs during lung...Localization and kinetics of reduced pyridine nucleotide in living cells by microfluorometry. J. Biol. Chem. 234, 3044–3050. 10. Huber, R., M. Buchner ...Um, S-J., Lee, S-Y., Kim, E-J., Han , H-S., Koh, Y-M., Hong, K-J., Sin, H-S., and Park, J-S. Anti-proliferative mechanism of retinoid de- rivatives in

  20. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals: Epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena Ruiz, Raúl; Salinas Hernández, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, natural compounds called "phytochemicals", which are present in fruits, vegetables, and plants, have received special attention due to their potential to interfere with tumour formation and development. Many of these phytochemicals are being used in chemoprevention strategies. However, the scientific evidence regarding the modification of cancer risk continues to be debated. The aim of this paper is to review the current scientific evidence and the most relevant epidemiological studies regarding the consumption or use of phytochemicals and their effects on the incidence of cancer. A search for relevant articles was conducted in EMBASE and PubMed-NCBI through to May 2016 to identify potential interactions between the consumption or use of phytochemicals and cancer risk. The use or consumption of carotenoids, such as lycopene, alpha-carotene, and betacarotene, leads to a reduction in the risk of cancer, such as breast and prostate tumours. For breast cancer, beta-carotene even reduces the risk of recurrence. The use or consumption of soybean isoflavones has led to a reduction in the risk of lung, prostate, colon (in women only), and breast cancers, although this has depended on menopausal and oestrogen receptor status. The use or consumption of isothiocyanates and indole-3-carbinol also seems to reduce the risk of cancer, such as breast, stomach, colorectal, or prostate tumours. The adoption of a diet rich in phytochemicals is associated with a modification of cancer risk. However, the scientific data supporting its use come mainly from in vitro and in vivo studies (especially in animal models). The epidemiological evidence is inconclusive for many of these phytochemicals, so further studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comet Assay in Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Raffaela; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The comet assay can be useful in monitoring DNA damage in single cells caused by exposure to genotoxic agents, such as those causing air, water, and soil pollution (e.g., pesticides, dioxins, electromagnetic fields) and chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients, or in the assessment of genoprotective effects of chemopreventive molecules. Therefore, it has particular importance in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology, and in both environmental and human biomonitoring. It allows the detection of single strand breaks as well as double-strand breaks and can be used in both normal and cancer cells. Here we describe the alkali method for comet assay, which allows to detect both single- and double-strand DNA breaks.

  2. Cancer chemoprevention – selected molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Walczak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of diet on cancer formation and prevention of carcinogenesis has attracted considerable attention for years and is the subject of several studies. Some components of the daily diet, such as resveratrol, curcumin, genistein, gingerol, can significantly reduce the risk of cancer or affect the rate of tumor progression. Cancer chemoprevention assumes the use of natural or synthetic biologically active substances in order to prevent, inhibit or reverse the progression of cancer. There are many biologically active compounds in several natural products, i.e. garlic, ginger, soy, curcuma, tomatoes, cruciferous plants or green tea. Their chemopreventive activity is based on the inhibition of processes underlying carcinogenesis (inflammation, transformation and proliferation, but also affects the final phase of carcinogenesis - angiogenesis and metastasis. Despite the relatively low toxicity of chemopreventive agents, their molecular targets often coincide with the objectives of the currently used cancer therapies. The widespread use of chemopreventive agents may contribute to reduction of the rate of cancer incidence, and increase the effectiveness of conventional cancer therapies. In the present study, selected molecular mechanisms of the chemopreventive activity have been discussed, especially their involvement in the regulation of signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, metastasis and angiogenesis. The role of chemopreventive agents in the inflammatory process, the metabolism of xenobiotics and multidrug resistance has been also characterized.

  3. Chemopreventive efficacy of curcumin-loaded PLGA microparticles in a transgenic mouse model of HER-2-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Alex E; Shahani, Komal; Koniar, Brenda; Panyam, Jayanth

    2017-04-17

    Curcumin has shown promising inhibitory activity against HER-2-positive tumor cells in vitro but suffers from poor oral bioavailability in vivo. Our lab has previously developed a polymeric microparticle formulation for sustained delivery of curcumin for chemoprevention. The goal of this study was to examine the anticancer efficacy of curcumin-loaded polymeric microparticles in a transgenic mouse model of HER-2 cancer, Balb-neuT. Microparticles were injected monthly, and mice were examined for tumor appearance and growth. Initiating curcumin microparticle treatment at 2 or 4 weeks of age delayed tumor appearance by 2-3 weeks compared to that in control mice that received empty microparticles. At 12 weeks, abnormal (lobular hyperplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma) mammary tissue area was significantly decreased in curcumin microparticle-treated mice, as was CD-31 staining. Curcumin treatment decreased mammary VEGF levels significantly, which likely contributed to slower tumor formation. When compared to saline controls, however, blank microparticles accelerated tumorigenesis and curcumin treatment abrogated this effect, suggesting that PLGA microparticles enhance tumorigenesis in this model. PLGA microparticle administration was shown to be associated with higher plasma lactic acid levels and increased activation of NF-κΒ. The unexpected side effects of PLGA microparticles may be related to the high dose of the microparticles that was needed to achieve sustained curcumin levels in vivo. Approaches that can decrease the overall dose of curcumin (for example, by increasing its potency or reducing its clearance rate) may allow the development of sustained release curcumin dosage forms as a practical approach to cancer chemoprevention.

  4. Sulforaphane (SFN: An Isothiocyanate in a Cancer Chemoprevention Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fahad Ullah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC in its latest World Cancer Report (2014 has projected the increase in the global cancer burden from 14 million (2012 to 22 million incidence annually within the next two decades. Such statistics warrant a collaborative engagement of conventional and complementary and alternative therapies to contain and manage cancer. In recent years, there has been a shift in the cancer chemoprevention paradigm with a significant focus turning towards bioactive components of human diets for their anticancer properties. Since diet is an integral part of lifestyle and given that an estimated one third of human cancers are believed to be preventable though appropriate lifestyle modification including dietary habits, the current shift in the conventional paradigm assumes significance. Several epidemiological studies have indicated that consumption of broccoli is associated with a lower risk of cancer incidence including breast, prostate, lung, stomach and colon cancer. The edible plant belonging to the family of cruciferae such as broccoli is a rich source of glucoraphanin, a precursor of isothiocyanate sulforaphane which is considered to be a potent anti-cancer agent. Plant-based dietary agents such as sulforaphane mimic chemotherapeutic drugs such as vorinostat, possessing histone deacetylase inhibition activity. Evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies have emerged, enhancing the clinical plausibility and translational value of sulforaphane in cancer chemoprevention. The present review provides the current understanding of the cancer chemopreventive pharmacology of sulforaphane towards its potential as an anticancer agent.

  5. DIETARY TERPENOIDS AND PROSTATE CANCER CHEMOPREVENTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, Thangaiyan; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Cancer chemoprevention by phytochemicals may be one of the most feasible approaches for cancer control. Phytochemicals obtained from vegetables, fruits, spices, teas, herbs and medicinal plants, such as terpenoids and other phenolic compounds, have been proven to suppress experimental carcinogenesis in various organs in pre-clinical models. Recent studies have indicated that mechanisms underlying chemopreventive potential may be a combination of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immune-enhancing, and hormone modulation effects, with modification of drug metabolizing enzymes, influence on cell cycle and cell differentiation, induction of apoptosis, suppression of proliferation and angiogenesis playing roles in the initiation and secondary modification stages of neoplastic development. Specific features of prostate cancer, such as high prevalence and long latency period provides ample opportunities for chemopreventive agents to work at various stages of disease progression. Finally, suitable populations with appropriate risk factors, including the presence of pre-malignant lesions and genetic predispositions, need to be well characterized for future chemopreventive interventions. Here we review naturally occurring dietary terpenoids as useful agents for prostate cancer chemoprevention with reference to their classes and sources. PMID:18508447

  6. Meeting Report: Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark Steven; Allen, Peter; Brentnall, Teresa; Goggins, Michael; Hruban, Ralph H.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Rao, Chinthalapally V.; Whitcomb, David C.; Brand, Randall E.; Chari, Suresh; Klein, Alison; Lubman, David; Rhim, Andrew; Simeone, Diane M.; Wolpin, Brian; Umar, Asad; Srivastava, Sudhir; Steele, Vernon E.; Ann Rinaudo, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the 4th leading cause of cancer related deaths in the US with a 5 year survival rate of Cancer Prevention of the NCI sponsored the Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop on September 10–11th 2015. The goal of the workshop was to obtain information regarding the current state of the science and future scientific areas that should be prioritized for pancreatic cancer prevention research, including early detection and intervention for high-risk precancerous lesions. The workshop addressed the molecular/genetic landscape of pancreatic cancer and precursor lesions; high risk populations and criteria to identify a high risk population for potential chemoprevention trials; identification of chemopreventative/immuopreventative agents; and use of potential biomarkers and imaging for assessing short term efficacy of a preventative agent. The field of chemoprevention for pancreatic cancer is emerging and this workshop was organized to begin to address these important issues and promote multi-institutional efforts in this area. The meeting participants recommended the development of an NCI working group to coordinate efforts, provide a framework, and identify opportunities for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27518363

  7. Ellagitannins in Cancer Chemoprevention and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Ismail

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is universally accepted that diets rich in fruit and vegetables lead to reduction in the risk of common forms of cancer and are useful in cancer prevention. Indeed edible vegetables and fruits contain a wide variety of phytochemicals with proven antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and chemopreventive activity; moreover, some of these phytochemicals also display direct antiproliferative activity towards tumor cells, with the additional advantage of high tolerability and low toxicity. The most important dietary phytochemicals are isothiocyanates, ellagitannins (ET, polyphenols, indoles, flavonoids, retinoids, tocopherols. Among this very wide panel of compounds, ET represent an important class of phytochemicals which are being increasingly investigated for their chemopreventive and anticancer activities. This article reviews the chemistry, the dietary sources, the pharmacokinetics, the evidence on chemopreventive efficacy and the anticancer activity of ET with regard to the most sensitive tumors, as well as the mechanisms underlying their clinically-valuable properties.

  8. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Atawodi, Sunday Eneojo

    2011-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-?-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and the...

  9. Cancer chemoprevention by targeting the epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joseph; Plass, Christoph; Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2011-12-01

    The term "epigenetics" refers to modifications in gene expression caused by heritable, but potentially reversible, changes in DNA methylation and chromatin structure. Given the fact that epigenetic modifications occur early in carcinogenesis and represent potentially initiating events in cancer development, they have been identified as promising new targets for prevention strategies. The present review will give a comprehensive overview of the current literature on chemopreventive agents and their influence on major epigenetic mechanisms, that is DNA methylation, histone acetylation and methylation, and microRNAs, both in vitro and in rodent and human studies, taking into consideration specific mechanisms of action, target sites, concentrations, methods used for analysis, and outcome. Chemopreventive agents with reported mechanisms targeting the epigenome include micronutrients (folate, selenium, retinoic acid, Vit. E), butyrate, polyphenols (from green tea, apples, coffee, and other dietary sources), genistein and soy isoflavones, parthenolide, curcumin, ellagitannin, indol-3-carbinol (I3C) and diindolylmethane (DIM), mahanine, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), lycopene, sulfur-containing compounds from Allium and cruciferous vegetables (sulforaphane, phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), phenylhexyl isothiocyanate (PHI), diallyldisulfide (DADS), allyl mercaptan (AM)), antibiotics (mithramycin A, apicidin), pharmacological agents (celecoxib, DFMO, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and zebularine), compounds affecting sirtuin activity (resveratrol, dihydrocoumarin, cambinol), inhibitors of histone acetyl transferases (anacardic acid, garcinol, ursodeoxycholic acid), and relatively unexplored modulators of histone lysine methylation (chaetocin, polyamine analogues, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). Their effects on global DNA methylation, tumor suppressor genes silenced by promoter methylation, histone modifications, and miRNAs deregulated during carcinogenesis have potential

  10. Colon Cancer Chemoprevention by Flavonoid Silibinin | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cancer stem cells (CSC) are now recognized as the main cause for initiation, promotion and progression of most of the cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Despite this fact, efficacy of chemopreventive agents towards CSC generation leading to cancer initiation and tumorigenesis has not yet been well- defined. |

  11. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawodi, Sunday Eneojo

    2011-09-23

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years.

  12. Breast Cancer Biomarkers Based on Nipple and Fine Needle Aspirates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russo, Irma H

    2005-01-01

    ... of the cytological normal breast epithelium of women at high risk for breast cancer. This signature will serve as an intermediate biomarker for evaluating the response of the breast to novel chemopreventive agents...

  13. Guggulsterone for Chemoprevention of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishodia, Shishir; Azu, Nkem; Rosenzweig, Jason A; Jackson, Desiree A

    2016-01-01

    Guggulsterone [4, 17(20)-pregnadiene-3, 16-dione] is a plant sterol derived from the gum resin of the tree Commiphora wightii. The gum resin of the guggul tree has been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat obesity, liver disorders, internal tumors, malignant sores, ulcers, urinary complaints, intestinal worms, leucoderma, sinus, edema and sudden paralytic seizures. Guggulsterone has been shown to modulate the nuclear receptors, farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, CYP 2b10 gene expression, and the bile salt export pump for cholesterol elimination. Recent research indicates that the active components of gum guggul, E- and Zguggulsterone have the potential to both prevent and treat cancers. Guggulsterone inhibits the growth of a wide variety of tumor cells and induces apoptosis through down regulation of antiapoptotic gene products (IAP1, xIAP, Bfl-1/A1, Bcl-2, cFLIP, and survivin), modulation of cell cycle proteins (cyclin D1 and c-Myc), activation of caspases, inhibition of Akt, and activation of JNK. Guggulsterone modulates the expression of gene products involved in metastasis (MMP-9, COX-2, and VEGF) of tumor cells. Guggulsterone mediates gene expression through the modulation of several transcription factors, including NF-κB, STAT3, C/EBPα, androgen receptor, and glucocorticoid receptors. This review describes the anti-cancer properties, molecular targets, and the apoptotic effects of guggulsterone.

  14. Implications of Cancer Stem Cell Theory for Cancer Chemoprevention by Natural Dietary Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Wicha, Max S.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Sun, Duxin

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of cancer stem cell theory has profound implications for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Cancer stem cells give rise to the tumor bulk through continuous self-renewal and differentiation. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal is of greatest importance for discovery of anti-cancer drugs targeting cancer stem cells. Naturally-occurring dietary compounds have received increasing attention in cancer chemoprevention. The anti-cancer effects of many dietary components have been reported for both in vitro and in vivo studies. Recently, a number of studies have found that several dietary compounds can directly or indirectly affect cancer stem cell self-renewal pathways. Herein we review the current knowledge of most common natural dietary compounds for their impact on self-renewal pathways and potential effect against cancer stem cells. Three pathways (Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog, and Notch) are summarized for their functions in self-renewal of cancer stem cells. The dietary compounds, including curcumin, sulforaphane, soy isoflavone, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, lycopene, piperine, and vitamin D3, are discussed for their direct or indirect effect on these self-renewal pathways. Curcumin and piperine have been demonstrated to target breast cancer stem cells. Sulforaphane has been reported to inhibit pancreatic tumor initiating cells and breast cancer stem cells. These studies provide a basis for preclinical and clinical evaluation of dietary compounds for chemoprevention of cancer stem cells. This may enable us to discover more preventive strategies for cancer management by reducing cancer resistance and recurrence and improving patient survival. PMID:21295962

  15. Quimioprevención del Cáncer de Mama: Ensayos clínicos en la prevención farmacológica Chemoprevention of breast cancer. Clinical trials in pharmacological prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier J. Ricart

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo trata sobre los ensayos clínicos presentados en quimioprevención del cáncer mamario. Hasta la fecha las drogas más estudiadas han sido los Moduladores Selectivos de los Receptores de Estrógenos (SERMs. Cuatro estudios aleatorizados de tamoxifeno versus placebo fueron publicados y dos con raloxifeno están en curso. Dos de los estudios con tamoxifeno mostraron una reducción de incidencia de cáncer mamario entre el 30 y el 50%, sin embargo otros dos trabajos no mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. A esta controversia se le suma la incertidumbre sobre el verdadero impacto en la mortalidad que pudiera tener este tipo de terapia preventiva. Se citan además diversos estudios que evaluaron la ingesta de vitaminas y su relación con el desarrollo de tumores mamarios. Sin duda alguna el estudio y el seguimiento de los ensayos clínicos nos permitirán dilucidar qué pacientes requieren una terapia, preventiva del desarrollo de un tipo específico de cáncer, que se encuentra lejos de estar exenta de riesgos.The following review article focuses on chemoprevention clinical trials of breast cancer. To date, SERMs (Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators have been the most studied drugs. Four randomized trials with tamoxifen vs. placebo have been performed and two with raloxifene are being carried out. Two tamoxifen trials showed between 30 and 50% reduction in breast cancer incidence. However, two other studies showed no statistical differences. Moreover, the real impact on mortality that these therapies could have is still unknown. This article includes a revision of trials that evaluated the relationship between daily vitamin intake and breast cancer. A follow up of these trials will give us answers about which patients will benefit from chemoprevention therapies.

  16. miR181b is induced by the chemopreventive polyphenol curcumin and inhibits breast cancer metastasis via down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines CXCL1 and -2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronski, Emanuel; Fiori, Micol E; Barbieri, Ottavia; Astigiano, Simonetta; Mirisola, Valentina; Killian, Peter H; Bruno, Antonino; Pagani, Arianna; Rovera, Francesca; Pfeffer, Ulrich; Sommerhoff, Christian P; Noonan, Douglas M; Nerlich, Andreas G; Fontana, Laura; Bachmeier, Beatrice E

    2014-05-01

    Chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for the development and metastatic progression of cancer. We have previously reported that the chemopreventive polyphenol Curcumin inhibits the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines CXCL1 and -2 leading to diminished formation of breast and prostate cancer metastases. In the present study, we have analyzed the effects of Curcumin on miRNA expression and its correlation to the anti-tumorigenic properties of this natural occurring polyphenol. Using microarray miRNA expression analyses, we show here that Curcumin modulates the expression of a series of miRNAs, including miR181b, in metastatic breast cancer cells. Interestingly, we found that miR181b down-modulates CXCL1 and -2 through a direct binding to their 3'-UTR. Overexpression or inhibition of miR181b in metastatic breast cancer cells has a significant impact on CXCL1 and -2 and is required for the effect of Curcumin on these two cytokines. miR181b also mediates the effects of Curcumin on inhibition of proliferation and invasion as well as induction of apoptosis. Importantly, over-expression of miR181b in metastatic breast cancer cells inhibits metastasis formation in vivo in immunodeficient mice. Finally, we demonstrated that Curcumin up-regulates miR181b and down-regulates CXCL1 and -2 in cells isolated from several primary human breast cancers. Taken together, these data show that Curcumin provides a simple bridge to bring metastamir modulation into the clinic, placing it in a primary and tertiary preventive, as well as a therapeutic, setting. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aspirin Metabolomics in Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Substantial evidence supports the effectiveness of aspirin for cancer chemoprevention in addition to its well-established role in cardiovascular protection. In recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in humans, daily aspirin use reduced incidence, metastasis and mortality from several common types of cancer, especially colorectal cancer. The mechanism(s) by which aspirin exerts an anticancer benefit is uncertain; numerous effects have been described involving both cyclooxygenase-dependent and -independent pathways. |

  18. Implications of cancer stem cell theory for cancer chemoprevention by natural dietary compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Wicha, Max S; Schwartz, Steven J; Sun, Duxin

    2011-09-01

    The emergence of cancer stem cell theory has profound implications for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Cancer stem cells give rise to the tumor bulk through continuous self-renewal and differentiation. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal is of greatest importance for discovery of anticancer drugs targeting cancer stem cells. Naturally occurring dietary compounds have received increasing attention in cancer chemoprevention. The anticancer effects of many dietary components have been reported for both in vitro and in vivo studies. Recently, a number of studies have found that several dietary compounds can directly or indirectly affect cancer stem cell self-renewal pathways. Herein we review the current knowledge of most common natural dietary compounds for their impact on self-renewal pathways and potential effect against cancer stem cells. Three pathways (Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog and Notch) are summarized for their functions in self-renewal of cancer stem cells. The dietary compounds, including curcumin, sulforaphane, soy isoflavone, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, lycopene, piperine and vitamin D(3), are discussed for their direct or indirect effect on these self-renewal pathways. Curcumin and piperine have been demonstrated to target breast cancer stem cells. Sulforaphane has been reported to inhibit pancreatic tumor-initiating cells and breast cancer stem cells. These studies provide a basis for preclinical and clinical evaluation of dietary compounds for chemoprevention of cancer stem cells. This may enable us to discover more preventive strategies for cancer management by reducing cancer resistance and recurrence and improving patient survival. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk factors for breast cancer are female sex and advancing age, inherited risk, breast density, obesity, alcohol consumption, and exposure to ionizing radiation. Interventions to prevent breast cancer include chemoprevention (e.g. SERMs, AIs), risk-reducing surgery (e.g. mastectomy, oophorectomy). Review the evidence on risk factors and interventions to prevent breast cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  20. Chemopreventive effects of natural dietary compounds on cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2008-11-01

    Chemoprevention, a relatively new and promising strategy to prevent cancer, is defined as the use of natural dietary compounds and/or synthetic substances to block, inhibit, reverse, or retard the process of carcinogenesis. The chemopreventive effects elicited by these natural dietary compounds are believed to include antioxidative, anti-inflammatory activity, induction of phase II enzymes, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. Many mechanisms have been shown to account for the anticarcinogenic actions of natural dietary compounds; attention has recently been focused on intracellular-signaling cascades as common molecular targets for various chemopreventive natural dietary compounds. In this critical review, we will summarize current knowledge on natural dietary compounds that act through the signaling pathways and modulate gene expression to induce detoxifying enzymes, programmed cell death, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative effects, thus providing evidence for these substances in cancer chemopreventive action (128 references).

  1. [The role of natural dietary compounds in colorectal cancer chemoprevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnik, Anna; Tomczyk, Joanna; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2010-04-07

    This review discusses the preventive and therapeutic potential of natural dietary compounds against colorectal cancer. The chemopreventive properties of many natural food matrices and purified bioactive compounds have been evaluated. Prominent among the dietary constituents that are the focus of interest in colorectal cancer chemoprevention are dietary fiber, probiotics and prebiotics, methionine and folate, vitamins D and E, calcium and selenium, anthocyanins, procyanidins, phytoestrogens, isothiocyanates, epigallocatechin gallate, curcumin, and resveratrol. Laboratory studies provide strong evidence for the antitumor potential of these dietary agents. The mechanisms of their chemopreventive action are associated with, for example, the modulation of gene expression involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and the suppression of metastasis and angiogenesis. The anti-carcinogenic properties of these food compounds are also related to inhibition of many inflammatory agents, including the expression of cyclooxygenase-2. In vitro and animal studies showed that most of them can protect against various carcinogens mediating colon cancer and suggest that they can also sensitize tumors to chemotherapy and radiation. Although experimental studies have clearly demonstrated their anticancer activity, not many clinical trials have provided satisfying results, not only because of the lack of efficiency of the chemopreventive agents, but also due to the lack of precise biomarkers monitoring their effects on colon cancer. Despite the lack of strong evidence for the anticancer potential of natural food compounds, clinicians have high hopes for using these factors in colon cancer chemoprevention and decreasing the incidence of this common malignancy in the future.

  2. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  3. Aspirin and colorectal cancer: the promise of precision chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, David A; Cao, Yin; Chan, Andrew T

    2016-03-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has become one of the most commonly used drugs, given its role as an analgesic, antipyretic and agent for cardiovascular prophylaxis. Several decades of research have provided considerable evidence demonstrating its potential for the prevention of cancer, particularly colorectal cancer. Broader clinical recommendations for aspirin-based chemoprevention strategies have recently been established; however, given the known hazards of long-term aspirin use, larger-scale adoption of an aspirin chemoprevention strategy is likely to require improved identification of individuals for whom the protective benefits outweigh the harms. Such a precision medicine approach may emerge through further clarification of aspirin's mechanism of action.

  4. Cancer chemopreventive property of Bidens pilosa methanolic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    tumor growth. Chemopreventive agents can be broadly classified as blocking and suppressing agents. The blocking agents prevent carcinogenic ... stimulating differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells at a very low concentration, the effects of TPA in mouse with papilloma were investigated in the present study. In the present ...

  5. Cancer Chemoprevention and Piperine: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq A. Rather

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a genetic disease characterized by unregulated growth and dissemination of malignantly transformed neoplastic cells. The process of cancer development goes through several stages of biochemical and genetic alterations in a target cell. Several dietary alkaloids have been found to inhibit the molecular events and signaling pathways associated with various stages of cancer development and therefore are useful in cancer chemoprevention. Cancer chemoprevention has long been recognized as an important prophylactic strategy to reduce the burden of cancer on health care system. Cancer chemoprevention assumes the use of one or more pharmacologically active agents to block, suppress, prevent, or reverse the development of invasive cancer. Piperine is an active alkaloid with an excellent spectrum of therapeutic activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-asthmatic, anti-convulsant, anti-mutagenic, antimycobacterial, anti-amoebic, and anti-cancer activities. In this article, we made an attempt to sum up the current knowledge on piperine that supports the chemopreventive potential of this dietary phytochemical. Many mechanisms have been purported to understand the chemopreventive action of piperine. Piperine has been reported to inhibit the proliferation and survival of many types of cancer cells through its influence on activation of apoptotic signaling and inhibition of cell cycle progression. Piperine is known to affect cancer cells in variety of other ways such as influencing the redox homeostasis, inhibiting cancer stem cell (CSC self-renewal and modulation of ER stress and autophagy. Piperine can modify activity of many enzymes and transcription factors to inhibit invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Piperine is a potent inhibitor of p-glycoprotein (P-gp and has a significant effect on the drug metabolizing enzyme (DME system. Because of its inhibitory influence on P-gp activity, piperine can reverse

  6. Cohorts with familial disposition for colon cancers in chemoprevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, R W

    1996-01-01

    Colon cancer provides an attractive setting for chemoprevention trials because of the frequency and variation of familial predisposition that is observed in this malignancy. Additionally, the adenomatous polyp, the precursor of colon cancer, is a valuable intermediate marker for judging the effectiveness of candidate chemopreventive agents. Inherited colon cancer susceptibility varies from mild to severe. Conditions with extreme susceptibility include the autosomal dominantly inherited syndromes of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). These are highly penetrant syndromes with extreme cancer risk. FAP arises from mutations of the APC gene and HNPCC from mutations of the mismatch repair genes. Specific and individual genetic diagnosis is now possible in both syndromes, thus allowing identification of genetically affected individuals for chemoprevention trials. FAP accounts for less than 1% of colon cancers, while HNPCC may be present in up to 5% of cases. Familial clustering is common in the remainder of cases, which are often referred to as sporadic, but probably arise in part from inherited susceptibility. Epidemiologic studies have shown that first-degree relatives have a two- to four-fold increased risk of acquiring colon cancer compared to the general population. Ten percent of individuals in the U.S. have a first-degree with colon cancer. This clinically identifiable higher risk group thus constitutes a large potential cohort for chemoprevention trials. The common familial cases of colon cancer can be further stratified by severity. A relative diagnosed under the age of 50 or two first-degree relatives affected with colon cancer confers an even greater risk for this malignancy, estimated to be four to six times that of the general population. Adenomatous polyps also precede the development of colon cancer in these categories, thereby providing a readily identifiable clinical endpoint to judge the

  7. Chemopreventive potential of natural compounds in head and neck cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Amin, A.R.M. Ruhul; Shin, Dong M.

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most fatal cancers world-wide. Despite advances in the management of HNSCC, the overall survival for patients has not improved significantly due to advanced stages at diagnosis, high recurrence rate after surgical removal, and second primary tumor development, which together underscore the importance of novel strategies for cancer prevention. Cancer chemoprevention, the use of natural or synthetic compounds to prevent, arrest, or rev...

  8. Role of saffron and its constituents on cancer chemoprevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-01-01

    Context Cancer dramatically impacts human life expectancy and quality of life. Natural substances from vegetables, herbs and spices could be beneficial in the prevention or treatment of a variety of cancers. Crocus sativus, which has been used as a folk medicine for treating diseases for ages, showed obvious cancer chemoprevention potential. Objective This article focuses on the effects of Crocus sativus and its main ingredients, such as crocin, on cancer therapeutics. Methods We reviewed research data from saffron, a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, and its constituents using the major databases, viz., Web of Science, SciFinder, and PubMed. Results and conclusion Saffron possesses free radical-scavenging properties and antitumor activities. Significant cancer chemopreventive effects have been shown in both in vitro and in vivo models. Based on current data, saffron and its ingredients could be considered as a promising candidate for clinical anticancer trials. PMID:23570520

  9. Role of saffron and its constituents on cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2013-07-01

    Cancer dramatically impacts human life expectancy and quality of life. Natural substances from vegetables, herbs and spices could be beneficial in the prevention or treatment of a variety of cancers. Crocus sativus (Iridaceae), which has been used as a folk medicine for treating diseases for ages, showed obvious cancer chemoprevention potential. This article focuses on the effects of Crocus sativus and its main ingredients, such as crocin, on cancer therapeutics. We reviewed research data from saffron, a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, and its constituents using the major databases, namely, Web of Science, SciFinder and PubMed. Saffron possesses free radical-scavenging properties and antitumor activities. Significant cancer chemopreventive effects have been shown in both in vitro and in vivo models. Based on current data, saffron and its ingredients could be considered as a promising candidate for clinical anticancer trials.

  10. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help you not feel alone. Outlook (Prognosis) New, improved treatments are helping people with breast cancer live ... carcinoma in situ Patient Instructions Breast radiation - discharge Chemotherapy - what to ask your doctor Lymphedema - self-care ...

  11. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  12. Use of nonsteroidal antiinflamatory drugs for chemoprevention of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is in the third most frequent cancer among malignant tumors of both sexes in developed countries. It is predominantly a disease of older persons and occurs mostly after the age of 60. Although the etiology of colon cancer is unknown, it is assumed to arise as a result of unclear and complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The main element in the etiology of colorectal cancer is the process of genetic changes in epithelial cells of colon mucosa. It is believed that specific epidemiological factors such as stress, hypoxia, reduced intake of glucose and other nutrients, a hereditary predisposition to mutagenic effects, the meat in the diet, bile acids, reduced intake of minerals and vitamins as well as changes in pH of feces lead to initiation of the process of carcinogenesis in mucosa of the colon. Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the use of chemical agents in order to block, prevent or delay the reversal development or progress of cancer. It is believed that chemoprevention is a key component of cancer control, and numerous studies indicate potential role of NSAIDs in chemoprevention of colon cancer.

  13. Chemopreventive Activity of Honokiol against 7, 12 - Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-Induced Mammary Cancer in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a predominant cause of death in women across the globe. Chemoprevention by using natural, dietary or synthetic products has been appearing to be a fascinating approach to combat the growing burden of breast cancer. In the current study, we intended to explore the mechanisms of chemopreventive action of honokiol against 7, 12 - dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced mammary cancer in female Sprague Dawlely (SD rats. We induced mammary cancer in SD rats by administering single dose of DMBA (80 mg/kg through intra gastric route. Chemopreventive effects of honokiol (80 mg/kg, i.p. were confirmed from its ameliorating effect on the DMBA-induced anomalies such as liver marker enzymes, Phases I and II metabolizing enzymes and oxidative stress markers. Further, honokiol reversed the DMBA-induced abnormalities in inflammatory cytokines levels and serum tumor markers. Additionally, histopathological examination of mammary tissue and protein expression analysis of NF-κB revealed that honokiol is effective against DMBA-induced mammary cancer. In summary, the results of our study support the chemopreventive feature of honokiol in mammary cancer.

  14. Jacalin Has Chemopreventive Effects on Colon Cancer Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Herrero Geraldino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer, which is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, has a slow natural history that provides a great opportunity for prevention strategies. Plant-derived natural products have received considerable attention because of their inherent colorectal cancer chemopreventive effects. The plant lectin jacalin specifically recognizes the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen and has antiproliferative effects on human colon cancer cells, highlighting its potential antitumor activity. To evaluate jacalin’s potential application in colorectal cancer chemoprevention, we studied its effects on the early stages of carcinogenesis. Balb/c mice were given 4 intrarectal deposits of 0.1 ml solution of Methyl-N′-Nitro-N-Nitroso-Guanidine (5 mg/ml twice a week (with a 3-day interval for 2 weeks. Starting 2 weeks before carcinogen administration, animals were treated orally with jacalin (0.5 and 25 μg three times a week (on alternate weekdays for 10 weeks. We show that jacalin treatment reduced the number of preneoplastic lesions in carcinogen-exposed mice. This anticarcinogenic activity was associated with decreased colonic epithelial cell proliferation and stromal COX-2 expression and with increased intestinal production of TNF-α. Our results demonstrate that jacalin is able to modulate the early stages of colon carcinogenesis and emphasize its promising chemopreventive activity in colorectal cancer.

  15. Jacalin Has Chemopreventive Effects on Colon Cancer Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldino, Thais Herrero; Modiano, Patricia; Veronez, Luciana Chain; Flória-Santos, Milena; Garcia, Sergio Britto; Pereira-da-Silva, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, which is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, has a slow natural history that provides a great opportunity for prevention strategies. Plant-derived natural products have received considerable attention because of their inherent colorectal cancer chemopreventive effects. The plant lectin jacalin specifically recognizes the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen and has antiproliferative effects on human colon cancer cells, highlighting its potential antitumor activity. To evaluate jacalin's potential application in colorectal cancer chemoprevention, we studied its effects on the early stages of carcinogenesis. Balb/c mice were given 4 intrarectal deposits of 0.1 ml solution of Methyl-N'-Nitro-N-Nitroso-Guanidine (5 mg/ml) twice a week (with a 3-day interval) for 2 weeks. Starting 2 weeks before carcinogen administration, animals were treated orally with jacalin (0.5 and 25 μg) three times a week (on alternate weekdays) for 10 weeks. We show that jacalin treatment reduced the number of preneoplastic lesions in carcinogen-exposed mice. This anticarcinogenic activity was associated with decreased colonic epithelial cell proliferation and stromal COX-2 expression and with increased intestinal production of TNF-α. Our results demonstrate that jacalin is able to modulate the early stages of colon carcinogenesis and emphasize its promising chemopreventive activity in colorectal cancer.

  16. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... as possible. Learn more about palliative care . Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  17. Cactus pear: a natural product in cancer chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jian

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer chemoprevention is a new approach in cancer prevention, in which chemical agents are used to prevent cancer in normal and/or high-risk populations. Although chemoprevention has shown promise in some epithelial cancers, currently available preventive agents are limited and the agents are costly, generally with side effects. Natural products, such as grape seed, green tea, and certain herbs have demonstrated anti-cancer effects. To find a natural product that can be used in chemoprevention of cancer, we tested Arizona cactus fruit solution, the aqueous extracts of cactus pear, for its anti-cancer effects in cultured cells and in an animal model. Method Aqueous extracts of cactus pear were used to treat immortalized ovarian and cervical epithelial cells, as well as ovarian, cervical, and bladder cancer cells. Aqueous extracts of cactus pear were used at six concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 or 25% to treat cells for 1, 3, or 5 days. Growth inhibition, apoptosis induction, and cell cycle changes were analyzed in the cultured cells; the suppression of tumor growth in nude mice was evaluated and compared with the effect of a synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphernyl retinamide (4-HPR, which is currently used as a chemoprevention agent. Immunohistochemistry staining of tissue samples from animal tumors was performed to examine the gene expression. Results Cells exposed to cactus pear extracts had a significant increase in apoptosis and growth inhibition in both immortalized epithelial cells and cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also affected cell cycle of cancer cells by increasing G1 and decreasing G2 and S phases. Both 4-HPR and cactus pear extracts significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice, increased annexin IV expression, and decreased VEGF expression. Conclusion Arizona cactus pear extracts effectively inhibited cell growth in several different immortalized and cancer cell cultures, suppressed

  18. Polyphenols: Key Issues Involved in Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Cimino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is is the most common solid neoplasm and it is now recognized as one of the most important medical problems facing the male population. Due to its long latency and its identifiable preneoplastic lesions, prostate cancer is an ideal target tumor for chemoprevention. Different compounds are available and certainly polyphenols represent those with efficacy against prostate cancer. This review take a look at activity and properties of major polyphenolic substances, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin, resveratrol and the flavonoids quercetin and genistein. Although the current studies are limited, mechanisms of action of polyphenols added with the lack of side effects show a a start for future strategies in prostate chemoprevention.

  19. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  20. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  1. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  2. Cancer chemopreventive activity of compounds isolated from Waltheria indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteillier, Aymeric; Cretton, Sylvian; Ciclet, Olivier; Marcourt, Laurence; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Christen, Philippe; Cuendet, Muriel

    2017-05-05

    Waltheria indica L. is traditionally used in several countries against inflammatory related diseases and cancer, mainly as a decoction of the aerial parts. The transcription factor NF-κB is known to induce tumor promotion and progression and is considered a major player in inflammation-driven cancers. Therefore, inhibitors of this pathway possess cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. This study aimed first to confirm the use of Waltheria indica as a traditional anti-inflammatory remedy by assessing the NF-κB inhibitory activity and then to identify the major bioactive compounds. The isolated compounds were also tested for their QR inducing property, a complementary strategy in cancer chemoprevention able to target tumor initiation. Finally, the relevance of in vitro results was examined by investigating the occurrence of the active compounds in traditional preparations. Compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts using flash chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. NF-κB inhibitory activity of pure compounds from Waltheria indica was assessed using a luciferase reporter assay in HEK293 cells. Their QR inducing activity was also assessed in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Twenty-nine compounds, of which 5 are new, were obtained from the dichloromethane extract and tested for their cancer chemoprevention activity. Eleven compounds inhibited NF-κB and/or induced QR in the low to mid µM range. Chrysosplenol E (20) was active in both tests. Two of the most potent NF-κB inhibitors, waltherione A (4) and waltherione C (5), as well as 20 were found in the traditional decoction, in which 4 and 5 were major compounds. The presence of potent NF-κB inhibitors and QR inducing compounds in the decoction of the aerial parts of Waltheria indica supports its traditional use in inflammatory-related diseases and cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer with nutrients and supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Poppel H

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hendrik Van Poppel1, Bertrand Tombal21Department of Urology, University Hospital, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 2Service d’Urologie, Cliniques Universtaires Saint Luc, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: As the adult population is increasing, prostate cancer (PCa will become a considerable health problem in the next millennium. This has raised public interest in potential chemoprevention of this disease. As PCa is extremely common and generally slow to progress it is regarded as an ideal candidate for chemoprevention. At present, the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride have been identified as preventive agents. This review describes whether selenium, alpha-tocopherol, isoflavones, lycopene green tea polyphenols, calcium, and resveratrol may be useful for decreasing the risk of PCa in men. Although encouraging results are present, some studies show negative results. Differences in study design, sample size, dose administered, and/or concentrations achieved in the body may be the reason for these inconsistencies. Today, chemopreventive agents may be appropriate for high-risk patients like those with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and other high-risk groups such as patients with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA and negative biopsy, rapid PSA velocity, and with a family history of PCa. Although larger randomized controlled studies are needed and epidemiologic evidence should be placed in a clinical context, physicians must be aware of these preventive opportunities in PCa care. Combinations of chemopreventive agents should be carefully investigated because mechanisms of action may be additive or synergistic.Keywords: alpha-tocopherol, chemoprevention, isoflavones, lycopene, polyphenols, prostate cancer, selenium

  4. Aspirin as a Chemopreventive Agent for Cancer: a New Hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnatin Miladiyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: inflammation has been shown to play a major role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Inflammatory process activates the immune system through pro-inflammatory mediators and subsequent triggers transformation into malignant cells. Some tumors or cancers has been associated with chronic infections, such as hepatitis B and C viruses (hepatocellular carcinoma, human papilloma virus (cervical cancer, Helicobacter pylori (gastric cancer and lymphoma, and prostatitis (prostate cancer. A considerable study have investigated the benefits of aspirin for the prevention and treatment of cancer or tumors. Objectives: This paper aims to describe the relationship between inflammation and cancer incidence, so that use of aspirin as an anti-inflammatory agent is a rational choice in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Conclusion: Aspirin potential for chemoprevention of various types of cancer. Considering the high risk of side effects of aspirin, aspirin is not intended as a routine therapy to prevent the occurrence of cancer.

  5. Green tea polyphenols for prostate cancer chemoprevention: A translational perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.J.; Bailey, H.H.; Mukhtar, H.

    2009-01-01

    Every year nearly 200,000 men in the United States are diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa), and another 29,000 men succumb to the disease. Within certain regions of the world population based studies have identified a possible role for green tea in the prevention of certain cancers, especially PCa. One constituent in particular, epigallocatechin-3-gallate also known as EGCG has been shown in cell culture models to decrease cell viability and promote apoptosis in multiple cancer cell lines including PCa with no effect on non-cancerous cell lines. In addition, animal models have consistently shown that standardized green tea polyphenols when administered in drinking water delay the development and progression of PCa. Altogether, three clinical trials have been performed in PCa patients and suggest that green tea may have a distinct role as a chemopreventive agent. This review will present the available data for standardized green tea polyphenols in regard to PCa chemoprevention that will include epidemiological, mechanism based studies, safety, pharmacokinetics, and applicable clinical trials. The data that has been collected so far suggests that green tea may be a promising agent for PCa chemoprevention and further clinical trials of participants at risk of PCa or early stage PCa are warranted. PMID:19959000

  6. Arsenic and skin cancer – Case report with chemoprevention

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Wollina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Arsenic is a potentially hazardous metalloid that can cause skin cancer. We want to demonstrate a case of chronic arsenicosis and the potential of chemoprevention with retinoids. Case Report: This is a case report of a 72-year-old male patient who was exposed to arsenics by dust and direct skin contact over 3 years in a chemical plant in the late fourties. He developed multiple arsenic keratosis clincialll resembling actinic keratoses, Bowen’s disease and palmar...

  7. Arsenic and skin cancer – Case report with chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Arsenic is a potentially hazardous metalloid that can cause skin cancer. We want to demonstrate a case of chronic arsenicosis and the potential of chemoprevention with retinoids. Case Report: This is a case report of a 72-year-old male patient who was exposed to arsenics by dust and direct skin contact over 3 years in a chemical plant in the late fourties. He developed multiple arsenic keratosis clincialll resembling actinic keratoses, Bowen’s disease and palmar minute keratoses. To prevent a transformation into invasive cancer and to lower the burden of precancerous and in situ cancer lesions, he was treated orally with acitretin 20 mg/day. During 9 months of chemopreventive retinoid therapy a partial response of pre-existent skin lesions was noted. Treatment was well tolerated. During follow-up of 5 years no invasive malignancy developed. Conclusions: Intense exposure to arsenics during a relatively short period of 3 years bears a life-long health hazard with the delayed development of multiple in situ carcinomas and precancerous lesions. Chemoprevention with retinoids can induce a partial response.

  8. Chemoprevention by grape seed extract and genistein in carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in rats is diet dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helen; Hall, Patti; Smith, Michelle; Kirk, Marion; Prasain, Jeevan K; Barnes, Stephen; Grubbs, Clinton

    2004-12-01

    Many popular dietary supplements are enriched in polyphenols such as the soy isoflavones, tea catechins, and resveratrol (from grape skins), each of which has been shown to have chemopreventive activity in cellular models of cancer. The proanthocyanidins, which are oligomers of the catechins, are enriched in grape seeds and form the basis of the dietary supplement grape seed extract (GSE). Evidence suggests that the proanthocyanidins may be metabolized to the monomeric catechins. This study was carried out to determine whether GSE added to rodent diets protected against carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats and whether this was affected by the composition of the whole diet. Female rats were begun on 5%, 1.25%, or 0% (control) GSE-supplemented diets at age 35 d. At age 50 d they were administered 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in sesame oil at 80 mg/kg body weight. They were weighed and monitored weekly for tumor development until 120 d after DMBA administration. Administration of GSE in AIN-76A diet did not show any protective activity of GSE against DMBA-induced breast cancer. However, administration of GSE in a laboratory dry food diet (Teklad 4% rodent diet) resulted in a 50% reduction in tumor multiplicity. In similar experiments, genistein administered in AIN-76A diet also failed to show chemopreventive activity against the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea; however, when administered at the same dose in the Teklad 4% rodent diet, genistein exhibited significant chemopreventive activity (44-61%). These results demonstrate that GSE is chemopreventive in an animal model of breast cancer; moreover, the diet dependency of the chemopreventive activity for both GSE and genistein suggests that whether or not a compound is chemopreventive may depend on the diet in which the agent is administered.

  9. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy.

  10. Chemopreventive potential of natural compounds in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Amin, A R M Ruhul; Shin, Dong M

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most fatal cancers worldwide. Despite advances in the management of HNSCC, the overall survival for patients has not improved significantly due to advanced stages at diagnosis, high recurrence rate after surgical removal, and second primary tumor development, which underscore the importance of novel strategies for cancer prevention. Cancer chemoprevention, the use of natural or synthetic compounds to prevent, arrest, or reverse the process of carcinogenesis at its earliest stages, aims to reverse premalignancies and prevent second primary tumors. Genomics and proteomics information including initial mutation, cancer promotion, progression, and susceptibility has brought molecularly targeted therapies for drug development. The development of preventive approaches using specific natural or synthetic compounds, or both, requires a depth of understanding of the cross-talk between cancer signaling pathways and networks to retain or enhance chemopreventive activity while reducing known toxic effects. Many natural dietary compounds have been identified with multiple molecular targets, effective in the prevention and treatment of cancer. This review describes recent advances in the understanding of the complex signaling networks driving cancer progression and of molecularly targeted natural compounds under preclinical and clinical investigation.

  11. Burden and Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Hollestein (Loes)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractThe incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the Netherlands since 1989, the first year of the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). In 2010 more than 43,000 patients were newly diagnosed with skin cancer in the Netherlands. During a life time at least 1 in 5 persons living in

  12. Shrimp Lipids: A Source of Cancer Chemopreventive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Burgos-Hernández

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with cancer chemopreventive activities. Carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied for chemopreventive properties, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Their mechanisms of action depend on the lipid chemical structure and include antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. The purpose of this review is to lay groundwork for future research about the properties of the lipid fraction of shrimp.

  13. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  14. Chemoprevention of cancer: current evidence and future prospects [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Benetou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer chemoprevention refers to the use of agents for the inhibition, delay, or reversal of carcinogenesis before invasion. In the present review, agents examined in the context of cancer chemoprevention are classified in four major categories—hormonal, medications, diet-related agents, and vaccines—and the main representatives of each category are presented. Although there are serious constraints in the documentation of effectiveness of chemopreventive agents, mainly stemming from the long latency of the condition they are addressing and the frequent lack of intermediate biomarkers, there is little disagreement about the role of aspirin, whereas a diet rich in vegetables and fruits appears to convey more protection than individual micronutrients. Among categories of cancer chemopreventive agents, hormonal ones and vaccines might hold more promise for the future. Also, the identification of individuals who would benefit most from chemopreventive interventions on the basis of their genetic profiles could open new prospects for cancer chemoprevention.

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  16. Ginseng Metabolites on Cancer Chemoprevention: An Angiogenesis Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death in the United States. Angiogenesis inhibitors have been introduced for the treatment of cancer. Based on the fact that many anticancer agents have been developed from botanical sources, there is a significant untapped resource to be found in natural products. American ginseng is a commonly used herbal medicine in the U.S., which possesses antioxidant properties. After oral ingestion, natural ginseng saponins are biotransformed to their metabolites by the enteric microbiome before being absorbed. The major metabolites, ginsenoside Rg3 and compound K, showed significant potent anticancer activity compared to that of their parent ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, and Rd. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of ginseng metabolites on cancer chemoprevention, especially apoptosis and angiogenic inhibition, are discussed. Ginseng gut microbiome metabolites showed significant anti-angiogenic effects on pulmonary, gastric and ovarian cancers. This review suggests that in addition to the chemopreventive effects of ginseng compounds, as angiogenic inhibitors, ginsenoside metabolites could be used in combination with other cancer chemotherapeutic agents in cancer management.

  17. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced risk of breast cancer. The Mediterranean diet focuses mostly on plant-based foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts. People who follow the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over ...

  18. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. It’s estimated that about 10% of breast cancer cases are hereditary (run in the family). In many of these cases, you inherited a gene from your parents that has mutated (changed from ...

  19. The potential of statins for individualized colorectal cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Rutger J; Kodach, Liudmila L; Hardwick, James C H

    2011-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death by cancer in the western world. Despite major progress, even new chemotherapeutic regimens have had relatively little impact on long term survival in the approximately 50% of patients with advanced disease at presentation meaning that prevention is the only realistic way to reduce the burden of this disease. Many countries have implemented population-based screening methods to prevent colorectal cancer by the physical removal of its precursor lesion the adenoma, or to detect cancer at an earlier stage when it is amenable to surgical cure. However these programs have only been shown to reduce colorectal cancer deaths by 30% in those screened and therefore new or complimentary approaches are needed. One such approach is chemoprevention. A number of compounds have shown potential in reducing the incidence of colorectal cancer. Most widely known are NSAIDs but recently inhibitors of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, also known as statins, commonly prescribed medications that lower serum cholesterol, have been shown to reduce colorectal cancer incidence. A critical issue in chemoprevention is the weighing of benefits against risks. In chemoprevention this balance is likely to be unfavourable when used in a wide unselected population even for the safest of compounds. Therapy should therefore be tailored to the individual patient. The balance will be more favourable in high risk groups such as individuals especially susceptible to neoplasia because of environmental risk factors, patients with inflammatory bowel disease, those with a hereditary predisposition and patients with a previous history of colorectal cancer or polyps. Furthermore colorectal cancer is not one disease but a heterogeneous group of diseases with different underlying molecular mechanisms. It is likely that both prevention and therapy will need to be tailored to the molecular subtype of the cancer in question. This may explain

  20. Drug delivery strategies for chemoprevention of UVB-induced skin cancer: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagde, Arvind; Mondal, Arindam; Singh, Mandip

    2018-01-01

    Annually, more skin cancer cases are diagnosed than the collective incidence of the colon, lung, breast, and prostate cancer. Persistent contact with sunlight is a primary cause for all the skin malignancies. UVB radiation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the skin which eventually leads to DNA damage and mutation. Various delivery approaches for the skin cancer treatment/prevention have been evolving and are directed toward improvements in terms of delivery modes, therapeutic agents, and site-specificity of therapeutics delivery. The effective chemoprevention activity achieved is based on the efficiency of the delivery system used and the amount of the therapeutic molecule deposited in the skin. In this article, we have discussed different studies performed specifically for the chemoprevention of UVB-induced skin cancer. Ultra-flexible nanocarriers, transethosomes nanocarriers, silica nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, nanocapsule suspensions, microemulsion, nanoemulsion, and polymeric nanoparticles which have been used so far to deliver the desired drug molecule for preventing the UVB-induced skin cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Biomarkers and their use in cervical cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Anne Thérèse; Schottenfeld, David; Follen, Michele

    2003-06-01

    Cervical cancer chemoprevention agents under study include diet and micronutrients (particularly beta-carotene, folate, and vitamins A, C, and E); medications such as retinoids (retinyl acetate gel, all-trans-retinoic acid, and 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide) that are chemically related to micronutrients; and other chemopreventives meant to affect the carcinogenic process at the cellular level, including such polyamine synthesis inhibitors as alpha-difluoromethylornithine. Agents become reasonable candidates for study when they have a biologic rationale, they are of low toxicity, and they can be taken for a long period of time. Since the human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major etiologic agent, the medication should show activity against HPV-positive preinvasive and invasive cell lines. The medication needs to be of low toxicity because it may be taken for long periods of time and less toxicity is tolerated in the precancerous setting. Until 1995, none of the studies used surrogate end point biomarkers (SEBs), relying instead on histologic and colposcopic regression as end points. All studies typically included subjects with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Conclusions to be drawn from these studies include the following: Though micronutrients are logical candidates for chemoprevention, they haven't worked consistently, and the reasons remain unclear. Furthermore, SEBs need to be validated in phase I trials. Finally, a better understanding of the role of HPV needs elucidation, including an understanding of the relationship of the medication to HPV status and of the immunobiology of HPV throughout the trial.

  2. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berchuck, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    To achieve a better understanding of the etiology of ovarian cancer we have initiated a case-control study that considers genetic susceptibility epidemiologic risk factors and acquired genetic alterations...

  3. Natural products for cancer-targeted therapy: citrus flavonoids as potent chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyanto, Edy; Hermawan, Adam; Anindyajati

    2012-01-01

    Targeted therapy has been a very promising strategy of drug development research. Many molecular mechanims of diseases have been known to be regulated by abundance of proteins, such as receptors and hormones. Chemoprevention for treatment and prevention of diseases are continuously developed. Pre-clinical and clinical studies in chemoprevention field yielded many valuable data in preventing the onset of disease and suppressing the progress of their growth, making chemoprevention a challenging and a very rational strategy in future researches. Natural products being rich of flavonoids are those fruits belong to the genus citrus. Ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata and Citrus aurantiifolia peels showed anticarcinogenic, antiproliferative, co-chemotherapeutic and estrogenic effects. Several examples of citrus flavonoids that are potential as chemotherapeutic agents are tangeretin, nobiletin, hesperetin, hesperidin, naringenin, and naringin. Those flavonoids have been shown to possess inhibition activity on certain cancer cells' growth through various mechanisms. Moreover, citrus flavonoids also perform promising effect in combination with several chemotherapeutic agents against the growth of cancer cells. Some mechanisms involved in those activities are through cell cycle modulation, antiangiogenic effect, and apoptosis induction. Previous studies showed that tangeretin suppressed the growth of T47D breast cancer cells by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. While in combination with tamoxifen, doxorubicin, and 5-FU, respectively, it was proven to be synergist on several cancer cells. Hesperidin and naringenin increased cytotoxicitity of doxorubicin on MCF-7 cells and HeLa cells. Besides, citrus flavonoids also performed estrogenic effect in vivo. One example is hesperidin having the ability to decrease the concentration of serum and hepatic lipid and reduce osteoporosis of ovariectomized rats. Those studies showed the great potential of citrus fruits as natural product

  4. Genetic risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, A; Shackelford, R E; Anwar, F; Yeatman, T J

    2009-12-01

    Several cutting-edge strategies are being used to evaluate candidate genetic risk factors for breast cancer. These include linkage analysis for mapping out BRCA1 and BRCA2, mutational screening of candidate risk genes like CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1 and PALB2, which are associated with an intermediate level of breast cancer risk. Genome-wide association studies have revealed several low-penetrance breast cancer risk alleles. The predisposition factors are associated with different levels of breast cancer risk. Relative to control population, the risk in patients harboring high-risk BRCA1 and 2 mutations is over 10-fold, with intermediate penetrance genes 2 to 4-fold and with low penetrance alleles less than 1.5-fold. Overall, these factors account for about 25% of the genetic risk for breast cancer. In the remainder, genetic factors to contribute to the risk of breast cancer remain unknown and are a subject of current investigation. With discovery and validation of newer and clinically relevant predisposition factors, additional breast cancer risk categories may be recognized. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing allows identification of individuals at increased risk of breast cancer who are offered risk-reducing interventions. Targeted therapies are being developed that may refine management of patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Further genome-wide studies are required to identify clinically relevant molecular factors that will allow more accurate and widely applicable genetic risk stratification. Current efforts in discovery, validation and qualification of molecular markers of breast cancer risk offer considerable promise in the future to develop more accurate breast cancer risk assessment along with development of more effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies.

  5. Nicotinamide and skin cancer chemoprevention: The jury is still out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Stephen J

    2018-02-01

    Following the publication of the results of a Phase III trial, the administration of oral nicotinamide has been widely advocated as effective in non-melanoma skin cancer chemoprevention in high-risk individuals. However, I performed a Bayesian analysis of the reported findings and show there is insufficient evidence to demonstrate its efficacy, highlighting the significant probability that the positive conclusions drawn will not be reproducible. Given the potential widespread use of oral nicotinamide, future position statements regarding its efficacy are likely to require higher standards of evidence. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  6. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease ...

  7. Cancer Chemoprevention by Phytochemicals: Nature's Healing Touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Haseeb; Azim, Shafquat; Ahmad, Aamir; Khan, Mohammad Aslam; Patel, Girijesh Kumar; Singh, Seema; Singh, Ajay Pratap

    2017-03-03

    Phytochemicals are an important part of traditional medicine and have been investigated in detail for possible inclusion in modern medicine as well. These compounds often serve as the backbone for the synthesis of novel therapeutic agents. For many years, phytochemicals have demonstrated encouraging activity against various human cancer models in pre-clinical assays. Here, we discuss select phytochemicals-curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), resveratrol, plumbagin and honokiol-in the context of their reported effects on the processes of inflammation and oxidative stress, which play a key role in tumorigenesis. We also discuss the emerging evidence on modulation of tumor microenvironment by these phytochemicals which can possibly define their cancer-specific action. Finally, we provide recent updates on how low bioavailability, a major concern with phytochemicals, is being circumvented and the general efficacy being improved, by synthesis of novel chemical analogs and nanoformulations.

  8. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    During the study interview a thorough history of the menstrual cycle and reproductive experiences of the study participants is obtained from each...cancer.24 The scope of vitamin D deficiency extends well beyond the elderly however, as widespread vitamin D deficiency is common in adolescents and...gene in ras-transformed keratinocytes demonstrates that locally produced 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses growth and induces differentiation in

  9. Resveratrol in human cancer chemoprevention--choosing the 'right' dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Edwina; Steward, William P; Gescher, Andreas J; Brown, Karen

    2012-01-01

    There is now robust preclinical evidence to suggest that resveratrol possesses cancer chemopreventive properties. A series of clinical pilot studies has provided insights into its pharmacokinetics, and data on its human antineoplastic pharmacodynamics start to emerge. It is likely that resveratrol will be developed further in the clinic as a putative cancer chemopreventive agent. The question that remains unresolved is: What is the most suitable dose of resveratrol for effective cancer preventive intervention? Mechanistic studies in cells in vitro have almost invariably used concentrations of resveratrol in the 10(-5) to 10(-4)  M range, which is much higher than those which can be achieved in the human biophase after consumption of doses up to 1 g. Many of the preclinical efficacy studies in rodent models of carcinogenesis have employed doses which are dramatically above those which can be ingested with the diet. New experimental paradigms need to be used to obtain information on pharmacological changes elicited by resveratrol when present at very low concentrations or when administered at dietary-relevant doses. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    南, 優子; ミナミ, ユウコ; MINAMI, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    During recent decades, breast cancer incidence has been increasing in Japan. Epidemiological studies have clarified the trend in breast cancer incidence and identified risk factors for breast cancer. Established risk factors for breast cancer include early age at menarche, late age at first birth, low parity, postmenopausal obesity, family history of breast cancer, and history of benign breast disease. Breast-feeding and physical activity may also be associated with breast cancer risk. Detail...

  11. Neoflavonoids and tetrahydroquinolones as possible cancer chemopreventive agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luqman, Suaib; Meena, Abha; Singh, Pragya; Kondratyuk, Tamara P.; Marler, Laura E.; Pezzuto, John M.; Negi, Arvind Singh

    2012-01-01

    Several lactone and lactam based neoflavonoids and tetrahydroquinolones were synthesized and evaluated for cancer chemopreventive studies using cell and molecular target based in vitro bioassays, namely NFκB, aromatase, and quinone reductase 1 (QR1). These analogues blocked TNF-α-induced NFκB activation in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values in the range of 0.11–3.2 μM. In addition, compound 8 inhibited aromatase activity with an IC50 value of 12.12 μM and compound 10 affected QR1 induction (IR: 3.6, CD: 19.57 μM). Neoflavonoids 8 and 10 exhibiting good results, can further be optimized for improved therapeutic profiles. However, investigations into the actions of neoflavonoids and tetrahydroquinolones, especially those related to the NFκB signaling pathway, aromatase inhibition, induction of QR1 expression and in vivo studies could provide new insights into the cancer chemopreventive ability of these molecules. PMID:22726671

  12. Aspirin as a chemoprevention agent for colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of mortality in the western world. It is widely accepted that neoplasms such as colonic polyps are precursors to CRC formation; with the polyp-adenoma-carcinoma sequences well described in medical literature [1, 2]. It has been shown that Aspirin and other non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) have a negative effect on polyp and cancer formation. This review aims to describe some of the mechanism behind the chemoprotective properties of aspirin; COX 2 inhibition, regulation of proliferation and apoptosis and effects on the immune system and also the current evidence that supports its use as a chemoprevention agent against CRC. We will also aim to explore the side effects with the use of aspirin and the pitfalls of using aspirin routinely for primary prophylaxis against CRC.

  13. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  14. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  15. Telomerase as an Androgen Receptor-Regulated Target in Selenium Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    and Vita- min E Chemoprevention Trial (SELECT) indicated that supplementation of healthy individuals with nutritional dose of selenium did not reduce...were conducted by using pharmacologic doses of selenium , not the nutritional dose that was used in the SELECT. Therefore, the negative SELECT finding...Regulated Target in Selenium Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Shuang Liu, Ph.D

  16. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over butter and fish instead of red meat. Breast cancer risk reduction for women with a high risk If your doctor has assessed your family history and determined that you have other factors, such ...

  17. Molecular mechanisms of chemopreventive phytochemicals against gastroenterological cancer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min-Yu; Lim, Tae Gyu; Lee, Ki Won

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Commonly used cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy, often have side effects and a complete cure is sometimes impossible. Therefore, prevention, suppression, and/or delaying the onset of the disease are important. The onset of gastroenterological cancers is closely associated with an individual’s lifestyle. Thus, changing lifestyle, specifically the consumption of fruits and vegetables, can help to protect against the development of gastroenterological cancers. In particular, naturally occurring bioactive compounds, including curcumin, resveratrol, isothiocyanates, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and sulforaphane, are regarded as promising chemopreventive agents. Hence, regular consumption of these natural bioactive compounds found in foods can contribute to prevention, suppression, and/or delay of gastroenterological cancer development. In this review, we will summarize natural phytochemicals possessing potential antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities, which are exerted by regulating or targeting specific molecules against gastroenterological cancers, including esophageal, gastric and colon cancers. PMID:23467658

  18. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  19. Breast Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011 Funding: Increasing Awareness and Support Among Young Women with Breast Cancer Funding: Young Breast Cancer Survivors Funding: Breast Cancer Genomics Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State ...

  20. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) for cancer chemoprevention: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Prasan R

    2015-04-01

    Cancer is one of the most feared diseases globally and there has been a sustained rise in its incidence in both developing and developed countries. Despite the growing therapeutic options for patients with cancer, their efficacy is time-limited and non-curative. Hence to overcome these drawbacks, an incessant screening for superior and safer drugs has been ongoing for numerous decades, resulting in the detection of anti-cancer properties of several phytochemicals. Chemoprevention using readily available natural substances from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices is one of the significantly important approaches for cancer prevention in the present era. Among the spices, Crocus sativus L. (saffron; fān hóng huā) has generated interest because pharmacological experiments have established numerous beneficial properties including radical scavenging, anti-mutagenic and immuno-modulating effects. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients. This review provides a brief insight into the anticancer properties of saffron and its components.

  1. Black tea: Phytochemicals, cancer chemoprevention, and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brahma N; Rawat, A K S; Bhagat, R M; Singh, B R

    2017-05-03

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is the most popular, flavored, functional, and therapeutic non-alcoholic drink consumed by two-thirds of the world's population. Black tea leaves are reported to contain thousands of bioactive constituents such as polyphenols, amino acids, volatile compounds, and alkaloids that exhibit a range of promising pharmacological properties. Due to strong antioxidant property, black tea inhibits the development of various cancers by regulating oxidative damage of biomolecules, endogenous antioxidants, and pathways of mutagen and transcription of antioxidant gene pool. Regular drinking of phytochemicals-rich black tea is linked to regulate several molecular targets, including COX-2, 5-LOX, AP-1, JNK, STAT, EGFR, AKT, Bcl2, NF-κB, Bcl-xL, caspases, p53, FOXO1, TNFα, PARP, and MAPK, which may be the basis of how dose of black tea prevents and cures cancer. In vitro and preclinical studies support the anti-cancer activity of black tea; however, its effect in human trails is uncertain, although more clinical experiments are needed at molecular levels to understand its anti-cancer property. This review discusses the current knowledge on phytochemistry, chemopreventive activity, and clinical applications of black tea to reveal its anti-cancer effect.

  2. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  3. Cancer chemopreventive agents, 4-phenylcoumarins from Calophyllum inophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoigawa, M; Ito, C; Tan, H T; Kuchide, M; Tokuda, H; Nishino, H; Furukawa, H

    2001-08-10

    In a search for anti-tumor-promoting agents, we carried out a primary screening of ten 4-phenylcoumarins isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Guttiferae), by examining their possible inhibitory effects on Epstein--Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in Raji cells. All of the compounds tested in this study showed inhibitory activity against EBV, without showing any cytotoxicity. Calocoumarin-A (5) showed more potent activity than any of the other compounds tested. Furthermore, calocoumarin-A (5) exhibited a marked inhibitory effect on mouse skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test. The results of the present investigation indicate that some of these 4-phenylcoumarins might be valuable as potential cancer chemopreventive agents (anti-tumor-promoters).

  4. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  6. General Information about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  7. Plant Polyphenols as Chemopreventive Agents for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madumani Amararathna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer may be prevented by a diet rich in fruits and vegetables as they are enriched with dietary antioxidant polyphenols, such as flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, lignans, stilbenes, and phenolic acids. Dietary polyphenols exert a wide range of beneficial biological functions beyond their antioxidative properties and are involved in regulation of cell survival pathways leading to anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic functions. There are sufficient evidence from in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies to suggest that the dietary intervention of polyphenols in cancer prevention, including the chemopreventive ability of dietary polyphenols, act against lung carcinogens. Cohort and epidemiological studies in selected risk populations have evaluated clinical effects of polyphenols. Polyphenols have demonstrated three major actions: antioxidative activity, regulation of phase I and II enzymes, and regulation of cell survival pathways against lung carcinogenesis. They have also shown an inverse association of lung cancer occurrences among high risk populations who consumed considerable amounts of fruits and vegetables in their daily diet. In in vitro cell culture experimental models, polyphenols bind with electrophilic metabolites from carcinogens, inactivate cellular oxygen radicals, prevent membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidative damage, and adduct formation. Further, polyphenols enhance the detoxifying enzymes such as the phase II enzymes, glutathione transferases and glucuronosyl transferases.

  8. Plant Polyphenols as Chemopreventive Agents for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amararathna, Madumani; Johnston, Michael R; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2016-08-19

    Lung cancer may be prevented by a diet rich in fruits and vegetables as they are enriched with dietary antioxidant polyphenols, such as flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, lignans, stilbenes, and phenolic acids. Dietary polyphenols exert a wide range of beneficial biological functions beyond their antioxidative properties and are involved in regulation of cell survival pathways leading to anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic functions. There are sufficient evidence from in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies to suggest that the dietary intervention of polyphenols in cancer prevention, including the chemopreventive ability of dietary polyphenols, act against lung carcinogens. Cohort and epidemiological studies in selected risk populations have evaluated clinical effects of polyphenols. Polyphenols have demonstrated three major actions: antioxidative activity, regulation of phase I and II enzymes, and regulation of cell survival pathways against lung carcinogenesis. They have also shown an inverse association of lung cancer occurrences among high risk populations who consumed considerable amounts of fruits and vegetables in their daily diet. In in vitro cell culture experimental models, polyphenols bind with electrophilic metabolites from carcinogens, inactivate cellular oxygen radicals, prevent membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidative damage, and adduct formation. Further, polyphenols enhance the detoxifying enzymes such as the phase II enzymes, glutathione transferases and glucuronosyl transferases.

  9. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  10. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer correctly. Their recommendations are summarized below. Minimum criteria for a diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer ... Initial biopsy samples from the affected breast show invasive carcinoma. Further examination of tissue from the affected ...

  11. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  12. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  13. Topical tretinoin, another failure in the pursuit of practical chemoprevention for non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peggy A; Stern, Robert S

    2012-06-01

    Given the high incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), a preventative intervention would be desirable. Except for regular sunscreen use, the quest for chemoprevention of NMSC in the general population has been unsuccessful. Weinstock et al. assessed the effects of 0.1% topical tretinoin on NMSC. Like earlier efforts at chemoprevention, this study failed to show therapeutic benefit. Future successful preventative strategies will likely rely on short-term, intermittent therapy or treatments used for other common indications.

  14. Hedera nepalensis K. Koch: A Novel Source of Natural Cancer Chemopreventive and Anticancerous Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Laila; Saleem, Samreen; Kondrytuk, Tamara P; Haq, Ihsan-ul; Ullah, Nazif; Pezzuto, John M; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-03-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are often used for both the prevention and the treatment of local diseases. Taking into consideration the medicinal importance of Hedera nepalensis within local Pakistani traditions, the present study was undertaken to analyze the in vitro cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic properties of the plant. The in vitro cancer chemopreventive testing was performed using nitrite assay, NFκB assay, aromatase assay, and quinone reductase 1 (QR1) assay. The cytotoxic potential was evaluated on three cancer-cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and HeLa using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The results of cancer chemopreventive assays show that n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of tested plant have promising cancer chemopreventive potential. Lupeol isolated from n-hexane as well as ethyl acetate fraction showed lowest IC50 (0.20 ± 1.9 μM) in NFκB assay. Crude extract and its fractions inhibited the growth of three cancer cell lines by more than 60%, IC50 value of lupeol varied from 2.32 to 10.2 μM. HPLC-DAD-based quantification of lupeol in different plant tissues demonstrated that leaves of H. nepalensis are a rich source of lupeol (0.196 mg/100 mg dry weight). Our data have shown that H. nepalensis harbors cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic agents. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  16. Dietary factors and cancer chemoprevention: An overview of obesity-related malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a growing health problem in developed nations and in countries that are in the process of westernization like India. Obesity is linked with several health disorders such as hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and certain cancers. Currently, obesity-related malignancies, e.g., cancers of the breast, prostate and colon are the leading cancers in the industrialized societies. An increased amount of fat or adipose tissue in an overweight or obese person probably influences the development of cancer by releasing several hormone-like factors or adipokines. The majority of adipokines are pro-inflammatory, which promote pathological conditions like insulin resistance and cancer. On the other hand, many recent studies have shown that adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, has anti-cancer and insulin-sensitizing effects. Adiponectin exerts its physiological functions chiefly by activation of AMP kinase via adiponectin receptors. Interestingly, several fruits and vegetables may contain adiponectin-like molecules or may increase the biosynthesis of adiponectin in our body. Studies on adiponectin analogues or adiponectin receptor agonists are a promising area of cancer chemoprevention research. In general, fruits and vegetables contain various dietary substances such as vitamins, minerals (like calcium and selenium, fiber and phytochemicals or phenolic compounds (like flavonoids and vanilloids, which may act as anti-cancer agents. Similarly, several dietary constituents including phytochemicals may have anti-obesity effects. Consumption of such dietary compounds along with caloric restriction and physical activity may be helpful in preventing obesity-related cancers. For this review article, we searched PubMed primarily to get the relevant literature.

  17. "Nutritional and chemopreventive anti-cancer agents up-regulate expression of p27Kip1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, in mouse JB6 epidermal and human MCF7, MDA-MB-321 and AU565 breast cancer cells"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eto Isao

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background p27(Kip1 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. When up-regulated, p27 inhibits G1-to-S phase transition of the cell cycle. This report addresses the question of whether various nutritional and chemopreventive anti-cancer agents up-regulate the expression of p27 in preneoplastic and neoplastic cells. Results Experimental evidence presented in the first half of this report shows that these agents fairly faithfully up-regulate expression of p27 in mouse epidermal (JB6 and human breast cancer (MCF7, MDA-MB-321, and AU565 cells. Up-regulation appears to be specific to p27 because expression of cyclin D1, E, and A, and p21Cip1/Waf1 was not modulated by these agents. Up-regulation of the expression of p27 is likely due to the activation of translation rather than transcription of p27 because (a up-regulation is mediated by the 5'-untranslated region (-575 of the p27 gene and (b the antibiotic actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription, did not attenuate the up-regulation of p27. This latter finding is likely to preclude the existence of cryptic transcription factor binding site(s in the 5'-untranslated region of p27 gene. The experimental evidence, presented in the second half of this report, was obtained using the 5'-untranslated region (-575 of p27 gene. The evidence suggests that cancer preventive agents up-regulate expression of p27 by at least four different molecular signaling pathways: (a Caloric restriction is likely to up-regulate p27 expression via 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK; a metabolic energy sensor or cellular fuel gauge, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Amino acid deficiencies also up-regulate the expression of p27 using some components of this pathway. (b 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (but not tamoxifen, genistein (but not genistin, daidzein, and probably other nutritional and chemopreventive anti-cancer agents could up-regulate expression of p27 via receptor protein

  18. Molecular mechanisms for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by natural dietary compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Wu, Jia-Ching; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality in both men and women worldwide. This review focuses on preventing the initiation and promotion of neoplastic growth in colorectal cancer, particularly with natural dietary compounds. Chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural dietary compounds and/or synthetic substances that can delay, prevent, or even reverse the development of adenomas, as well as the progression from adenoma to carcinoma. The molecular mechanisms of their chemopreventive action are associated with the modulation of signaling cascades, gene expressions involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and the suppression of chronic inflammation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Here, we summarize the currently known targets and signaling pathways whereby natural dietary compounds interfere with the development of colorectal cancer, and thus providing evidence for these substances in colonic cancer chemopreventive action. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The Chemopreventive Effect of Tanacetum Polycephalum Against LA7-Induced Breast Cancer in Rats and the Apoptotic Effect of a Cytotoxic Sesquiterpene Lactone in MCF7 Cells: A Bioassay-Guided Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Karimian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tanacetum polycephalum L. Schultz-Bip is a member of the Asteraceae family. This study evaluated the chemopreventive effect of a T. polycephalum hexane extract (TPHE using in in vivo and in vitro models. Methods and Results: Five groups of rats: normal control, cancer control, TPHE low dose, TPHE high dose and positive control (tamoxifen were used for the in vivo study. Histopathological examination showed that TPHE significantly suppressed the carcinogenic effect of LA7 tumour cells. The tumour sections from TPHE-treated rats demonstrated significantly reduced expression of Ki67 and PCNA compared to the cancer control group. Using a bioassay-guided approach, the cytotoxic compound of TPHE was identified as a tricyclic sesquiterpene lactone, namely, 8β- hydroxyl- 4β, 15- dihydrozaluzanin C (HDZC. Signs of early and late apoptosis were observed in MCF7 cells treated with HDZC and were attributed to the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway based on the up-regulation of Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. HDZC induced cell cycle arrest in MCF7 cells and increased the expression of p21 and p27 at the mRNA and protein levels. Conclusion: This results of this study substantiate the anticancer effect of TPHE and highlight the involvement of HDZC as one of the contributing compounds that act by initiating mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis.

  20. The Chemopreventive Effect of Tanacetum Polycephalum Against LA7-Induced Breast Cancer in Rats and the Apoptotic Effect of a Cytotoxic Sesquiterpene Lactone in MCF7 Cells: A Bioassay-Guided Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Zahedifard, Maryam; Razavi, Mahboubeh; Safi, Sher Zaman; Mohan, Syam; Khalifa, Shaden A M; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Abdulla, Mahmood Amin; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Noordin, Mohamad Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Tanacetum polycephalum L. Schultz-Bip is a member of the Asteraceae family. This study evaluated the chemopreventive effect of a T. polycephalum hexane extract (TPHE) using in in vivo and in vitro models. Five groups of rats: normal control, cancer control, TPHE low dose, TPHE high dose and positive control (tamoxifen) were used for the in vivo study. Histopathological examination showed that TPHE significantly suppressed the carcinogenic effect of LA7 tumour cells. The tumour sections from TPHE-treated rats demonstrated significantly reduced expression of Ki67 and PCNA compared to the cancer control group. Using a bioassay-guided approach, the cytotoxic compound of TPHE was identified as a tricyclic sesquiterpene lactone, namely, 8β- hydroxyl- 4β, 15- dihydrozaluzanin C (HDZC). Signs of early and late apoptosis were observed in MCF7 cells treated with HDZC and were attributed to the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway based on the up-regulation of Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. HDZC induced cell cycle arrest in MCF7 cells and increased the expression of p21 and p27 at the mRNA and protein levels. This results of this study substantiate the anticancer effect of TPHE and highlight the involvement of HDZC as one of the contributing compounds that act by initiating mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  2. Evaluating the potential cancer chemopreventive efficacy of two different solvent extracts of Seriphidium herba-alba in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohamed Mokhtar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death world-wide. One of the most important medical practices of the 21st century is the chemoprevention of cancer. For a long history, it has been accepted that plants could prevent and exert suitable anti-carcinogenic effects for multiple types of cancers. Seriphidium herba-alba family Asteraceae has been used in the folk medicine by many cultures for treatment of various ailments since ancient times. In the current research we were aimed to evaluate the cancer chemopreventive activity of two crude extracts of S. herba-alba, methylene chloride extract and methanol extract on two cell lines: Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep-G2. Assessment of cytotoxicity using methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT assay indicated that both extracts exhibit poor cytotoxicity with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 >20 µg/mL. Assessment of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs activity (spectrophotometrically showed statistically significant enhancement of enzyme activity after treatment with three different doses of methylene chloride extract and glutathione (GSH concentrations were decreased. Analysis of cell mode of death by Ethidium bromide/Acridine orange (EB/AO staining revealed that the dominant mode of death in MCF-7 cells was apoptosis. Assessment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and platelets derived growth factor (PDGFBB using ELISA showed that VEGF and PDGFBB levels were statistically significant decreased. In Conclusion: both extracts may be cancer chemopreventive agents since they had tumor anti-initiating, and anti-promoting activity.

  3. Beating Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Beating Breast Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2017 Table of Contents Melanie ... Her mother had died at age 49 of breast cancer after three battles with the disease. Ovarian cancer ...

  4. Tamoxifen for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the common cancers. Hormonal therapy along with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy are vital modalities for the management of breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the most widely used hormonal therapy for more than two decades. In this article we review the benefits, dose, duration and timing of Tamoxifen therapy in patients with breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, hormonal therapy, tamoxifen.

  5. Anticancer and cancer chemopreventive potential of grape seed extract and other grape-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manjinder; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2009-09-01

    With emerging trends in the incidence of cancer of various organ sites, additional approaches are needed to control human malignancies. Intervention or prevention of cancer by dietary constituents, a strategy defined as chemoprevention, holds great promise in our conquest to control cancer, because it can be implemented on a broader population base with less economic burden. Consistent with this, several epidemiological studies have shown that populations that consume diets rich in fruits and vegetables have an overall lower cancer incidence. Based on these encouraging observations, research efforts from across the globe have focused on identifying, characterizing, and providing scientific basis to the efficacy of various phytonutrients in an effort to develop effective strategy to control various human malignancies. Cancer induction, growth, and progression are multi-step events and numerous studies have demonstrated that various dietary agents interfere with these stages of cancer, thus blocking malignancy. Fruits and vegetables represent untapped reservoir of various nutritive and nonnutritive phytochemicals with potential cancer chemopreventive activity. Grapes and grape-based products are one such class of dietary products that have shown cancer chemopreventive potential and are also known to improve overall human health. This review focuses on recent advancements in cancer chemopreventive and anticancer efficacy of grape seed extract and other grape-based products. Overall, completed studies from various scientific groups conclude that both grapes and grape-based products are excellent sources of various anticancer agents and their regular consumption should thus be beneficial to the general population.

  6. Combination Chemoprevention with Diclofenac, Calcipotriol and Difluoromethylornithine Inhibits Development of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: With increasing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), focus on chemoprevention of this disease is growing. The aim of this study was to evaluate topical combination therapies as chemoprevention of UV radiation-induced tumors in a mouse model.......Background/Aim: With increasing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), focus on chemoprevention of this disease is growing. The aim of this study was to evaluate topical combination therapies as chemoprevention of UV radiation-induced tumors in a mouse model....

  7. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  8. HEREDITARY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bit-Sava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary breast cancer occurs in 5–20 % of cases and it is associated with inherited mutations in particular genes, such as BRCA1 и BRCA2 in most cases. The CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, RAD51, BLM, PALB2, Nbs genes are associated with low and median risks ofdeveloping breast cancer. Molecular genetic studies identify germinal mutations underlying hereditary breast cancer. In most cases hereditary breast cancer refers to triple-negative phenotype, which is the most aggressive type of breast cancer, that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. The review presents the diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer. Clinical-morphological aspects allow the new diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer to be identified. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors demonstrate the potential for effective treatment of BRCA-associated breast cancer.

  9. Endocrine therapy of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, F; Luisetto, G; Basso, S M M; Basso, U; Brunello, A; Camozzi, V

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer remains one of the first leading causes of death in women, and currently endocrine treatment is of major therapeutic value in patients with estrogen-receptor positive tumors. Selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, aromatase inhibitors, and GnRH agonists are the drugs of choice. Tamoxifen, a partial nonsteroidal estrogen agonist, is a type II competitive inhibitor of estradiol at its receptor, and the prototype of SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors significantly lower serum estradiol concentration in postmenopausal patients, having no detectable effects on adrenocortical steroids formation, while GnRH agonists suppress ovarian function, inducing a menopause-like condition in premenopausal women. Endocrine therapy has generally a relatively low morbidity, leading to a significant reduction of mortality for breast cancer. The aim of chemoprevention is to interfere early with the process of carcinogenesis, reducing the risk of cancer development. As preventive agents, raloxifene and tamoxifene are equivalent, while raloxifene has more potent antiresorptive effects in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocrine treatment is usually considered a standard choice for patients with estrogen-receptor positive cancers and non-life-threatening advanced disease, or for older patients unfit for aggressive chemotherapy regimens. Several therapeutic protocols used in patients with breast cancer are associated with bone loss, which may lead to an increased risk of fracture. Bisphosphonates are the drugs of choice to treat such a drug-induced bone disease. The aim of this review is to outline current understanding on endocrine therapy of breast cancer. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  10. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guluzar Arzu Turan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 317-323

  11. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  12. Screening for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niell, Bethany L; Freer, Phoebe E; Weinfurtner, Robert Jared; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Drukteinis, Jennifer S

    2017-11-01

    The goal of screening is to detect breast cancers when still curable to decrease breast cancer-specific mortality. Breast cancer screening in the United States is routinely performed with mammography, supplemental digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and/or MR imaging. This article aims to review the most commonly used breast imaging modalities for screening, discuss how often and when to begin screening with specific imaging modalities, and examine the pros and cons of screening. By the article's end, the reader will be better equipped to have informed discussions with patients and medical professionals regarding the benefits and disadvantages of breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, D; Lancaster, GA; Manning, JT

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  14. Lung-cancer chemoprevention by induction of synthetic lethality in mutant KRAS premalignant cells in vitro and in vivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Shaoyi; Ren, Xiaoyang; Wang, Lai; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Xiangwei

    2011-01-01

    .... These data underscore the great need for effective chemoprevention of this cancer. Mutations and activation of KRAS occur frequently in, and are thought to be a primary driver of the development of, non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC...

  15. COX-independent mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim eGurpinar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, including cyclooxygenase (COX-2 selective inhibitors, reduce the risk of developing cancer. Experimental studies in human cancer cell lines and rodent models of carcinogenesis support these observations by providing strong evidence for the antineoplastic properties of NSAIDs. The involvement of COX-2 in tumorigenesis and its overexpression in various cancer tissues suggest that inhibition of COX-2 is responsible for the chemopreventive efficacy of these agents. However, the precise mechanisms by which NSAIDs exert their antiproliferative effects are still a matter of debate. Numerous other studies have shown that NSAIDs can act through COX-independent mechanisms. This review provides a detailed description of the major COX-independent molecular targets of NSAIDs and discusses how these targets may be involved in their anticancer effects. Toxicities resulting from COX inhibition and the suppression of prostaglandin synthesis preclude the long-term use of NSAIDs for cancer chemoprevention. Furthermore, chemopreventive efficacy is incomplete and treatment often leads to the development of resistance. Identification of alternative NSAID targets and elucidation of the biochemical processes by which they inhibit tumor growth could lead to the development of safer and more efficacious drugs for cancer chemoprevention.

  16. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  17. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer: Natural compounds, antiandrogens, and antioxidants - In vivo evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Özten-Kandas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the leading non-skin malignancy detected in US males and the second cause of death due to male cancer, in the US. Interventions with drugs or diet supplements that slow down the growth and progression of prostate cancer are potentially very effective in reducing the burden of prostate cancer, particularly if these treatments also prevent the de novo development of new prostatic malignancies. Challenges to identify efficacious agents and develop them for chemopreventive application in men at risk for prostate cancer have included uncertainty about which preclinical models have the ability to predict efficacy in men and lack of consensus about which early phase clinical trial designs are the most appropriate and cost-effective to test promising agents. Efficacy studies in animal models have identified several agents with potential chemopreventive activity against prostate cancer, but few of these findings have been translated into clinical trials. This article identifies some of the major issues associated with prostate cancer chemoprevention research and summarizes the most significant current results from animal efficacy studies and human clinical prevention trials. This summary focuses on: (1 Naturally occurring agents and compounds derived from such agents, including green tea and its constituents, silibinin and milk thistle, and genistein and soy, (2 chemoprevention drugs including agents interfering with androgen action, and (3 antioxidants such as selenium, vitamin E, and lycopene. The general lack of activity of antioxidants is discussed, followed by considerations about translation of preclinical chemoprevention efficacy data, focusing on dose, form, bioavailability, and timing of administration of the agent, as well as discussion of study design of clinical trials and the predictive ability of preclinical models.

  18. Role of a polyphenol-enriched preparation on chemoprevention of mammary carcinoma through cancer stem cells and inflammatory pathways modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Tri; Mallet, Jean-François; Ouzounova, Maria; Rahbar, Sam; Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; Herceg, Zdenko; Matar, Chantal

    2016-01-14

    Naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds from fruits, particularly from blueberries, have been reported to be significantly involved in cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Biotransformation of blueberry juice by Serratia vaccinii increases its polyphenolic content and endows it with anti-inflammatory properties. This study evaluated the effect of a polyphenol-enriched blueberry preparation (PEBP) and its non-fermented counterpart (NBJ), on mammary cancer stem cell (CSC) development in in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo settings. Effects of PEBP on cell proliferation, mobility, invasion, and mammosphere formation were measured in vitro in three cell lines: murine 4T1 and human MCF7 and MDA-MB-231. Ex vivo mammosphere formation, tumor growth and metastasis observations were carried out in a BALB/c mouse model. Our research revealed that PEBP influence cellular signaling cascades of breast CSCs, regulating the activity of transcription factors and, consequently, inhibiting tumor growth in vivo by decreasing metastasis and controlling PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK, and STAT3 pathways, central nodes in CSC inflammatory signaling. PEBP significantly inhibited cell proliferation of 4T1, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. In all cell lines, PEBP reduced mammosphere formation, cell mobility and cell migration. In vivo, PEBP significantly reduced tumor development, inhibited the formation of ex vivo mammospheres, and significantly reduced lung metastasis. This study showed that polyphenol enrichment of a blueberry preparation by fermentation increases its chemopreventive potential by protecting mice against tumor development, inhibiting the formation of cancer stem cells and reducing lung metastasis. Thus, PEBP may represent a novel complementary alternative medicine therapy and a source for novel therapeutic agents against breast cancer.

  19. Antibody Array as a Tool for Screening of Natural Agents in Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulito, Claudio; Sacconi, Andrea; Korita, Etleva; Maidecchi, Anna; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of a given drug resides mainly on its ability to specifically target disease mechanisms. Natural products represent the leading source of bioactive molecules with a broad range of activities. It is becoming increasingly clear that natural compounds exert their chemopreventive or antitumoral activities targeting simultaneously diverse cellular pathways. Here we describe the use of antibody array to assess the effects of natural compounds on the expression of multiple proteins and of their posttranslational modifications in cellular systems. This might turn to be a very flexible application for cancer chemoprevention studies.

  20. Retinoids in the chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancers: why, when and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettoli, Vincenzo; Zauli, Stefania; Virgili, Anna

    2013-06-01

    The chemoprevention refers to the use of various types of chemical agents for preventing carcinogenic progression. Systemic retinoids are the most studied chemopreventive agents due to their capacity to regulate cell proliferation and their demonstrated efficacy in several clinical studies. The aim of the authors was to give precise indications regarding the use of the systemic retinoid in the chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). The authors reviewed the literature found through a search to MEDLINE (from 2001 to December 2011). Both acitretin and isotretinoin are effective for the prevention of NMSC. Isotretinoin is preferred in xeroderma pigmentosum and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, whereas acitretin is more used in transplant recipients, psoriasis and severe sun damage. Despite numerous studies of the literature concerning retinoids in chemoprevention of NMSC, precise details of the type of retinoid to use, dosage and the duration of this preventive treatment and how to manage side effects in the case of long-lasting treatment are still not uniform and comparable. Moreover, neither guidelines nor approval by Food and Drug Administration exist to regulate the use of retinoids in chemoprevention.

  1. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA M.Med, Galukande M M M.Med, MSc, FCS, Namuguzi D M.Med, Muyinda Z M.Med. Affiliations: breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA1 M.Med, Galukande M1 M M.Med, ...

  2. Metaplastic Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    T?rkan, Halil; G?kg?z, M. ?ehsuvar; Parlak, N. Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Metaplastic Breast Cancer (MBC) is a term referring to a heterogeneous group with malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tissue components. MBC is a rare disease, accounting for 0.2% of all breast cancers. Most MBC are triple negative cancers with poor prognosis and an aggressive clinical course. Herein, we aimed to present a 74-year-old patient with metaplastic breast cancer along with clinical, radiologic and pathologic properties.

  3. Characterization of vitamin-cisplatin-loaded chitosan nano-particles for chemoprevention and cancer fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othayoth, Rajath; Mathi, Pardhasaradhi; Bheemanapally, Khaggeswar; Kakarla, Lavanya; Botlagunta, Mahendran

    2015-01-01

    Vitamins have been shown to reduce chemotherapy-related fatigue (CRF) by conserving energy loss both during and after cancer treatment. However, it remains unknown whether this reduction of fatigue interferes with the cancer drugs or alters the effectiveness of these agents. The objective was to synthesize vitamin-cisplatin-loaded chitosan nano-particles for chemoprevention and cancer fatigue. Multi-vitamin (C, D3, and B12)-cisplatin composite nano-formulation called NanoCisVital (NCV) to overcome CRF. The interactions between vitamins and NCV were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and a particle size analyser. The chemo-preventive activity was performed by in vitro bio assays. SEM analysis showed spherical shape and the size is cancer properties of cisplatin.

  4. Current strategies for the prevention of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Advani P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pooja Advani, Alvaro Moreno-AspitiaDepartment of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: Due to the high incidence of breast cancer in the United States, optimal strategies for its prevention are imperative. This entails identification of women who are at an increased risk for breast cancer and an integrative approach that includes effective screening methods as well as nutritional, pharmacologic, and surgical management. Several breast cancer risk-assessment tools, such as the Gail and Claus models, can help clinicians determine the quantitative risk of breast cancer. The role of selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, for the prevention of breast cancer has been well established. Several other agents, such as aromatase inhibitors, are currently being investigated. The potential adverse effects of these chemopreventive agents, which include an impact on the quality of life, must be discussed with the patient before deciding on this approach. Additionally, breast cancer risk factors have been identified over the years; some of them are modifiable, but others are not. Although there is no conclusive evidence to suggest the protective role of specific dietary components, alcohol consumption and obesity are associated with an increased breast cancer risk; thus lifestyle changes can lead to a lower risk of developing breast cancer. Surgical approaches, including bilateral risk-reduction mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, are usually limited to women with a hereditary predisposition to development of breast cancer. The objective of this review is to summarize the various approaches directed at reducing the incidence of breast cancer.Keywords: chemoprevention, tamoxifen, raloxifene, prophylactic surgery

  5. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  6. [Breast cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Berclaz, Gilles; Langer, Igor; Pittet-Cuenod, Brigitte; Delaloye, Jean-François

    2007-10-24

    Breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for early breast cancer. For patients who choice or need a mastectomy, breast reconstruction provides an acceptable alternative. Breast cancer surgery has been evolving through minimally invasive approaches. Sentinel node biopsy has already remplaced axillary lymph node dissection in the evaluation of the axilla. Local ablation of the tumor may be a valuable alternative to surgery in the future.

  7. Dietary pterostilbene is a novel MTA1-targeted chemopreventive and therapeutic agent in prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Swati; Kumar, Avinash; Zhang, Liangfen; Rimando, Agnes M.; Lage, Janice M.; Lewin, Jack R.; Atfi, Azeddine; Zhang, Xu; Levenson, Anait S.

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of the epigenetic modifier metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) is associated with aggressive human prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine MTA1- targeted chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy of pterostilbene, a natural potent analog of resveratrol, in pre-clinical models of prostate cancer. Here, we show that high levels of MTA1 expression in Pten-loss prostate cooperate with key oncogenes, including c-Myc and Akt among others, to promote prostate can...

  8. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Breast cancer Breast cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  10. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnink, T. H. Oude; Nagengast, W. B.; Brouwers, A. H.; Schroder, C. P.; Hospers, G. A.; Lub-de Hooge, M. N.; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.; de Vries, E. G. E.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging of breast cancer can potentially be used for breast cancer screening, staging, restaging, response evaluation and guiding therapies. Techniques for molecular breast cancer imaging include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, and radionuclide imaging with positron

  11. Breast cancer predisposition syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemel, Deborah; Domchek, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    A small, but important, percentage of breast cancer cases is caused by the inheritance of a single copy of a mutated gene. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the genes most commonly associated with inherited breast cancer; however, mutations in TP53 and PTEN cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Cowden syndrome, respectively, both of which are associated with high lifetime risks of breast cancer. Advances in the field of breast cancer genetics have led to an improved understanding of detection and prevention strategies. More recently, strategies to target the underlying genetic defects in BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast and ovarian cancers are emerging and may have implications for certain types of sporadic breast cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Breast cancer statistics, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Ma, Jiemin; Bryan, Leah; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,620 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2013. One in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. Breast cancer incidence rates increased slightly among African American women; decreased among Hispanic women; and were stable among whites, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives from 2006 to 2010. Historically, white women have had the highest breast cancer incidence rates among women aged 40 years and older; however, incidence rates are converging among white and African American women, particularly among women aged 50 years to 59 years. Incidence rates increased for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers in the youngest white women, Hispanic women aged 60 years to 69 years, and all but the oldest African American women. In contrast, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers declined among most age and racial/ethnic groups. These divergent trends may reflect etiologic heterogeneity and the differing effects of some factors, such as obesity and parity, on risk by tumor subtype. Since 1990, breast cancer death rates have dropped by 34% and this decrease was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. Nevertheless, survival disparities persist by race/ethnicity, with African American women having the poorest breast cancer survival of any racial/ethnic group. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  13. Chemoprevention of Colorectal Cancer by Artocarpin, a Dietary Phytochemical from Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guochuan; Zheng, Zongping; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Xu, Yijuan; Kang, Soouk; Dong, Zigang; Wang, Mingfu; Gu, Zhennan; Li, Haitao; Chen, Wei

    2017-05-03

    Artocarpus heterophyllus is an evergreen tree distributed in tropical regions, and its fruit (jackfruit) is well-known as the world's largest tree-borne fruit. Although A. heterophyllus has been widely used in folk medicines against inflammation, its potential in cancer chemoprevention remains unclear. Herein we identified artocarpin from A. heterophyllus as a promising colorectal cancer chemopreventive agent by targeting Akt kinase. Phenotypically, artocarpin exhibited selective cytotoxicity against human colon cancer cells. Artocarpin impaired the anchorage-independent growth capability, suppressed colon cancer cell growth, and induced a G1 phase cell cycle arrest which was followed by apoptotic as well as autophagic cell death. Mechanistic studies revealed that artocarpin directly targeted Akt 1 and 2 kinase activity evidenced by in vitro kinase assay, ex vivo binding assay as well as Akt downstream cellular signal transduction. Importantly, oral administration of artocarpin attenuated colitis-associated colorectal tumorigenesis in mice. Taken together, artocarpin, a bioactive component of A. heterophyllus, might merit investigation as a potential colorectal cancer chemopreventive agent.

  14. Neuroendocrine breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge

    2012-08-13

    Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast lump. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasonography showed a 2.4 cm nodule, probably a benign lesion (BI-RADS 3). A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed and revealed proliferative epithelial papillary lesion. She was submitted to excisional biopsy and histology showed endocrine breast cancer well differentiated (G1). Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for synaptophysin. These breast cancers are characterised for their excellent prognosis and conservative treatment is almost always enough to obtain patient cure.

  15. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    one or both breasts were affected. Family Member (e.g. grandmother, aunt) Paternal or Maternal Type or Location of Cancer (e.g. breast ...Local recurrences and distant metastases after breast -conserving surgery and radiation therapy for early breast cancer . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys...AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: DAMD17-03-1-0454 TITLE: Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance

  16. ent-Rosane and abietane diterpenoids as cancer chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Marvin J; Reyes, Carolina P; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Hayashi, Hirotaka; Tokuda, Harukuni; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2011-04-01

    Two ent-rosane- (cuzcol, 1 and 6-dehydroxycuzcol, 2) and a abietatriene- (salvadoriol, 3) type diterpenoids have been isolated from Maytenus cuzcoina and Crossopetalum uragoga, respectively, along with five known diterpene compounds (4-8). Their stereostructures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and computational data. The absolute configuration of cuzcol was determined by application of Riguera ester procedure. This is the first instance of isolation of ent-rosane diterpenoids from species of the Celastraceae. The isolated diterpenes were found to be potent anti-tumour-promoter agents, and carnosol (7) also showed a remarkable chemopreventive effect in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prostate cancer chemoprevention in men of African descent: current state of the art and opportunities for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chornokur, Ganna; Kumar, Nagi B

    2013-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. However, African American/Black men are 60 % more likely to be diagnosed with and 2.4 times more likely to die from prostate cancer, compared to Non-Hispanic White men. Despite the increased burden of this malignancy, no evidence-based recommendation regarding prostate cancer screening exists for the high-risk population. Moreover, in addition to screening and detection, African American men may constitute a prime population for chemoprevention. Early detection and chemoprevention may thus represent an integral part of prostate cancer control in this population. Importantly, recent research has elucidated biological differences in the prostate tumors of African American compared to European American men. The latter may enable a more favorable response in African American men to specific chemopreventive agents that target relevant signal transduction pathways. Based on this evolving evidence, the aims of this review are threefold. First, we aim to summarize the biological differences that were reported in the prostate tumors of African American and European American men. Second, we will review the single- and multi-target chemopreventive agents placing specific emphasis on the pathways implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. And lastly, we will discuss the most promising nutraceutical chemopreventive compounds. Our review underscores the promise of chemoprevention in prostate cancer control, as well as provides justification for further investment in this filed to ultimately reduce prostate cancer morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population of African American men.

  18. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first 3 months of pregnancy . Other Information About Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Key Points Lactation (breast milk production) and breast- ... has had breast cancer. To Learn More About Breast Cancer and Pregnancy For more information from the National Cancer Institute ...

  19. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first 3 months of pregnancy . Other Information About Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Key Points Lactation (breast milk production) and breast- ... has had breast cancer. To Learn More About Breast Cancer and Pregnancy For more information from the National Cancer Institute ...

  20. Induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop alternative therapeutic measures against this deadly disease. Many components from dietary or medicinal plants have been identified that possess substantial chemopreventive properties. India has ...

  1. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  2. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  3. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980–2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  4. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  6. Clinical cancer chemoprevention: From the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Horng-Jyh

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 2 million new cancer cases are attributed to infectious agents each year worldwide. Vaccines for the hepatitis B virus (HBV), a risk factor of hepatocellular cancer, and human papillomavirus (HPV), a risk factor of cervical cancer, are considered major successes in clinical chemoprevention of cancer. In Taiwan, the first evidence of cancer prevention through vaccinations was provided by HBV vaccination data in infants. The Taiwanese HBV vaccination program has since become a model immunization schedule for newborns worldwide. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV is generally accepted as prerequisite for cervical cancer diagnosis; however, cervical cancer is a rare complication of HPV infections. This is due to the fact that such infections tend to be transient. The safety and efficacy of both available HPV quadrivalent vaccine and bivalent vaccine are not in doubt at the present time. Until a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine becomes available, simple hygienic practices, such as hand washing, can prevent CMV infection both before and during pregnancy. Each country should establish her official guidelines regarding which vaccines should be used to treat various conditions, the target population (i.e., universal or limited to a selected population), and the immunization schedules. After a vaccine is recommended, decisions regarding reimbursement by the public health care fund are evaluated. The guidelines become part of the immunization schedule, which is updated annually and published in the official bulletin. In conclusion, both HBV and HPV vaccines are considered major successes in the chemoprevention of cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. [Fibrocystic breast disease--breast cancer sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habor, V; Habor, A; Copotoiu, C; Panţîru, A

    2010-01-01

    Fibrocystic breast disease has developed a major issue: the breast cancer sequence. Its involvement regarding the increse of breast cancer risk has 2 aspects: it may be either the marker of a prone tissue or a premalignant hystological deffect. Difficult differential diagnosis of benign proliferative breast lession and carcinoma led to the idea of sequency between the two: cancer does not initiate on normal mammary epithelia; it takes several proliferative stages for it to occur. In our series we analized a number of 677 breast surgical procedures where the pathologic examination reveals 115 cases (17%) of coexistence between cancer and fibrocystic breast disease. This aspect has proved to be related to earlier debut of breast cancer, suggesting that epithelial hyperplasia is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  8. Aspirin and metformin exhibit antitumor activity in murine breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Maoyuan; Wang, Yuyi; Du, Chi; Liu, Yanyang; Zhang, Nan; Luo, Feng

    2018-03-01

    Studies have shown that aspirin and metformin play important roles in chemoprevention and repression of breast cancers, even though the exact mechanism remains unclear. Aspirin is capable of stimulating apoptosis through prostaglandin-dependent or prostaglandin-independent pathways. Metformin inhibits cell growth by enhancing the tumor suppressive function of transforming growth factor (TGF-β). In the present study, we report a new link between aspirin, metformin, TGF-β1 and murine breast cancer inhibition. Specifically, we showed that aspirin and metformin enhanced 4T1 cell apoptosis by inducing secretion of TGF-β1, whereas estradiol weakened the effect.

  9. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  10. Breast reconstruction after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletti, Joseph M; Fosnot, Joshua; Nelson, Jonas A; Disa, Joseph J; Bucky, Louis P

    2011-06-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the mental, emotional, and physical benefits of reconstruction in breast cancer patients. 2. Compare the most common techniques of reconstruction in patients and detail benefits and risks associated with each. 3. Outline different methods of reconstruction and identify the method considered best for the patient based on timing of the procedures, body type, adjuvant therapies, and other coexisting conditions. 4. Distinguish between some of the different flaps that can be considered for autologous reconstruction. Breast cancer is unfortunately a common disease affecting millions of women, often at a relatively young age. Reconstruction following mastectomy offers women an opportunity to mollify some of the emotional and aesthetic effects of this devastating disease. Although varying techniques of alloplastic and autologous techniques are available, all strive to achieve the same goal: the satisfactory reformation of a breast mound that appears as natural as possible without clothing and at the very least is normal in appearance under clothing. This article summarizes the various approaches to breast reconstruction and offers a balanced view of the risks and benefits of each, all of which in the end offer the opportunity for excellent and predictable results with a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  11. Curcumin and metformin-mediated chemoprevention of oral cancer is associated with inhibition of cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddappa, Gangotri; Kulsum, Safeena; Ravindra, Doddathimmasandra Ramanjanappa; Kumar, Vinay V; Raju, Nalini; Raghavan, Nisheena; Sudheendra, Holalugunda Vittalamurthy; Sharma, Anupam; Sunny, Sumsum P; Jacob, Tina; Kuruvilla, Binu T; Benny, Merina; Antony, Benny; Seshadri, Mukund; Lakshminarayan, Padma; Hicks, Wesley; Suresh, Amritha; Kuriakose, Moni A

    2017-11-01

    Effective chemoprevention is critical for improving outcomes of oral cancer. As single agents, curcumin and metformin are reported to exhibit chemopreventive properties, in vitro as well as in patients with oral cancer. In this study, the chemopreventive efficacy of this drug combination was tested in a 4-nitro quinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) induced mice oral carcinogenesis model. Molecular analysis revealed a cancer stem cell (CSC)-driven oral carcinogenic progression in this model, wherein a progressive increase in the expression of CSC-specific markers (CD44 and CD133) was observed from 8th to 25th week, at transcript (40-100-fold) and protein levels (P ≤ 0.0001). Chemopreventive treatment of the animals at 17th week with curcumin and metformin indicated that the combination regimen decreased tumor volume when compared to the control arm (0.69+0.03 vs 6.66+2.4 mm 3 ; P = 0.04) and improved overall survival of the animals (P = 0.03). Assessment of the molecular status showed an overall downregulation of CSC markers in the treatment arms as compared to the untreated control. Further, in vitro assessment of the treatment on the primary cells generated from progressive stages of 4NQO-induced mice tissue showed a concordant and consistent downregulation of the CSC markers following combination treatment (P oral squamous cell carcinoma through a CSC-associated mechanism. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Breast cancer: equal rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fátima Carvalho Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is not any statistics related to encouraging breast cancer along the past century, and there has not been any in present century. It has been published in the scientific and lay press information on the crescent number of women attacked by breast cancer. How to spare women and family members of such pain when they experience this disease? Which rights provide assistance to the women with cancer?

  13. Oxalate induces breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellaro, Andrés M; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L; Pucci, Oscar A; Gil, German A

    2015-10-22

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  14. Dietary phytochemicals and cancer chemoprevention: a review of the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecha, Ritesh; Takami, Akiyoshi; Espinoza, J Luis

    2016-08-09

    Cancer chemoprevention involves the use of different natural or biologic agents to inhibit or reverse tumor growth. Epidemiological and pre-clinical data suggest that various natural phytochemicals and dietary compounds possess chemopreventive properties, and in-vitro and animal studies support that these compounds may modulate signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis in transformed cells, enhance the host immune system and sensitize malignant cells to cytotoxic agents. Despite promising results from experimental studies, only a limited number of these compounds have been tested in clinical trials and have shown variable results. In this review, we summarize the data regarding select phytochemicals including curcumin, resveratrol, lycopene, folates and tea polyphenols with emphasis on the clinical evidence supporting the efficacy of these compounds in high-risk populations.

  15. Chemopreventive effect of Annona muricata on DMBA-induced cell proliferation in the breast tissues of female albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    J.B. Minari; Okeke, U.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and leading cause of cancer death in women. Breast cancer and cancer related diseases have been treated using surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Despite these therapeutic options, cancer remains associated with high mortality. Traditional medicine which involves the use of herbs has been used to treat various types of cancer and this has been found to be effective with minimal or no side effects....

  16. Dietary pterostilbene is a novel MTA1-targeted chemopreventive and therapeutic agent in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangfen; Rimando, Agnes M.; Lage, Janice M.; Lewin, Jack R.; Atfi, Azeddine; Zhang, Xu; Levenson, Anait S.

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of the epigenetic modifier metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) is associated with aggressive human prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine MTA1- targeted chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy of pterostilbene, a natural potent analog of resveratrol, in pre-clinical models of prostate cancer. Here, we show that high levels of MTA1 expression in Pten-loss prostate cooperate with key oncogenes, including c-Myc and Akt among others, to promote prostate cancer progression. Loss-of-function studies using human prostate cancer cells indicated direct involvement of MTA1 in inducing inflammation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of MTA1 by pterostilbene resulted in decreased proliferation and angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. This restrained prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) formation in prostate-specific Pten heterozygous mice and reduced tumor development and progression in prostate-specific Pten-null mice. Our findings highlight MTA1 as a key upstream regulator of prostate tumorigenesis and cancer progression. More significantly, it offers pre-clinical proof for pterostilbene as a promising lead natural agent for MTA1-targeted chemopreventive and therapeutic strategy to curb prostate cancer. PMID:26943043

  17. Tea: age-old beverage as an effective cancer chemopreventive agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine George

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the major public health problem, causing approximately 7 million deaths every year worldwide. The existing treatment approaches and surgical techniques have not been able to cope effectively with this dreaded disease. Because of this, the concept of chemoprevention is now considered a valid approach to reduce the incidence of cancer. There is convincing epidemiological and experimental evidence to show that dietary polyphenolic plant-derived compounds have cancer preventive properties. Based on evidence from in vitro, in vivo data and epidemiological studies, tea has received considerable attention over recent years for reducing the risk of several cancers. Much of the cancer preventive effects of tea, and in particular green tea, appear to be mediated by the polyphenols they contain. In addition to inhibiting mutagenesis and proliferation, tea is relatively non-toxic, is low cost, and can be taken orally or as a part of the daily diet. Therefore it is logical that future clinical studies should focus on examining the efficacy of tea and its active constituents, such as epigallocatechin- 3-gallate (EGCG and theaflavins (TFs, in chemoprevention as an alternative to pharmacological agents. In this review, we address the use of tea and its constituents for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Further mechanistic and dose-response studies will help us to understand the effects of tea consumption on human carcinogenesis.

  18. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Keoxifene (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Nolvadex (Tamoxifen ...

  19. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah’s family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  20. Effect of polyphenols on glucose and lactate transport by breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, F; Guedes, M; Keating, E

    2016-05-01

    One of the cancer molecular hallmarks is a deviant energetic metabolism, known as the Warburg effect, whereby the rate of glucose uptake is significantly increased and a high rate of glycolysis and lactic acid production occurs even when oxygen is present-"aerobic lactatogenesis". Accordingly, GLUT1 and MCT1, which are the main glucose and lactate transporters in cancer cells, respectively, have been proposed as oncogenes and are currently seen as potential therapeutic targets in cancer treatment. Polyphenols, commonly contained in fruits and vegetables, have long been associated with a protective role against cancer. Generally considered as nontoxic, dietary polyphenols are considered ideal chemopreventive and possibly chemotherapeutic agents. Several mechanisms of action of polyphenols in breast cancer cells have been proposed including modulation of intracellular signaling, induction of apoptosis through redox regulation or modulation of epigenetic alterations. Additionally, in vitro studies have shown that several polyphenols act as specific inhibitors of glucose transport in breast cancer cell lines and an association between their anticarcinogenic effect and inhibition of glucose cellular uptake has been described. Also, some polyphenols were found to inhibit lactate transport. Importantly, some polyphenols behave as inhibitors of both glucose and lactate cellular uptake by breast cancer cells and these compounds are thus very interesting in the context of a chemopreventive effect, because they deplete breast cancer cells of their two most important energy suppliers. So, the antimetabolic effect of polyphenols should be regarded as a mechanism of action contributing to their chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic potential in relation to breast cancer.

  1. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  2. Chemoprevention for colon cancer: New opportunities, fact or fiction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droste, J. S. Terhaar Sive; Tuynman, J. B.; van Dullemen, H. M.; Mulder, C. J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still a disease with a high incidence and mortality. Prevention of (pre-) cancerous lesions of CRC by endoscopic screening is promising, but costs are high and identification of high-risk populations is difficult. Since screening both average-risk and high-risk populations

  3. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  4. Oxidative stress and dietary phytochemicals: Role in cancer chemoprevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikara, Shireen; Nagaprashantha, Lokesh Dalasanur; Singhal, Jyotsana; Horne, David; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S

    2018-01-28

    Several epidemiological observations have shown an inverse relation between consumption of plant-based foods, rich in phytochemicals, and incidence of cancer. Phytochemicals, secondary plant metabolites, via their antioxidant property play a key role in cancer chemoprevention by suppressing oxidative stress-induced DNA damage. In addition, they modulate several oxidative stress-mediated signaling pathways through their anti-oxidant effects, and ultimately protect cells from undergoing molecular changes that trigger carcinogenesis. In several instances, however, the pro-oxidant property of these phytochemicals has been observed with respect to cancer treatment. Further, in vitro and in vivo studies show that several phytochemicals potentiate the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents by exacerbating oxidative stress in cancer cells. Therefore, we reviewed multiple studies investigating the role of dietary phytochemicals such as, curcumin (turmeric), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG; green tea), resveratrol (grapes), phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), sulforaphane (cruciferous vegetables), hesperidin, quercetin and 2'-hydroxyflavanone (2HF; citrus fruits) in regulating oxidative stress and associated signaling pathways in the context of cancer chemoprevention and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer: Prospects and Disappointments in Human Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William N. Rom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing the risk of lung cancer, or preventing its development in high-risk individuals, would have a huge impact on public health. The most effective means to decrease lung cancer incidence is to eliminate exposure to carcinogens. However, with recent advances in the understanding of pulmonary carcinogenesis and the identification of intermediate biomarkers, the prospects for the field of chemoprevention research have improved dramatically. Here we review the most recent research in lung cancer chemoprevention—focusing on those agents that have been investigated in human clinical trials. These agents fall into three major categories. First, oxidative stress plays an important role in pulmonary carcinogenesis; and therefore, antioxidants (including vitamins, selenium, green tea extracts, and isothiocyanates may be particularly effective in preventing the development of lung cancer. Second, inflammation is increasingly accepted as a crucial factor in carcinogenesis, and many investigators have focused on anti-inflammatory agents, such as glucocorticoids, NSAIDs, statins, and PPARγ agonists. Finally, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is recognized to play a central role in tobacco-induced carcinogenesis, and inhibitors of this pathway, including myoinositol and metformin, are promising agents for lung cancer prevention. Successful chemoprevention will likely require targeting of multiple pathways to carcinogenesis—both to minimize toxicity and maximize efficacy.

  6. Epigenetic impact of dietary polyphenols in cancer chemoprevention: lifelong remodeling of our epigenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Berghe, Wim

    2012-06-01

    Cancer, as one of the non-communicable diseases, remains one of the leading causes of death around the world. Recently, epigenetic changes in DNA methylation patterns at CpG sites (epimutations) or deregulated chromatin states of tumor promoting genes and noncoding RNAs emerged as major governing factors in tumor progression and cancer drug sensitivity. Furthermore, various environmental factors such as nutrition, behavior, stress, and toxins remodel our epigenomes lifelong in a beneficial or detrimental way. Since epigenetic marks (epimutations) are reversible in contrast to genetic defects, chemopreventive nutritional polyphenols (soy, genistein, resveratrol, catechin, curcumin) are currently evaluated for their ability to reverse adverse epigenetic marks in cancer (stem) cells to attenuate tumorigenesis-progression, prevent metastasis or sensitize for drug sensitivity. Although polyphenols in fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer, few protective effects have been firmly established, presumably because of inappropriate timing or dosing of diet exposure or due to confounding factors such as smoking and alcohol. In this review will discuss the possible epigenetic contributions of dietary polyphenols in cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Curcumin and Other Polyphenolic Compounds in Head and Neck Cancer Chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Baumeister

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite clear results of observational studies linking a diet rich in fruits and vegetables to a decreased cancer risk, large interventional trials evaluating the impact of dietary micronutrient supplementation, mostly vitamins, could not show any beneficial effects. Today it has become clear that a single micronutrient, given in supernutritional doses, cannot match cancer preventive effects of whole fruits and vegetables. In this regard polyphenols came into focus, not only because of their antioxidant potential but also because of their ability to interact with molecular targets within the cells. Because polyphenols occur in many foods and beverages in high concentration and evidence for their anticancer activity is best for tissues they can come into direct contact with, field cancerization predestines upper aerodigestive tract epithelium for cancer chemoprevention by polyphenols. In this paper, we summarize cancer chemopreventive attempts with emphasis on head and neck carcinogenesis and discuss some methodological issues. We present data regarding antimutagenic effects of curcumin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human oropharyngeal mucosa cultures exposed to cigarette smoke condensate.

  8. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflamma- tory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen or aspirin reduces this inflammatory response and, possibly, postpartum breast...involution with systemic ibuprofen or aspirin did not interrupt mammary epithelial cell regression that normally occurs during this period These data... children of immigrant stress, and social desirability bias. Preliminary data suggest that breast cancer survivors, notably racial/ethnic minorities

  9. Biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive efficacy of rosmarinic acid in a rat colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Karthikkumar; Gunasekaran, Sivagami; Namasivayam, Nalini

    2016-11-15

    To shed light on colon cancer chemoprevention, natural phytochemicals attract researchers by virtue of their beneficial biological effects. The chemopreventive potential of rosmarinic acid (RA) was tested by using the colon carcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) by evaluating the Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), tumour incidence, lipid peroxidative byproducts, phase I & II drug metabolizing enzymes, cell proliferative and apoptotic proteins. Rats were divided into six groups and received modified pellet diet. Group 1 served as control rats, group 2 rats received RA (5mg/kg b.w. p.o.), rats in groups 3-6 received DMH (20mg/kg b.w., s.c.) for the first fifteen weeks. In addition to DMH, groups 4-6 received RA at the dose of 5mg/kg b.w. during initiation, post initiation stages and also for the entire study period. DMH treated rats showed an increase in the development of ACF, tumour formation and multiplicity and decrease in lipid peroxidative byproducts. Moreover, it modulates xenobiotic enzymes and reduces the expressions of proapoptotic proteins; increases expressions of anti apoptotic proteins at the end of the study. Supplementation with RA to carcinogen treated rats protected them from the above deleterious effects caused by DMH and thus RA may be used as a potent chemopreventive agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), a potential chemopreventive agent for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sarmistha; Panda, Chinmay Kr; Das, Sukta

    2006-08-01

    Spices and flavoring plants part rich in supposedly health-promoting phytochemicals are currently receiving much attention as a possible source of cancer chemopreventive compounds. Clove, the sun-dried unopened flower bud from the plant Syzygium aromaticum L. is a commonly used spice and food flavor. In the present work we assess the chemopreventive potential of aqueous infusion of clove during benzo[a]pyrene (BP)-induced lung carcinogenesis in strain A mice. Incidence of hyperplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ evident in the carcinogen control group on the 8th, 17th and 26th weeks, respectively, were effectively reduced after treatment with clove infusion. Significant reduction in the number of proliferating cells and an increased number of apoptotic cells was also noted in these BP-induced lung lesions following clove treatment. Western blotting analysis revealed that clove infusion upregulates the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins p53 and Bax, and downregulates the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in the precancerous stages. Expression of caspase 3 and its activation by clove infusion were evident from a very early stage of carcinogenesis (eighth week). Clove infusion was also found to downregulate the expression of some growth-promoting proteins, viz, COX-2, cMyc, Hras. The observations signify the chemopreventive potential of clove in view of its apoptogenic and anti-proliferative properties.

  11. Epigenetic regulation by selected dietary phytochemicals in cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Samriddhi; Meeran, Syed M; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2014-12-01

    The growing interest in cancer epigenetics is largely due to the reversible nature of epigenetic changes which tend to alter during the course of carcinogenesis. Major epigenetic changes including DNA methylation, chromatin modifications and miRNA regulation play important roles in tumorigenic process. There are several epigenetically active synthetic molecules such as DNA methyltransferase (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitors, which are either approved or, are under clinical trials for the treatment of various cancers. However, most of the synthetic inhibitors have shown adverse side effects, narrow in their specificity and also expensive. Hence, bioactive phytochemicals, which are widely available with lesser toxic effects, have been tested for their role in epigenetic modulatory activities in gene regulation for cancer prevention and therapy. Encouragingly, many bioactive phytochemicals potentially altered the expression of key tumor suppressor genes, tumor promoter genes and oncogenes through modulation of DNA methylation and chromatin modification in cancer. These bioactive phytochemicals either alone or in combination with other phytochemicals showed promising results against various cancers. Here, we summarize and discuss the role of some commonly investigated phytochemicals and their epigenetic targets that are of particular interest in cancer prevention and cancer therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Flavonoids as Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Agents Against Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Cabrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present review is to study the relationship between flavonoids and lung cancer, proposing that their regular consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against lung cancer. An extensive search of the scientific literature was performed in the following electronic specialized databases (PubMed central (PMC-NBCI, Elsevier Journal, SciELO Spain, Scirus, Science Direct, including studies in animals, cells, and humans, in order to establish the effect of flavonoids in the prevention and development of lung cancer. Although in vitro and animal studies show the potential ability of flavonoids to act against different types of cancers, especially against lung cancers, the diverse results reported within epidemiological studies, together with the lack of experiments in humans, are the major factors in limiting making dietary recommendations based on scientific evidence for the management of patients with lung cancer. Therefore, the authors of the present study recommend following the dietary health practice guidelines which promotes the consumption of food enriched in flavonoids and reflects the current state of knowledge of an effective and appropriate diet in lung cancer patients.Erratum in: Rev Esp Nutr Hum Diet. 2013;17(2:91-92Link: http://www.renhyd.org/index.php/renhyd/article/view/6/17

  13. The effect of curcumin on breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongwu; Chen, Zhiwei

    2013-06-01

    Curcumin, which is extracted from the plant Curcuma longa, has been used in the therapeutic arsenal for clinical oncology. Curcumin has chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against some aggressive and recurrent cancers. The expressions and activities of various proteins, such as inflammatory cytokines and enzymes, transcription factors, and gene-products linked with cell survivals and proliferation, can be modified by curcumin. Moreover, curcumin decreases the toxic effect of mitomycin C. Though curcumin has shown highly cytotoxic to some cancer cell lines, curcumin is insoluble and instable in water. The solubility of curcumin could be enhanced by utilizing the solubilizing properties of rubusoside. In addition, the selective delivery of synthetic analogs or nanotechnology-based formulations of curcumin to tumors may improve the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects. The focus of this short review is to describe how curcumin participates in antitumor processes in breast cancer cells.

  14. Lymphedema after breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Ziani, Fatima Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Image in medicine Lymphedema is one of the most significant survivorship issues after the surgical treatment of breast cancer and in this population it has been documented to have significant quality...

  15. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Breast Cancer Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  16. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared......, and in women giving birth to boys. These findings, however, did not reach statistical significance. Finally, risk reduction was slightly greater following milder forms of preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: Our data is compatible with an approximately 20% reduction in risk of developing breast cancer following...

  17. Loss of BRCA1 in the Cells of Origin of Ovarian Cancer Induces Glycolysis: A Window of Opportunity for Ovarian Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiyoda, Tatsuyuki; Hart, Peter C; Eckert, Mark A; McGregor, Stephanie M; Lastra, Ricardo R; Hamamoto, Ryuji; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamada, S Diane; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Lengyel, Ernst; Romero, Iris L

    2017-04-01

    Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) are associated with an increased risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer. However, beyond the role of BRCA1 in DNA repair, little is known about other mechanisms by which BRCA1 impairment promotes carcinogenesis. Given that altered metabolism is now recognized as important in the initiation and progression of cancer, we asked whether the loss of BRCA1 changes metabolism in the cells of origin of ovarian cancer. The findings show that silencing BRCA1 in ovarian surface epithelial and fallopian tube cells increased glycolysis. Furthermore, when these cells were transfected with plasmids carrying deleterious BRCA1 mutations (5382insC or the P1749R), there was an increase in hexokinase-2 (HK2), a key glycolytic enzyme. This effect was mediated by MYC and the STAT3. To target the metabolic phenotype induced by loss of BRCA1, a drug-repurposing approach was used and aspirin was identified as an agent that counteracted the increase in HK2 and the increase in glycolysis induced by BRCA1 impairment. Evidence from this study indicates that the tumor suppressor functions of BRCA1 extend beyond DNA repair to include metabolic endpoints and identifies aspirin as an ovarian cancer chemopreventive agent capable of reversing the metabolic derangements caused by loss of BRCA1. Cancer Prev Res; 10(4); 255-66. ©2017 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. [Pregnancy and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Torres, Nicolás; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2013-01-01

    association of breast cancer and pregnancy is not common. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the pregnancy, young age, stage, treatment, prognosis and mortality of women with breast cancer during pregnancy. retrospective analysis from March 1992 to February 2009, 16 patients were included with breast cancer and pregnancy. They were analized: histological characteristic of tumor, therapeutic response of the oncological treatment, evolution of the pregnancy. From of baby born: Apgar and weight. The woman's mortality with breast cancer during pregnancy was evaluated for age group and for interval of time between late pregnancy and diagnosis posterior of breast cancer and pregnancy. characteristic predominant clinicohistological: stage III (81.2%), T3-T4 (75%), N+ 93.7%, invasive ductal carcinoma (87.5%), histological grade 2-3 (93.7%), receptor estrogeno positive (43.7%); RPpositive (25%); HER-2/neu positive (31.2%). 27 chemotherapy cycles were applied with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide during the second or third trimester of the pregnancy, there were not severe adverse effects for the mothers and the baby born exposed to chemotherapy. The mean time to disease recurrence was 18.8 months (range, 6-62 months). The rate of mortality for specific age (breast cancer and pregnancy.

  19. Cellular diamine levels in cancer chemoprevention: modulation by ibuprofen and membrane plasmalogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Paul L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop effective strategies in cancer chemoprevention, an increased understanding of endogenous biochemical mediators that block metastatic processes is critically needed. Dietary lipids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have a published track record of providing protection against gastrointestinal malignancies. In this regard, we examined the effects of membrane plasmalogens and ibuprofen on regulation of cellular levels of diamines, polyamine mediators that are augmented in cancer cells. For these studies we utilized Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells and NRel-4 cells, a CHO cell line with defective plasmalogen synthesis. Results NRel-4 cells, which possess cellular plasmalogen levels that are 10% of control CHO cells, demonstrated 2- to 3-fold increases in cellular diamine levels. These diamine levels were normalized by plasmalogen replacement and significantly reduced by ibuprofen. In both cases the mechanism of action appears to mainly involve increased diamine efflux via the diamine exporter. The actions of ibuprofen were not stereospecific, supporting previous studies that cyclooxygenase (COX inhibition is unlikely to be involved in the ability of NSAIDs to reduce intracellular diamine levels. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that ibuprofen, a drug known to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, reduces cellular diamine levels via augmentation of diamine efflux. Similarly, augmentation of membrane plasmalogens can increase diamine export from control and plasmalogen-deficient cells. These data support the concept that membrane transporter function may be a therapeutic point of intervention for dietary and pharmacological approaches to cancer chemoprevention.

  20. Pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics and epigenetics of Nrf2-regulated xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and transporters by dietary phytochemical and cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tien-Yuan; Khor, Tin Oo; Lee, Jong Hun; Cheung, Ka Lung; Shu, Limin; Chen, Chi; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2013-07-01

    Cancer chemopreventive activities of various phytochemicals have been attributed to the modulation of xenobiotic disposition, which includes absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. The interaction between xenobiotics and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) is bidirectional. XMEs are responsible for the biotransformation of xenobiotics such as bioactivation and detoxification. Conversely, xenobiotics affect XMEs through transcriptional regulation (induction or suppression) and post-translational interactions (inhibition or activation). Similar relationships also exist between xenobiotics and their transporters. Studies conducted over the past decade have demonstrated that the transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), plays a critical role in the regulation of detoxifying enzymes and transporters through a signaling system that senses and responds to redox imbalance. The role of Nrf2 in the interaction between chemopreventive phytochemicals and detoxifying enzymes/transporters has become an important topic in cancer chemoprevention. In this review, the genetic and epigenetic factors that contribute to Nrf2-mediated regulation of detoxifying XMEs and transporters are discussed in the context of cancer chemoprevention. Phytochemicals may modulate the genome as well as epigenome, altering the regulation of XMEs and transporters, which may be critical for both cancer chemoprevention and the prevention of other oxidative stress- and inflammatory-related diseases, including cardiovascular, metabolic and neurological pathologies. The pharmacogenomic expression of XMEs and transporters, with an emphasis on both genomics and epigenetics, will also be discussed.

  1. Recruitment strategies for a lung cancer chemoprevention trial involving ex-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Steve H; Tashkin, Donald P; Roth, Michael D; Adams, Bradley; Nie, Wen-Xian; Mao, Jenny T

    2009-09-01

    The ability to recruit qualified subjects who are willing to adhere to the study protocol in clinical trials is an essential component of translational research. Such tasks can be particularly challenging for chemoprevention studies when the targeted study population is healthy, at risk individuals who do not have signs or symptoms of the disease, and the study participation involves complex scheduling and invasive procedures such as bronchoscopy. In this report, we describe the recruitment process and evaluated the effectiveness of various recruitment strategies utilized in our National Cancer Institute sponsored lung cancer chemoprevention study with celecoxib. Heavy ex-smokers were recruited into the study through various methods such as radio advertisements, print media, mass mailings, flyers, internet postings and others. The number of inquiries, on-site screenees and randomization generated by each method determined the efficacy of that recruitment strategy. We prescreened 4470 individuals, invited 323 people for on-site screening and randomized 137 subjects. Radio advertisements (ads) generated the most inquiries (71.1%), followed by internet posting (11.8%), print media (6.0%), posted and racked flyers (4.4%), mass mailings (2.7%) and other strategies such as referrals from friends or family members or health care providers (2.3%). Radio ads, although costly, yielded the most subjects for on-site screening and randomization. Moreover, among the various types of radio stations, news radio stations were by far the most successful. Our results suggest that advertising on news radio is a highly effective recruitment method for successful accrual of ex-smokers into lung cancer chemoprevention trials.

  2. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2008-10-01

    Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.

  3. Cyclooxygenase as a target for chemoprevention in colorectal cancer: lost cause or a concept coming of age?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doherty, Glen A

    2009-02-01

    COX-2 is upregulated at an early stage in colorectal carcinogenesis and generates prostaglandins, which promote cancer cell proliferation, impair apoptosis and enhance angiogenesis, promoting tumour growth and metastasis. There are ample data from animal models and human studies to demonstrate enhanced tumour progression associated with COX-2 activity in cancer cells. Conversely, NSAIDs including aspirin inhibit COX-2 and, therefore, have anti-neoplastic properties. There has been sustained interest in COX-2 as a chemopreventive target in colorectal cancer (CRC) and although both aspirin and COX-2 selective NSAIDs have demonstrated efficacy, adverse effects have limited their widespread adoption. In particular, evidence of the cardiovascular effects of COX-2 selective inhibitors has led to questioning of the suitability of COX-2 as a target for chemoprevention. This review examines the basis for targeting COX-2 in CRC chemoprevention, evaluates the efficacy and safety of the approach and examines future strategies in this area.

  4. Research Progress on Natural Triterpenoid Saponins in the Chemoprevention and Chemotherapy of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jun-Rong; Long, Fang-Yi; Chen, Chu

    2014-01-01

    Triterpenoid saponins are glycosides with remarkable structural and bioactive diversity. They are becoming increasingly significant in the treatment of cancer due to their efficacy and safety. This chapter provides an update on the sources, pharmacological effects, structure-activity relationships, and clinical studies of anticancer triterpenoid saponins with a particular focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying their therapeutic properties. The correlative references and study reports described were collected through PubMed. The anticancer triterpenoid saponins enable the inhibition of cancer formation and progression by modulating multiple signaling targets related to cellular proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, metastasis, angiogenesis, inflammation, oxidative stress, multidrug resistance, cancer stem cells, and microRNAs. This review provides new insights into the molecular basis of triterpenoid saponins in the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of cancer. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  6. Cancer Chemoprevention by Phytochemicals: Nature’s Healing Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haseeb Zubair

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals are an important part of traditional medicine and have been investigated in detail for possible inclusion in modern medicine as well. These compounds often serve as the backbone for the synthesis of novel therapeutic agents. For many years, phytochemicals have demonstrated encouraging activity against various human cancer models in pre-clinical assays. Here, we discuss select phytochemicals—curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, resveratrol, plumbagin and honokiol—in the context of their reported effects on the processes of inflammation and oxidative stress, which play a key role in tumorigenesis. We also discuss the emerging evidence on modulation of tumor microenvironment by these phytochemicals which can possibly define their cancer-specific action. Finally, we provide recent updates on how low bioavailability, a major concern with phytochemicals, is being circumvented and the general efficacy being improved, by synthesis of novel chemical analogs and nanoformulations.

  7. Tannins, xenobiotic metabolism and cancer chemoprevention in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepka, C; Asprodini, E; Kouretas, D

    1999-01-01

    Tannins are plant polyphenolic compounds that are contained in large quantities in food and beverages (tea, red wine, nuts, etc.) consumed by humans daily. It has been shown that various tannins exert broad cancer chemoprotective activity in a number of animal models. This review summarizes the recent literature regarding both the mechanisms involved, and the specific organ cancer models used in laboratory animals. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that tannins act as both anti-initiating and antipromoting agents. In view of the fact that tannins may be of valid medicinal efficacy in human clinical trials, the present review attempts to integrate results from animal studies, and considers their possible application in humans.

  8. Mechanism of Selenium Chemoprevention and Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Cancer. Edited by Tindall D and Mohler J. Springer Science and Business Media and Humana Press, 2009 Abstract: 1. Lee SO, Chun JY, Nadiminty...antiproliferative effects of selenium, including antioxidant effects, enhance- ment of immune function, stimulation of apoptosis, and induction of cell...were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA) and maintained in RPMI 1640 supple- mented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The

  9. Cancer-specific chemoprevention and anti-metastatic potentials of Rheum emodi rhizome ethyl acetate extracts and identification of active principles through HPLC and GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen; George, Vazhapilly Cijo; Suresh, Palamadai Krishnan; Kumar, Rangasamy Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Rheum emodi Wall. ex Meissn. (Polygonaceae) is a Himalayan perennial herb which has been cultivated over 5000 years for its medicinal properties by rural and tribal people of Kashmir, and has great significance for its traditional use in Ayurvedic, Unani and folk systems of medicine for cancer treatments. However, there is lack of reports pertaining to specific-chemopreventive properties of R. emodi rhizome. The present study investigates R. emodi rhizome hot and cold ethyl acetate extracts (EHR and ECR) for specific-chemopreventive properties. The extracts were found to be effective antioxidant sources, and showed significant (P<0.05) cancer-specific cytotoxicity towards MDA-MB-231 cells (when compared to WRL-68 [non-tumoral cells]) with IC(50) values of 56.59±1.29 μg/ml (EHR) and 152.38±1.45 μg/ml (ECR) respectively, and induced apoptosis significantly (P<0.05) high in MDA-MB-231 cells (estrogen receptor-(ER)-negative) when compared to MCF-7 cells (ER-positive). Extracts also demonstrated evident anti-metastatic activity. Further, the extracts were chemically characterized through HPLC analysis which revealed major polyphenolics and the GC-MS analysis of the effective extract EHR unveiled (Methyl 6,7-dideoxy-6-C-methyl-2,3-di-O-methyl-à-D-gluco-oct-6-eno-1,5-pyranosid)urono-8,4-lactone,Chrysophanol, derivatives of cyclopropanes and a quinazoline derivative. Overall, EHR exhibited significantly better results on par with ECR, and thus could be considered for their use in designing cancer-specific chemopreventive agents against ER-negative breast cancer.

  10. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  11. Chemoprevention of skin cancer using low HLB surfactant nanoemulsion of 5-fluorouracil: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Faiyaz; Haq, Nazrul; Al-Dhfyan, Abdullah; Alanazi, Fars K; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2015-01-01

    Oral delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is difficult due to its serious adverse effects and extremely low bioavailability. Therefore, the aim of present investigation was to develop and evaluate low HLB surfactant nanoemulsion of 5-FU for topical chemoprevention of skin cancer. Low HLB surfactant nanoemulsions were prepared by oil phase titration method. Thermodynamically stable nanoemulsions were characterized in terms of droplet size distribution, zeta potential, viscosity and refractive index. Selected formulations and control were subjected to in vitro skin permeation studies through rat skin using Franz diffusion cells. Optimized formulation F9 was subjected to stability and in vitro cytotoxic studies on melanoma cell lines. Enhancement ratio was found to be 22.33 in formulation F9 compared with control and other formulations. The values of steady state flux and permeability coefficient for formulation F9 were found to be 206.40 ± 14.56 µg cm(-2) h(-1) and 2.064 × 10(-2) ± 0.050 × 10(-2 )cm h(-1), respectively. Optimized formulation F9 was found to be physical stable. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on SK-MEL-5 cancer cells indicated that 5-FU in optimized nanoemulsion is much more efficacious than free 5-FU. From these results, it can be concluded that the developed nanoemulsion might be a promising vehicle for chemoprevention of skin cancer.

  12. Cancer chemopreventive effects of the flavonoid-rich fraction isolated from papaya seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Neelam; Khan, Saba; Bhargava, Arpit; Raghuram, Gorantla V; Jain, Deepika; Panwar, Hariom; Samarth, Ravindra M; Jain, Subodh K; Maudar, Kewal K; Mishra, Dinesh K; Mishra, Pradyumna K

    2014-01-01

    Intervention to decelerate, arrest, or reverse the process of carcinogenesis by the use of either natural or synthetic agents individually or in combination has emerged as a promising and pragmatic medical approach to reduce cancer risk. In the present study, we examined the cancer chemopreventive potential of a flavonoid-rich fraction isolated from the seeds of Carica papaya, a plant traditionally referred to as papaw. The flavonoid-enriched benzene fraction of the aqueous extract exerted its anticancer properties in vitro through cytoprotection, antioxidative and antiinflammatory mechanisms and genoprotection in response to isocyanate-induced carcinogenicity. Medium-term anticarcinogenicity and 2-stage skin papillomagenesis studies conducted in benzopyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis and 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene-mediated skin papillomagenesis mouse models further validated our in vitro observations. This is the first demonstration of chemopreventive activities of papaya seed products, however, further studies to understand the subtle targets of intracellular signaling pathways, pharmacological profile and toxicological safety of this bioactive fraction are essential to pave the way for successful clinical translation. Our study supports the inverse association between dietary flavonoid intake and cancer risk.

  13. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Johanna M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Adang, Eddy M.; Otten, Johannes D.; Verbeek, André L.; Broeders, Mireille J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to

  14. Expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneyte, Ian F.; Kristel, Petra M. P.; Maliepaard, Marc; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is involved in in vitro multidrug resistance and was first identified in the breast cancer cell line MCF7/AdrVp. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BCRP in resistance of breast cancer to anthracycline treatment. EXPERIMENTAL

  15. Breast cancer and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabben, Laura; Mueller, Michel D

    2017-08-29

    Background In the past decades the incidence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) increased. Possible explanations are the trend to postpone childbearing and the general increase in the incidence of breast cancer. Materials and methods A sytematic review of the literature was performed with the aim to report on incidence, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of breast cancer during pregnancy. We also cover the issue of pregnancy following a diagnosis of breast cancer including fertility preservation and prognosis. Results Ultrasound is the imaging method of choice in pregnancy, but mammography can also be performed as the fetal irradiation dose is low. To avoid a delay in diagnosis every sonographic mass in pregnant women which does not clearly correspond to a cyst needs further investigation by biopsy. Treatment should follow as close as possible the guidelines for non-pregnant patients. Administration of chemotherapy is possible after the first trimester. There is a large body of evidence for the use of anthracyclines. In contrast radiotherapy, trastuzumab and antihormonal treatment by tamoxifen are contraindicated during pregnancy. Pregnancy does not seem to influence prognosis. Most adverse obstetric outcomes are related to preterm delivery, which should therefore, whenever possible, be avoided. Young patients with breast cancer and incomplete family planning should be referred for counseling about fertility preservation options before the initiation of adjuvant treatment. A pregnancy following breast cancer does not have a negative impact on prognosis. Conclusion Multidisciplinary management of women with breast cancer in pregnancy is mandatory and data should be collected to allow further improvement in management.

  16. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  17. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk with your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  18. Progress in breast cancer: overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-01-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer...

  19. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, D.J. van; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Westenberg, A.H.; Wilt, J.H. de; Blanken-Peeters, C.F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This

  20. Adenoid cystic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenathan, James H; de la Roza, Gustavo

    2002-06-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare type of breast cancer that is generally reported in individual case reports or as series from major referral centers. To characterize early diagnostic criteria for adenoid cystic carcinoma and to determine whether breast-preserving surgery with radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for eradicating the disease, we reviewed clinical records of a large series of patients treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast at a large health maintenance organization (HMO) that includes primary care facilities and referral centers. Using the data bank of the Northern California Cancer Registry of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Region (KPNCR), we retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. Follow-up also was done for these patients. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast was diagnosed in 22 of 27,970 patients treated for breast cancer at KPNCR from 1960 through 2000. All 22 patients were female and were available for follow-up. Mean age of patients at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 37 to 94 years). In 17 (77%) of the women, a lump in the breast led to initial suspicion of a tumor; in 4 (23%) of the 22 patients, mammography led to suspicion of a tumor. Median tumor size was 20 mm. Pain was a prominent symptom. Surgical management evolved from radical and modified radical mastectomy to simple mastectomy or lumpectomy during the study period, during which time 1 patient died of previous ordinary ductal carcinoma of the contralateral breast, and 7 died of unrelated disease. At follow-up, 12 of the 13 remaining patients were free of disease; 1 patient died of the disease; and 1 patient remained alive despite late occurrence of lymph node and pulmonary metastases. Whether breast-preserving surgery with radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for treating adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast has not been determined.

  1. Dietary Sulforaphane in Cancer Chemoprevention: The Role of Epigenetic Regulation and HDAC Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorella, Stephanie M; Royce, Simon G; Licciardi, Paul V; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2015-06-01

    Sulforaphane, produced by the hydrolytic conversion of glucoraphanin after ingestion of cruciferous vegetables, particularly broccoli and broccoli sprouts, has been extensively studied due to its apparent health-promoting properties in disease and limited toxicity in normal tissue. Recent Studies: Recent identification of a sub-population of tumor cells with stem cell-like self-renewal capacity that may be responsible for relapse, metastasis, and resistance, as a potential target of the dietary compound, may be an important aspect of sulforaphane chemoprevention. Evidence also suggests that sulforaphane may target the epigenetic alterations observed in specific cancers, reversing aberrant changes in gene transcription through mechanisms of histone deacetylase inhibition, global demethylation, and microRNA modulation. In this review, we discuss the biochemical and biological properties of sulforaphane with a particular emphasis on the anticancer properties of the dietary compound. Sulforaphane possesses the capacity to intervene in multistage carcinogenesis through the modulation and/or regulation of important cellular mechanisms. The inhibition of phase I enzymes that are responsible for the activation of pro-carcinogens, and the induction of phase II enzymes that are critical in mutagen elimination are well-characterized chemopreventive properties. Furthermore, sulforaphane mediates a number of anticancer pathways, including the activation of apoptosis, induction of cell cycle arrest, and inhibition of NFκB. Further characterization of the chemopreventive properties of sulforaphane and its capacity to be selectively toxic to malignant cells are warranted to potentially establish the clinical utility of the dietary compound as an anti-cancer compound alone, and in combination with clinically relevant therapeutic and management strategies.

  2. Kindness Interventions in Enhancing Well-Being in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  3. Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-17

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  4. Systemic retinoids for chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancer in high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Christina; Bair, Sarah M; Smithberger, Erica; Cherpelis, Basil S; Glass, L Frank

    2010-07-01

    Patients at high risk for the development of multiple non-melanoma skin cancers, especially those receiving immunosuppressive medications following solid organ transplantation, are candidates for chemoprophylaxis. In patients where photo-protection and topical medications are insufficient to prevent the growth of new cancers, there is considerable evidence that oral retinoids, including vitamin A, and synthetics such as isotretinoin, etretinate and acitretin are efficacious in this regard. This manuscript is a review of the literature regarding the use of these agents for chemoprophylaxis of non-melanoma skin cancer. Also included is anecdotal evidence that bexarotene, a rexinoid, may be as effective as acitretin in terms of chemoprevention, with a comparable side effects at doses recommended for chemoprophylaxis.

  5. Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention by Mesalazine and Its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Stolfi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD face an increased lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC. Independent factors associated with increased risk include long disease duration, extensive colonic involvement, young age at onset of IBD, severity of inflammation, primary sclerosing cholangitis, backwash ileitis, and a family history of CRC, thus emphasising the role of intestinal inflammation as an underlying mechanism. This notion is also supported by the demonstration that the use of certain drugs used to attenuate the ongoing mucosal inflammation, such as mesalazine, seems to associate with a reduced incidence of colitis-associated CRC. In the last decade, work from many laboratories has contributed to delineate the mechanisms by which mesalazine alters CRC cell behaviour. In this paper, we review the available experimental data supporting the ability of mesalazine and its derivatives to interfere with intracellular signals involved in CRC cell growth.

  6. Mammographic density, MRI background parenchymal enhancement and breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, M. C.; Pearce, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    , diagnostic accuracy, and transfer to clinical practice. Radiology 2007; 244: 356–378), and a recent study suggests that BPE is also a major breast cancer risk factor, possibly as important as, and independent of MD (King V, Brooks JD, Bernstein JL et al. BPE at breast MR imaging and breast cancer risk. Radiology 2011; 260: 50–60). BPE is much more sensitive to the effects of menopause and tamoxifen than is FGT (King V, Gu Y, Kaplan JB et al. Impact of menopausal status on BPE and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI. Eur Radiol 2012; 22: 2641–2647, King V, Kaplan J, Pike MC et al. Impact of tamoxifen on amount of fibroglandular tissue, BPE, and cysts on breast MRI. Breast J 2012; 18: 527–534). Changes in MD and BPE may be most useful in predicting response to chemopreventive agents aimed at blocking breast cell proliferation. More study of the biological basis of the effects of MD and BPE is needed if we are to fully exploit these factors in developing chemopreventive approaches to breast cancer. PMID:24131968

  7. Mammographic density, MRI background parenchymal enhancement and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, M C; Pearce, C L

    2013-11-01

    accuracy, and transfer to clinical practice. Radiology 2007; 244: 356-378), and a recent study suggests that BPE is also a major breast cancer risk factor, possibly as important as, and independent of MD (King V, Brooks JD, Bernstein JL et al. BPE at breast MR imaging and breast cancer risk. Radiology 2011; 260: 50-60). BPE is much more sensitive to the effects of menopause and tamoxifen than is FGT (King V, Gu Y, Kaplan JB et al. Impact of menopausal status on BPE and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI. Eur Radiol 2012; 22: 2641-2647, King V, Kaplan J, Pike MC et al. Impact of tamoxifen on amount of fibroglandular tissue, BPE, and cysts on breast MRI. Breast J 2012; 18: 527-534). Changes in MD and BPE may be most useful in predicting response to chemopreventive agents aimed at blocking breast cell proliferation. More study of the biological basis of the effects of MD and BPE is needed if we are to fully exploit these factors in developing chemopreventive approaches to breast cancer.

  8. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304810789

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may

  9. Clinical proteomics in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gast, M.C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer imposes a significant healthcare burden on women worldwide. Early detection is of paramount importance in reducing mortality, yet the diagnosis of breast cancer is hampered by a lack of adequate detection methods. In addition, better breast cancer prognostication may improve selection

  10. Breast cancer in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of these, 27. (25.2%) were aged 60 years ... and physician vigilance are keys to early detection and treatment of breast cancer in the elderly. INTRODUCTION ..... Law TM, Hesketli PJ, Porter KA, Lawn-Tsao L,. McAxiaw R and Lopez MJ. Breast cancer in eld ...

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage 0-IIB Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  13. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and radiotherapy after delivery. Even though early stage breast cancers have similar prognosis, advanced stage breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation have poorer prognosis than similar stage breast cancers diagnosed in non-pregnant women. Women who desire to become pregnant after treatment of breast cancer will have many conflicts. Although the most common concern is recurrence of breast cancer due to pregnancy, the studies conducted showed that pregnancy has no negative effect on breast cancer prognosis. In this review we search for the frequency of breast cancer during pregnancy, the histopathological findings, risk factor, diagnostic and treatment modalities. We reviewed the literature for evidence based findings to help consult the patients on the outcome of breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation, and also inform the patients who desire to become pregnant after breast cancer according to current evidences. PMID:24592003

  14. Pancreatic Cancer: Molecular, Biochemical, Chemopreventive, and Therapeutic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Iovanna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer (PC is the fourth leading cause of cancer death, with a median survival of 6 months and a dismal 5-year survival rate of 3–5%, a figure which has remained relatively unchanged over the past 25 years. PC is one of the most difficult diseases to treat due to late initial diagnosis and to resistance to the usual treatments. The presence of occult or clinical metastases at the time of diagnosis, together with the lack of effective chemotherapies, contributes to the high mortality in patients with PC. Its lethal nature stems from its propensity to disseminate rapidly to the lymphatic system and distant organs. Yet, understanding and stopping metastasis may prove to be one of the great potential strategies of treating PC. There is a dire need for the design of new and targeted therapeutic strategies that can overcome the drug resistance and improve the clinical outcome for patients diagnosed with the illness. The knowledge of the molecular aspects of PC is very important, and it is likely to be helpful in the design of newer drugs and the molecular selection of existing agents for targeted therapy. The inhibition of signal pathways can be carried out not only by small molecules, able to bind to selected regions of the target protein, but also by using large molecules as antibodies. The pathway to successful new therapies has been inhibited because of the rapidity with which agents tend to move into randomized, controlled trials without the extensive early testing necessary to optimize treatment regimens. However, lessons have been learned and our collective research effort has generated a substantial platform of knowledge from which further work will spring. The bioavailability of compounds such as antisense oligonucleotides and siRNAs in humans remains a big hurdle, which will require further improvement of gene-delivery strategies. Finally, the long-term goal of the therapy individualization for patients is possible if factors

  15. Combination chemoprevention with diclofenac, calcipotriol and difluoromethylornithine inhibits development of non-melanoma skin cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob; Raskov, Hans

    2013-08-01

    With increasing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), focus on chemoprevention of this disease is growing. The aim of this study was to evaluate topical combination therapies as chemoprevention of UV radiation-induced tumors in a mouse model. A total of 160 SKH-1 mice were randomized to one placebo group and four chemoprevention groups (diclofenac plus difluoromethylornithine; diclofenac plus calcipotriol; difluoromethylornithine plus calcitriol; and diclofenac plus difluoromethylornithine plus calcipotriol). The mice received UVB radiation for 20 weeks followed by 17 weeks with topical application of chemoprevention. The number of mice with tumors, number of tumors per group and tumor area size were compared using a linear regression model. Chemoprevention with diclonefac plus calcipotriol and diclonefac plus difluoromethylornithine had a significant inhibiting effect on the number of tumors per group and the area of tumors. Moreover, diclonefac plus difluoromethylornithine had a significant inhibiting effect on the number of mice with tumors. Potentially, non-melanoma skin cancer in humans may be prevented with these agents with few adverse effects. Therefore, clinical studies are needed to determine their therapeutic/preventive effect and possible adverse effects.

  16. Affluence and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0.624). The multivariate general linear model with income as covariate, 5-year survival by race as a dependent variable, showed a significant effect of income and White race on 5-year survival (p breast cancer

  17. New Enlightenment of Skin Cancer Chemoprevention through Phytochemicals: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies and the Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhulika; Suman, Shankar; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Skin overexposure to ultraviolet irradiations, chemicals, and several viruses has a capability to cause severe skin-related disorders including immunosuppression and skin cancer. These factors act in sequence at various steps of skin carcinogenesis via initiation, promotion, and/or progression. These days cancer chemoprevention is recognized as the most hopeful and novel approach to prevent, inhibit, or reverse the processes of carcinogenesis by intervention with natural products. Phytochemicals have antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and carcinogen detoxification capabilities thereby considered as efficient chemopreventive agents. Considerable efforts have been done to identify the phytochemicals which may possibly act on one or several molecular targets that modulate cellular processes such as inflammation, immunity, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Till date several phytochemicals in the light of chemoprevention have been studied by using suitable skin carcinogenic in vitro and in vivo models and proven as beneficial for prevention of skin cancer. This revision presents a comprehensive knowledge and the main molecular mechanisms of actions of various phytochemicals in the chemoprevention of skin cancer.

  18. New Enlightenment of Skin Cancer Chemoprevention through Phytochemicals: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies and the Underlying Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhulika; Suman, Shankar; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Skin overexposure to ultraviolet irradiations, chemicals, and several viruses has a capability to cause severe skin-related disorders including immunosuppression and skin cancer. These factors act in sequence at various steps of skin carcinogenesis via initiation, promotion, and/or progression. These days cancer chemoprevention is recognized as the most hopeful and novel approach to prevent, inhibit, or reverse the processes of carcinogenesis by intervention with natural products. Phytochemicals have antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and carcinogen detoxification capabilities thereby considered as efficient chemopreventive agents. Considerable efforts have been done to identify the phytochemicals which may possibly act on one or several molecular targets that modulate cellular processes such as inflammation, immunity, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Till date several phytochemicals in the light of chemoprevention have been studied by using suitable skin carcinogenic in vitro and in vivo models and proven as beneficial for prevention of skin cancer. This revision presents a comprehensive knowledge and the main molecular mechanisms of actions of various phytochemicals in the chemoprevention of skin cancer. PMID:24757666

  19. New Enlightenment of Skin Cancer Chemoprevention through Phytochemicals: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies and the Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Skin overexposure to ultraviolet irradiations, chemicals, and several viruses has a capability to cause severe skin-related disorders including immunosuppression and skin cancer. These factors act in sequence at various steps of skin carcinogenesis via initiation, promotion, and/or progression. These days cancer chemoprevention is recognized as the most hopeful and novel approach to prevent, inhibit, or reverse the processes of carcinogenesis by intervention with natural products. Phytochemicals have antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and carcinogen detoxification capabilities thereby considered as efficient chemopreventive agents. Considerable efforts have been done to identify the phytochemicals which may possibly act on one or several molecular targets that modulate cellular processes such as inflammation, immunity, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Till date several phytochemicals in the light of chemoprevention have been studied by using suitable skin carcinogenic in vitro and in vivo models and proven as beneficial for prevention of skin cancer. This revision presents a comprehensive knowledge and the main molecular mechanisms of actions of various phytochemicals in the chemoprevention of skin cancer.

  20. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  1. Breast cancer prevention strategies in lobular carcinoma in situ: A decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephanie M; Stout, Natasha K; Punglia, Rinaa S; Prakash, Ipshita; Sagara, Yasuaki; Golshan, Mehra

    2017-07-15

    Women diagnosed with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) have a 3-fold to 10-fold increased risk of developing invasive breast cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the life expectancy (LE) and differences in survival offered by active surveillance, risk-reducing chemoprevention, and bilateral prophylactic mastectomy among women with LCIS. A Markov simulation model was constructed to determine average LE and quality-adjusted LE (QALE) gains for hypothetical cohorts of women diagnosed with LCIS at various ages under alternative risk-reduction strategies. Probabilities for invasive breast cancer, breast cancer-specific mortality, other-cause mortality and the effectiveness of preventive strategies were derived from published studies and from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Assuming a breast cancer incidence from 1.02% to 1.37% per year under active surveillance, a woman aged 50 years diagnosed with LCIS would have a total LE of 32.78 years and would gain 0.13 years (1.6 months) in LE by adding chemoprevention and 0.25 years (3.0 months) in LE by adding bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. After quality adjustment, chemoprevention resulted in the greatest QALE for women ages 40 to 60 years at LCIS diagnosis, whereas surveillance remained the preferred strategy for optimizing QALE among women diagnosed at age 65 years and older. In this model, among women with a diagnosis of LCIS, breast cancer prevention strategies only modestly affected overall survival, whereas chemoprevention was modeled as the preferred management strategy for optimizing invasive disease-free survival while prolonging QALE form women younger than 65 years. Cancer 2017;123:2609-17. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Chemopreventive Effects of Magnesium Chloride Supplementation on Hormone Independent Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Quiroz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle significantly impacts the risk factors associated with prostate cancer, out of which diet appears to be the most influential. An emerging chemopreventive approach, which involves the adequate intake of dietary constituents, has shown great potential in preventing the occurrence or progression of cancer. Magnesium is known to be an essential cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic processes, and is responsible for the regulation of various cellular reactions in the body. A plethora of studies have shown evidence that changes in the intracellular levels of magnesium could contribute to cell proliferation and apoptosis in some normal and malignant cells. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of magnesium chloride (MgCl2 in DU-145 prostate cancer cells. Methodology: Cultured DU-145 cells were subjected to graded concentrations or doses (50-500 µM of MgCl2 for 48 hours. The cell viability was assessed using MTT and Resazurin reduction assays. NBT assay was also used to assess the treatment-induced intracellular ROS levels. Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide (AcrO/EtBr and Rh123/EtBr fluorescent stains were used to assess the cell death type and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm respectively. Results: The results revealed a dose-dependent decrease (P < 0.05 in cell viability in treated DU-145 cells after 48 hours. The NBT assay also revealed a dose dependent biphasic response (P < 0.05 in intracellular levels of ROS. There was a drop (P < 0.05 in ROS levels in all groups except at 100 µM, where ROS level was higher than the control. Apoptosis was the primary mode of cell death as observed in the fluorescence analysis. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that MgCl2 may be potentially chemopreventive for prostate cancer. This justifies further studies into its mechanism of action in DU-145 and other prostate cancer cell types.

  3. Breast cancer in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, S.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Petri, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. Methods We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi......-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration. Results...... There were 86 SLE breast cancers and 4498 female SLE cancer-free controls. Patients were followed on average for 7.6 years. Versus controls, SLE breast cancer cases tended to be white and older. Breast cancer cases were similar to controls regarding anti-dsDNA positivity, disease activity, and most drug...

  4. The Anti-Cancer Effect of Polyphenols against Breast Cancer and Cancer Stem Cells: Molecular Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdal Dayem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of breast cancer in developed and developing countries, and its correlation to cancer-related deaths, has prompted concerned scientists to discover novel alternatives to deal with this challenge. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of polyphenol structures and classifications, as well as on the carcinogenic process. The biology of breast cancer cells will also be discussed. The molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-cancer activities of numerous polyphenols, against a wide range of breast cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo, will be explained in detail. The interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in the anti-cancer activity of polyphenols will also be highlighted. In addition, the potential of polyphenols to target cancer stem cells (CSCs via various mechanisms will be explained. Recently, the use of natural products as chemotherapeutics and chemopreventive drugs to overcome the side effects and resistance that arise from using chemical-based agents has garnered the attention of the scientific community. Polyphenol research is considered a promising field in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer.

  5. Pathology of hereditary breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    van der Groep, Petra; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 accounting for about 5% of all breast cancers. Other genes that include CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, STK11/LKB1, CDH1, NBS1, RAD50, BRIP1 and PALB2 have been described to be high or moderate penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes, all contributing to the hereditary breast cancer spe...

  6. Pregnancy-associated Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Ashley S

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer refers to breast cancer that is diagnosed during pregnancy or within the first postpartum year. The incidence is increasing as more women delay childbearing. Breast cancer can be safely diagnosed, staged, and treated during pregnancy while protecting the fetus and mother with excellent outcomes for both. Avoiding diagnostic delays is vital to prognosis. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, staging, management, and prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Relevant current literature is reviewed.

  7. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  8. Cancer Chemoprevention Effects of Ginger and its Active Constituents: Potential for New Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Qi, Lian-Wen; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Ginger is a commonly used spice and herbal medicine worldwide. Besides its extensive use as a condiment, ginger has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the management of various medical conditions. In recent years, ginger has received wide attention due to its observed antiemetic and anticancer activities. This paper reviews the potential role of ginger and its active constituents in cancer chemoprevention. The phytochemistry, bioactivity, and molecular targets of ginger constituents, especially 6-shogaol, are discussed. The content of 6-shogaol is very low in fresh ginger, but significantly higher after steaming. With reported anti-cancer activities, 6-shogaol can be served as a lead compound for new drug discovery. The lead compound derivative synthesis, bioactivity evaluation, and computational docking provide a promising opportunity to identify novel anticancer compounds originating from ginger.

  9. Preclinical Cancer Chemoprevention Studies Using Animal Model of Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Takuji [Cytopatholgy Division, Tohkai Cytopathology Institute, Cancer Research and Prevention (TCI-CaRP), 5-1-2 Minami-uzura, Gifu 500-8285 (Japan); Department of Tumor Pathology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan)

    2012-07-16

    Inflammation is involved in all stages of carcinogenesis. Inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease is a longstanding inflammatory disease of intestine with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Several molecular events involved in chronic inflammatory process are reported to contribute to multi-step carcinogenesis of CRC in the inflamed colon. They include over-production of free radicals, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, up-regulation of inflammatory enzymes in arachidonic acid biosynthesis pathway, up-regulation of certain cytokines, and intestinal immune system dysfunction. In this article, firstly I briefly introduce our experimental animal models where colorectal neoplasms rapidly develop in the inflamed colorectum. Secondary, data on preclinical cancer chemoprevention studies of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis by morin, bezafibrate, and valproic acid, using this novel inflammation-related colorectal carcinogenesis model is described.

  10. Development of novel cancer chemopreventive agents in Europe--neglected Cinderella or rising phoenix? A critical commentary. ESF Workshop on Cancer Chemoprevention, DKFZ, Heidelberg, September 18-20, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhauser, Clarissa; Bartsch, Helmut; Crowell, James; De Flora, Silvio; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Dittrich, Christian; Frank, Norbert; Mihich, Enrico; Steffen, Christian; Tortora, Giampaolo; Gescher, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Agents that prevent cancer, delay its onset, or revert premalignant conditions could have dramatic beneficial impacts on human health. Although there is an urgent need to develop cancer chemopreventive agents, researchers in the field suspect that this area of scientific endeavour in Europe leads a Cinderella existence, both in terms of perception of importance and research funding. In order to review current activities in this prevention field and to seek a consensus position, an exploratory workshop was held in September 2005 at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg, Germany, sponsored mainly by the European Science Foundation (ESF), and also supported by the European Association for Cancer Research (EACR) and the German Cancer Society (DKG). The 35 experts from European countries and the United States of America assessed state-of-the-art cancer chemoprevention research in Europe. The aims that the workshop organizers had pre-defined were: i) assessment of the usefulness of animal models for agent identification; ii) review of ongoing preclinical and clinical work on novel agents; iii) discussion of potential biomarkers predictive for cancer preventive efficacy; and finally iv) the potential role that European pharmaceutical industries could play in furthering chemopreventive agent development. Overall the workshop aimed at raising awareness among European clinical and laboratory researchers of the importance of the development of novel, efficacious and safe cancer preventive agents.

  11. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  12. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jennrich; Claus Schulte-Uebbing

    2016-01-01

    Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includ...

  13. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-08

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  14. The use of natural compounds for the targeting and chemoprevention of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistollato, Francesca; Calderón Iglesias, Ruben; Ruiz, Roberto; Aparicio, Silvia; Crespo, Jorge; Dzul Lopez, Luis; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2017-12-28

    Among gynaecological cancers, ovarian cancer represents the leading cause of death in women. Current treatment for ovarian cancer entails surgery followed by combined chemotherapy with platinum and taxane, which are associated, particularly cisplatin, with severe side effects. While this treatment approach appears to be initially effective in a high number of patients, nearly 70% of them suffer a relapse within a few months after initial treatment. Therefore, more effective and better-tolerated treatment options are clearly needed. In recent years, several natural compounds (such as curcumin, epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), resveratrol, sulforaphane and Withaferin-A), characterized by long-term safety and negligible and/or inexistent side effects, have been proposed as possible adjuvants of traditional chemotherapy. Indeed, several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that phytocompounds can effectively inhibit tumor cell proliferation, stimulate autophagy, induce apoptosis, and specifically target ovarian cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are generally considered to be responsible for tumor recurrence in several types of cancer. Here we review current literature on the role of natural products in ovarian cancer chemoprevention, highlighting their effects particularly on the regulation of inflammation, autophagy, proliferation and apoptosis, chemotherapy resistance, and ovarian CSC growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Polyphenolic Nutrients in Cancer Chemoprevention and Metastasis: Role of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal (EMT) Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amawi, Haneen; Ashby, Charles R; Samuel, Temesgen; Peraman, Ramalingam; Tiwari, Amit K

    2017-08-21

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has received significant interest as a novel target in cancer prevention, metastasis, and resistance. The conversion of cells from an epithelial, adhesive state to a mesenchymal, motile state is one of the key events in the development of cancer metastasis. Polyphenols have been reported to be efficacious in the prevention of cancer and reversing cancer progression. Recently, the antimetastatic efficacy of polyphenols has been reported, thereby expanding the potential use of these compounds beyond chemoprevention. Polyphenols may affect EMT pathways, which are involved in cancer metastasis; for example, polyphenols increase the levels of epithelial markers, but downregulate the mesenchymal markers. Polyphenols also alter the level of expression and functionality of important proteins in other signaling pathways that control cellular mesenchymal characteristics. However, the specific proteins that are directly affected by polyphenols in these signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. The aim of this review is to analyze current evidence regarding the role of polyphenols in attenuating EMT-mediated cancer progression and metastasis. We also discuss the role of the most important polyphenol subclasses and members of the polyphenols in reversing metastasis and targeting EMT. Finally, limitations and future directions to improve our understanding in this field are discussed.

  16. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  17. Cytokines, Neovascularization and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Rationale Angiogenesis is important in the growth and metastases of human breast cancer . We hypothesize that this process is under the control of...staining patern seen in invasive cancer , in situ cancer , and benign breast tissue. Note that staining was graded as the most intensly staining area. The...blocked, tumors do not grow or metastasize . The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that breast cancer cells are capable of participating in this

  18. Hormone therapy for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of benefits: Taking Tamoxifen for 5 years after breast cancer surgery cuts the chance of cancer coming back by half. Some studies show that taking it for 10 years may work even better. It reduces the risk that cancer ...

  19. Role of natural phenolic compounds in cancer chemoprevention via regulation of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Samineh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenolic compounds have been considered as one of the interesting secondary metabolites for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects in cancer for a long time. These are a large and diverse family of phytochemicals classified into several subgroups such as simple phenols, lignans, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, etc. The antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds is almost bolded in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Due to the concerns on the diverse effects of antioxidants in cancer, differentiation and clarification of their anti-neoplastic mechanisms are necessary. An important mechanism for phenolic compounds is related to their direct effect on the cell cycle progression, which has not been discussed in detail so far. This study aims to criticize the evidence on regulatory mechanisms of phenolic compounds in the cell cycle. Recent studies indicate that phenolic compounds from several subgroups significantly inhibit the proliferation of different cancer cells. The structural diversity of these compounds influences various components involved in cell cycle regulation. Forming active metabolites and sensitizing cancerous cells to chemotherapeutic medicines are additional values of these compounds. In the recent years, many studies on neoplastic cell cultures have been carried out to investigate the mechanisms of action of these compounds but dissimilarity of in vitro systems in comparison with human body in terms of metabolism and bioavailability is a major concern. Therefore, further studies are still needed.

  20. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  1. Cancer chemoprevention by citrus pulp and juices containing high amounts of β-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Tanaka, Mayu; Kuno, Toshiya

    2012-01-01

    β-Cryptoxanthin, a carotenoid, and hesperidin, a flavonoid, possess inhibitory effects on carcinogenesis in several tissues. We recently have prepared a pulp (CHRP) and citrus juices (MJ2 and MJ5) from a satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Mar.) juice (MJ). They contain high amounts of β-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin. We have demonstrated that CHRP and/or MJs inhibit chemically induced rat colon, rat tongue, and mouse lung tumorigenesis. Gavage with CHRP resulted in an increase of activities of detoxifying enzymes in the liver, colon, and tongue rats'. CHRP and MJs were also able to suppress the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory enzymes in the target tissues. This paper describes the findings of our in vivo preclinical experiments to develop a strategy for cancer chemoprevention of colon, tongue, and lung neoplasms by use of CHRP and MJs.

  2. Biomedical properties of edible seaweed in cancer therapy and chemoprevention trials: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namvar, Farideh; Tahir, Paridah M d; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Mahdavi, Mahnaz; Abedi, Parvin; Najafi, Tahereh Fathi; Rahmanand, Heshu Sulaiman; Jawaid, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    This review article summarizes in vitro and in vivo experiments on seaweed anticancer activity and seaweed chemical components. Seaweed use in cancer therapy, chemopreventive randomized control trials (RCTs) and quasi-experiments are discussed. The literature reviewed in this article was obtained from various scientific sources and encompasses publications from 2000-2012. Seaweed therapeutic effects were deemed scientifically plausible and may be partially explained by the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological studies described. Although the mechanisms of action remain unclear, seaweed's anticancer properties may be attributable to its major biologically active metabolites. Much of the seaweed research outlined in this paper can serve as a foundation for explaining seaweed anticancer bioactivity. This review will open doors for developing strategies to treat malignancies using seaweed natural products.

  3. Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer chemoprevention: A role for nicotinamide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Rashi; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2018-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) causes DNA damage in melanocytes by producing photolesions such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine. The production of reactive oxygen species by UVR also induces inflammatory cytokines that, together with the inherent immunosuppressive properties of UVR, propagate carcinogenesis. Nicotinamide (Vitamin B 3 ) enhances DNA repair, modulates the inflammatory environment produced by UVR, and reduces UV-induced immunosuppression. As nicotinamide reduces the incidence of actinic keratoses and nonmelanoma skin cancers in high-risk individuals and enhances repair of DNA damage in melanocytes, it is a promising agent for the chemoprevention of melanoma in high-risk populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cancer Chemoprevention by Citrus Pulp and Juices Containing High Amounts of β-Cryptoxanthin and Hesperidin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Tanaka, Mayu; Kuno, Toshiya

    2012-01-01

    β-Cryptoxanthin, a carotenoid, and hesperidin, a flavonoid, possess inhibitory effects on carcinogenesis in several tissues. We recently have prepared a pulp (CHRP) and citrus juices (MJ2 and MJ5) from a satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Mar.) juice (MJ). They contain high amounts of β-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin. We have demonstrated that CHRP and/or MJs inhibit chemically induced rat colon, rat tongue, and mouse lung tumorigenesis. Gavage with CHRP resulted in an increase of activities of detoxifying enzymes in the liver, colon, and tongue rats'. CHRP and MJs were also able to suppress the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory enzymes in the target tissues. This paper describes the findings of our in vivo preclinical experiments to develop a strategy for cancer chemoprevention of colon, tongue, and lung neoplasms by use of CHRP and MJs. PMID:22174562

  5. Cancer Chemoprevention by Citrus Pulp and Juices Containing High Amounts of β-Cryptoxanthin and Hesperidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Cryptoxanthin, a carotenoid, and hesperidin, a flavonoid, possess inhibitory effects on carcinogenesis in several tissues. We recently have prepared a pulp (CHRP and citrus juices (MJ2 and MJ5 from a satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Mar. juice (MJ. They contain high amounts of β-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin. We have demonstrated that CHRP and/or MJs inhibit chemically induced rat colon, rat tongue, and mouse lung tumorigenesis. Gavage with CHRP resulted in an increase of activities of detoxifying enzymes in the liver, colon, and tongue rats'. CHRP and MJs were also able to suppress the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory enzymes in the target tissues. This paper describes the findings of our in vivo preclinical experiments to develop a strategy for cancer chemoprevention of colon, tongue, and lung neoplasms by use of CHRP and MJs.

  6. Breast cancer and flavonoids - a role in prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Hitomi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous estrogens, such as 17β-estradiol (E2), are implicated in the development of breast cancer. The putative mechanisms by which estrogens exert the carcinogenic effects have been recognized to involve the redox cycling of estrogen metabolites and subsequent estrogen-DNA adduct formation as well as the estrogen receptor-dependent pathway of estrogen-induced cell growth. The former pathway is regulated by phase I enzymes, mainly cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1. Among them, CYP1B1 predominantly catalyzes the C4-position of E2 and forms carcinogenic 4-hydroxy-E2 (4-OHE2), whereas CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 convert E2 to noncarcinogenic 2-hydroxy-E2. Formed 4-OHE2 is further oxidized to semiquinones and quinones, which form DNA adducts, leading to mutagenic lesions. Consequently, CYP1B1 is highly expressed, and 4-OHE2 is predominantly detected in estrogen target neoplastic tissues. Moreover, invasion and metastasis are also involved in the development of breast cancer. Epidemiological studies suggest an inverse association between a higher intake of flavonoids and breast cancer risk. Flavonoids, which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, have been recently reported as candidate compounds that can exert chemopreventive effects in estrogen-dependent or independent breast cancer. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of breast cancer and chemoprevention by flavonoids, mainly focusing on ER-mediated hormonal regulation, redox cycling of estrogen metabolites, and selective inhibition of CYP1B1.

  7. Breast cancer risk assessment by Gail Model in women of Baghdad

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salam Hussein Ewaid

    2016-09-22

    Sep 22, 2016 ... Tierney LM, McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA. Current medical diag- · nosis and treatment. 44th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005. p. 682–4. 32.. Rockhill B, Spiegelman D, Byrne C, et al. Validation of the Gail · et al. Model of breast cancer risk prediction and implications for · chemoprevention. J Natl Cancer Inst ...

  8. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  9. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nodes . The axillary nodes are the first place breast cancer is likely to spread. During breast surgery, some ... if cancer cells are present. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. So, it is more ...

  10. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  11. Chemoprevention Against Breast Cancer with Genistein and Resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Factor Insulin receptor Insr Sex Steroid/Growth Factor VEGF receptor 2 Kdr Sex Steroid/Growth Factor Leptin Lep Sex Steroid/Growth Factor Leptin ...that daily administration of resveratrol (20 mg/kg) had no effect on final body weights or on the tissue weights of the lungs, heart, liver, kidney , or...adrenal glands [17]. Like- wise, Hirose et al. showed no differences in body, liver, or kidney weights after treatment with green tea catechins in the

  12. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  13. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  14. Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Natascia; Woditschka, Stephan; Reed, L. Tiffany; Nakayama, Joji; Mayer, Musa; Wetzel, Maria; Steeg, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite important progress in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies, metastatic disease often develops in breast cancer patients and remains the leading cause of their deaths. For patients with established metastatic disease, therapy is palliative, with few breaks and with mounting adverse effects. Many have hypothesized that a personalized or precision approach (the terms are used interchangeably) to cancer therapy, in which treatment is based on the individual characteristics of each patient, will provide better outcomes. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of breast cancer metastasis and the challenges in personalization of treatment. The instability of metastatic tumors remains a leading obstacle to personalization, because information from a patient’s primary tumor may not accurately reflect the metastasis, and one metastasis may vary from another. Furthermore, the variable presence of tumor subpopulations, such as stem cells and dormant cells, may increase the complexity of the targeted treatments needed. Although molecular signatures and circulating biomarkers have been identified in breast cancer, there is lack of validated predictive molecular markers to optimize treatment choices for either prevention or treatment of metastatic disease. Finally, to maximize the information that can be obtained, increased attention to clinical trial design in the metastasis preventive setting is needed. PMID:23895915

  15. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing

  16. Identification and management of women with a family history of breast cancer: Practical guide for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisey, Ruth; Carroll, June C

    2016-10-01

    To summarize the best evidence on strategies to identify and manage women with a family history of breast cancer. A PubMed search was conducted using the search terms breast cancer, guidelines, risk, family history, management, and magnetic resonance imaging screening from 2000 to 2016. Most evidence is level II. Taking a good family history is essential when assessing breast cancer risk in order to identify women suitable for referral to a genetic counselor for possible genetic testing. Offering risk-reducing surgery (bilateral prophylactic mastectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) to women with BRCA genetic mutations can save lives. All women with a family history of breast cancer should be encouraged to stay active and limit alcohol intake to less than 1 drink per day; some will qualify for chemoprevention. Women with a 20% to 25% or greater lifetime risk of breast cancer should be offered enhanced screening with annual magnetic resonance imaging in addition to mammography. Healthy living and chemoprevention (for suitable women) could reduce breast cancer incidence; enhanced screening could result in earlier detection. Referring women who carry BRCA mutations for risk-reducing surgery will save lives. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  17. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  18. Inflammatory breast cancer in accessory abdominal breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. Miles, MD, MPH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accessory breast tissue results from failure of the embryologic mammary ridge, also known as the milk line, to involute. As a result, ectopic breast tissue can develop anywhere along this ridge, which extends from the axilla—the most common location—to the groin. Primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue is uncommon but has been reported in multiple prior studies. We present a rare case of inflammatory breast cancer presenting in upper abdominal accessory breast tissue in women with a personal history of ipsilateral breast cancer, and highlight the challenges of both diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in accessory breast tissue.

  19. Bisphosphonates for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, N; Schmidt, Rl; Stockler, M

    2005-07-20

    Bone is the most common site of metastatic disease associated with breast cancer affecting more than half of women during the course of their disease. Bone metastases are a significant cause of morbidity due to pain, pathological fractures, hypercalcaemia and spinal cord compression, and contribute to mortality. Bisphosphonates, which inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, are standard care for tumour-associated hypercalcaemia, and have been shown to reduce bone pain, improve quality of life, and to delay skeletal events and reduce their number in patients with multiple myeloma. Several randomized controlled trials have evaluated the role of bisphosphonates in breast cancer. To assess the effect of bisphosphonates on skeletal events, bone pain, quality of life and survival in women with early and advanced breast cancer. Randomized controlled trials were identified using the specialized register maintained by the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group (the search was applied to the databases Medline, Central/CCTR, Embase, CancerLit, and included handsearches from a number of other relevant sources). See: Cochrane Collaboration Collaborative Review Group in Breast Cancer search strategy. Randomized controlled trials evaluating skeletal events in women with metastatic breast cancer and early breast cancer comparing: 1. treatment with a bisphosphonate with the same treatment without a bisphosphonate 2. treatment with one bisphosphonate with treatment with a different bisphosphonate. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers. Studies fulfilling the eligibility criteria were evaluated for quality, particularly concealment of allocation to randomized groups. Data were extracted from the published papers or abstracts independently by the two primary reviewers for each of the specified endpoints (skeletal events, bone pain, quality of life and survival). Data on skeletal events and survival were presented as numbers of events, risk ratios and ratios of event rates

  20. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  1. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  2. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  3. Cancer statistics: Breast cancer in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Elizabeth M; DeSantis, Carol E; Lin, Chun Chieh; Kramer, Joan L; Jemal, Ahmedin; Kohler, Betsy; Brawley, Otis W; Gansler, Ted

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 60,290 new cases of breast carcinoma in situ are expected to be diagnosed in 2015, and approximately 1 in 33 women is likely to receive an in situ breast cancer diagnosis in her lifetime. Although in situ breast cancers are relatively common, their clinical significance and optimal treatment are topics of uncertainty and concern for both patients and clinicians. In this article, the American Cancer Society provides information about occurrence and treatment patterns for the 2 major subtypes of in situ breast cancer in the United States-ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ-using data from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and the 13 oldest Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries. The authors also present an overview of in situ breast cancer detection, treatment, risk factors, and prevention and discuss research needs and initiatives. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  4. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  5. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  6. Chemotherapy and Chemoprevention by Thiazolidinediones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Fröhlich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are synthetic ligands of Peroxisome-Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ. Troglitazone, rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone have been approved for treatment of diabetes mellitus type II. All three compounds, together with the first TZD ciglitazone, also showed an antitumor effect in preclinical studies and a beneficial effect in some clinical trials. This review summarizes hypotheses on the role of PPARγ in tumors, on cellular targets of TZDs, antitumor effects of monotherapy and of TZDs in combination with other compounds, with a focus on their role in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The results of chemopreventive effects of TZDs are also considered. Existing data suggest that the action of TZDs is highly complex and that actions do not correlate with cellular PPARγ expression status. Effects are cell-, species-, and compound-specific and concentration-dependent. Data from human trials suggest the efficacy of TZDs as monotherapy in prostate cancer and glioma and as chemopreventive agent in colon, lung, and breast cancer. TZDs in combination with other therapies might increase antitumor effects in thyroid cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, and melanoma.

  7. Natural Products as a Vital Source for the Discovery of Cancer Chemotherapeutic and Chemopreventive Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Gordon M; Pezzuto, John M

    2016-01-01

    Throughout history, natural products have played a dominant role in the treatment of human ailments. For example, the legendary discovery of penicillin transformed global existence. Presently, natural products comprise a large portion of current-day pharmaceutical agents, most notably in the area of cancer therapy. Examples include Taxol, vinblastine, and camptothecin. These structurally unique agents function by novel mechanisms of action; isolation from natural sources is the only plausible method that could have led to their discovery. In addition to terrestrial plants as sources for starting materials, the marine environment (e.g., ecteinascidin 743, halichondrin B, and dolastatins), microbes (e.g., bleomycin, doxorubicin, and staurosporin), and slime molds (e.g., epothilone B) have yielded remarkable cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Irrespective of these advances, cancer remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Undoubtedly, the prevention of human cancer is highly preferable to treatment. Cancer chemoprevention, the use of vaccines or pharmaceutical agents to inhibit, retard, or reverse the process of carcinogenesis, is another important approach for easing this formidable public health burden. Similar to cancer chemotherapeutic agents, natural products play an important role in this field. There are many examples, including dietary phytochemicals such as sulforaphane and phenethyl isothiocyanate (cruciferous vegetables) and resveratrol (grapes and grape products). Overall, natural product research is a powerful approach for discovering biologically active compounds with unique structures and mechanisms of action. Given the unfathomable diversity of nature, it is reasonable to suggest that chemical leads can be generated that are capable of interacting with most or possibly all therapeutic targets. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Chemoprevention targets for tobacco-related head and neck cancer: past lessons and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Siddharth H; Johnson, Daniel E; Kensler, Thomas W; Bauman, Julie E

    2015-06-01

    Progress toward identifying an effective chemopreventive agent to reduce the incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has been limited by poor efficacy and intolerable toxicity profiles. In this review, we summarize the biological basis of HNSCC chemoprevention, and outline challenges associated with identifying appropriate high-risk HNSCC populations for chemoprevention studies. We discuss findings and lessons learned from clinical trials that have investigated micronutrient and molecular targeting interventions. Finally, we introduce the concept of green chemoprevention, interventions based upon whole plant foods or simple extracts that may represent a safe and cost-conscious option for the next generation of studies. As our scientific understanding of HNSCC reaches new levels, the field is poised to develop chemoprevention studies based on rigorous biological validation with accessibility to all affected individuals regardless of socioeconomic barriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Breast cancer statistics and markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Siva Donepudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO 2012. Here, the review is been focused on different breast cancer markers, that is, tissue markers (hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor-2, urokinase plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, p53 and cathepsin D, genetic markers (BRAC1 and 2 and gene expression microarray technique, etc., and serum markers (CA 15.3, BR 27.29, MCA, CA 549, carcinoembryonic antigen, oncoproteins, and cytokeratins used in present diagnosis, but none of the mentioned markers can diagnose breast cancer at an early stage. There is a disquieting need for the identification of best diagnosing marker, which can be able to diagnose even in early stage of breast carcinogenesis.

  10. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  11. Azadirachta indica exhibits chemopreventive action against hepatic cancer: Studies on associated histopathological and ultrastructural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Sanjay; Rishi, Praveen; Koul, Ashwani

    2012-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the anticarcinogenic potential of Azadirachta indica against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Further, the associated histopathological and ultrastructural changes were also analyzed. Hepatic cancer model was developed by the intraperitoneal administration of NDEA to mice at weekly intervals, in successive increasing doses, for a period of 8 weeks. Aqueous A. indica leaf extract (AAILE) was administered orally at a dosage of 100 μg/g body weight thrice a week till termination of the study. A relationship between histopathological grading and chemopreventive effect of A. indica had been established at various stages of carcinogenesis. Anticancer activity of A. indica was evaluated in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and survival rate. A significant reduction in tumor incidence (33%), tumor multiplicity (42%), and increase in survival (34%) was observed upon administration of AAILE to NDEA-abused mice. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic investigations showed severe alterations in organelle organization, cellular arrangement, degree of differentiation, cellular metabolism, and morphology of the hepatocytes. These changes appeared to be distinctly delayed upon AAILE supplementation. The results suggest A. indica may have anticancer potential against NDEA-induced hepatic cancer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Chemopreventive Effects of Oplopantriol A, a Novel Compound Isolated from Oplopanax horridus, on Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyu Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oplopanax horridus is a North American botanical that has received limited investigations. We previously isolated over a dozen of the constituents from O. horridus, and among them oplopantriol A (OPT A is a novel compound. In this study, we firstly evaluated the in vivo chemoprevention activities of OPT A using the xenograft colon cancer mouse model. Our data showed that this compound significantly suppressed tumor growth with dose-related effects (p < 0.01. Next, we characterized the compound’s growth inhibitory effects in human colorectal cancer cell lines HCT-116 and SW-480. With OPT A treatment, these malignant cells were significantly inhibited in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner (both p < 0.01. The IC50 was approximately 5 µM for HCT-116 and 7 µM for SW-480 cells. OPT A significantly induced apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. From further mechanism explorations, our data showed that OPT A significantly upregulated the expression of a cluster of genes, especially the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and caspase family, suggesting that the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptotic pathway plays a key role in OPT A induced apoptosis.

  13. Antiproliferative and chemopreventive effects of adlay seed on lung cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Chiu; Huang, Yu-Chun; Hung, Wen-Chun

    2003-06-04

    This study examined the effects of different extracts of adlay seed on the growth of human lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The data showed that a methanolic extract, but not a water extract, of adlay seed exerted an antiproliferative effect on A549 lung cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. It was also found that tumor growth in vivo was inhibited by the methanolic extract in a dose-dependent manner. The chemopreventive effect of adlay seed on the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice was also investigated. Groups of mice were pre-fed with different diets, followed by feeding with NNK-containing drinking water for 8 months. The results indicated that feeding with diet containing 30% of powdered adlay seed reduced the number of surface lung tumors by approximately 50%. Taken together, these results indicate that the components of adlay seed exert an anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo and may be useful for the prevention of lung tumorigenesis.

  14. Evaluation of selected lichens from iceland for cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingólfsdóttir, K; Kook Lee, S; Bhat, K P; Lee, K; Chai, H B; Kristinsson, H; Song, L L; Gills, J; Gudmundsdóttir, J T; Mata-Greenwood, E; Jang, M S; Pezzuto, J M

    2000-01-01

    Cancer chemopreventive effects of organic extracts from 29 species of lichens collected in Iceland were evaluated using a panel of in vitro bioassays whereby extracts were tested for potential to induce quinone reductase (QR) and differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells, inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), phorbol ester-induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), aromatase and sulfatase, as well as for antioxidant, estrogenic/anti-estrogenic and antiproliferative activity. In addition, the extracts were tested for cytotoxicity against 12 cancer cell lines. The most significant results were exhibited by extracts from Xanthoria elegans and Alectoria nigricans , which respectively, induced QR activity (concentration to double activity = 4.8 µg/ml) and inhibited phorbol ester-induced ODC activity with mouse 308 cells in culture (IC 50 = 2.6 µg/ml). Moderate inhibition of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation with HL-60 cells was exhibited by the Peltigera leucophlebia extract. Several extracts prevented estrogen formation from estrogen precursors by inhibiting the enzymatic activities of aromatase ( Sphaerophorus globosus , Cetrariella delisei , Melanelia hepatizon ) and sulfatase ( Cladonia gracilis , Sphaerophorus fragilis , S. globosus ). None of the extracts demonstrated significant cytotoxic effects with selected cell lines.

  15. Fractionation of polyphenol-enriched apple juice extracts to identify constituents with cancer chemopreventive potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zessner, Henriette; Pan, Lydia; Will, Frank; Klimo, Karin; Knauft, Jutta; Niewöhner, Regina; Hümmer, Wolfgang; Owen, Robert; Richling, Elke; Frank, Norbert; Schreier, Peter; Becker, Hans; Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2008-06-01

    Apples and apple juices are widely consumed and rich sources of phytochemicals. The aim of the present study was to determine which apple constituents contribute to potential chemopreventive activities, using a bioactivity-directed approach. A polyphenol-enriched apple juice extract was fractionated by various techniques. Extract and fractions were tested in a series of test systems indicative of cancer preventive potential. These test systems measured antioxidant effects, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, anti-inflammatory and antihormonal activities, and antiproliferative potential. Regression analyses indicated that 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging potential correlated with the sum of low molecular weight (LMW) antioxidants (including chlorogenic acid, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols) and procyanidins, whereas peroxyl radicals were more effectively scavenged by LMW compounds than by procyanidins. Quercetin aglycone was identified as a potent Cyp1A inhibitor, whereas phloretin and (-)-epicatechin were the most potent cyclooxygenase 1 (Cox-1) inhibitors. Aromatase and Cyp1A inhibitory potential and cytotoxicity toward HCT116 colon cancer cells increased with increasing content in procyanidins. Overall, apple juice constituents belonging to different structural classes have distinct profiles of biological activity in these in vitro test systems. Since carcinogenesis is a complex process, combination of compounds with complementary activities may lead to enhanced preventive effects.

  16. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  17. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  19. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before age 12) or reached menopause late (after age 55). Breast cancer is more common among women who • Are older • ... 40. If you are at high risk for breast cancer, you should get an annual mammogram beginning at age 40. Talk with your provider about other screening ...

  20. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  1. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...

  2. Histopathological Types of Breast Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morin”. On the average it represents the prevalence of breast cancer in southern part of Nigeria. The mean age of diagnosis of breast cancer in females in our series was 45.7 years. This age compares favourably With the mean age in other parts of Nigeria. In Calabar, South — South. Nigeria the mean age was found to be ...

  3. Do fatty breasts increase or decrease breast cancer risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, John A; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2012-01-25

    Few studies have investigated the association of non-dense area or fatty breasts in conjunction with breast density and breast cancer risk. Two articles in a recent issue of Breast Cancer Research investigate the role of absolute non-dense breast area measured on mammograms and find conflicting results: one article finds that non-dense breast area has a modest positive association with breast cancer risk, whereas the other finds that non-dense breast area has a strong protective effect to reduce breast cancer risk. Understanding the interplay of body mass index, menopause status, and measurement of non-dense breast area would help to clarify the contribution of non-dense breast area to breast cancer risk.

  4. The molecular mechanism of action of aspirin, curcumin and sulforaphane combinations in the chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Arvind; Sutaria, Dhruvitkumar; Grandhi, B Karthik; Wang, Jeffrey; Prabhu, Sunil

    2013-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer ranks as the fourth most deadly form of cancer in the United States with ~37,000 deaths each year. The present study evaluated the chemopreventive potential of a combination of aspirin (ASP), curcumin (CUR) and sulforaphane (SFN) in low doses to human pancreatic cancer cells, MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1. Results demonstrated that low doses of ASP (1 mM), CUR (10 µM) and SFN (5 µM) (ACS) combination reduced cell viability by ~70% (Pmechanisms.

  5. Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MO, Eggleston IM. The cancer chemopreventive actions of phytochemicals derived from glucosinolates. European Journal of Nutrition 2008; ... vegetables and risk of breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. JAMA 2001;285(6):769- ...

  6. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  7. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  8. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  9. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  10. A novel combinatorial nanotechnology-based oral chemopreventive regimen demonstrates significant suppression of pancreatic cancer neoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandhi, B Karthik; Thakkar, Arvind; Wang, Jeffrey; Prabhu, Sunil

    2013-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease killing 37,000 Americans each year. Despite two decades of research on treatment options, the chances of survival are still less than 5% upon diagnosis. Recently, chemopreventive strategies have gained considerable attention as an alternative to treatment. We have previously shown significant in vitro chemopreventive effects with low-dose combinations of aspirin, curcumin, and sulforaphane (ACS) on pancreatic cancer cell lines. Here, we report the results of 24-week chemopreventive study with the oral administration of ACS combinations on the N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine (BOP)-treated Syrian golden hamster model to suppress the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanIN) using unmodified (free drug) combinations of ACS, and nanoencapsulated (solid lipid nanoparticles; SLN) combinations of aspirin, curcumin, and free sulforaphane. The use of three different doses (low, medium, and high) of unmodified ACS combinations exhibited reduction in tumor incidence by 18%, 50%, and 68.7% respectively; whereas the modified nanoencapsulated ACS regimens reduced tumor incidence by 33%, 67%, and 75%, respectively, at 10 times lower dose compared with the free drug combinations. Similarly, although the unmodified free ACS showed a notable reduction in cell proliferation, the SLN encapsulated ACS regimens showed significant reduction in cell proliferation at 6.3%, 58.6%, and 72.8% as evidenced by proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression. Cell apoptotic indices were also upregulated by 1.5, 2.8, and 3.2 times, respectively, compared with BOP control. These studies provide a proof-of-concept for the use of an oral, low-dose, nanotechnology-based combinatorial regimen for the long-term chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer.

  11. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  12. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Assessing Affect Reactivity and Regulation in Patients With Stage 0-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    Healthy Subject; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa J.; Bronskill, Michael; Yaffe, Martin J.; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon

    2010-01-01

    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associated with variations in breast density, and the biological plausibility of the associations with risk of breast cancer. We also discuss the potential for improved risk prediction that might be achieved by using alternative breast imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound. After adjustment for other risk factors, breast density is consistently associated with breast cancer risk, more strongly than most other risk factors for this disease, and extensive breast density may account for a substantial fraction of breast cancer. Breast density is associated with risk of all of the proliferative lesions that are thought to be precursors of breast cancer. Studies of twins have shown that breast density is a highly heritable quantitative trait. Associations between breast density and variations in breast histology, risk of proliferative breast lesions, and risk of breast cancer may be the result of exposures of breast tissue to both mitogens and mutagens. Characterization of breast density by mammography has several limitations, and the uses of breast density in risk prediction and breast cancer prevention may be improved by other methods of imaging, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound tomography. PMID:20616353

  14. Exercise in Targeting Metabolic Dysregulation in Stage I-III Breast or Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Cancer Survivor; No Evidence of Disease; Obesity; Overweight; Prostate Carcinoma; Sedentary Lifestyle; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Exercise Intervention in Targeting Adiposity and Inflammation With Movement to Improve Prognosis in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-18

    Cancer Survivor; Central Obesity; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  16. The chemomodulatory effects of resveratrol and didox on herceptin cytotoxicity in breast cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Ghada A. Abdel-Latif; Ahmed M. Al-Abd; Mariane G. Tadros; Fahad A. Al-Abbasi; Amany E. Khalifa; Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim

    2015-01-01

    Herceptin is considered an essential treatment option for double negative breast cancer. Resveratrol and didox are known chemopreventive agents with potential anticancer properties. The aim of the current study is to investigate the influence of resveratrol and didox on the cytotoxicity profile of herceptin in HER-2 receptor positive and HER-2 receptor negative breast cancer cell lines (T47D and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively). The IC50?s of herceptin in T47D and MCF-7 were 0.133???0.005?ng/m...

  17. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  18. Preliminary evaluation for cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic potential of naturally growing ethnobotanically selected plants of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan-ul-Haq; Mirza, Bushra; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Park, Eun-Jung; Burns, Brittany E; Marler, Laura E; Pezzuto, John M

    2013-03-01

    Natural products are a very productive source of leads for the development of medicines. Six Pakistani plants were chosen for study based on ethnobotanical data. Exploration of important medicinal plants of Pakistan for cancer treatment. The crude extracts of the six plants and their fractions were tested for inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NFκB), aromatase, and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, induction of quinone reductase 1 (QR1), agonism of retinoid X receptor, and growth inhibition with MCF-7, LU-1 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Two samples of Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal (Solanaceae) demonstrated inhibition of TNF-α induced activity of NFκB with IC₅₀ values of 2.6 and 4.3 µg/mL, respectively. Two fractions from W. coagulans and Euphorbia wallichii Hook F. (Euphorbiaceae) aerial parts inhibited aromatase with IC₅₀ values of 17.0 and 17.7 µg/mL, respectively. A total of 13 samples (five from E. wallichii, one from Acer oblongifolium Hort. ex Dippel (Aceraceae), one from Aster thomsonii C. B. Clarke (Asteraceae) and six from W. coagulans aerial parts with fruits) inhibited NO production with IC₅₀ values ranging from 1.3 to 15.6 µg/mL. Fourteen samples demonstrated induction of QR1 with CD ranging from 1.0 to 20.6 µg/mL, and a total of eight extracts and fractions inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells in culture with IC₅₀ values ranging from 1.2 to 7.8 µg/mL. Selected plants can be a valuable source of chemopreventive and anticancer products. W. coagulans aerial parts showed the strongest activity.

  19. Chemoprevention of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V.; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in drug discovery programs and molecular approaches for identifying the drug targets, incidence and mortality rates due to melanoma continues to rise at an alarming rate. Existing preventive strategies generally involve mole screening followed by surgical removal of the benign nevi and abnormal moles. However, due to lack of effective programs for screening and disease recurrence after surgical resection there is a need for better chemopreventive agents. Although sunscreens have been used extensively for protecting from UV-induced skin cancer, results of correlative population based studies are controversial, requiring further authentication to conclusively confirm the chemoprotective efficacy of sunscreens. Certain studies suggest increased skin-cancer rates in sunscreen users. Therefore, effective chemopreventive agents for preventing melanoma are urgently required. This book-chapter, reviews the current understanding regarding melanoma chemoprevention and the various strategies used to accomplish this objective. PMID:22959032

  20. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  1. Clinical Characteristics in Patients with Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Yeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the clinical characteristics of the triple negative breast cancer (TNBC and non-TNBC patients, with a particular focus on genetic susceptibility and risk factors prior to diagnosis. Methods. Our institutional database was queried for all patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between January 2010 and May 2016. Results. Out of a total of 1964 patients, 190 (10% patients had TNBC. The median age for both TNBC and non-TNBC was 59 years. There was a significantly higher proportion of African American and Asian patients with TNBC (p=0.0003 compared to patients with non-TNBC. BRCA1 and BRCA2 were significantly associated with TNBC (p<0.0001, p=0.0007. A prior history of breast cancer was significantly associated with TNBC (p=0.0003. There was no relationship observed between TNBC and a history of chemoprevention or patients who had a history of AH or LCIS. Conclusions. We found that having Asian ancestry, a prior history of breast cancer, and a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation all appear to be positively associated with TNBC. In order to develop more effective treatments, better surveillance, and improved prevention strategies, it is necessary to improve our understanding of the population at risk for TNBC.

  2. Pregnancy-induced changes in breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Irma H; Russo, Jose

    2011-09-01

    Breast cancer is the malignant disease most frequently diagnosed in women of all races and nationalities. Since the 1970s the worldwide incidence of this disease has increased 30-40% in postmenopausal women, in whom, paradoxically, the risk of developing breast cancer is significantly reduced by an early first full term pregnancy (FTP) as compared to nulliparous and late parous women. Although the cause of breast cancer is not known, the mechanisms mediating the protection conferred by an early FTP have been identified to reside in the breast itself, and to be modulated by endogenous and environmental exposures that might negatively affect this organ during specific windows in its development that extend from prenatal life until the first pregnancy. Soon after conception the embryo initiates the production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), the glycoprotein hormone that is diagnostic of pregnancy. HCG in conjunction with ovarian steroid hormones primes the hypothalamic neuroendocrine system for maintaining the pregnancy. Higher levels of hCG during the first trimester of pregnancy have been associated with a reduction in maternal breast cancer incidence after age 50. In preclinical studies it has been demonstrated that both FTP and hCG treatment of virgin rats prevent the development of chemically-induced mammary tumors, a phenomenon mediated by the differentiation of the mammary gland epithelial cells prior to carcinogen exposure. Complete differentiation proceeds through complex morphological, physiological and molecular changes that occur during pregnancy and lactation, that ultimately result in increased DNA repair capabilities of the mammary epithelium, activation of genes controlling differentiation and programmed cell death and imprinting in the breast epithelium a specific and permanent genomic signature of pregnancy. This signature is indicative of a reduced breast cancer risk and serves as a molecular biomarker of differentiation for evaluating the

  3. Cancer chemopreventive potential of aromathecins and phenazines, novel natural product derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Laura; Conda-Sheridan, Martin; Cinelli, Maris A; Morrell, Andrew E; Cushman, Mark; Chen, Lian; Huang, Ke; Van Breemen, Richard; Pezzuto, John M

    2010-12-01

    In the search for agents with cancer chemopreventive potential, 14-chloromethyl-12H-5,11a-diazadibenzo[b,h]fluoren-11-one (compound 1), originally synthesized as a potential topoisomerase I inhibitor, and 2,4-dibromo-1-hydroxyphenazine (compound 2), an analog of a substance found in the marine bacteria Streptomyces CNS284, were found to significantly enhance NADP(H):quinone oxidoreductase 1 (QR1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione (GSH) levels in cell culture. However, following a short-term absorption study, analyses of livers from the treatment groups did not reveal a significant increase in QR1 or GST activity, or GSH levels. This was consistent with RT-PCR analyses of tissue samples. The compounds were absorbed, as judged by LC/MS analyses of serum and tissue samples, although levels were well below the concentrations required to mediate in vitro responses. Metabolites of compound 2 formed in vitro by human liver microzones were characterized using high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. In sum, the in vivo activity of these compounds appears to be diminished by low bioavailability, but this experimental approach indicates the importance of systematic biomarker investigation.

  4. Having children after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, K H

    1994-01-01

    Having children after breast cancer is an important clinical issue. Evidence from clinical studies on pregnancy subsequent to breast cancer has not shown a survival disadvantage. Clinical experience suggests that desire for children, support from family, and quality of life issues are also important factors in decisions about pregnancy. This qualitative study was done (1) to identify reasons why young women decide to become pregnant after breast cancer; (2) to describe concerns about subsequent pregnancy; (3) to describe helpful behaviors in decision making; and (4) to explore the meaning of having children after breast cancer. Twenty-three women were identified who had early-stage breast cancer and became pregnant after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Sixteen women participated in a semi-structured interview. Qualitative data were analyzed for content. Results indicate that pregnancy subsequent to breast cancer is a powerful stimulus for young women to "get well" again. Reasons for subsequent pregnancy were related to the women's developmental age. Young women expressed concerns about the potential for future disease recurrence, about breast self-examination and mammography during pregnancy, and about surviving to see their children grow up. Perceived helpful behaviors included developing a realistic perspective, living with uncertainty, love and support of spouse, and delineating differences between personal and medical decision making.

  5. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  6. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy affecting women in Nigeria. Regular breast self examination reduces morbidity and mortality from this disease. Objective: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer, breast self examination and practice amongst secondary school teachers in Enugu , Nigeria.

  7. Green tea catechins: Proposed mechanisms of action in breast cancer focusing on the interplay between survival and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia Ch

    2014-02-01

    Recent data have shown strong chemopreventive and possibly cancer chemotherapeutic effects of green tea polyphenols against cancer. Despite advances in breast cancer treatment, mortality from breast cancer is still high. Undoubtedly novel treatment strategies are needed for chemoprevention of high risk women and for the treatment of receptor negative breast cancer. Green tea catechins have been shown to inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells and to block carcinogenesis. This review attempts a critical presentation of the mechanisms of action of green tea catechins in breast cancer. Several mechanisms of action of green tea catechins in breast cancer have been proposed including modulation of extracellular signalling, induction of apoptosis through redox regulation, or through modulation of epigenetic alterations. A number of molecular targets of green tea catechins have been suggested i.e molecular chaperones, telomerase, apoptotic cascade. Although the molecular links among the proposed mechanisms of action of green tea catechins are often missing, it must be emphasized that all the proposed mechanisms indicate that green tea catechins inhibit growth and /or promote apoptosis. It would be interesting if future experimental trials could take into account that green tea catechins are multi-target agents and attempt to link every novel proposed target with the other already proposed targets of green tea catechins.

  8. Family History of Breast Cancer, Breast Density, and Breast Cancer Risk in a U.S. Breast Cancer Screening Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Sprague, Brian L; Bissell, Michael C S; Miglioretti, Diana L; Buist, Diana S M; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-06-01

    Background: The utility of incorporating detailed family history into breast cancer risk prediction hinges on its independent contribution to breast cancer risk. We evaluated associations between detailed family history and breast cancer risk while accounting for breast density.Methods: We followed 222,019 participants ages 35 to 74 in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, of whom 2,456 developed invasive breast cancer. We calculated standardized breast cancer risks within joint strata of breast density and simple (1st-degree female relative) or detailed (first-degree, second-degree, or first- and second-degree female relative) breast cancer family history. We fit log-binomial models to estimate age-specific breast cancer associations for simple and detailed family history, accounting for breast density.Results: Simple first-degree family history was associated with increased breast cancer risk compared with no first-degree history [Risk ratio (RR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-2.1 at age 40; RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.7 at age 50; RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6 at age 60; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5 at age 70). Breast cancer associations with detailed family history were strongest for women with first- and second-degree family history compared with no history (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2 at age 40); this association weakened in higher age groups (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.88-1.5 at age 70). Associations did not change substantially when adjusted for breast density.Conclusions: Even with adjustment for breast density, a history of breast cancer in both first- and second-degree relatives is more strongly associated with breast cancer than simple first-degree family history.Impact: Future efforts to improve breast cancer risk prediction models should evaluate detailed family history as a risk factor. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 938-44. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Breast Cancer: A preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Tahergorabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With regard to high cancer incidence, as one of the major mortality causes worldwide, following human societies industrialization in recent years breast cancer, dealt with in the present article, has got a particular impact on women who possess a pivotal role in family and society. Thus, adoption of effective diagnostic procedures in the early stages of the disease is very important, which must be considered as a substantial component of the strategies aimed at women’s health promotion and decreasing of breast cancer mortality rate. Meanwhile, women’s education and their awareness promotion and advising them to carry out different methods of breast cancer screening in the early stages of the symptoms, as preventive measures, play important roles. The present review article attempts to study prevalence and epidemiology of breast cancer, its risk factors and its different stages of prevention.

  10. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed. ©2013 AACR.

  11. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , ... Disclosures Footnotes Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. ...

  12. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the breast are also shown. A family history of breast cancer and other factors can increase ... and organs. This is called metastatic cancer. This animation shows how cancer cells travel from the place ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the breast are also shown. A family history of breast cancer and other factors can increase ... and organs. This is called metastatic cancer. This animation shows how cancer cells travel from the place ...

  14. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  15. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Rebecca; Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2012-07-01

    Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia's breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57 %, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Mongolia's low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences.

  16. Miscellaneous syndromes and their management: occult breast cancer, breast cancer in pregnancy, male breast cancer, surgery in stage IV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colfry, Alfred John

    2013-04-01

    Surgical therapy for occult breast cancer has traditionally centered on mastectomy; however, breast conservation with whole breast radiotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection has shown equivalent results. Patients with breast cancer in pregnancy can be safely and effectively treated; given a patient's pregnancy trimester and stage of breast cancer, a clinician must be able to guide therapy accordingly. Male breast cancer risk factors show strong association with BRCA2 mutations, as well as Klinefelter syndrome. Several retrospective trials of surgical therapy in stage IV breast cancer have associated a survival advantage with primary site tumor extirpation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimutagenic constituents of adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) with potential cancer chemopreventive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huang-Hui; Chiang, Wenchang; Chang, Jang-Yang; Chien, Ya-Lin; Lee, Ching-Kuo; Liu, Ko-Jiunn; Cheng, Yen-Ting; Chen, Ting-Fang; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Kuo, Ching-Chuan

    2011-06-22

    Adlay has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine and as a nourishing food. The acetone extract of adlay hull had previously been demonstrated to possess potent antimutagenic activity. The aims of this study were to identify the antimutagenic constituents from adlay hull by using Ames antimutagenic activity-guide isolation procedures and to investigate their chemopreventive efficacies in cultured cells. The results demonstrated that six compounds showing great antimutagenic activity were identified by spectroscopic methods and by comparison with authentic samples to be p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin, syringaldehyde, trans-coniferylaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, and coixol. Two of them, trans-coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, exhibit relatively potent scavenging of DPPH radicals, inhibit TPA stimulated superoxide anion generation in neutrophil-like leukocytes, and induce Nrf2/ARE-driven luciferase activity in HSC-3 cells. Moreover, trans-coniferylaldehyde possesses cytoprotective efficacy against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced DNA double-strand breaks in cultured cells, and the chemopreventive potency induced by trans-coniferylaldehyde may be through the activation of kinase signals, including p38, ERK1/2, JNK, MEK1/2, and MSK1/2. In summary, we first identified six antimutagenic constituents from adlay hull. Among them, trans-coniferylaldehyde would be a highly promising agent for cancer chemoprevention and merits further investigation.

  18. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  19. Breast Cancer by the Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The American Cancer Society estimates that 40,000 women will die from breast cancer this year. But thanks to steady progress in the war on cancer, millions of U.S. women with a history of the disease are alive today. Key statistics on survival rates, therapies in use, and treatment costs are provided.

  20. Natural Products as Promising Antitumoral Agents in Breast Cancer: Mechanisms of Action and Molecular Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonofiglio, Daniela; Giordano, Cinzia; De Amicis, Francesca; Lanzino, Marilena; Andò, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research over the past several decades has identified numerous dietary and phytochemical compounds that have chemopreventive potential and could represent an important source of anti-cancer lead molecules. In this scenario several nutritional factors have attracted considerable attention as modifiable risk factor in the prevention of breast cancer, the most frequently diagnosed cancer and a major cause of death among women worldwide. There is an immediate need for more effective and less toxic therapeutic and preventive strategies for breast cancers able also to counteract the recurrent phenomenon of resistance to hormonal and targeted therapy that represent the first-line treatment in the management of breast cancer patients. The present review focuses on chemopreventive and anti-cancer activities of different bioactive compounds obtained from dietary sources such as Omega-3 fatty acids, naturally present in fish, Resveratrol (3,5,40-trihydroxy-transstilbene), a phytoalexin found in grapes and Epigallocatechin Gallate, a polyphenolic compound found in green tea, or purified from medicinal plant (Oldenlandia Diffusa) and fruits (Ziziphus Jujube) highlighting their potential use in breast cancer treatment. Herein, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which the bioactive compounds can inhibit carcinogenesis by regulating antioxidant enzyme activities, and inducing antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in different breast cancer cell lines. Understanding the mechanism of action of dietary compounds or traditionally used herbs having potential preventive and therapeutic effects on cancer may provide a rationale for further translational studies. This review emphasizes the importance, in the next future, of a proper scientific validation of these natural bioactive compounds for clinical use in the therapeutic portfolio for breast cancer.

  1. Cancer chemoprevention and cancer preventive vaccines--a call to action: leaders of diverse stakeholder groups present strategies for overcoming multiple barriers to meet an urgent need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberman, Ronald B; Pearce, Homer L; Lippman, Scott M; Pyenson, Bruce S; Alberts, David S

    2006-12-15

    The emerging field of cancer prevention through chemoprevention agents and cancer vaccines offers significant promise for reducing suffering and death from cancer. However, that promise may not be kept unless major barriers to progress are lowered or eliminated. Among the most significant barriers are the relatively small investment from government and industry in research and development of cancer preventive agents; a predominant emphasis of translational cancer research on therapeutic interventions for metastatic or advanced cancer; complexities of prevention trial design; a relatively uncharted Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process for preventive agents; insufficient public and patient understanding of the importance and potential for cancer preventive measures, with consequent unpredictable public and patient willingness to take preventive agents; an uncertain reimbursement from payors; and limitations in patent law, liability protection, and data package exclusivity that undermine the opportunity for recouping investment. Viewed individually or collectively, each of these barriers serves as a substantial deterrent to intellectual and financial investment by all sectors of the cancer community. In an effort to ultimately overcome these barriers, a Cancer Prevention Research Summit was assembled June 12-13, 2006 in Bethesda, Maryland, organized by C-Change with support from the AACR. The Summit brought together some 120 leaders from private, public, and not-for-profit entities, including cancer researchers and clinicians; federal health officials; regulatory agency representatives; pharmaceutical, biotech, and food industry leaders; patent attorneys; economists; public and private provider group executives; and advocates. Participants engaged in a detailed process to more carefully define the major barriers, identify potential solutions, and formulate initial priorities and recommendations for action. At the conclusion of this dialogue among

  2. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in globally and in Nigeria. In Nigeria, cases of breast cancer cases have been prevalent for three decades and more than 90% of cases can be detected by women themselves through breast self – examination. The objective of this study ...

  3. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women who • Are older • Have no children • Delayed pregnancy until after age 30 • Have used combination hormone therapy (estrogen plus progestin) for more than five years • Have a mother, sister, or daughter who has had breast cancer Did you know? Breast pain alone is not ...

  4. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María-José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-12-15

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele =0.70; 95% CI: 0.58-0.85; ptrend  = 2.84 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55-0.92; HRhomozygotes  = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.76; p2DF  = 1.45 × 10(-3) ). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15; ptrend  = 6.6 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.96 95% CI: 0.90-1.03; HRhomozygotes  = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35; p2DF =1.25 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662. © 2015 UICC.

  5. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BRCA2, and others increase your risk. Gene mutations account for about 10% of all breast cancer cases. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  6. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  7. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...

  8. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  9. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jennrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includes various well-documented pathomechanisms. In the sense of primary and secondary prevention, the cancer-triggering potential of aluminium and its use in anti-perspirant deodorants must be re-evaluated. For the same reason the access to a targeted diagnosis and treatment of aluminium loading must be facilitated.

  10. Melatonin, Aging and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Steven

    2001-01-01

    ... conditions for tumor induction, promotion and progression. The pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, has been shown by numerous laboratories to inhibit the proliferation of both human and animal models of breast cancer...

  11. BREAST CANCER, DERMATOFIBROMAS AND ARSENIC

    OpenAIRE

    Dantzig Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for...

  12. Breast cancer epigenetics: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable molecular changes during cell division without any change in the sequence of DNA molecules is known as epigenetic. Molecular mechanisms involved in this process, including histone modifications, methylation of DNA, protein complex and RNA antisense. Cancer genome changes happen through a combination of DNA hypermethylation, long-term epigenetic silencing with heterozygosis loss and genomic regions loss. Different combinations of N-terminal’s changes cooperate with histone variants with a specific role in gene regulation. It have led to load a setting histone that determine transcription potential of a particular gene or genomic regions. DNA methylation analysis in genome region using methylation-specific digital karyotyping of normal breast tissue detect gene expression patterns and DNA specific methylation can be found in breast carcinoma too more than 100 genes in breast tumors or cell lines of breast cancer are reported hypermethylated. Important of DNA methylation on cancer has been concentrated CpG islands hypermethylation. Most of the techniques are able to identify hypermethylated areas. Often, methylated genes play important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, metastasis and tissue invasion, angiogenesis and hormonal signaling. Cyclin D2 (CCND2 gene is an important regulator of cell cycle and increased of expression inhibits the transition from G1 to S cell cycle. This gene is frequently methylated in breast cancer and has been proposed as the first event. Other cell cycle regulator is p16ink4A / CDKN2A that methylated in a large number of human cancers, including breast cancer. Another regulator of the proliferation of breast cancer that methylated is tumor suppressor RAR-β cancer that has been found in lobular and ductal carcinoma. Recent studies have showed the role of epigenetic silencing in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in which tumor suppressor genes have been changed by acetylation and DNA deacetylation

  13. Murine model of hepatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhi, Rishi; Wilson, Elizabeth M; Deas, Olivier; Svalina, Matthew N; Bial, John; Mansoor, Atiya; Cairo, Stefano; Keller, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in this population. Breast cancer related deaths have declined due to screening and adjuvant therapies, yet a driving clinical need exists to better understand the cause of the deadliest aspect of breast cancer, metastatic disease. Breast cancer metastasizes to several distant organs, the liver being the third most common site. To date, very few murine models of hepatic breast cancer exist. In this study, a novel murine model of liver breast cancer using the MDA-MB-231 cell line is introduced as an experimental (preclinical) model. Histological typing revealed consistent hepatic breast cancer tumor foci. Common features of the murine model were vascular invasion, lung metastasis and peritoneal seeding. The novel murine model of hepatic breast cancer established in this study provides a tool to be used to investigate mechanisms of hepatic metastasis and to test potential therapeutic interventions.

  14. Breast cancer, dermatofibromas and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzig, Paul I

    2009-01-01

    Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer.

  15. Breast cancer, dermatofibromas and arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantzig Paul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. Results: The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Conclusions: Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer.

  16. Prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guek Eng; Mayer, Erica L; Partridge, Ann

    2017-06-01

    Conventionally, breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and within the years following have been referred to collectively as pregnancy-associated breast cancer. However, increasing evidence suggests that breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy is a different entity from that diagnosed postpartum, both in terms of prognosis and biology. Given the increasing number of women who find themselves diagnosed with breast cancer during or following a pregnancy, future research and discussion should separate these two into distinct groups: breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and breast cancer diagnosed postpartum in an effort to enhance our understanding to inform and improve clinical management and counseling.

  17. Anti-cancer and potential chemopreventive actions of ginseng by activating Nrf2 (NFE2L2 anti-oxidative stress/anti-inflammatory pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qing

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reviews recent basic and clinical studies of ginseng, particularly the anti-cancer effects and the potential chemopreventive actions by activating the transcriptional factor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 or NFE2L2-mediated anti-oxidative stress or anti-inflammatory pathways. Nrf2 is a novel target for cancer prevention as it regulates the antioxidant responsive element (ARE, a critical regulatory element in the promoter region of genes encoding cellular phase II detoxifying and anti-oxidative stress enzymes. The studies on the chemopreventive effects of ginseng or its components/products showed that Nrf2 could also be a target for ginseng's actions. A number of papers also demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of ginseng. Targeting Nrf2 pathway is a novel approach to the investigation of ginseng's cancer chemopreventive actions, including some oxidative stress and inflammatory conditions responsible for the initiation, promotion and progression of carcinogenesis.

  18. ANTIBODIES TO BENZO[A]PYRENE, ESTRADIOL AND PROGESTERONE IN THE POSTMENOPAUSAL BREAST CANCER WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Glushkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of women who are at high risk of developing breast cancer plays a key role in chemoprevention of breast cancer selective estrogen receptor modulators. purpose: To study specific immune responses to chemical carcinogens and sex steroid hormones associated with breast cancer in postmenopausal women. material and methods. Serum IgA-antibodies specific to benzo[a]pyrene, estradiol and progesterone were studied in 203 non-smoking healthy women and 469 non-smoking breast cancer patients (125 with ER– and 344 with ER+ using semi-quantitative enzyme immunoassay. results. The low levels of all three antibodies were revealed in 53.2 % of healthy donors, in 47.2 % of breast cancer patients with ER– and in 40.7 % of patients with ER+. The high levels of all three antibodies were found in 12.3 %, 18.4 % and 26.5 % of cases, respectively. In the studied groups, the levels of antibodies to estradiol and progesterone were correlated with the levels of antibodies to benzo[a]pyrene (rs=0.54–0.7, p<0.0001. Conclusion. Immunoassay of antibodies to exogenous and endogenous antigens could be useful for determining risk of developing ER+ breast cancer and preventing administration of tamoxifen and others selective modulators of estrogen receptors. Active immunization against exogenous chemical carcinogens could increase the levels of antibodies to endogenous steroids, thus stimulating breast cancer.

  19. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic...

  20. Advocacy groups for breast cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, M.; Batt, S

    1995-01-01

    Breast cancer patient advocacy groups emerged in the 1990s to support and empower women with breast cancer. Women with cancer and oncologists tend to have divergent perspectives on how breast cancer prevention should be defined and what the priorities for research should be. As their American counterparts have done, breast cancer patient advocates in Canada are seeking greater participation in decision making with respect to research. To date they have had more input into research policy deci...

  1. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer Christiansen,1 Bent Ejlertsen,2,3 Maj-Britt Jensen,3 Henning Mouridsen3 1Department of Surgery P, Breast Surgery Unit, Aarhus University Hospital/Randers Regional Hospital, Aarhus C, 2Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, 3DBCG-secretariat, Department 2501, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark Aim of database: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG, with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data: From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. Keywords: breast cancer, database, guidelines, quality control, research

  2. [Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, S F

    2017-05-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian carcinomas are frequently caused by germline mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (BRCA1/2 syndromes) and are often less associated with other hereditary syndromes such as Li-Fraumeni and Peutz-Jeghers. The BRCA1/2 proteins have a special role in DNA repair. Therefore, loss of function due to mutation causes an accumulation of mutations in other genes and subsequent tumorigenesis at an early age. BRCA1/2 mutations are irregularly distributed over the length of the genes without hot spots, although special mutations are known. Breast and ovarian cancer occur far more frequently in women with BRCA1/2 germline mutations compared with the general population. Breast cancer occurs increasingly from the age of 30, ovarian cancer in BRCA1 syndrome from the age of 40 and BRCA2 from the age of 50. Suspicion of a BRCA syndrome should be prompted in the case of clustering of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives, in particular at a young age, if breast and ovarian cancer have occurred, and if cases of male breast cancer are known. Breast carcinomas with medullary differentiation seem to predominate in BRCA syndromes, but other carcinoma types may also occur. BRCA germline mutations seem to occur frequently in triple-negative breast carcinomas, whereas an association with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is rare. Ovarian carcinomas in BRCA syndromes are usually high-grade serous, mucinous carcinomas and borderline tumors are unusual. Pathology plays a special role within the multidisciplinary team in the recognition of patients with hereditary cancer syndromes.

  3. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Johanna M; den Heeten, Gerard J; Adang, Eddy M; Otten, Johannes D; Verbeek, André L; Broeders, Mireille J

    2012-12-01

    In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to rise further, mainly following nationwide introduction of digital mammography, completed in 2010. This study explores the consequences of the introduction of digital mammography on the balance between referral rate, detection of breast cancer, diagnostic work-up and associated costs. Detailed information on diagnostic work-up (chart review) was obtained from referred women (n = 988) in 2000-06 (100% analogue mammography) and 2007 (75% digital mammography) in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The average referral rate increased from 15 (2000-06) to 34 (2007) per 1000 women screened. The number of breast cancers detected increased from 5.5 to 7.8 per 1000 screens, whereas the positive predictive value fell from 37% to 23%. A sharp rise in diagnostic work-up procedures and total diagnostic costs was seen. On the other hand, costs of a single work-up slightly decreased, as less surgical biopsies were performed. Our study shows that a low referral rate in combination with the introduction of digital mammography affects the balance between referral rate and detection rate and can substantially influence breast cancer care and associated costs. Referral rates in the Netherlands are now more comparable to other countries. This effect is therefore of value in countries where implementation of digital breast cancer screening has just started or is still under discussion.

  4. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah

    2017-10-02

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  5. Benign Breast Disease: Toward Molecular Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    at the initial biopsy, the strength of the family history, meno- pausal status, and histologic findings of the biop- sy, as compared with expected...breast cancers for 646/758 (85%) of the cases. We assessed the significance of benign histology in predicting risk of future breast cancer, examining...TERMS Benign Breast Disease, Biomarkers, Histology , Breast Cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF

  6. Polyphenols from the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana fruit for breast and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongbo eLi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana is a tropical fruit native to Southeast Asia and has long been reported to contain multiple health promoting properties. This fruit is an abundant source of xanthones, a class of polyphenolic compounds with a distinctive tricyclic aromatic ring system and is largely responsible for its biological activities including anti-cancer activity. Herein we describe the anti-cancer activity and mechanisms of mangosteen polyphenolic xanthones including α-Mangostin against breast cancer and prostate cancer. So far, extracts and individual xanthones have been found to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Based on the reported finding there is clear evidence that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate and breast cancer chemoprevention.

  7. Polyphenols from the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit for breast and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongbo; Thomas, Stacey; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2013-01-01

    The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tropical fruit native to Southeast Asia and has long been reported to contain multiple health promoting properties. This fruit is an abundant source of xanthones, a class of polyphenolic compounds with a distinctive tricyclic aromatic ring system and is largely responsible for its biological activities including anti-cancer activity. Herein we describe the anti-cancer activity and mechanisms of mangosteen polyphenolic xanthones including α-Mangostin against breast cancer and prostate cancer. So far, extracts and individual xanthones have been found to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Based on the reported findings there is clear evidence that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate and breast cancer chemoprevention.

  8. Epidemiology of breast cancer subtypes in two prospective cohort studies of breast cancer survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwan, Marilyn L; Kushi, Lawrence H; Weltzien, Erin; Maring, Benjamin; Kutner, Susan E; Fulton, Regan S; Lee, Marion M; Ambrosone, Christine B; Caan, Bette J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe breast tumor subtypes by common breast cancer risk factors and to determine correlates of subtypes using baseline data from two pooled prospective breast cancer...

  9. Sulforaphane, a Dietary Component of Broccoli/Broccoli Sprouts, Inhibits Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao; Korkaya, Hasan; Liu, Suling; Lee, Hsiu-Fang; Newman, Bryan; Yu, Yanke; Clouthier, Shawn G.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Wicha, Max S.; Sun, Duxin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in breast cancer has profound implications for cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated sulforaphane, a natural compound derived from broccoli/broccoli sprouts, for its efficacy to inhibit breast CSCs and its potential mechanism. Experimental Design Aldefluor assay and mammosphere formation assay were used to evaluate the effect of sulforaphane on breast CSCs in vitro. A NOD/SCID xenograft model was employed to determine whether sulforaphane could target breast CSCs in vivo, as assessed by Aldefluor assay and tumor growth upon cell re-implantation in secondary mice. The potential mechanism was investigated utilizing Western blotting analysis and β-catenin reporter assay. Results Sulforaphane (1~5 μM) decreased aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive cell population by 65%~80% in human breast cancer cells (P sulforaphane for two weeks reduced ALDH-positive cells by more than 50% in NOD/SCID xenograft tumors (P = 0.003). Sulforaphane eliminated breast CSCs in vivo, thereby abrogating tumor growth after re-implantation of primary tumor cells into the secondary mice (P sulforaphane down-regulated Wnt/β-catenin self-renewal pathway. Conclusions Sulforaphane inhibits breast CSCs and down-regulates Wnt/β-catenin self-renewal pathway. These findings support the use of sulforaphane for chemoprevention of breast cancer stem cells and warrant further clinical evaluation. PMID:20388854

  10. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  11. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Penninger JM, Kroemer G. AIF and cyclophilin A coop- erate in apoptosis-associated chromatinolysis. Oncogene 2004; 23:1514–1521. Cardoso F, Durbecq V, Laes ...effects of estrogen and antie- strogen on in vitro clonogenic growth of human breast cancers in soft agar, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82 (1990) 1146–1149

  12. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Mammogram During the Past Two Years 1 Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations 2 If you are between the ages ...

  13. Avoiding risk information about breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Darya; Shepperd, James A

    2012-10-01

    Learning about personal risk can provide numerous benefits yet people sometimes opt to remain ignorant. Two studies examined the role of perceived control, coping resources, and anticipated regret in women's decision to avoid breast cancer risk information. Women completed a health inventory and then read a brochure about either controllable or uncontrollable predictors of breast cancer, or received no brochure. Participants then received an opportunity to learn their lifetime risk for breast cancer based on their inventory responses. Reading about controllable predictors of breast cancer reduced avoidance of risk information compared with reading about uncontrollable predictors or receiving no information. In addition, fewer coping resources, anticipated greater regret over seeking breast cancer risk information, and less regret over avoiding breast cancer risk information predicted information avoidance. Reading about controllable predictors of breast cancer reduces avoidance of breast cancer risk information.

  14. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  15. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  16. Research Training in Biopsychosocial Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrykowski, Michael

    2004-01-01

    ...) in biopsychosocial breast cancer (BC) research. During the 5-year project period, 6 predoctoral and 2 postdoctoral trainees were appointed to the training program and received training in biopsychosocial breast cancer research...

  17. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazario, Cruz M; Freudenheim, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case-control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico...

  18. Breast Cancer Screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kalager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Effective breast cancer screening should detect early-stage cancer and prevent advanced disease. Objective: To assess the association between screening and the size of detected tumors and to estimate overdiagnosis (detection of tumors that would not become clinically relevant). Design......) and nonadvanced (≤20 mm) breast cancer tumors in screened and nonscreened women were measured. Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of overdiagnosis: comparing the incidence of advanced and nonadvanced tumors among women aged 50 to 84 years in screening and nonscreening areas; and comparing...... rate ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.43 to 1.54]). The first estimation approach found that 271 invasive breast cancer tumors and 179 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were overdiagnosed in 2010 (overdiagnosis rate of 24.4% [including DCIS] and 14.7% [excluding DCIS]). The second approach, which accounted...

  19. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  20. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  1. Fulvestrant and Palbociclib in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Breast Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Antoniou, Antonis C; Easton, Douglas F; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2010-06-01

    Genetic and lifestyle/environmental factors are implicated in the aetiology of breast cancer. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on rare high penetrance mutations, as well as moderate and low-penetrance genetic variants implicated in breast cancer aetiology. We summarize recent discoveries from large collaborative efforts to combine data from candidate gene studies, and to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS), primarily in breast cancers in the general population. These findings are compared with results from collaborative efforts aiming to identify genetic modifiers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and tumours from BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers display distinct pathological characteristics when compared with tumours unselected for family history. The relationship between genetic variants and pathological subtypes of breast cancer, and the implication of discoveries of novel genetic variants to risk prediction in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and in populations unselected for mutation carrier status, are discussed. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  5. Breast Cancer: Modelling and Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaghan, D. J.; Brady, J. M.; Behrenbruch, C. P.; Highnam, R. P.; Maini, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews a number of the mathematical models used in cancer modelling and then chooses a specific cancer, breast carcinoma, to illustrate how the modelling can be used in aiding detection. We then discuss mathematical models that underpin mammographic image analysis, which complements models of tumour growth and facilitates diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Mammographic images are notoriously difficult to interpret, and we give an overview of the primary image enhancement technolog...

  6. Knowledge, awareness, and practices concerning breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is by far the most frequent cancer of women. However the preventive measures for such problem are probably less than expected. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess the breast cancer knowledge and awareness and factors associated with the practice of breast self examination ...

  7. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is

  8. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  9. Pregnancy and abortion in breast cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer in pregnancy is by itself not an indication for abortion. We document the case histories of 2 patients with breast cancer (recurrent or advanced) who elected to carry pregnancies to term. Pregnancy concurrent with or subsequent to breast cancer is not associated with a worse prognosis than would be observed ...

  10. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1982-03-01

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures.

  11. Lunasin Attenuates Obesity-Associated Metastasis of 4T1 Breast Cancer Cell through Anti-Inflammatory Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Chien; Wang, Chih-Hsuan; Huang, Yu-Shan

    2016-12-15

    Obesity prevalence is increasing worldwide and is accompanied by low-grade inflammation with macrophage infiltration, which is linked with a poorer breast cancer prognosis. Lunasin is a natural seed peptide with chemopreventive properties and multiple bioactivities. This is the first study to explore the chemopreventive effects of lunasin in the obesity-related breast cancer condition using 4T1 breast cancer cells, 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and conditioned media. An obesity-related environment, such as leptin-treatment or adipocyte-conditioned medium (Ad-CM), promoted 4T1 cell proliferation and metastasis. Lunasin treatment inhibited metastasis of breast cancer cells, partially through modestly inhibiting production of the angiogenesis-mediator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and significantly by inhibiting secretion in the Ad-CM condition. Subsequently, two adipocytes inflammation models, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were stimulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and RAW 264.7 cell-conditioned medium (RAW-CM) was used to mimic the obese microenvironment. Lunasin significantly inhibited interleukin (IL)-6 and macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 secretion by TNF-α stimulation, and MCP-1 secretion in the RAW-CM model. This study highlights that lunasin suppressed 3T3-L1 adipocyte inflammation and inhibited 4T1 breast cancer cell migration. Interestingly, lunasin exerted more effective anti-metastasis activity in the obesity-related condition models, indicating that it possesses anti-inflammatory properties and blocks adipocyte-cancer cell cross-talk.

  12. Drugs with potential chemopreventive properties in relation to epithelial ovarian cancer--a nationwide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baandrup, Louise

    2015-07-01

    Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis because the disease in the majority of patients is diagnosed at an advanced stage as a result of nonspecific symptoms and lack of efficient screening methods. Because of the poor prognosis of ovarian cancer and the challenge of early detection of the disease, identification of protective factors is important. It has been suggested that some commonly used drugs may have a protective effect against cancer, including ovarian cancer; however, the literature on chemopreventive measures for ovarian cancer is sparse and the results are inconclusive. Most previous studies have substantial methodological constraints, including limited study size and self-reporting of drug use, which introduces potential recall bias and misclassification. This PhD thesis includes a nationwide case-control study to evaluate associations between use of drugs with potential chemopreventive properties and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. The study is nested in the entire Danish female population using data from the following nationwide registries: the Danish Cancer Registry, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Prescription Registry, the Danish National Patient Register, and registries in Statistics Denmark on fertility, education, and income. Information from the included registries is linked by use of the unique personal identification number assigned to all Danish citizens. The cases were all women in Denmark with epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed during 2000-2009 (Paper 1) and 2000-2011 (Papers 2 and 3), identified in the Cancer Registry. Age-matched female population controls were randomly selected from the Civil Registration System by risk-set sampling. We required that cases and controls have no history of cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) and that controls not previously have undergone bilateral oophorectomy or salpingo-oophorectomy. The total study population comprised 3741 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 50,576 controls in

  13. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Estrogen Receptor Status; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Status; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  14. Multiparametric Breast MRI of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Habib; Partridge, Savannah C.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Breast MRI has increased in popularity over the past two decades due to evidence for its high sensitivity for cancer detection. Current clinical MRI approaches rely on the use of a dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE-MRI) acquisition that facilitates morphologic and semi-quantitative kinetic assessments of breast lesions. The use of more functional and quantitative parameters, such as pharmacokinetic features from high temporal resolution DCE-MRI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) on diffusion weighted MRI, and choline concentrations on MR spectroscopy, hold promise to broaden the utility of MRI and improve its specificity. However, due to wide variations in approach among centers for measuring these parameters and the considerable technical challenges, robust multicenter data supporting their routine use is not yet available, limiting current applications of many of these tools to research purposes. PMID:26613883

  15. Guidelines for Follow-Up of Women at High Risk for Inherited Breast Cancer: Consensus Statement from the Biomed 2 Demonstration Programme on Inherited Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Møller

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocols for activity aiming at early diagnosis and treatment of inherited breast or breast-ovarian cancer have been reported. Available reports on outcome of such programmes are considered here. It is concluded that the ongoing activities should continue with minor modifications. Direct evidence of a survival benefit from breast and ovarian screening is not yet available. On the basis of expert opinion and preliminary results from intervention programmes indicating good detection rates for early breast cancers and 5-year survival concordant with early diagnosis, we propose that women at high risk for inherited breast cancer be offered genetic counselling, education in ‘breast awareness’ and annual mammography and clinical expert examination from around 30 years of age. Mammography every second year may be sufficient from 60 years on. BRCA1 mutation carriers may benefit from more frequent examinations and cancer risk may be reduced by oophorectomy before 40–50 years of age. We strongly advocate that all activities should be organized as multicentre studies subjected to continuous evaluation to measure the effects of the interventions on long-term mortality, to match management options more precisely to individual risks and to prepare the ground for studies on chemoprevention.

  16. Chemoprevention gene therapy (CGT) of pancreatic cancer using perillyl alcohol and a novel chimeric serotype cancer terminator virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S; Azab, B; Quinn, B A; Shen, X; Dent, P; Klibanov, A L; Emdad, L; Das, S K; Sarkar, D; Fisher, P B

    2014-01-01

    Conditionally replication competent adenoviruses (Ads) that selectively replicate in cancer cells and simultaneously express a therapeutic cytokine, such as melanoma differentiation associated gene- 7/Interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24), a Cancer Terminator Virus (CTV-M7), hold potential for treating human cancers. To enhance the efficacy of the CTV-M7, we generated a chimeric Ad.5 and Ad.3 modified fiber bipartite CTV (Ad.5/3-CTV-M7) that can infect tumor cells in a Coxsackie Adenovirus receptor (CAR) independent manner, while retaining high infectivity in cancer cells containing high CAR. Although mda-7/IL-24 displays broad-spectrum anticancer properties, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells display an intrinsic resistance to mda-7/IL-24-mediated killing due to an mda-7/IL-24 mRNA translational block. However, using a chemoprevention gene therapy (CGT) approach with perillyl alcohol (POH) and a replication incompetent Ad to deliver mda-7/IL-24 (Ad.mda-7) there is enhanced conversion of mda-7/IL-24 mRNA into protein resulting in pancreatic cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo in nude mice containing human PDAC xenografts. This combination synergistically induces mda-7/IL-24-mediated cancer-specific apoptosis by inhibiting anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 protein expression and inducing an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response through induction of BiP/GRP-78, which is most evident in chimeric-modified non-replicating Ad.5/3- mda-7- and CTV-M7-infected PDAC cells. Moreover, Ad.5/3-CTV-M7 in combination with POH sensitizes therapy-resistant MIA PaCa-2 cell lines over-expressing either Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL to mda-7/IL-24-mediated apoptosis. Ad.5/3-CTV-M7 plus POH also exerts a significant antitumor 'bystander' effect in vivo suppressing both primary and distant site tumor growth, confirming therapeutic utility of Ad.5/3-CTV-M7 plus POH in PDAC treatment, where all other current treatment strategies in clinical settings show minimal efficacy.

  17. [Breast cancer: new therapeutic strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, M

    1998-12-12

    NEED FOR NEW CHEMOTHERAPY AGENTS: Metastasic breast cancer is an excellent model for studying anticancer agents: chemotherapy or hormonotherapy or compounds modifying the organism's response. If no adjuvant treatment is given after locoregional treatment of breast cancer, metastasis will develop within 10 years in 30% of the patients free of initial nodal invasion and within 5 years in 50% of the patients with initial nodal invasion. ADJUVANT TREATMENTS: Hormonotherapy and chemotherapy reduce mortality due to breast cancer by 10%. New adjuvant agents have been recently introduced. Taxans (docetaxel, paclitaxel) are the most active molecules since antracyclines. New aromataase inhibitors include letrozole and anastrozole. Their efficacy has been demonstrated in phase II and phase III trials, allowing their experimentation as adjuvant treatments.

  18. Breast cancer: demands of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveys, B J; Klaich, K

    1991-01-01

    This study explores the qualitative experience of illness demands from the woman's own perspective by asking, "What is the impact of breast cancer on the daily lives of women of childbearing age?" Semistructured interviews with 79 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer were transcribed and analyzed to discern illness demands. Content analysis yielded 14 domains of illness demands: treatment issues, change in life context or perspective, acceptance of the illness, social interaction or support, physical changes, reconstructing the self, uncertainty, loss, making comparisons, acquiring new knowledge, making choices, mortality issues, financial or occupational concerns, and making a contribution. Illness demands are experienced in every aspect of a woman's life, including her identity, daily routines, family and social experience, and her perception of the past, present, and future. This study details in the women's own language the considerable adjustments brought on by a diagnosis of breast cancer.

  19. Breast cancer circulating tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joao Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastasization of breast cancer involves various mechanisms responsible for progression from invasive lesion to dissemination in distant organs. Regional lymph node metastasization was considered an initial step in this process, but it is now recognized that hematogenous dissemination is a deviation from lymphatic circulation. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC is an aim in several oncology areas. For this purpose, several techniques have been used to detect CTC, including the use of antibodies and techniques with nucleic acids. This study reviews the published studies considering the detection of breast cancer CTC. There are focused the difficulties in identifying a CTC in a heterogeneous population, the handling of the sample, criteria of positivity, analytical techniques, and specific markers. There are systematized various specific markers of breast cancer cells also the problems with false positive results. Finally, we hypothesize clinical applications either as a prognostic marker or as a therapeutic response monitor.

  20. Risk-based Breast Cancer Screening: Implications of Breast Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christoph I; Chen, Linda E; Elmore, Joann G

    2017-07-01

    The approach to breast cancer screening has changed over time from a general approach to a more personalized, risk-based approach. Women with dense breasts, one of the most prevalent risk factors, are now being informed that they are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and should consider supplemental screening beyond mammography. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the impact of breast density relative to other known risk factors, the evidence regarding supplemental screening for women with dense breasts, supplemental screening options, and recommendations for physicians having shared decision-making discussions with women who have dense breasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Skin Cancer Chemoprevention by Silibinin: Mechanisms and Efficacy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project Summary Abstract Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) type, is a major health problem in the United States (US); annual BCC incidences alone are higher than all other cancer incidences combined (1.67 million/year). Most BCC cases are curable by surgery/radiation, but these can be painful and highly disfiguring and are not viable treatment options for BCC patients with locally advanced and metastatic disease where chemotherapy has also not proven effective. |

  2. Tumor Heterogeneity in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turashvili, Gulisa; Brogi, Edi

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and differs greatly among different patients (intertumor heterogeneity) and even within each individual tumor (intratumor heterogeneity). Clinical and morphologic intertumor heterogeneity is reflected by staging systems and histopathologic classification of breast cancer. Heterogeneity in the expression of established prognostic and predictive biomarkers, hormone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 oncoprotein is the basis for targeted treatment. Molecular classifications are indicators of genetic tumor heterogeneity, which is probed with multigene assays and can lead to improved stratification into low- and high-risk groups for personalized therapy. Intratumor heterogeneity occurs at the morphologic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic levels, creating diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumor heterogeneity that are relevant to the development of treatment resistance is a major area of research. Despite the improved knowledge of the complex genetic and phenotypic features underpinning tumor heterogeneity, there has been only limited advancement in diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive strategies for breast cancer. The current guidelines for reporting of biomarkers aim to maximize patient eligibility for targeted therapy, but do not take into account intratumor heterogeneity. The molecular classification of breast cancer is not implemented in routine clinical practice. Additional studies and in-depth analysis are required to understand the clinical significance of rapidly accumulating data. This review highlights inter- and intratumor heterogeneity of breast carcinoma with special emphasis on pathologic findings, and provides insights into the clinical significance of molecular and cellular mechanisms of heterogeneity. PMID:29276709

  3. Frugal chemoprevention: targeting Nrf2 with foods rich in sulforaphane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Palliyaguru, Dushani L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2016-02-01

    With the properties of efficacy, safety, tolerability, practicability and low cost, foods containing bioactive phytochemicals are gaining significant attention as elements of chemoprevention strategies against cancer. Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane], a naturally occurring isothiocyanate produced by cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, is found to be a highly promising chemoprevention agent against not only a variety of cancers such as breast, prostate, colon, skin, lung, stomach or bladder, but also cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. For reasons of experimental exigency, preclinical studies have focused principally on sulforaphane itself, while clinical studies have relied on broccoli sprout preparations rich in either sulforaphane or its biogenic precursor, glucoraphanin. Substantive subsequent evaluation of sulforaphane pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics has been undertaken using either pure compound or food matrices. Sulforaphane affects multiple targets in cells. One key molecular mechanism of action for sulforaphane entails activation of the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway although other actions contribute to the broad spectrum of efficacy in different animal models. This review summarizes the current status of pre-clinical chemoprevention studies with sulforaphane and highlights the progress and challenges for the application of foods rich in sulforaphane and/or glucoraphanin in the arena of clinical chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reconstruction for breast cancer in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is a disease many will experience. Depending on the size of the cancer, the size of the host breast, and whether it is multi-focal, a mastectomy may be recommended as part of the treatment. If this is the case, an immediate breast reconstruction may be offered. This article will describe the three main types of breast reconstruction and discuss pertinent issues regarding this, including complications, surgery to the other (contraleteral) breast and potential psychological implications of this surgery.

  5. Genetic heterogeneity in breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T I

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 20% of breast cancer patients have a family history of the disease, and in one-fourth of these cases breast cancer appears to be inherited as an autosomally dominant trait. Five genes and gene regions involved in breast cancer susceptibility have been uncovered. Germ-line mutations in the recently cloned BRCA1 gene at 17q21 is considered to be responsible for the disease in a majority of the breast-ovarian cancer families and in 40-45% of the site-specific breast cancer families, but appears not to be involved in families with both male and female breast cancer cases. The BRCA2 locus at 13q12-q13 appears to be involved in 40-45% of the site-specific breast cancer families, and in most of the families with affected males. The gene located in this region, however, does not seem to confer susceptibility to ovarian cancer. The TP53 gene is involved in breast cancer development in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Li-Fraumeni syndrom-like families, whereas germ-line mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene is present in a subset of male breast cancers. Furthermore, females who are obligate carriers of ataxia telangiectasia (AT) have a 4-12 times relative risk of developing breast cancer as compared with the general female population, indicating that germ-line mutations in AT also confer susceptibility to breast cancer.

  6. Chemopreventive effects of Coltect, a novel dietary supplement, alone and in combination with 5-aminosalicylic acid in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Aroch, Ilan; Kraus, Sarah; Naumov, Inna; Ron, Ehud; Shapira, Shiran; Kazanov, Dina; Giladi, Nis; Litvak, Alex; Lev-Ari, Shahar; Hallak, Aharon; Dotan, Iris; Shpitz, Baruch; Arber, Nadir

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Coltect is a novel dietary supplement containing curcumin, green tea and selenomethionine. Previous reports have suggested that these agents can prevent colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study examined the chemopreventive effect of Coltect alone or combined with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) using the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) model in rats.

  7. Nanoparticle-based Paclitaxel vs Solvent-based Paclitaxel as Part of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer (GeparSepto)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-11

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  8. Update on raloxifene: role in reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel VG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Victor G Vogel Cancer Institute, Geisinger Health System, Danville, PA, USA Abstract: Risk factors allow us to define women who are at increased lifetime risk for breast cancer, and the most important factor is age. Benign breast disease increases risk, and the most important histologies are atypical lobular or ductal hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ. Family history of breast cancer among first-degree relatives (mother, sisters, daughters also increases risk. Quantitative measures of risk give accurate predictions of breast cancer incidence for groups of women but not for individual subjects. Multiple published, randomized controlled trials, which employed selective estrogen receptor (ER modulators (SERMs, have demonstrated consistent reductions of 35% or greater in the risk of ER-positive invasive and noninvasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Professional organizations in the US now recommend the use of SERMs to reduce the risk of breast cancer in high-risk, postmenopausal women. Raloxifene and tamoxifen reduce the risk of ER-positive invasive breast cancer with equal efficacy, but raloxifene is associated with a lower risk of thromboembolic disease, benign uterine conditions, and cataracts than tamoxifen in postmenopausal women. No evidence exists establishing whether a reduction in breast cancer risk from either agent translates into reduced breast cancer mortality. Overall quality of life is similar with raloxifene or tamoxifen, but the incidence of dyspareunia, weight gain, and musculoskeletal complaints is higher with raloxifene use, whereas vasomotor symptoms, bladder incontinence, gynecologic symptoms, and leg cramps were higher with tamoxifen use. Keywords: selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, raloxifene, risk reduction, chemoprevention

  9. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria...

  10. Paclitaxel (Taxol) in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuck, S G; Dorr, A; Friedman, M A

    1994-02-01

    Paclitaxel (Taxol) is a diterpine plant compound that was isolated initially from the bark of the western yew tree, Taxus brevifolia, but can now be produced by semisynthesis from a renewable source. Paclitaxel is the first new agent in the past decade to have confirmed single agent activity in breast cancer in excess of 50%. A 28% response rate has been reported in doxorubicin-refractory patients. Ongoing studies include attempts to combine paclitaxel with other drugs used for breast cancer treatment and with radiation.

  11. Quality indicators for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poortmans, Philip; Aznar, Marianne; Bartelink, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer has considerably changed over the years, from simple simulator-based 2-dimensional techniques to sophisticated image-guided individualized treatments, with maximally protected normal structures. This has led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of breast...... cancer patients in terms of disease control, survival, and quality of life. This progress is based on clinical research and paralleled by progress in delivering sophisticated radiation treatment. Clinical trials resulted in identifying patients groups who will benefit from radiation treatment. They also...

  12. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...... estimate of overdiagnosis. Screening affects cohorts of screened women. Danish registers allow very accurate mapping of the fate of every woman. We should be past the phase where studies of overdiagnosis are based on the fixed age groups from routine statistics....

  13. An update on inflammatory breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Thapaliya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer is one of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer. Once considered to be a uniformly fatal disease, treatment of this entity has evolved significantly over the last two decades. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathology, biologic underpinnings, radiologic advances, and treatment modalities for inflammatory breast cancer. Updates in surgical therapy, medical oncologic therapy and radiation therapy are reviewed. Emphasis is on cutting edge information regarding inflammatory breast cancer. The management of inflammatory breast cancer is best served by a multidisciplinary team. Continued research into molecular pathways and potential targets is imperative. Future clinical trials should include evaluation of conventional therapy with targeted therapies.

  14. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  15. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival For some women with breast cancer , taking adjuvant ... Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.” ...

  16. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  17. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-28

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  19. Protection against aflatoxin B1-induced hepatic toxicity as short-term screen of cancer chemopreventive dithiolethiones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxuitenko, Y Y; Curphey, T J; Kensler, T W; Roebuck, B D

    1996-08-01

    Dithiolethiones are an important class of cancer chemopreventive agents. More than 50 new dithiolethione analogs were synthesized for structure-activity studies. Using selected dithiolethiones, studies were designed to measure protection against the hepatotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and relate it to the protection against carcinogenicity. Young male F344 rats were pretreated with 0.1 or 0.3 mmol dithiolethiones/kg body wt and challenged with toxic doses of AFB1 (50 micrograms/100 g rat/day) on 2 successive days. One day later, the protection from hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring serum hepatic enzymes, hepatic necrosis, and degree of bile duct cell proliferation. The ability of these dithiolethiones to prevent AFB1-induced tumorigenicity was assessed by quantifying the hepatic burden of putative preneoplastic lesions [placental glutathione S-transferase (GST-P)-positive foci]. Significant correlations (p bile duct cell proliferation, r = 0.933). These results imply that inhibition of hepatotoxicity affords protection against hepatocarcinogenicity. The extent of protection from acute hepatotoxicity offers a simple, short-term biological endpoint to screen dithiolethiones and related compounds for their chemopreventive properties.

  20. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmich, L.R.; During, M.; Henriksen, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  1. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broeks, A; Schmidt, M.K; Sherman, M.E; Couch, F.J; Hopper, J.L; Dite, G.S; Apicella, C; Smith, L.D; Hammet, F; Southey, M.C; Veer, L.J. van 't; Groot, R. de; Smit, V.T; Fasching, P.A; Beckmann, M.W; Jud, S; Ekici, A.B; Hartmann, A; Hein, A; Schulz-Wendtland, R; Burwinkel, B; Marme, F; Schneeweiss, A; Sinn, H.P; Sohn, C; Tchatchou, S; Bojesen, S.E; Nordestgaard, B.G; Flyger, H; Orsted, D.D; Kaur-Knudsen, D; Milne, R.L; Perez, J.I; Zamora, P; Roiguez, P.M; Benitez, J; Brauch, H; Justenhoven, C; Ko, Y.D; Hamann, U; Fischer, H.P; Bruning, T; Pesch, B; Chang-Claude, J; Wang-Gohrke, S; Bremer, M; Karstens, J.H; Hillemanns, P; Dork, T; Nevanlinna, H.A; Heikkinen, T; Heikkila, P; Blomqvist, C; Aittomaki, K; Aaltonen, K; Lindblom, A; Margolin, S; Mannermaa, A; Kosma, V.M; Kauppinen, J.M; Kataja, V; Auvinen, P; Eskelinen, M; Soini, Y; Chenevix-Trench, G; Spurdle, A.B; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Holland, H; Lambrechts, D; Claes, B; Vandorpe, T; Neven, P; Wildiers, H; Flesch-Janys, D; Hein, R; Loning, T; Kosel, M; Fredericksen, Z.S; Wang, X; Giles, G.G; Baglietto, L; Severi, G; McLean, C; Haiman, C.A; Henderson, B.E; Marchand, L. le; Kolonel, L.N; Alnaes, G.G; Kristensen, V; Borresen-Dale, A.L; Hunter, D.J; Hankinson, S.E; Anulis, I.L; Mulligan, A.M; O'Malley, F.P; Devilee, P; Huijts, P.E; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M; Asperen, C.J. van

    2011-01-01

    .... We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes...

  2. Alcohol and breast cancer: the mechanisms explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sader, Hassen; Abdul-Jabar, Hani; Allawi, Zahra; Haba, Yasser

    2009-08-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death amongst women, several studies have shown significant association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer. The aim of this overview is to highlight some of the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption could increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Using online Medline search engine, article containing details about mechanisms which explain the link between alcohol and breast cancer were examined. A number of mechanisms were found by which alcohol could increase the risk of breast cancer, alcohol's interaction and effect on oestrogen secretion; number of oestrogen receptors; the generation of acetaldehyde and hydroxyl free radicals; cells migration and metastasis; secretion of IGF1 and interaction with HRT and folate metabolism. In conclusion, it is essential for clinicians to understand these mechanisms and inform patients of the link between alcohol and breast cancer. Breast cancer; Alcohol; Mechanisms.

  3. Mechanisms involved in breast cancer liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Feng, Yili; Lin, Shuang; Chen, Jiang; Lin, Hui; Liang, Xiao; Zheng, Heming; Cai, Xiujun

    2015-02-15

    Liver metastasis is a frequent occurrence in patients with breast cancer; however, the available treatments are limited and ineffective. While liver-specific homing of breast cancer cells is an important feature of metastasis, the formation of liver metastases is not random. Indeed, breast cancer cell factors contribute to the liver microenvironment. Major breakthroughs have been achieved recently in understanding breast cancer liver metastasis (BCLM). The process of liver metastasis consists of multiple steps and involves various factors from breast cancer cells and the liver microenvironment. A further understanding of the roles of breast cancer cells and the liver microenvironment is crucial to guide future work in clinical treatments. In this review we discuss the contribution of breast cancer cells and the liver microenvironment to liver metastasis, with the aim to improve therapeutic efficacy for patients with BCLM.

  4. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  5. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  6. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development...

  7. Chemopreventive potential of β-Sitosterol in experimental colon cancer model - an In vitro and In vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulraj Gabriel M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asclepias curassavica Linn. is a traditional medicinal plant used by tribal people in the western ghats, India, to treat piles, gonorrhoea, roundworm infestation and abdominal tumours. We have determined the protective effect of β-sitosterol isolated from A. curassavica in colon cancer, using in vitro and in vivo models. Methods The active molecule was isolated, based upon bioassay guided fractionation, and identified as β-sitosterol on spectral evidence. The ability to induce apoptosis was determined by its in vitro antiradical activity, cytotoxic studies using human colon adenocarcinoma and normal monkey kidney cell lines, and the expression of β-catenin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in human colon cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM. The chemopreventive potential of β-sitosterol in colon carcinogenesis was assessed by injecting 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg b.w. into male Wistar rats and supplementing this with β-sitosterol throughout the experimental period of 16 weeks at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w. Results β-sitosterol induced significant dose-dependent growth inhibition of COLO 320 DM cells (IC50 266.2 μM, induced apoptosis by scavenging reactive oxygen species, and suppressed the expression of β-catenin and PCNA antigens in human colon cancer cells. β-sitosterol supplementation reduced the number of aberrant crypt and crypt multiplicity in DMH-initiated rats in a dose-dependent manner with no toxic effects. Conclusion We found doses of 10-20 mg/kg b.w. β-sitosterol to be effective for future in vivo studies. β-sitosterol had chemopreventive potential by virtue of its radical quenching ability in vitro, with minimal toxicity to normal cells. It also attenuated β-catenin and PCNA expression, making it a potential anticancer drug for colon carcinogenesis.

  8. Chemopreventive potential of beta-Sitosterol in experimental colon cancer model--an in vitro and In vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Albert A; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Paulraj, Gabriel M; Al Numair, Khalid S

    2010-06-04

    Asclepias curassavica Linn. is a traditional medicinal plant used by tribal people in the western ghats, India, to treat piles, gonorrhoea, roundworm infestation and abdominal tumours. We have determined the protective effect of beta-sitosterol isolated from A. curassavica in colon cancer, using in vitro and in vivo models. The active molecule was isolated, based upon bioassay guided fractionation, and identified as beta-sitosterol on spectral evidence. The ability to induce apoptosis was determined by its in vitro antiradical activity, cytotoxic studies using human colon adenocarcinoma and normal monkey kidney cell lines, and the expression of beta-catenin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in human colon cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM). The chemopreventive potential of beta-sitosterol in colon carcinogenesis was assessed by injecting 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg b.w.) into male Wistar rats and supplementing this with beta-sitosterol throughout the experimental period of 16 weeks at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w. beta-sitosterol induced significant dose-dependent growth inhibition of COLO 320 DM cells (IC50 266.2 microM), induced apoptosis by scavenging reactive oxygen species, and suppressed the expression of beta-catenin and PCNA antigens in human colon cancer cells. beta-sitosterol supplementation reduced the number of aberrant crypt and crypt multiplicity in DMH-initiated rats in a dose-dependent manner with no toxic effects. We found doses of 10-20 mg/kg b.w. beta-sitosterol to be effective for future in vivo studies. beta-sitosterol had chemopreventive potential by virtue of its radical quenching ability in vitro, with minimal toxicity to normal cells. It also attenuated beta-catenin and PCNA expression, making it a potential anticancer drug for colon carcinogenesis.

  9. Chemopreventive potential of β-Sitosterol in experimental colon cancer model - an In vitro and In vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Asclepias curassavica Linn. is a traditional medicinal plant used by tribal people in the western ghats, India, to treat piles, gonorrhoea, roundworm infestation and abdominal tumours. We have determined the protective effect of β-sitosterol isolated from A. curassavica in colon cancer, using in vitro and in vivo models. Methods The active molecule was isolated, based upon bioassay guided fractionation, and identified as β-sitosterol on spectral evidence. The ability to induce apoptosis was determined by its in vitro antiradical activity, cytotoxic studies using human colon adenocarcinoma and normal monkey kidney cell lines, and the expression of β-catenin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in human colon cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM). The chemopreventive potential of β-sitosterol in colon carcinogenesis was assessed by injecting 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg b.w.) into male Wistar rats and supplementing this with β-sitosterol throughout the experimental period of 16 weeks at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w. Results β-sitosterol induced significant dose-dependent growth inhibition of COLO 320 DM cells (IC50 266.2 μM), induced apoptosis by scavenging reactive oxygen species, and suppressed the expression of β-catenin and PCNA antigens in human colon cancer cells. β-sitosterol supplementation reduced the number of aberrant crypt and crypt multiplicity in DMH-initiated rats in a dose-dependent manner with no toxic effects. Conclusion We found doses of 10-20 mg/kg b.w. β-sitosterol to be effective for future in vivo studies. β-sitosterol had chemopreventive potential by virtue of its radical quenching ability in vitro, with minimal toxicity to normal cells. It also attenuated β-catenin and PCNA expression, making it a potential anticancer drug for colon carcinogenesis. PMID:20525330

  10. Nanotechnology for breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takemi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Sakamoto, Jason H; Tasciotti, Ennio; Robertson, Fredika M; Ferrari, Mauro

    2009-02-01

    Breast cancer is the field of medicine with the greatest presence of nanotechnological therapeutic agents in the clinic. A pegylated form of liposomally encapsulated doxorubicin is routinely used for treatment against metastatic cancer, and albumin nanoparticulate chaperones of paclitaxel were approved for locally recurrent and metastatic disease in 2005. These drugs have yielded substantial clinical benefit, and are steadily gathering greater beneficial impact. Clinical trials currently employing these drugs in combination with chemo and biological therapeutics exceed 150 worldwide. Despite these advancements, breast cancer morbidity and mortality is unacceptably high. Nanotechnology offers potential solutions to the historical challenge that has rendered breast cancer so difficult to contain and eradicate: the extreme biological diversity of the disease presentation in the patient population and in the evolutionary changes of any individual disease, the multiple pathways that drive disease progression, the onset of 'resistance' to established therapeutic cocktails, and the gravity of the side effects to treatment, which result from generally very poor distribution of the injected therapeutic agents in the body. A fundamental requirement for success in the development of new therapeutic strategies is that breast cancer specialists-in the clinic, the pharmaceutical and the basic biological laboratory-and nanotechnologists-engineers, physicists, chemists and mathematicians-optimize their ability to work in close collaboration. This further requires a mutual openness across cultural and language barriers, academic reward systems, and many other 'environmental' divides. This paper is respectfully submitted to the community to help foster the mutual interactions of the breast cancer world with micro- and nano-technology, and in particular to encourage the latter community to direct ever increasing attention to breast cancer, where an extraordinary beneficial impact may

  11. Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R

    2013-01-01

    Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....

  12. Triple-negative breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón, Reinaldo D; Costanzo, María V

    2010-01-01

    Perou's molecular classification defines tumors that neither express hormone receptors nor overexpress HER2 as triple-negative (TN) tumors. These tumors account for approximately 15% of breast cancers. The so-called basaloid tumors are not always synonymous with TN tumors; they differ in the fact that they express different molecular markers, have a higher histologic grade, and have a worse prognosis. Clinically they occur in younger women as interval cancer, and the risk of recurrence is hig...

  13. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    or doxorubicin alone or in combination are shown. (C) Balb/c mice were challenged with 4T1.2 cells orthotopically in the mammary gland and received... mammary gland and received 6 oral daily doses of Ivermectin (5 mg/kg) alone or in combination with doxorubicin at 5 mg/kg. Comparisons between...Tumor stroma and regulation of cancer development. Annual review of pathology 1, 119 (2006). 11. M. M. Shao et al., A subset of breast cancer

  14. Breast Cancer Vaccines: New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetti, Rosaria; Dell’Aversana, Carmela; Giorgio, Cristina; Astorri, Roberta; Altucci, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a persistent global challenge for its high frequency in women (although it seldom occurs in men), due to the large diffusion of risk factors and gene mutations, and for its peculiar biology and microenvironment. To date, BC can benefit from different therapeutic strategies involving surgery, ablation, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and more specific approaches such as hormone therapy and the administration of various substances impairing cancer growth, aggressivity, and rec...

  15. Imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis according to molecular subtype: association with breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Chang, Jung Min; Shin, Sung Ui; Chu, A Jung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) according to molecular subtype and to determine whether the molecular subtype affects breast cancer detection on DBT. This was an institutional review board--approved study with a waiver of informed consent. DBT findings of 288 invasive breast cancers were reviewed according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. Detectability of breast cancer was quantified by the number of readers (0-3) who correctly detected the cancer in an independent blinded review. DBT features and the cancer detectability score according to molecular subtype were compared using Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance. Of 288 invasive cancers, 194 were hormone receptor (HR)-positive, 48 were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive and 46 were triple negative breast cancers. The most common DBT findings were irregular spiculated masses for HR-positive cancer, fine pleomorphic or linear branching calcifications for HER2 positive cancer and irregular masses with circumscribed margins for triple negative breast cancers (p Cancer detectability on DBT was not significantly different according to molecular subtype (p = 0.213) but rather affected by tumour size, breast density and presence of mass or calcifications. Breast cancers showed different imaging features according to molecular subtype; however, it did not affect the cancer detectability on DBT. Advances in knowledge: DBT showed characteristic imaging features of breast cancers according to molecular subtype. However, cancer detectability on DBT was not affected by molecular subtype of breast cancers.

  16. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  17. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  18. System delays in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa (SA), breast cancer is the 4th most common cause of death from all malignancies.[1] In SA, we notice a discrepancy in incidence rates between various ethnic/race groups. African women have rates similar to those in other developing countries. Caucasian women have rates that are comparable with ...

  19. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  20. Estrogen Metabolism and Breast Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pathway mediated by the generation and redox Cycling of reactive oxygen species through the metabolic effects of estrogen .... therapy. Several studies including the European. Organization for Research and Treatment of. Cancer ÇEORTC) trial,19 the ATAC (Arimidex, tamoxifen, alone or in combination) adjuvant breast.

  1. Genetic determinants of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the

  2. Progesterone Receptor Scaffolding Function in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    response. PR are expressed in multiple human tissues including the uterus, mammary gland , brain, pancreas, thymus , bone, ovary, testes, and in the...ABSTRACT Progesterone receptors (PR) are critical mediators of mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression. Progestin...receptors (PR) are critical for massive breast epithelial cell expansion during mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of invasive breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G5

    graphic findings, and screening for breast cancer in younger women with familial breast cancer. Interpretation of MR images requires a meticulous imaging technique including the use of contrast enhancement and fat suppression MR sequences using a good breast coil. Introduction. The role of MR imaging in the diagno-.

  4. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast Cancer Risk and Environmental Factors For millions of women whose lives have been affected by breast cancer, the 1994 discovery of the first breast ... gene by researchers from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and their collaborators, was a ...

  5. TrkB Promotes Breast Cancer Metastasis via Suppression of Runx3 and Keap1 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Won Sung; Jin, Wook

    2016-03-01

    In metastatic breast cancer, the acquisition of malignant traits has been associated with the increased rate of cell growth and division, mobility, resistance to chemotherapy, and invasiveness. While screening for the key regulators of cancer metastasis, we observed that neurotrophin receptor TrkB is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer patients and breast cancer cell lines. Additionally, we demonstrate that TrkB expression and clinical breast tumor pathological phenotypes show significant correlation. Moreover, TrkB expression was significantly upregulated in basal-like, claudin-low, and metaplastic breast cancers from a published microarray database and in patients with triple-negative breast cancer, which is associated with a higher risk of invasive recurrence. Interestingly, we identified a new TrkB-regulated functional network that is important for the tumorigenicity and metastasis of breast cancer. We demonstrated that TrkB plays a key role in regulation of the tumor suppressors Runx3 and Keap1. A markedly increased expression of Runx3 and Keap1 was observed upon knockdown of TrkB, treatment with a TrkB inhibitor, and in TrkB kinase dead mutants. Additionally, the inhibition of PI3K/AKT activation significantly induced Runx3 and Keap1 expression. Furthermore, we showed that TrkB enhances metastatic potential and induces proliferation. These observations suggest that TrkB plays a key role in tumorigenicity and metastasis of breast cancer cells through suppression of Runx3 or Keap1 and that it is a promising target for future intervention strategies for preventing tumor metastasis and cancer chemoprevention.

  6. Bilateral breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Jun, Hwang Yoon; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical features of bilateral breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records(n=23) and mammograms (n=15) of 23 patients with bilateral breast cancer. Patients' age, location of the tumor and pathologic staging were determined from clinical records. Mammographic features were classified as spiculated mass, nonspiculated mass, mass with microcalcification, microcalcification only, asymmetric density, and normal. Of the 23 cases of bilateral breast cancer, 8(34.8%) were synchronous and 15(65.2%) were metachronous. Age at diagnosis of cancer in the first breast was between 27 and 59(mean 43) years ; there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between patients with synchronous and metachronous cancer. The mean interval between the diagnosis of each lesion of the metachronous pairs was 9.1 years. In 11 of 23 cases(48%), tumors were locaated in the same quadrant, and in the other 12 cases(52%), they were in different quadrant. At mammography, five of 15 metachronous cancers(33%) were similar in appearance and 10 pairs(67%) were different. In 4 of 23 cases(17%), cancer in the first breast was at stage 0 and stage 1, and in 13 of 23(57%), cancer in the second breast was at this same stage. In bilateral breast cancer, the two breasts frequently show different mammographic features. Cancer of the second breast was at an early stage; this suggest that regular examination and mammography are important and can allow early detection of contralateral breast cancer.

  7. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  8. Computed tomography of the breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sup; Lee, Ki Chu [Hallym University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    The indication of computed tomography for the breast lesion are 1) Unusually extensive or small breast caused technical difficulties in performing mammograms. 2) Questionable mammographic findings, especially in dense proliferative breast parenchyme. 3) Microcancer. 4) Suspicious regional lymph node enlargement or invasive of the chest wall by breast cancer. The diagnosis of breast CT in breast cancer is based on pathologic anatomic changes and characteristic increase of mean CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement. Authors analysed CT of the 34 patients who were clinically suspected breast cancer, and compared with mammography. The results are as follows: 1. Pathological diagnosis of 34 cases were 27 cases of breast cancer, 4 cases of fibrocystic disease, 2 cases of fibroadenoma, and 1 case of intraductal papilloma. The diagnostic accuracy of CT in 27 breast cancer was 93% (25 cases) and mammography 71% (19 case). 2. Correct diagnosis of CT in 7 benign breast disease is in 5 cases and mammography in 5 cases. 3. The most important finding of CT in breast cancer is characteristic increase of CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement (200 ml, 65%): over average 50 HU in 19 cases of 27 breast cancers, 30-50 HU in a 6 cases, 20-30 HU in 2 cases with tumor necrosis. 4. Computed with mammography, other more valuable CT findings of breast cancer are axillary lymph node enlargement and adjacentic pectoral muscle invasion. 5. In conclusion, breast CT is considered as valuable diagnostic tool in evaluation of breast cancer, but not of benign breast disease.

  9. Amygdalin Regulates Apoptosis and Adhesion in Hs578T Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Min; Moon, Aree

    2016-01-01

    Amygdalin, D-mandelonitrile-β-D-glucoside-6-β-glucoside, belongs to aromatic cyanogenic glycoside group derived from rosaceous plant seed. Mounting evidence has supported the anti-cancer effects of amygdalin. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent against breast cancer cells is not clear. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of amygdalin on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Here, we show that amygdalin exerted cytotoxic activities on estrogen receptors (ER)-positive MCF7 cells, and MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Amygdalin induced apoptosis of Hs578T TNBC cells. Amygdalin downregulated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), upregulated Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), activated of caspase-3 and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Amygdalin activated a pro-apoptotic signaling molecule p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) in Hs578T cells. Treatment of amygdalin significantly inhibited the adhesion of Hs578T cells, in which integrin α5 may be involved. Taken together, this study demonstrates that amygdalin induces apoptosis and inhibits adhesion of breast cancer cells. The results suggest a potential application of amygdalin as a chemopreventive agent to prevent or alleviate progression of breast cancer, especially TNBC.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of an Aspirin-fumarate Prodrug that Inhibits NFκB Activity and Breast Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrati, Irida; Delgado-Rivera, Loruhama; Georgieva, Gergana; Thatcher, Gregory R J; Frasor, Jonna

    2017-01-18

    Inflammation is a cancer hallmark that underlies cancer incidence and promotion, and eventually progression to metastasis. Therefore, adding an anti-inflammatory drug to standard cancer regiments may improve patient outcome. One such drug, aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA), has been explored for cancer chemoprevention and anti-tumor activity. Besides inhibiting the cyclooxygenase 2-prostaglandin axis, ASA's anti-cancer activities have also been attributed to nuclear factor ĸB (NFĸB) inhibition. Because prolonged ASA use may cause gastrointestinal toxicity, a prodrug strategy has been implemented successfully. In this prodrug design the carboxylic acid of ASA is masked and additional pharmacophores are incorporated. This protocol describes how we synthesized an aspirin-fumarate prodrug, GTCpFE, and characterized its inhibition of the NFĸB pathway in breast cancer cells and attenuation of the cancer stem-like properties, an important NFĸB-dependent phenotype. GTCpFE effectively inhibits the NFĸB pathway in breast cancer cell lines whereas ASA lacks any inhibitory activity, indicating that adding fumarate to ASA structure significantly contributes to its activity. In addition, GTCpFE shows significant anti-cancer stem cell activity by blocking mammosphere formation and attenuating the cancer stem cell associated CD44 + CD24 - immunophenotype. These results establish a viable strategy to develop improved anti-inflammatory drugs for chemoprevention and cancer therapy.

  11. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  12. Chemopreventive properties of curcumin analogues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the chemopreventive activity of curcumin analogues, hexagamavunone-0 (HGV-. 0) and gamavutone-0 (GVT-0), compared to curcumin in a colorectal cancer model in Wistar rats. Methods: Rats (n = 25) were assigned to one of five groups (n = 5 in each group). Colorectal cancer was induced in the ...

  13. Brain metastasization of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio-Santos, Tânia; Videira, Mafalda; Brito, Maria Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Central nervous system metastases have been reported in 15-25% of breast cancer patients, and the incidence is increasing. Moreover, the survival of these patients is generally poor, with reports of a 1-year survival rate of 20%. Therefore, a better knowledge about the determinants of brain metastasization is essential for the improvement of the clinical outcomes. Here, we summarize the current data about the metastatic cascade, ranging from the output of cancer cells from the primary tumour to their colonization in the brain, which involves the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion of mammary tissue, intravasation into circulation, and homing into and extravasation towards the brain. The phenotypic change in malignant cells, and the importance of the microenvironment in the formation of brain metastases are also inspected. Finally, the importance of genetic and epigenetic changes, and the recently disclosed effects of microRNAs in brain metastasization of breast cancer are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer ( 5 ). Some research has focused on parabens, which are preservatives used in some deodorants and ... body’s cells ( 6 ). It has been reported that parabens are found in breast tumors, but there is ...

  15. Drug transporters in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Stenvang, Jan; Moreira, José

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances that have taken place in the past decade, including the development of novel molecular targeted agents, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of cancer treatment. In breast cancer, anthracyclines and taxanes are the two main chemotherapeutic options used on a routine...... basis. Although effective, their usefulness is limited by the inevitable development of resistance, a lack of response to drug-induced cancer cell death. A large body of research has resulted in the characterization of a plethora of mechanisms involved in resistance; ATP-binding cassette transporter...

  16. Cancer Chemopreventive Effects of Boswellia sacra Gum Resin Hydrodistillates on Invasive Urothelial Cell Carcinoma: Report of a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ding; Lou, Weiwei; Fung, Kar-Ming; Wolley, Cole L; Suhail, Mahmoud M; Lin, Hsueh-Kung

    2017-12-01

    A 52-year-old Hispanic male presented with hematuria and was later diagnosed with a large invasive high-grade urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the urinary bladder, but with ambiguous pT1/pT2 staging regarding musclaris propria invasion by UCC. The conventional treatment including radical cystoprostatectomy followed by neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy was presented. The patient decided to delay the standard therapy until a later stage, but elected to go through transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) without Bacillus Calmette-Guérin instillation. Following TURBT, the patient started oral Boswellia sacra gum resin (aka frankincense or Ru Xiang in Chinese) hydrodistillates (BSGRH) administration at 3 mL daily with lifestyle changes, and continued this regimen in the last 25 months. Within the first year after diagnosis, the patient experienced 2 recurrences. Recurrent tumors were removed by TURBT alone and both tumors were far smaller than the original one. After the second recurrence, the patient has no detectible cancer in the bladder based on cystoscopy for 14 months and has an intact genitourinary system. His liver and kidney functions are considered to be normal based on blood chemistry tests. This index case suggests that BSGRH may have cancer chemopreventive effects on UCC. The use of Boswellia-derived products in the management of cancer has been well document in other published studies, and boswellic acids have been suggested to be the major component. However, BSGRH contains very little boswellic acids. Demonstration of cancer chemoprevention using BSGRH is one step forward in isolating the key components other than boswellic acids in frankincense. The critical question as to whether these components can simultaneously activate multiple pathways in cancer cells to execute cancer suppression/cytotoxicity or prevention effects remains to be addressed. More studies including identification of key molecules, pharmacokinetics

  17. Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mammography is an established screening tool for breast cancer in high-income countries but may not be feasible for most resource poor nations. Alternative modalities are needed to mitigate the impact of the increasing incidence and mortality due to breast cancer. This may require the development of new ...

  18. Breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Jung; Shin, Sang Soo [Dept. of of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyo Soon; Baek, Jang Mi; Seon, Hyun Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Park, Min Ho [Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging and to describe the MR imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. From 2006 to 2013, MR images of 23 patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were reviewed to evaluate lesion detection and imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. MR images were analyzed by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System and an additional MR-detected lesion with no mammographic or sonographic abnormality was determined. MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients, even in marked background parenchymal enhancement. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was seen as a mass in 20 patients and as non-mass enhancement with segmental distribution in 3 patients. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (85%), non-circumscribed margin (85%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%). An additional site of cancer was detected with MR imaging in 5 patients (21.7%) and the type of surgery was changed. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was usually seen as an irregular mass with heterogeneous enhancement on MR images. Although these findings were not specific, MR imaging was useful in evaluating the disease extent of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

  19. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    [[{"fid":"184","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400"," | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  20. Perspectives of Breast Cancer Thermotherapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphandéry, Edouard

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the use of different types of thermotherapies to treat breast cancer is reviewed. While hyperthermia is most commonly used as an adjuvant in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy or cryotherapy to enhance the therapeutic effect of these therapies, thermoablation is usually carried out alone to eradicate small breast tumors. A recently developed thermotherapy, called magnetic hyperthermia, which involves localized heating of nanoparticles under the application of an alternating magnetic field, is also presented. The advantages and drawbacks of these different thermotherapies are highlighted. PMID:24959300

  1. Integrins in breast cancer dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, Stephanie M; Muller, William J

    2008-01-01

    Among breast cancer patients, 20% to 45% develop malignant lesions following their initial treatment. This relapse may occur after an apparent remission period that can range from years to several decades. Clinical observations suggest that breast-derived malignant cells have the ability to survive subclinically for a very long period of time before eventually resuming proliferation and forming detectable lesions. While the precise molecular events that correspond to this dormant phenotype remain poorly understood, data published during the last 10 years have underlined an important role of integrin proteins in the regulation of this phenomenon.

  2. Chemopreventive effects of synthetic C-substituted diindolylmethanes originating from cruciferous vegetables in human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Ae; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Eun-Sun; Leem, Dae-Ho; Kwon, Ki Han; Lee, Syng-Ook; Safe, Stephen; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2011-09-01

    Diindolylmethane (DIM), an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to have cancer chemopreventive effects. A series of synthetic C-substituted DIMs (C-DIMs) analogs was developed, including DIM-C-pPhtBu and DIM-C-pPhC6H5, which exhibited better inhibitory activity in cancer cells than DIM. This study examined the effects of C-DIMs on the growth of human oral cancer cells. DIM-C-pPhtBu and DIM-C-pPhC6H5 decreased the number of viable KB cells and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. The apoptotic cell death was accompanied by a change in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and damage to mitochondrial membrane potential through the induction of death receptor 5 and the cleavage of Bid and caspase 8. Studies on the mechanism of action showed that the apoptotic cell death induced by DIM-C-pPhtBu and DIM-C-pPhC6H5 was mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, C-DIMs inhibited cell proliferation and induced PARP cleavage through death receptor 5 and CHOP in HEp-2 and HN22 cells. This provides the first evidence that synthetic C-DIMs originating from cruciferous vegetables induce apoptosis in human oral cancer cells through the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

  3. Biased cognitive processing of cancer-related information among women with family histories of breast cancer: evidence from a cancer stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erblich, Joel; Montgomery, Guy H; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B; Cloitre, Marylene; Bovbjerg, Dana H

    2003-05-01

    Stimuli associated with sources of stress have been shown to interfere with cognition. The authors hypothesized that women with the stress of having a family history of breast cancer (FH+) would exhibit greater interference on a task with cancer-related stimuli than women without cancer in the family (FH-). The authors developed a modified Stroop color-naming task to test this hypothesis in a sample of FH+ (n = 72) and FH- (n = 96) women. Consistent with the hypotheses, FH+ women had longer color-naming times and more errors (ps cancer word list relative to noncancer lists. This biased processing was not mediated by the significantly higher perceived risk, general distress, or cancer-specific distress in FH+ women. Maladaptive alterations in processing cancer stimuli may have important clinical implications, as these women must process complex cancer-related information critical to their health (e.g., options for chemoprevention, screening).

  4. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  5. Breast Cancer Research Update | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Past Issues / Winter 2017 Table of ... sheet Extended Drug Therapy Benefits Some Women with Breast Cancer Results from a recent clinical trial showed that ...

  6. Potential utility of natural products as regulators of breast cancer-associated aromatase promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Larry A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aromatase, the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, converts androstenedione to estrone and testosterone to estradiol. The enzyme is expressed in various tissues such as ovary, placenta, bone, brain, skin, and adipose tissue. Aromatase enzyme is encoded by a single gene CYP 19A1 and its expression is controlled by tissue-specific promoters. Aromatase mRNA is primarily transcribed from promoter I.4 in normal breast tissue and physiological levels of aromatase are found in breast adipose stromal fibroblasts. Under the conditions of breast cancer, as a result of the activation of a distinct set of aromatase promoters (I.3, II, and I.7 aromatase expression is enhanced leading to local overproduction of estrogen that promotes breast cancer. Aromatase is considered as a potential target for endocrine treatment of breast cancer but due to nonspecific reduction of aromatase activity in other tissues, aromatase inhibitors (AIs are associated with undesirable side effects such as bone loss, and abnormal lipid metabolism. Inhibition of aromatase expression by inactivating breast tumor-specific aromatase promoters can selectively block estrogen production at the tumor site. Although several synthetic chemical compounds and nuclear receptor ligands are known to inhibit the activity of the tumor-specific aromatase promoters, further development of more specific and efficacious drugs without adverse effects is still warranted. Plants are rich in chemopreventive agents that have a great potential to be used in chemotherapy for hormone dependent breast cancer which could serve as a source for natural AIs. In this brief review, we summarize the studies on phytochemicals such as biochanin A, genistein, quercetin, isoliquiritigenin, resveratrol, and grape seed extracts related to their effect on the activation of breast cancer-associated aromatase promoters and discuss their aromatase inhibitory potential to be used as safer chemotherapeutic agents for

  7. Fertility after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Orešković, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2014-02-01

    In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established

  8. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-cause mortality were available for five and eight cohorts, respectively. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific and all-cause mortality by propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use. HRs were pooled across cohorts using meta...

  9. Genetic Susceptibility to Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2013-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC), defined by the absence of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 expression, account for 12-24% of all breast cancers. TNBC is associated with early recurrence of disease and poor outcome. Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes have been associated with up to 15% of TNBC, and TNBC accounts for 70% of breast tumors arising in BRCA1 mutation carriers and 16-23% of breast ...

  10. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... On This Page Is there a relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk? Are any pregnancy-related factors associated with ... or other cancers? Is there a relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk? Studies have shown that a woman’s risk ...

  11. Obesity and the breast cancer methylome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, William B

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is associated with risk factors such as advancing age and obesity. However, the linkages between these risk factors for breast cancer development and initiation of the disease are not yet clear. Obesity may drive breast cancer development through increases in circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women. Mammary cell susceptibility to neoplastic transformation requires both genetic and epigenetic alterations, including changes in DNA methylation. Obesity is also subject to epigenetic regulation. In this review, the nature of epigenetic changes, specifically changes to the methylome, are discussed in the context of obesity and breast cancer, and a potential mechanism for the interaction of obesity and breast cancer is proposed. This proposed mechanism identifies opportunities for intervention (using drugs or biologic therapies) to prevent breast cancer development in the obese patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. exerts chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishayee, Anupam, E-mail: abishayee@auhs.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, CA 90755 (United States); Mandal, Animesh [Cancer Therapeutics and Chemoprevention Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH 44272 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Dietary administration of an ethanolic extract of aerial parts of T. portulacastrum (TPE) exhibits a striking chemopreventive effect in an experimentally induced classical animal model of breast cancer. • The mammary tumor-inhibitory effect of TPE could be achieved, at least in part, though intervention of key hallmark capabilities of tumor cells, such as abnormal cell proliferation and evasion of apoptosis. • TPE is capable of diminishing activated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling to exhibit antiproliferative, proapoptotic and oncostatic effects during this early-stage mammary carcinoma. • These results coupled with a safety profile of T. portulacastrum may encourage further studies to understand the full potential of this dietary plant for chemoprevention of breast cancer. - Abstract: Due to limited treatment options for advanced-stage metastatic breast cancer, a high priority should be given to develop non-toxic chemopreventive drugs. The value of various natural and dietary agents to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer is well established. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Aizoaceae), a dietary and medicinal plant, has been found to exert antihepatotoxic and antihepatocarcinogenic properties in rodents. This study was initiated to investigate mechanism-based chemopreventive potential of an ethanolic extract of T. portulacastrum (TPE) against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated rat mammary gland carcinogenesis, an experimental tumor model that closely resembles human breast cancer. Rats had access to a basal diet supplemented with TPE to yield three dietary doses of the extract, i.e., 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Following two weeks of TPE treatment, mammary tumorigenesis was initiated by oral administration of DMBA (50 mg/kg body weight). At the end of the study (16 weeks after DMBA exposure), TPE exhibited a striking reduction of DMBA-induced mammary tumor incidence, total tumor burden and average tumor weight

  13. Are diet quality scores after breast cancer diagnosis associated with improved breast cancer survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izano, Monika A; Fung, Teresa T; Chiuve, Stephanie S; Hu, Frank B; Holmes, Michelle D

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are associated with reduced breast cancer mortality. However, these eating patterns do not necessarily reflect overall diet quality. The association of breast cancer mortality with a priori defined dietary scores, which are based on recommended dietary guidelines and reflect diet quality, has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that diet quality indices based on recommended guidelines are associated with decreased risk of breast cancer and nonbreast cancer mortality in breast cancer survivors. We examined the association between the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, and the risk of breast cancer mortality and total mortality among women from the Nurses' Health Study diagnosed with breast cancer. Adherence to DASH-style and AHEI-2010 diets were associated with reduced risk of nonbreast cancer mortality (comparing the fifth quintile with the first quintile, relative risk (RR) = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53-0.99, P trend = 0.03 for DASH, and RR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.42-0.77, P trend Diet scores were not significantly associated with breast cancer mortality. Our findings suggest that adherence to a higher quality diet after breast cancer diagnosis does not considerably change the risk of breast cancer death and recurrence. However, healthy dietary choices after breast cancer were associated with reduced risk of nonbreast cancer mortality in women with breast cancer.

  14. Dietary flavonoid intake and breast cancer risk among women on Long Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Brian N; Steck, Susan E; Wolff, Mary S; Britton, Julie A; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Schroeder, Jane C; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Gammon, Marilie D

    2007-03-01

    Flavonoids are found in a variety of foods and have anticarcinogenic properties in experimental models. Few epidemiologic studies have examined whether flavonoid intake is associated with breast cancer in humans. In this study, the authors investigated whether dietary flavonoid intake was associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in a population-based sample of US women. They conducted a case-control study among women who resided in Nassau and Suffolk counties on Long Island, New York. Cases and controls were interviewed about known and suspected risk factors and asked to complete a food frequency questionnaire regarding their average intake in the prior 12 months. A total of 1,434 breast cancer cases and 1,440 controls provided adequate responses. A decrease in breast cancer risk was associated with flavonoid intake; the decrease was most pronounced among postmenopausal women for flavonols (odds ratio (OR) = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40, 0.73), flavones (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.45, 0.83), flavan-3-ols (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.99), and lignans (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.51, 0.94). The authors conclude that intake of flavonols, flavones, flavan-3-ols, and lignans is associated with reduced risk of incident postmenopausal breast cancer among Long Island women. These results suggest that US women can consume sufficient levels of flavonoids to benefit from their potential chemopreventive effects.

  15. Mechanism and preclinical prevention of increased breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Svasti; Dong, Jie; Hein, Sarah; Reddy, Jay P; Du, Zhijun; Toneff, Michael; Holloway, Kimberly; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Huang, Shixia; Atkinson, Rachel; Woodward, Wendy; Jindal, Sonali; Borges, Virginia F; Gutierrez, Carolina; Zhang, Hong; Schedin, Pepper J; Osborne, C Kent; Tweardy, David J; Li, Yi

    2013-12-31

    While a first pregnancy before age 22 lowers breast cancer risk, a pregnancy after age 35 significantly increases life-long breast cancer risk. Pregnancy causes several changes to the normal breast that raise barriers to transformation, but how pregnancy can also increase cancer risk remains unclear. We show in mice that pregnancy has different effects on the few early lesions that have already developed in the otherwise normal breast-it causes apoptosis evasion and accelerated progression to cancer. The apoptosis evasion is due to the normally tightly controlled STAT5 signaling going astray-these precancerous cells activate STAT5 in response to pregnancy/lactation hormones and maintain STAT5 activation even during involution, thus preventing the apoptosis normally initiated by oncoprotein and involution. Short-term anti-STAT5 treatment of lactation-completed mice bearing early lesions eliminates the increased risk after a pregnancy. This chemoprevention strategy has important implications for preventing increased human breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00996.001.

  16. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-06

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  17. Targeting Breast Cancer Recurrence via Hedgehog-mediated Sensitization of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    defective quiescence is a predisposing factor for breast cancer . Under normal conditions, nulliparous MMTV-myc have a very low incidence of... parity in this model. Such a finding would implicate control of quiescence in breast cancer initiation and would further suggest that mammary stem...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0430 TITLE: Targeting Breast Cancer Recurrence via

  18. Targeting angiogenic pathway for chemoprevention of experimental colon cancer using C-phycocyanin as cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Manpreet Kaur; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2014-06-01

    An angiogenic pathway was studied that involved stromal tissue degradation with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), vesicular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) mediated growth regulation in a complex interaction with chemokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β). Gene and protein expression was studied with real-time PCR, Western immunoblot, and immunofluorescence. Morphological and histopathological analysis of tumor was done, as also the activity of MMPs and HIF-1α by gelatin zymography and ELISA. Binding interactions of proteins were studied by molecular docking. Piroxicam, a traditional NSAID and C-phycocyanin, a biliprotein from Spirulina platensis, were utilized in the chemoprevention of DMH-induced rat colon cancer. A significant number of tumors was evident in DMH treated animals, while with piroxicam and C-phycocyanin, the number and size of tumors/lesions were reduced. Colonic tissues showed severe dysplasia, tubular adenoma, and adenocarcinoma from DMH, with invasive features along with signet ring cell carcinoma. No occurrence of carcinoma was detected in either of the drug treatments or in a combination regimen. An elevated VEGF-A, MMP-2, and MMP-9 level was observed, which is required for metastasis and invasion into surrounding tissues. Drugs induced chemoprevention by down-regulating these proteins. Piroxicam docked in VEGF-A binding site of VEGF-A receptors i.e., VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, while phycocyanobilin (a chromophore of C-phycocyanin) docked with VEGFR1 alone. HIF-1α is up-regulated which is associated with increased oxygen demand and angiogenesis. MCP-1 and MIP-1β expression was also found altered in DMH and regulated by the drugs. Anti-angiogenic role of piroxicam and C-phycocyanin is well demonstrated.

  19. Regulation of Metastatic Breast Cancer Dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    to begin to unravel the complex resistance seen with metastatic breast cancer , particularly the fear of recurrence 5-10 years after apparent cure...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0062 TITLE: Regulation of Metastatic Breast Cancer Dormancy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Sarah Wheeler CONTRACTING...Metastatic Breast Cancer Dormancy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0062 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sarah Wheeler 5d

  20. Breast cancer and socio-economic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Anees B. Chagpar; Mario Coccia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is twofold – on the one hand, to analyze the relationship between incidence of breast cancer, income per capita and medical equipment across countries; after that, the study here discusses the drivers of the incidence of breast cancer across countries in order to pinpoint differences and similarities. Methods: The indicators used are incidence of breast cancer based on Age-standardized rate (ASW); Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita by purchasing power parit...