WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast cancer carcinogenesis

  1. Breast cancer as heterogeneous disease: contributing factors and carcinogenesis mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Abernethy, Amy P; Lyerly, H Kim

    2011-07-01

    The observed bimodal patterns of breast cancer incidence in the U.S. suggested that breast cancer may be viewed as more than one biological entity. We studied the factors potentially contributing to this phenomenon, specifically focusing on how disease heterogeneity could be linked to breast carcinogenesis mechanisms. Using empirical analyses and population-based biologically motivated modeling, age-specific patterns of incidence of ductal and lobular breast carcinomas from the SEER registry (1990-2003) were analyzed for heterogeneity and characteristics of carcinogenesis, stratified by race, stage, grade, and estrogen (ER)/progesterone (PR) receptor status. The heterogeneity of breast carcinoma age patterns decreased after stratification by grade, especially for grade I and III tumors. Stratification by ER/PR status further reduced the heterogeneity, especially for ER(+)/PR(-) and ER(-)/(-) tumors; however, the residual heterogeneity was still observed. The number of rate-limiting events of carcinogenesis and the latency of ductal and lobular carcinomas differed, decreasing from grade I to III, with poorly differentiated tumors associated with the least number of carcinogenesis stages and the shortest latency. Tumor grades play important role in bimodal incidence of breast carcinoma and have distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Race and cancer subtype could play modifying role. ER/PR status contributes to the observed heterogeneity, but is subdominant to tumor grade. Further studies on sources of "remaining" heterogeneity of population with breast cancer (such as genetic/epigenetic characteristics) are necessary. The results of this study could suggest stratification rather than unification of breast cancer prevention strategies, risk assessment, and treatment.

  2. Environment and breast cancer - the role of xenooestrogens in breast cancer carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plesnicar, A.; Kralj, B.; Druzina, B.; Kovac, V.

    2002-01-01

    Background. The survival rate of breast cancer patients has not changed much in the last few decades in developed countries. In order to improve the efficacy of breast cancer prevention and treatment, the role of xenooestrogens in the mechanisms of its development has been evaluated. These industrial chemicals bear little structural resemblance to each other and bind to the oestrogen receptors of exposed cells and/or trigger oestrogenic responses in laboratory test systems. Exposure to xenooestrogens has been regarded as a risk factor for carcinogenesis and a preventable cause of breast carcinoma. Several epidemiological and experimental studies in in vivo and in in vitro conditions of the influence of xenooestrogens on the occurrence of breast cancer have been conducted in the last decades and have shown ambiguous results. Conclusions. No increase in breast carcinoma incidence could be found in women who were exposed to relatively high concentrations of xenooestrogens for extended periods and small quantities of these compounds that are present in the environment probably cannot act as etiological agents for the occurrence of this disease. A multi step approach is suggested regarding the sequence of studies and measures that should be taken to further assess the importance of xenooestrogens on breast cancer carcinogenesis. (author)

  3. Epigenome remodelling in breast cancer: insights from an early in vitro model of carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Warwick J; Clark, Susan J

    2012-11-15

    Epigenetic gene regulation has influence over a diverse range of cellular functions, including the maintenance of pluripotency, differentiation, and cellular identity, and is deregulated in many diseases, including cancer. Whereas the involvement of epigenetic dysregulation in cancer is well documented, much of the mechanistic detail involved in triggering these changes remains unclear. In the current age of genomics, the development of new sequencing technologies has seen an influx of genomic and epigenomic data and drastic improvements in both resolution and coverage. Studies in cancer cell lines and clinical samples using next-generation sequencing are rapidly delivering spectacular insights into the nature of the cancer genome and epigenome. Despite these improvements in technology, the timing and relationship between genetic and epigenetic changes that occur during the process of carcinogenesis are still unclear. In particular, what changes to the epigenome are playing a driving role during carcinogenesis and what influence the temporal nature of these changes has on cancer progression are not known. Understanding the early epigenetic changes driving breast cancer has the exciting potential to provide a novel set of therapeutic targets or early-disease biomarkers or both. Therefore, it is important to find novel systems that permit the study of initial epigenetic events that potentially occur during the first stages of breast cancer. Non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) provide an exciting in vitro model of very early breast carcinogenesis. When grown in culture, HMECs are able to temporarily escape senescence and acquire a pre-malignant breast cancer-like phenotype (variant HMECs, or vHMECs). Cultured HMECs are composed mainly of cells from the basal breast epithelial layer. Therefore, vHMECs are considered to represent the basal-like subtype of breast cancer. The transition from HMECs to vHMECs in culture recapitulates the epigenomic

  4. Autoantibodies in breast cancer sera are not epiphenomena and may participate in carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández Madrid, Félix; Maroun, Marie-Claire; Olivero, Ofelia A; Long, Michael; Stark, Azadeh; Grossman, Lawrence I; Binder, Walter; Dong, Jingsheng; Burke, Matthew; Nathanson, S David; Zarbo, Richard; Chitale, Dhananjay; Zeballos-Chávez, Rocío; Peebles, Carol

    2015-01-01

    epiphenomena, but likely reflect an antigen-driven autoimmune response triggered by epitopes developing in the mammary gland during breast carcinogenesis. Our results support the validity of the multiple studies reporting association of autoantibodies with breast cancer. Results further suggest significant promise for the development of panels of breast cancer-specific, premalignant-phase autoantibodies, as well as studies on the autoantibody response to tumor associated antigens in the pathogenesis of cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1385-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  5. Curcumin: the spicy modulator of breast carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Urmila; Parasuraman, Subramani; Adhikary, Arun Kumar; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2017-07-19

    Worldwide breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. For many years clinicians and the researchers are examining and exploring various therapeutic modalities for breast cancer. Yet the disease has remained unconquered and the quest for cure is still going on. Present-day strategy of breast cancer therapy and prevention is either combination of a number of drugs or a drug that modulates multiple targets. In this regard natural products are now becoming significant options. Curcumin exemplifies a promising natural anticancer agent for this purpose. This review primarily underscores the modulatory effect of curcumin on the cancer hallmarks. The focus is its anticancer effect in the complex pathways of breast carcinogenesis. Curcumin modulates breast carcinogenesis through its effect on cell cycle and proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, cancer spread and angiogenesis. Largely the NFkB, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, MAPK and JAK/STAT are the key signaling pathways involved. The review also highlights the curcumin mediated modulation of tumor microenvironment, cancer immunity, breast cancer stem cells and cancer related miRNAs. Using curcumin as a therapeutic and preventive agent in breast cancer is perplexed by its diverse biological activity, much of which remains inexplicable. The information reviewed here should point toward potential scope of future curcumin research in breast cancer.

  6. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α in carcinogenesis and progression of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is primarily focused on the previously hardly explored role of HIF-1 in breast cancer. HIF-1 is a transcription factor induced by hypoxia, but also by some oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and growth factors. Activated HIF-1 can induce angiogenesis, glycolysis, erythropoiesis, and other

  7. Carcinogenesis model analysis for breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors and the implications for cancer risk estimate for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kusama, Tomoko

    2000-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence is the highest risk due to radiation among atomic bomb survivors. The excess relative risk of the early-onset breast cancer seems to be remarkably high for the youngest age-at-exposure groups. The cancer risk estimate of breast cancer is a current issue in radiological protection. We used a two-stage stochastic model for carcinogenesis to analyze the breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors (Kai, et al. Radiat. Res. 1997). Our purpose is to examine the dependence of radiation risk on age at exposure using the two-stage model and how to transfer it to other populations for radiological protection. We fitted the model assuming that radiation acts as an initiator and that the rate of radiation-induced mutation and background initiation mutation leading to baseline cancer are additive. We took two age-dependence, not attained age but age at exposure, of the spontaneous process into account. First, age-dependence of spontaneous initiation was expressed by a linear model. We also modeled the age-dependence of spontaneous net growth rate of initiated cells by a linear function. As far as radiation-induced initiation is concerned, we took a stepwise function other than a liner function into account. The analysis did not show that the radiation mutation for the youngest age-at-exposure groups below age 10 was higher than for the older groups. Furthermore, the incidence of female breast cancer in Japan is increasing and the birth cohort effect can be observed in atomic bomb survivors. Our model assumed that an acute exposure to atomic radiation can only initiate cancers and do not influence other stages of carcinogenesis, whereas spontaneous initiation and promotion are age-dependent to consider birth cohort effects. When these cohort effects are properly accounted for, the shape of the age-specific incidence curve in Japan is remarkably similar to the age-specific incidence in western populations (shown in figure). Recently Little and

  8. Inherent aerobic capacity-dependent differences in breast carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Henry J; Jones, Lee W; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Neil, Elizabeth S; McGinley, John N

    2017-09-01

    Although regular physical activity is associated with improvement in aerobic capacity and lower breast cancer risk, there are heritable sets of traits that affect improvement in aerobic capacity in response to physical activity. Although aerobic capacity segregates risk for a number of chronic diseases, the effect of the heritable component on cancer risk has not been evaluated. Therefore, we investigated breast carcinogenesis in rodent models of heritable fitness in the absence of induced physical activity. Female offspring of N:NIH rats selectively bred for low (LIAC) or high (HIAC) inherent aerobic capacity were injected intraperitoneally with 1-methyl-1-nitrosurea (70 mg/kg body wt). At study termination 33 weeks post-carcinogen, cancer incidence (14.0 versus 47.3%; P < 0.001) and multiplicity (0.18 versus 0.85 cancers per rat; P < 0.0001) were significantly decreased in HIAC versus LIAC rats, respectively. HIAC had smaller visceral and subcutaneous body fat depots than LIAC and activity of two proteins that regulated the mammalian target of rapamycin, protein kinase B (Akt), and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase were suppressed and activated, respectively, in HIAC. Although many factors distinguish between HIAC and LIAC, it appears that the protective effect of HIAC against breast carcinogenesis is mediated, at least in part, via alterations in core metabolic signaling pathways deregulated in the majority of human breast cancers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Interaction between APC and Fen1 during breast carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Satya; Jaiswal, Aruna S; Law, Brian K; Kamal, Mohammad A; Sharma, Arun K; Hromas, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant DNA base excision repair (BER) contributes to malignant transformation. However, inter-individual variations in DNA repair capacity plays a key role in modifying breast cancer risk. We review here emerging evidence that two proteins involved in BER - adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1) - promote the development of breast cancer through novel mechanisms. APC and Fen1 expression and interaction is increased in breast tumors versus normal cells, APC interacts with and blocks Fen1 activity in Pol-β-directed LP-BER, and abrogation of LP-BER is linked with cigarette smoke condensate-induced transformation of normal breast epithelial cells. Carcinogens increase expression of APC and Fen1 in spontaneously immortalized human breast epithelial cells, human colon cancer cells, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Since APC and Fen1 are tumor suppressors, an increase in their levels could protect against carcinogenesis; however, this does not seem to be the case. Elevated Fen1 levels in breast and lung cancer cells may reflect the enhanced proliferation of cancer cells or increased DNA damage in cancer cells compared to normal cells. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor functions of APC and Fen1 is due to their interaction, which may act as a susceptibility factor for breast cancer. The increased interaction of APC and Fen1 may occur due to polypmorphic and/or mutational variation in these genes. Screening of APC and Fen1 polymorphic and/or mutational variations and APC/Fen1 interaction may permit assessment of individual DNA repair capability and the risk for breast cancer development. Such individuals might lower their breast cancer risk by reducing exposure to carcinogens. Stratifying individuals according to susceptibility would greatly assist epidemiologic studies of the impact of suspected environmental carcinogens. Additionally, a mechanistic understanding of the interaction of APC and Fen1 may provide the basis for developing new and

  10. Understanding Carcinogenesis for Fighting Oral Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takuji; Ishigamori, Rikako

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. Oral cancer development is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are able to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will give us important advances for...

  11. High-Fat, High-Calorie Diet Enhances Mammary Carcinogenesis and Local Inflammation in MMTV-PyMT Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, Sarah; McLaughlin, Sarah L.; Hobbs, Gerald; Coad, James; Martin, Karen H.; Olfert, I. Mark; Vona-Davis, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence that obesity and the associated adipose tissue inflammation are risk factors for breast cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of a high-fat/high-calorie diet on mammary carcinogenesis in the immunocompetent MMTV-PyMT murine model. Four-week old female mice (20/group) were randomized to receive either a high-fat (HF; 60% kcal as fat) or a low-fat (LF; 16% kcal) diet for eight weeks. Body weights were determined, and tumor volumes measured by ultrasound, each week. At necropsy, the tumors and abdominal visceral fat were weighed and plasma collected. The primary mammary tumors, adjacent mammary fat, and lungs were preserved for histological and immunohistochemical examination and quantification of infiltrating macrophages, crown-like structure (CLS) formation, and microvessel density. The body weight gains, visceral fat weights, the primary mammary tumor growth rates and terminal weights, were all significantly greater in the HF-fed mice. Adipose tissue inflammation in the HF group was indicated by hepatic steatosis, pronounced macrophage infiltration and CLS formation, and elevations in plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), leptin and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. HF intake was also associated with higher tumor-associated microvascular density and the proangiogenic factor MCP-1. This study provides preclinical evidence in a spontaneous model of breast cancer that mammary adipose tissue inflammation induced by diet, enhances the recruitment of macrophages and increases tumor vascular density suggesting a role for obesity in creating a microenvironment favorable for angiogenesis in the progression of breast cancer

  12. High-Fat, High-Calorie Diet Enhances Mammary Carcinogenesis and Local Inflammation in MMTV-PyMT Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowen, Sarah [Department of Surgery, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); McLaughlin, Sarah L. [Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Hobbs, Gerald [Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Department of Statistics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Coad, James [Department of Pathology, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Martin, Karen H. [Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Olfert, I. Mark [Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Department of Human Performance and Exercise Physiology, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Vona-Davis, Linda, E-mail: lvdavis@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Surgery, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2015-06-26

    Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence that obesity and the associated adipose tissue inflammation are risk factors for breast cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of a high-fat/high-calorie diet on mammary carcinogenesis in the immunocompetent MMTV-PyMT murine model. Four-week old female mice (20/group) were randomized to receive either a high-fat (HF; 60% kcal as fat) or a low-fat (LF; 16% kcal) diet for eight weeks. Body weights were determined, and tumor volumes measured by ultrasound, each week. At necropsy, the tumors and abdominal visceral fat were weighed and plasma collected. The primary mammary tumors, adjacent mammary fat, and lungs were preserved for histological and immunohistochemical examination and quantification of infiltrating macrophages, crown-like structure (CLS) formation, and microvessel density. The body weight gains, visceral fat weights, the primary mammary tumor growth rates and terminal weights, were all significantly greater in the HF-fed mice. Adipose tissue inflammation in the HF group was indicated by hepatic steatosis, pronounced macrophage infiltration and CLS formation, and elevations in plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), leptin and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. HF intake was also associated with higher tumor-associated microvascular density and the proangiogenic factor MCP-1. This study provides preclinical evidence in a spontaneous model of breast cancer that mammary adipose tissue inflammation induced by diet, enhances the recruitment of macrophages and increases tumor vascular density suggesting a role for obesity in creating a microenvironment favorable for angiogenesis in the progression of breast cancer.

  13. In vivo cell kinetics in breast carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Maria; Agnantis, Niki J; Kamina, Sevasti; Demou, Asimina; Zagorianakou, Panayiota; Katsaraki, Aphroditi; Kanavaros, Panayiotis

    2001-01-01

    Disruption of the balance between apoptosis and proliferation is considered to be an important factor in the development and progression of tumours. In the present study we determined the in vivo cell kinetics along the spectrum of apparently normal epithelium, hyperplasia, preinvasive lesions and invasive carcinoma, in breast tissues affected by fibrocystic changes in which preinvasive and/or invasive lesions developed, as a model of breast carcinogenesis. A total of 32 areas of apparently normal epithelium and 135 ductal proliferative and neoplastic lesions were studied. More than one epithelial lesion per case were analyzed. The apoptotic index (AI) and the proliferative index (PI) were expressed as the percentage of TdT-mediated dUTP-nick end-labelling (TUNEL) and Ki-67-positive cells, respectively. The PI/AI (P/A index) was calculated for each case. The AIs and PIs were significantly higher in hyperplasia than in apparently normal epithelium (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0005, respectively), in atypical hyperplasia than in hyperplasia (P = 0.01 and P = 0.04, respectively) and in invasive carcinoma than in in situ carcinoma (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The two indices were similar in atypical hyperplasia and in in situ carcinoma. The P/A index increased significantly from normal epithelium to hyperplasia (P = 0.01) and from preinvasive lesions to invasive carcinoma (P = 0.04) whereas it was decreased (non-significantly) from hyperplasia to preinvasive lesions. A strong positive correlation between the AIs and the PIs was found (r = 0.83, P < 0.001). These findings suggest accelerating cell turnover along the continuum of breast carcinogenesis. Atypical hyperplasias and in situ carcinomas might be kinetically similar lesions. In the transition from normal epithelium to hyperplasia and from preinvasive lesions to invasive carcinoma the net growth of epithelial cells results from a growth imbalance in favour of proliferation. In the transition from hyperplasia

  14. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help you know how to prevent breast cancer. Breast implants, using antiperspirants, and wearing underwire bras do not increase the risk for breast cancer. There is also no evidence of a direct ...

  15. Progesterone in Breast Cancer Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Monica C.; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of steroid hormones in breast carcinogenesis is well established. Recent evidence suggests that angiogenesis can be regulated by hormones. Both oestrogen and progesterone have been implicated in the angiogenic process of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a growth factor involved in angiogenesis in breast cancer that is up-regulated by estrogens. In our study we evaluated the role of progesterone in the expression of ...

  16. Induction of human breast cell carcinogenesis by triclocarban and intervention by curcumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sood, Shilpa; Choudhary, Shambhunath; Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert, E-mail: hcrwang@utk.edu

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Triclocarban exposure induces breast epithelial cell carcinogenesis. •Triclocarban induces the Erk–Nox pathway, ROS elevation, and DNA damage. •Physiological doses of triclocarban induce cellular carcinogenesis. •Non-cytotoxic curcumin blocks triclocarban-induced carcinogenesis and pathways. -- Abstract: More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens and co-carcinogens. To identify co-carcinogens with abilities to induce cellular pre-malignancy, we studied the activity of triclocarban (TCC), an antimicrobial agent commonly used in household and personal care products. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that chronic exposure to TCC at physiologically-achievable nanomolar concentrations resulted in progressive carcinogenesis of human breast cells from non-cancerous to pre-malignant. Pre-malignant carcinogenesis was measured by increasingly-acquired cancer-associated properties of reduced dependence on growth factors, anchorage-independent growth and increased cell proliferation, without acquisition of cellular tumorigenicity. Long-term TCC exposure also induced constitutive activation of the Erk–Nox pathway and increases of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. A single TCC exposure induced transient induction of the Erk–Nox pathway, ROS elevation, increased cell proliferation, and DNA damage in not only non-cancerous breast cells but also breast cancer cells. Using these constitutively- and transiently-induced changes as endpoints, we revealed that non-cytotoxic curcumin was effective in intervention of TCC-induced cellular pre-malignancy. Our results lead us to suggest that the co-carcinogenic potential of TCC should be seriously considered in epidemiological studies to reveal the significance of TCC in the development of sporadic breast cancer. Using TCC-induced transient and constitutive endpoints as targets will likely help identify non-cytotoxic preventive

  17. Breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collaborative article gives an overview of breast cancer in LICs, ... approach to the problem; therefore they are published as two separate ... attached to the diagnosis of breast cancer. ... Their founding statement in its early form is included.

  18. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  19. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  20. Breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gablerová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    In this work the topic of breast cancer treated more generally and mainly focused on risk factors for the development. The theoretical part describes the general knowledge about breast cancer as a stage or treatment. The practical part is to have clarified the risk factors that have some bearing on the diagnosis of breast cancer. What level are involved in the probability of occurrence? Can we eliminate them? As a comparison of risk factors examined in the Czech Republic, England, Australia a...

  1. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  2. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  3. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  4. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  5. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  6. Breast tissue, oral and urinary microbiomes in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hannah; Altemus, Jessica; Niazi, Farshad; Green, Holly; Calhoun, Benjamin C.; Sturgis, Charles; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Eng, Charis

    2017-01-01

    It has long been proposed that the gut microbiome contributes to breast carcinogenesis by modifying systemic estrogen levels. This is often cited as a possible mechanism linking breast cancer and high-fat, low-fiber diets as well as antibiotic exposure, associations previously identified in population-based studies. More recently, a distinct microbiome has been identified within breast milk and tissue, but few studies have characterized differences in the breast tissue microbiota of patients ...

  7. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important adv...

  8. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  9. Punica granatum and its therapeutic implications on breast carcinogenesis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vini, Ravindran; Sreeja, Sreeharshan

    2015-01-01

    Punica granatum has a recorded history of pharmacological properties which can be attributed to its rich reservoir of phytochemicals. Investigations in recent years have established its tremendous potential as an antitumorogenic agent against various cancers including breast cancer, which is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. The plausible role of Punica as a therapeutic agent, as an adjuvant in chemotherapy, and its dietary implications as chemopreventive agent in breast cancer have been explored. Mechanistic studies have revealed that Punica extracts and its components, individually or in combination, can modulate and target key proteins and genes involved in breast cancer. Our earlier finding also demonstrated the role of methanolic extract of pomegranate pericarp in reducing proliferation in breast cancer by binding to estrogen receptor at the same time not affecting uterine weight unlike estradiol or tamoxifen. This review analyses other plausible mechanisms of Punica in preventing the progression of breast cancer and how it can possibly be a therapeutic agent by acting at various steps of carcinogenesis including proliferation, invasion, migration, metastasis, angiogenesis, and inflammation via various molecular mechanisms. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  11. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.; Krygier, G.; Castillo, C.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  12. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... modulators and aromatase inhibitors, reduce the risk of breast cancer in women with a high risk of the disease. These medications carry a risk of side effects, so doctors reserve these medications for women who ...

  13. Genotyping and Phenotyping of Male Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornegoor, R.

    2012-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease and most of the knowledge has been extrapolated from females, although these entities are likely different. A better understanding of male breast carcinogenesis is crucial for developing novel targets suitable for personalized treatment. A major problem in

  14. Serum Adipocytokines (Visfatin and Resistin: New Biomarkers of Breast Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa A. El-Benhawy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is associated with an increased risk for breast cancer in women. Increased estrogen levels are suggested as one possible explanation, but this does not fully explain the relationship between obesity and breast cancer. One alternative explanation is secretion by adipocytes of metabolites, hormones and cytokines, collectively known as adipocytokines, which regulate physiological and pathological processes. Among these adipokines are visfatin and resistin. This study investigates whether visfatin or resistin in serum of breast cancer patients can be used as potential diagnostic and prognostic tools for breast cancer, taking into account clinicopathological features and anthropometric parameters. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 70 breast cancer patients (35 obese and 35 non-obese and 20 healthy females matched for age and body mass index as the control group. Serum visfatin levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and serum resistin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Inflammatory status was assessed by measuring C-reactive protein levels by an automated turbidimetric analyzer. Results: We observed highly elevated serum resistin and visfatin levels in breast cancer patients compared to controls, independent of body mass index. Serum resistin and visfatin levels were likely to be associated with increased breast cancer risk and correlated with the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein. Conclusion: Targeting resistin and visfatin inhibition can be an effective therapeutic strategy in breast cancer by downregulating the inflammatory microenvironment in breast tissue. Serum visfatin promises to be a novel biomarker of diagnostic and prognostic value. Larger prospective studies are required to confirm our findings.

  15. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... white women. Inflammatory breast tumors are frequently hormone receptor negative, which means they cannot be treated with ...

  16. Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The long-term aims are concerned with various aspects of the natural history and biology of cancer, the mechanism of induction and of the advancement of time of appearance of tumors, the development of systems suitable for the assay of oncogenesis and cocarcinogenesis, and the elucidation of some of the factors important to the problem of extrapolation of estimates of risk made in experimental systems to the estimate of risk in man. It is necessary to have a number of test systems in order to study the various factors related to cocarcinogenesis; some of these are clearly tissue specific. The liver tumor system is clearly useful for certain compounds, and the liver is an excellent tissue for the study of the mechanisms of cocarcinogenesis. This year we report on the relatively rapid induction of what appears histologically to be carcinoma of the thyroid by aminotriazole. In a collaborative study with the Neutron and Gamma-Ray Toxicity Group, we have established a new example of synergism in carcinogenesis, namely between radiation and pituitary hormone(s) in the production of Harderian gland tumors. Not only does a synergistic effect on incidence occur, but also on the degree of malignancy of the tumor induced. We thus have three different model systems for the study of various aspects of cocarcinogenesis: various chemicals, including nononcogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons, in liver tumorigenesis; ionizing radiation and aminotriazole in thyroid tumorigenesis; and in conjunction with the JANUS Program, the interaction of radiation and hormones in the production of Harderian gland, mammary gland, and other tumors

  17. Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies at the molecular, biochemical, and immunological level of carcinogenesis induced in mice by viruses, radiation, or environmental chemicals alone or in combinations. Emphasis was placed on the identification and assessments of cocarcinogens and studies on their mechanisms of action. Data are included on mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the liver, thyroid, Harderian glands, skin, and lungs. The effects of the food additive butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), phenobarbitol, DDT, uv irradiation, the herbicide 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole(AT), the pituitary hormone prolactin, topically applied 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and benzo(a) pyrene(BaP) on tumor induction or enhancement were studied

  18. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  19. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  20. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right away. He or she will do a physical exam. They will ask you about your health history and your family’s history of breast cancer. ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food ...

  1. Biological Complexities in Radiation Carcinogenesis and Cancer Radiotherapy: Impact of New Biological Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mozdarani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although radiation carcinogenesis has been shown both experimentally and epidemiologically, the use of ionizing radiation is also one of the major modalities in cancer treatment. Various known cellular and molecular events are involved in carcinogenesis. Apart from the known phenomena, there could be implications for carcinogenesis and cancer prevention due to other biological processes such as the bystander effect, the abscopal effect, intrinsic radiosensitivity and radioadaptation. Bystander effects have consequences for mutation initiated cancer paradigms of radiation carcinogenesis, which provide the mechanistic justification for low-dose risk estimates. The abscopal effect is potentially important for tumor control and is mediated through cytokines and/or the immune system (mainly cell-mediated immunity. It results from loss of growth and stimulatory and/or immunosuppressive factors from the tumor. Intrinsic radiosensitivity is a feature of some cancer prone chromosomal breakage syndromes such as ataxia telangectiasia. Radiosensitivity is manifested as higher chromosomal aberrations and DNA repair impairment is now known as a good biomarker for breast cancer screening and prediction of prognosis. However, it is not yet known whether this effect is good or bad for those receiving radiation or radiomimetic agents for treatment. Radiation hormesis is another major concern for carcinogenesis. This process which protects cells from higher doses of radiation or radio mimic chemicals, may lead to the escape of cells from mitotic death or apoptosis and put cells with a lower amount of damage into the process of cancer induction. Therefore, any of these biological phenomena could have impact on another process giving rise to genome instability of cells which are not in the field of radiation but still receiving a lower amount of radiation. For prevention of radiation induced carcinogenesis or risk assessment as well as for successful radiation

  2. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  3. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of breast cancer that can occur in men include Paget's disease of the nipple and inflammatory breast cancer. Inherited genes that increase breast cancer risk Some men inherit abnormal (mutated) genes from their parents that ...

  4. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  5. Candidate mechanisms accounting for effects of physical activity on breast carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Henry J; Jiang, Weiqin; Zhu, Zongjian

    2009-09-01

    Evidence is strong that a reduction in risk for breast cancer is associated with moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA); however, there is limited understanding of the role of type, intensity, duration, and frequency of PA and their mechanisms in accounting for this health benefit. The objective of this review is to stimulate investigations of candidate mechanisms that may account for the effects of the intensity and duration of aerobic PA on breast cancer risk and tumor burden. Three hypotheses are considered: 1) the mTOR network hypothesis: PA inhibits carcinogenesis by suppressing the activation of the mTOR signaling network in mammary carcinomas; 2) the hormesis hypothesis: the carcinogenic response to PA is nonlinear and accounted for by a physiological cellular stress response; and 3) the metabolic reprogramming hypothesis: PA limits the amount of glucose and glutamine available to mammary carcinomas thereby inducing apoptosis because tumor-associated metabolic programming is reversed. To link these hypotheses to systemic effects of PA, it is recommended that consideration be given to determining: 1) what contracting muscle releases into circulation or removes from circulation that would directly modulate the carcinogenic process in epithelial cells; 2) whether the effects of muscle contraction on epithelial cell carcinogenesis are exerted in an endocrine, paracrine, autocrine, or intracrine manner; and 3) if the effects of muscle contraction on malignant cells differ from effects on normal or premalignant cells that do not manifest the hallmarks of malignancy. (c) 2009 IUBMB

  6. Progesterone receptor modulators in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    WIEHLE, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer has been treated successfully with selective estrogen receptor antagonists (SERMs) such as tamoxifen, receptor-depleting agents such as fulvestrant, and aromatase inhibitors such as anastrozole. Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs or PRMs) have not been studied as much and are currently under investigation for inhibition of mammary carcinogenesis in animal models and breast cancer prevention trials in women. They might follow tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors in t...

  7. Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultrasound or a breast MRI cannot rule out breast cancer then you will need a biopsy to confirm diagnosis. If diagnosed When first diagnosed with breast cancer, many men are in shock. After all, ...

  8. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  9. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  10. Recent progress in carcinogenesis, progression and therapy of breast cancer: the 20th Hiroshima Cancer Seminar--the 4th Three Universities' Consortium International Symposium, October 2010: 31 October 2010, International Conference Center Hiroshima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, Masakazu; Yasui, Wataru; Ito, Hisao; Tahara, Eiichi

    2011-07-01

    The 20th Hiroshima Cancer seminar focused upon breast cancer research and treatment particularly on the mechanism of tumorigenesis and drug resistance and development of novel therapeutics. Several molecules such as retinoblastoma and p16 were raised as key factors in tumorigenesis and invasiveness. Estrogen-related pathways seem to be closely involved in the process. For the tumor lacking hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor 2, some other mechanisms could be responsible. It seems that MicroRNA 22 directing some putative targets such as SIRT1, Sp1 and CDK6 plays a crucial role in breast tumor growth and metastasis. In addition, ribophorin and the associated molecules might be engaged in breast cancer stemness. Obviously, these molecules provide potential for therapeutic targets. It was also discussed about new drug development such as anti-human epidermal growth factor 2 therapy, anti-angiogenesis, pro-tumor aspects of anti-cancer therapy and application of circulating markers for monitoring, imaging and health-care system. Furthermore, we discussed risk factors, prevention and screening to reduce invasive cancers as well. Throughout the conference, panelists and attendee indicated the importance of translational research and biomarker exploration in order to realize efficient and individualized therapy for breast cancer.

  11. Estrogens in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzieff, V.; Vázquez, A.

    2004-01-01

    The prolonged exposure to estrogen increases the risk of cancer breast, the precise role of estrogen in the carcinogenesis process is unclear. They are capable of inducing cell proliferation through different channels receptor Estrogen (ER) known, for example through MAPkinasa sensitivity the promoter of proliferation effect depends on the level of RE, or type to â, integrity (mutations may alter its function) and ligand. The different types of estrogens and related compounds have different profile of affinity for RE and effect end. The modulatory role of progestogens proliferation is very complex, and the interaction between the effector pathways of progestin’s, estrogens, EGF and IGF family - maybe others - determines the final effect .. Estrogens are mutagenic per se weak, but is now known for its hepatic metabolism occur highly reactive species such as quinones, and catechol, powerful mutagens in vitro. Direct or indirect genotoxicity probably explains Part of the effects of estrogen on tumor cells. The use of hormone replacement (HTR) increases the risk of CM, as proportional to the time of use. The combination with progestin seems to be increased risk (R R 2). It is unclear the role of phyto estrogens in the prevention the CM. In the male breast is known that the proliferative response to parenchymal different hormonal maneuvers is different. The effect is minimal castration are and maximum with the combination of estrogen and progesterone. It is unclear, however, the risk of the population exposed to hormone therapy for cancer prostate or otherwise

  12. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  13. Na+,HCO3--cotransport is functionally upregulated during human breast carcinogenesis and required for the inverted pH gradient across the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Soojung; Mele, Marco; Vahl, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic and biochemical changes during breast carcinogenesis enhance cellular acid production. Extrusion of the acid load from the cancer cells raises intracellular pH, while it decreases extracellular pH creating an inverted pH gradient across the plasma membrane compared to normal cells and p...

  14. Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buess, E.M.; Cerny, E.A.; Chan, E.W.

    1977-01-01

    The first section deals with the assessment of carcinogens and cocarcinogens and the underlying mechanisms of their actions. The second concerns cancer induction by bone-seeking radionuclides and seeks to provide a firm foundation for estimating cancer risks to human populations in the event of accidental incorporation of radionuclides. The third is aimed at defining the role of oncornavirus activation in tumor induction by radiation and other environmental pollutants. The other two sections describe the new studies, one dealing with the development of an in vitro cell system (murine teratocarcinoma cells) to screen chemicals rapidly for carcinogenic and mutagenic capacity, and the other investigating the potential use of plasma isozymes as indicators of mutagenesis in mammals. Accomplishments and projections for each of these studies follow

  15. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...

  16. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  17. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunga, M.; Land, C.E.; Tokuoka, S.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950-80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiationinduced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer

  18. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Land, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950 - 80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiation-induced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer. (author)

  19. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer.

  20. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... only hormone therapy after a hysterectomy . Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Aromatase inhibitors . Less exposure of breast ...

  2. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, Diane; Lancaster, Gillian A; Manning, John T

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  3. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  4. Prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Ian N

    2016-11-21

    Modifiable lifestyle factors may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated particularly with post-menopausal breast cancer. Diet is important, and exercise equivalent to running for up to 8 hours each week reduces the risk of breast cancer, both in its own right and through reducing obesity. Alcohol consumption may be responsible for 5.8% of breast cancers in Australia and it is recommended to reduce this to two standard drinks per day. Drinking alcohol and smoking increases the risk for breast cancer and, therefore, it is important to quit tobacco smoking. Prolonged use of combined oestrogen and progesterone hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives may increase breast cancer risk and this must be factored into individual decisions about their use. Ionising radiation, either from diagnostic or therapeutic radiation or through occupational exposure, is associated with a high incidence of breast cancer and exposure may be reduced in some cases. Tamoxifen chemoprevention may reduce the incidence of oestrogen receptor positive cancer in 51% of women with high risk of breast cancer. Uncommon but serious side effects include thromboembolism and uterine cancer. Raloxifene, which can also reduce osteoporosis, can be used in post-menopausal women and is not associated with the development of uterine cancer. Surgical prophylaxis with bilateral mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy can reduce the risk of breast cancer in patients carrying BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. For preventive treatments, mammographic screening can identify other women at high risk.

  5. Collagen mRNA levels changes during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Hanne; Anthonsen, Dorit; Lothe, Inger M B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Invasive growth of epithelial cancers is a complex multi-step process which involves dissolution of the basement membrane. Type IV collagen is a major component in most basement membranes. Type VII collagen is related to anchoring fibrils and is found primarily in the basement membrane...... zone of stratified epithelia. Immunohistochemical studies have previously reported changes in steady-state levels of different alpha(IV) chains in several epithelial cancer types. In the present study we aimed to quantitatively determine the mRNA levels of type IV collagen (alpha1/alpha 4/alpha 6......) and type VII collagen (alpha1) during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis. METHODS: Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have determined the mRNA levels for alpha1(IV), alpha 4(IV), alpha 6(IV), and alpha1(VII) in colorectal cancer tissue (n = 33), adenomas (n = 29) and in normal tissue from the same individuals...

  6. Breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euhus, David M; Diaz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women with 232,670 new cases estimated in the USA for 2014. Approaches for reducing breast cancer risk include lifestyle modification, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. Lifestyle modification has a variety of health benefits with few associated risks and is appropriate for all women regardless of breast cancer risk. Chemoprevention options have expanded rapidly, but most are directed at estrogen receptor positive breast cancer and uptake is low. Prophylactic surgery introduces significant additional risks of its own and is generally reserved for the highest risk women. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Biomarkers of the Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Qiu-Li; Xu, Wang-Hong; Tao, Meng-Hua

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its public health importance, our understanding of the mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis and progress is still evolving. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of biochemical abnormalities including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. The components of the MS have all been related to late-stage disease and even to a poor prognosis of breast cancer through multiple interacting mechanisms. In this review, we aim to present a summary of recent advances in the understanding of the contribution of the MS to breast cancer with the emphasis on the role of biomarkers of the MS in the prognosis of breast cancer

  8. Biomarkers of the Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qiu-Li; Xu, Wang-Hong [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Tao, Meng-Hua [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2010-04-28

    In spite of its public health importance, our understanding of the mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis and progress is still evolving. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of biochemical abnormalities including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. The components of the MS have all been related to late-stage disease and even to a poor prognosis of breast cancer through multiple interacting mechanisms. In this review, we aim to present a summary of recent advances in the understanding of the contribution of the MS to breast cancer with the emphasis on the role of biomarkers of the MS in the prognosis of breast cancer.

  9. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  10. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  11. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  12. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1......), and their ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... premenopausal 2:16a-OHE1 was suggestive of reduced breast cancer risk overall (study-adjusted ORIIIvsI=0.80; 95% CI: 0.49-1.32) and for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) subtype (ORIIIvsI=0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.84). Among postmenopausal women, 2:16a-OHE1 was unrelated to breast cancer risk (study-adjusted ORIIIvs...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Breast cancer Breast cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  14. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  15. Breast Cancer Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, Fadwa J.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very common health problem in Saudi females that can be reduced by early detection through introducing breast cancer screening. Literature review reveals significant reduction in breast cancer incidence and outcome after the beginning of breast cancer screening. The objectives of this article are to highlight the significance of breast cancer screening in different international societies and to write the major guidelines of breast cancer screening in relation to other departments involved with more emphasis on the Pathology Department guidelines in tissue handling, diagnostic criteria and significance of the diagnosis. This article summaries and acknowledges major work carried out before, and recommends similar modified work in order to meet the requirement for the Saudi society. (author)

  16. The relationship between Human Papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections with breast cancer of Iranian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tahmasebi fard

    2013-11-01

    Our analysis could not confirm a role of HPV in breast cancer but statistically, significant correlation between EBV infection and breast cancer exists. To demonstrate the possible relationship between viral load and breast cancer, need for epidemiological, biological and molecular mechanisms to clear the virus is involved in the process of carcinogenesis.

  17. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    cells we observed that it promoted transformation of HMLE cells, suggesting a tumor suppressive role of Merlin in breast cancer (Figure 4B). A...08-1-0767 TITLE: Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yashaswi Shrestha...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-1-0767 Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes Yashaswi Shrestha Dana-Farber

  18. Breast cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, M.; Villena, C.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in female breast imaging have substantially influenced the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. Mammography using conventional or digital technique is considered the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Other modalities such as breast ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast play an important role in diagnostic imaging, staging, and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a faster, less invasive, and more cost-effective method than surgical biopsy for verifying the histological diagnosis. New methods such as breast tomosynthesis, contrast-enhanced mammography, and positron emission tomography promise to further improve breast imaging. Further studies are mandatory to adapt these new methods to clinical needs and to evaluate their performance in clinical practice. (orig.) [de

  19. Breast cancer statistics, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  20. DIAGNOSIS OF MUCINOUS BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. К. Saribekyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the diagnostic results of 27 patients with mucinous breast cancer, which is a rare type of invasive ductal breast cancer accounting for less than 2% of all breast cancers. The role of radiological, histological and cytological examination in the diagnosis of mucinous breast cancer is evaluated. In cases with large tumors, it was difficult to differentiate mucinous breast cancer from fibrocystic and other benign breast lesions.

  1. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Hayley

    2005-01-01

    ...; they also are at considerable risk for breast cancer recurrence. According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology, survivors should undergo careful breast cancer surveillance, including annual mammography and breast self-exam...

  2. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnithan, Jaya; Macklis, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  3. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  4. Breast cancer and HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intuition might dictate that the outcome of both surgical and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer in these patients would be poor because of the effect on immunity. We recently published a prospective cohort study which compared the treatment outcomes of breast cancer in HIV- infected and -uninfected patients.3 This was ...

  5. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  7. [Fibrocystic breast disease--breast cancer sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habor, V; Habor, A; Copotoiu, C; Panţîru, A

    2010-01-01

    Fibrocystic breast disease has developed a major issue: the breast cancer sequence. Its involvement regarding the increse of breast cancer risk has 2 aspects: it may be either the marker of a prone tissue or a premalignant hystological deffect. Difficult differential diagnosis of benign proliferative breast lession and carcinoma led to the idea of sequency between the two: cancer does not initiate on normal mammary epithelia; it takes several proliferative stages for it to occur. In our series we analized a number of 677 breast surgical procedures where the pathologic examination reveals 115 cases (17%) of coexistence between cancer and fibrocystic breast disease. This aspect has proved to be related to earlier debut of breast cancer, suggesting that epithelial hyperplasia is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  8. Biological parameters for lung cancer in mathematical models of carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Jacob, V.

    2003-01-01

    Applications of the two-step model of carcinogenesis with clonal expansion (TSCE) to lung cancer data are reviewed, including those on atomic bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, British doctors, Colorado Plateau miners, and Chinese tin miners. Different sets of identifiable model parameters are used in the literature. The parameter set which could be determined with the lowest uncertainty consists of the net proliferation rate gamma of intermediate cells, the hazard h 55 at an intermediate age, and the hazard H? at an asymptotically large age. Also, the values of these three parameters obtained in the various studies are more consistent than other identifiable combinations of the biological parameters. Based on representative results for these three parameters, implications for the biological parameters in the TSCE model are derived. (author)

  9. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  10. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Raloxifene Hydrochloride Tamoxifen Citrate Drugs ...

  11. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  12. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongen, J.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  13. Obesity and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf

    The relationship between adiposity and breast cancer risk and prognosis is complex, with associations that differ depending on when body size is assessed (e.g., pre- vs. postmenopausal obesity) and when breast cancer is diagnosed (i.e., pre- vs. postmenopausal disease). Further, the impact of obesity on risk differs by tumor hormone receptor status (e.g., estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor) and, among postmenopausal women, use of exogenous hormones (i.e., hormone replacement therapy (HRT)). In the context of these complexities, this review focuses on associations between childhood and adolescent adiposity, general adiposity, weight changes (i.e., loss and gain), abdominal adiposity, and breast cancer risk and survival. Finally, we discuss potential mechanisms linking adiposity to breast cancer.

  14. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...

  15. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Breast Cancer Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  16. Breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, A.

    1987-01-01

    Many studies have shown that breast cancer screening is able to reduce breast cancer mortality, including the HIP study, the Swedish Trial and the Netherlands studies. Mammography is considered as the most effective method for breast cancer screening but it might be unfeasible for some reasons: - the population acceptability of the method might be low. Indeed, most populations of the South of Europe are less compliant to mass screening than populations of the North of Europe; - the medical equipment and personnel - radiologists and pathologists - might be insufficient; - it might be too costly for the National Health Service, specially where the incidence rate of breast cancer is relatively low (i.e. Greece, Portugal). The validity of screening tests is judged by their sensitivity and their specificity

  17. Plasma isoflavones and fibrocystic breast conditions and breast cancer among women in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Johanna W; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Ray, Roberta M; Wu, Chunyuan; Li, Wenjin; Lin, Ming-Gang; Gao, Dao Li; Hu, Yongwei; Shannon, Jackilen; Stalsberg, Helge; Porter, Peggy L; Frankenfeld, Cara L; Wähälä, Kristiina; Thomas, David B

    2007-12-01

    Proliferative benign breast conditions are associated with elevated risk of breast cancer, whereas nonproliferative conditions are not strongly associated with risk. Factors acting before onset of hyperplasia might be associated with both benign conditions and breast cancer, whereas those on the proliferative disease-to-cancer pathway would be associated only with cancer. Soy isoflavone exposure may influence breast cancer risk, but little is known of its association with benign conditions. We examined possible relationships between plasma genistein and daidzein concentrations and risk of breast disease in women, in a breast self-examination trial in Shanghai, China, diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 196) or a benign breast condition (n = 304), and 1,002 age-matched controls with no known breast disease. Benign conditions were classified as nonproliferative (n = 131) or proliferative with or without atypia (n = 173). Isoflavone concentrations were inversely associated with risk of nonproliferative and proliferative benign fibrocystic conditions, as well as with breast cancer, both with and without concomitant proliferative changes in ipsilateral noncancerous mammary epithelium (P(trend) 76.95 ng/mL) were less likely to have breast cancer (odds ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.50) or benign conditions (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.70) compared with women in the lowest quartile (breast cancer with and without surrounding proliferative changes were not different, respectively, from observed risks for benign proliferative and nonproliferative conditions alone. Isoflavone exposure was inversely associated with fibrocystic breast conditions and breast cancer, and the results suggest that effects on cancer risk occur early in carcinogenesis.

  18. Chemokines: novel targets for breast cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Simi; Lazennec, Gwendal

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the possible involvement of chemokines and their receptors in breast cancer progression and metastasis. Chemokines and their receptors constitute a superfamily of signalling factors whose prognosis value in breast cancer progression remains unclear. We will examine here the expression pattern of chemokines and their receptors in mammary gland physiology and carcinogenesis. The nature of the cells producing chemokines or harboring chemokine receptors appears to be crucial in certain conditions for example, the infiltration of the primary tumor by leukocytes and angiogenesis. In addition, chemokines, their receptors and the interaction with glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) are key players in the homing of cancer cells to distant metastasis sites. Several lines of evidence, including in vitro and in vivo models, suggest that the mechanism of action of chemokines in cancer development involves the modulation of proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, leukocyte recruitment or angiogenesis. Furthermore, we will discuss the regulation of chemokine network in tumor neovascularity by decoy receptors. The reasons accounting for the deregulation of chemokines and chemokine receptors expression in breast cancer are certainly crucial for the comprehension of chemokine role in breast cancer and are in several cases linked to estrogen receptor status. The targeting of chemokines and chemokine receptors by antibodies, small molecule antagonists, viral chemokine binding proteins and heparins appears as promising tracks to develop therapeutic strategies. Thus there is significant interest in developing strategies to antagonize the chemokine function, and an opportunity to interfere with metastasis, the leading cause of death in most patients. PMID:17717637

  19. 14. Breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, A K; Fentiman, I S

    2002-05-01

    Increased risk of breast cancer may result from potentially modifiable causes such as endogenous hormone levels, obesity, HRT, and non-lactation, or non-modifiable factors including genetic susceptibility and increasing age. The Gail model, based on known factors, may be useful for estimating lifetime risk in some individuals, but those risk factors that are easier to modify may have a limited impact on the totality of breast cancer. Tamoxifen prevention still remains contentious, with a significant reduction in risk of breast cancer in women given tamoxifen in the NSABP P1 study but no effect in the Italian and Royal Marsden trials. Raloxifene, tested in the MORE trial, reduced the incidence of breast cancer by 65% but this was restricted to oestrogen receptor positive tumours. Lifestyle factors such as diet, obesity, exercise and age at first full term pregnancy and number of pregnancies have a mild to moderate impact on risk, so may have little effect on the incidence of breast cancer. Reduction of alcohol intake could lead to a modest reduction in the risk of breast cancer but possibly adversely affect other diseases. Fat reduction and GnRH analogue reduce mammographic density but have not yet been shown to affect risk. For women with BRCA1/2 mutation, options include unproven surveillance and prophylactic mastectomy with an unquantified risk reduction. Interesting new candidates for chemoprevention include aromatase inhibitors, new generation SERMs, demethylating agents, non-selective COX inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and polyamine synthetic inhibitors.

  20. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... 4 ). This risk reduction is limited to hormone receptor –positive breast cancer; age at first full-term ...

  1. Human Breast Cancer Histoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Pavinder; Ward, Brenda; Saha, Baisakhi; Young, Lillian; Groshen, Susan; Techy, Geza; Lu, Yani; Atkinson, Roscoe; Taylor, Clive R.; Ingram, Marylou

    2011-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of heterotypic cellular interaction in the tumor microenvironment, which is recognized to play major roles in cancer progression, has been hampered due to unavailability of an appropriate in vitro co-culture model. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro 3-dimensional human breast cancer model, which consists of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Breast cancer cells (UACC-893) and fibroblasts at various densities were co-cultured in a rotating suspension culture system to establish co-culture parameters. Subsequently, UACC-893, BT.20, or MDA.MB.453 were co-cultured with fibroblasts for 9 days. Co-cultures resulted in the generation of breast cancer histoid (BCH) with cancer cells showing the invasion of fibroblast spheroids, which were visualized by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of sections (4 µm thick) of BCH. A reproducible quantitative expression of C-erbB.2 was detected in UACC-893 cancer cells in BCH sections by IHC staining and the Automated Cellular Imaging System. BCH sections also consistently exhibited qualitative expression of pancytokeratins, p53, Ki-67, or E-cadherin in cancer cells and that of vimentin or GSTPi in fibroblasts, fibronectin in the basement membrane and collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. The expression of the protein analytes and cellular architecture of BCH were markedly similar to those of breast cancer tissue. PMID:22034518

  2. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  3. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  4. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  5. Expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneyte, Ian F.; Kristel, Petra M. P.; Maliepaard, Marc; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is involved in in vitro multidrug resistance and was first identified in the breast cancer cell line MCF7/AdrVp. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BCRP in resistance of breast cancer to anthracycline treatment. EXPERIMENTAL

  6. MMP9 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Genetics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Long, Jirong; Cai, Qiuyin; Xiang, Yongbin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2011-04-01

    In addition to tumor invasion and angiogenesis, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9 also contributes to carcinogenesis and tumor growth. Genetic variation that may influence MMP9 expression was evaluated among participants of the Shanghai Breast Cancer Genetics Study (SBCGS) for associations with breast cancer susceptibility. In stage 1, 11 MMP9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped by the Affymetrix Targeted Genotyping System and/or the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 among 4,227 SBCGS participants. One SNP was further genotyped using the Sequenom iPLEX MassARRAY platform among an additional 6,270 SBCGS participants. Associations with breast cancer risk were evaluated by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from logistic regression models that included adjustment for age, education, and genotyping stage when appropriate. In Stage 1, rare allele homozygotes for a promoter SNP (rs3918241) or a non-synonymous SNP (rs2274756, R668Q) tended to occur more frequently among breast cancer cases (P value = 0.116 and 0.056, respectively). Given their high linkage disequilibrium (D' = 1.0, r (2) = 0.97), one (rs3918241) was selected for additional analysis. An association with breast cancer risk was not supported by additional Stage 2 genotyping. In combined analysis, no elevated risk of breast cancer among homozygotes was found (OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 0.8-1.8). Common genetic variation in MMP9 was not found to be significantly associated with breast cancer susceptibility among participants of the Shanghai Breast Cancer Genetics Study.

  7. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  8. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janowsky, Esther

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our current work is to determine whether there are differences in blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxy- vitamin D between women with breast cancer and two control groups of women without breast cancer...

  9. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Theresa; Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action, the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, and the optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention are summarized.

  10. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is small. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of breast cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast cancer MRI is a procedure that ...

  11. The Role of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Breast Cancer: a candidate gene approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Piersma (Djura)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter provides a general overview of breast cancer, including the possible role of genetic and exogenous factors and an overview of the role of hormones in carcinogenesis of the breast. Variability in susceptibility to the disease, timing of development, as well as tumor

  12. High frequency of HIF-1 alpha overexpression in BRCA1 related breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, Petra; Bouter, Alwin; Menko, Fred H.; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia is a hallmark of cancer. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) is the key regulator of the hypoxia response. HIF-1 alpha is overexpressed during sporadic breast carcinogenesis and correlated with poor prognosis. Little is known on the role of HIF-1 alpha in hereditary breast

  13. BREAST RECONSTRUCTIONS AFTER BREAST CANCER TREATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Vrabič

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breasts are an important symbol of physical beauty, feminity, mothering and sexual desire through the entire history of mankind. Lost of the whole or part of the breast is functional and aesthetic disturbance for woman. It is understandable, that the woman, who is concerned over breast loss, is as appropriate as another person´s concern over the loss of a limb or other body part. Before the 1960, breast reconstruction was considered as a dangerous procedure and it was almost prohibited. Considering the psychological importance of the breast in modern society, the possibility of breast reconstruction for the woman about to undergo a mastectomy is a comforting alternative. We can perform breast reconstruction with autologous tissue (autologous reconstruction, with breast implants and combination of both methods. For autologous reconstruction we can use local tissue (local flaps, or tissue from distant parts of the body (free vascular tissue transfer. Tissue expansion must be performed first, in many cases of breast reconstructions with breast implants. Conclusions. Possibility of breast reconstruction made a big progress last 3 decades. Today we are able to reconstruct almost every defect of the breast and the entire breast. Breast reconstruction rise the quality of life for breast cancer patients. Breast reconstruction is a team work of experts from many medicine specialites. In Slovenia we can offer breast reconstruction for breast cancer patients in Ljubljana, where plastic surgeons from Clinical Department for Plastic Surgery and Burns cooperate with oncologic surgeons. Ten years ago a similar cooperation between plastic surgeons and surgeons of the Centre for Breast Diseases was established in Maribor.

  14. Ulva lactuca polysaccharides prevent Wistar rat breast carcinogenesis through the augmentation of apoptosis, enhancement of antioxidant defense system, and suppression of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-Ellatef GF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gamal-Eldein F Abd-Ellatef,1 Osama M Ahmed,2 Eman S Abdel-Reheim,2 Abdel-Hamid Z Abdel-Hamid,1 1Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, Therapeutic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt; 2Division of Physiology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt Background: Recently, several research studies have been focused on the isolation and function of the polysaccharides derived from different algal species, which revealed multiple biological activities such as antioxidant and antitumor activities. This study assesses the possible breast cancer chemopreventive properties of common seaweeds, sea lettuce, Ulva lactuca (ulvan polysaccharides using in vitro bioassays on human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and an in vivo animal model of breast carcinogenesis. Methods: Cytotoxic effect of ulvan polysaccharides on MCF-7 was tested in vitro. For an in vivo investigation, a single dose of 25 mg/kg body weight 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA and ulvan polysaccharides (50 mg/kg body weight every other day for 10 weeks were administered orally to the Wistar rats. Results: Deleterious histopathological alterations in breast tissues including papillary cyst adenoma and hyperplasia of ductal epithelial lining with intraluminal necrotic materials and calcifications were observed in the DMBA-administered group. These lesions were prevented in the DMBA-administered group treated with ulvan polysaccharides. The immunohistochemical sections depicted that the treatment of DMBA-administered rats with ulvan polysaccharides markedly increased the lowered pro-apoptotic protein, p53, and decreased the elevated anti-apoptotic marker, bcl2, expression in the breast tissue. The elevated lipid peroxidation and the suppressed antioxidant enzyme activities in DMBA-administered control were significantly prevented by the treatment with ulvan polysaccharides. The elevated levels of inflammatory

  15. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, P.

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may

  16. Breast Cancer Basics and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... more than 232,670 new cases of female breast cancer in the United States in 2014. More than ...

  17. Preclinical Cancer Chemoprevention Studies Using Animal Model of Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Takuji [Cytopatholgy Division, Tohkai Cytopathology Institute, Cancer Research and Prevention (TCI-CaRP), 5-1-2 Minami-uzura, Gifu 500-8285 (Japan); Department of Tumor Pathology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan)

    2012-07-16

    Inflammation is involved in all stages of carcinogenesis. Inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease is a longstanding inflammatory disease of intestine with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Several molecular events involved in chronic inflammatory process are reported to contribute to multi-step carcinogenesis of CRC in the inflamed colon. They include over-production of free radicals, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, up-regulation of inflammatory enzymes in arachidonic acid biosynthesis pathway, up-regulation of certain cytokines, and intestinal immune system dysfunction. In this article, firstly I briefly introduce our experimental animal models where colorectal neoplasms rapidly develop in the inflamed colorectum. Secondary, data on preclinical cancer chemoprevention studies of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis by morin, bezafibrate, and valproic acid, using this novel inflammation-related colorectal carcinogenesis model is described.

  18. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  19. Curcumin in chemoprevention of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Terlikowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer among women, both in Poland and worldwide. Due to the constantly increasing number of breast cancer cases, it is vital to develop effective activities in primary and secondary prevention. One of the promising methods of best value, connecting both types of cancer prevention, appears to be chemoprevention. Chemoprevention uses natural or synthetic compounds to inhibit, delay or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. Among ingredients of natural origin, great attention is paid to curcumin – a broad-spectrum anti-cancer polyphenol derivative, extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. Curcumin has a number of chemopreventive properties such as anti-inflammatory activity, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis as well as tumor metastasis. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the mentioned anti-cancer effect in the epithelial breast cell line MCF-10A and in the epithelial breast cell lines MCF-7, BT-474, SK-BR-3-hr and MDA-MB-231. The main problem associated with the use of curcumin as a chemopreventive agent in humans is its low absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, poor solubility in body fluids and low bioavailability. Current studies are underway to increase the bioavailability and effectiveness of curcumin in vivo. Good results in the prevention and the treatment of breast cancer could be ensured by curcumin nanoparticles coated with albumin, known as nanocurcumin. The studies using nanocurcumin, however, are still in the preclinical stage, which is why there is a need to conduct extensive long-term randomized clinical trials to determine its effectiveness.

  20. Breast cancer in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, S.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Petri, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. Methods We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi......-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration. Results...... There were 86 SLE breast cancers and 4498 female SLE cancer-free controls. Patients were followed on average for 7.6 years. Versus controls, SLE breast cancer cases tended to be white and older. Breast cancer cases were similar to controls regarding anti-dsDNA positivity, disease activity, and most drug...

  1. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, M.H.; Cannon-Albright, L.A.; Goldgar, D.E.; Ward, J.H.; Marshall, C.J.; Schumann, G.B.; Hogle, H.; McWhorter, W.P.; Wright, E.C.; Tran, T.D.; Bishop, D.T.; Kushner, J.P.; Eyre, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  2. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  3. Breast cancer and steroid metabolizing enzymes: the role of progestogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge R

    2009-12-01

    It is well documented that breast tissue, both normal and cancerous, contains all the enzymatic systems necessary for the bioformation and metabolic transformation of estrogens, androgens and progesterone. These include sulfatases, aromatase, hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases, sulfotransferases, hydroxylases and glucuronidases. The control of these enzymes plays an important role in the development and pathogenesis of hormone-dependent breast cancer. As discussed in this review, various progestogens including dydrogesterone and its 20alpha-dihydro-derivative, medrogestone, promegestone, nomegestrol acetate and norelgestromin can reduce intratissular levels of estradiol in breast cancer by blocking sulfatase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 1 activities. A possible correlation has been postulated between breast cell proliferation and estrogen sulfotransferase activity. Progesterone is largely transformed in the breast; normal breast produces mainly 4-ene derivatives, whereas 5alpha-derivatives are most common in breast cancer tissue. It has been suggested that this specific conversion of progesterone may be involved in breast carcinogenesis. In conclusion, treatment with anti-aromatases combined with anti-sulfatase or 17beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 1 could provide new therapeutic possibilities in the treatment of patients with hormone-dependent breast cancer. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Estrogen and progesterone receptor levels in nonneoplastic breast epithelium of breast cancer cases versus benign breast biopsy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolcott, Christy G; SenGupta, Sandip K; Hanna, Wedad M; Aronson, Kristan J

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies and biological mechanisms of carcinogenesis suggest that the steroid receptor content of benign breast epithelium may be related to breast cancer risk. The objective in this study was to compare the levels of estrogen receptor-α (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in nonneoplastic breast epithelium between breast cancer cases and biopsy controls. Between 1995 and 1997 at two sites (Women's College Hospital in Toronto and Kingston General Hospital), 667 women who were scheduled for diagnostic excisional breast biopsies completed a questionnaire providing personal information and agreed to allow analysis of routinely resected tissue. Histological slides with nonneoplastic epithelium were available for 101 cancer cases and 200 biopsy controls in Toronto and for 105 cancer cases and 119 controls in Kingston. Nonneoplastic epithelium was examined with immunohistochemical assays to determine the percent of epithelial cells staining for ER and PR. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) stratified by study site. The ER content of nonneoplastic tissue was higher in cases than biopsy controls in unadjusted analyses; after adjustment for age, however, a weak association remained in only one of the study sites. After adjustment for age, the PR content of nonneoplastic tissue was slightly lower in breast cancer cases than controls in one study site. Furthermore, this inverse association was confined to women with PR negative breast cancer in comparison to the controls. No interaction between ER and PR content of nonneoplastic tissue was observed in relation to the odds of having breast cancer. The results of this study are consistent with only a slight indication of increased ER levels in nonneoplastic tissue in breast cancer cases relative to controls. This study contributes to the understanding of breast cancer by examining both ER and PR in nonneoplastic tissue. Limitations remain, however, such as the necessity of

  5. Breast cancer screening with digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaane, Per

    2017-01-01

    To give an overview of studies comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in breast cancer screening. The implementation of tomosynthesis in breast imaging is rapidly increasing world-wide. Experimental clinical studies of relevance for DBT screening have shown that tomosynthesis might have a great potential in breast cancer screening, although most of these retrospective reading studies are based on small populations, so that final conclusions are difficult to draw from individual reports. Several retrospective studies and three prospective trials on tomosynthesis in breast cancer screening have been published so far, confirming the great potential of DBT in mammography screening. The main results of these screening studies are presented. The retrospective screening studies from USA have all shown a significant decrease in the recall rate using DBT as adjunct to mammography. Most of these studies have also shown an increase in the cancer detection rate, and the non-significant results in some studies might be explained by a lack of statistical power. All the three prospective European trials have shown a significant increase in the cancer detection rate. The retrospective and the prospective screening studies comparing FFDM and DBT have all demonstrated that tomosynthesis has a great potential for improving breast cancer screening. DBT should be regarded as a better mammogram that could improve or overcome limitations of the conventional mammography, and tomosynthesis might be considered as the new technique in the next future of breast cancer screening.

  6. Frequent epigenetic inactivation of Wnt antagonist genes in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Toyota, M; Caraway, H; Gabrielson, E; Ohmura, T; Fujikane, T; Nishikawa, N; Sogabe, Y; Nojima, M; Sonoda, T; Mori, M; Hirata, K; Imai, K; Shinomura, Y; Baylin, S B; Tokino, T

    2008-01-01

    Although mutation of APC or CTNNB1 (β-catenin) is rare in breast cancer, activation of Wnt signalling is nonetheless thought to play an important role in breast tumorigenesis, and epigenetic silencing of Wnt antagonist genes, including the secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) and Dickkopf (DKK) families, has been observed in various tumours. In breast cancer, frequent methylation and silencing of SFRP1 was recently documented; however, altered expression of other Wnt antagonist genes is largely unknown. In the present study, we found frequent methylation of SFRP family genes in breast cancer cell lines (SFRP1, 7 out of 11, 64%; SFRP2, 11 out of 11, 100%; SFRP5, 10 out of 11, 91%) and primary breast tumours (SFRP1, 31 out of 78, 40%; SFRP2, 60 out of 78, 77%; SFRP5, 55 out of 78, 71%). We also observed methylation of DKK1, although less frequently, in cell lines (3 out of 11, 27%) and primary tumours (15 out of 78, 19%). Breast cancer cell lines express various Wnt ligands, and overexpression of SFRPs inhibited cancer cell growth. In addition, overexpression of a β-catenin mutant and depletion of SFRP1 using small interfering RNA synergistically upregulated transcriptional activity of T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer factor. Our results confirm the frequent methylation and silencing of Wnt antagonist genes in breast cancer, and suggest that their loss of function contributes to activation of Wnt signalling in breast carcinogenesis. PMID:18283316

  7. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact of the increasing incidence and mortality due to breast cancer. ... ported to be increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. ... A lump with more than three quarters of its margin being .... accounted for 36.8% of the false negative cases rate. The.

  8. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  9. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiglazov, V.F.

    1989-01-01

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  10. DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC UTILITY OF SERUM PSA IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑群; 强水云; 李妙羡; 纪宗正

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in breast cancer women. Methods Using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay system, we measured the concentrations of these markers in the sera of 85 women with breast cancer and in 30 healthy women.Results Free PSA levels were significantly higher in women with breast cancer than healthy women (P <0. 05 ).The percentage of free PSA predominant subjects was 37. 6% in breast cancer patients and 3. 3% in healthy women.In women with breast cancer,total PSA positivity was 23.5% and free PSA positivity was 27. 1%. When compared to negatives,total PSA positive patients had a higher percentage of lymph node involvement tamours ( P >0. 05).However, patients with predominant free PSA had a higher percentage of early stage than patients with predominant PSA-ACT. Conclusion This study indicate clinical significance of preoperative measurement of serum total and free PSA in diagnosis and prognosis of women with breast cancer. The expression of KLKs is correlated with carcinogenesis of breast cancer.

  11. Estrogen-Induced Depurination of DNA: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Schepens, M., Jeuken, J., Sprenger, S., van de Zande, G., Bjerkehagen, B., Forus, A., Weibolt, V., Molenaar , I., van den Berg, E., Myklebost, O...carcinogenesis, how to interrupt the estrogen metabolic pathway leading to cancer. Both have authored books and/or articles in breast cancer

  12. Risk-benefit analysis for mass screening of breast cancer utilizing mammography as a screening test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, T.A.; Tateno, Yukio

    1989-01-01

    Incidence of breast cancers in Japanese women is increasing steadily. Mass screening of breast cancer was started in Japan under auspices of Adult Health Promotion Act of the Japanese Government from 1987. As the first screening method, the palpation of breasts is employed at present, but it is expected to be replaced by the mammography. In this report, the risk-benefit analysis is presented between risk of breast carcinogenesis due to radiation and benefit of mass screening of breast cancer. The benefit of mass screening is taken as the net elongation of average life expectancy of women due to survival from breast cancers. The risk of mammography is taken as the net loss of average life expectancy of women due to breast carcinogenesis. In the latter, the latency time and plateau period of radiation carcinogenesis were taken into consideration in the calculation. The results show that the ages at which the benefit and risk become equal are between 30 and 35 years old when dose equivalent of mammography is between 10 and 20 mSv, that are conventionally used. However, the critical age will be reduced to 20 years old if the dose equivalent becomes 1 mSv. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that a low dose mammographic system should be developed in order to achieve 1 mSv for the mass screening of breast cancer of Japanese women. In author's opinion, this is quite feasible by employing a new digital radiography with imaging plate. (author)

  13. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  14. In vivo and in vitro studies suggest a possible involvement of HPV infection in the early stage of breast carcinogenesis via APOBEC3B induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ohba

    Full Text Available High prevalence of infection with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV ranging from 25 to 100% (average 31% was observed in breast cancer (BC patients in Singapore using novel DNA chip technology. Early stage of BC demonstrated higher HPV positivity, and BC positive for estrogen receptor (ER showed significantly higher HPV infection rate. This unique association of HPV with BC in vivo prompted us to investigate a possible involvement of HPV in early stages of breast carcinogenesis. Using normal breast epithelial cells stably transfected with HPV-18, we showed apparent upregulation of mRNA for the cytidine deaminase, APOBEC3B (A3B which is reported to be a source of mutations in BC. HPV-induced A3B overexpression caused significant γH2AX focus formation, and DNA breaks which were cancelled by shRNA to HPV18 E6, E7 and A3B. These results strongly suggest an active involvement of HPV in the early stage of BC carcinogenesis via A3B induction.

  15. 胰岛素样生长因子-1在乳腺癌组织中的表达%Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 in breast cancer tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingxun Chen; Mengquan Li; Jingruo Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) so as to explore its relationship with carcinogenesis and development of breast cancer. Methods: IGF-1 mRNA levels in tissues of breast cancer, adjacent breast cancer in 70 cases breast cancer patients were analyzed by RT-PCR with the normal breast tissues of paired breast as the control. Results: The level of IGF-1 mRNA expression in breast cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in the paired adjacent to breast cancer tissues, normal mammary gland tissues. The ration of IGF-1/β-actin were 0.679±0.075, 0.463±0.085, 0.305±0.031, respectively. There was significant difference between different groups (P 0.005). Conclusion: The high-level expression of IGF-1 in breast cancer tissues is correlated with carcinogenesis, development and metastasis of breast cancer.

  16. Mastopathy and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, K.

    2007-01-01

    Mastopathy (mastopathia fibroso-cystica) and breast cancer are two major epidemiologic, economic and medical problems of women. In Poland, annually, 0.2 - 1.6 billion Polish zlotys is spent on diagnosis and treatment of mastopathy; half of that sum is spent improperly. Many papers suggest relationships between these two diseases, however, it is not certain, whether, or how much, mastopathy increases breast cancer incidence. The available papers from the recent years indicate increased risk, but the methodology of these data is not perfect. It is not excluded that fibrocystic diseases of the breast increase breast cancer incidence. If such an influence exists, independent of other well-know factors, it is probably very small. Moreover, due to the diversity of medical information there is a lack of diagnostic and therapeutic standards in mastopathy. Different types of scans, hormonal, biochemical and immunohistochemical examinations are performed improperly, and there has been no genetic analysis of mastopathy. Therefore, there is a strong need of well planned, prospective trials in this field. (author)

  17. Cutaneous manifestations of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka B. Owczarczyk-Saczonek; Dawid Sigorski; Paweł Różanowski; Agnieszka Markiewicz; Waldemar J. Placek

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm among women in Poland and in the European Union. According to most recent data of the Polish National Cancer Registry, in 2014 breast cancer was diagnosed in over 17,000 women. Based on the National Health Fund records, it is estimated that there are about 55,000–60,000 women in Poland who have a history of breast cancer diagnosis and are potentially at a risk of relapse. The most common sign of breast cancer is the presence of a nodule, how...

  18. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  19. Clinicopathological significance of PTPN12 expression in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xunyi; Yuan, Zhentao; Jiang, Dandan; Li, Funian

    2012-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 12 (PTPN12) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene (TSG) that is frequently compromised in human triple-negative breast cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PTPN12 protein by patients with breast cancer in a Chinese population and the relationship between PTPN12 expression levels and patient clinicopathological features and prognosis. Additionally, we explored the underlying down-regulation mechanism from the perspective of an epigenetic alteration. We examined PTPN12 mRNA expression in five breast cancer cell lines using semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and detected PTPN12 protein expression using immunohistochemistry in 150 primary invasive breast cancer cases and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. Methylation-specific PCR was performed to analyze the promoter CpG island methylation status of PTPN12. PTPN12 was significantly down-regulated in breast cancer cases (48/150) compared to adjacent noncancerous tissues (17/150; P < 0.05). Furthermore, low expression of PTPN12 showed a significant positive correlation with tumor size (P = 0.047), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001), distant metastasis (P = 0.009), histological grade (P = 0.012), and survival time (P = 0.019). Additionally, promoter CpG island hypermethylation occurs more frequently in breast cancer cases and breast cancer cell lines with low PTPN12 expression. Our findings suggest that PTPN12 is potentially a methylation-silenced TSG for breast cancer that may play an important role in breast carcinogenesis and could potentially serve as an independent prognostic factor for invasive breast cancer patients

  20. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  1. Hereditary forms of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bella, V.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common oncologic disease in the female population. Besides the sporadic occurrence it occurs in the familial and hereditary form. Persons with the occurrence of positive family anamnesis of breast cancer should be actively investigated. In the indicated cases it is necessary to send the woman to genetic examination. In case that the hereditary form of breast cancer is affirmed it is necessary to examine her family relatives. Women with the hereditary form of breast cancer occur in about 5 – 10 % portion from all women diagnosed with breast cancer. Nowadays we already know that 80 % of hereditary breast cancers are due to germ mutations in BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 gene. Persons with detected gene mutations must be dispensarized in the centres intended for it. (author)

  2. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-04-01

    Of the important health effects of ionizing radiation, three important late effects - carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenesis are of greatest concern. This is because any exposure, even at low levels, carries some risk of such deleterious effects. As the dose of radiation increases above very low levels, the risk of health effects increases. Cancer-induction is the most important late somatic effect of low-dose ionizing radiation. Solid cancers, rather than leukemia, are principal late effects in exposed individuals. Tissues vary greatly in their susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. The most frequently occurring radiation-induced cancers in man include, in decreasing order of susceptibility: the female breast, the thyroid gland, the blood-forming tissues, the lung, certain organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the bones. A number of biological and physical factors affect the cancer risk, such as age, sex, life-style, LET, and RBE. Despite uncertainty about low-level radiation risks, regulatory and advisory bodies must set standards for exposure, and individuals need information to be able to make informed judgments for themselves. From the point of view of the policy maker, the overriding concern is the fact that small doses of radiation can cause people to have more cancers than would otherwise be expected. While concern for all radiation effects exists, our human experience is limited to cancer-induction in exposed populations. This discussion is limited to cancer risk estimation and decision-making in relation to the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Here, low-level radiation will refer to yearly whole-body doses up to 5 rems or 0.05 Sv, or to cumulative doses up to 50 rems or 0.5 Sv from low-LET radiation and from high-LET radiation. (ERB)

  3. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-04-01

    Of the important health effects of ionizing radiation, three important late effects - carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenesis are of greatest concern. This is because any exposure, even at low levels, carries some risk of such deleterious effects. As the dose of radiation increases above very low levels, the risk of health effects increases. Cancer-induction is the most important late somatic effect of low-dose ionizing radiation. Solid cancers, rather than leukemia, are principal late effects in exposed individuals. Tissues vary greatly in their susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. The most frequently occurring radiation-induced cancers in man include, in decreasing order of susceptibility: the female breast, the thyroid gland, the blood-forming tissues, the lung, certain organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the bones. A number of biological and physical factors affect the cancer risk, such as age, sex, life-style, LET, and RBE. Despite uncertainty about low-level radiation risks, regulatory and advisory bodies must set standards for exposure, and individuals need information to be able to make informed judgments for themselves. From the point of view of the policy maker, the overriding concern is the fact that small doses of radiation can cause people to have more cancers than would otherwise be expected. While concern for all radiation effects exists, our human experience is limited to cancer-induction in exposed populations. This discussion is limited to cancer risk estimation and decision-making in relation to the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Here, low-level radiation will refer to yearly whole-body doses up to 5 rems or 0.05 Sv, or to cumulative doses up to 50 rems or 0.5 Sv from low-LET radiation and from high-LET radiation

  4. Male breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, F.; Vidal, M.A.; Caballero, A.J.; Martinez, A.; Lluch, A.

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the radiological and ultrasonographic signs that contribute to the diagnosis of male breast cancer to establish its differential diagnosis with regard to the most common pathologies involving the male breast. We studied 14 patients diagnosed as heaving breast cancer over the past 23 years. We reviewed their medical records, personal and familial history disease, use of pharmacological agents and the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings. The literature on this subject was also reviewed. Given the fact that his lesion is rare and unexpected in men, a large percentage of the cases, especially those studied in the early years of the study period, involved very advanced stages of the disease at diagnosis. The most common clinical finding was retroarelar mass. Mammography usually reveals a well.defined mass and ultrasound shows a well-defined, hypoechoic, heterogeneous mass. The most frequent histological type is, an in women, the infiltrating ductal carcinoma. A palpable breast mass in a man should suggest possible malignant disease. Thus, mammographic and ultrasonographic studies should be performed early, accompanied, if necessary, by aspiration biopsy; with these measures the prognosis may approximate that of women. (Author) 21 refs

  5. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  6. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    ...) develop breast cancer less frequently. However, these drugs have side effects toward the stomach, liver and kidneys, particularly at the high doses potentially required to prevent breast cancer...

  7. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  8. Dosimetry of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez C, G; Restrepo, J; Aguirre, C A [Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali (Colombia)

    1996-08-01

    The systemic therapy of breast cancer has also changed profoundly during the last 60 years, and in this time the integration of treatment modalities involve a major area of investigation. The dosimetry of breast cancer presents different complications which can range from the Physician`s handling of the neoplasia up to the simple aspects of physical simulation, contour design, radiation fields, irregular surfaces and computer programs containing mathematical equations which differ little or largely with the reality of the radiation distribution into the volume to be irradiated. We have studied the problem using two types of measurements to determine how the radiation distribution is in irregular surfaces, and designing an easier skill to be used with each patient, in order to optimize the treatment with respect to the simulation and verification process. (author). 7 refs.

  9. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  10. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  11. In situ breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Luis

    2004-01-01

    In situ breast cancer, particularly the ductal type, is increasing in frequency in the developed countries as well as in Ecuador, most probably. These lesions carry a higher risk of developing a subsequent invasive cancer. Treatment has changed recently due to results of randomized studies, from classical mastectomy to conservative surgery associated to radiotherapy. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index is currently the most usual instrument to guide diagnosis and treatment. Tamoxifen seems to decrease significantly the risk of tumor recurrence after initial treatment. (The author)

  12. Elevated Levels of Somatic Mutation as a Biomarker of Environmental Effects Contributing to Breast Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    with early term pregnancy conferring a persistent protective effect [5]. Exposure to ionizing radiation, while a lifetime risk factor for breast cancer...lactational differentiation, such as occurs during term pregnancy , confers resistance to carcinogene- sis [26,27]. We have developed a novel human...anemia. Science 297, 606–609. 19. D’Andrea, A. D. and Grompe, M. (2003) The Fanconi anaemia /BRCA pathway. Nat. Rev. Cancer 3, 23–34. 20. Xia, F., Taghian

  13. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  14. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-05

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  15. Estimating radiation-induced cancer risk using MVK two-stage model for carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, M.; Kusama, T.; Aoki, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Based on the carcinogenesis model as proposed by Moolgavkar et al., time-dependent relative risk models were derived for projecting the time variation in excess relative risk. If it is assumed that each process is described by time-independent linear dose-response relationship, the time variation in excess relative risk is influenced by the parameter related with the promotion process. The risk model based carcinogenesis theory would play a marked role in estimating radiation-induced cancer risk in constructing a projection model or transfer model

  16. Brachytherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spikalovas, V.; Mudenas, A.; Karoesiene, E.; Mickevicius, R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1987-1995 a total of 347 patients with breast cancer underwent interstitial treatment. Two methods of irradiation were applied. 1. When patients refused surgery, external radiotherapy was given followed by implant radiotherapy for a dose of 20-30 Gy. Needle sources were applied for treatment with an increasing activity on the ends. The application of special template devices made it possible to implant radioactive sources in a strictly pre-set geometry. This allowed to place the sources in the necessary geometry for the whole course of irradiation. Dosimetric planning was performed in Gray-equivalents to a selected isodose curve mostly 85%. Treatment time was 20-50 hours. 2. In cases when the tumour was localized in the medial quadrant of breast, interstitial therapy was applied to the parasternal lymph nodes. During mastectomy catheters were placed in a. thoracica interna of the corresponding side. On the first or second postoperative day flexible radioactive sources were inserted into catheters. Their active length was 10-12 cm. Irradiation dose at a distance of 2 cm from the centre of source was 40-45 Gy. Results: There was minimum radiation effect on the adjusting organs and tissues. Local recurrence of tumour in the region of irradiation was in 6 patients. Conclusions: The application of interstitial radiotherapy in treatment of breast cancer is effective and the results of radiation treatment are encouraging

  17. Inflammatory breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an extremely aggressive disease that progresses rapidly and carries a very grim prognosis. It is characterized by erythema, rapid enlargement of the breast, skin ridging, and a characteristics peau d´orange appearance of the skin secondary to dermal lymphatic tumor involvement. Although a palpable tumor may not by present, about 55% to 85% of patient will present with metastases to the axillary or supraclavicular lymph nodes. Diagnosis of IBC is made on the basis of these clinical characteristics, as well as histologic verification of carcinoma. Accurate diagnosis is critically important, as multimodal therapy can significantly improve outcome if instituted early enough. Primary systemic treatment (neoadjuvant, induction, initials) is standard treatment for inflammatory breast cancer. If treatment response is not satisfactory it is necessary to look for new treatment regimens with different concept of dose intensity, density and sequence of treatment. In the neoadjuvant setting it is possible to employ all targeted and non-targeted therapies as was shown in a number of clinical trials. (author)

  18. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Ko, Eun Sook; Yi, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results

  19. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  20. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-06

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  1. Carcinogen inducibility in vivo and down-regulation of DMBT1 during breast carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollenhauer, Jan; Helmke, Burkhard; Medina, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    unambiguous inactivating DMBT1 mutations in breast cancer. Expression analyses in the human and mouse mammary glands pointed to the necessity of DMBT1 induction. While age-dependent and hormonal effects could be ruled out, 9 of 10 mice showed induction of Dmbt1 expression after administration...... of the carcinogen 7,12-dimethybenz(alpha)anthracene prior to the onset of tumorigenesis or other histopathological changes. DMBT1 displayed significant up-regulation in human tumor-flanking tissues compared to in normal breast tissues (P displayed a switch from lumenal...

  2. System delays in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    registry with an audit capability. We suggest targeting an 8-week period for the work-up and staging of every patient with breast cancer. The establishment of ... or less' and 'women with symptoms and signs suggestive of breast cancer must be ...

  3. Conventional surgery in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapia Herrera, Andres

    2013-01-01

    General aspects of breast cancer were described from the epidemiological point of view, clinical and pathological, as well as its impact at global and national levels. Parenchyma conservative surgery and/or breast skin was analyzed exhaustively as a cancer treatment analyzed exhaustively, to your specifications, requirements, technical aspects, risks, benefits, degree of oncological safety and benefits for patients [es

  4. Breast cancer in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JhfBK: A I'ccr-mvicw Journal of liiomeclical Scicnccs. July 2002, Vol. 1 No. 1 pp 33-42. Breast cancer in the elderly. ABSTRACT. Between Janua~y 1997 and December 2001,107 patients were admitted and treated for breast cancer at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of these, 27. (25.2%) were aged 60 ...

  5. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  6. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screenings Most Schools Can Do More to Help Students Stay Sun Safe Parents and Friends Can Influence ... Starts in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer ... notice a change in the size or shape of your breast, feel pain in your breast, have nipple discharge other than ...

  7. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  8. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  9. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  10. Radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnerty, N.A.; Buzdar, A.U.; Blumenschein, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1983, sixteen patients with a history of irradiation at an early age to the head, neck, or chest areas for a variety of conditions in whom breast cancer subsequently developed were seen at out institute. The median latent period between the irradiation and the development of breast cancer was 420 months. The distribution of patients by stage of the disease and the median age at diagnosis of this subgroup was similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. The subsequent course of this disease was also similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. A substantial number of women have been exposed to irradiation at a young age, and these women are at a higher risk of having breast cancer develop. These women should be closely observed to discover the disease in an early curable stage

  11. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... interactions of pregnancy-related mammotrophic factors, ligands, and receptors? What is the time course of pregnancy-related ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  13. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  14. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Tests may include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  15. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  16. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu

    2017-07-05

    Early-stage cancer detection could reduce breast cancer death rates significantly in the long-term. The most critical point for best prognosis is to identify early-stage cancer cells. Investigators have studied many breast diagnostic approaches, including mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computerized tomography, positron emission tomography and biopsy. However, these techniques have some limitations such as being expensive, time consuming and not suitable for young women. Developing a high-sensitive and rapid early-stage breast cancer diagnostic method is urgent. In recent years, investigators have paid their attention in the development of biosensors to detect breast cancer using different biomarkers. Apart from biosensors and biomarkers, microwave imaging techniques have also been intensely studied as a promising diagnostic tool for rapid and cost-effective early-stage breast cancer detection. This paper aims to provide an overview on recent important achievements in breast screening methods (particularly on microwave imaging) and breast biomarkers along with biosensors for rapidly diagnosing breast cancer.

  17. Breast cancer in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, C.M. de; Villas-Boas, C.L.P.; Koch, H.A.; Nogueira, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    After a study of all cases of masculine breast cancer registered at the INCa from 1983 to 1989, the author present the most usual clinical, radiological and histopathological findings. The ductal infiltrating type of carcinoma was predominant; there were also six cases of secondary implant and two patients who died. The value of this article lies on the opportunity of presenting 11 cases of this pathology, which represent only 0,2% of malignant tumors in men, and to describe its manifestations and call the attention of radiologists for this entity. (author)

  18. Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Burhan; Aziz, Shiekh Aejaz; Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Mir, Mohammad Hussain

    2017-01-01

    The study was meant to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with breast cancer and to establish its role as an independent risk factor on occurrence of breast cancer. Fifty women aged between 40 and 80 years with breast cancer and fifty controls of similar age were assessed for metabolic syndrome prevalence and breast cancer risk factors, including age at menarche, reproductive status, live births, breastfeeding, and family history of breast cancer, age at diagnosis of breast cancer, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found in 40.0% of breast cancer patients, and 18.0% of those in control group ( P = 0.02). An independent and positive association was seen between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 3.037; 95% confidence interval 1.214-7.597). Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in breast cancer patients and is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.

  19. Breast cancer in Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohene-Yeboah, M.; Adjei, E.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women.To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 and June 30th 2009 patients presenting with breast lumps were assessed by clinical examination, imaging studies and pathological examination. Relevant clinical and pathological were recorded prospectively data on all patients with microscopically proven breast cancer. The cancers were graded according to the modified Bloom-Richardson system. Tissue immunoperoxidase stains for oestrogen, progesterone receptors and c-erb2 oncogene were performed with commercially prepared antigens and reagents.Nineteen thousand four hundred and twenty – three (19,423) patients were seen during the study period. There were 330 (1.7%) patients with histologically proven breast cancer. The mean age was 49.1 years. A palpable breast lump was detected in 248 patients (75.2%). Two hundred and eighty –one patients (85.2%) presented with Stages III and IV , 271 (82.1%) invasive and 230 ( 85.2%) high grade carcinomas. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 32 and 9 cases respectively. Her2 protein was positive in 11 cases. In Kumasi, as in other parts of Ghana, breast cancer affects mostly young pre-menopausal who present with advanced disease. The cancers have unfavourable prognostic features and are unlikely to respond to hormonal therapy. (au)

  20. Annexin A1 expression in a pooled breast cancer series : Association with tumor subtypes and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobral-Leite, Marcelo; Wesseling, Jelle; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Nevanlinna, Heli; van Miltenburg, Martine H.; Sanders, Joyce; Hofland, Ingrid; Blows, Fiona M.; Coulson, Penny; Patrycja, Gazinska; Schellens, Jan H M; Fagerholm, Rainer; Heikkilä, Päivi; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Provenzano, Elena; Ali, Hamid Raza; Figueroa, Jonine; Sherman, Mark; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Phillips, Kelly Anne; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Visscher, Daniel; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Arndt, Volker; Holleczek, Bernd; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W M; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; van de Water, Bob; Broeks, Annegien; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Pharoah, Paul D P; García-Closas, Montserrat; de Graauw, Marjo; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Aghmesheh, Morteza; Amor, David; Andrews, Lesley; Antill, Yoland; Armitage, Shane; Arnold, Leanne; Balleine, Rosemary; Bankier, Agnes; Bastick, Patti; Beesley, Jonathan; Beilby, John; Bennett, Barbara; Bennett, Ian; Berry, Geoffrey; Blackburn, Anneke; Bogwitz, Michael; Brennan, Meagan; Brown, Melissa; Buckley, Michael; Burgess, Matthew; Burke, Jo; Butow, Phyllis; Byron, Keith; Callen, David; Campbell, Ian; Chauhan, Deepa; Chauhan, Manisha; Christian, Alice; Clarke, Christine; Colley, Alison; Cotton, Dick; Crook, Ashley; Cui, James; Culling, Bronwyn; Cummings, Margaret; Dawson, Sarah Jane; deFazio, Anna; Delatycki, Martin; Dickson, Rebecca; Dixon, Joanne; Dobrovic, Alexander; Dudding, Tracy; Edkins, Ted; Edwards, Stacey; Eisenbruch, Maurice; Farshid, Gelareh; Fawcett, Susan; Fellows, Andrew; Fenton, Georgina; Field, Michael; Firgaira, Frank; Flanagan, James; Fleming, Jean; Fong, Peter; Forbes, John; Fox, Stephen; French, Juliet; Friedlander, Michael; Gaff, Clara; Gardner, Mac; Gattas, Mike; George, Peter; Giles, Graham; Gill, Grantley; Goldblatt, Jack; Greening, Sian; Grist, Scott; Haan, Eric; Hardie, Kate; Harris, Marion; Hart, Stewart; Hayward, Nick; Healey, Sue; Heiniger, Louise; Hopper, John; Humphrey, Evelyn; Hunt, Clare; James, Paul; Jenkins, Mark; Jones, Alison; Kefford, Rick; Kidd, Alexa; Kiely, Belinda; Kirk, Judy; Koehler, Jessica; Kollias, James; Kovalenko, Serguei; Lakhani, Sunil; Leaming, Amanda; Leary, Jennifer; Lim, Jacqueline; Lindeman, Geoff; Lipton, Lara; Lobb, Liz; Mann, Graham; Marsh, Deborah; McLachlan, Sue Anne; Meiser, Bettina; Meldrum, Cliff; Milne, Roger; Mitchell, Gillian; Newman, Beth; Niedermayr, Eveline; Nightingale, Sophie; O'Connell, Shona; O'Loughlin, Imelda; Osborne, Richard; Pachter, Nick; Patterson, Briony; Peters, Lester; Phillips, Kelly; Price, Melanie; Purser, Lynne; Reeve, Tony; Reeve, Jeanne; Richards, Robert; Rickard, Edwina; Robinson, Bridget; Rudzki, Barney; Saleh, Mona; Salisbury, Elizabeth; Sambrook, Joe; Saunders, Christobel; Saunus, Jodi; Sayer, Robyn; Scott, Elizabeth; Scott, Rodney; Scott, Clare; Seshadri, Ram; Sexton, Adrienne; Sharma, Raghwa; Shelling, Andrew; Simpson, Peter; Southey, Melissa; Spurdle, Amanda; Suthers, Graeme; Sykes, Pamela; Tassell, Margaret; Taylor, Donna; Taylor, Jessica; Thierry, Benjamin; Thomas, Susan; Thompson, Ella; Thorne, Heather; Townshend, Sharron; Trainer, Alison; Tran, Lan; Tucker, Kathy; Tyler, Janet; Visvader, Jane; Walker, Logan; Walpole, Ian; Ward, Robin; Waring, Paul; Warner, Bev; Warren, Graham; Williams, Rachael; Wilson, Judy; Winship, Ingrid; Wu, Kathy; Young, Mary Ann; Bowtell, D.; Green, A.; Webb, P.; de Fazio, A.; Gertig, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a protein related with the carcinogenesis process and metastasis formation in many tumors. However, little is known about the prognostic value of ANXA1 in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between ANXA1 expression, BRCA1/2

  1. Self assessment and detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Priyanka; Yadav, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths in India. Approx. three million patients suffering from the disease while Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in India. Post operative radiotherapy after the breast conservative surgery and mastectomy have been shown to reduce the rates of local recurrence and death due to breast carcinomas. Hence awareness of breast cancer signs, symptoms and self assessment plays critical role in the care of breast cancer patients

  2. Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0461 TITLE: Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jose Silva CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0461 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) l 5d...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC, ~5% of all breast cancers ) is the most lethal form of breast cancer , presenting a 5- year

  3. [Management of breast cancer in a woman with breast implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacle, S; Lifrange, E; Nizet, J-L

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer, currently one woman on eight, also concerns patients who underwent augmentation surgery. Breast implants have already been the subject of numerous publications concerning the risk of inducing breast cancer or of delaying its diagnosis; however, no significant causal relationship has been established. The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic consequences when breast cancer is identified in a patient with breast implants.

  4. [The biochemical carcinogenesis of selected heavy metals in bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorbach-Dolata, Anna; Marchewka, Zofia; Piwowar, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer takes the second place in the classification of morbidity of urinary system cancers. Many chemical factors take part in cancerogenesis. It is suggested that exposure to heavy metals such as arsenic, chromium, nickel and cadmium as well as its metabolites may trigger the bladder cancer through inducing excessive reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress formation which are responsible for DNA damage. In patients with bladder cancer is observed the disorder of processes regulated by p-53, including apoptosis. There are many patients with bladder cancer with confirmed absence of retinoblastoma protein, which is responsible of holding on the process of coming up the cells with mutation into synthesis, where the replication process undergoes. It is mentioned that excessive expression of proto-oncogenes may also cause the bladder cancer. The article concerns biochemical effects of exposure to chosen heavy metals and their potential role in bladder cancer progression.

  5. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  6. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy affecting women in Nigeria. Regular breast self examination reduces morbidity and mortality from this disease. Objective: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer, breast self examination and practice amongst secondary school teachers in Enugu , Nigeria.

  7. A Review of ERCC1 Gene in Bladder Cancer: Implications for Carcinogenesis and Resistance to Chemoradiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsunari Kawashima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1 gene performs a critical incision step in DNA repair and is reported to be correlated with carcinogenesis and resistance to drug or ionizing radiation therapy. We reviewed the correlation between ERCC1 and bladder cancer. In carcinogenesis, several reports discussed the relation between ERCC1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and carcinogenesis in bladder cancer only in case-control studies. Regarding the relation between ERCC1 and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, in vitro and clinical studies indicate that ERCC1 might be related to resistance to radiation therapy rather than cisplatin therapy. It is controversial whether ERCC1 predicts prognosis of bladder cancer treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Tyrosine kinase receptors or endothelial-mesenchymal transition are reported to regulate the expression of ERCC1, and further study is needed to clarify the mechanism of ERCC1 expression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy in vitro and to discover novel therapies for advanced and metastatic bladder cancer.

  8. A Review of ERCC1 Gene in Bladder Cancer: Implications for Carcinogenesis and Resistance to Chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Atsunari; Takayama, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) gene performs a critical incision step in DNA repair and is reported to be correlated with carcinogenesis and resistance to drug or ionizing radiation therapy. We reviewed the correlation between ERCC1 and bladder cancer. In carcinogenesis, several reports discussed the relation between ERCC1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and carcinogenesis in bladder cancer only in case-control studies. Regarding the relation between ERCC1 and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, in vitro and clinical studies indicate that ERCC1 might be related to resistance to radiation therapy rather than cisplatin therapy. It is controversial whether ERCC1 predicts prognosis of bladder cancer treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Tyrosine kinase receptors or endothelial-mesenchymal transition are reported to regulate the expression of ERCC1, and further study is needed to clarify the mechanism of ERCC1 expression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy in vitro and to discover novel therapies for advanced and metastatic bladder cancer.

  9. The Effect of Simvastatin on Breast Cancer Cell Growth in Women With Stage I-II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  10. Metastasis of breast cancer rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, L.; Santander, G.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Metastases to the breast are rare, corresponding approximately to 3% of breast cancers. Primary tumors that spread more commonly are own breast, often following them in melanomas, neuroendocrine, ovarian and lymphoma. Medical history: A 59-year consultation rectoragias repeated and thinning. It is studied and finally intervenes (low anterior resection) diagnosed with rectal cancer whose Histopathology revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma stage III. Concomitantly the patient has a left breast lump that was studied with mammography, which revealed a dense mass of larger diameter 4 cm in topografiada 3 hour left breast with well defined contours and ultrasonographic structure solid. MI lumpectomy is performed whose pathology reports a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with cytoarchitectural features matching the lesion of rectum. Hormone receptors were negative. The patient is treated as a rectal cancer with RT spread over QT (5FU i /c). Died 7 months after diagnosis. Discusion: In literature are reported only 3 cases of breast metastases secondary to rectal cancer; how unusual this presentation justify this report.In this event they occurred in patients with a previous diagnosis of rectal cancer and in the context of systemic lesion progression. In our case clinician early diagnosis of rectal and breast metastases was synchronous. The mammographic image consistent with those described for these cases in the literature.The development of metastases in breast tissue is associated with a poor prognosis as which correlates with the survival of the patient

  11. Identification of target genes of transcription factor activator protein 2 gamma in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ailan, He; Shuanglin, Xiang; Xiangwen, Xiao; Daolong, Ren; Lu, Gan; Xiaofeng, Ding; Xi, Qiao; Xingwang, Hu; Rushi, Liu; Jian, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Activator protein 2 gamma (AP-2γ) is a member of the transcription factor activator protein-2 (AP-2) family, which is developmentally regulated and plays a role in human neoplasia. AP-2γ has been found to be overexpressed in most breast cancers, and have a dual role to inhibit tumor initiation and promote tumor progression afterwards during mammary tumorigensis. To identify the gene targets that mediate its effects, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to isolate AP-2γ binding sites on genomic DNA from human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-453. 20 novel DNA fragments proximal to potential AP-2γ targets were obtained. They are categorized into functional groups of carcinogenesis, metabolism and others. A combination of sequence analysis, reporter gene assays, quantitative real-time PCR, electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays and immunoblot analysis further confirmed the four AP-2γ target genes in carcinogenesis group: ErbB2, CDH2, HPSE and IGSF11. Our results were consistent with the previous reports that ErbB2 was the target gene of AP-2γ. Decreased expression and overexpression of AP-2γ in human breast cancer cells significantly altered the expression of these four genes, indicating that AP-2γ directly regulates them. This suggested that AP-2γ can coordinate the expression of a network of genes, involving in carcinogenesis, especially in breast cancer. They could serve as therapeutic targets against breast cancers in the future

  12. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0390 TITLE: Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zheng Li CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0390 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Zheng Li 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...14 Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast  Cancer   A. Introduction (1paragraph) The overall goal of this proposal is to prepare TrkC

  13. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... white blood cells that help fight illness. If breast cancer spreads, the lymph nodes in the underarm (called ... if they contain cancer cells. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. Sentinel node biopsy and ...

  14. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  15. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , ... Disclosures Footnotes Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. ...

  16. National Native American Breast Cancer Survivor's Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burhansstipanov, Linda

    2002-01-01

    .... The purpose of this project is to improve the survival from breast cancer and quality of life after being diagnosed with breast cancer for both the patient and loved ones of the cancer patient...

  17. National Native American Breast Cancer Survivor's Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burhansstipanov, Linda

    2003-01-01

    .... The purpose of this project is to improve the survival from breast cancer and quality of life after being diagnosed with breast cancer for both the patient and loved ones of the cancer patient...

  18. Relationship between expression of leptin receptors mRNA in breast tissue, plasma leptin level in breast cancer patients with obesity and clinical pathologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunrui; Liu Wenli; Sun Hanying; Zhou Jianfeng

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the expression of leptin receptors mRNA in breast tissue and plasma leptin levels in breast cancer patients with obesity and their relationship with clinical pathologic data, 124 subjects who were either obesity or had suffered from breast benign disease with obesity, or breast cancer with obesity were entered into this study. The levels of plasma leptin in all subjects were determined and leptin receptors mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-PCR in breast tissue of breast cancer patients with obesity and breast benign disease with obesity. The results showed that plasma leptin levels in breast cancer patients with obesity were significantly higher than those in breast benign disease with obesity and obesity patients alone (P<0.05). The expression of the leptin receptor long form [-Lep-R(L)-] mRNA and the leptin receptor short form [-Lep-R(S)-] mRNA in breast tissue of breast cancer patients with obesity were significantly higher than that in breast tissue of breast benign disease patients with obesity (P<0.05). The plasma leptin level had remarkable positive correlation with the expressions of the Lep-R(L) mRNA and the Lep-R(S) mRNA. The plasma leptin level and leptin receptors mRNA expression levels in patients were not correlated with the axillary node metastasis, menopause, the TNM stage or pathological type. Therefore, leptin may have a promoting effect on the carcinogenesis of breast cancer. (authors)

  19. Cancer evolution and immunity in a rat colorectal carcinogenesis model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vannucci, Luca; Fišerová, Anna; Horváth, Ondřej; Rossmann, Pavel; Mosca, F.; Pospíšil, Miloslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2004), s. 973-981 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV312/98/K034; GA AV ČR IAA7020006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cancer * cancer model * colorectal adenocarcinoma Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.056, year: 2004

  20. Breast cancer cell lines: friend or foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdall, Sarah E; Hanby, Andrew M; Lansdown, Mark RJ; Speirs, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer research is conducted using established breast cancer cell lines as in vitro models. An alternative is to use cultures established from primary breast tumours. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of using both of these models in translational breast cancer research

  1. Mammographic detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Mammography, whether film or xerography, is a complementary examination to breast palpation in the detection of breast cancer. According to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society, mammography should be performed on every asymptomatic woman, at least once, over the age of 35. Annual mammography after 50 is also advised. The radiation dose to the breast from current equipment is so low as to not be considered a factor in denying a woman this screening examination. Mammography has a role in evaluating the woman with solitary and multiple breast masses. It is the only proved reliable modality able to detect nonpalpable breast cancers and small tumors less than 2 cm in size. All nonpalpable lesions should be excised by directed biopsy, using a preoperative localization technique

  2. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in globally and in Nigeria. In Nigeria, cases of breast cancer cases have been prevalent for three decades and more than 90% of cases can be detected by women themselves through breast self – examination. The objective of this study ...

  3. Radiofrequency Tagged Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-18

    Positive Axillary Lymph Node; Stage 0 Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer AJCC v7

  4. Prognostic Factors in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Leary, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    .... During this time effective adjuvant therapy was not available to treat early breast cancer. Social security numbers for a subset of these women were obtained by crossmatching AFIP records with the DEERS database...

  5. Mevalonates, Ras and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... This selective inhibition appears to be a consequence of expression of oncogenic Ras. Here we are evaluating the ability of Fmev to selectively interfere with proliferation of breast cancer cells...

  6. Molecular genetics of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radice, P.; Pierotti, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the last two decades, molecular studies have enlightened the complexity of the genetic alterations that occur in breast cancer cells. To date, more than 40 different genes or loci have been found to be altered in breast carcinomas. Although some of these genes, as for example ERBB2, appear to be mutated in a high proportion of cases, their mechanism of action and their role in the different stages of cancer development are still poorly understood. More recently, two major determinants of the inherited predisposition to breast cancer, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been isolated. As a consequence, it is now possible to screen families with a positive history of breast carcinomas for the identification of mutations carriers, in order to address these individuals into adequate programs of cancer surveillance and prevention

  7. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  8. Management of male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Dimitro v

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of male breast cancer is still under discussion due to lack of information from prospective, randomized clinical trials and low incidence of this disease. Current management is based largely on extrapolation from data related to treatment of female breast cancer. Over the last two decades, several review articles have discussed mainly retrospective and anecdotal data related to hormonal and chemotherapy treatment modalities. In this review, we present the most recent information and future considerations related to the management of male breast cancer. In addition to the conventional treatment options we will discuss the possible role of targeted therapy. Establishing a national or global registry for male breast cancer will provide more precise information about the natural history of the disease and will facilitate the design and execution of prospective, randomized multicenter clinical trials.

  9. Melatonin, Aging and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Steven

    2001-01-01

    ... conditions for tumor induction, promotion and progression. The pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, has been shown by numerous laboratories to inhibit the proliferation of both human and animal models of breast cancer...

  10. Selenium and Breast Cancer Chemoprevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry J

    2005-01-01

    .... The intermediate biomarkers being studied are as follows: indicators of oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules such as DNA and lipids, indicators of IGF metabolic status, and cellular indicators of breast cancer risk...

  11. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  12. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...

  13. Alterations in the Immune Cell Composition in Premalignant Breast Tissue that Precede Breast Cancer Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnim, Amy C; Hoskin, Tanya L; Arshad, Muhammad; Frost, Marlene H; Winham, Stacey J; Brahmbhatt, Rushin A; Pena, Alvaro; Carter, Jodi M; Stallings-Mann, Melody L; Murphy, Linda M; Miller, Erin E; Denison, Lori A; Vachon, Celine M; Knutson, Keith L; Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: Little is known about the role of the immune system in the earliest stages of breast carcinogenesis. We studied quantitative differences in immune cell types between breast tissues from normal donors and those from women with benign breast disease (BBD). Experimental Design: A breast tissue matched case-control study was created from donors to the Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank (KTB) and from women diagnosed with BBD at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) who either subsequently developed cancer (BBD cases) or remained cancer-free (BBD controls). Serial tissue sections underwent immunostaining and digital quantification of cell number per mm 2 for CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, CD20 + B cells, and CD68 + macrophages and quantification of positive pixel measure for CD11c (dendritic cells). Results: In 94 age-matched triplets, BBD lobules showed greater densities of CD8 + T cells, CD11c + dendritic cells, CD20 + B cells, and CD68 + macrophages compared with KTB normals. Relative to BBD controls, BBD cases had lower CD20 + cell density ( P = 0.04). Nearly 42% of BBD cases had no CD20 + B cells in evaluated lobules compared with 28% of BBD controls ( P = 0.02). The absence of CD20 + cells versus the presence in all lobules showed an adjusted OR of 5.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-23.1) for subsequent breast cancer risk. Conclusions: Elevated infiltration of both innate and adaptive immune effectors in BBD tissues suggests an immunogenic microenvironment. The reduced B-cell infiltration in women with later breast cancer suggests a role for B cells in preventing disease progression and as a possible biomarker for breast cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3945-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. [Sexuality after breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Judith; Bitzer, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    Sexual complaints are an often reported complication of breast cancer treatment, however still under diagnosed and rarely subject of oncologic counseling. The etiology is multifactorial: predisposing factors, triggers and maintaining factors can be identified on a somatic, psychological and social-interactional level. Accordingly, the development of the therapeutic approach is based on the identification and, where possible, modification or compensation of those factors which explain and maintain the sexual problems. Most often, loss of appetence is being reported, however, as it may develop secondary to sexual pain (dyspareunia) which is partly due to lack of lubrication as a consequence of therapy induced hormonal changes, the entire sexual interaction as well as sexual experiences since diagnosis and treatment should be systematically assessed. For treatment, vaginal atrophy, climacteric symptoms and, most importantly, the psychological and relational adjustment process to illness induced changes have to be considered.

  15. Breast cancer and human papillomavirus infection: No evidence of HPV etiology of breast cancer in Indian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedau, Suresh; Mir, Mohammad Muzaffar; Chakraborty, Sekhar; Singh, Y Mohan; Kumar, Rakesh; Somasundaram, Kumaravel; Bharti, Alok C; Das, Bhudev C; Kumar, Umesh; Hussain, Showket; Shukla, Shirish; Pande, Shailja; Jain, Neeraj; Tyagi, Abhishek; Deshpande, Trivikram; Bhat, Dilafroze

    2011-01-01

    Two clinically relevant high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types 16 and 18 are etiologically associated with the development of cervical carcinoma and are also reported to be present in many other carcinomas in extra-genital organ sites. Presence of HPV has been reported in breast carcinoma which is the second most common cancer in India and is showing a fast rising trend in urban population. The two early genes E6 and E7 of HPV type 16 have been shown to immortalize breast epithelial cells in vitro, but the role of HPV infection in breast carcinogenesis is highly controversial. Present study has therefore been undertaken to analyze the prevalence of HPV infection in both breast cancer tissues and blood samples from a large number of Indian women with breast cancer from different geographic regions. The presence of all mucosal HPVs and the most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 DNA was detected by two different PCR methods - (i) conventional PCR assays using consensus primers (MY09/11, or GP5+/GP6+) or HPV16 E6/E7 primers and (ii) highly sensitive Real-Time PCR. A total of 228 biopsies and corresponding 142 blood samples collected prospectively from 252 patients from four different regions of India with significant socio-cultural, ethnic and demographic variations were tested. All biopsies and blood samples of breast cancer patients tested by PCR methods did not show positivity for HPV DNA sequences in conventional PCRs either by MY09/11 or by GP5+/GP6+/HPV16 E6/E7 primers. Further testing of these samples by real time PCR also failed to detect HPV DNA sequences. Lack of detection of HPV DNA either in the tumor or in the blood DNA of breast cancer patients by both conventional and real time PCR does not support a role of genital HPV in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in Indian women

  16. Antiangiogenic therapy in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gampenrieder, Simon Peter; Westphal, Theresa; Greil, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Summary Based on a strong rationale for anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) treatment in breast cancer and promising preclinical data, great hopes have been placed on the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab. Clinical trials, however, reported conflicting results. In metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2)-negative breast cancer, the addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy improved consistently progression-free survival (PFS), however, without effect on overall...

  17. Breast cancer in Accra, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Most can- cers (97.1%) were found in women with only 24. (2.9%) in males, giving a female:male ratio of. 33.2:1. Figure 1: Age characteristics of breast cancers in Accra. Ductal type represents the most common (90.1%) breast cancer cases followed by lobular carcinomas. (3.9%) (Table 1). The ductal to lobular ratio is.

  18. Dormancy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banys M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Malgorzata Banys,1,2 Andreas D Hartkopf,1 Natalia Krawczyk,1 Tatjana Kaiser,1 Franziska Meier-Stiegen,1 Tanja Fehm,1 Hans Neubauer11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg, Hamburg, GermanyAbstract: Tumor dormancy describes a prolonged quiescent state in which tumor cells are present, but disease progression is not yet clinically apparent. Breast cancer is especially known for long asymptomatic periods, up to 25 years, with no evidence of the disease, followed by a relapse. Factors that determine the cell's decision to enter a dormant state and that control its duration remain unclear. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding how tumor cells circulating in the blood interact and extravasate into secondary sites and which factors might determine whether these cells survive, remain dormant, or become macrometastases. The mechanisms of tumor cell dormancy are still not clear. Two different hypotheses are currently discussed: tumor cells persist either by completely withdrawing from the cell cycle or by continuing to proliferate at a slow rate that is counterbalanced by cell death. Because dormant disseminated tumor cells may be the founders of metastasis, one hypothesis is that dormant tumor cells, or at least a fraction of them, share stem cell-like characteristics that may be responsible for their long half-lives and their suggested resistance to standard chemotherapy. Therefore, knowledge of the biology of tumor cell dormancy may be the basis from which to develop innovative targeted therapies to control or eliminate this tumor cell fraction. In this review, we discuss biological mechanisms and clinical implications of tumor dormancy in breast cancer patients.Keywords: tumor dormancy, disseminated tumor cell, circulating tumor cell, targeted therapy

  19. ERβ inhibits proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazennec, Gwendal; Bresson, Damien; Lucas, Annick; Chauveau, Corine; Vignon, Françoise

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the expression of ERβ in breast cancer is lower than in normal breast, suggesting that ERβ could play an important role in carcinogenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, we engineered estrogen-receptor negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to reintroduce either ERα or ERβ protein with an adenoviral vector. In these cells, ERβ (as ERα) expression was monitored using RT-PCR and Western blot. ERβ protein was localized in the nucleus (immunocytochemistry) and able to transactivate estrogen-responsive reporter constructs in the presence of estradiol. ERβ and ERα induced the expression of several endogenous genes such as pS2, TGFα or the cyclin kinase inhibitor p21, but in contrast to ERα, ERβ was unable to regulate c-myc proto-oncogene expression. The pure antiestrogen ICI 164, 384 completely blocked ERα and ERβ estrogen-induced activities. ERβ inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation in a ligand-independent manner, whereas ERα inhibition of proliferation is hormone-dependent. Moreover, ERβ and ERα, decreased cell motility and invasion. Our data bring the first evidence that ERβ is an important modulator of proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells and support the hypothesis that the loss of ERβ expression could be one of the events leading to the development of breast cancer. PMID:11517191

  20. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Estrogen Receptor and Progesterone Receptor Expression in Normal Terminal Duct Lobular Units Surrounding Invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohong R.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Falk, Roni T.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Brinton, Louise A.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Sherman, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Molecular and morphological alterations related to carcinogenesis have been found in terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs), the microscopic structures from which most breast cancer precursors and cancers develop, and therefore, analysis of these structures may reveal early changes in breast carcinogenesis and etiologic heterogeneity. Accordingly, we evaluated relationships of breast cancer risk factors and tumor pathology to estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in TDLUs surrounding breast cancers. Methods We analyzed 270 breast cancer cases included in a population-based breast cancer case-control study conducted in Poland. TDLUs were mapped in relation to breast cancer: within the same block as the tumor (TDLU-T), proximal to tumor (TDLU-PT), or distant from (TDLU-DT). ER/PR was quantitated using image analysis of immunohistochemically stained TDLUs prepared as tissue microarrays. Results In surgical specimens containing ER-positive breast cancers, ER and PR levels were significantly higher in breast cancer cells than in normal TDLUs, and higher in TDLU-T than in TDLU-DT or TDLU-PT, which showed similar results. Analyses combining DT-/PT TDLUs within subjects demonstrated that ER levels were significantly lower in premenopausal women vs. postmenopausal women (odds ratio [OR]=0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.19, 0.76, P=0.0064) and among recent or current menopausal hormone therapy users compared with never users (OR=0.14, 95% CI=0.046–0.43, Ptrend=0.0006). Compared with premenopausal women, TDLUs of postmenopausal women showed lower levels of PR (OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.83–0.97, Ptrend=0.007). ER and PR expression in TDLUs was associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in invasive tumors (P=0.019 for ER and P=0.03 for PR), but not with other tumor features. Conclusions Our data suggest that TDLUs near breast cancers reflect field effects, whereas those at a distance demonstrate influences of breast

  2. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pelttari, L.M.; Khan, S.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737\\ud and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast\\ud cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer\\ud predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the\\ud coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for\\ud identifi...

  3. RAD51B in familial breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pelttari, LM; Khan, S; Vuorela, M; Kiiski, JI; Vilske, S; Nevanlinna, V; Ranta, S; Schleutker, J; Winqvist, R; Kallioniemi, A; Dörk, T; Bogdanova, NV; Figueroa, J; Pharoah, PDP; Schmidt, MK

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possi...

  4. DPEP1, expressed in the early stages of colon carcinogenesis, affects cancer cell invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiyama, Yuji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Hiromi; Saigusa, Susumu; Yokoe, Takeshi; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Tanaka, Koji; Miki, Chikao; Kusunoki, Masato

    2011-02-01

    We investigated changes in the gene expression profile in colon cancer in order to identify gene markers that may be useful in the management of this disease. The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project was used to detect differences in gene expression between normal and cancer tissue. The overexpression of dipeptidase-1 (DPEP1) in cancer tissue was confirmed in a sample of 76 patients by real-time PCR. To identify the function of DPEP1, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to inactivate this gene in the colon cancer cell line. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to characterize the pattern of DPEP1 expression in colon cancer. DPEP1 expression in cancer was significantly higher than that in normal tissue. However, DPEP1 expression decreased with pathological differentiation, lymph-node and distant metastasis. Patients with tumors with decreased DPEP1 expression showed a poorer prognosis, and this was also true of patients with tumors who are treated with curative intent. RNAi-mediated DPEP1 reduction in the colon cancer cell line did not result in cell proliferation or apoptosis, but was associated with an increased invasive ability. DPEP1 protein was observed on the apical side of the cancer cells, and is expressed in the early stages of carcinogenesis, even in adenomas of both sporadic colorectal cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis patients. DPEP1 expression in normal colonic mucosa is very low, but it is highly expressed in colorectal adenoma and cancer specimens and is negatively correlated with parameters of pathological aggressiveness and poor prognosis. DPEP1 is expressed in the early stages of colon carcinogenesis and affects cancer cell invasiveness.

  5. Radioisotope techniques used in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au-Yong Ting Kun

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancer in women. Treatment and prognosis of breast cancer depend very much on accurate diagnosis, staging and follow-up of patients. Recently, there are several radioisotope techniques developed and have great impact on management of breast cancer. These include scintimammography, sentinel lymph node detection and positron emission tomography. This article is to review these important techniques

  6. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...

  7. Expression of prostasin and its inhibitors during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selzer-Plon, Joanna; Bornholdt, Jette; Friis, Stine; Bisgaard, Hanne C; Lothe, Inger MB; Tveit, Kjell M; Kure, Elin H; Vogel, Ulla; Vogel, Lotte K

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials where cancer patients were treated with protease inhibitors have suggested that the serine protease, prostasin, may act as a tumour suppressor. Prostasin is proteolytically activated by the serine protease, matriptase, which has a very high oncogenic potential. Prostasin is inhibited by protease nexin-1 (PN-1) and the two isoforms encoded by the mRNA splice variants of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI-1), HAI-1A, and HAI-1B. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have determined the mRNA levels for prostasin and PN-1 in colorectal cancer tissue (n = 116), severe dysplasia (n = 13), mild/moderate dysplasia (n = 93), and in normal tissue from the same individuals. In addition, corresponding tissues were examined from healthy volunteers (n = 23). A part of the cohort was further analysed for the mRNA levels of the two variants of HAI-1, here denoted HAI-1A and HAI-1B. mRNA levels were normalised to β-actin. Immunohistochemical analysis of prostasin and HAI-1 was performed on normal and cancer tissue. The mRNA level of prostasin was slightly but significantly decreased in both mild/moderate dysplasia (p < 0.001) and severe dysplasia (p < 0.01) and in carcinomas (p < 0.05) compared to normal tissue from the same individual. The mRNA level of PN-1 was more that two-fold elevated in colorectal cancer tissue as compared to healthy individuals (p < 0.001) and elevated in both mild/moderate dysplasia (p < 0.01), severe dysplasia (p < 0.05) and in colorectal cancer tissue (p < 0.001) as compared to normal tissue from the same individual. The mRNA levels of HAI-1A and HAI-1B mRNAs showed the same patterns of expression. Immunohistochemistry showed that prostasin is located mainly on the apical plasma membrane in normal colorectal tissue. A large variation was found in the degree of polarization of prostasin in colorectal cancer tissue. These results show that the mRNA level of PN-1 is significantly elevated in colorectal cancer tissue. Future studies

  8. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah

    2017-10-02

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  9. Breast Cancer: Reactions, Choices, Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Alexia N.

    2000-01-01

    Women with breast cancer often experience a predictable set of emotional and psychological reactions to their cancer diagnosis according to recognized influencing factors such as age at the time of diagnosis and stage of life. The time between a breast biopsy and the receipt of the pathology results has been identified by patients as the most stressful period throughout the entire cancer experience. Treatment decisions, until recently, were made solely by physicians while patients assumed passive roles. Increasingly, breast cancer patients want to assume an active role in their treatment decisions and care and are no longer satisfied to be passive observers. More and more women educate themselves about their disease through the Internet, investigating available treatment options, side effects, and in some cases, alternative therapies. This new type of breast cancer patient wants to be cared for by physicians who embrace the patient as part of the team. They appreciate the physician who is not threatened by the educated breast cancer patient and understands that she is ultimately motivated by an attempt to regain some of the control the cancer has taken away from her. PMID:21765661

  10. Loss of co-ordinate expression of progesterone receptors A and B is an early event in breast carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, P A; Bartow, S; Tran, N; Clarke, C L

    2002-03-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) mediates the effects of progesterone in mammary tissues and plays a crucial role in normal breast development and in breast cancer. PR proteins are expressed as two isoforms, PRA and PRB, that have different capacities to activate target genes, yet it is unknown whether progesterone action in normal and malignant breast is mediated by PRA and/or PRB. This study determines the relative expression of PRA and PRB in normal breast and in benign, premalignant and malignant archival breast lesions by dual immunofluorescent histochemistry. In normal breast and in proliferative disease without atypia (PDWA) PRA and PRB were co-expressed within the same cells in comparable amounts, implicating both isoforms in progesterone action. In atypical lesions, however, there was a significant increase in predominant expression of PRA or PRB, with lesion progression from the normal state to malignancy. PR isoform predominance, especially PRA predominance, was evident in a high proportion of ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast lesions. In the normal breast and in PDWA, the relative expression of PRA and PRB in adjacent cells was homogenous. There was a significant increase in cell-to-cell heterogeneity of PR isoform expression in ADH and DCIS lesions and in the majority of breast cancers. Heterogeneous cell-to-cell expression of PR isoforms occurred prior to overall predominant expression of one isoform in premalignant breast lesions, demonstrating that loss of control of relative PRA:PRB expression is an early event in the development of breast cancer. PRA:PRB ratios within a breast lesion are likely to be important as both markers and effectors of tumor growth and development, and progressively aberrant PR isoform expression may play a role in the etiology of breast cancer.

  11. Microwaves for breast cancer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdelhamid Elkayal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is potentially an effective method for the treatment of cancer, especially breast cancer tumors. One of the most attractive attributes of hyperthermia is the possibility of providing therapeutic benefit noninvasively, minimizing side effects. To be effective, a hyperthermia treatment must selectively heat the cancerous tissue, elevating the temperature in the tumor without exposing healthy tissue to excessive temperature elevations. In this paper, a suggested simple model of Annular Phased Array (APA using eight half wavelength linear dipoles is presented. New software (COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS is used to calculate the temperature distribution inside a model of a three layered breast (skin, breast tissue, and tumor. In addition, the effect of changing the amplitude and phases of the array elements on the temperature distributions and the conditions on the values of the phases are demonstrated in order to achieve the objective of hyperthermia for breast tumor treatment.

  12. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Nearly 7,000 women with early-stage, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer were enrolled in the trial ...

  13. Environmental exposures, breast development and cancer risk: Through the looking glass of breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michele R; Winn, Deborah M; Collman, Gwen W; Rizzo, Jeanne; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2015-07-01

    This review summarizes the report entitled: Breast Cancer and the Environment: Prioritizing Prevention, highlights research gaps and the importance of focusing on early life exposures for breast development and breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Collective studies on carcinogenesis due to exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hisao

    1980-01-01

    Carcinogenesis was found in 150 of 25,692 patients who had received radiotherapy for benign diseases. Of primary diseases subjected to radiotherapy, skin diseases were the most. Carcinogenesis was found in 26 of 7,230 patients with skin diseases (0.36%) and 18 in 2286 patients with tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis (0.79%). The sites of carcinogenesis was the skin in 51 patients, the hypopharynx in 43, and the larynx in 18. Carcinogenesis was also found in 140 of 220,361 patients who had received radiotherapy for malignant tumors. As primary cancer, cancer of the cervix uteri was found in 59 of 48,662 patients, and breast cancer was found in 20 of 27,967 patients. As radiation-induced cancer, leukemia was found in 18 patients, soft tissue sarcoma in 18, skin cancer in 10, osteosarcoma in 6, cancer of the hypopharynx in 6, and cancer of the cervical esophagus in 6. It is necessary to differentiate cancer due to exposure to radiation from delayed recurrent cancer and double cancer. Irradiation fields should be restricted as small as possible in order to reduce carcinogenesis. As leukemia and carcinoma were found in a-bomb survivors exposed to very small dose of a-bomb radiation, carcinogenic mechanisms by chromosome aberrations, carcinogenic rates from a viewpoint of epidemiology, and other factors which influenced carcinogenesis are being investigated. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Estrogen receptor signaling in prostate cancer: Implications for carcinogenesis and tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkhoff, Helmut

    2018-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is the classical target for prostate cancer prevention and treatment, but more recently estrogens and their receptors have also been implicated in prostate cancer development and tumor progression. Recent experimental and clinical data were reviewed to elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms how estrogens and their receptors may affect prostate carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is the most prevalent ER in the human prostate, while the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is restricted to basal cells of the prostatic epithelium and stromal cells. In high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), the ERα is up-regulated and most likely mediates carcinogenic effects of estradiol as demonstrated in animal models. The partial loss of the ERβ in HGPIN indicates that the ERβ acts as a tumor suppressor. The tumor promoting function of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, a major driver of prostate carcinogenesis, is triggered by the ERα and repressed by the ERβ. The ERβ is generally retained in hormone naïve and metastatic prostate cancer, but is partially lost in castration resistant disease. The progressive emergence of the ERα and ERα-regulated genes (eg, progesterone receptor (PR), PS2, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, and NEAT1) during prostate cancer progression and hormone refractory disease suggests that these tumors can bypass the AR by using estrogens and progestins for their growth. In addition, nongenomic estrogen signaling pathways mediated by orphan receptors (eg, GPR30 and ERRα) has also been implicated in prostate cancer progression. Increasing evidences demonstrate that local estrogen signaling mechanisms are required for prostate carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Despite the recent progress in this research topic, the translation of the current information into potential therapeutic applications remains highly challenging and clearly warrants further investigation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACTH CAF CMF FAC TAC TC TCH TH THP Radiation Therapy Whole Breast Radiation Partial Breast Radiation ... Basics Treatments and Your Bone Health Bone Health Tests Improving Bone Health Medicines To Protect Bones Diet, ...

  17. Human breast tissue disposition and bioactivity of limonene in women with early stage breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica A.; Lang, Julie E.; Ley, Michele; Nagle, Ray; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Thompson, Patricia A; Cordova, Catherine; Waer, Amy; Chow, H.-H. Sherry

    2013-01-01

    Limonene is a bioactive food component found in citrus peel oil that has demonstrated chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities in preclinical studies. We conducted an open label pilot clinical study to determine the human breast tissue disposition of limonene and its associated bioactivity. We recruited forty-three women with newly diagnosed operable breast cancer electing to undergo surgical excision to take 2 grams of limonene daily for 2 – 6 weeks before surgery. Blood and breast tissue were collected to determine drug/metabolite concentrations and limonene-induced changes in systemic and tissue biomarkers of breast cancer risk or carcinogenesis. Limonene was found to preferentially concentrate in the breast tissue, reaching high tissue concentration (mean=41.3 μg/g tissue) while the major active circulating metabolite, perillic acid, did not concentrate in the breast tissue. Limonene intervention resulted in a 22% reduction in cyclin D1 expression (P=0.002) in tumor tissue but minimal changes in tissue Ki67 and cleaved caspase 3 expression. No significant changes in serum leptin, adiponectin, TGF-β1, IGFBP-3 and IL-6 levels were observed following limonene intervention. There was a small but statistically significant post-intervention increase in IGF-1 levels. We conclude that limonene distributed extensively to human breast tissue and reduced breast tumor cyclin D1 expression that may lead to cell cycle arrest and reduced cell proliferation. Further placebo-controlled clinical trials and translational research are warranted to establish limonene’s role for breast cancer prevention or treatment. PMID:23554130

  18. Human breast tissue disposition and bioactivity of limonene in women with early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica A; Lang, Julie E; Ley, Michele; Nagle, Ray; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Thompson, Patricia A; Cordova, Catherine; Waer, Amy; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2013-06-01

    Limonene is a bioactive food component found in citrus peel oil that has shown chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities in preclinical studies. We conducted an open-label pilot clinical study to determine the human breast tissue disposition of limonene and its associated bioactivity. We recruited 43 women with newly diagnosed operable breast cancer electing to undergo surgical excision to take 2 grams of limonene daily for two to six weeks before surgery. Blood and breast tissue were collected to determine drug/metabolite concentrations and limonene-induced changes in systemic and tissue biomarkers of breast cancer risk or carcinogenesis. Limonene was found to preferentially concentrate in the breast tissue, reaching high tissue concentration (mean = 41.3 μg/g tissue), whereas the major active circulating metabolite, perillic acid, did not concentrate in the breast tissue. Limonene intervention resulted in a 22% reduction in cyclin D1 expression (P = 0.002) in tumor tissue but minimal changes in tissue Ki67 and cleaved caspase-3 expression. No significant changes in serum leptin, adiponectin, TGF-β1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were observed following limonene intervention. There was a small but statistically significant postintervention increase in insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels. We conclude that limonene distributed extensively to human breast tissue and reduced breast tumor cyclin D1 expression that may lead to cell-cycle arrest and reduced cell proliferation. Furthermore, placebo-controlled clinical trials and translational research are warranted to establish limonene's role for breast cancer prevention or treatment.

  19. Mammographic Breast Density in Malaysian Women with Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal; Humairah Samad Cheung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mammographic breast density of women with breast cancer detected on voluntary mammographic screening at two selected screening centers in Malaysia. This was a retrospective study of Full-Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) images of 150 Malaysian women with biopsy-proven breast cancer. The study population comprised 73 Malays (37.7 %), 59 Chinese (39.3 %) and 18 Indians (12.0 %). The Tabar breast density Patterns (I - V) were used to evaluate mammographic breast density. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results were compared with findings from a similar study on a group of 668 women who did not have breast cancer. The results showed that 44.7 % of the study population had dense breasts (Patterns IV and V), 14.7 % had predominantly fatty breasts (Patterns II and III) while 40.7 % had Pattern I. The proportion of study population with dense breasts decreased with age. In conclusion, the proportion of women with dense breasts decreased with age. Majority of the women with cancer (44.7 %) had dense breasts of Tabar Patterns IV and V, which has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer detected by voluntary mammographic screening. The results support the notion that increased breast density is a risk factor of breast cancer. (author)

  20. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  1. Light at Night and Breast Cancer Risk Among California Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Susan; Goldberg, Debbie; Nelson, David; Hertz, Andrew; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Bernstein, Leslie; Reynolds, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Background There is convincing evidence that circadian disruption mediated by exposure to light at night promotes mammary carcinogenesis in rodents. The role that light at night plays in human breast cancer etiology remains unknown. We evaluated the relationship between estimates of indoor and outdoor light at night and the risk of breast cancer among members of the California Teachers Study. Methods Indoor light-at-night estimates were based on questionnaire data regarding sleep habits and use of night time lighting while sleeping. Estimates of outdoor light at night were derived from imagery data obtained from the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program assigned to geocoded addresses of study participants. Analyses were conducted among 106,731 California Teachers Study members who lived in California, had no prior history of breast cancer, and provided information on lighting while sleeping. 5,095 cases of invasive breast cancer diagnosed 1995–2010 were identified via linkage to the California Cancer Registry. We used age-stratified Cox proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for breast cancer risk factors and neighborhood urbanization and socioeconomic class. Results An increased risk was found for women living in areas with the highest quintile of outdoor light at night exposure estimates (HR=1.12 [95% CI=1.00 – 1.26], test for trend, P=0.06). While more pronounced among premenopausal women (HR=1.34 [95% CI=1.07 – 1.69], test for trend, P=0.04), the associations did not differ statistically by menopausal status (test for interaction, P=0.34). Conclusions Women living in areas with high levels of ambient light at night may be at an increased risk of breast cancer. Future studies that integrate quantitative measurements of indoor and outdoor light at night are warranted. PMID:25061924

  2. Hormone-metabolic status in moderately smoking breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, L M; Tsyrlina, E V; Semiglazov, V F; Kovalenko, I G; Gamayunova, V B; Evtushenko, T P; Ivanova, O A

    1997-01-01

    One hundred and eighteen primary breast cancer (BC) patients, 35 of whom were smokers, in clinical stages I-II of the disease were examined. In order to investigate whether smoking changes endocrine function in BC patients, some indices of the hormone-metabolic status of smoking and non-smoking patients of reproductive and menopausal age were compared. It was found that in smokers with BC there was a decline in body weight and body fat content, a lack of lean body mass accumulation along with body mass increase, a tendency to hypotriglyceridemia and hypoinsulinemia, accelerated development of the upper type of body fat distribution with ageing, intensified gonadotropin secretion, shifts in steroidogenesis and SHBG level and elevated catecholamine execretion. It is suggested that a possible relation between hormone-mediated effects inherent to smoking and the mechanisms promoting genotoxic type of hormonal carcinogenesis and the factors of breast cancer prognosis cannot be excluded.

  3. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-analysis techniques. Dose-response analyses by number of prescriptions were also performed. Analyses were repeated investigating propranolol use before cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: The combined study population included 55,252 and 133,251 breast cancer patients in the analysis of breast cancer-specific and all...

  4. Archives of Breast Cancer: An Academic Multidisciplinary Breast Cancer Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kaviani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Archives of Breast Cancer (ABC, a new journal with sole focus on breast diseases and especially breast cancer. Breast cancer is a devastating disease that impacts many women and threatens their health and wellbeing. A large number of health professionals from a wide spectrum of clinical disciplines, such as surgery, medical oncology, public health, pathology, radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology, and nuclear medicine, are involved in dealing with such a challenging and common disease.The concept of applying a multidisciplinary approach to clinical and non-clinical aspects of breast cancer has been found to be of vital importance to the understanding of this prevalent type of cancer. Such collaboration can also improve the quantity and quality of the research in this field. To this end, journals which choose to publish multidisciplinary articles as their primary focus can serve as the academic forum to share ideas from a variety of expertise. Archives of Breast Cancer can certainly add to the depth and quality of the research in the field. Articles on a single topic would be readily available to the readers from multiple disciplines and all in one journal. This would eventually lead to fruitful interaction among specialists seeking to investigate this disease, yet,from different perspectives. The benefits of this interaction in the process of devising appropriate strategies and approaches in dealing with the problem are crystal clear.The world of medical sciences has witnessed an abundant increase in the quality and quantity of breast-cancer-related research. In the past 20 years, the number of published articles indexed in PubMed from 1994 to 2014 is more than 5 times than the number published before 1993 (about 170,000 compared to 30,000. Meanwhile, the number of PubMed indexed medical journals dedicated to breast cancer research has also risen from 5 in 1993 to 17 in 2014. This increasing trend highlights an essential need for

  5. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  6. Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among female undergraduate students in a higher teachers training college in Cameroon. ... Conclusion: Though most students are aware of the existence of breast cancer, their overall knowledge on its risk factors and clinical presentation is insufficient with a ...

  7. Paradoxical Roles of Nanoparticles in Cancer Therapeutics and Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despeaux, Emily

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are becoming increasingly common in consumer goods and are under investigation for a variety of industrial and biomedical applications. However, challenges in determining NP toxicity may prevent them from reaching their full potential. NPs cannot be treated as single class for toxicity evaluations. Even among particles made from the same material, particle-specific physical properties, including size, shape, surface charge, agglomeration state, and surface modifications have a strong effect on the toxicity. Even so, the obstacles to conclusively and reproducibly evaluating toxicity span all NP classes. NP literature is riddled with confusing and often contradictory reports regarding the biocompatibility of both engineered NPs, designed with biocompatibility as a priority, and NPs from occupational or environmental exposures. Incomplete NP characterization and sample inhomogeneity represent major confounding factors in disparate results from seemingly comparable study setups. Additionally, NPs can interfere with many conventional toxicity screening methods. Inappropriate doses, exposure routes, and toxicity endpoints further diminish the utility of many published studies. Given the burgeoning interest in NP-based therapeutic agents, consistent, reliable standards are needed to ensure the biocompatibility of new formulations. To those ends, the synthesis, characterization, and in vitro toxicity of a multi-functional NP therapeutic were investigated (Chapter 2). Specifically, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were coated with amphiphilic polymer and functionalized with antisense oligonucleotides targeting survivin, an anti-apoptotic protein that is highly overexpressed in cancer. SPION physical properties, including particle size and composition, were characterized at each step of synthesis. Our results showed that the SPION platform is biocompatible and capable of delivering functional antisense oligonucleotides to regulate

  8. DNA Methylation Alterations in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2002-01-01

    We have performed the NotI-MseI MS-AFLP experiments using normal and tumor DNA from breast cancer patients and determined the identity of bands exhibiting consistent changes in breast cancer DNA fingerprint...

  9. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    .... Also, how these agents prevent breast cancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can be taken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...

  10. Fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuwei; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors are growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, exerting their roles in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and development of breast cancer. Recent genetic studies have identified some subtypes of fibroblast growth factor receptors as strong genetic loci associated with breast cancer. In this article, we review the recent epidemiological findings and experiment results of fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer. First, we summarized the structure and physiological function of fibroblast growth factor receptors in humans. Then, we discussed the common genetic variations in fibroblast growth factor receptors that affect breast cancer risk. In addition, we also introduced the potential roles of each fibroblast growth factor receptors isoform in breast cancer. Finally, we explored the potential therapeutics targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors for breast cancer. Based on the biological mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor receptors leading to the pathogenesis in breast cancer, targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors may provide new opportunities for breast cancer therapeutic strategies.

  11. BREAST CANCER SCREENING IN A RESOURCE POOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    al rates of breast cancer, hence screening of asympto- matic, apparently healthy ... screening tools in women who attended free breast cancer screening exercise in a ..... signs of malignancy. www.appliedradiology.mobi/uploadedfiles/Issues/2.

  12. Ron in Breast Development and Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltz, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    ... in a murine model of human breast cancer. These results are in agreement with human cancer studies documenting an upregulation of this receptor in breast tumors as well as are consistent with the correlation between Ron overexpression...

  13. IGF-IR Signaling in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Surmacz, Ewa

    1997-01-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is involved in the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and may be important in breast cancer etiology and progression...

  14. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazario, Cruz M; Freudenheim, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case-control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico...

  15. HER2 Genetic Link to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    When researchers discovered the HER2 gene's importance to breast cancer growth, this led to the development of trastuzumab and other treatments that have improved survival for women with HER2-positive breast cancer.

  16. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  17. Screening diagnostic program breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Zhakova, I.I.; Budnikova, N.V.; Rukhlyadko, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors propose their screening program for detection of breast cancer. It includes the entire complex of present-day screening diagnostic methods, starting from an original system for the formation of groups at risk of breast cancer and completed by the direct diagnostic model of detection of the condition, oriented at a differentiated approach to the use of mammographic techniques. The proposed organizational and methodologic screening measures are both economic and diagnostically effective, thus meeting the principal requirements to screening programs. Screening of 8541 risk-groups patients helped detect 867 nodular formations, 244 of which were cancer and 623 benign formations. 8 refs., 3 figs.,

  18. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  19. Breast Cancer Screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kalager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Effective breast cancer screening should detect early-stage cancer and prevent advanced disease. Objective: To assess the association between screening and the size of detected tumors and to estimate overdiagnosis (detection of tumors that would not become clinically relevant). Design......) and nonadvanced (≤20 mm) breast cancer tumors in screened and nonscreened women were measured. Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of overdiagnosis: comparing the incidence of advanced and nonadvanced tumors among women aged 50 to 84 years in screening and nonscreening areas; and comparing...... rate ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.43 to 1.54]). The first estimation approach found that 271 invasive breast cancer tumors and 179 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were overdiagnosed in 2010 (overdiagnosis rate of 24.4% [including DCIS] and 14.7% [excluding DCIS]). The second approach, which accounted...

  20. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  1. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. PET imaging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardieri, E.; Crippa, F.

    2001-01-01

    The basis of tumour imaging with PET is a specific uptake mechanism of positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals. Among the potential tracers for breast cancer (fluorodeoxyglucose, methionine, tyrosine, fluoro-estradiol, nor-progesterone), 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose labelled with fluorine (FDG) is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical because breast cancer is particularly avid of FDG and 18 F has the advantages of the a relatively long physical half-life. Mammography is the first choice examination in studying breast masses, due to its very good performances, an excellent compliance and the best value regarding the cost/effectiveness aspects. The FDG uptake in tissue correlates with the histological grade and potential aggressiveness of breast cancer and this may have prognostic consequences. Besides the evaluation of breast lesions, FDG-PET shows a great efficacy in staging lymph node involvement prior surgery and this could have a great value in loco-regional staging. Whole body PET provides also information with regard to metastasis localizations both in soft tissue and bone, and plays an important clinical role mainly in detecting recurrent metastatic disease. In fact for its metabolic characteristics PET visualizes regions of enhanced metabolic activity and can complete other imaging modalities based on structural anatomic changes. Even though CT and MRI show superior resolution characteristics, it has been demonstrated that PET provides more accurate information in discriminating between viable tumour, fibrotic scar or necrosis. These statements are coming from the examination of more than 2000 breast cancer detection

  3. Overexpressed ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 in breast cancer promotes cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hongsheng; Wu, Fenping; Wang, Yan; Yan, Chong; Su, Wenmei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cullin7 is overexpressed in human breast cancer samples. • Cullin7 stimulated proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells. • Inhibition of p53 contributes to Cullin7-induced proliferation and invasion. - Abstract: Ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 has been identified as an oncogene in some malignant diseases such as choriocarcinoma and neuroblastoma. However, the role of Cullin7 in breast cancer carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we compared Cullin7 protein levels in breast cancer tissues with normal breast tissues and identified significantly higher expression of Cullin7 protein in breast cancer specimens. By overexpressing Cullin7 in breast cancer cells HCC1937, we found that Cullin7 could promote cell growth and invasion in vitro. In contrast, the cell growth and invasion was inhibited by silencing Cullin7 in breast cancer cell BT474. Moreover, we demonstrated that Cullin7 promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53 expression. Thus, our study provided evidence that Cullin7 functions as a novel oncogene in breast cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer management

  4. Overexpressed ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 in breast cancer promotes cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hongsheng [Department of Histology and Embryology, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Wu, Fenping [The 7th People’s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Wang, Yan [The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Yan, Chong [School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Su, Wenmei, E-mail: wenmeisutg@126.com [Oncology of Affiliated Hospital Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524000, Guangdong (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Cullin7 is overexpressed in human breast cancer samples. • Cullin7 stimulated proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells. • Inhibition of p53 contributes to Cullin7-induced proliferation and invasion. - Abstract: Ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 has been identified as an oncogene in some malignant diseases such as choriocarcinoma and neuroblastoma. However, the role of Cullin7 in breast cancer carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we compared Cullin7 protein levels in breast cancer tissues with normal breast tissues and identified significantly higher expression of Cullin7 protein in breast cancer specimens. By overexpressing Cullin7 in breast cancer cells HCC1937, we found that Cullin7 could promote cell growth and invasion in vitro. In contrast, the cell growth and invasion was inhibited by silencing Cullin7 in breast cancer cell BT474. Moreover, we demonstrated that Cullin7 promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53 expression. Thus, our study provided evidence that Cullin7 functions as a novel oncogene in breast cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer management.

  5. Occurrence of breast cancer, renal cancer and multiple myeloma in a Nagasaki atomic bomb survivor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Kubota, Kazuo; Tamura, Jun'ichi; Kurabayashi, Hitoshi; Shirakura, Takuo; Hayashida, Masayoshi; Nagayama, Tadao.

    1990-01-01

    A 60-year-old female, who was exposed to the Nagasaki atomic bomb at 18 years old, had renal cancer and subsequently was found to have multiple myeloma (IgGk). She underwent the left mastectomy for breast cancer at 43 years old but was not given chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The karyotype of bone marrow cells was 46, XX. The estimated radiation dose was under 10 rads. While the effect of such a low-dose of radiation is considered to be almost negligible, there would be a possibility that in this case the risk of carcinogenesis was enhanced as her age advanced. (author)

  6. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy After Mastectomy in Preventing Recurrence in Patients With Stage IIa-IIIa Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-06

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Medullary Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  7. The cancer-promoting gene fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) is epigenetically regulated during human prostate carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Koichiro; Kinameri, Ayumi; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Senga, Shogo; Ke, Youqiang; Fujii, Hiroshi

    2016-02-15

    FABPs (fatty-acid-binding proteins) are a family of low-molecular-mass intracellular lipid-binding proteins consisting of ten isoforms. FABPs are involved in binding and storing hydrophobic ligands such as long-chain fatty acids, as well as transporting these ligands to the appropriate compartments in the cell. FABP5 is overexpressed in multiple types of tumours. Furthermore, up-regulation of FABP5 is strongly associated with poor survival in triple-negative breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the specific up-regulation of the FABP5 gene in these cancers remain poorly characterized. In the present study, we determined that FABP5 has a typical CpG island around its promoter region. The DNA methylation status of the CpG island in the FABP5 promoter of benign prostate cells (PNT2), prostate cancer cells (PC-3, DU-145, 22Rv1 and LNCaP) and human normal or tumour tissue was assessed by bisulfite sequencing analysis, and then confirmed by COBRA (combined bisulfite restriction analysis) and qAMP (quantitative analysis of DNA methylation using real-time PCR). These results demonstrated that overexpression of FABP5 in prostate cancer cells can be attributed to hypomethylation of the CpG island in its promoter region, along with up-regulation of the direct trans-acting factors Sp1 (specificity protein 1) and c-Myc. Together, these mechanisms result in the transcriptional activation of FABP5 expression during human prostate carcinogenesis. Importantly, silencing of Sp1, c-Myc or FABP5 expression led to a significant decrease in cell proliferation, indicating that up-regulation of FABP5 expression by Sp1 and c-Myc is critical for the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  8. Tissue microarrays for testing basal biomarkers in familial breast cancer cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozany Mucha Dufloth

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The proteins p63, p-cadherin and CK5 are consistently expressed by the basal and myoepithelial cells of the breast, although their expression in sporadic and familial breast cancer cases has yet to be fully defined. The aim here was to study the basal immunopro-file of a breast cancer case series using tissue microarray technology. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional study at Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil, and the Institute of Pathology and Mo-lecular Immunology, Porto, Portugal. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry using the antibodies p63, CK5 and p-cadherin, and also estrogen receptor (ER and Human Epidermal Receptor Growth Factor 2 (HER2, was per-formed on 168 samples from a breast cancer case series. The criteria for identifying women at high risk were based on those of the Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. RESULTS: Familial tumors were more frequently positive for the p-cadherin (p = 0.0004, p63 (p < 0.0001 and CK5 (p < 0.0001 than was sporadic cancer. Moreover, familial tumors had coexpression of the basal biomarkers CK5+/ p63+, grouped two by two (OR = 34.34, while absence of coexpression (OR = 0.13 was associ-ated with the sporadic cancer phenotype. CONCLUSION: Familial breast cancer was found to be associated with basal biomarkers, using tissue microarray technology. Therefore, characterization of the familial breast cancer phenotype will improve the understanding of breast carcinogenesis.

  9. Epigenetic reprogramming of breast cancer cells with oocyte extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a disease characterised by both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes is an early event in breast carcinogenesis and reversion of gene silencing by epigenetic reprogramming can provide clues to the mechanisms responsible for tumour initiation and progression. In this study we apply the reprogramming capacity of oocytes to cancer cells in order to study breast oncogenesis. Results We show that breast cancer cells can be directly reprogrammed by amphibian oocyte extracts. The reprogramming effect, after six hours of treatment, in the absence of DNA replication, includes DNA demethylation and removal of repressive histone marks at the promoters of tumour suppressor genes; also, expression of the silenced genes is re-activated in response to treatment. This activity is specific to oocytes as it is not elicited by extracts from ovulated eggs, and is present at very limited levels in extracts from mouse embryonic stem cells. Epigenetic reprogramming in oocyte extracts results in reduction of cancer cell growth under anchorage independent conditions and a reduction in tumour growth in mouse xenografts. Conclusions This study presents a new method to investigate tumour reversion by epigenetic reprogramming. After testing extracts from different sources, we found that axolotl oocyte extracts possess superior reprogramming ability, which reverses epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells in a mouse xenograft model. Therefore this system can be extremely valuable for dissecting the mechanisms involved in tumour suppressor gene silencing and identifying molecular activities capable of arresting tumour growth. These applications can ultimately shed light on the contribution of epigenetic alterations in breast cancer and advance the development of epigenetic therapies.

  10. Breast self examination and breast cancer: Knowledge and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... within their communities for screening behaviours in health promotion. Medical ... breast self examination (BSE) and breast cancer to be effective health educators. ... female students drawn from schools within the College of Health sciences, ...

  11. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1982-01-01

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures. (orig.)

  12. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1982-03-01

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures.

  13. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  14. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... oncology nurse and a registered dietitian. Read More "Screening For Breast Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer ...

  15. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0366 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...communications 215, 566 (Oct 13, 1995). 87. S. J. Reshkin, R. A. Cardone , S. Harguindey, Na+-H+ exchanger, pH regulation and cancer. Recent patents on anti-cancer drug discovery 8, 85 (Jan 1, 2013).

  16. New Treatment Option for Young Women with Hormone-Sensitive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... breast cancer, defined as estrogen and/or progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer, represents 79 percent of breast ...

  17. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Estrogen Receptor Status; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Status; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. Radiation-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rodent models. What's different from chemical carcinogenesis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Iizuka, Daisuke; Daino, Kazuhiro; Takabatake, Takashi; Okamoto, Mieko; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is one of a few well-characterized etiologic factors of human breast cancer. Laboratory rodents serve as useful experimental models for investigating dose responses and mechanisms of cancer development. Using these models, a lot of information has been accumulated about mammary gland cancer, which can be induced by both chemical carcinogens and radiation. In this review, we first list some experimental rodent models of breast cancer induction. We then focus on several topics that are important in understanding the mechanisms and risk modification of breast cancer development, and compare radiation and chemical carcinogenesis models. We will focus on the pathology and natural history of cancer development in these models, genetic changes observed in induced cancers, indirect effects of carcinogens, and finally risk modification by reproductive factors and age at exposure to the carcinogens. In addition, we summarize the knowledge available on mammary stem/progenitor cells as a potential target of carcinogens. Comparison of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis models on these topics indicates certain similarities, but it also indicates clear differences in several important aspects, such as genetic alterations of induced cancers and modification of susceptibility by age and reproductive factors. Identification of the target cell type and relevant translational research for human risk management may be among the important issues that are addressed by radiation carcinogenesis models. (author)

  19. Macro-environment of breast carcinoma: frequent genetic alterations in the normal appearing skins of patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinfar, Farid; Beham, Alfred; Friedrich, Gerhard; Deutsch, Alexander; Hrzenjak, Andelko; Luschin, Gero; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A

    2008-05-01

    Genetic abnormalities in microenvironmental tissues with subsequent alterations of reciprocal interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells play a key role in the breast carcinogenesis. Although a few reports have demonstrated abnormal fibroblastic functions in normal-appearing fibroblasts taken from the skins of breast cancer patients, the genetic basis of this phenomenon and its implication for carcinogenesis are unexplored. We analyzed 12 mastectomy specimens showing invasive ductal carcinomas. In each case, morphologically normal epidermis and dermis, carcinoma, normal stroma close to carcinoma, and stroma at a distant from carcinoma were microdissected. Metastatic-free lymphatic tissues from lymph nodes served as a control. Using PCR, DNA extracts were examined with 11 microsatellite markers known for a high frequency of allelic imbalances in breast cancer. Losses of heterozygosity and/or microsatellite instability were detected in 83% of the skin samples occurring either concurrently with or independently from the cancerous tissues. In 80% of these cases at least one microsatellite marker displayed loss of heterozygosity or microsatellite instability in the skin, which was absent in carcinoma. A total of 41% of samples showed alterations of certain loci observed exclusively in the carcinoma but not in the skin compartments. Our study suggests that breast cancer is not just a localized genetic disorder, but rather part of a larger field of genetic alterations/instabilities affecting multiple cell populations in the organ with various cellular elements, ultimately contributing to the manifestation of the more 'localized' carcinoma. These data indicate that more global assessment of tumor micro- and macro-environment is crucial for our understanding of breast carcinogenesis.

  20. Thyroid cancer. Reevaluation of an experimental model for radiogenic endocrine carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1984-11-01

    The status of experimental studies of radiogenic thyroid cancer is appraised, and some older data are reinterpreted in the light of more recent findings. Problems of thyroid dosimetry, particularly the dosimetry of internal radioiodides, are discussed. The steps in radiation carcinogenesis during the acute phase, the latent phase, and the phase of tumor growth are discussed in terms of thyroid epithelial cell population changes. The roles of three cell populations (undamaged or completely repaired epithelial cells, oncogenically initiated cells, and terminally damaged but functionally competent cells) in neoplasia are described. Finally, the implications for man of these experimental results and conclusions are discussed. 89 refs., 4 figs

  1. Checkpoint inhibitors in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polk, Anne; Svane, Inge-Marie; Andersson, Michael

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of compounds directed against immune checkpoints are currently under clinical development. In this review we summarize current research in breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A computer-based literature search was carried out using PubMed and EMBASE; data...... reported at international meetings and clinicaltrials.gov were included as well. RESULTS: The obtained overall response rate of PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy varied from 5 to 30% in heavily pretreated triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). The median duration of progression free survival and overall survival were...... and induce long standing anti-tumor immunity in a subgroup of breast cancer patients. However, the identification of predictive biomarkers is crucial for further development of this treatment modality....

  2. The relationship of silicone breast implants and cancer at other sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Louise A

    2007-12-01

    Although most attention regarding the effects of silicone breast implants on cancer risk has focused on breast cancer, there have also been concerns regarding effects on other cancers. This includes malignancies that could occur as a result of foreign-body carcinogenesis (sarcomas) or immune alterations (hematopoietic malignancies), or cancers suggested as possibly elevated on the basis of previous epidemiologic studies (cancers of the cervix, vulva, lung, and brain). Searches of the English language literature on the topic of silicone breast implants and cancer risk were conducted and reviewed to determine relationships that might have etiologic relevance. Epidemiologic studies provide no support for an increased risk of either sarcoma or multiple myeloma among breast implant recipients, disputing clinical and laboratory findings suggesting such a link. Although a number of epidemiologic studies have demonstrated elevated risks of cervical, vulvar, and lung cancers among breast implant patients, it is likely that these excesses relate more to lifestyle characteristics (e.g., cigarette smoking, sexual behavior) than to the effects of the implants. Brain cancer excesses, suggested in one study, have not been confirmed in either an update of the mortality experience in this study or on the basis of other investigations. At present, there is no convincing evidence that breast implants alter the risk of nonbreast malignancies. Breast implant patients should continue to be monitored for longer term risks and to assess whether cancer risk is influenced by various patient and implant characteristics.

  3. Integral Role of PTP1B in Adiponectin-Mediated Inhibition of Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in Breast Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaTonia Taliaferro-Smith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular effects of obesity are mediated by alterations in the levels of adipocytokines. High leptin level associated with obese state is a major cause of breast cancer progression and metastasis, whereas adiponectin is considered a “guardian angel adipocytokine” for its protective role against various obesity-related pathogenesis including breast cancer. In the present study, investigating the role of adiponectin as a potential inhibitor of leptin, we show that adiponectin treatment inhibits leptin-induced clonogenicity and anchorage-independent growth. Leptin-stimulated migration and invasion of breast cancer cells is also effectively inhibited by adiponectin. Analyses of the underlying molecular mechanisms reveal that adiponectin suppresses activation of two canonical signaling molecules of leptin signaling axis: extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt. Pretreatment of breast cancer cells with adiponectin protects against leptin-induced activation of ERK and Akt. Adiponectin increases expression and activity of the physiological inhibitor of leptin signaling, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, which is found to be integral to leptin-antagonist function of adiponectin. Inhibition of PTP1B blocks adiponectin-mediated inhibition of leptin-induced breast cancer growth. Our in vivo studies show that adenovirus-mediated adiponectin treatment substantially reduces leptin-induced mammary tumorigenesis in nude mice. Exploring therapeutic strategies, we demonstrate that treatment of breast cancer cells with rosiglitazone results in increased adiponectin expression and inhibition of migration and invasion. Rosiglitazone treatment also inhibits leptin-induced growth of breast cancer cells. Taken together, these data show that adiponectin treatment can inhibit the oncogenic actions of leptin through blocking its downstream signaling molecules and raising adiponectin levels could be a rational therapeutic strategy for breast

  4. Job Authority and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2013-01-01

    Using the 1957-2011 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I integrate the gender relations theory, a life course perspective, and a biosocial stress perspective to explore the effect of women's job authority in 1975 (at age 36) and 1993 (at age 54) on breast cancer incidence up to 2011. Findings indicate that women with the authority to hire, fire, and influence others' pay had a significantly higher risk of a breast cancer diagnosis over the next 30 years compared to housewives and employed women with no job authority. Because job authority conferred the highest risk of breast cancer for women who also spent more hours dealing with people at work in 1975, I suggest that the assertion of job authority by women in the 1970s involved stressful interpersonal experiences, such as social isolation and negative social interactions, that may have increased the risk of breast cancer via prolonged dysregulation of the glucocorticoid system and exposure of breast tissue to the adverse effects of chronically elevated cortisol. This study contributes to sociology by emphasizing gendered biosocial pathways through which women's occupational experiences become embodied and drive forward physiological repercussions.

  5. Experimental studies on lung carcinogenesis and their relationship to future research on radiation-induced lung cancer in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1991-03-01

    The usefulness of experimental systems for studying human lung carcinogenesis lies in the ease of studying components of a total problem. As an example, the main thrust of attack on possible synergistic interactions between radiation, cigarette smoke, and other irritants must be by means of research on animals. Because animals can be serially sacrificed, a systematic search can be made for progressive lung changes, thereby improving our understanding of carcinogenesis. The mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis have not yet been delineated, but modern concepts of molecular and cellular biology and of radiation dosimetry are being increasingly applied to both in vivo and in vitro exposure to determine the mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, to elucidate human data, and to aid in extrapolating experimental animal data to human exposures. In addition, biologically based mathematical models of carcinogenesis are being developed to describe the nature of the events leading to malignancy; they are also an essential part of a rational approach to quantitative cancer risk assessment. This paper summarizes recent experimental and modeling data on radon-induced lung cancer and includes the confounding effects of cigarette-smoke exposures. The applicability of these data to understanding human exposures is emphasized, and areas of future research on human radiation-induced carcinogenesis are discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Night Shift Work and Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Johnni

    2017-09-01

    Night work is increasingly common and a necessity in certain sectors of the modern 24-h society. The embedded exposure to light-at-night, which suppresses the nocturnal hormone melatonin with oncostatic properties and circadian disruption, i.e., misalignment between internal and external night and between cells and organs, are suggested as main mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis. In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic to humans based on limited evidence from eight epidemiologic studies on breast cancer, in addition to sufficient evidence from animal experiments. The aim of this review is a critical update of the IARC evaluation, including subsequent and the most recent epidemiologic evidence on breast cancer risk after night work. After 2007, in total nine new case-control studies, one case-cohort study, and eight cohort studies are published, which triples the number of studies. Further, two previous cohorts have been updated with extended follow-up. The assessment of night shift work is different in all of the 26 existing studies. There is some evidence that high number of consecutive night shifts has impact on the extent of circadian disruption, and thereby increased breast cancer risk, but this information is missing in almost all cohort studies. This in combination with short-term follow-up of aging cohorts may explain why some cohort studies may have null findings. The more recent case-control studies have contributed interesting results concerning breast cancer subtypes in relation to both menopausal status and different hormonal subtypes. The large differences in definitions of both exposure and outcome may contribute to the observed heterogeneity of results from studies of night work and breast cancer, which overall points in the direction of an increased breast cancer risk, in particular after over 20 years of night shifts. Overall, there is a

  7. Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: Possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at the determination of molecular changes associated with thyroid cancers among children who suffered effects from the Chernobyl nuclear accident will be overviewed. We intend to discuss whether any radiation signatures are associated with radiation-induced childhood thyroid cancers. PMID:25483826

  8. Quality indicators for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poortmans, Philip; Aznar, Marianne; Bartelink, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer has considerably changed over the years, from simple simulator-based 2-dimensional techniques to sophisticated image-guided individualized treatments, with maximally protected normal structures. This has led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of breast...... cancer patients in terms of disease control, survival, and quality of life. This progress is based on clinical research and paralleled by progress in delivering sophisticated radiation treatment. Clinical trials resulted in identifying patients groups who will benefit from radiation treatment. They also...

  9. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  10. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  11. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ja; Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  12. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  13. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-28

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  14. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmich, L.R.; During, M.; Henriksen, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  15. Inflammatory Markers and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    breast cancer [26, 27] or cytologic atypia [28], while another observed elevated IL-6 levels among breast cancer cases with insulin resistance [29...Relation between insulin resistance and serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF- alpha in overweight or obese women with early stage breast cancer...without oophorectomy, hysterectomy with uni- or bilateral oophorectomy), prior breast biopsy (no, yes), ever been pregnant (no, yes), and

  16. Common breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with triple negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Lee, Adam M.; Slager, Susan; Lesnick, Timothy; Olswold, Curtis; Fasching, Peter A.; Miron, Penelope; Eccles, Diana; Carpenter, Jane E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Ambrosone, Christine; Winqvist, Robert; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Ekici, Arif B.; Tapper, William J; Gerty, Susan M; Durcan, Lorraine; Graham, Nikki; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stephan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fostira, Florentia; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M.; Fountzilas, George; Clarke, Christine L.; Balleine, Rosemary; Olson, Janet E.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Diasio, Robert B.; Pathak, Harsh; Ross, Eric; Weaver, JoEllen; Rüdiger, Thomas; Försti, Asta; Dünnebier, Thomas; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Kulkarni, Swati; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Van Limbergen, Erik; Janssen, Hilde; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Verhoef, Senno; Tomlinson, Ian; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Beesley, Jonathan; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Blows, Fiona M.; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W; Lambrechts, Diether; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Severi, Gianluca; Hamann, Ute; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Nevanlinna, Heli; Wang, Xianshu; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiological factors which promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS) display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with risk of triple negative breast cancer, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.11) and rs8100241 (19p13.11). Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple negative breast cancer. PMID:21844186

  17. Association between 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Steffen; Olsen, Anja; Møller, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress may be important in carcinogenesis and a possible risk factor for breast cancer. The urinary excretion of oxidatively generated biomolecules, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), represents biomarkers of oxidative stress, reflecting the rate of global damage...

  18. Diabetes and Breast Cancer Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen K Bronsveld

    Full Text Available Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes.This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000-2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (≤50 and >50 years, women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories to women without diabetes, to select ~300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR, HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211 and women without diabetes (n = 101, irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%CI:1.07-5.55, HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%CI:1.11-7.22, and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%CI:1.03-9.60 tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95%CI:0.95-6.45 and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88-7.67 tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general.We found no compelling evidence that women with diabetes

  19. Diabetes and Breast Cancer Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsveld, Heleen K; Jensen, Vibeke; Vahl, Pernille; De Bruin, Marie L; Cornelissen, Sten; Sanders, Joyce; Auvinen, Anssi; Haukka, Jari; Andersen, Morten; Vestergaard, Peter; Schmidt, Marjanka K

    2017-01-01

    Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes. This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000-2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (≤50 and >50 years), women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories) to women without diabetes, to select ~300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR), HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211) and women without diabetes (n = 101), irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%CI:1.07-5.55)), HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%CI:1.11-7.22)), and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%CI:1.03-9.60) tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95%CI:0.95-6.45)) and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88-7.67) tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general. We found no compelling evidence that women with diabetes, treated

  20. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  1. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  2. System of breast cancer recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhkova, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the resUlts of the multimodality system of breast cancer recognition using methods, of clinical X-ray and cytological examinations. Altogether 1671 women were examined; breast cancer was detected in 165. Stage 1 was detected in 63 patients, Stage 2 in 34, Stage 3 in 34, and Stage 4 in 8. In 7% of the cases, tumors were inpalpable and could be detected by X-ray only. In 9.9% of the cases, the multicentric nature of tumor growth was established. In 71% tumors had a mixed histological structure. The system of breast cancer recognition provided for accurate diagnosis in 98% of the cases making it possible to avoid surgical intervention in 38%. Good diagnostic results are possible under conditions of a special mammology unit where a roentgenologist working in a close contact with surgeonns working in a close contact with surgeos and morphologists, performs the first stages of diagnosis beginning from clinical examination up to special methods that require X-ray control (paracentesis, ductography, pneumocystography, preoperative marking of the breast and marking of the remote sectors of the breast)

  3. Noninvasive imaging of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medarova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    With the development of molecularly targeted cancer therapies, it is highly advantageous to be able to determine their efficacy, to improve overall patient survival. Non-invasive imaging techniques are currently available for visualizing different pathological conditions of the human body, but their use for cancer monitoring is limited due to the lack of tumor-specific imaging probes. This review will attempt to summarize the current clinical diagnostic approaches for breast cancer detection, staging, and therapy assessment. In addition, I will present some novel concepts from the field of molecular imaging that form the basis of some of our research. We believe that this general imaging strategy has the potential of significantly advancing our ability to diagnose breast cancer at the earliest stages of the pathology, before any overt clinical symptoms have developed, as well as to better direct the development of molecularly-targeted individualized therapy protocols.

  4. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development...

  5. Role of MLH1 methylation in esophageal cancer carcinogenesis and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyun; Ye, Dong; Wang, Lei; Peng, Yingying; Li, Qun; Deng, Hongxia; Zhou, Chongchang

    2018-01-01

    The mutL homolog-1 ( MLH1 ) is a DNA mismatch repair gene and has been reported to be frequently methylated in numerous cancers. However, the association between MLH1 methylation and esophageal cancer (EC), as well as its clinical significance, remains unclear. Hence, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis based on 19 articles (including 1384 ECs, 345 premalignant lesions, and 1244 healthy controls). Our analysis revealed that the frequency of MLH1 methylation was significantly elevated during EC carcinogenesis. In addition, we observed that MLH1 promoter methylation was associated with age (odds ratio [OR]=1.79; 95% CI =1.20-2.66), advanced tumor grade (OR=3.7; 95% CI =2.37-5.77), lymph node metastasis (OR=2.65; 95% CI =1.81-3.88), distant metastasis (OR=7.60; 95% CI =1.23-47.19), advanced clinical stage (OR=4.46; 95% CI =2.88-6.91), and poor prognosis in EC patients (hazard ratio =1.64, 95% CI =1.00-2.69). The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of MLH1 methylation in EC patients versus healthy individuals were 0.15, 0.99, and 0.77, respectively. Our findings indicate that MLH1 methylation is involved in the carcinogenesis, progression, and metastasis of EC. Moreover, methylated MLH1 could be a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for EC.

  6. Understanding and potentially reducing second breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Long term survival after breast cancer diagnosis has increased markedly in the last decade: 15-year relative survival after breast cancer diagnosis is now 75% in the US. Associated with these excellent survival prospects, however, long term studies suggest that contralateral second breast cancer rates are in the range from 10 to 15% at 15 years post treatment, and are still higher for BRCA1/2 carriers, as well as for still longer term survivors. These second cancer risks are much higher than those for a comparable healthy woman to develop a first breast cancer. It follows that women with breast cancer are highly prone to develop a second breast cancer. We propose here a new option for reducing the disturbingly high risk of a contralateral second breast cancer. in patients with both estrogen positive and negative primary breast cancer: prophylactic mammary irradiation (PMI) of the contralateral breast. The rationale behind PMI is evidence that standard post-Iumpectomy radiotherapy of the affected (ipsilateral) breast substantially reduces the long-term genetically-based second cancer risk in the ipsilateral breast, by killing the existing premalignant cells in that breast. This suggests that there are relatively few premalignant cells in the breast (hundreds or thousands, not millions), so even a fairly modest radiation cell-kill level across the whole breast would be expected to kill essentially all of them. If this is so, then a modest radiation dose-much lower than that to the affected breast--delivered uniformly to the whole contralateral breast, and typically delivered at the same time as the radiotherapy of the ipsilateral breast, would have the potential to markedly reduce second-cancer risks in the contralateral breast by killing essentially all the pre-malignant cells in that breast while causing only a very low level of radiation-induced sequelae. Therefore we hypothesize that low-dose prophylactic mammary irradiation of the contralateral breast

  7. Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R

    2013-01-01

    Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....

  8. Breast Cancer Tissue Repository

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iglehart, J

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Tissue Repository at Duke enters its fourth year of finding. The purpose of the Repository at Duke is to provide substantial quantities of frozen tissue for explorative molecular studies...

  9. Breast Cancer Vaccines: New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetti, Rosaria; Dell’Aversana, Carmela; Giorgio, Cristina; Astorri, Roberta; Altucci, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a persistent global challenge for its high frequency in women (although it seldom occurs in men), due to the large diffusion of risk factors and gene mutations, and for its peculiar biology and microenvironment. To date, BC can benefit from different therapeutic strategies involving surgery, ablation, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and more specific approaches such as hormone therapy and the administration of various substances impairing cancer growth, aggressivity, and rec...

  10. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Thomas van Overeem; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...... of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making....

  11. Mass screening in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strax, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some questions about mass screening in breast cancer are answered it being concluded that: 1. mass screening for the detection of early breast cancer is the only means with proven potential for lowering the death rate of the disease; 2. mammography is an importante - if not the most important modality in mass screening; 3. new film - screen combinations generally available are capable of producing mammograms of excelent quality with radiation doses down to .1 rad into the body of breast. The risk of malignant changes from such dosage - even when given periodically is negligeable. New equipment, to be available, shortly, will use the new film - screen combinations in an automated manner with must reduce cost in time, filme, personnel and processing - of more than 50%. This would make mass screening more practical. (M.A.) [pt

  12. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  13. Mutation analysis of breast cancer gene BRCA among breast cancer Jordanian females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoum, Manar F.; Al-Kayed, Sameer A.

    2004-01-01

    To screen mutations of the tumor suppressor breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) within 3 exons among Jordanian breast cancer females. A total of 135 Jordanian breast cancer females were genetically analyzed by denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) for mutation detection in 3 BRCA1 exons (2, 11 and 20) between 2000-2002 in Al-Basheer Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Of the studied patients 50 had a family history of breast cancer, 28 had a family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and 57 had no family history of any cancer. Five germline mutations were detected among breast cancer females with a family history of breast cancers (one in exon 2 and 4 mutations in exon 11). Another germline mutation (within exon 11) was detected among breast cancer females with family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and no mutation was detected among breast cancer females with no family history of any cancer or among normal control females. Screening mutations within exon 2, exon 11 and exon 20 showed that most screened mutations were within BRCA1 exon 11 among breast cancer Jordanian families with a family history of breast cancer. (author)

  14. Radiation pneumonitis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrino, R.; Carvalho, H.A.; Gomes, H.C.; Kuang, L.F.; Aguilar, P.B.; Lederman, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-nine observations of patients with breast cancer frm 1980 to 1985 were reviewed. All of them received radiotherapy. In 44.9% radiologic findings of radiation pneumonitis were detected and only 9% presented mild or moderate respiratory symptoms. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Genetic determinants of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the

  16. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria...

  17. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  18. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  19. Alimentary triggers of hormone dependent breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Lykholat

    2014-04-01

    protection system exceeded the strength of response in the body of mature animals. The organ discreteness of changes in the activity of antioxidant protection enzymes depending on the age of the animals was recorded. Given the involvement of glutathione system in the deactivation of estrogens through their conjugation in reactions catalyzed by glutathione transferase, decreased enzyme activity may lead to accumulation of highly active intermediate metabolites with subsequent damage to intracellular structures. Later on, these phenomena may become a trigger of reduction of the compensatory mechanisms’ potential, which together with the genotoxic effect of exogenous estrogens is an important pathogenetic element in carcinogenesis: they initiate the development of proliferative processes and occurrence of cancer conditions, in particular, hormone dependent breast tumors, in future.

  20. Haemorheological Changes in African Breast Cancer Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    complications, African patients with breast cancer may well be predisposed to thrombotic complications during illness. ... having breast cancer were studied. The patients were diagnosed by one of the authors from histological biopsy from the lump removed from the breast. None of ... statistics (Student's t-test for paired data.

  1. Role of infectious agents in the carcinogenesis of brain and head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibek Kenneth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review concentrates on tumours that are anatomically localised in head and neck regions. Brain cancers and head and neck cancers together account for more than 873,000 cases annually worldwide, with an increasing incidence each year. With poor survival rates at late stages, brain and head and neck cancers represent serious conditions. Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process and the role of infectious agents in this progression has not been fully identified. A major problem with such research is that the role of many infectious agents may be underestimated due to the lack of or inconsistency in experimental data obtained globally. In the case of brain cancer, no infection has been accepted as directly oncogenic, although a number of viruses and parasites are associated with the malignancy. Our analysis of the literature showed the presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV in distinct types of brain tumour, namely glioblastoma multiforme (GBM and medulloblastoma. In particular, there are reports of viral protein in up to 100% of GBM specimens. Several epidemiological studies reported associations of brain cancer and toxoplasmosis seropositivity. In head and neck cancers, there is a distinct correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. Considering that almost every undifferentiated NPC is EBV-positive, virus titer levels can be measured to screen high-risk populations. In addition there is an apparent association between human papilloma virus (HPV and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC; specifically, 26% of HNSCCs are positive for HPV. HPV type 16 was the most common type detected in HNSCCs (90% and its dominance is even greater than that reported in cervical carcinoma. Although there are many studies showing an association of infectious agents with cancer, with various levels of involvement and either a direct or indirect causative effect, there is a scarcity of articles covering the role of

  2. Bilateral breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Jun, Hwang Yoon; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical features of bilateral breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records(n=23) and mammograms (n=15) of 23 patients with bilateral breast cancer. Patients' age, location of the tumor and pathologic staging were determined from clinical records. Mammographic features were classified as spiculated mass, nonspiculated mass, mass with microcalcification, microcalcification only, asymmetric density, and normal. Of the 23 cases of bilateral breast cancer, 8(34.8%) were synchronous and 15(65.2%) were metachronous. Age at diagnosis of cancer in the first breast was between 27 and 59(mean 43) years ; there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between patients with synchronous and metachronous cancer. The mean interval between the diagnosis of each lesion of the metachronous pairs was 9.1 years. In 11 of 23 cases(48%), tumors were locaated in the same quadrant, and in the other 12 cases(52%), they were in different quadrant. At mammography, five of 15 metachronous cancers(33%) were similar in appearance and 10 pairs(67%) were different. In 4 of 23 cases(17%), cancer in the first breast was at stage 0 and stage 1, and in 13 of 23(57%), cancer in the second breast was at this same stage. In bilateral breast cancer, the two breasts frequently show different mammographic features. Cancer of the second breast was at an early stage; this suggest that regular examination and mammography are important and can allow early detection of contralateral breast cancer

  3. Exosomes participate in the carcinogenesis and the malignant behavior of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yunmeng; Fu, Guangzhen; Ye, Yafei; Ming, Liang

    2017-05-01

    In order to summarize the role of exosomes in invasion and metastasis in gastric cancer (GC). Exosomes are vesicles of endocytic origin ranging from 30 to 100 nm in size; they are composed of a lipid bilayer and contain DNA, mRNA, miRNA, circular RNA and multiple proteins. Recently, increasing evidence shows that exosomes play a crucial role in the tumorigenesis of GC. In this review, we focus on the latest findings on GC exosomes, mainly summarizing their role in invasion and metastasis in GC. Then, exosomes? potential functions as novel diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers for GC are briefly discussed. At last, we prospect the clinical application perspective of exosomes in GC. Exosomes play a vital role in gastric cancer carcinogenesis and metastasis.

  4. Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Petra; Savage, Michelle I.; Brown, Powel H.

    2013-01-01

    With a better understanding of the etiology of breast cancer, molecularly targeted drugs have been developed and are being testing for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Targeted drugs that inhibit the estrogen receptor (ER) or estrogen-activated pathways include the selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer and promising results of AIs in breast cancer trials, suggest that AIs might be even more effective in the prevention of ER-positive breast cancer. However, these agents only prevent ER-positive breast cancer. Therefore, current research is focused on identifying preventive therapies for other forms of breast cancer such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, breast cancer that does express ER, progesterone receptor, or HER2). HER2-positive breast cancers are currently treated with anti-HER2 therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and preclinical and clinical studies are now being conducted to test these drugs for the prevention of HER2-positive breast cancers. Several promising agents currently being tested in cancer prevention trials for the prevention of TNBC include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, vitamin D, and rexinoids, both of which activate nuclear hormone receptors (the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors). This review discusses currently used breast cancer preventive drugs, and describes the progress of research striving to identify and develop more effective preventive agents for all forms of breast cancer. PMID:24069582

  5. Boolean network model for cancer pathways: predicting carcinogenesis and targeted therapy outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman F Fumiã

    Full Text Available A Boolean dynamical system integrating the main signaling pathways involved in cancer is constructed based on the currently known protein-protein interaction network. This system exhibits stationary protein activation patterns--attractors--dependent on the cell's microenvironment. These dynamical attractors were determined through simulations and their stabilities against mutations were tested. In a higher hierarchical level, it was possible to group the network attractors into distinct cell phenotypes and determine driver mutations that promote phenotypic transitions. We find that driver nodes are not necessarily central in the network topology, but at least they are direct regulators of central components towards which converge or through which crosstalk distinct cancer signaling pathways. The predicted drivers are in agreement with those pointed out by diverse census of cancer genes recently performed for several human cancers. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that cell phenotypes can evolve towards full malignancy through distinct sequences of accumulated mutations. In particular, the network model supports routes of carcinogenesis known for some tumor types. Finally, the Boolean network model is employed to evaluate the outcome of molecularly targeted cancer therapies. The major find is that monotherapies were additive in their effects and that the association of targeted drugs is necessary for cancer eradication.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ikeda, Debra

    2002-01-01

    .... Choline peaks are present in 57% of breast cancers but contrary to other research data some invasive ductal cancers do not contain choline as a detectable metabolite, particularly in lobular cancer that has dispersed cells...

  7. Computed tomography of the breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sup; Lee, Ki Chu

    1985-01-01

    The indication of computed tomography for the breast lesion are 1) Unusually extensive or small breast caused technical difficulties in performing mammograms. 2) Questionable mammographic findings, especially in dense proliferative breast parenchyme. 3) Microcancer. 4) Suspicious regional lymph node enlargement or invasive of the chest wall by breast cancer. The diagnosis of breast CT in breast cancer is based on pathologic anatomic changes and characteristic increase of mean CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement. Authors analysed CT of the 34 patients who were clinically suspected breast cancer, and compared with mammography. The results are as follows: 1. Pathological diagnosis of 34 cases were 27 cases of breast cancer, 4 cases of fibrocystic disease, 2 cases of fibroadenoma, and 1 case of intraductal papilloma. The diagnostic accuracy of CT in 27 breast cancer was 93% (25 cases) and mammography 71% (19 case). 2. Correct diagnosis of CT in 7 benign breast disease is in 5 cases and mammography in 5 cases. 3. The most important finding of CT in breast cancer is characteristic increase of CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement (200 ml, 65%): over average 50 HU in 19 cases of 27 breast cancers, 30-50 HU in a 6 cases, 20-30 HU in 2 cases with tumor necrosis. 4. Computed with mammography, other more valuable CT findings of breast cancer are axillary lymph node enlargement and adjacentic pectoral muscle invasion. 5. In conclusion, breast CT is considered as valuable diagnostic tool in evaluation of breast cancer, but not of benign breast disease

  8. Computed tomography of the breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sup; Lee, Ki Chu [Hallym University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    The indication of computed tomography for the breast lesion are 1) Unusually extensive or small breast caused technical difficulties in performing mammograms. 2) Questionable mammographic findings, especially in dense proliferative breast parenchyme. 3) Microcancer. 4) Suspicious regional lymph node enlargement or invasive of the chest wall by breast cancer. The diagnosis of breast CT in breast cancer is based on pathologic anatomic changes and characteristic increase of mean CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement. Authors analysed CT of the 34 patients who were clinically suspected breast cancer, and compared with mammography. The results are as follows: 1. Pathological diagnosis of 34 cases were 27 cases of breast cancer, 4 cases of fibrocystic disease, 2 cases of fibroadenoma, and 1 case of intraductal papilloma. The diagnostic accuracy of CT in 27 breast cancer was 93% (25 cases) and mammography 71% (19 case). 2. Correct diagnosis of CT in 7 benign breast disease is in 5 cases and mammography in 5 cases. 3. The most important finding of CT in breast cancer is characteristic increase of CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement (200 ml, 65%): over average 50 HU in 19 cases of 27 breast cancers, 30-50 HU in a 6 cases, 20-30 HU in 2 cases with tumor necrosis. 4. Computed with mammography, other more valuable CT findings of breast cancer are axillary lymph node enlargement and adjacentic pectoral muscle invasion. 5. In conclusion, breast CT is considered as valuable diagnostic tool in evaluation of breast cancer, but not of benign breast disease.

  9. Expression level of novel tumor suppressor gene FATS is associated with the outcome of node positive breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; GU Lin; ZHAO Lu-jun; ZHANG Xi-feng; QIU Li; LI Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, we reported the identification of a previously uncharacterized and evolutionarily conserved gene, fragile-site associated tumor suppressor (FATS), at a frequently deleted region in irradiation (IR)-induced tumors.However, the role of FATS in breast cancer development and its clinical significance has not been defined. The aim of this study was to determine the role of FA7S in breast cancer development and to evaluate its clinical significance in breast cancer.Methods The expression level of FATS mRNA was determined in 106 breast carcinomas and 23 paired normal breast tissues using quantitative real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The relationship between FATS expression and clinicopathological parameters were also analyzed.Results The mRNA level of FATS was down-regulated in breast cancer compared with paired normal tissues. Low expression of FATS was correlated with high nuclear grade. There was a tendency to a favorable outcome for patients with high expression of FATS (P=0.346). However, low expression of FATS was associated with poor outcome of breast cancer patients with node positive (P=0.011). Furthermore, the mRNA level of FATS showed an independent value in predicting the outcome of breast cancer patients with positive lymph nodes.Conclusion FATS is involved in the carcinogenesis and development of breast cancer and could be a potential biomarker and prognostic factor for breast cancer therapy.

  10. Ron in Breast Development and Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltz, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    .... Virtually nothing is known regarding the function of Ron in the breast. However, two recent studies have shown that Ron is over-expressed and highly phosphorylated in a significant fraction of human and feline breast cancers...

  11. Ron in Breast Development and Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltz, Susan

    2003-01-01

    .... Virtually nothing is known regarding the function of Ron in the breast. However, two recent studies have shown the Ron is over- expressed and highly phosphorylated in a significant fraction of human and feline breast cancers...

  12. Breast carcinoma after cancer therapy in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.P.; Corkery, J.; Vawter, G.; Fine, W.; Sallan, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    Among 910 survivors of childhood cancer, four developed infiltrating carcinoma of the breast and another had noninfiltrating breast tumor. Expected frequency was 0.3 cases of breast cancer in the series. The affected women developed breast carcinoma at ages 20, 25 and 38 years, and the men at ages 38 and 39 years, respectively. Each patient had received orthovoltage chest irradiation for treatment of Wilms' tumor or bone sarcoma between seven and 34 years previously, and estimated radiation dose to the breast exceeded 300 rad in each instance. Four patients also received diverse forms of chemotherapy. Survivors of childhood cancer have increased risk of developing breast cancer and should undergo periodic screening, particularly after breast tissue had been irradiated. Individualized radiotherapy planning can help exclude the breasts from treatment fields for some thoracic neoplasms

  13. Notch and VEGF Interactions in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shawber, Carrie J

    2006-01-01

    The proposal objective is to define Notch and VEGFR-3 in breast cancer. We investigated this relationship in primary endothelial cell cultures, mouse embryos, human breast tumors, and mouse mammary tumor xenografts...

  14. Epigenetics in Breast and Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2015-01-01

    Most recent investigations into cancer etiology have identified a key role played by epigenetics. Specifically, aberrant DNA and histone modifications which silence tumor suppressor genes or promote oncogenes have been demonstrated in multiple cancer models. While the role of epigenetics in several solid tumor cancers such as colorectal cancer are well established, there is emerging evidence that epigenetics also plays a critical role in breast and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, DNA methy...

  15. Drug transporters in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Stenvang, Jan; Moreira, José

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances that have taken place in the past decade, including the development of novel molecular targeted agents, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of cancer treatment. In breast cancer, anthracyclines and taxanes are the two main chemotherapeutic options used on a routine...... basis. Although effective, their usefulness is limited by the inevitable development of resistance, a lack of response to drug-induced cancer cell death. A large body of research has resulted in the characterization of a plethora of mechanisms involved in resistance; ATP-binding cassette transporter...

  16. Breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Jung; Shin, Sang Soo [Dept. of of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyo Soon; Baek, Jang Mi; Seon, Hyun Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Park, Min Ho [Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging and to describe the MR imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. From 2006 to 2013, MR images of 23 patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were reviewed to evaluate lesion detection and imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. MR images were analyzed by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System and an additional MR-detected lesion with no mammographic or sonographic abnormality was determined. MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients, even in marked background parenchymal enhancement. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was seen as a mass in 20 patients and as non-mass enhancement with segmental distribution in 3 patients. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (85%), non-circumscribed margin (85%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%). An additional site of cancer was detected with MR imaging in 5 patients (21.7%) and the type of surgery was changed. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was usually seen as an irregular mass with heterogeneous enhancement on MR images. Although these findings were not specific, MR imaging was useful in evaluating the disease extent of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

  17. Breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shin Jung; Shin, Sang Soo; Lim, Hyo Soon; Baek, Jang Mi; Seon, Hyun Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Park, Min Ho

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging and to describe the MR imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. From 2006 to 2013, MR images of 23 patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were reviewed to evaluate lesion detection and imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. MR images were analyzed by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System and an additional MR-detected lesion with no mammographic or sonographic abnormality was determined. MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients, even in marked background parenchymal enhancement. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was seen as a mass in 20 patients and as non-mass enhancement with segmental distribution in 3 patients. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (85%), non-circumscribed margin (85%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%). An additional site of cancer was detected with MR imaging in 5 patients (21.7%) and the type of surgery was changed. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was usually seen as an irregular mass with heterogeneous enhancement on MR images. Although these findings were not specific, MR imaging was useful in evaluating the disease extent of pregnancy-associated breast cancer

  18. Epidemiology of radiogenic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of epidemiologic studies of radiogenic breast cancer is to use empirical data from human populations exposed to radiation, in order to delineate increases in risk of breast cancer as a function of the radiation characteristics and the characteristics of the women exposed. In addition, such empirical data may be used to test hypotheses concerning the biological mechanism of radiation-induced breast cancer, and this mechanism in turn may serve as a useful model both for other radiogenic solid tumors, and for breast tumors induced by other carcinogens. Specifically, the objective may be formulated in terms of developing an appropriate relatively simple mathematical model, whose functional form may be tested and whose parameters may be estimated from the relevant human data. It is necessary to derive such a model, both because of the sampling instability of estimates based on small subgroups of populations and also because observations may not be available in populations with the characteristics of interest. These latter two restrictions are exemplified by the problem of estimating an increase in risk for individuals with relatively small exposures, and the problem of estimating lifetime risk

  19. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  20. Analysis and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Poulami Das; Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir K. Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to identify abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test, if necessary. We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps. Normal ductalepithelial cells and ductal / lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper. In fact, features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue. We also ...

  1. The Japanese Guidelines for Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashima, Chisato; Hamashima C, Chisato; Hattori, Masakazu; Honjo, Satoshi; Kasahara, Yoshio; Katayama, Takafumi; Nakai, Masahiro; Nakayama, Tomio; Morita, Takako; Ohta, Koji; Ohnuki, Koji; Sagawa, Motoyasu; Saito, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Seiju; Shimada, Tomoyuki; Sobue, Tomotaka; Suto, Akihiko

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of breast cancer has progressively increased, making it the leading cause of cancer deaths in Japan. Breast cancer accounts for 20.4% of all new cancers with a reported age-standardized rate of 63.6 per 100 000 women. The Japanese guidelines for breast cancer screening were developed based on a previously established method. The efficacies of mammography with and without clinical breast examination, clinical breast examination and ultrasonography with and without mammography were evaluated. Based on the balance of the benefits and harms, recommendations for population-based and opportunistic screenings were formulated. Five randomized controlled trials of mammographic screening without clinical breast examination were identified for mortality reduction from breast cancer. The overall relative risk for women aged 40-74 years was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.83). Three randomized controlled trials of mammographic screening with clinical breast examination served as eligible evidence for mortality reduction from breast cancer. The overall relative risk for women aged 40-64 years was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-0.98). The major harms of mammographic screening were radiation exposure, false-positive cases and overdiagnosis. Although two case-control studies evaluating mortality reduction from breast cancer were found for clinical breast examination, there was no study assessing the effectiveness of ultrasonography for breast cancer screening. Mammographic screening without clinical breast examination for women aged 40-74 years and with clinical breast examination for women aged 40-64 years is recommended for population-based and opportunistic screenings. Clinical breast examination and ultrasonography are not recommended for population-based screening because of insufficient evidence regarding their effectiveness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  3. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  4. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  5. Breast cancer and the environment: a life course approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Breast Cancer and the Environment: The Scientific Evidence, Research Methodology, and Future Directions; Institute of Medicine

    2012-01-01

    .... Breast Cancer and the Environment reviews the current evidence on a selection of environmental risk factors for breast cancer, considers gene-environment interactions in breast cancer, and explores...

  6. Aberrant Hypermethylation of SALL3 with HPV Involvement Contributes to the Carcinogenesis of Cervical Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wei

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the methylation status of the promoter region of spalt-like transcription factor 3 (SALL3 and the expression of SALL3 in cervical cancer to explore the function of this gene in cervical cancer carcinogenesis.The methylation status of SALL3 was detected by methylation-specific PCR, and SALL3 gene expression was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR in the cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa, HeLa and C33A, as well as in cervical cancer tissue samples (n = 23, matched pericarcinomatous tissue samples (n = 23 and normal cervix tissue samples (n = 17. MTT was used to measure the cell viability and proliferation capacity of SiHa and HeLa cells.The SALL3 promoter was completely methylated in SiHa cells, unmethylated in C33A cells and partially methylated in HeLa cells. After treatment of SiHa and HeLa cells with 5 μM and 10 μM of 5-Azacytidine (5-Aza, respectively, the methylation level of the SALL3 promoter decreased and observed increase in the degree of unmethylation in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the relative expression of SALL3 mRNA increased as the concentration of 5-Aza increased in SiHa (p<0.05 and HeLa (p<0.05 cells. This above-mentioned increase in SALL3 mRNA in SiHa cells was more remarkable than that observed in HeLa cells. Cell proliferation capacity also decreased after administration of 5-Aza to SiHa and HeLa cells (p<0.05. Methylation of the SALL3 promoter was observed in 15 of 23 (65.21% cervical cancer tissue samples, 15 of 23 (65.21% matched pericarcinomatous tissue samples and 5 of 17 (29.41% normal cervical tissue samples (p<0.05. SALL3 mRNA expression was significantly lower in cervical cancer and pericarcinomatous tissues compared with normal cervical tissues (p<0.05. In all cervix tissue samples, HPV infection was positively associated with hypermethylation of the promoter region of SALL3 (p<0.05, r = 0.408, and the expression of SALL3 mRNA in HPV-positive tissues was lower than that in

  7. Fertility after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Orešković, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2014-02-01

    In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established

  8. Efficacy of reovirus against breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jingzhi; Chen Jue; Dong Shengxiang; Yan Weili; Wu Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the role of oncolytic reovirus in breast cancer, a tumor xenograft model of NOD/SCID mice was established using a biopsy sample of a primary infiltrating ductal carcinoma obtained from a breast cancer patient. The result of HE and TUNEL was analyzed after injecting the reovirus peritoneally for 3 days. The results showed that estrogen supplementation was required to establish appropriate human breast cancer xenograft model of NOD/SCID mice. 29.6% of these transplanted tumors grew with supplementation of Estrogen. Otherwise none grew (P<0.01). ER of the xenograft model was positive.After treatment with reovirus for 3 days, breast cancer cells were disrupted and disappeared which induced tissue looseness. The rate of apoptosis increased double than before. The biological characteristics of tumor xenograft model confirm with the primary breast cancer. The oncolytic reovirus can kill breast cancer in short time. (authors)

  9. Breast cancer with axillary lymph node involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaid, A.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Azoury, F.; Heymann, S.; Marsiglia, H.; Bourgier, C.; Belaid, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Pichenot, C.; Verstraet, R.; Marsiglia, H.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in western countries. There are one million new cases per year in the world which represents 22% of all female cancers, and more than 370.000 deaths due to breast cancer per year (14% of cancer mortality). More than half of breast cancers are associated with axillary nodal involvement. Post-operative radiation therapy (XRT) is a crucial part of locoregional treatment in axillary nodal involvement breast cancer owing to a 15-years risk reduction of locoregional recurrence of 70% and to a 5.4% risk reduction of specific mortality. In 3D-conformal irradiation in such breast cancers, target volumes are chest wall when mastectomy was performed or breast and boost of tumor bed in case of breast conservative surgery, and supra-clavicular and/or axillary and/or internal mammary node areas. The main organs at risk are ipsilateral lung, heart and brachial plexus. The aim of this article is to describe epidemiologic, radio anatomic and prognostic features of axillary nodal involvement breast cancer and to propose guidelines for 3D-conformal treatment planning in locally advanced breast cancers. This review is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  10. Metformin inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis and adduct formation in human breast cells by inhibiting the cytochrome P4501A1/aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maayah, Zaid H. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ghebeh, Hazem [Stem Cell & Tissue Re-Engineering, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Alhaider, Abdulqader A. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Camel Biomedical Research Unit, College of Pharmacy and Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); El-Kadi, Ayman O.S. [Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Denison, Michael S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Korashy, Hesham M., E-mail: hkorashy@ksu.edu.sa [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-04-15

    Recent studies have established that metformin (MET), an oral anti-diabetic drug, possesses antioxidant activity and is effective against different types of cancer in several carcinogen-induced animal models and cell lines. However, whether MET can protect against breast cancer has not been reported before. Therefore, the overall objectives of the present study are to elucidate the potential chemopreventive effect of MET in non-cancerous human breast MCF10A cells and explore the underlying mechanism involved, specifically the role of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Transformation of the MCF10A cells into initiated breast cancer cells with DNA adduct formation was conducted using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), an AhR ligand. The chemopreventive effect of MET against DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was evidenced by the capability of MET to restore the induction of the mRNA levels of basic excision repair genes, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1), and the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Interestingly, the inhibition of DMBA-induced DNA adduct formation was associated with proportional decrease in CYP1A1 and in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene expression. Mechanistically, the involvements of AhR and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the MET-mediated inhibition of DMBA-induced CYP1A1 and NQO1 gene expression were evidenced by the ability of MET to inhibit DMBA-induced xenobiotic responsive element and antioxidant responsive element luciferase reporter gene expression which suggests an AhR- and Nrf2-dependent transcriptional control. However, the inability of MET to bind to AhR suggests that MET is not an AhR ligand. In conclusion, the present work shows a strong evidence that MET inhibits the DMBA-mediated carcinogenicity and adduct formation by inhibiting the expression of CYP1A1 through an AhR ligand-independent mechanism

  11. Metformin inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis and adduct formation in human breast cells by inhibiting the cytochrome P4501A1/aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayah, Zaid H.; Ghebeh, Hazem; Alhaider, Abdulqader A.; El-Kadi, Ayman O.S.; Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Denison, Michael S.; Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad; Korashy, Hesham M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have established that metformin (MET), an oral anti-diabetic drug, possesses antioxidant activity and is effective against different types of cancer in several carcinogen-induced animal models and cell lines. However, whether MET can protect against breast cancer has not been reported before. Therefore, the overall objectives of the present study are to elucidate the potential chemopreventive effect of MET in non-cancerous human breast MCF10A cells and explore the underlying mechanism involved, specifically the role of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Transformation of the MCF10A cells into initiated breast cancer cells with DNA adduct formation was conducted using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), an AhR ligand. The chemopreventive effect of MET against DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was evidenced by the capability of MET to restore the induction of the mRNA levels of basic excision repair genes, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1), and the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Interestingly, the inhibition of DMBA-induced DNA adduct formation was associated with proportional decrease in CYP1A1 and in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene expression. Mechanistically, the involvements of AhR and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the MET-mediated inhibition of DMBA-induced CYP1A1 and NQO1 gene expression were evidenced by the ability of MET to inhibit DMBA-induced xenobiotic responsive element and antioxidant responsive element luciferase reporter gene expression which suggests an AhR- and Nrf2-dependent transcriptional control. However, the inability of MET to bind to AhR suggests that MET is not an AhR ligand. In conclusion, the present work shows a strong evidence that MET inhibits the DMBA-mediated carcinogenicity and adduct formation by inhibiting the expression of CYP1A1 through an AhR ligand-independent mechanism

  12. Breast cancer and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism

  13. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-06

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  14. Breast cancer screening in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, L S; Haynes, S G

    1996-01-01

    There is currently an epidemic of breast cancer in women 65 years of age and older. The purposes of this paper are to explore the breast cancer screening behaviors of older women and to identify some of the determinants of screening in these women. Data were analyzed from the 1987 National Health Interview Survey, a continuous nationwide household interview survey of the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population. As in other studies, the utilization of breast cancer screening by older women was less in older women than in younger women. This was true for both mammography and clinical breast examination. A number of determinants of screening in older women were identified here. Women with a usual source of care and/or no activity limitation, as well as high school graduates, were the ones most likely to have received a screening mammogram and/or a screening clinical breast exam during the past year. The failure of older women to receive adequate breast cancer screening is an important concern which should be reevaluated, given the breast cancer epidemic in this population. This study identified a number of determinants of breast cancer screening in older women. For the most part, these determinants point to the primary care physician as the key to breast cancer screening in these women. Therefore, the primary care physician must be informed of, and encouraged to follow, the recommendations for periodic breast cancer screening in older women.

  15. Review of theories on development of ovarian cancer. Leptin as a potential agent engaged in carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowska, A.

    2007-01-01

    include overexpression of apolipoprotein E, belonging to the group of apolipoproteins, and apolipoprotein J, the substance which binds leptin in the serum. Moreover, in recent years the expression of leptin and its receptor has been detected in ovarian cancers (not including mucinous cancers) and leptin has been found to stimulate the proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro. Considering the involvement of leptin in the processes linked to the development of ovarian cancer it may be suggested that leptin can be potentially involved in the carcinogenesis of ovarian cancer. (author)

  16. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rasskazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief overview of the main methods of breast cancer screening. Proven effectiveness of mammography as a screening method in reducing mortality from breast cancer, specified limits of the method. The main trend of increasing the effectiveness of screening is the transition to digital technologies. Properly organized screening with the active participation of the population reduces mortality from breast cancer by 30%.

  17. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    kinase inhibition on ERK activity in breast cancer cells, the role of the calpain proteolytic pathway in breast cancer-induced cachexia , and the...research training; breast cancer; fatty acids and prevention; nutrition and prevention; alternative prevention 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...growth. In in vivo experiments, mice were fed diets that were rich in either omega-3 (fish oil) or omega-6 (corn oil) fatty acids. Three weeks after

  18. Osthole inhibits bone metastasis of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chunyu; Sun, Zhenping; Guo, Baofeng; Ye, Yiyi; Han, Xianghui; Qin, Yuenong; Liu, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common sites for breast cancer metastasis, which greatly contributes to patient morbidity and mortality. Osthole, a major extract from Cnidium monnieri (L.), exhibits many biological and pharmacological activities, however, its potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of breast cancer bone metastases remain poorly understood. In this study, we set out to investigate whether osthole could inhibit breast cancer metastasis to bone in mice and clarified the potent...

  19. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    tyrosine kinases with an SH3, SH2 and catalytic domain, it lacks a native myristylation signal shared by most members of this class [14], [38]. The...therapeutics and consequently, improve clinical outcomes. We aim to identify novel drivers of breast oncogenesis. We hypothesize that a kinase gain-of...human mammary epithelial cells. A pBabe-Puro-Myr-Flag kinase open reading frame (ORF) library was screened in immortalized human mammary epithelial

  20. Breast cancer in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecka, Barbara; Litwiniuk, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) in young women is rare, affecting only 4-6% of women under the age of 40. Regardless, BC remains the most common malignancy among younger patients. Recently, a significant increase in BC rates has been observed among pre-menopausal subjects. Breast cancer in young women requires special attention due to its specific morphologic and prognostic characteristics and unique aspects, including fertility preservation and psychosocial issues (e.g. its impact on family life and career). Young women are more likely to have tumors with higher incidence of negative clinicopathologic features (higher histological grade, more lymph node positivity, lower estrogen receptor (ER) positivity, higher rates of Her2/neu overexpression). Also, they tend to be diagnosed at more advanced stages of the disease. That, in turn, contributes to less favorable prognosis as compared to older women. Young women are generally treated similarly to older patients. Surgical management includes mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery, followed by radiation therapy (younger women have higher local recurrence rates than older women, especially after breast-conserving therapy). Although the basics of chemotherapy are the same for patients of all ages, younger women have some special considerations. It is important to consider options for fertility preservation before starting systemic treatment. Patients should have access to genetic testing as their results may affect the choice of therapy. Younger women and their families should receive adequate psychological support and counselling.

  1. Breast cancer and human papillomavirus infection: No evidence of HPV etiology of breast cancer in Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Y Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two clinically relevant high-risk HPV (HR-HPV types 16 and 18 are etiologically associated with the development of cervical carcinoma and are also reported to be present in many other carcinomas in extra-genital organ sites. Presence of HPV has been reported in breast carcinoma which is the second most common cancer in India and is showing a fast rising trend in urban population. The two early genes E6 and E7 of HPV type 16 have been shown to immortalize breast epithelial cells in vitro, but the role of HPV infection in breast carcinogenesis is highly controversial. Present study has therefore been undertaken to analyze the prevalence of HPV infection in both breast cancer tissues and blood samples from a large number of Indian women with breast cancer from different geographic regions. Methods The presence of all mucosal HPVs and the most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 DNA was detected by two different PCR methods - (i conventional PCR assays using consensus primers (MY09/11, or GP5+/GP6+ or HPV16 E6/E7 primers and (ii highly sensitive Real-Time PCR. A total of 228 biopsies and corresponding 142 blood samples collected prospectively from 252 patients from four different regions of India with significant socio-cultural, ethnic and demographic variations were tested. Results All biopsies and blood samples of breast cancer patients tested by PCR methods did not show positivity for HPV DNA sequences in conventional PCRs either by MY09/11 or by GP5+/GP6+/HPV16 E6/E7 primers. Further testing of these samples by real time PCR also failed to detect HPV DNA sequences. Conclusions Lack of detection of HPV DNA either in the tumor or in the blood DNA of breast cancer patients by both conventional and real time PCR does not support a role of genital HPV in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in Indian women.

  2. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer and its Prognosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melbye, Mads

    1998-01-01

    ...: Reproductive factors and breast cancer risk Having started the process of working with these questions, we discovered a unique opportunity to differentiate the outcome variable of breast cancer...

  3. Prognostic factors of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Ortega, Jose Maria; Morales Wong, Mario Miguel; Lopez Cuevas, Zoraida; Diaz Valdez, Marilin

    2011-01-01

    The prognostic factors must to be differentiated of the predictive ones. A prognostic factor is any measurement used at moment of the surgery correlated with the free interval of disease or global survival in the absence of the systemic adjuvant treatment and as result is able to correlate with the natural history of the disease. In contrast, a predictive factor is any measurement associated with the response to a given treatment. Among the prognostic factors of the breast cancer are included the clinical, histological, biological, genetic and psychosocial factors. In present review of psychosocial prognostic factors has been demonstrated that the stress and the depression are negative prognostic factors in patients presenting with breast cancer. It is essential to remember that the assessment of just one prognostic parameter is a help but it is not useful to clinical and therapeutic management of the patient.(author)

  4. Virus-Targeted Therapeutic for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faller, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    .... Our approach initially involves investigation of EBV sequences in breast cancer cell lines and specimens, determination of whether treatment with Arginine Butyrate will induce the viral thymidine...

  5. Biopsychosocial Research Training in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antoni, Michael

    1998-01-01

    .... Three others successfully defended their Master's theses. Training throughout YR 4 was closely coordinated with ongoing ACS-funded and NCI-funded biopsychosocial breast cancer research projects...

  6. Pleiotrophin Signaling Through PTNR in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powers, Ciaron

    2001-01-01

    ... of intracellular signaling cascades. The pleiotrophin signaling pathway is known to be important in angiogenesis and breast cancer growth, but the exact mechanisms of pleiotrophin signaling remain undefined...

  7. Paclitaxel and doxorubicin in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, J; Boesgaard, M; Paaske, T

    1996-01-01

    For the past decades the anthracyclines have been regarded as among the most active drugs for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, the 5-year survival rate in patients with stage IV breast cancer continues to be below 20%, and new active drugs and drug combinations clearly must...... be explored. Paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) has been demonstrated to be highly effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer, including those with anthracycline-resistant breast cancer, a fact that has led to efforts to combine paclitaxel and anthracyclines...

  8. Adherence to Guidelines for Breast Surveillance in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Kathryn J; Sangaralingham, Lindsey; Freedman, Rachel A; Mougalian, Sarah; Neuman, Heather; Greenberg, Caprice; Jemal, Ahmedin; Duma, Narjust; Haddad, Tufia C; Lemaine, Valerie; Ghosh, Karthik; Hieken, Tina J; Hunt, Katie; Vachon, Celine; Gross, Cary; Shah, Nilay D

    2018-05-01

    Background: Guidelines recommend annual mammography after curative-intent treatment for breast cancer. The goal of this study was to assess contemporary patterns of breast imaging after breast cancer treatment. Methods: Administrative claims data were used to identify privately insured and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries with nonmetastatic breast cancer who had residual breast tissue (not bilateral mastectomy) after breast surgery between January 2005 and May 2015. We calculated the proportion of patients who had a mammogram, MRI, both, or neither during each of 5 subsequent 13-month periods. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics, healthcare use, and breast imaging in the first and fifth years after surgery. Results: A total of 27,212 patients were followed for a median of 2.9 years (interquartile range, 1.8-4.6) after definitive breast cancer surgery. In year 1, 78% were screened using mammography alone, 1% using MRI alone, and 8% using both tests; 13% did not undergo either. By year 5, the proportion of the remaining cohort (n=4,790) who had no breast imaging was 19%. Older age was associated with an increased likelihood of mammography and a decreased likelihood of MRI during the first and fifth years. Black race, mastectomy, chemotherapy, and no MRI at baseline were all associated with a decreased likelihood of both types of imaging. Conclusions: Even in an insured cohort, a substantial proportion of breast cancer survivors do not undergo annual surveillance breast imaging, particularly as time passes. Understanding factors associated with imaging in cancer survivors may help improve adherence to survivorship care guidelines. Copyright © 2018 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  9. Tissue redox activity as a hallmark of carcinogenesis: from early to terminal stages of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalova, Rumiana; Zhelev, Zhivko; Aoki, Ichio; Saga, Tsuneo

    2013-05-01

    The study aimed to clarify the dynamics of tissue redox activity (TRA) in cancer progression and assess the importance of this parameter for therapeutic strategies. The experiments were carried out on brain tissues of neuroblastoma-bearing, glioma-bearing, and healthy mice. TRA was visualized in vivo by nitroxide-enhanced MRI on anesthetized animals or in vitro by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy on isolated tissue specimens. Two biochemical parameters were analyzed in parallel: tissue total antioxidant capacity (TTAC) and plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). In the early stage of cancer, the brain tissues were characterized by a shorter-lived MRI signal than that from healthy brains (indicating a higher reducing activity for the nitroxide radical), which was accompanied by an enhancement of TTAC and MMP9 plasma levels. In the terminal stage of cancer, tissues in both hemispheres were characterized by a longer-lived MRI signal than in healthy brains (indicating a high-oxidative activity) that was accompanied by a decrease in TTAC and an increase in the MMP2/MMP9 plasma levels. Cancer progression also affected the redox potential of tissues distant from the primary tumor locus (liver and lung). Their oxidative status increased in both stages of cancer. The study shows that tissue redox balance is very sensitive to the progression of cancer and can be used as a diagnostic marker of carcinogenesis. The study also suggests that the noncancerous tissues of a cancer-bearing organism are susceptible to oxidative damage and should be considered a therapeutic target. ©2013 AACR.

  10. Genomic Instability and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    distinguish these possibilities. The possible function of human SWI5-MEI5 in meiosis also needs to be investigated. It remains to be determined whether the... human SWI5-MEI5 complex acts in meiosis and, if it does, whether it acts with DMC1, RAD51, or both. Considering that SWI5-MEI5 is the only human ...tumorigenesis. This has been clearly illustrated in familial breast cancer, since human genetic studies reveal that many genes involved in DNA damage response

  11. The Breast Cancer DNA Interactome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    an antisense orientation compared with the IGF1R gene, and it is expressed exclusively from the paternal allele, with the maternal allele being...orientation compared with the IGF1R gene, and it is expressed exclusively from the paternal allele, with the maternal allele being silenced...progression and metastasis is not yet fully understood. Our major goal has been to characterize physical interactions among selected breast cancer gene loci

  12. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  13. Role of Aspirin in Breast Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y; Holmes, Michelle D

    2017-07-01

    Chemotherapy and hormonal therapy have significantly decreased breast cancer mortality, although with considerable side effects and financial costs. In the USA, over three million women are living after a breast cancer diagnosis and are eager for new treatments that are low in toxicity and cost. Multiple observational studies have reported improved breast cancer survival with regular aspirin use. Furthermore, pooled data from five large randomized trials of aspirin for cardiovascular disease showed that subjects on aspirin had decreased risk of cancer mortality and decreased risk of metastatic cancer. Although the potential mechanism for aspirin preventing breast cancer is not known, possible pathways may involve platelets, inflammation, cyclooxygenase (COX) 2, hormones, or PI3 kinase. This review article summarizes the current epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence as well as possible underlying mechanisms that justify current phase III randomized trials of aspirin to improve breast cancer survival.

  14. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, Michael P.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  15. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, Michael P

    2003-12-10

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis.

  16. Tetrofosmin in metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghammer, P.; Obwegeser, R.; Ulm, M.; Wiltschke, C.; Kubista, E.; Sinzinger, H.; Zielinski, C.

    1997-01-01

    Tetrofosmin (1,2-bis[bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino]ethan) is currently under investigation for its tumor seeking properties, encouraged by the incidental finding of a malignant breast-lesion on myocardial scintigraphy in 1995 (Rambaldi et al, Clin Nucl Med 1995) using tetrofosmin. Recent reports have confirmed tetrofosmins role in detecting primary tumors in breast cancer. To investigate whether tetrofosmin significantly helps detect metastatic lesions in such patients we performed tetrofosmin scintigraphy in 21 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients and methods: Median age of patients was 61 years. In one patient the primary site was unknown. All patients had at least one distant metastasis. 550 MBq of 99m-Tc-tetrofosmin was administered ten minutes before imaging was begun. After obtaining a planar image, a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was done of every suspected distant lesion. CT-scans or MRI were used to confirm positive correlation with tetrofosmin scintigraphy. Results: Tetrofosmin scintigraphy correctly diagnosed metastatic disease in 71 % of patients with no false negative and two false positive results. In each of the two patients a mediastinal hot spot suggestive of malignancy was found, but none of those lesions could be proven using CT scans. Excluding patients with liver metastasis from the present analysis, 91 % of all metastasis would have been correctly diagnosed. The first patient in our department had a large metastasis in the upper mediastinum which could not be seen on regular chest films. In the patient in whom the primary site of cancer was unknown, tetrofosmin scintigraphy showed three consecutive nodules in the left mammary, gland in a coronary fashion. Magnetic resonance imaging then confirmed two single nodules of 0.8 cm in diameter. Conclusions: Evaluating 21 patients, the present study was performed to investigate tetrofosmins properties of detecting metastatic lesions in patients with breast cancer. A 91

  17. Computed radiography for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tatsuya; Muramatsu, Yukio

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possibility of using computed radiographic mammography in mass surveys of the breast, we have retrospectively examined 71 breast cancer lesions in 71 patients using computed radiographic and conventional non-screen mammographies and have carried out comparative studies on tumor detection rate and calcification. A 95.8% detection rate was obtained for the tumor image (n 71) using computed radiography (CR) and one of 93.0% using non-screen techniques. Three lesions remained undetected by either study. A 100% detection rate was obtained for calcification associated with cancer (n 33) from each method. No significant differences in either detection rate or calcification were seen between the two images. On the other hand, the ability to recognize tumor images (n 66) was as follows; CR superior to non-screen radiography in 53 lesions (80.3%), equal in eight lesions (12.1%) and inferior in five lesions (7.6%). For the calcification images (n 18), CR was superior to non-screen radiography in all 18 lesions. Obviously, CR gives better results than non-screen radiography. Furthermore, an adequate image can be obtained using CR even although the X-ray dosage is only a twentieth of that required for non-screen radiography. It can therefore be applied not only to mass surveys for breast cancer but also to routine clinical diagnoses. (author)

  18. Breast cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of Camellia Sinensis (green tea): an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Movahedi, Mino

    2017-02-01

    Camellia sinensis belongs to the plant family of Theaceae, native to East Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia, but naturalized in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to overview its anti-breast cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects. This review article is aimed to overview breast cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of Camellia sinensis (green tea). This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases. The initial search strategy identified around 108 references. In this study, 68 studies were accepted for further screening, and met all our inclusion criteria [in English, full text, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of Camellia sinensis and dated mainly from the year 1999 to 2016. The search terms were Camellia sinensis, chemopreventive, chemotherapeutic properties, pharmacological effects. The result of this study suggested that the catechin available in Camellia sinensis has properties which can prevent and treat breast cancer. It has also been shown to inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells and to block carcinogenesis. It was found that increased Camellia sinensis consumption may lower the risk of breast cancer. Camellia sinensis intake was shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer incidence. In addition, potential breast cancer chemopreventive effect of Camellia sinensis both in vivo and in vitro was highly confirmed. However, the evidence of low effect and no effect was observed. More clinical trial studies are needed to prove its anti-breast cancer activity decisively. Camellia sinensis is broadly utilized as a part of customary medication since antiquated time because of its cost adequacy, and fewer reaction properties. The studies demonstrated anti-breast cancer activity of Camellia sinensis and its component by adjusting cell signaling pathways such as angiogenesis, apoptosis, and transcription factor. Furthermore

  19. Evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in normal and breast tumor tissues and their link with breast cancer prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Daniela; Lemieux, Julie; Côté, Marc-André; Provencher, Louise; Laflamme, Christian; Barabé, Frédéric; Jacob, Simon; Michaud, Annick; Diorio, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    Amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene is associated with worse prognosis and decreased overall survival in breast cancer patients. The HER2 gene contains several polymorphisms; two of the best-characterized HER2 polymorphisms are Ile655Val and Ala1170Pro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between these two HER2 polymorphisms in normal breast and breast cancer tissues and known breast cancer prognostic factors in a retrospective cohort study of 73 women with non-metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. HER2 polymorphisms were assessed in breast cancer tissue and normal breast tissue using TaqMan assay. Ala1170Pro polymorphism in normal breast tissue was associated with age at diagnosis (p = 0.007), tumor size (p = 0.004) and lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.06). Similar significant associations in cancer tissues were observed. No association between the Ile655Val polymorphism and prognostic factors were observed. However, we found significant differences in the distribution of Ile655Val (p = 0.03) and Ala1170Pro (p = 0.01) genotypes between normal breast and breast tumor tissues. This study demonstrates that only the Ala1170Pro polymorphism is associated with prognostic factors in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Moreover, our results suggest that both HER2 polymorphisms could play a significant role in carcinogenesis in non-metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 polymorphisms predict circulating IGF levels but not breast cancer risk: findings from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpa V Patel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IGF-1 has been shown to promote proliferation of normal epithelial breast cells, and the IGF pathway has also been linked to mammary carcinogenesis in animal models. We comprehensively examined the association between common genetic variation in the IGF1, IGFBP1, and IGFBP3 genes in relation to circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels and breast cancer risk within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3. This analysis included 6,912 breast cancer cases and 8,891 matched controls (n = 6,410 for circulating IGF-I and 6,275 for circulating IGFBP-3 analyses comprised primarily of Caucasian women drawn from six large cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype patterns were characterized in the regions surrounding IGF1 and the genes coding for two of its binding proteins, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3. In total, thirty haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP were selected to provide high coverage of common haplotypes; the haplotype structure was defined across four haplotype blocks for IGF1 and three for IGFBP1 and IGFBP3. Specific IGF1 SNPs individually accounted for up to 5% change in circulating IGF-I levels and individual IGFBP3 SNPs were associated up to 12% change in circulating IGFBP-3 levels, but no associations were observed between these polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Logistic regression analyses found no associations between breast cancer and any htSNPs or haplotypes in IGF1, IGFBP1, or IGFBP3. No effect modification was observed in analyses stratified by menopausal status, family history of breast cancer, body mass index, or postmenopausal hormone therapy, or for analyses stratified by stage at diagnosis or hormone receptor status. In summary, the impact of genetic variation in IGF1 and IGFBP3 on circulating IGF levels does not appear to substantially influence breast cancer risk substantially among primarily Caucasian postmenopausal women.

  1. Automatically assessed volumetric breast density and breast cancer risk : The era of digital screening mammography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, J.O.P .

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females worldwide. As the burden of breast cancer is high, many countries have introduced a breast cancer screening program with the aim to find and treat breast cancers in an early stage. In the Netherlands, women between the ages of 50

  2. Long-term side effects of adjuvant breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast cancer accounts for one-third of all cancers in females and 24% of the patients are younger than 55 years of age. More than 10% all Dutch women will develop breast cancer and 70-80% of all breast cancer patients will survive over 5 years.

  3. Breast cancer literacy and health beliefs related to breast cancer screening among American Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Jun, Jung Sim; Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Kyoung Hag

    2018-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the health beliefs and literacy about breast cancer and their relationship with breast cancer screening among American Indian (AI) women. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and hierarchical logistic regression with data from a sample of 286 AI female adults residing in the Northern Plains, we found that greater awareness of breast cancer screening was linked to breast cancer screening practices. However, perceived barriers, one of the HBM constructs, prevented such screening practices. This study suggested that culturally relevant HBM factors should be targeted when developing culturally sensitive breast cancer prevention efforts.

  4. Inflence of coffee and its components on breast cancer: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Mishra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Amongst females, breast cancer is one of the major culprits for cancer death. Consequently, many scientists have focused their researches to delineate the novel alternative strategies to cure or to reduce the outgrowth of this disease. Amongst the beverages, coffee is widely available and one of the most popular non-alcoholic drink worldwide. Due to the widespread usage of coffee in adults, scientists are trying to delineate its beneficial and harmful influences on human health and diseases. Evidences from an amount of researches have outlined the possible role of coffee and its components as chemoprotective agents against specific carcinogens as well as suppressors for tumorigenesis. Furthermore, some studies tried to elucidate the relationship amid coffee intake and suppression of carcinogenesis in breast tissues. The present review is an effort to highlight the consequence attributable to the intake of coffee and its key chemical components (caffeine, caffeic acid, kahweol and cafestol upon breast cancer developmental process.

  5. Disturbance of Mammary UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Represses Estrogen Metabolism and Exacerbates Experimental Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xueyan; Zheng, Ziqiang; Xu, Chang; Wang, Juan; Min, Mengjun; Zhao, Yun; Wang, Xi; Gong, Yinhan; Yin, Jiale; Guo, Meng; Guo, Dong; Zheng, Junnian; Zhang, Bei; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2017-08-01

    The progression of breast cancer is closely related to the levels of estrogens within the body. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) is an important class of phase II metabolizing enzymes, playing a pivotal role in detoxifying steroid hormone. In the present study, we aim at uncovering the potential dysregulation pattern of UGT and its role in estrogen metabolism and in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 100 mg/kg dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) to induce breast cancer. Our results showed that the expression and activity of UGT in mammary tissues were downregulated significantly in DMBA rats. Consistent with this, levels of estradiol, 4-hydroxylated estradiol, and 2-hydroxylated estradiol were increased in both mammary tissues and serum, supporting a notable accumulation of toxic estrogen species in the target tissue of breast cancer. In addition, we also observed the decreased cell migration, cell proliferation, and DNA damage in UGT-transfected MCF-7 cells, suggesting a protective role of UGT against estrogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Taken together, these results indicated that accumulation of estrogens induced by UGT deficiency is a critical factor to induce the development of breast cancer. UGT contributes to estrogen elimination, and its glucuronidation capacity influences the estrogen signaling pathway and the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Observed and Predicted Risk of Breast Cancer Death in Randomized Trials on Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autier, Philippe; Boniol, Mathieu; Smans, Michel; Sullivan, Richard; Boyle, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The role of breast screening in breast cancer mortality declines is debated. Screening impacts cancer mortality through decreasing the number of advanced cancers with poor diagnosis, while cancer treatment works through decreasing the case-fatality rate. Hence, reductions in cancer death rates thanks to screening should directly reflect reductions in advanced cancer rates. We verified whether in breast screening trials, the observed reductions in the risk of breast cancer death could be predicted from reductions of advanced breast cancer rates. The Greater New York Health Insurance Plan trial (HIP) is the only breast screening trial that reported stage-specific cancer fatality for the screening and for the control group separately. The Swedish Two-County trial (TCT)) reported size-specific fatalities for cancer patients in both screening and control groups. We computed predicted numbers of breast cancer deaths, from which we calculated predicted relative risks (RR) and (95% confidence intervals). The Age trial in England performed its own calculations of predicted relative risk. The observed and predicted RR of breast cancer death were 0.72 (0.56-0.94) and 0.98 (0.77-1.24) in the HIP trial, and 0.79 (0.78-1.01) and 0.90 (0.80-1.01) in the Age trial. In the TCT, the observed RR was 0.73 (0.62-0.87), while the predicted RR was 0.89 (0.75-1.05) if overdiagnosis was assumed to be negligible and 0.83 (0.70-0.97) if extra cancers were excluded. In breast screening trials, factors other than screening have contributed to reductions in the risk of breast cancer death most probably by reducing the fatality of advanced cancers in screening groups. These factors were the better management of breast cancer patients and the underreporting of breast cancer as the underlying cause of death. Breast screening trials should publish stage-specific fatalities observed in each group.

  7. Manganese superoxide dismutase and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Christensen, Mariann; Lash, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inhibits oxidative damage and cancer therapy effectiveness. A polymorphism in its encoding gene (SOD2: Val16Ala rs4880) may confer poorer breast cancer survival, but data are inconsistent. We examined the association of SOD2 genotype and breast......-metastatic breast cancer from 1990-2001, received adjuvant Cyclo, and were registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. We identified 118 patients with BCR and 213 matched breast cancer controls. We genotyped SOD2 and used conditional logistic regression to compute the odds ratio (OR) and associated 95...... cancer recurrence (BCR) among patients treated with cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy (Cyclo). We compared our findings with published studies using meta-analyses. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of BCR among women in Jutland, Denmark. Subjects were diagnosed with non...

  8. Breast cancer in women using digoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggar, Robert J; Andersen, Louise Elisabeth; Kroman, Niels

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Digoxin use is associated with increased incidence of breast and uterus cancers. We postulated that digoxin use might affect tumor characteristics and increase relapse risk in women with breast cancer. METHODS: Incident breast cancer cases in Danish women (n = 49,312; 1995 to 2008...... in Cox regression models. RESULTS: At diagnosis, tumors in digoxin users were more likely ER+ (85.4% vs. 78.6%: P = 0.002) and have grade 1 ductal histology (37.2% vs. 25.7%; P = 0.004), compared to non-users. 45 relapses occurred in women already using digoxin at breast cancer diagnosis (1,487 person...... cancers arising in digoxin-using women had better prognostic features. After adjustment for markers, overall breast cancer relapse risk in digoxin users was not increased significantly, although recurrence hazards for ER+ tumors were higher in the first year following diagnosis....

  9. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition......, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD......51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients...

  10. Predictors of Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer Surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swenson, Karen K

    2006-01-01

    .... Cases will be identified in the physical therapy or cancer centers. Controls will be identified using the oncology registry and include patients with breast cancer surgery who have not developed lymphedema...

  11. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  12. Estimating the Risks of Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Carolyn; Correa, Candace; Duane, Frances K

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy reduces the absolute risk of breast cancer mortality by a few percentage points in suitable women but can cause a second cancer or heart disease decades later. We estimated the absolute long-term risks of modern breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods First, a systematic literature...... review was performed of lung and heart doses in breast cancer regimens published during 2010 to 2015. Second, individual patient data meta-analyses of 40,781 women randomly assigned to breast cancer radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy in 75 trials yielded rate ratios (RRs) for second primary cancers...... and cause-specific mortality and excess RRs (ERRs) per Gy for incident lung cancer and cardiac mortality. Smoking status was unavailable. Third, the lung or heart ERRs per Gy in the trials and the 2010 to 2015 doses were combined and applied to current smoker and nonsmoker lung cancer and cardiac mortality...

  13. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2003-01-01

    ... cancer and matched healthy controls. The aims of the project are: (1) to quantify parameters of biological reactivity to a behavioral stress paradigm in women with and without breast cancer; (2) To examine...

  14. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2001-01-01

    ... cancer and matched healthy controls. The aims of the project are: (1) To quantify parameters of biological reactivity to a behavioral stress paradigm in women with and without breast cancer; (2...

  15. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2005-01-01

    ... cancer and matched healthy controls. The aims of the project are: (1) To quantify parameters of biological reactivity to a behavioral stress paradigm in women with and without breast cancer; (2...

  16. Breast Cancer Screening, Mammography, and Other Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorica, James V

    2016-12-01

    This article is an overview of the modalities available for breast cancer screening. The modalities discussed include digital mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, breast ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical breast examination. There is a review of pertinent randomized controlled trials, studies and meta-analyses which contributed to the evolution of screening guidelines. Ultimately, 5 major medical organizations formulated the current screening guidelines in the United States. The lack of consensus in these guidelines represents an ongoing controversy about the optimal timing and method for breast cancer screening in women. For mammography screening, the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon is explained which corresponds with recommended clinical management. The presentation and discussion of the data in this article are designed to help the clinician individualize breast cancer screening for each patient.

  17. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor E. R. Harris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT for early stage breast cancer is a technique for partial breast irradiation. There are several technologies in clinical use to perform breast IORT. Regardless of technique, IORT generally refers to the delivery of a single dose of radiation to the periphery of the tumor bed in the immediate intraoperative time frame, although some protocols have performed IORT as a second procedure. There are two large prospective randomized trials establishing the safety and efficacy of breast IORT in early stage breast cancer patients with sufficient follow-up time on thousands of women. The advantages of IORT for partial breast irradiation include: direct visualization of the target tissue ensuring treatment of the high-risk tissue and eliminating the risk of marginal miss; the use of a single dose coordinated with the necessary surgical excision thereby reducing omission of radiation and the selection of mastectomy for women without access to a radiotherapy facility or unable to undergo several weeks of daily radiation; favorable toxicity profiles; patient convenience and cost savings; radiobiological and tumor microenvironment conditions which lead to enhanced tumor control. The main disadvantage of IORT is the lack of final pathologic information on the tumor size, histology, margins, and nodal status. When unexpected findings on final pathology such as positive margins or positive sentinel nodes predict a higher risk of local or regional recurrence, additional whole breast radiation may be indicated, thereby reducing some of the convenience and low-toxicity advantages of sole IORT. However, IORT as a tumor bed boost has also been studied and appears to be safe with acceptable toxicity. IORT has potential efficacy advantages related to overall survival related to reduced cardiopulmonary radiation doses. It may also be very useful in specific situations, such as prior to oncoplastic reconstruction to improve accuracy of

  18. [Breast tomosynthesis: a new tool for diagnosing breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Miravete, P; Etxano, J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most common malignant tumor in women in occidental countries. Mammography is currently the technique of choice for screening programs; however, although it has been widely validated, mammography has its limitations, especially in dense breasts. Breast tomosynthesis is a revolutionary advance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It makes it possible to define lesions that are occult in the glandular tissue and therefore to detect breast tumors that are impossible to see on conventional mammograms. In considering the combined use of mammography and tomosynthesis, many factors must be taken into account apart from cancer detection; these include additional radiation, the recall rate, and the time necessary to carry out and interpret the two tests. In this article, we review the technical principles of tomosynthesis, it main uses, and the future perspective for this imaging technique. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Breast Cancer Fatalism on Breast Cancer Awareness Among Turkish Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Hulya Kulakci; Ayyildiz, Tulay Kuzlu; Veren, Funda; Topan, Aysel Kose

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of breast cancer fatalism and other factors on breast cancer awareness among Turkish women. This cross-sectional and comparative descriptive study was conducted with 894 women. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Powe Fatalism Inventory and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale. Seriousness, health motivation, BSE benefits and BSE self-efficacy perceptions of the women were moderate, and susceptibility and BSE barriers perceptions were low. It was determined that awareness of breast cancer of the women was affected by breast cancer fatalism, age, education level, employment status, marital status, family type, economic status, social assurance, menopause status, family history of cancer, family history of breast cancer, knowledge on BSE, source of information on BSE, performing of BSE, frequency of BSE performing, having a problem with breast, having a breast examination in hospital, feeling during breast examination by healthcare professional, sex of healthcare professional for breast examination and their health beliefs (p breast cancer of the women was affected by breast cancer fatalism. In providing breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors, it is recommended to evaluate fatalism perceptions and health beliefs of the women and to arrange educational programs for this purpose.

  20. Testosterone and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, R; Dimitrakakis, C

    2015-11-01

    Testosterone (T) is the most abundant biologically active hormone in women. Androgen receptors (AR) are located throughout the body including the breast where T decreases tissue proliferation. However, T can be aromatized to estradiol (E2), which increases proliferation and hence, breast cancer (BCA) risk. Increased aromatase expression and an imbalance in the ratio of stimulatory estrogens to protective androgens impacts breast homeostasis. Recent clinical data supports a role for T in BCA prevention. Women with symptoms of hormone deficiency treated with pharmacological doses of T alone or in combination with anastrozole (A), delivered by subcutaneous implants, had a reduced incidence of BCA. In addition, T combined with A effectively treated symptoms of hormone deficiency in BCA survivors and was not associated with recurrent disease. Most notably, T+A implants placed in breast tissue surrounding malignant tumors significantly reduced BCA tumor size, further supporting T direct antiproliferative, protective and therapeutic effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression Patterns of Cancer Stem Cell Markers During Specific Celecoxib Therapy in Multistep Rat Colon Carcinogenesis Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Elsayed I; Hegazi, Mona M; Kang, Jin Seok; Helmy, Hager M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) during chemicallyinduced rat multi-step colon carcinogenesis with or without the treatment with a specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor drug (celecoxib). Two experiments were performed, the first, a short term 12 week colon carcinogenesis bioassay in which only surrogate markers for colon cancer, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) lesions, were formed. The other experiment was a medium term colon cancer rat assay in which tumors had developed after 32 weeks. Treatment with celecoxib lowered the numbers of ACF, as well as the tumor volumes and multiplicities after 32 weeks. Immunohistochemical proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes LI (%) were downregulated after treatment by celecoxib. Also different cell surface antigens known to associate with CSCs such as the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), CD44 and CD133 were compared between the two experiments and showed differential expression patterns depending on the stage of carcinogenesis and treatment with celecoxib. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the numbers of CD133 cells were increased in the colonic epithelium after 12 weeks while those of CD44 but not CD133 cells were increased after 32 weeks. Moreover, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity levels in the colonic epithelium (a known CSC marker) detected by ELISA assay were found down-regulated after 12 weeks, but were up-regulated after 32 weeks. The data have also shown that the protective effect of celecoxib on these specific markers and populations of CSCs and on other molecular processes such as apoptosis targeted by this drug may vary depending on the genetic and phenotypic stages of carcinogenesis. Therefore, uncovering these distinction roles of CSCs during different phases of carcinogenesis and during specific treatment could be useful for targeted therapy.

  2. HSPC159 promotes proliferation and metastasis via inducing EMT and activating PI3K/Akt pathway in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Mengxue; Zhang, Liying; Ding, Xiaodi; Li, Wentong; Lu, Shijun

    2018-05-08

    HSPC159 is a novel human galectin-related protein and has been shown to involved in the carcinogenesis. Little is known about HSPC159 expression and function in breast cancer. Here we showed that HSPC159 was aberrantly expressed in both breast cancer cell lines and tumor tissues and that its expression was associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Using gain- and loss-of-function methods we found that HSPC159 enhanced breast cancer cells proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, HSPC159 was found to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and F-actin polymerization process of breast cancer cells. Moreover, HSPC159 promoted proliferation, migration and invasion through activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in breast cancer. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that HSPC159 contributed to breast cancer progression via PI3K/Akt pathway and might serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs enhance metastatic properties of breast cancer cells by activating Rho-associated kinase (ROCK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a family of structurally related chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Numerous studies have documented a wide spectrum of biological effects of PCBs on human health, such as immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity, and carcinogenesis. The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo, animal and epidemiologic studies. A number of investigations indicated that higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera correlated to breast cancer risk, and PCBs might be implicated in advancing breast cancer progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, we for the first time report that PCBs greatly promote the ROCK activity and therefore increase cell motility for both non-metastatic and metastatic human breast cancer cells in vitro. In the in vivo study, PCBs significantly advance disease progression, leading to enhanced capability of metastatic breast cancer cells to metastasize to bone, lung and liver. Additionally, PCBs robustly induce the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in breast cancer cells; ROS mechanistically elevate ROCK activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PCBs enhance the metastatic propensity of breast cancer cells by activating the ROCK signaling, which is dependent on ROS induced by PCBs. Inhibition of ROCK may stand for a unique way to restrain metastases in breast cancer upon PCB exposure.

  4. Risk determination and prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Anthony; Anderson, Annie S; Clarke, Robert B; Duffy, Stephen W; Evans, D Gareth; Garcia-Closas, Montserat; Gescher, Andy J; Key, Timothy J; Saxton, John M; Harvie, Michelle N

    2014-09-28

    Breast cancer is an increasing public health problem. Substantial advances have been made in the treatment of breast cancer, but the introduction of methods to predict women at elevated risk and prevent the disease has been less successful. Here, we summarize recent data on newer approaches to risk prediction, available approaches to prevention, how new approaches may be made, and the difficult problem of using what we already know to prevent breast cancer in populations. During 2012, the Breast Cancer Campaign facilitated a series of workshops, each covering a specialty area of breast cancer to identify gaps in our knowledge. The risk-and-prevention panel involved in this exercise was asked to expand and update its report and review recent relevant peer-reviewed literature. The enlarged position paper presented here highlights the key gaps in risk-and-prevention research that were identified, together with recommendations for action. The panel estimated from the relevant literature that potentially 50% of breast cancer could be prevented in the subgroup of women at high and moderate risk of breast cancer by using current chemoprevention (tamoxifen, raloxifene, exemestane, and anastrozole) and that, in all women, lifestyle measures, including weight control, exercise, and moderating alcohol intake, could reduce breast cancer risk by about 30%. Risk may be estimated by standard models potentially with the addition of, for example, mammographic density and appropriate single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This review expands on four areas: (a) the prediction of breast cancer risk, (b) the evidence for the effectiveness of preventive therapy and lifestyle approaches to prevention, (c) how understanding the biology of the breast may lead to new targets for prevention, and (d) a summary of published guidelines for preventive approaches and measures required for their implementation. We hope that efforts to fill these and other gaps will lead to considerable advances in our

  5. Patient-initiated breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilcote, W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the results of a breast cancer screening program sponsored by organizations at workplace or community locations. A comprehensive mobile breast cancer screening program, including education, breast physical examination, and mammography, was provided to 89 local organizations at $50.00 per examination over an 18-month period. The examination was patient initiated, following the ACS screening guidelines. Estimates of eligible women were provided by each organization. A total of 5,030 women at 89 organizations were screened for breast cancer. Approximately 25,727 women were eligible

  6. Exploring the breast cancer patient journey: do breast cancer survivors need menopause management support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanna, Nuttan; Buijs, Helene; Pitkin, Joan

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer survivors can be expected to suffer from menopause symptoms with estrogen deprivation due to cancer treatments, in addition to natural menopause-related estrogen loss. To gain an understanding of what support breast cancer patients have when they suffer from menopausal symptoms, and utilize findings to further inform National Health Service (NHS) care provision for breast cancer survivors. Qualitative study with focus group sessions targeting Caucasian and Asian women with breast cancer. Patient stories, with women describing their breast cancer journey and speaking about support received for any menopausal symptoms. Thematic data analysis of transcription. Breast cancer patients were not sure if they had menopausal symptoms or whether this was due to their breast cancer condition or treatment. Patients had an attitude of acceptance of menopausal symptoms and reported trying to cope with these by themselves. This research identifies a need for more information that is culturally sensitive on managing menopause symptoms, both as side-effects of breast cancer treatments as well as for affect on quality of life during the survivorship phase. Our work also gives insight into cultural remedies used for hot flushes by Asian patients, which they consider as 'cooling' foods. Breast cancer patients want to know whether side-effects of cancer treatment persist long term and how these can be managed. There is a need for improved patient support within any new NHS service models that are developed along breast cancer patient pathways, and inclusion of personalized advice for menopause symptoms.

  7. Cutaneous Silicone Granuloma Mimicking Breast Cancer after Ruptured Breast Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous manifestations due to migration of silicone from ruptured implants are rare. Migrated silicone with cutaneous involvement has been found in the chest wall, abdominal wall, and lower extremities. We describe a case of cutaneous silicone granuloma in the breast exhibiting unusual growth mimicking breast cancer after a ruptured implant.

  8. A new look at breast density and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haars, G.

    2008-01-01

    Breast density, as visible on mammograms, comprises connective and epithelial tissue and can be seen to represent the glandular target tissue for breast cancer, whereas the non-dense tissue mainly comprises fat. High percentages of density are established to be one of the strongest risk factors of

  9. The hidden sentinel node in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, P. J.; van Sandick, J. W.; Nieweg, O. E.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Rutgers, E. J. T.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Kroon, B. B. R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the occurrence of non-visualisation during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification in breast cancer. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 495 clinically node-negative breast cancer patients (501 sentinel node procedures)

  10. Braquitherapy at breast cancer - preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra e Oliveira, V.; Lima, G.R. de; Libonati, S.; Morales, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty - two cases of cancer of the breast, treated by radiation therapy (cesium 137 , cobalt 60 , electrons, iridium 192 , radium 226 , gold 198 ) are reported. The techniques are described and comparative comments about radiation and surgery for breast cancer therapy are made. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. The conservative treatment of the breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souhami, L.

    1982-01-01

    Despite major achievements in the medical field, the survival rate of patients with breast cancer has not changed over the last 50 years. Certain treatments once taken as definitive are now being reviewed. The therapeutic evolution of breast cancer is studied and emphasis is given to new treatment modalities, particularly the conservative ones. (Author) [pt

  12. Bringing Breast Cancer Technologies to Market | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR research is recognized in novel competition to encourage the commercialization of breast cancer inventions. Editor’s note: This article was originally published in CCR Connections (Volume 8, No. 1). The Breast Cancer Startup Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition, and was one of three finalists recognized by HHS Secretary Sylvia

  13. Partial axillary dissection in early breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarek Abdel Halim El-Fayoumi

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Partial axillary dissection in early breast cancer. Tarek Abdel Halim El-Fayoumi *. Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt. Received 16 October 2012; accepted 7 January 2013. Available online 7 March 2013. KEYWORDS. Breast cancer;. Axillary lymph nodes.

  14. Spindle Cell Metaplastic Breast Cancer: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Ozgur Karakas

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Spindle cell metaplastic breast cancer must be considered in differential diagnosis of breast cancers, and preoperative immunohistochemical examination, including cytokeratin and vimentin, must be added to pathological examination in intervening cases. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(4.000: 259-262

  15. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  16. Breast Cancer Types: What Your Type Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B breast cancers are likely to benefit from chemotherapy and may benefit from hormone therapy and treatment targeted to HER2. ... HER2 positive. HER2 breast cancers are likely to benefit from chemotherapy and treatment targeted to HER2. Group 4 (basal- ...

  17. Breast Cancer In Pregnancy: Management Approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reflecting the more advanced stage of the disease at diagnosis. An approach to the management of breast cancer in pregnancy is presented by a case illustration and a review of literature. KEY WORDS: Breast Cancer, ... function tests, haemogram and ultra— sound. She delivered a live female baby weighing 2.8 kilogram's ...

  18. Management of pregnancy associated breast cancer | Ohanaka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The peak age incidence for breast cancer in developing countries is 35-45 years, which is part of the reproductive years of our women. As women defer childbearing on account of education and careers, the incidence of pregnancy associated breast cancer is expected to increase. Aim: This study presents 4 ...

  19. Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-29

    Sep 29, 2017 ... 81.2% and 64% observed in a group of Malaysian [19] and Iranian. [20] women respectively. ... 95% among female university students in Ghana [22]. The lower ..... International Journal of Breast Cancer. 2013; 814395:6.

  20. BREAST RECONSTRUCTIONS AFTER BREAST CANCER TREATING

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Vrabič

    2018-01-01

    Background. Breasts are an important symbol of physical beauty, feminity, mothering and sexual desire through the entire history of mankind. Lost of the whole or part of the breast is functional and aesthetic disturbance for woman. It is understandable, that the woman, who is concerned over breast loss, is as appropriate as another person´s concern over the loss of a limb or other body part. Before the 1960, breast reconstruction was considered as a dangerous procedure and it was almost prohi...

  1. Intestinal helminth infection drives carcinogenesis in colitis-associated colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pastille

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, strongly associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer development. Parasitic infections caused by helminths have been shown to modulate the host's immune response by releasing immunomodulatory molecules and inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs. This immunosuppressive state provoked in the host has been considered as a novel and promising approach to treat IBD patients and alleviate acute intestinal inflammation. On the contrary, specific parasite infections are well known to be directly linked to carcinogenesis. Whether a helminth infection interferes with the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC is not yet known. In the present study, we demonstrate that the treatment of mice with the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus at the onset of tumor progression in a mouse model of CAC does not alter tumor growth and distribution. In contrast, H. polygyrus infection in the early inflammatory phase of CAC strengthens the inflammatory response and significantly boosts tumor development. Here, H. polygyrus infection was accompanied by long-lasting alterations in the colonic immune cell compartment, with reduced frequencies of colonic CD8+ effector T cells. Moreover, H. polygyrus infection in the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS mediated colitis significantly exacerbates intestinal inflammation by amplifying the release of colonic IL-6 and CXCL1. Thus, our findings indicate that the therapeutic application of helminths during CAC might have tumor-promoting effects and therefore should be well-considered.

  2. Breast cancer detection using time reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Sajjadieh, Mohammad Hossein

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer among women. Mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have certain limitations in detecting breast cancer, especially during its early stage of development. A number of studies have shown that microwave breast cancer detection has potential to become a successful clinical complement to the conventional X-ray mammography. Microwave breast imaging is performed by illuminating the breast tissues with an electromagnetic waveform and recording its reflections (backscatters) emanating from variations in the normal breast tissues and tumour cells, if present, using an antenna array. These backscatters, referred to as the overall (tumour and clutter) response, are processed to estimate the tumour response, which is applied as input to array imaging algorithms used to estimate the location of the tumour. Due to changes in the breast profile over time, the commonly utilized background subtraction procedures used to estimate the target (tumour) response in array processing are impractical for breast cancer detection. The thesis proposes a new tumour estimation algorithm based on a combination of the data adaptive filter with the envelope detection filter (DAF/EDF), which collectively do not require a training step. After establishing the superiority of the DAF/EDF based approach, the thesis shows that the time reversal (TR) array imaging algorithms outperform their conventional conterparts in detecting and localizing tumour cells in breast tissues at SNRs ranging from 15 to 30dB.

  3. [Diagnostic imaging of breast cancer : An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, M

    2016-10-01

    Advances in imaging of the female breast have substantially influenced the diagnosis and probably also the therapy and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. This article gives an overview of the most important imaging modalities in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Digital mammography is considered to be the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis can increase the diagnostic accuracy of mammography and is used for the assessment of equivocal or suspicious mammography findings. Other modalities, such as ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play an important role in the diagnostics, staging and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a rapid and minimally invasive method for the histological verification of breast cancer. New breast imaging modalities, such as contrast-enhanced spectral mammography, diffusion-weighted MRI and MR spectroscopy can possibly further improve breast cancer diagnostics; however, further studies are necessary to prove the advantages of these methods so that they cannot yet be recommended for routine clinical use.

  4. Body mass index and breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qi; Burgess, Stephen; Turman, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival...... from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between...... the BMI genetic score and breast cancer survival was analysed by Cox regression for each study separately. Study-specific hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: BMI genetic score was found to be associated with reduced breast cancer-specific survival for estrogen receptor (ER...

  5. FGF receptor genes and breast cancer susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, D; Pineda, S; Michailidou, K

    2014-01-01

    Background:Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying...... genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.Methods:Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry......, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression.Results:Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk...

  6. T cell recognition of breast cancer antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nadia Viborg; Andersen, Sofie Ramskov; Andersen, Rikke Sick

    Recent studies are encouraging research of breast cancer immunogenicity to evaluate the applicability ofimmunotherapy as a treatment strategy. The epitope landscape in breast cancer is minimally described, thus it is necessary to identify T cell targets to develop immune mediated therapies.......This project investigates four proteins commonly upregulated in breast cancer and thus probable tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Aromatase, prolactin, NEK3, and PIAS3 contribute to increase growth, survival, and motility of malignant cells. Aspiring to uncover novel epitopes for cytotoxic T cells, a reverse...... recognition utilizing DNA barcode labeled MHC multimers to screen peripheral blood lymphocytes from breast cancer patients and healthy donor samples. Signif-icantly more TAA specific T cell responses were detected in breast cancer patients than healthy donors for both HLA-A*0201 (P

  7. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...... excluded a biased trial and included 600,000 women in the analyses. Three trials with adequate randomisation did not show a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality at 13 years (relative risk (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 1.02); four trials with suboptimal randomisation showed...... a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality with an RR of 0.75 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.83). The RR for all seven trials combined was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.87). We found that breast cancer mortality was an unreliable outcome that was biased in favour of screening, mainly because of differential...

  8. Plasma carotenoids and risk of breast cancer over 20 y of follow-up123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaomei; Rosner, Bernard; Tamimi, Rulla M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Hankinson, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence suggests that carotenoids, which are micronutrients in fruit and vegetables, reduce breast cancer risk. Whether carotenoids are important early or late in carcinogenesis is unclear, and limited analyses have been conducted by breast tumor subtypes. Objectives: We sought to examine issues of the timing of carotenoid exposure as well as associations by breast tumor subtypes. Design: We conducted a nested case-control study of plasma carotenoids measured by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and breast cancer risk in the Nurses’ Health Study. In 1989–1990, 32,826 women donated blood samples; in 2000–2002, 18,743 of these women contributed a second blood sample. Between the first blood collection and June 2010, 2188 breast cancer cases were diagnosed (579 cases were diagnosed after the second collection) and matched with control subjects. RRs and 95% CIs were calculated by using conditional logistic regression adjusted for several breast cancer risk factors. Results: Higher concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, and total carotenoids were associated with 18–28% statistically significantly lower risks of breast cancer (e.g., β-carotene top compared with bottom quintile RR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.88; P-trend carotenoids measured ≥10 y before diagnosis (top compared with bottom quintile RR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.95; P-trend = 0.01) as well as those Carotenoid concentrations were strongly inversely associated with breast cancer recurrence and death (e.g., β-carotene top compared with bottom quintile RR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.51; P-trend carotenoids were at reduced breast cancer risk particularly for more aggressive and ultimately fatal disease. PMID:25877493

  9. Plasma carotenoids and risk of breast cancer over 20 y of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, A Heather; Liao, Xiaomei; Rosner, Bernard; Tamimi, Rulla M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Hankinson, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that carotenoids, which are micronutrients in fruit and vegetables, reduce breast cancer risk. Whether carotenoids are important early or late in carcinogenesis is unclear, and limited analyses have been conducted by breast tumor subtypes. We sought to examine issues of the timing of carotenoid exposure as well as associations by breast tumor subtypes. We conducted a nested case-control study of plasma carotenoids measured by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study. In 1989-1990, 32,826 women donated blood samples; in 2000-2002, 18,743 of these women contributed a second blood sample. Between the first blood collection and June 2010, 2188 breast cancer cases were diagnosed (579 cases were diagnosed after the second collection) and matched with control subjects. RRs and 95% CIs were calculated by using conditional logistic regression adjusted for several breast cancer risk factors. Higher concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, and total carotenoids were associated with 18-28% statistically significantly lower risks of breast cancer (e.g., β-carotene top compared with bottom quintile RR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.88; P-trend carotenoids measured ≥10 y before diagnosis (top compared with bottom quintile RR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.95; P-trend = 0.01) as well as those Carotenoid concentrations were strongly inversely associated with breast cancer recurrence and death (e.g., β-carotene top compared with bottom quintile RR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.51; P-trend carotenoids were at reduced breast cancer risk particularly for more aggressive and ultimately fatal disease. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Benign breast disease, mammographic breast density, and the risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; O'Meara, Ellen S; Weaver, Donald L; Vachon, Celine; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2013-07-17

    Benign breast disease and high breast density are prevalent, strong risk factors for breast cancer. Women with both risk factors may be at very high risk. We included 42818 women participating in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium who had no prior diagnosis of breast cancer and had undergone at least one benign breast biopsy and mammogram; 1359 women developed incident breast cancer in 6.1 years of follow-up (78.1% invasive, 21.9% ductal carcinoma in situ). We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox regression analysis. The referent group was women with nonproliferative changes and average density. All P values are two-sided. Benign breast disease and breast density were independently associated with breast cancer. The combination of atypical hyperplasia and very high density was uncommon (0.6% of biopsies) but was associated with the highest risk for breast cancer (HR = 5.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.52 to 8.09, P < .001). Proliferative disease without atypia (25.6% of biopsies) was associated with elevated risk that varied little across levels of density: average (HR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.69, P = .003), high (HR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.68 to 2.44, P < .001), or very high (HR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.72, P < .001). Low breast density (4.5% of biopsies) was associated with low risk (HRs <1) for all benign pathology diagnoses. Women with high breast density and proliferative benign breast disease are at very high risk for future breast cancer. Women with low breast density are at low risk, regardless of their benign pathologic diagnosis.

  11. Questionnaires in Identifying Upper Extremity Function and Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Musculoskeletal Complication; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-Related Toxicity

  12. Role of KCNMA1 in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oeggerli

    Full Text Available KCNMA1 encodes the α-subunit of the large conductance, voltage and Ca(2+-activated (BK potassium channel and has been reported as a target gene of genomic amplification at 10q22 in prostate cancer. To investigate the prevalence of the amplification in other human cancers, the copy number of KCNMA1 was analyzed by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH in 2,445 tumors across 118 different tumor types. Amplification of KCNMA1 was restricted to a small but distinct fraction of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer with the highest prevalence in invasive ductal breast cancers and serous carcinoma of ovary and endometrium (3-7%. We performed an extensive analysis on breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMA of 1,200 tumors linked to prognosis. KCNMA1 amplification was significantly associated with high tumor stage, high grade, high tumor cell proliferation, and poor prognosis. Immunofluorescence revealed moderate or strong KCNMA1 protein expression in 8 out of 9 human breast cancers and in the breast cancer cell line MFM223. KCNMA1-function in breast cancer cell lines was confirmed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings and proliferation assays, using siRNA-knockdown, BK channel activators such as 17ß-estradiol and the BK-channel blocker paxilline. Our findings revealed that enhanced expression of KCNMA1 correlates with and contributes to high proliferation rate and malignancy of breast cancer.

  13. [Persistence of social representation regarding breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Mora, Clara V

    2009-08-01

    Understanding the social representation of breast cancer and how it has influenced breast cancer prevention and self-care practice in a group of women from the city of Medellin. This was a qualitative study using 19 semi-structured interviews with adult females who had not had breast cancer, using maximum variation criterion as sampling technique. The analysis was orientated by grounded theory. Some women physiologically represented breast cancer while others represented it by its social and psychological effects. They identified its causes with personal and emotional problems and certain daily habits such as inadequate food ("a bodily payback for the abuses which we subject ourselves to"). The word "breast cancer" was associated with inevitable death, terror, suffering, incurability, devastation, powerlessness and pain. This cancer has strong social representation due to its severe implications for females, their attractiveness and self-image. The persistence of breast cancer's negative image is associated with "the life-style myth" (1) for which people tend to blame the patient. Our biological reductionism hides environmental, social and political factors. We are obsessed by the dangers and their control (2) and powerful images are added to these messages such as those in which "one out of nine women will develop breast cancer" to foster self-responsibility (2). However, the ghost of cancer in developing societies in which many people are still trapped is magnified and has also yet to be overcome.

  14. DDT Exposure in Utero and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Barbara A; La Merrill, Michele; Krigbaum, Nickilou Y; Yeh, Gregory; Park, June-Soo; Zimmermann, Lauren; Cirillo, Piera M

    2015-08-01

    Currently no direct evidence links in utero dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure to human breast cancer. However, in utero exposure to another xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol, predicts an increased breast cancer risk. If this finding extends to DDT, it could have far-reaching consequences. Many women were heavily exposed in utero during widespread DDT use in the 1960s. They are now reaching the age of heightened breast cancer risk. DDT exposure persists and use continues in Africa and Asia without clear knowledge of the consequences for the next generation. In utero exposure to DDT is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. This was a case-control study nested in a prospective 54-year follow-up of 9300 daughters in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort (n = 118 breast cancer cases, diagnosed by age 52 y and 354 controls matched on birth year). Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members who received obstetric care in Alameda County, California, from 1959 to 1967, and their adult daughters participated in the study. Daughters' breast cancer diagnosed by age 52 years as of 2012 was measured. Maternal o,p'-DDT predicted daughters' breast cancer (odds ratio fourth quartile vs first = 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5-9.0). Mothers' lipids, weight, race, age, and breast cancer history did not explain the findings. This prospective human study links measured DDT exposure in utero to risk of breast cancer. Experimental studies are essential to confirm results and discover causal mechanisms. Findings support classification of DDT as an endocrine disruptor, a predictor of breast cancer, and a marker of high risk.

  15. Mechanisms of Twist 1-Induced Invasion in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    affect breast cancer metastasis with a subcutaneous mouse tumor implantation model of breast cancer metastasis. HMLE -Twist1 cells expressing shRNAs...13 4 Introduction Distant metastases are responsible for the vast majority of breast cancer deaths. This process...to migrate and invade is therefore essential to the metastatic process. The initial steps of breast cancer metastasis, local invasion and

  16. 75 FR 62297 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A.... During National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we reaffirm our commitment to supporting breast cancer... coverage for a pre-existing condition or charged higher premiums. During National Breast Cancer Awareness...

  17. Tryptophan-induced pathogenesis of breast cancer | Cao | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The pathogenesis of breast cancer remains unclear. Aims: To investigate the pathogenesis of breast cancer through targeted metabolomics of amino acids components in serum of patients with breast cancer. Methods: Patients with breast cancers were enrolled in our hospital between year January 1st, 2013 ...

  18. Estrogen sulfotransferases in breast and endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge Raul

    2009-02-01

    Estrogen sulfotransferase is significantly more active in the normal breast cell (e.g., Human 7) than in the cancer cell (e.g., MCF-7). The data suggest that in breast cancer sulfoconjugated activity is carried out by another enzyme, the SULT1A, which acts at high concentration of the substrates. In breast cancer cells sulfotransferase (SULT) activity can be stimulated by various progestins: medrogestone, promegestone, and nomegestrol acetate, as well as by tibolone and its metabolites. SULT activities can also be controlled by other substances including phytoestrogens, celecoxib, flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, resveratrol), and isoflavones. SULT expression was localized in breast cancer cells, which can be stimulated by promegestone and correlated with the increase of the enzyme activity. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1), which acts at nanomolar concentration of estradiol, can inactivate most of this hormone present in the normal breast; however, in the breast cancer cells, the sulfotransferase denoted as SULT1A1 is mainly present, and this acts at micromolar concentrations of E(2). A correlation was postulated among breast cancer cell proliferation, the effect of various progestins, and sulfotransferase stimulation. In conclusion, it is suggested that factors involved in the stimulation of the estrogen sulfotransferases could provide new possibilities for the treatment of patients with hormone-dependent breast and endometrial cancers.

  19. ERLIN2 promotes breast cancer cell survival by modulating endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guohui; Yang, Zeng-Quan; Liu, Gang; Wang, Xiaogang; Sethi, Seema; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Abrams, Judith; Zheng, Ze; Zhang, Kezhong; Ethier, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Amplification of the 8p11-12 region has been found in approximately 15% of human breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Previous genomic analysis has led us to identify the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lipid raft-associated 2 (ERLIN2) gene as one of the candidate oncogenes within the 8p11-12 amplicon in human breast cancer, particularly in the luminal subtype. ERLIN2, an ER membrane protein, has recently been identified as a novel mediator of ER-associated degradation. Yet, the biological roles of ERLIN2 and molecular mechanisms by which ERLIN2 coordinates ER pathways in breast carcinogenesis remain unclear. We established the MCF10A-ERLIN2 cell line, which stably over expresses ERLIN2 in human nontransformed mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) using the pLenti6/V5-ERLIN2 construct. ERLIN2 over expressing cells and their respective parental cell lines were assayed for in vitro transforming phenotypes. Next, we knocked down the ERLIN2 as well as the ER stress sensor IRE1α activity in the breast cancer cell lines to characterize the biological roles and molecular basis of the ERLIN2 in carcinogenesis. Finally, immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect ERLIN2 expression in normal and cancerous human breast tissues We found that amplification of the ERLIN2 gene and over expression of the ERLIN2 protein occurs in both luminal and Her2 subtypes of breast cancer. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches demonstrated that ERLIN2 is a novel oncogenic factor associated with the ER stress response pathway. The IRE1α/XBP1 axis in the ER stress pathway modulated expression of ERLIN2 protein levels in breast cancer cells. We also showed that over expression of ERLIN2 facilitated the adaptation of breast epithelial cells to ER stress by supporting cell growth and protecting the cells from ER stress-induced cell death. ERLIN2 may confer a selective growth advantage for breast cancer cells by facilitating a cytoprotective response to various cellular stresses

  20. ERLIN2 promotes breast cancer cell survival by modulating endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guohui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amplification of the 8p11-12 region has been found in approximately 15% of human breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Previous genomic analysis has led us to identify the endoplasmic reticulum (ER lipid raft-associated 2 (ERLIN2 gene as one of the candidate oncogenes within the 8p11-12 amplicon in human breast cancer, particularly in the luminal subtype. ERLIN2, an ER membrane protein, has recently been identified as a novel mediator of ER-associated degradation. Yet, the biological roles of ERLIN2 and molecular mechanisms by which ERLIN2 coordinates ER pathways in breast carcinogenesis remain unclear. Methods We established the MCF10A-ERLIN2 cell line, which stably over expresses ERLIN2 in human nontransformed mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A using the pLenti6/V5-ERLIN2 construct. ERLIN2 over expressing cells and their respective parental cell lines were assayed for in vitro transforming phenotypes. Next, we knocked down the ERLIN2 as well as the ER stress sensor IRE1α activity in the breast cancer cell lines to characterize the biological roles and molecular basis of the ERLIN2 in carcinogenesis. Finally, immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect ERLIN2 expression in normal and cancerous human breast tissues Results We found that amplification of the ERLIN2 gene and over expression of the ERLIN2 protein occurs in both luminal and Her2 subtypes of breast cancer. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches demonstrated that ERLIN2 is a novel oncogenic factor associated with the ER stress response pathway. The IRE1α/XBP1 axis in the ER stress pathway modulated expression of ERLIN2 protein levels in breast cancer cells. We also showed that over expression of ERLIN2 facilitated the adaptation of breast epithelial cells to ER stress by supporting cell growth and protecting the cells from ER stress-induced cell death. Conclusions ERLIN2 may confer a selective growth advantage for breast cancer cells by

  1. Activation of SNAT1/SLC38A1 in human breast cancer: correlation with p-Akt overexpression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kuo; Cao, Fang; Fang, Wenzheng; Hu, Yongwei; Chen, Ying; Ding, Houzhong; Yu, Guanzhen

    2013-01-01

    SNAT1 is a subtype of the amino acid transport system A that has been implicated to play a potential role in cancer development and progression, yet its role in breast cancer remains unclear. In present study, we detected SNAT1 expression in breast cancers and explored its underlying mechanism in promoting breast carcinogenesis. RT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to analyze the transcription and protein levels of SNAT1 in breast cancer cell lines and fresh tissues. Tissue microarray blocks containing breast cancer specimens obtained from 210 patients were constructed. Expression of SNAT1 in these specimens was analyzed using immunohistochemical studies. SNAT1 was down-regulated by SNAT1-shRNA in breast cancer cells and the functional significance was measured. SNAT1 was up-regulated in breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer tissues. Overexpression of SNAT1 was observed in 127 cases (60.5%). Expression of SNAT1 was significantly associated with tumor size, nodal metastasis, advanced disease stage, Ki-67, and ER status. Suppression of endogenous SNAT1 leads to cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis of 4T1 cells and lowered the phosphorylation level of Akt. SNAT1 expression correlated significantly with p-Akt expression in human breast cancer samples. The cross-talk between Akt signaling and SNAT1 might play a critical role in the development and progression of breast cancer, providing an important molecular basis for novel diagnostic markers and new attractive targets in the treatment of breast cancer patients

  2. Breast cancer in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.

    2010-01-01

    As the expectation of life in the Western world increases the incidence of breast cancer rises and more and more of our patients present over the age of 70. The expectation of life amongst women in the UK is now 85 so a fit elderly woman of 70 has many years left for the natural history of breast cancer to express itself Never the less the older the woman with breast cancer the more likely she is to die of co-morbidity. The first point to make therefore is that age alone should not be a determinant of therapy but that should remain a decision based on the stage and biological variables within the primary tumour. In spite of all that there may be a place to compromise on default therapies if the expectation of life of the woman is say less than three years. I will illustrate these points by focussing on three trials with which Fve been actively involved. The first are the trials comparing surgery plus tamoxifen versus surgery alone in women over the age of 70, secondly the TRAGIT trial of intra-operative radiotherapy and thirdly the ATAC trial comparing tamoxifen with arimidex. I will argue that surgery is still required in primary therapy in the elderly whose expectation of life exceeds 3 years but also there is room for a new trial of aromatase inhibitors as sole therapy for women with tumours that express the ER and are say 80 years or more at presentation. I also believe that there is a place for lORT for women with serious co-morbidity and I will argue that there may be an age of transition when tamoxifen might be favoured above aromatase inhibitors as first line adjuvant therapy. (author)

  3. Germline HVR-II mitochondrial polymorphisms associated with breast cancer in Tunisian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubi Loueslati, B; Troudi, W; Cherni, L; Rhomdhane, K B; Mota-Vieira, L

    2010-08-31

    A high incidence of somatic mtDNA polymorphisms has been reported in a wide variety of human cancers; some of them have been proposed as markers for the early detection of breast cancer. However, little attention has been paid to the potential of germline mitochondrial sequence variations as genetic risk factors for cancer. We performed a case-control study of 70 unrelated Tunisian women with breast cancer and 80 healthy age- and gender-matched blood donors, taking into account clinicopathological data, to evaluate germline polymorphism of mitochondrial HVR-II region as a genetic risk factor for breast cancer. Through direct sequencing, we detected 351 polymorphisms in controls and 248 variants in patients, with 47 and 39 segregating sites, respectively. In both groups, more than 50% of the polymorphisms were due to four variants: 315 ins C, 309 ins C, 263 A>G, and 73 A>G. The HVR-II sequences were also classified into haplotypes on the basis of the polymorphisms. Fifty-nine different haplotypes were found, 20 of them shared between patients and controls. Both groups had specific haplotypes, 18 in breast cancer patients and 21 in controls. Statistical analysis revealed a weak protective effect against breast cancer risk for two mitochondrial polymorphisms - 152 T>C (odds ratio (OR) = 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-0.91) and 263 A>G (OR = 0.17, 95%CI = 0.06-0.47). In contrast, an increased risk of breast cancer was detected for the 315+C haplotype (OR = 11.66, 95%CI = 1.44-252.23). We conclude that mitochondrial variants can affect breast cancer risk. More extensive studies, involving different types of cancer and patients with different genetic makeup, will be required to improve our understanding of the effects of germline mtDNA polymorphisms on carcinogenesis.

  4. Breast cancer: Diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariel, I.M.; Clearly, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    This is a publication about the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer with an appeal for unified reporting of end results. Nine chapters cover historical reviews, risk factors, pathology-receptors-immunology, detection and diagnosis, treatment of the potentially curable patient, and treatment of the patient with advanced disease. The three concluding chapters discuss reconstruction, special clinical situations, and support for the patient. The role of radiation therapy is presented well. The current status of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and combined therapies is also addressed by authoritative authors

  5. Intensity modulated radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riou, O.; Fenoglietto, P.; Lemanski, C.; Azria, D.

    2012-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a technique allowing dose escalation and normal tissue sparing for various cancer types. For breast cancer, the main goals when using IMRT were to improve dose homogeneity within the breast and to enhance coverage of complex target volumes. Nonetheless, better heart and lung protections are achievable with IMRT as compared to standard irradiation for difficult cases. Three prospective randomized controlled trials of IMRT versus standard treatment showed that a better breast homogeneity can translate into better overall cosmetic results. Dosimetric and clinical studies seem to indicate a benefit of IMRT for lymph nodes irradiation, bilateral treatment, left breast and chest wall radiotherapy, or accelerated partial breast irradiation. The multiple technical IMRT solutions available tend to indicate a widespread use for breast irradiation. Nevertheless, indications for breast IMRT should be personalized and selected according to the expected benefit for each individual. (authors)

  6. Disparities in breast cancer and african ancestry: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of breast cancer disparities between African-American and White American women has generated exciting research opportunities investigating the biologic and hereditary factors that contribute to the observed outcome differences, leading to international studies of breast cancer in Africa. The study of breast cancer in women with African ancestry has opened the door to unique investigations regarding breast cancer subtypes and the genetics of this disease. International research efforts can advance our understanding of race/ethnicity-associated breast cancer disparities within the USA; the pathogenesis of triple negative breast cancer; and hereditary susceptibility for breast cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  8. Who's talking about breast cancer? Analysis of daily breast cancer posts on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Edel M; Corrigan, Mark A; McHugh, Seamus M; Murphy, David; O'Mullane, John; Hill, Arnold D; Redmond, Henry Paul

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer is the cancer most commonly searched for on the internet. Our aim was to assess daily new breast cancer related posting on the internet. We analyzed numbers of new daily posts for common cancers for one month and subsequently analyzed content of 1426 breast cancer related posts. We also assessed use of online discussion forums for breast cancer related dialogue. Breast related topics had significantly more posts per day compared to others (mean 66.7, p Anonymous posts were common (55%) and less likely to be accurate (p internet has become a primary forum within which health information, particularly relating to breast cancer, is both sought and shared. Increasingly information is provided by patients themselves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Breast Cancer After Chest Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Chou, Joanne F.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Malhotra, Jyoti; Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Mubdi, Nidha Z.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Stovall, Marilyn; Hammond, Sue; Smith, Susan A.; Henderson, Tara O.; Boice, John D.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Diller, Lisa R.; Bhatia, Smita; Kenney, Lisa B.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Begg, Colin B.; Robison, Leslie L.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The risk of breast cancer is high in women treated for a childhood cancer with chest irradiation. We sought to examine variations in risk resulting from irradiation field and radiation dose. Patients and Methods We evaluated cumulative breast cancer risk in 1,230 female childhood cancer survivors treated with chest irradiation who were participants in the CCSS (Childhood Cancer Survivor Study). Results Childhood cancer survivors treated with lower delivered doses of radiation (median, 14 Gy; range, 2 to 20 Gy) to a large volume (whole-lung field) had a high risk of breast cancer (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 43.6; 95% CI, 27.2 to 70.3), as did survivors treated with high doses of delivered radiation (median, 40 Gy) to the mantle field (SIR, 24.2; 95% CI, 20.7 to 28.3). The cumulative incidence of breast cancer by age 50 years was 30% (95% CI, 25 to 34), with a 35% incidence among Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (95% CI, 29 to 40). Breast cancer–specific mortality at 5 and 10 years was 12% (95% CI, 8 to 18) and 19% (95% CI, 13 to 25), respectively. Conclusion Among women treated for childhood cancer with chest radiation therapy, those treated with whole-lung irradiation have a greater risk of breast cancer than previously recognized, demonstrating the importance of radiation volume. Importantly, mortality associated with breast cancer after childhood cancer is substantial. PMID:24752044

  10. Application of PET in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Dong Young

    2002-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an imaging method that employs radionuclide and tomography techniques. Since 1995, we applied PET not only to the diagnosis of breast cancer but also to the detection of abnormalities in the augmented breast and to the detection of metastasis. Until 2001, we evaluated 242 breast cases by PET at PET center of Seoul National University Hospital. Our group has reported serially at the international journals. In the firtst report, PET showed high sensitivity for detecting breast cancer, both the primary and axillary node metastasis. A total of 27 patients underwent breast operations based on PET results at Seoul National University Hospital from 1995 to 1996. The diagnostic accuracy of PET were 97% for the primary tumor mass and 96% for axillary lymph node metastasis. In case of the breast augmented, PET also showed excellent diagnostic results for primary breast cancer and axillary lymph node metastasis where mammography and ultrasound could not diagnose properly. PET also had outstanding results in the detection of recurrent or metastatic breast cancer(sensitivity 94%, specificity 80%, accuracy 89%). In addition, our study gave some evidence that PET could be applied further to evaluate the growth rate of tumors by measuring SUV, and finally to prognosticated the disease. PET could also be applied to evaluate the response after chemotherapy to measure its metabolic rate and size. In conclsion, PET is a highly sensitive, accurate diagnostic tool for breast cancer of primary lesion in various conditions including metastasis

  11. The Role of Exosomes in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michelle C; Gallagher, William M; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2015-12-01

    Although it has been long realized that eukaryotic cells release complex vesicular structures into their environment, only in recent years has it been established that these entities are not merely junk or debris, but that they are tailor-made specialized minimaps of their cell of origin and of both physiological and pathological relevance. These exosomes and microvesicles (ectosomes), collectively termed extracellular vesicles (EVs), are often defined and subgrouped first and foremost according to size and proposed origin (exosomes approximately 30-120 nm, endosomal origin; microvesicles 120-1000 nm, from the cell membrane). There is growing interest in elucidating the relevance and roles of EVs in cancer. Much of the pioneering work on EVs in cancer has focused on breast cancer, possibly because breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. This review provides an in-depth summary of such studies, supporting key roles for exosomes and other EVs in breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis, stem cell stimulation, apoptosis, immune system modulation, and anti-cancer drug resistance. Exosomes as diagnostic, prognostic, and/or predictive biomarkers and their potential use in the development of therapeutics are discussed. Although not fully elucidated, the involvement of exosomes in breast cancer development, progression, and resistance is becoming increasingly apparent from preclinical and clinical studies, with mounting interest in the potential exploitation of these vesicles for breast cancer biomarkers, as drug delivery systems, and in the development of future novel breast cancer therapies. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  12. Screening for breast cancer post reduction mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, T.M.; Tresham, J.; Fritschi, L.; Wylie, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether remodelling of the breast after breast reduction surgery has an effect on mammographic cancer detection. Methods and materials: For women who attended population-based screening between January 1998 to December 2007, data were extracted on their age, history of previous breast reduction, and the result of screening (recall for further assessment, cancer, or no cancer). The number of cancers detected, recalls per 1000 screens and the characteristics of the cancers detected in the two groups was compared. Results: In total 244,147 women with 736,219 screening episodes were reviewed. In the 4743 women who had a breast reduction, 51 breast cancers were detected [age standardized rate (ASR) of 4.28 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 3.11-5.46], compared with 4342 breast cancers in 239 404 women screened in the non-reduction group (ASR of 5.99 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 5.81-6.16). There were fewer cancers in the breast reduction group with a relative risk of 0.71. There was no significant difference in the rate of recall between the two groups, with a crude recall rate of 46.1 per 1000 screening episodes post-breast reduction compared with 50.7 per 1000 screening episodes for women without breast reduction. There was no significant difference in the pathological type or location of the cancer between the two groups of women. Conclusion: Postoperative breast changes following reduction mammoplasty do not significantly hinder analysis of the screening mammogram.

  13. Annotating breast cancer microarray samples using ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfang; Li, Xin; Yoon, Victoria; Clarke, Robert

    2008-01-01

    As the most common cancer among women, breast cancer results from the accumulation of mutations in essential genes. Recent advance in high-throughput gene expression microarray technology has inspired researchers to use the technology to assist breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment prediction. However, the high dimensionality of microarray experiments and public access of data from many experiments have caused inconsistencies which initiated the development of controlled terminologies and ontologies for annotating microarray experiments, such as the standard microarray Gene Expression Data (MGED) ontology (MO). In this paper, we developed BCM-CO, an ontology tailored specifically for indexing clinical annotations of breast cancer microarray samples from the NCI Thesaurus. Our research showed that the coverage of NCI Thesaurus is very limited with respect to i) terms used by researchers to describe breast cancer histology (covering 22 out of 48 histology terms); ii) breast cancer cell lines (covering one out of 12 cell lines); and iii) classes corresponding to the breast cancer grading and staging. By incorporating a wider range of those terms into BCM-CO, we were able to indexed breast cancer microarray samples from GEO using BCM-CO and MGED ontology and developed a prototype system with web interface that allows the retrieval of microarray data based on the ontology annotations. PMID:18999108

  14. Theoretical epidemiology applied to health physics: estimation of the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Indirect estimation of low-dose radiation hazards is possible using the multihit model of carcinogenesis. This model is based on cancer incidence data collected over many decades on tens of millions of people. Available data on human radiation effects can be introduced into the modeling process without the requirement that these data precisely define the model to be used. This reduction in the information demanded from the limited data on human radiation effects allows a more rational approach to estimation of low-dose radiation hazards and helps to focus attention on research directed towards understanding the process of carcinogenesis, rather than on repeating human or animal experiments that cannot provide sufficient data to resolve the low-dose estimation problem. Assessment of the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer provides an excellent example of the utility of multihit modeling procedures

  15. Breast Cancer and its Radiotherapeutic Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeinali Rafsanjani, B.; Mosleh-Shirazi, M. A.; Faghihi, R.; Mosalaei, A.; Omidvar, Sh.; Hadad, K.; Karbasi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women after skin cancer. In Iran, the presentation age of this cancer is younger than the global average. There are different therapeutic methods for treatment of breast cancer and the choice of treatment depends on the stage of the disease as well as its type and characteristics. Therapeutic methods include surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, each consisting of a variety of techniques. The two main surgical techniques are lumpectomy and mastectomy. The main systemic methods are biological therapy (immunotherapy), hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy is mainly categorized into external-beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. In this paper, we present a brief review of the different types of breast cancer and their treatments using conventional and modern radiotherapy methods, as well as the treatment efficacy and side effects of breast radiotherapy.

  16. Breast Cancer and its Radiotherapeutic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Zeinali Rafsanjani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women after skin cancer. In Iran, the presentation age of this cancer is younger than the global average. There are different therapeutic methods for treatment of breast cancer and the choice of treatment depends on the stage of the disease as well as its type and characteristics. Therapeutic methods include surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, each consisting of a variety of techniques. The two main surgical techniques are lumpectomy and mastectomy. The main systemic methods are biological therapy (immunotherapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy is mainly categorized into external-beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. In this paper, we present a brief review of the different types of breast cancer and their treatments using conventional and modern radiotherapy methods, as well as the treatment efficacy and side effects of breast radiotherapy.

  17. Primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Agnieszka; Kamińska, Marzena; Sygit, Katarzyna; Budny, Agnieszka; Surdyka, Dariusz; Kukiełka-Budny, Bożena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2017-12-23

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and is the second cancer frequently occurring worldwide of newly-diagnosed cancers. There is much evidence showing the influence of life style and environmental factors on the development of mammary gland cancer (high-fat diet, alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise), the elimination of which (primary prevention) may contribute to a decrease in morbidity and mortality. Secondary prevention, comprising diagnostic tests (e.g. mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, breast self-examination, as well as modern and more precise imaging methods) help the early detection of tumours or lesions predisposing to tumours. The aim of this study paper is to review current knowledge and reports regarding primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer. It is estimated that nearly 70% of malign tumours are caused by environmental factors, whereas in breast cancer this percentage reaches 90-95%. There are national programmes established in many countries to fight cancer, where both types of prevention are stressed as serving to decrease morbidity and mortality due to cancers. Cancer prevention is currently playing a key role in the fight against the disease. Behaviour modification, as well as greater awareness among women regarding breast cancer, may significantly contribute towards reducing the incidence of this cancer. Another important aspect is the number of women undergoing diagnostic tests, which still remains at an unsatisfactory level.

  18. Gastric and Endobronchial Metastases in a Case of Lobular Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Fernandes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC is the second most common histological type of invasive breast carcinoma, preceded only by infiltrating ductal carcinoma, which has clinical, biological and molecular distinctions. These distinctions imply a different metastatic behavior between the histology of these 2 types of breast cancer. Case Presentation: We report the case of a 51-year-old woman with breast cancer with ILC histology, diagnosed at an early stage. In the course of her disease, recurrences in the gastric mucosa and endobronchial area occurred. The treatment she received is described herein. Conclusion: This is a case of ILC with unusual metastases. The absence of E-cadherin is related to the carcinogenesis of ILC and probably to these patterns of metastasis as well.

  19. Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristina Pilekær

    Each year approximately 4,800 Danish women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Several clinical and pathological factors are used as prognostic and predictive markers to categorize the patients into groups of high or low risk. Around 90% of all patients are allocated to the high risk group...... clinical courses, and they may be useful as novel prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer. The aim of the present project was to predict the development of metastasis in lymph node negative breast cancer patients by RNA profiling. We collected and analyzed 82 primary breast tumors from patients who...... and the time of event. Previous findings have shown that high expression of the lncRNA HOTAIR is correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. We validated this finding by demonstrating that high HOTAIR expression in our primary tumors was significantly associated with worse prognosis independent...

  20. Outcome of breast cancer screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Bak, Martin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2017-01-01

    were node negative and 40% ≤10 mm. False-positive rate was around 2%; higher for North Denmark Region than for the rest of Denmark. Three out of 10 breast cancers in screened women were diagnosed as interval cancers. Conclusions: High coverage by examination and low interval cancer rate are required...... for screening to decrease breast cancer mortality. Two pioneer local screening programs starting in the 1990s were followed by a decrease in breast cancer mortality of 22-25%. Coverage by examination and interval cancer rate of the national program were on the favorable side of values from the pioneer programs...... calculated coverage by examination; participation after invitation; detection-, interval cancer- and false-positive rates; cancer characteristics; sensitivity and specificity, for Denmark and for the five regions. Results: At the national level coverage by examination remained at 75-77%; lower in the Capital...

  1. Outcome of breast cancer screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Bak, Martin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2017-01-01

    were node negative and 40% ≤10 mm. False-positive rate was around 2%; higher for North Denmark Region than for the rest of Denmark. Three out of 10 breast cancers in screened women were diagnosed as interval cancers. Conclusions: High coverage by examination and low interval cancer rate are required...... for screening to decrease breast cancer mortality. Two pioneer local screening programs starting in the 1990s were followed by a decrease in breast cancer mortality of 22-25%. Coverage by examination and interval cancer rate of the national program were on the favorable side of values from the pioneer programs...... Region than in the rest of Denmrk. Detection rate was slightly below 1% at first screen, 0.6% at subsequent screens, and one region had some fluctuation over time. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) constituted 13-14% of screen-detected cancers. In subsequent rounds, 80% of screen-detected invasive cancers...

  2. Cytogenetic report of a male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, L R; Rogatto, S R; Rainho, C A

    1995-01-01

    of chromosome 8 in the characterization of the subtype of ductal breast carcinomas and demonstrate that chromosome 17, which is frequently involved in female breast cancers, is also responsible for the development or progression of primary breast cancers in males.......The cytogenetic findings on G-banding in an infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma in a 69-year-old man are reported. The main abnormalities observed were trisomy of chromosomes 8 and 9 and structural rearrangement in the long arm of chromosome 17 (add(17)(q25)). Our results confirm the trisomy...

  3. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use....

  4. An Adolescent and Early Adulthood Dietary Pattern Associated with Inflammation and the Incidence of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Willett, Walter C; Vaidya, Rita L; Michels, Karin B

    2017-03-01

    Adolescence is a highly susceptible period for mammary carcinogenesis, but few prospective studies have examined the role of adolescent diet in breast cancer risk. Reduced rank regression has previously been used to identify a dietary pattern associated with markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, IL6, and TNFα receptor 2). We investigated whether an adolescent and early adulthood inflammatory dietary pattern was associated with breast cancer among 45,204 women in the Nurses' Health Study II using reduced rank regression. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1998 about their high school diet (HS-FFQ) and a FFQ in 1991 when they were ages 27-44 years. Among women who completed the HS-FFQ, 1,477 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed during 22 years of follow-up. An adolescent and early adulthood dietary pattern characterized by inflammation was associated with an increased incidence of premenopausal but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Women in the fifth quintile of the inflammatory pattern score had multivariable adjusted HRs for premenopausal breast cancer of 1.35 for adolescent diet [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.06-1.73; P trend = 0.002] and 1.41 for early adulthood diet (95% CI, 1.11-1.78; P trend = 0.006) compared with women in the first quintile. The corresponding RRs for postmenopausal breast cancer were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.60-1.17) for adolescent and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.54-1.06) for adult intake. Overall, our findings support the notion that an adolescent and early adulthood diet characterized by high intake of sugar-sweetened and diet soft drinks, refined grains, red and processed meat, and margarine, and low intake of green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and coffee may increase the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Res; 77(5); 1179-87. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. A Study of Triple Negative Breast Cancer at a Tertiary Cancer Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cause of cancer deaths worldwide. It is the ... Background: Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are a diverse and heterogeneous group .... nonHispanic black patients with breast cancer, at 24.6%. ... chance of breast conservation rates.

  6. BMI1 and Mel-18 oppositely regulate carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Sheng, Ya-Ping; Li, Qian; Qin, Wei; Lu, You-Wei; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Liu, Bing-Ya; Zhang, Feng-Chun; Li, Jin; Dimri, Goberdhan P; Guo, Wei-Jian

    2010-02-21

    The BMI1 oncogene is overexpressed in several human malignancies including gastric cancer. In addition to BMI1, mammalian cells also express Mel-18, which is closely related to BMI1. We have reported that Mel-18 functions as a potential tumor suppressor by repressing the expression of BMI1 and consequent downregulation of activated AKT in breast cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of BMI1 overexpression and the role of Mel-18 in other cancers are still not clear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of BMI1 and Mel-18 in gastric cancer. BMI1 was found to be overexpressed in gastric cancer cell lines and gastric tumors. Overexpression of BMI1 correlated with advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis; while the expression of Mel-18 negatively correlated with BMI1. BMI1 but not Mel-18 was found to be an independent prognostic factor. Downregulation of BMI1 by Mel-18 overexpression or knockdown of BMI1 expression in gastric cancer cell lines led to upregulation of p16 (p16INK4a or CDKN2A) in p16 positive cell lines and reduction of phospho-AKT in both p16-positive and p16-negative cell lines. Downregulation of BMI1 was also accompanied by decreased transformed phenotype and migration in both p16- positive and p16-negative gastric cancer cell lines. In the context of gastric cancer, BMI1 acts as an oncogene and Mel-18 functions as a tumor suppressor via downregulation of BMI1. Mel-18 and BMI1 may regulate tumorigenesis, cell migration and cancer metastasis via both p16- and AKT-dependent growth regulatory pathways.

  7. Epstein-Barr virus and breast cancer: Epidemiological and Molecular study on Egyptian and Iraqi women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekri, A.N.; Mohamed, W.S.; Hafez, M.M.; Hassan, Z.K.; Bahnassy, A.A.; El-Kassem, F.A.; El-Khalidi, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast carcinogenesis is still controversial. Unraveling this relationship is potentially important for better understanding of breast cancer etiology, early detection and possibly prevention of breast cancer. The aim of the current study is to unravel the association between EBV and primary invasive breast cancer (PIBC) in two different Arab populations (Egyptian and Iraqi women). Patients and Methods: The study was done on paraffin-embedded tissues of 40 Egyptian and 50 Iraqi patients with PIBC in addition to 20 normal breast tissues as controls for each group. Both controls and neoplastic tissues were assessed for the expression of EBV genes and proteins (EBNA-1, LMP-1, and EBER) as well as CD21 marker by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH) and PCR techniques. Results: Our gold standard for EBV reactivity in breast cancer cases was positivity of both EBNA1 by PCR and EBER by in situ hybridization. EBV was detected in 18/40 (45%) and 14/50 (28%) of Egyptian and Iraqi women; respectively where p = 0.073, compared to 0/20 (0%) of their control groups (p < 0.05). Regarding the association between EBV positivity and tumor grade, there was not any statistical significant difference between EBV presence and tumor grade in both populations

  8. Radiation as a cause of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.; Silverstone, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening

  9. Aromatase inhibitors and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Jennifer Keating; Arun, Banu K; Brown, Powel H; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N

    2012-02-01

    Endocrine therapy with selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) has been the mainstay of breast cancer prevention trials to date. The aromatase inhibitors, which inhibit the final chemical conversion of androgens to estrogens, have shown increased disease-free survival benefit over tamoxifen in patients with primary hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, as well as reducing the risk of developing contralateral breast cancers. The aromatase inhibitors are being actively evaluated as prevention agents for women with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ as well as for women who are considered to be at high risk for developing primary invasive breast cancer. This review evaluates the available prevention data, as evidenced by the decrease in contralateral breast cancers, when aromatase inhibitors are used in the adjuvant setting, as well as the emerging data of the aromatase inhibitors specifically tested in the prevention setting for women at high risk. Exemestane is a viable option for breast cancer prevention. We continue to await further follow-up on exemestane as well as other aromatase inhibitors in the prevention setting for women at high risk of developing breast cancer or with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ.

  10. Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, Magid H

    2014-01-01

    Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ≤5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). High similarities

  11. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa M Pelttari

    Full Text Available Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS. We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259 and population controls (n = 3586 from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR: 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.11-1.19, P = 8.88 x 10-16 and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16-1.32, P = 6.19 x 10-11, compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk.

  12. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Dunning, Alison M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Rosenberg, Efraim H.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J.; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N.; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.19, P = 8.88 x 10−16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16–1.32, P = 6.19 x 10−11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  13. Spectrum of breast cancer in Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Gaurav; Pradeep, P V; Aggarwal, Vivek; Yip, Cheng-Har; Cheung, Polly S Y

    2007-05-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Asia, and in recent years is emerging as the commonest female malignancy in the developing Asian countries, overtaking cancer of the uterine cervix. There have been no studies objectively comparing data and facts relating to breast cancer in the developed, newly developed, and developing Asian countries thus far. This multi-national collaborative study retrospectively compared the demographic, clinical, pathological and outcomes data in breast cancer patients managed at participating breast cancer centers in India, Malaysia and Hong Kong. Data, including those on the availability of breast screening, treatment facilities and outcomes from other major cancer centers and cancer registries of these countries and from other Asian countries were also reviewed. Despite an increasing trend, the incidence of breast cancer is lower, yet the cause-specific mortality is significantly higher in developing Asian countries compared with developed countries in Asia and the rest of the world. Patients are about one decade younger in developing countries than their counterparts in developed nations. The proportions of young patients (women and the clinical picture are different from those of average patients managed elsewhere in the world. Owing to lack of awareness, lack of funding, lack of infrastructure, and low priority in public health schemes, breast cancer screening and early detection have not caught up in these under-privileged societies. The inadequacies of health care infrastructures and standards, sociocultural barriers, economic realities, illiteracy, and the differences in the clinical and pathological attributes of this disease in Asian women compared with the rest of the world together result in a different spectrum of the disease. Better socioeconomic conditions, health awareness, and availability of breast cancer screening in developed Asian countries seem to be the major causes of a favorable clinical

  14. Dosimetry studies during breast cancer radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. O. M.

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies indicated that breast cancer is wildly spread especially in women as compared to men. It is increased after an age of thirty five years in women so it is important to study the effect of exposure to the radiation on the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer. In this work the scattered doses for the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer were measured and also the probability of inducing cancer in it is also discussed. The study was performed for a group of patients composed of twenty five females. Also the backscattered doses to the intact breast were measured for thirteen female patients. During the treatment using gamma rays from Co-60 source the two tangential fields (lateral and medial) were selected for the measurements. The results of exposure to gamma radiation for the lateral and medial fields showed that the mean scattered and backscattered doses to the intact breast were (241.26 cGY,47.49 cGY) and (371.6 cGY,385.4 cGY), respectively. Beside that the somatic risk of induced cancer to the intact breast was found to be (6 .1X10 -3 ,1.2X10 -3 ) and (9.29X10 -3 , 9.63X10 -3 ), respectively. From the results obtained it was concluded that the intact breast received small amounts of radiation doses which may lead to breast cancer for the healthy breast. The recommendations from the present study are to take care of radiation protection to the patient, and also to take care of the patient treatment conditions like temperature, pressure and humidity during the radiation exposure.(Author)

  15. Breast cancer: surgery at the South egypt cancer institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ahmed A S; Salem, Mohamed Abou Elmagd; Abbass, Hamza

    2010-09-30

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute's (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI) hospital during the period from Janurary 2001 to December 2008 were reviewed .We report the progress of the availability of breast cancer management and evaluation of the quality of care delivered to breast cancer patients. The total number of patients with a breast lump presented to the SECI during the study period was 1,463 patients (32 males and 1431 females); 616 patients from the total number were admitted at the surgical department .There was a decline in advanced cases. Since 2001, facilities for all lines of comprehensive management have been made accessible for all patients. We found that better management could lead to earlier presentation, and better overall outcome in breast cancer patients.The incidence is steadily increasing with a tendency for breast cancer to occur in younger age groups and with advanced stages.

  16. Breast Cancer: Surgery at the South Egypt Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A.S. Salem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men among the Egypt National Cancer Institute’s (NCI series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI hospital during the period from Janurary 2001 to December 2008 were reviewed .We report the progress of the availability of breast cancer management and evaluation of the quality of care delivered to breast cancer patients. The total number of patients with a breast lump presented to the SECI during the study period was 1,463 patients (32 males and 1431 females; 616 patients from the total number were admitted at the surgical department .There was a decline in advanced cases. Since 2001, facilities for all lines of comprehensive management have been made accessible for all patients. We found that better management could lead to earlier presentation, and better overall outcome in breast cancer patients.The incidence is steadily increasing with a tendency for breast cancer to occur in younger age groups and with advanced stages.

  17. Promoting Breast Cancer Screening through Storytelling by Chamorro Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglona, Rosa Duenas; Robert, Suzanne; Isaacson, Lucy San Nicolas; Garrido, Marie; Henrich, Faye Babauta; Santos, Lola Sablan; Le, Daisy; Peters, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    The largest Chamorro population outside of Guam and the Mariana Islands reside in California. Cancer health disparities disproportionally affect Pacific Islander communities, including the Chamorro, and breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women. To address health concerns such as cancer, Pacific Islander women frequently utilize storytelling to initiate conversations about health and to address sensitive topics such as breast health and cancer. One form of storytelling used in San Diego is a play that conveys the message of breast cancer screening to the community in a culturally and linguistically appropriate way. This play, Nan Nena’s Mammogram, tells the story of an older woman in the community who learns about breast cancer screening from her young niece. The story builds upon the underpinnings of Chamorro culture - family, community, support, and humor - to portray discussing breast health, getting support for breast screening, and visiting the doctor. The story of Nan Nena’s Mammogram reflects the willingness of a few pioneering Chamorro women to use their personal experiences of cancer survivorship to promote screening for others. Through the support of a Chamorro community-based organization, these Chamorro breast cancer survivors have used the success of Nan Nena’s Mammogram to expand their education activities and to form a new cancer survivor organization for Chamorro women in San Diego.

  18. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  19. Ki67 and proliferation in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathmanathan, Nirmala; Balleine, Rosemary L

    2013-06-01

    New approaches to the prognostic assessment of breast cancer have come from molecular profiling studies. A major feature of this work has been to emphasise the importance of cancer cell proliferation as a key discriminative indicator of recurrence risk for oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer in particular. Mitotic count scoring, as a component of histopathological grade, has long formed part of a routine evaluation of breast cancer biology. However, there is an increasingly compelling case to include a specific proliferation score in breast cancer pathology reports based on expression of the cell cycle regulated protein Ki67. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki67 is a widely available and economical test with good tolerance of pre-analytical variations and staining conditions. However, there is currently no evidence based protocol established to derive a reliable and informative Ki67 score for routine clinical use. In this circumstance, pathologists must establish a standardised framework for scoring Ki67 and communicating results to a multidisciplinary team.

  20. Axillary staging for breast cancer during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, S N; Amant, F; Cardonick, E H

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Safety of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer during pregnancy is insufficiently explored. We investigated efficacy and local recurrence rate in a large series of pregnant patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent SLN biopsy during...... pregnancy were identified from the International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy, the German Breast Group, and the Cancer and Pregnancy Registry. Chart review was performed to record technique and outcome of SLN biopsy, locoregional and distant recurrence, and survival. RESULTS: We identified...... were alive and free of disease. Eleven patients experienced a locoregional relapse, including 1 isolated ipsilateral axillary recurrence (0.7%). Eleven (7.6%) patients developed distant metastases, of whom 9 (6.2%) died of breast cancer. No neonatal adverse events related to SLN procedure during...

  1. Increased risk for depression after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer...... or a major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...... were estimated with Poisson regression models. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with the two outcomes among patients with breast cancer. RESULTS: We identified 44,494 women with breast cancer. In the first year after diagnosis, the rate ratio for a hospital contact...

  2. Adjuvant bisphosphonates in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadji, P; Coleman, R E; Wilson, C

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates have been studied in randomised trials in early breast cancer to investigate their ability to prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) and reduce the risk of disease recurrence and metastasis. Treatment benefits have been reported but bisphosphonates do not currently have...... regulatory approval for either of these potential indications. This consensus paper provides a review of the evidence and offers guidance to breast cancer clinicians on the use of bisphosphonates in early breast cancer. Using the nominal group methodology for consensus, a systematic review of the literature...... was augmented by a workshop held in October 2014 for breast cancer and bone specialists to present and debate the available pre-clinical and clinical evidence for the use of adjuvant bisphosphonates. This was followed by a questionnaire to all members of the writing committee to identify areas of consensus...

  3. Breast Cancer Vaccines: New Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Benedetti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is a persistent global challenge for its high frequency in women (although it seldom occurs in men, due to the large diffusion of risk factors and gene mutations, and for its peculiar biology and microenvironment. To date, BC can benefit from different therapeutic strategies involving surgery, ablation, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and more specific approaches such as hormone therapy and the administration of various substances impairing cancer growth, aggressivity, and recurrence with different modalities. Despite these relatively wide chances, also used in combinatory protocols, relevant mortality and relapse rates, often associated with resistant phenotypes, stress the need for a personalized-medicine based on prompting the patient’s immune system (IS against cancer cells. BC immunogenicity was latterly proven, so the whole immunotherapy field for BC is still at a very early stage. This immunotherapeutic approach exploits both the high specificity of adaptive immune response and the immunological memory. This review is focused on some of the majorly relevant BC vaccines available (NeuVax, AVX901, and INO-1400, providing a description of the more promising clinical trials. The efficacy of cancer vaccines highly depends on the patient’s IS, and a wide optimization is needed in terms of targets’ selection, drug design and combinations, dose finding, protocol structuring, and patients’ recruitment; moreover, new standards are being discussed for the outcome evaluation. However, early-phases excellent results suggest that the manipulation of the IS via specific vaccines is a highly attractive approach for BC.

  4. Radiographic characteristics of male breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Ji Hyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Park, Chang Yun; Kook, Shin Ho

    1995-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate mammographic findings of breast cancer in men. This study includes 9 man with breast cancer diagnosed pathologically by radical mastectomy. Clinical and pathologic data were obtained by review of patients medical record. Mammograms were analyzed retrospectively. Of the 9 patients, eight had masses with spiculated margin or schirrous pattern with irregular margin. One patient had no specific evidence of breast cancer mammographically. Microcalcifications were seen in three patients, these calcifications were irregular in shape and were clustered. Of the 8 cases, four patients had the masses at the right breast, four at the left breast. Locations of breast cancer were subareolar (n=4) and were eccentric (n=4) from the nipple. The most common location was the upper outer quadrant. On histologic evaluation, 7 cases were infiltrating ductal carcinomas, one case was mucinous adenocarcinoma, and the remainder was proved as combined form of intraductal and infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis were found in 4 cases. Mammographic findings of male breast carcinoma were that of subareolar or eccentrically located mass. Calcifications were same to the patterns of calcification as female breast cancer

  5. Methylation of Breast Cancer Predisposition Genes in Early-Onset Breast Cancer: Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron M Scott

    Full Text Available DNA methylation can mimic the effects of both germline and somatic mutations for cancer predisposition genes such as BRCA1 and p16INK4a. Constitutional DNA methylation of the BRCA1 promoter has been well described and is associated with an increased risk of early-onset breast cancers that have BRCA1-mutation associated histological features. The role of methylation in the context of other breast cancer predisposition genes has been less well studied and often with conflicting or ambiguous outcomes. We examined the role of methylation in known breast cancer susceptibility genes in breast cancer predisposition and tumor development. We applied the Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchip (HM450K array to blood and tumor-derived DNA from 43 women diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 40 years and measured the methylation profiles across promoter regions of BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, PALB2, CDH1, TP53, FANCM, CHEK2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Prior genetic testing had demonstrated that these women did not carry a germline mutation in BRCA1, ATM, CHEK2, PALB2, TP53, BRCA2, CDH1 or FANCM. In addition to the BRCA1 promoter region, this work identified regions with variable methylation at multiple breast cancer susceptibility genes including PALB2 and MLH1. Methylation at the region of MLH1 in these breast cancers was not associated with microsatellite instability. This work informs future studies of the role of methylation in breast cancer susceptibility gene silencing.

  6. Association of breast cancer risk and the mTOR pathway in women of African ancestry in 'The Root' Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengfeng; Huo, Dezheng; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Zheng, Wei; Nathanson, Katherine L; Nemesure, Barbara; Ambs, Stefan; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Zheng, Yonglan

    2017-08-01

    Functional studies have elucidated the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in breast carcinogenesis, but to date, there is a paucity of data on its contribution to breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry. We examined 47628 SNPs in 61 mTOR pathway genes in the genome wide association study of breast cancer in the African Diaspora study (The Root consortium), which included 3686 participants (1657 cases). Pathway- and gene-level analyses were conducted using the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) test for 10994 SNPs that were not highly correlated (r2 studies of breast cancer in the African Diaspora. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The medical management of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.J.; Buchanan, R.

    1988-01-01

    The text is brief and directed primarily to the breast cancer specialist. Topics include epidemiology, screening, prognostic factors, pre- and postoperative assessment, surgery, radiotherapy adjuvant endocrine therapy, and management of advanced disease. Brief chapters also address nonspecific symptoms of advanced disease, male breast cancer, and psychological considerations. Emphasis is on clinical management and review of many published controlled trials. Chapters conclude with short lists of recommendations and long alphabetic lists of reference material from the world literature. Since breast cancer continues to increase gradually in incidence and is most common in the United States, it commands attention

  8. Cardiac risks in multimodal breast cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budach, W. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Almost all breast cancer patients receive one or more adjuvant treatments consisting of tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, LHRH-antogonists, chemotherapy, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy. These treatments have been shown to considerably improve overall survival. As a result, long term survival for 15 and more years is achieved in more than two thirds of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Therefore, more interest in short and long term risks of adjuvant treatments has been arisen. The focus of this article is the long term cardiac risks of adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer patients and possible interactions with chemotherapy and trastuzumab. (orig.)

  9. Breast cancer survival and season of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Dorthe; Bjerre, Karsten D; Tjønneland, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has been suggested to influence the incidence and prognosis of breast cancer, and studies have found better overall survival (OS) after diagnosis for breast cancer in summer-autumn, where the vitamin D level are expected to be highest. Objective To compare the prognostic...... outcome for early breast cancer patients operated at different seasons of the year. Design Open population-based cohort study. Setting Danish women operated 1978-2010. Cases 79 658 adjusted for age at surgery, period of surgery, tumour size, axillary lymph node status and hormone receptor status...

  10. Pepducin Based Intervention of Breast Cancer Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Metalloprotease-1 Receptor that Promotes Invasion and Tumorigenesis of Breast Cancer Cells. Cell 120, 303-313. (6) Arribas , J. (2005) Matrix Metalloproteases...promotes invasion and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. Cell 2005;120:303–13. 6. Arribas J. Matrix metalloproteases and tumor inva- sion. N Engl J Med...to ala - provide a model for more aggressive, tamoxifen-insen- nine. The F43A PAR1 mutant does not transduce a sig- sitive, breast cancers. MDA-MB-231

  11. Circulating microRNAs in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, Rimi; Hamam, Dana; Alsaleh, Khalid A.

    2017-01-01

    Effective management of breast cancer depends on early diagnosis and proper monitoring of patients' response to therapy. However, these goals are difficult to achieve because of the lack of sensitive and specific biomarkers for early detection and for disease monitoring. Accumulating evidence...... in the past several years has highlighted the potential use of peripheral blood circulating nucleic acids such as DNA, mRNA and micro (mi)RNA in breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis and for monitoring response to anticancer therapy. Among these, circulating miRNA is increasingly recognized as a promising...... circulating miRNAs as diagnostic, prognostic or predictive biomarkers in breast cancer management....

  12. [Relation between physical activity, weight balance and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maître, Carole

    2013-05-01

    Many epidemiologic studies, with a good methodology, support the evidence of the positive role of regular physical activity on primary and tertiary prevention of breast cancer on the risk of recurrence and mortality. This relation depends on the level of total energy expenditure by week, which helps balance weight on lifetime, an essential part of benefit. The beneficial effects of physical activity are linked to many interrelated additional mechanisms: in a short-term, contraction of skeletal muscles involves aerobic metabolism which utilizes glucose and amino acids like glutamine, improves insulin sensitivity and lowers plasma insulin; in a long-term, physical activity produces favorable changes in body composition, decreasing body fat and increasing lean mass. That is a key point to reduce the intake of energy substrates stimulating carcinogenesis, to improve insulin sensitivity, to change the ratio of leptin and adiponectin, to enhance cellular immunity and to block cellular pathways of cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Maintaining a healthy weight through regular physical activity well balanced with energy intake is it a goal for prevention of breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Vitamin D enhances omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhu, Shenglong; Lin, Guangxiao; Song, Ci; He, Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Breast cancer is a leading type of cancer in women and generally classified into three subtypes of ER + /PR + , HER2 + and triple negative. Both omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D 3 play positive role in the reduction of breast cancer incidence. However, whether combination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D 3 has stronger protective effect on breast carcinogenesis still remains unknown. In this study, we show that the combination of ω-3 free fatty acids (ω-3 FFAs) and 1α, 25-dihydroxy-vitamin D 3 (VD 3 ) dramatically enhances cell apoptosis among three subtypes of breast cancer cell lines. Bcl-2 and total PARP protein levels are decreased in combined treatment MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cells. Caspase signals play a vital role in cell apoptosis induced by combination. Moreover, Raf-MAPK signaling pathway is involved in the apoptosis induction by combination of ω-3 FFAs+VD 3 . These results demonstrate that the induction of cell apoptosis by combined treatment is dependent on different signaling pathways in three subtypes of breast cancer cell lines. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  14. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabonomic study of breast cancer in Indian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonkar, Kanchan; Sinha, Neeraj; Arshad, Farah

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women worldwide with over 1.3 million new cases per year. Recently it has been observed that breast cancer is increasing very rapidly in low income countries including India. Lipids not only play very important and vital role of prime structural component in human body they are also important functional components in cellular metabolism. Transformation from benign to malignant tissue involves several biochemical processes and understanding these processes provides very useful insight related to cancer prognosis. Thus study of lipids becomes very important and NMR spectroscopy is one of the techniques which can be utilized to identifying all lipid components simultaneously. The tissue specimens (35, benign 20 and malignant 15; patient age group 47 yrs) were collected after breast surgeries and were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Part of all tissues was sent for routine histopathology. Lipid extraction was performed by Folch method (Folch, 1957) using cholesterol and methanol (2:1 ratio). The NMR spectra of the extracted lipids were recorded immediately after the sample preparation. All NMR experiments were performed on a Bruker Avance 800 MHz spectrometer. 1 H NMR analysis of lipid extract of breast tissue in Indian population shows there is significant elevation of phosphotidycholine, plasmalogen and esterified cholesterol with decrease in triacylglycerol in cancer breast compared to benign tissue implying that their metabolism is definitely altered during carcinogenesis. This study analyzes the role of NMR as an additional diagnostic tool on the basis of examination of lipid extract. (author)

  15. Distinctive expression pattern of OCT4 variants in different types of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Saamaaneh; Asadi, Malek Hossein; Farsinejad, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    OCT4 is a key regulator of self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells which can potentially encode three spliced variants designated OCT4A, OCT4B and OCT4B1. Based on cancer stem cell concept, it is suggested that the stemness factors misexpressed in cancer cells and potentially is involved in tumorigenesis. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the potential expression of OCT4 variants in breast cancer tissues. A total of 94 tumoral and peritumoral breast specimens were evaluated with respect to the expression of OCT4 variants using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. We detected the expression of OCT4 variants in breast tumor tissues with no or very low levels of expression in peritumoral samples of the same patients. While OCT4B was highly expressed in lobular type of breast cancer, OCT4A and OCTB1 variants are highly expressed in low grade (I and II) ductal tumors. Furthermore, the results of this study revealed a considerable association between the expression level of OCT4 variants and the expression of ER, PR, Her2 and P53 factors. All data demonstrated a distinctive expression pattern of OCT4 spliced variants in different types of breast cancer and provide further evidence for the involvement of embryonic genes in carcinogenesis.

  16. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and breast cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Karin B; Holmberg, Lars; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2002-01-01

    Coffee, caffeinated tea, and caffeine have been suggested to play a role in breast carcinogenesis or in the promotion or inhibition of tumor growth. Prior epidemiologic evidence has not supported an overall association between consumption of caffeinated beverages and risk of breast cancer, but consumption in some studies was low. We studied this relation in the Swedish Mammography Screening Cohort, a large population-based prospective cohort study in Sweden comprising 59,036 women aged 40-76 years. Sweden has the highest coffee consumption per capita in the world. During 508,267 person-years of follow-up, 1271 cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed. Women who reported drinking 4 or more cups of coffee per day had a covariate-adjusted hazard ratio of breast cancer of 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-1.28] compared to women who reported drinking 1 cup a week or less. The corresponding hazard ratio for tea consumption was 1.13 (95% CI 0.91-1.40). Similarly, women in the highest quintile of self-reported caffeine intake had a hazard ratio of beast cancer of 1.04 (95% CI 0.87-1.24) compared to women in the lowest quintile. In this large cohort of Swedish women, consumption of coffee, tea, and caffeine was not associated with breast cancer incidence.

  17. The oncoprotein HBXIP upregulates PDGFB via activating transcription factor Sp1 to promote the proliferation of breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingyi; Zhao, Yu; Li, Leilei; Shen, Yu; Cai, Xiaoli [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: zhangxd@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Cancer Research, Institute for Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ye, Lihong, E-mail: yelihong@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •HBXIP is able to upregulate the expression of PDGFB in breast cancer cells. •HBXIP serves as a coactivator of activating transcription factor Sp1. •HBXIP stimulates the PDGFB promoter via activating transcription factor Sp1. •HBXIP promotes the proliferation of breast cancer cell via upregulating PDGFB. -- Abstract: We have reported that the oncoprotein hepatitis B virus X-interacting protein (HBXIP) acts as a novel transcriptional coactivator to promote proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Previously, we showed that HBXIP was able to activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in breast cancer cells. As an oncogene, the platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide (PDGFB) plays crucial roles in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we found that both HBXIP and PDGFB were highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines. Interestingly, HBXIP was able to increase transcriptional activity of NF-κB through PDGFB, suggesting that HBXIP is associated with PDGFB in the cells. Moreover, HBXIP was able to upregulate PDGFB at the levels of mRNA, protein and promoter in the cells. Then, we identified that HBXIP stimulated the promoter of PDGFB through activating transcription factor Sp1. In function, HBXIP enhanced the proliferation of breast cancer cells through PDGFB in vitro. Thus, we conclude that HBXIP upregulates PDGFB via activating transcription factor Sp1 to promote proliferation of breast cancer cells.

  18. The oncoprotein HBXIP upregulates PDGFB via activating transcription factor Sp1 to promote the proliferation of breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingyi; Zhao, Yu; Li, Leilei; Shen, Yu; Cai, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •HBXIP is able to upregulate the expression of PDGFB in breast cancer cells. •HBXIP serves as a coactivator of activating transcription factor Sp1. •HBXIP stimulates the PDGFB promoter via activating transcription factor Sp1. •HBXIP promotes the proliferation of breast cancer cell via upregulating PDGFB. -- Abstract: We have reported that the oncoprotein hepatitis B virus X-interacting protein (HBXIP) acts as a novel transcriptional coactivator to promote proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Previously, we showed that HBXIP was able to activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in breast cancer cells. As an oncogene, the platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide (PDGFB) plays crucial roles in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we found that both HBXIP and PDGFB were highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines. Interestingly, HBXIP was able to increase transcriptional activity of NF-κB through PDGFB, suggesting that HBXIP is associated with PDGFB in the cells. Moreover, HBXIP was able to upregulate PDGFB at the levels of mRNA, protein and promoter in the cells. Then, we identified that HBXIP stimulated the promoter of PDGFB through activating transcription factor Sp1. In function, HBXIP enhanced the proliferation of breast cancer cells through PDGFB in vitro. Thus, we conclude that HBXIP upregulates PDGFB via activating transcription factor Sp1 to promote proliferation of breast cancer cells

  19. Heavy-ion mammography and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Capp, M.P.; Holley, W.R.; Woodruff, K.H.; Sickles, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy-ion radiography is a new diagnostic imaging technique developed in our laboratory that produces superior density resolution at low radiation doses. Heavy-ion mammography has now emerged as a low-dose, safe, reliable, noninvasive diagnostic radiological procedure that can quantitate and image very small differences in soft tissue densities in the breast tissues of patients with clinical breast disease. The improved density resolution of heavy-ion mammography over conventional X-ray mammography and breast xerography provides the potential of detecting small breast cancers of less than 1 cm diameter. The radiation dose to the breast from carbon-ion mammorgraphy is about 50 mrad or less, and can potentially be only a fraction of this level. The results of the present clinical trial in progress of heavy-ion mammography in 37 patients, thus far studied, are extremely encouraging, and warrant continued study for application to the early diagnosis of breast cancer in women

  20. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Untch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM