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Sample records for breast cancer biomarker

  1. Exosome: emerging biomarker in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yunlu; Chen, Yongxia; Wang, Qinchuan; Jayasinghe, Ushani; Luo, Xiao; Wei, Qun; Wang, Ji; Xiong, Hanchu; Chen, Cong; Xu, Bin; Hu, Wenxian; Wang, Linbo; Zhao, Wenhe; Zhou, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized membrane vesicles released by a variety of cell types, and are thought to play important roles in intercellular communications. In breast cancer, through horizontal transfer of various bioactive molecules, such as proteins and mRNAs, exosomes are emerging as local and systemic cell-to-cell mediators of oncogenic information and play an important role on cancer progression. This review outlines the current knowledge and concepts concerning the exosomes involvement in breast cancer pathogenesis (including tumor initiation, invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, immune system modulation and tumor microenvironment) and cancer therapy resistance. Moreover, the potential use of exosomes as promising diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers in breast cancer are also discussed. PMID:28402944

  2. Breast Cancer Biomarkers Based on Nipple and Fine Needle Aspirates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russo, Irma H

    2005-01-01

    ... of the cytological normal breast epithelium of women at high risk for breast cancer. This signature will serve as an intermediate biomarker for evaluating the response of the breast to novel chemopreventive agents...

  3. Biomarker assessment and molecular testing for prognostication in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Zuzana; Dabbs, David J

    2016-01-01

    Current treatment of breast cancer incorporates clinical, pathological and molecular data. Oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) define prognosis and identify tumours for targeted therapy, and remain the sole established single-molecule biomarkers defining the minimum breast cancer pathology data set. Ki67 remains one of the most promising yet controversial biomarkers in breast cancer, implemented routinely in some, but not all, pathology departments. Beyond the single-molecule biomarkers, a host of multigene expression tests have been developed to interrogate the driver pathways and biology of individual breast cancers to predict clinical outcome more accurately. A minority of these assays have entered into clinical practice. This review focuses on the established biomarkers of ER, PR and HER2, the controversial but clinically implemented biomarker Ki67 and the currently marketed gene expression signatures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Aberrantly methylated DNA as a biomarker in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Lars Mønster; Guldberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    hypermethylation events, their use as tumor biomarkers is usually not hampered by analytical signals from normal cells, which is a general problem for existing protein tumor markers used for clinical assessment of breast cancer. There is accumulating evidence that DNA-methylation changes in breast cancer patients...... occur early during tumorigenesis. This may open up for effective screening, and analysis of blood or nipple aspirate may later help in diagnosing breast cancer. As a more detailed molecular characterization of different types of breast cancer becomes available, the ability to divide patients...... as a versatile biomarker tool for screening, diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of breast cancer. Standardization of methods and biomarker panels will be required to fully exploit this clinical potential....

  5. Aberrantly methylated DNA as a biomarker in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Lars M; Guldberg, Per; Sölétormos, György

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant DNA hypermethylation at gene promoters is a frequent event in human breast cancer. Recent genome-wide studies have identified hundreds of genes that exhibit differential methylation between breast cancer cells and normal breast tissue. Due to the tumor-specific nature of DNA hypermethylation events, their use as tumor biomarkers is usually not hampered by analytical signals from normal cells, which is a general problem for existing protein tumor markers used for clinical assessment of breast cancer. There is accumulating evidence that DNA-methylation changes in breast cancer patients occur early during tumorigenesis. This may open up for effective screening, and analysis of blood or nipple aspirate may later help in diagnosing breast cancer. As a more detailed molecular characterization of different types of breast cancer becomes available, the ability to divide patients into subgroups based on DNA biomarkers may improve prognosis. Serial monitoring of DNA-methylation markers in blood during treatment may be useful, particularly when the cancer burden is below the detection level for standard imaging techniques. Overall, aberrant DNA methylation has a great potential as a versatile biomarker tool for screening, diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of breast cancer. Standardization of methods and biomarker panels will be required to fully exploit this clinical potential.

  6. Urinary metalloproteinases: noninvasive biomarkers for breast cancer risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pories, Susan E; Zurakowski, David; Roy, Roopali

    2008-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and a disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM 12) can be detected in the urine of breast cancer patients and provide independent prediction of disease status. To evaluate the potential of urinary metalloproteinases as biomarkers to predict breast cancer risk statu...

  7. Resolving breast cancer heterogeneity by searching reliable protein cancer biomarkers in the breast fluid secretome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Ligi, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    One of the major goals in cancer research is to find and evaluate the early presence of biomarkers in human fluids and tissues. To resolve the complex cell heterogeneity of a tumor mass, it will be useful to characterize the intricate biomolecular composition of tumor microenvironment (the so called cancer secretome), validating secreted proteins as early biomarkers of cancer initiation and progression. This approach is not broadly applicable because of the paucity of well validated and FDA-approved biomarkers and because most of the candidate biomarkers are mainly organ-specific rather than tumor-specific. For these reasons, there is an urgent need to identify and validate a panel of biomarker combinations for early detection of human tumors. This is especially important for breast cancer, the cancer spread most worldwide among women. It is well known that patients with early diagnosed breast cancer live longer, require less extensive treatment and fare better than patients with more aggressive and/or advanced disease. In the frame of searching breast cancer biomarkers (especially using nipple aspirate fluid mirroring breast microenvironment), studies have highlighted an optimal combination of well-known biomarkers: uPA + PAI-1 + TF. When individually investigated they did not show perfect accuracy in predicting the presence of breast cancer, whereas the triple combination has been demonstrated to be highly predictive of pre-cancer and/or cancerous conditions, approaching 97-100% accuracy. Despite the heterogeneous composition of breast cancer and the difficulties to find specific breast cancer biomolecules, the noninvasive analysis of the nipple aspirate fluid secretome may significantly improve the discovery of promising biomarkers, helping also the differentiation among benign and invasive breast diseases, opening new frontiers in early oncoproteomics

  8. Biomarkers of the Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Qiu-Li; Xu, Wang-Hong; Tao, Meng-Hua

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its public health importance, our understanding of the mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis and progress is still evolving. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of biochemical abnormalities including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. The components of the MS have all been related to late-stage disease and even to a poor prognosis of breast cancer through multiple interacting mechanisms. In this review, we aim to present a summary of recent advances in the understanding of the contribution of the MS to breast cancer with the emphasis on the role of biomarkers of the MS in the prognosis of breast cancer

  9. Biomarkers of the Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qiu-Li; Xu, Wang-Hong [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Tao, Meng-Hua [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2010-04-28

    In spite of its public health importance, our understanding of the mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis and progress is still evolving. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of biochemical abnormalities including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. The components of the MS have all been related to late-stage disease and even to a poor prognosis of breast cancer through multiple interacting mechanisms. In this review, we aim to present a summary of recent advances in the understanding of the contribution of the MS to breast cancer with the emphasis on the role of biomarkers of the MS in the prognosis of breast cancer.

  10. Exosome: emerging biomarker in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yunlu; Chen, Yongxia; Wang, Qinchuan; Jayasinghe, Ushani; Luo, Xiao; Wei, Qun; Wang, Ji; Xiong, Hanchu; Chen, Cong; Xu, Bin; Hu, Wenxian; Wang, Linbo; Zhao, Wenhe; Zhou, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized membrane vesicles released by a variety of cell types, and are thought to play important roles in intercellular communications. In breast cancer, through horizontal transfer of various bioactive molecules, such as proteins and mRNAs, exosomes are emerging as local and systemic cell-to-cell mediators of oncogenic information and play an important role on cancer progression. This review outlines the current knowledge and concepts concerning the exosomes involvement in br...

  11. Descriptive Biomarkers for Assessing Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    women who donated breast milk . A second manuscript describing the results for additional tumor suppressor genes is in preparation and additional... donated breast milk .  Processed milk samples from 252 women (from both right and left breasts ); isolated DNA from all cell samples (both epithelial and...Lenington S, Anderton DL, Arcaro KF. 2010. RASSF1A Promoter Methylation in Exfoliated Breast Cells Isolated from Breast Milk Donated by Women Who Have

  12. Breast cancer biomarkers predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter Edward R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has long been associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk and more recently with premenopausal breast cancer risk. We previously observed that nipple aspirate fluid (n levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA were associated with obesity. Serum (s levels of adiponectin are lower in women with higher body mass index (BMI and with breast cancer. We conducted a prospective study of obese women who underwent gastric bypass surgery to determine: 1 change in n- and s-adiponectin and nPSA after surgery and 2 if biomarker change is related to change in BMI. Samples (30-s, 28-n and BMI were obtained from women 0, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Findings There was a significant increase after surgery in pre- but not postmenopausal women at all time points in s-adiponectin and at 3 and 6 months in n-adiponectin. Low n-PSA and high s-adiponectin values were highly correlated with decrease in BMI from baseline. Conclusions Adiponectin increases locally in the breast and systemically in premenopausal women after gastric bypass. s-adiponectin in pre- and nPSA in postmenopausal women correlated with greater weight loss. This study provides preliminary evidence for biologic markers to predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery.

  13. PLAC1 as a serum biomarker for breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Yuan

    Full Text Available Placental-specific protein 1 (PLAC1 is an X-linked trophoblast gene that is re-expressed in several malignancies, including breast cancer, and is therefore a potential biomarker to follow disease onset and progression. Sera from 117 preoperative/pretreatment breast cancer patients and 51 control subjects, including those with fibrocystic disease, were analyzed for the presence of PLAC1 protein as well as its expression by IHC in tumor biopsies in a subset of subjects. Serum PLAC1 levels exceeded the mean plus one standard deviation (mean+SD of the level in control subjects in 67% of subjects with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, 67% with HER2+ tumors, 73% with triple-negative cancer and 73% with ER+/PR+ tumors. Greater sensitivity was achieved using the mean+2 SD of control PLAC1 serum values, where the false positive rate was 3% and was exceeded by 38%, 40%, 60% and 43% of subjects with DCIS, HER2+, TNBC and ER+/PR+/HER2- tumors. PLAC1 was detected in 97% of tumor biopsies, but did not correlate quantitatively with serum levels. There was no significant correlation of serum PLAC1 levels with race, age at diagnosis, body mass index (BMI or the presence of metastatic disease. It remains to be determined whether PLAC1 serum levels can serve as a diagnostic biomarker for the presence or recurrence of disease post-surgery and/or therapy.

  14. Epigenetic Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk: Across the Breast Cancer Prevention Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Mary Beth; McDonald, Jasmine A; Wu, Hui Chen; Eng, Sybil; Santella, Regina M

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic biomarkers, such as DNA methylation, can increase cancer risk through altering gene expression. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network has demonstrated breast cancer-specific DNA methylation signatures. DNA methylation signatures measured at the time of diagnosis may prove important for treatment options and in predicting disease-free and overall survival (tertiary prevention). DNA methylation measurement in cell free DNA may also be useful in improving early detection by measuring tumor DNA released into the blood (secondary prevention). Most evidence evaluating the use of DNA methylation markers in tertiary and secondary prevention efforts for breast cancer comes from studies that are cross-sectional or retrospective with limited corresponding epidemiologic data, raising concerns about temporality. Few prospective studies exist that are large enough to address whether DNA methylation markers add to the prediction of tertiary and secondary outcomes over and beyond standard clinical measures. Determining the role of epigenetic biomarkers in primary prevention can help in identifying modifiable pathways for targeting interventions and reducing disease incidence. The potential is great for DNA methylation markers to improve cancer outcomes across the prevention continuum. Large, prospective epidemiological studies will provide essential evidence of the overall utility of adding these markers to primary prevention efforts, screening, and clinical care.

  15. Identification of New Serum Biomarkers for Early Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis Using Lipid Microarrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Du, Guangwei

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women. Compared with other serum polypeptides, autoantibodies have many appealing features as biomarkers including sensitivity, stability, and easy detection...

  16. Putative Biomarkers and Targets of Estrogen Receptor Negative Human Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. Byers

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a progressive and potentially fatal disease that affects women of all ages. Like all progressive diseases, early and reliable diagnosis is the key for successful treatment and annihilation. Biomarkers serve as indicators of pathological, physiological, or pharmacological processes. Her2/neu, CA15.3, estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and cytokeratins are biomarkers that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy selection. The structural and functional complexity of protein biomarkers and the heterogeneity of the breast cancer pathology present challenges to the scientific community. Here we review estrogen receptor-related putative breast cancer biomarkers, including those of putative breast cancer stem cells, a minor population of estrogen receptor negative tumor cells that retain the stem cell property of self renewal. We also review a few promising cytoskeleton targets for ER alpha negative breast cancer.

  17. Exercise, weight loss and biomarkers for breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, W.A.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in Western women. There are several known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer of which few are lifestyle-related and, thereby, modifiable. These risk factors provide an opportunity for primary prevention. In this thesis,

  18. Potential Biomarker of L type Amino Acid Transporter 1 in Breast Cancer Progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Zhongxing; Cho, Heidi T.; Williams, Larry; Zhu, Aizhi; Liang, Ke; Huang, Ke; Wu, Hui; Jiang, Chunsu; Hong, Samuel; Crowe, Ronald; Goodman, Mark M.; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2011-01-01

    L type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is essential for the transport of large neutral amino acids. However, its role in breast cancer growth remains largely unknown. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether LAT1 is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. LAT1 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cell lines and tissues were analyzed. In addition, the effects of targeting LAT1 for the inhibition of breast cancer cell tumorigenesis were assessed with soft agar assay. The imaging of xenograft with 1 amino 3 [ 18F ]fluorocyclo butane 1 carboxylic acid ([ 18F ]FACBC) PET was assessed for its diagnostic biomarker potential. Normal breast tissue or low malignant cell lines expressed low levels of LAT1 mRNA and protein, while highly malignant cancer cell lines and high grade breast cancer tissue expressed high levels of LAT1. In addition, higher expression levels of LAT1 in breast cancer tissues were consistent with advanced stage breast cancer. Furtermore, the blockade of LAT1 with its inhibitor, 2 amino bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane 2 carboxylic acid (BCH), or the knockdown of LAT1 with siRNA, inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. A leucine analog, [ 18F ]FACBC, has been demonstrated to be an excellent PET tracer for the non invasive imaging og malignant breast cancer using an orthotopic animal model. The overexpression of LAT1 is required for the progression of breast cancer. LAT1 represents a potential biomarker for therapy and diagnosis of breast cancer. [ 18F ]FACBC that correlates with LAT1 function is a potential PET tracer for malignant breast tumor imaging

  19. Bone remodeling and regulating biomarkers in women at the time of breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Song; Zhang, Yali; Tang, Li; Roh, Janise M; Laurent, Cecile A; Hong, Chi-Chen; Hahn, Theresa; Lo, Joan C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Kushi, Lawrence H; Kwan, Marilyn L

    2017-02-01

    The majority of breast cancer patients receive endocrine therapy, including aromatase inhibitors known to cause increased bone resorption. Bone-related biomarkers at the time of breast cancer diagnosis may predict future risk of osteoporosis and fracture after endocrine therapy. In a large population of 2,401 female breast cancer patients who later underwent endocrine therapy, we measured two bone remodeling biomarkers, TRAP5b and BAP, and two bone regulating biomarkers, RANKL and OPG, in serum samples collected at the time of breast cancer diagnosis. We analyzed these biomarkers and their ratios with patients' demographic, lifestyle, clinical tumor characteristics, as well as bone health history. The presence of bone metastases, prior bisphosphonate (BP) treatment, and blood collection after chemotherapy had a significant impact on biomarker levels. After excluding these cases and controlling for blood collection time, several factors, including age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, and hormonal replacement therapy, were significantly associated with bone biomarkers, while vitamin D or calcium supplements and tumor characteristics were not. When prior BP users were included in, recent history of osteoporosis and fracture was also associated. Our findings support further investigation of these biomarkers with bone health outcomes after endocrine therapy initiation in women with breast cancer.

  20. Improving accuracy of breast cancer biomarker testing in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuja Shet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a global mandate even in countries with low resources to improve the accuracy of testing biomarkers in breast cancer viz. oestrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2neu given their critical impact in the management of patients. The steps taken include compulsory participation in an external quality assurance (EQA programme, centralized testing, and regular performance audits for laboratories. This review addresses the status of ER/PR and HER2neu testing in India and possible reasons for the delay in development of guidelines and mandate for testing in the country. The chief cause of erroneous ER and PR testing in India continues to be easily correctable issues such as fixation and antigen retrieval, while for HER2neu testing, it is the use of low-cost non-validated antibodies and interpretative errors. These deficiencies can however, be rectified by (i distributing the accountability and responsibility to surgeons and oncologist, (ii certification of centres for testing in oncology, and (iii initiation of a national EQA system (EQAS programme that will help with economical solutions and identifying the centres of excellence and instill a system for reprimand of poorly performing laboratories.

  1. Can Prostate Specific Antigen Be Used as New Biomarker for Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Shiryazdi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Plasma PSA level is not a reliable biomarker to diagnose breast cancer, though regarding existing scientific evidence, more comprehensive studies are required to consider other features of malignant samples so as to evaluate the role of PSA in differentiating breast neoplastic lesions in a more meticulous way based on the degree of tumor differentiation.

  2. Search for Breast Cancer Biomarkers in Fractionated Serum Samples by Protein Profiling With SELDI-TOF MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstal - van Winden, A.W.J.; Beijnen, J.H.; de Loof, A.; van Heerde, W.L.; Vermeulen, R.; Peeters, P.H.M.; van Gils, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundMany high-abundant acute phase reactants have been previously detected as potential breast cancer biomar-kers. However, they are unlikely to be specific for breast cancer. Cancer-specific biomarkers are thought to be among the lower abundant proteins.MethodsWe aimed to detect lower

  3. Implementation of External Quality Assurance Trials for Immunohistochemically Determined Breast Cancer Biomarkers in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    von Wasielewski, Reinhard; Krusche, Claudia A.; Rüschoff, Joseph; Fisseler-Eckhoff, Anette; Kreipe, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Besides typing and grading of breast cancer, Pathologists are involved in the determination of biomarkers, such as steroid hormone receptors and HER2, which are of utmost importance in adjuvant therapy. There have been concerns with regard to security and reproducibility of the biomarker assays done on tissue sections applying either immunohistochemistry or in-situ hybridisation. In order to assure the quality of these biomarker assays, a number of measures are required, among them external p...

  4. Detection of Methylated Circulating DNA as Noninvasive Biomarkers for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Isabella Wai Yin; Shin, Vivian Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, breast cancer is the most common female cancer, and is induced by a combination of environmental, genetic, and epigenetic risk factors. Despite the advancement of imaging techniques, invasive sampling of breast epithelial cells is the only definitive diagnostic procedure for patients with breast cancer. To date, molecular biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for the screening and early detection of breast cancer are lacking. Recent evidence suggests that the detection of methylated circulating cell-free DNA in the peripheral blood of patients with cancer may be a promising quantitative and noninvasive method for cancer diagnosis. Methylation detection based on a multi-gene panel, rather than on the methylation status of a single gene, may be used to increase the sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer screening. In this review, the results of 14 relevant studies, investigating the efficacy of cell-free DNA methylation screening for breast cancer diagnosis, have been summarized. The genetic risk factors for breast cancer, the methods used for breast cancer detection, and the techniques and limitations related to the detection of cell-free DNA methylation status, have also been reviewed and discussed. From this review, we conclude that the analysis of peripheral blood or other samples to detect differentially methylated cell-free DNA is a promising technique for use in clinical settings, and may improve the sensitivity of screening for both, early detection and disease relapse, and thus improve the future prognosis of patients with breast cancer. PMID:28382090

  5. Tissue microarrays for testing basal biomarkers in familial breast cancer cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozany Mucha Dufloth

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The proteins p63, p-cadherin and CK5 are consistently expressed by the basal and myoepithelial cells of the breast, although their expression in sporadic and familial breast cancer cases has yet to be fully defined. The aim here was to study the basal immunopro-file of a breast cancer case series using tissue microarray technology. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional study at Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil, and the Institute of Pathology and Mo-lecular Immunology, Porto, Portugal. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry using the antibodies p63, CK5 and p-cadherin, and also estrogen receptor (ER and Human Epidermal Receptor Growth Factor 2 (HER2, was per-formed on 168 samples from a breast cancer case series. The criteria for identifying women at high risk were based on those of the Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. RESULTS: Familial tumors were more frequently positive for the p-cadherin (p = 0.0004, p63 (p < 0.0001 and CK5 (p < 0.0001 than was sporadic cancer. Moreover, familial tumors had coexpression of the basal biomarkers CK5+/ p63+, grouped two by two (OR = 34.34, while absence of coexpression (OR = 0.13 was associ-ated with the sporadic cancer phenotype. CONCLUSION: Familial breast cancer was found to be associated with basal biomarkers, using tissue microarray technology. Therefore, characterization of the familial breast cancer phenotype will improve the understanding of breast carcinogenesis.

  6. Image Based Biomarker of Breast Cancer Risk: Analysis of Risk Disparity Among Minority Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    cluster locations. In the undirected strategy, the PDF is uniform within the entire volume of the breast , while in...stereoscopic breast biopsy images (13, 14). Each cluster in the database is stored as a 3D binary volume, with a voxel value of ‘1’ representing...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0062 TITLE: Image Based Biomarker of Breast Cancer

  7. Rapid point-of-care breath test for biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported volatile organic compounds (VOCs in breath as biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms, apparently resulting from increased oxidative stress and cytochrome p450 induction. We evaluated a six-minute point-of-care breath test for VOC biomarkers in women screened for breast cancer at centers in the USA and the Netherlands. METHODS: 244 women had a screening mammogram (93/37 normal/abnormal or a breast biopsy (cancer/no cancer 35/79. A mobile point-of-care system collected and concentrated breath and air VOCs for analysis with gas chromatography and surface acoustic wave detection. Chromatograms were segmented into a time series of alveolar gradients (breath minus room air. Segmental alveolar gradients were ranked as candidate biomarkers by C-statistic value (area under curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve. Multivariate predictive algorithms were constructed employing significant biomarkers identified with multiple Monte Carlo simulations and cross validated with a leave-one-out (LOO procedure. RESULTS: Performance of breath biomarker algorithms was determined in three groups: breast cancer on biopsy versus normal screening mammograms (81.8% sensitivity, 70.0% specificity, accuracy 79% (73% on LOO [C-statistic value], negative predictive value 99.9%; normal versus abnormal screening mammograms (86.5% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, accuracy 83%, 62% on LOO; and cancer versus no cancer on breast biopsy (75.8% sensitivity, 74.0% specificity, accuracy 78%, 67% on LOO. CONCLUSIONS: A pilot study of a six-minute point-of-care breath test for volatile biomarkers accurately identified women with breast cancer and with abnormal mammograms. Breath testing could potentially reduce the number of needless mammograms without loss of diagnostic sensitivity.

  8. Circulating microRNAs as specific biomarkers for breast cancer detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enders K O Ng

    Full Text Available We previously showed microRNAs (miRNAs in plasma are potential biomarkers for colorectal cancer detection. Here, we aimed to develop specific blood-based miRNA assay for breast cancer detection.TaqMan-based miRNA profiling was performed in tumor, adjacent non-tumor, corresponding plasma from breast cancer patients, and plasma from matched healthy controls. All putative markers identified were verified in a training set of breast cancer patients. Selected markers were validated in a case-control cohort of 170 breast cancer patients, 100 controls, and 95 other types of cancers and then blindly validated in an independent set of 70 breast cancer patients and 50 healthy controls. Profiling results showed 8 miRNAs were concordantly up-regulated and 1 miRNA was concordantly down-regulated in both plasma and tumor tissue of breast cancer patients. Of the 8 up-regulated miRNAs, only 3 were significantly elevated (p<0.0001 before surgery and reduced after surgery in the training set. Results from the validation cohort showed that a combination of miR-145 and miR-451 was the best biomarker (p<0.0001 in discriminating breast cancer from healthy controls and all other types of cancers. In the blind validation, these plasma markers yielded Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve area of 0.931. The positive predictive value was 88% and the negative predictive value was 92%. Altered levels of these miRNAs in plasma have been detected not only in advanced stages but also early stages of tumors. The positive predictive value for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS cases was 96%.These results suggested that these circulating miRNAs could be a potential specific biomarker for breast cancer screening.

  9. Validated biomarkers: The key to precision treatment in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael J; O'Donovan, Norma; McDermott, Enda; Crown, John

    2016-10-01

    Recent DNA sequencing and gene expression studies have shown that at a molecular level, almost every case of breast cancer is unique and different from other breast cancers. For optimum management therefore, every patient should receive treatment that is guided by the molecular composition of their tumor, i.e., precision treatment. While such a scenario is still some distance into the future, biomarkers are beginning to play an important role in preparing the way for precision treatment. In particular, biomarkers are increasingly being used for predicting patient outcome and informing as to the most appropriate type of systemic therapy to be administered. Mandatory biomarkers for every newly diagnosed case of breast cancer are estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors in selecting patients for endocrine treatment and HER2 for identifying patients likely to benefit from anti-HER2 therapy. Amongst the best validated prognostic biomarker tests are uPA/PAI-1, MammaPrint and Oncotype DX. Although currently, there are no biomarkers available for predicting response to specific forms of chemotherapy, uPA/PAI-1 and Oncotype DX can aid the identification of lymph node-negative patients that are most likely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, in general. In order to accelerate progress towards precision treatment for women with breast cancer, we need additional predictive biomarkers, especially for enhancing the positive predictive value for endocrine and anti-HER2 therapies, as well as biomarkers for predicting response to specific forms of chemotherapy. The ultimate biomarker test for achieving the goal of precision treatment for patients with breast cancer will likely require a combination of gene sequencing and transcriptomic analysis of every patient's tumor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Digital image analysis outperforms manual biomarker assessment in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stålhammar, Gustav; Fuentes Martinez, Nelson; Lippert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In the spectrum of breast cancers, categorization according to the four gene expression-based subtypes 'Luminal A,' 'Luminal B,' 'HER2-enriched,' and 'Basal-like' is the method of choice for prognostic and predictive value. As gene expression assays are not yet universally available, routine immu...

  11. Recursive SVM biomarker selection for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Kaufman, Howard L; Deng, Youping; Drabier, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is worldwide the second most common type of cancer after lung cancer. Traditional mammography and Tissue Microarray has been studied for early cancer detection and cancer prediction. However, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer. This can be a challenge due to a number of factors and logistics. First, obtaining tissue biopsies can be difficult. Second, mammography may not detect small tumors, and is often unsatisfactory for younger women who typically have dense breast tissue. Lastly, breast cancer is not a single homogeneous disease but consists of multiple disease states, each arising from a distinct molecular mechanism and having a distinct clinical progression path which makes the disease difficult to detect and predict in early stages. In the paper, we present a Support Vector Machine based on Recursive Feature Elimination and Cross Validation (SVM-RFE-CV) algorithm for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM-RFE-CV to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood.The training set which consists of 32 health and 33 cancer samples and the testing set consisting of 31 health and 34 cancer samples were randomly separated from a dataset of peripheral blood of breast cancer that is downloaded from Gene Express Omnibus. First, we identified the 42 differentially expressed biomarkers between "normal" and "cancer". Then, with the SVM-RFE-CV we extracted 15 biomarkers that yield zero cross validation score. Lastly, we compared the classification and prediction performance of SVM-RFE-CV with that of SVM and SVM Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE). We found that 1) the SVM-RFE-CV is suitable for analyzing noisy high-throughput microarray data, 2) it outperforms SVM-RFE in the robustness to noise and in the ability to recover informative features, and 3) it can improve the prediction performance (Area Under

  12. Impact of biospecimens handling on biomarker research in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callari Maurizio

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling is moving from the research setting to the practical clinical use. Gene signatures able to correctly identify high risk breast cancer patients as well as to predict response to treatment are currently under intense investigation. While technical issues dealing with RNA preparation, choice of array platforms, statistical analytical tools are taken into account, the tissue collection process is seldom considered. The time elapsed between surgical tissue removal and freezing of samples for biological characterizations is rarely well defined and/or recorded even for recently stored samples, despite the publications of standard operating procedures for biological sample collection for tissue banks. Methods Breast cancer samples from 11 patients were collected immediately after surgical removal and subdivided into aliquots. One was immediately frozen and the others were maintained at room temperature for respectively 2, 6 and 24 hrs. RNA was extracted and gene expression profile was determined using cDNA arrays. Phosphoprotein profiles were studied in parallel. Results Delayed freezing affected the RNA quality only in 3 samples, which were not subjected to gene profiling. In the 8 breast cancer cases with apparently intact RNA also in sample aliquots frozen at delayed times, 461 genes were modulated simply as a function of freezing timing. Some of these genes were included in gene signatures biologically and clinically relevant for breast cancer. Delayed freezing also affected detection of phosphoproteins, whose pattern may be crucial for clinical decision on target-directed drugs. Conclusion Time elapsed between surgery and freezing of samples appears to have a strong impact and should be considered as a mandatory variable to control for clinical implications of inadequate tissue handling.

  13. Association between changes in fat distribution and biomarkers for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A.M.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; May, Anne M.; Elias, Sjoerd G.; Van Der Palen, Job; Veldhuis, Wouter B.; Stapper, Maaike; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Schuit, Jantine A.; Peeters, Petra H.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the associations between changes in total and abdominal fat and changes in biomarkers for breast cancer risk using data of the SHAPE-2 trial. In the SHAPE-2 trial, 243 postmenopausal overweight women were included. The intervention in this trial consisted of 5-6 kg weight loss either by

  14. Association between changes in fat distribution and biomarkers for breast cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; May, Anne M; Elias, Sjoerd G; van der Palen, Job; Veldhuis, Wouter; Stapper, Maaike; Stellato, Rebecca K; Schuit, Jantine A; Peeters, Petra H

    We assessed the associations between changes in total and abdominal fat and changes in biomarkers for breast cancer risk using data of the SHAPE-2 trial. In the SHAPE-2 trial, 243 postmenopausal overweight women were included. The intervention in this trial consisted of 5-6 kg weight loss either by

  15. Proteomics pipeline for biomarker discovery of laser capture microdissected breast cancer tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.Q. Liu (Ning Qing); R.B.H. Braakman (René); C. Stingl (Christoph); T.M. Luider (Theo); J.W.M. Martens (John); J.A. Foekens (John); A. Umar (Arzu)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMass spectrometry (MS)-based label-free proteomics offers an unbiased approach to screen biomarkers related to disease progression and therapy-resistance of breast cancer on the global scale. However, multi-step sample preparation can introduce large variation in generated data, while

  16. Early diagnostic protein biomarkers for breast cancer: how far have we come?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstal - van Winden, A.W.J.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Beijnen, J.H.; van Gils, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have used surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to search for blood-based proteins that are related to the presence of breast cancer. We review the biomarkers

  17. Can Biomarker Assessment on Circulating Tumor Cells Help Direct Therapy in Metastatic Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Turner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cell (CTC count has prognostic significance in metastatic breast cancer, but the predictive utility of CTCs is uncertain. Molecular studies on CTCs have often been limited by a low number of CTCs isolated from a high background of leukocytes. Improved enrichment techniques are now allowing molecular characterisation of single CTCs, whereby molecular markers on single CTCs may provide a real-time assessment of tumor biomarker status from a blood test or “liquid biopsy”, potentially negating the need for a more invasive tissue biopsy. The predictive ability of CTC biomarker analysis has predominantly been assessed in relation to HER2, with variable and inconclusive results. Limited data exist for other biomarkers, such as the estrogen receptor. In addition to the need to define and validate the most accurate and reproducible method for CTC molecular analysis, the clinical relevance of biomarkers, including gain of HER2 on CTC after HER2 negative primary breast cancer, remains uncertain. This review summarises the currently available data relating to biomarker evaluation on CTCs and its role in directing management in metastatic breast cancer, discusses limitations, and outlines measures that may enable future development of this approach.

  18. The extracellular domain of Her2 in serum as a biomarker of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Alexandre; Gligorov, Joseph; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Boissan, Mathieu

    2018-02-28

    Breast cancer is a major health problem worldwide. In ~15% of breast cancers, the epidermal growth factor receptor HER2, a transmembrane protein, is overexpressed. This HER2 overexpression is associated with an aggressive form of the disease and a poor clinical prognosis. The extracellular domain (ECD) of HER2 is released into the blood by a proteolytic mechanism known as "ECD shedding". This proteolytic shedding leaves a constitutively active truncated receptor in the membrane that is 10-100-fold more oncogenic than the full-length receptor and promotes the growth and survival of cancer cells. Shedding of the HER2 ECD is increased during metastasis: whereas 15% of primary breast cancer patients have elevated levels of serum HER2 ECD (sHER2 ECD), the levels reach 45% in patients with metastatic disease. Thus, sHER2 ECD has been proposed as a promising biomarker for cancer recurrence and for monitoring the disease status of patients overexpressing HER2. Nevertheless, in 2016, the American Society of Clinical Oncology advises clinicians not to use soluble HER2 levels to guide their choice of adjuvant therapy for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer, because the evidence was considered not strong enough. Currently, biomarkers such as carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 15-3 are widely used to monitor metastatic breast cancer disease even if the level of evidence of clinical impact of this monitoring is poor. In this article, we review the evidence that sHER2 ECD might be used in some situations as a biomarker for breast cancer. Although this serum biomarker will not replace the direct measurement of tumor HER2 status for diagnosis of early-stage tumors; it might be especially useful in metastatic disease for prognosis, as an indicator of cancer progression and of therapy response, particularly to anti-HER2 therapies. Owing to these data, sHER2 ECD should be considered as a promising biomarker to detect cancer recurrence and metastasis.

  19. Sequencing-based breast cancer diagnostics as an alternative to routine biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantalainen, Mattias; Klevebring, Daniel; Lindberg, Johan; Ivansson, Emma; Rosin, Gustaf; Kis, Lorand; Celebioglu, Fuat; Fredriksson, Irma; Czene, Kamila; Frisell, Jan; Hartman, Johan; Bergh, Jonas; Grönberg, Henrik

    2016-11-30

    Sequencing-based breast cancer diagnostics have the potential to replace routine biomarkers and provide molecular characterization that enable personalized precision medicine. Here we investigate the concordance between sequencing-based and routine diagnostic biomarkers and to what extent tumor sequencing contributes clinically actionable information. We applied DNA- and RNA-sequencing to characterize tumors from 307 breast cancer patients with replication in up to 739 patients. We developed models to predict status of routine biomarkers (ER, HER2,Ki-67, histological grade) from sequencing data. Non-routine biomarkers, including mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and ERBB2(HER2), and additional clinically actionable somatic alterations were also investigated. Concordance with routine diagnostic biomarkers was high for ER status (AUC = 0.95;AUC(replication) = 0.97) and HER2 status (AUC = 0.97;AUC(replication) = 0.92). The transcriptomic grade model enabled classification of histological grade 1 and histological grade 3 tumors with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98;AUC(replication) = 0.94). Clinically actionable mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and ERBB2(HER2) were detected in 5.5% of patients, while 53% had genomic alterations matching ongoing or concluded breast cancer studies. Sequencing-based molecular profiling can be applied as an alternative to histopathology to determine ER and HER2 status, in addition to providing improved tumor grading and clinically actionable mutations and molecular subtypes. Our results suggest that sequencing-based breast cancer diagnostics in a near future can replace routine biomarkers.

  20. MicroRNAs as biomarkers for early breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapy prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Farah J; Nasr, Rihab; Talhouk, Rabih

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer is a major health problem that affects one in eight women worldwide. As such, detecting breast cancer at an early stage anticipates better disease outcome and prolonged patient survival. Extensive research has shown that microRNA (miRNA) are dysregulated at all stages of breast cancer. miRNA are a class of small noncoding RNA molecules that can modulate gene expression and are easily accessible and quantifiable. This review highlights miRNA as diagnostic, prognostic and therapy predictive biomarkers for early breast cancer with an emphasis on the latter. It also examines the challenges that lie ahead in their use as biomarkers. Noteworthy, this review addresses miRNAs reported in patients with early breast cancer prior to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgical procedures or distant metastasis (unless indicated otherwise). In this context, miRNA that are mentioned in this review were significantly modulated using more than one statistical test and/or validated by at least two studies. A standardized protocol for miRNA assessment is proposed starting from sample collection to data analysis that ensures comparative analysis of data and reproducibility of results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Interlaboratory trials for quality assurance of breast cancer biomarkers in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, C A; von Wasielewski, R; Rüschoff, J; Fisseler-Eckhoff, A; Kreipe, H H

    2008-07-01

    In the age of personalized medicine, and in addition to typing and grading, breast cancer pathologists are now also involved in determining biomarkers such as steroid hormone receptors and Her-2, which are of the utmost importance in adjuvant therapy. In order to assure quality of these biomarker assays, external proficiency testing has been implemented in Germany. Since 2002 trials have been conducted annually, with up to 180 participating laboratories. More than 85% of all participants achieved good results in clearly negative and positive cases seen in daily practice. If at all, discordant results were observed in the rarer low steroid-hormone receptor expressing tumors and Her-2 borderline cases (2+). Regular participation in interlaboratory testing leads to significantly improved immunohistochemical results, particularly in these problematic cases. Tissue microarrays (TMA) with 20-24 different breast cancer samples including cell lines meant that a huge number of pathologists were challenged with identical samples, providing the prerequisite for comparability. Participation is recommended for pathology departments involved in the service for breast units. The organizational frame work of the trials is described here. The confidence of cooperating disciplines in breast cancer biomarkers assessed by pathologists will be fostered by external proficiency testing as presented here.

  2. Chromosome 1q21.3 amplification is a trackable biomarker and actionable target for breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goh, Jian Yuan; Feng, Min; Wang, Wenyu

    2017-01-01

    Tumor recurrence remains the main reason for breast cancer-associated mortality, and there are unmet clinical demands for the discovery of new biomarkers and development of treatment solutions to benefit patients with breast cancer at high risk of recurrence. Here we report the identification of ...

  3. Aurora kinase B is important for antiestrogen resistant cell growth and a potential biomarker for tamoxifen resistant breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sarah L; Yde, Christina W; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Resistance to antiestrogen therapy is a major clinical challenge in the treatment of estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore the growth promoting pathways of antiestrogen resistant breast cancer cells to identify biomarkers and novel treatm...

  4. Improved prediction of breast cancer outcome by identifying heterogeneous biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghwan; Park, Sanghyun; Yoon, Youngmi; Ahn, Jaegyoon

    2017-11-15

    Identification of genes that can be used to predict prognosis in patients with cancer is important in that it can lead to improved therapy, and can also promote our understanding of tumor progression on the molecular level. One of the common but fundamental problems that render identification of prognostic genes and prediction of cancer outcomes difficult is the heterogeneity of patient samples. To reduce the effect of sample heterogeneity, we clustered data samples using K-means algorithm and applied modified PageRank to functional interaction (FI) networks weighted using gene expression values of samples in each cluster. Hub genes among resulting prioritized genes were selected as biomarkers to predict the prognosis of samples. This process outperformed traditional feature selection methods as well as several network-based prognostic gene selection methods when applied to Random Forest. We were able to find many cluster-specific prognostic genes for each dataset. Functional study showed that distinct biological processes were enriched in each cluster, which seems to reflect different aspect of tumor progression or oncogenesis among distinct patient groups. Taken together, these results provide support for the hypothesis that our approach can effectively identify heterogeneous prognostic genes, and these are complementary to each other, improving prediction accuracy. https://github.com/mathcom/CPR. jgahn@inu.ac.kr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Evaluation of the TRPM2 channel as a biomarker in breast cancer using public databases analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumoza-Toledo, Adriana; Espinoza-Gabriel, Mario Iván; Montiel-Condado, Dvorak

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting women. Recent investigations have revealed a major role of ion channels in cancer. The transient receptor potential melastatin-2 (TRPM2) is a plasma membrane and lysosomal channel with important roles in cell migration and cell death in immune cells and tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the prognostic value of TRPM2 channel in breast cancer, analyzing public databases compiled in Oncomine™ (Thermo Fisher, Ann Arbor, MI) and online Kaplan-Meier Plotter platforms. The results revealed that TRPM2 mRNA overexpression is significant in situ and invasive breast carcinoma compared to normal breast tissue. Furthermore, multi-gene validation using Oncomine™ showed that this channel is coexpressed with proteins related to cellular migration, transformation, and apoptosis. On the other hand, Kaplan-Meier analysis exhibited that low expression of TRPM2 could be used to predict poor outcome in ER- and HER2+ breast carcinoma patients. TRPM2 is a promising biomarker for aggressiveness of breast cancer, and a potential target for the development of new therapies. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Applying Data-driven Imaging Biomarker in Mammography for Breast Cancer Screening: Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Han, Kyunghwa; Kang, Bong Joo; Sohn, Yu-Mee; Woo, Ok Hee; Lee, Chan Wha

    2018-01-01

    We assessed the feasibility of a data-driven imaging biomarker based on weakly supervised learning (DIB; an imaging biomarker derived from large-scale medical image data with deep learning technology) in mammography (DIB-MG). A total of 29,107 digital mammograms from five institutions (4,339 cancer cases and 24,768 normal cases) were included. After matching patients’ age, breast density, and equipment, 1,238 and 1,238 cases were chosen as validation and test sets, respectively, and the remai...

  7. Association of oxidative stress biomarkers with adiposity and clinical staging in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carioca, A A F; Verde, S M M L; Luzia, L A; Rondó, P H C; Latorre, M R D O; Ellery, T H P; Damasceno, N R T

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is a disease characterised by both oxidative reactions and inflammation. However, few studies have focused on the oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between oxidative stress markers and adiposity and clinical staging, as well as the association between the oxidative and the antioxidant biomarkers of women with breast cancer. A total of 135 cases of breast cancer occurring in 2011 and 2012 were assessed. After exclusions, 101 pre- and post-menopausal women with clinical staging I to IV were eligible to participate in the study. The anthropometric evaluation was performed by collecting data on waist circumference, body mass index and body composition. The socioeconomic and clinical profiles were determined using a standard questionnaire. For the oxidative biomarkers, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)), low-density lipoprotein(-) (LDL(-)), autoantibody anti-LDL(-) and liposoluble antioxidants (α-tocopherol, retinol and β-carotene) were analysed. The data were analysed using differences in the mean values, correlation tests and multiple linear regression. The antioxidant levels were higher in postmenopausal women with clinical staging I and II and negative lymph nodes. The TBARS level was associated with clinical staging. Adiposity was associated with levels of retinol and 8-OHdG, whereas LDL(-), 8-OHdG and TBARS were correlated with liposoluble antioxidants after adjusting for the confounders. The adiposity and clinical staging of patients were associated with oxidative stress. The oxidative and antioxidant biomarkers showed a negative correlation in patients with breast cancer.

  8. Breast Cancer Biomarkers Based on Nipple and Fine Needle Aspirates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torosian, Michael

    2000-01-01

    .... These biomarkers include: cytology, DNA index, cell cycle parameters, proliferation index, epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression, p53 and RAS hotspot mutations and hypermethylation of specific gene products...

  9. Potential biomarker panels in overall breast cancer management: advancements by multilevel diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotra, Shantanu; Yeghiazaryan, Kristina; Golubnitschaja, Olga

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer (BC) prevalence has reached an epidemic scale with half a million deaths annually. Current deficits in BC management include predictive and preventive approaches, optimized screening programs, individualized patient profiling, highly sensitive detection technologies for more precise diagnostics and therapy monitoring, individualized prediction and effective treatment of BC metastatic disease. To advance BC management, paradigm shift from delayed to predictive, preventive and personalized medical services is essential. Corresponding step forwards requires innovative multilevel diagnostics procuring specific panels of validated biomarkers. Here, we discuss current instrumental advancements including genomics, proteomics, epigenetics, miRNA, metabolomics, circulating tumor cells and cancer stem cells with a focus on biomarker discovery and multilevel diagnostic panels. A list of the recommended biomarker candidates is provided.

  10. Soy Food Intake and Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk: Possible Difference in Asian Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Ju, Dan; Morimoto, Yukiko; Franke, Adrian A; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2017-01-01

    Soy foods may protect against breast cancer in Asian but not in Western populations. We examined if the levels of various markers of breast cancer risk and inflammation, as well as the effects of soy food consumption on these markers, differ between Asian and non-Asian premenopausal women in two soy intervention trials. One study randomized 220 women to a 2-yr intervention and the other one randomized 96 women in a crossover design to examine the effects of consumption of 2 daily soy servings on nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) volume; estrogens in serum, NAF, and urine; insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, and inflammatory markers in serum; and mammographic densities. Mixed linear models were applied to assess ethnic differences in biomarkers and response to the soy diet. Serum C-reactive protein, serum leptin, NAF volume, and NAF estrone sulfate were lower, while urinary isoflavones were higher in Asian than in non-Asian women. A significant interaction (p interaction = 0.05) between ethnicity and soy diet was observed for IGF-1 but not for other biomarkers. The current findings suggest possible ethnic differences in levels of biomarkers for breast cancer risk but little evidence that Asian women respond differently to soy foods than non-Asian women.

  11. Evaluation of sestamibi scanning as a predictor of risk of development of breast cancer and as a non-invasive biomarker for breast cancer chemoprevention trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Preston, D.; McMillin, C.H.; Dusing, R.; Zalles, C.M.; Fabian, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Sestamibi scintimammography is becoming increasingly accepted as an adjunct to conventional breast imaging by mammography and ultrasound. We sought to determine whether it might serve to detect/quantify pre-cancerous breast lesions, specifically hyperplasia with atypia which, when detected by random periareolar fine needle aspiration (FNA), is known to be associated with increased risk for subsequent development of breast cancer. If a parameter derived from sestamibi scanning could be shown to correlate with and predict for atypia, then this could serve 1) to refine estimates of risk of development of breast cancer; and 2) as a surrogate endpoint biomarker in clinical breast cancer chemoprevention trials. To this end, we performed sestamibi scanning on both breasts of 65 women at high risk for development of breast cancer who also underwent FNA. Seventeen women (26%) exhibited non-proliferative cytology; 30 (46%) had hyperplasia; and 18 (28%) had hyperplasia with atypia in the FNA specimen. Since the fine needle aspiration specimens from both breasts are pooled to provide a single result, we likewise pooled the sestamibi results from both breasts so as to consider the most abnormal finding. Twenty-five women (39%) were characterized as having an abnormal sestamibi scan with heterogenous, focal, intense uptake. There was no correlation between an abnormal scan and cytologic evidence of hyperplasia with atypia. Neither was there a correlation between any of a variety of quantitative measures of the sestamibi scans and the cytological classification. At this time, there is no indication for the use of sestamibi scanning for the prediction of risk of subsequent development of breast cancer, or as a surrogate endpoint biomarker in clinical breast cancer chemoprevention trials

  12. Differential profiling of breast cancer plasma proteome by isotope-coded affinity tagging method reveals biotinidase as a breast cancer biomarker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Un-Beom; Ahn, Younghee; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Yong-Hak; Kim, Joon; Yu, Myeong-Hee; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Cheolju

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of women's death worldwide. It is important to discover a reliable biomarker for the detection of breast cancer. Plasma is the most ideal source for cancer biomarker discovery since many cells cross-communicate through the secretion of soluble proteins into blood. Plasma proteomes obtained from 6 breast cancer patients and 6 normal healthy women were analyzed by using the isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) labeling approach and tandem mass spectrometry. All the plasma samples used were depleted of highly abundant 6 plasma proteins by immune-affinity column chromatography before ICAT labeling. Several proteins showing differential abundance level were selected based on literature searches and their specificity to the commercially available antibodies, and then verified by immunoblot assays. A total of 155 proteins were identified and quantified by ICAT method. Among them, 33 proteins showed abundance changes by more than 1.5-fold between the plasmas of breast cancer patients and healthy women. We chose 5 proteins for the follow-up confirmation in the individual plasma samples using immunoblot assay. Four proteins, α1-acid glycoprotein 2, monocyte differentiation antigen CD14, biotinidase (BTD), and glutathione peroxidase 3, showed similar abundance ratio to ICAT result. Using a blind set of plasmas obtained from 21 breast cancer patients and 21 normal healthy controls, we confirmed that BTD was significantly down-regulated in breast cancer plasma (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, p = 0.002). BTD levels were lowered in all cancer grades (I-IV) except cancer grade zero. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of BTD was 0.78. Estrogen receptor status (p = 0.940) and progesterone receptor status (p = 0.440) were not associated with the plasma BTD levels. Our study suggests that BTD is a potential serological biomarker for the detection of breast cancer

  13. Implementation of External Quality Assurance Trials for Immunohistochemically Determined Breast Cancer Biomarkers in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wasielewski, Reinhard; Krusche, Claudia A; Rüschoff, Joseph; Fisseler-Eckhoff, Anette; Kreipe, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Besides typing and grading of breast cancer, Pathologists are involved in the determination of biomarkers, such as steroid hormone receptors and HER2, which are of utmost importance in adjuvant therapy. There have been concerns with regard to security and reproducibility of the biomarker assays done on tissue sections applying either immunohistochemistry or in-situ hybridisation. In order to assure the quality of these biomarker assays, a number of measures are required, among them external proficiency testing. Therefore, external quality assurance trials have been implemented in Germany. In the period of 2002-2007, 5 consecutive trials were conducted with up to 180 participating laboratories. Tissue microarrays with 20-24 different breast cancer samples including cell lines enabled that a huge number of pathologists were challenged with identical samples which provides the prerequisite for comparability. Because there is no legal duress to undergo external proficiency testing in histopathology, all laboratories that took part volunteered to do so. These innovative quality assurance trials (Qualitätsinitiative Pathologie, QuIP) will be continued in the future on an annual or bi-annual basis. Participation is recommended for pathology departments involved in the service for breast units. The organisational frame work of the trials is described here.

  14. Targeted biomarker profiling of matched primary and metastatic estrogen receptor positive breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica B Schleifman

    Full Text Available Patients with newly diagnosed, early stage estrogen receptor positive (ER+ breast cancer often show disease free survival in excess of five years following surgery and systemic adjuvant therapy. An important question is whether diagnostic tumor tissue from the primary lesion offers an accurate molecular portrait of the cancer post recurrence and thus may be used for predictive diagnostic purposes for patients with relapsed, metastatic disease. As the class I phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3K pathway is frequently activated in ER+ breast cancer and has been linked to acquired resistance to hormonal therapy, we hypothesized pathway status could evolve over time and treatment. Biomarker analyses were conducted on matched, asynchronous primary and metastatic tumors from 77 patients with ER+ breast cancer. We examined whether PIK3CA and AKT1 alterations or PTEN and Ki67 levels showed differences between primary and metastatic samples. We also sought to look more broadly at gene expression markers reflective of proliferation, molecular subtype, and key receptors and signaling pathways using an mRNA analysis platform developed on the Fluidigm BioMark™ microfluidics system to measure the relative expression of 90 breast cancer related genes in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. Application of this panel of biomarker assays to matched tumor pairs showed a high concordance between primary and metastatic tissue, with generally few changes in mutation status, proliferative markers, or gene expression between matched samples. The collection of assays described here has been optimized for FFPE tissue and may have utility in exploratory analyses to identify patient subsets responsive to targeted therapies.

  15. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Posttranslationally Modified Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    1 and 2 in Globo H synthesis , Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105, 11667-11672. 18. Gilewski, T., Ragupathi, G., Bhuta, S., Williams, L. J., Musselli, C...carmustine and new proline analog of nitrosourea on antioxidant system in breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7), Drug Chem Toxicol 33, 55-63. 34. Galijasevic, S

  16. Promoter Hypermethylation of the ATM Gene as a Novel Biomarker for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begam, Nasrin; Jamil, Kaiser; Raju, Suryanarayana G

    2017-11-26

    Background: Breast cancer may be induced by activation of protooncogenes to oncogenes and in many cases inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is an important tumor suppressor gene which plays central roles in the maintenance of genomic integrity by activating cell cycle checkpoints and promoting repair of double-strand breaks of DNA. In breast cancer, decrease ATM expression correlates with a poor outcome; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying downregulation are still unclear. Promoter hypermethylation may contribute in downregulation. Hence the present investigation was designed to evaluate promoter methylation and expression of the ATM gene in breast cancer cases, and to determine links with clinical and demographic manifestations, in a South Indian population. Methods: Tumor biopsy samples were collected from 50 pathologically confirmed sporadic breast cancer cases. DNA was isolated from tumor and adjacent non-tumorous regions, and sodium bisulfite conversion and methylation-specific PCR were performed using MS-PCR primers for the ATM promoter region. In addition, ATM mRNA expression was also analyzed for all samples using real-time PCR. Results: Fifty eight percent (58%) of cancer tissue samples showed promoter hypermethylation for the ATM gene, in contrast to only 4.44% of normal tissues (p= 0.0001). Furthermore, ATM promoter methylation was positively associated with age (p = 0.01), tumor size (p=0.045) and advanced stage of disease i.e. stages III and IV (p =0.019). An association between promoter hypermethylation and lower expression of ATM mRNA was also found (p=0.035). Conclusion: We report for the first time that promoter hypermethylation of ATM gene may be useful as a potential new biomarker for breast cancer, especially in the relatively young patients. Creative Commons Attribution License

  17. Taxane resistance in breast cancer: mechanisms, predictive biomarkers and circumvention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S; Briasoulis, E; Linardou, H; Bafaloukos, D; Papadimitriou, C

    2012-11-01

    prominent finding is that pharmaceutical down-regulation of HER-2 appears to reverse the taxane resistance. Currently no valid practical biomarkers exist that can predict resistance to the taxanes in breast cancer supporting the principle of individualized cancer therapy. The incorporation of several biomarker analyses into prospectively designed studies in this setting are needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of a HAp-based biomarker with controlled drug release for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Maykel [Dept. of Molecular Engineering of Materials, Center of Applied Physics and Advanced Technology, National Autonomous University of Mexico (CFATA-UNAM), Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Merino, Ulises [Dept. of Molecular Engineering of Materials, Center of Applied Physics and Advanced Technology, National Autonomous University of Mexico (CFATA-UNAM), Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); University of the Valley of Mexico (UVM), Boulevard Villas del Mesón 1000, Juriquilla, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 76320 (Mexico); Vargas, Susana [Dept. of Molecular Engineering of Materials, Center of Applied Physics and Advanced Technology, National Autonomous University of Mexico (CFATA-UNAM), Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Quintanilla, Francisco [University of the Valley of Mexico (UVM), Boulevard Villas del Mesón 1000, Juriquilla, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 76320 (Mexico); Rodríguez, Rogelio, E-mail: rogelior@unam.mx [Dept. of Molecular Engineering of Materials, Center of Applied Physics and Advanced Technology, National Autonomous University of Mexico (CFATA-UNAM), Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2016-04-01

    A biocompatible hybrid porous polymer–ceramic material was synthesized to be used as a biomarker in the treatment of breast cancer. This device was equipped with the capacity to release medicaments locally in a controlled manner. The biomaterial was Hydroxyapatite(HAp)-based and had a controlled pore size and pore volume fraction. It was implemented externally using a sharp end and a pair of barbed rings placed opposite each other to prevent relative movement once implanted. The biomarker was impregnated with cis-diamine dichloride platinum (II) [Cl{sub 2}-Pt-(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]; the rate of release was obtained using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and release occurred over the course of three months. Different release profiles were obtained as a function of the pore volume fraction. The biomaterial was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • A novel biocompatible hybrid porous polymer–ceramic material was synthesized. • The polymer–ceramic (HAp-based) material was used to prepare a biomarker. • The biomarker was impregnated with cis-diamine dichloride platinum (II). • The rate of cisplatin release was determined using inductively coupled plasma. • The kinetics of the cisplatin release was studied varying the biomarker porosity.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a HAp-based biomarker with controlled drug release for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Maykel; Merino, Ulises; Vargas, Susana; Quintanilla, Francisco; Rodríguez, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    A biocompatible hybrid porous polymer–ceramic material was synthesized to be used as a biomarker in the treatment of breast cancer. This device was equipped with the capacity to release medicaments locally in a controlled manner. The biomaterial was Hydroxyapatite(HAp)-based and had a controlled pore size and pore volume fraction. It was implemented externally using a sharp end and a pair of barbed rings placed opposite each other to prevent relative movement once implanted. The biomarker was impregnated with cis-diamine dichloride platinum (II) [Cl_2-Pt-(NH_3)_2]; the rate of release was obtained using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and release occurred over the course of three months. Different release profiles were obtained as a function of the pore volume fraction. The biomaterial was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • A novel biocompatible hybrid porous polymer–ceramic material was synthesized. • The polymer–ceramic (HAp-based) material was used to prepare a biomarker. • The biomarker was impregnated with cis-diamine dichloride platinum (II). • The rate of cisplatin release was determined using inductively coupled plasma. • The kinetics of the cisplatin release was studied varying the biomarker porosity.

  20. Applying Data-driven Imaging Biomarker in Mammography for Breast Cancer Screening: Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Han, Kyunghwa; Kang, Bong Joo; Sohn, Yu-Mee; Woo, Ok Hee; Lee, Chan Wha

    2018-02-09

    We assessed the feasibility of a data-driven imaging biomarker based on weakly supervised learning (DIB; an imaging biomarker derived from large-scale medical image data with deep learning technology) in mammography (DIB-MG). A total of 29,107 digital mammograms from five institutions (4,339 cancer cases and 24,768 normal cases) were included. After matching patients' age, breast density, and equipment, 1,238 and 1,238 cases were chosen as validation and test sets, respectively, and the remainder were used for training. The core algorithm of DIB-MG is a deep convolutional neural network; a deep learning algorithm specialized for images. Each sample (case) is an exam composed of 4-view images (RCC, RMLO, LCC, and LMLO). For each case in a training set, the cancer probability inferred from DIB-MG is compared with the per-case ground-truth label. Then the model parameters in DIB-MG are updated based on the error between the prediction and the ground-truth. At the operating point (threshold) of 0.5, sensitivity was 75.6% and 76.1% when specificity was 90.2% and 88.5%, and AUC was 0.903 and 0.906 for the validation and test sets, respectively. This research showed the potential of DIB-MG as a screening tool for breast cancer.

  1. Biomarker modulation following short-term vorinostat in women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Vered; Jacobs, Lisa K; Fackler, Maryjo; Tsangaris, Theodore N; Rudek, Michelle A; Higgins, Michaela; Lange, Julie; Cheng, Zandra; Slater, Shannon A; Jeter, Stacie C; Powers, Penny; Briest, Susanne; Chao, Calvin; Yoshizawa, Carl; Sugar, Elizabeth; Espinoza-Delgado, Igor; Sukumar, Saraswati; Gabrielson, Edward; Davidson, Nancy E

    2013-07-15

    Agents that target the epigenome show activity in breast cancer models. In preclinical studies, the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat induces cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and differentiation. We evaluated biomarker modulation in breast cancer tissues obtained from women with newly diagnosed invasive disease who received vorinostat and those who did not. Tumor specimens were collected from 25 women who received up to 6 doses of oral vorinostat 300 mg twice daily and from 25 untreated controls in a nonrandomized study. Candidate gene expression was analyzed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using the Oncotype DX 21-gene assay, and by immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 and cleaved caspase-3. Matched samples from treated women were analyzed for gene methylation by quantitative multiplex methylation-specific PCR (QM-MSP). Wilcoxon nonparametric tests were used to compare changes in quantitative gene expression levels pre- and post-vorinostat with changes in expression in untreated controls, and changes in gene methylation between pre- and post-vorinostat samples. Vorinostat was well tolerated and there were no study-related delays in treatment. Compared with untreated controls, there were statistically significant decreases in the expression of proliferation-associated genes Ki-67 (P = 0.003), STK15 (P = 0.005), and Cyclin B1 (P = 0.03) following vorinostat, but not in other genes by the Oncotype DX assay, or in expression of Ki-67 or cleaved caspase-3 by immunohistochemistry. Changes in methylation were not observed. Short-term vorinostat administration is associated with a significant decrease in expression of proliferation-associated genes in untreated breast cancers. This demonstration of biologic activity supports investigation of vorinostat in combination with other agents for the management of breast cancer.

  2. Etiology and early detection of breast cancer : Biomarkers, lifestyle and mammographic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emaus, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, one in seven women will develop breast cancer at some point during her lifetime. Although breast cancer mortality has declined, still 23% of the breast cancer patients dies from the disease within 10 years after initial diagnosis. This emphasizes the importance of research on

  3. Analytical Pipeline for Discovery and Verification of Glycoproteins from Plasma-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Breast Cancer Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Hsuan; Aguilar, Hillary Andaluz; Paez Paez, J Sebastian; Wu, Xiaofeng; Pan, Li; Wendt, Michael K; Iliuk, Anton B; Zhang, Ying; Tao, W Andy

    2018-05-15

    Glycoproteins comprise more than half of current FDA-approved protein cancer markers, but the development of new glycoproteins as disease biomarkers has been stagnant. Here we present a pipeline to develop glycoproteins from extracellular vesicles (EVs) through integrating quantitative glycoproteomics with a novel reverse phase glycoprotein array and then apply it to identify novel biomarkers for breast cancer. EV glycoproteomics show promise in circumventing the problems plaguing current serum/plasma glycoproteomics and allowed us to identify hundreds of glycoproteins that have not been identified in blood. We identified 1,453 unique glycopeptides representing 556 glycoproteins in EVs, among which 20 were verified significantly higher in individual breast cancer patients. We further applied a novel glyco-specific reverse phase protein array to quantify a subset of the candidates. Together, this study demonstrates the great potential of this integrated pipeline for biomarker discovery.

  4. Optimized high-throughput microRNA expression profiling provides novel biomarker assessment of clinical prostate and breast cancer biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedele Vita

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs are mechanistically involved in the development of various human malignancies, suggesting that they represent a promising new class of cancer biomarkers. However, previously reported methods for measuring miRNA expression consume large amounts of tissue, prohibiting high-throughput miRNA profiling from typically small clinical samples such as excision or core needle biopsies of breast or prostate cancer. Here we describe a novel combination of linear amplification and labeling of miRNA for highly sensitive expression microarray profiling requiring only picogram quantities of purified microRNA. Results Comparison of microarray and qRT-PCR measured miRNA levels from two different prostate cancer cell lines showed concordance between the two platforms (Pearson correlation R2 = 0.81; and extension of the amplification, labeling and microarray platform was successfully demonstrated using clinical core and excision biopsy samples from breast and prostate cancer patients. Unsupervised clustering analysis of the prostate biopsy microarrays separated advanced and metastatic prostate cancers from pooled normal prostatic samples and from a non-malignant precursor lesion. Unsupervised clustering of the breast cancer microarrays significantly distinguished ErbB2-positive/ER-negative, ErbB2-positive/ER-positive, and ErbB2-negative/ER-positive breast cancer phenotypes (Fisher exact test, p = 0.03; as well, supervised analysis of these microarray profiles identified distinct miRNA subsets distinguishing ErbB2-positive from ErbB2-negative and ER-positive from ER-negative breast cancers, independent of other clinically important parameters (patient age; tumor size, node status and proliferation index. Conclusion In sum, these findings demonstrate that optimized high-throughput microRNA expression profiling offers novel biomarker identification from typically small clinical samples such as breast

  5. The increasing roles of epigenetics in breast cancer: Implications for pathogenicity, biomarkers, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basse, Clémence; Arock, Michel

    2015-12-15

    Nowadays, the mechanisms governing the occurrence of cancer are thought to be the consequence not only of genetic defects but also of epigenetic modifications. Therefore, epigenetic has become a very attractive and increasingly investigated field of research in order to find new ways of prevention and treatment of neoplasia, and this is particularly the case for breast cancer (BC). Thus, this review will first develop the main known epigenetic modifications that can occur in cancer and then expose the future role that control of epigenetic modifications might play in prevention, prognostication, follow-up and treatment of BC. Indeed, epigenetic biomarkers found in peripheral blood might become new tools to detect BC, to define its prognostic and to predict its outcome, whereas epi-drugs might have an increasing potential of development in the next future. However, if DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and histone desacetylase inhibitors have shown encouraging results in BC, their action remains nonspecific. Thus, additional clinical studies are needed to evaluate more precisely the effects of these molecules, even if they have provided encouraging results in cotreatment and combined therapies. This review will also deal with the potential of RNA interference (RNAi) as epi-drugs. Finally, we will focus on the potential prevention of BC through epigenetic based on diet and we will particularly develop the possible place of isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables or of Genistein from soybean in a dietary program that might potentially reduce the risk of BC in large populations. © 2014 UICC.

  6. Subtype classification for prediction of prognosis of breast cancer from a biomarker panel: correlations and indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chuang Chen,1 Jing-Ping Yuan,2,3 Wen Wei,1 Yi Tu,1 Feng Yao,1 Xue-Qin Yang,4 Jin-Zhong Sun,1 Sheng-Rong Sun,1 Yan Li2 1Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan, 2Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University and Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Wuhan, 3Department of Pathology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, 4Medical School of Jingchu University of Technology, Jingmen, People’s Republic of China Background: Hormone receptors, including the estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, and other biomarkers like Ki67, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, also known as HER1, the androgen receptor, and p53, are key molecules in breast cancer. This study evaluated the relationship between HER2 and hormone receptors and explored the additional prognostic value of Ki67, EGFR, the androgen receptor, and p53. Methods: Quantitative determination of HER2 and EGFR was performed in 240 invasive breast cancer tissue microarray specimens using quantum dot (QD-based nanotechnology. We identified two subtypes of HER2, ie, high total HER2 load (HTH2 and low total HER2 load (LTH2, and three subtypes of hormone receptor, ie, high hormone receptor (HHR, low hormone receptor (LHR, and no hormone receptor (NHR. Therefore, breast cancer patients could be divided into five subtypes according to HER2 and hormone receptor status. Ki67, p53, and the androgen receptor were determined by traditional immunohistochemistry techniques. The relationship between hormone receptors and HER2 was investigated and the additional value of Ki67, EGFR, the androgen receptor, and p53 for prediction of 5-year disease-free survival was assessed. Results: In all patients, quantitative determination showed a statistically significant (P<0.001 negative correlation between HER2 and the hormone receptors and a significant

  7. Long-term Diet and Biomarker Changes after a Short-term Intervention among Hispanic Breast Cancer Survivors: The ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Heather; Ogden Gaffney, Ann; Aycinena, A Corina; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel; Karmally, Wahida; Richardson, John M; Shi, Zaixing; Lim, Emerson; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Santella, Regina M; Blaner, William S; Clugston, Robin D; Cremers, Serge; Pollak, Susan; Sirosh, Iryna; Crew, Katherine D; Maurer, Matthew; Kalinsky, Kevin; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-11-01

    Among Hispanic breast cancer survivors, we examined the long-term effects of a short-term culturally based dietary intervention on increasing fruits/vegetables (F/V), decreasing fat, and changing biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence risk. Spanish-speaking women (n = 70) with a history of stage 0-III breast cancer who completed treatment were randomized to ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! (n = 34), a culturally based 9-session program (24 hours over 12 weeks, including nutrition education, cooking classes, and food-shopping field trips), or a control group (n = 36, written dietary recommendations for breast cancer survivors). Diet recalls, fasting blood, and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. We report changes between groups at 12 months in dietary intake and biomarkers using 2-sample Wilcoxon t tests and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. At 12 months, the intervention group compared with the control group reported higher increases in mean daily F/V servings (total: +2.0 vs. -0.4; P Salud! program was effective at increasing long-term F/V intake in Hispanic breast cancer survivors and changed biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence risk. It is possible for short-term behavioral interventions to have long-term effects on behaviors and biomarkers in minority cancer patient populations. Results can inform future study designs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(11); 1491-502. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help you know how to prevent breast cancer. Breast implants, using antiperspirants, and wearing underwire bras do not increase the risk for breast cancer. There is also no evidence of a direct ...

  9. MiR-339-5p inhibits breast cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and may be a potential biomarker for breast cancer prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zheng-sheng; Xu, Xiao-chun; Wu, Qiang; Wang, Chao-qun; Wang, Xiao-nan; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Jing-jing; Mao, Shan-shan; Zhang, Gui-hong; Zhang, Nong

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. Detection of their expression may lead to identifying novel markers for breast cancer. We profiled miRNA expression in three breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB-468) and then focused on one miRNA, miR-339-5p, for its role in regulation of tumor cell growth, migration, and invasion and target gene expression. We then analyzed miR-339-5p expression in benign and cancerous breast tissue specimens. A number of miRNAs were differentially expressed in these cancer cell lines. Real-time PCR indicated that miR-339-5p expression was downregulated in the aggressive cell lines MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 and in breast cancer tissues compared with benign tissues. Transfection of miR-339-5p oligonucleotides reduced cancer cell growth only slightly but significantly decreased tumor cell migration and invasion capacity compared with controls. Real-time PCR analysis showed that BCL-6, a potential target gene of miR-339-5p, was downregulated in MDA-MB-231 cells by miR-339-5p transfection. Furthermore, the reduced miR-339-5p expression was associated with an increase in metastasis to lymph nodes and with high clinical stages. Kaplan-Meier analyses found that the patients with miR-339-5p expression had better overall and relapse-free survivals compared with those without miR-339-5p expression. Cox proportional hazards analyses showed that miR-339-5p expression was an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer patients. MiR-339-5p may play an important role in breast cancer progression, suggesting that miR-339-5p should be further evaluated as a biomarker for predicting the survival of breast cancer patients

  10. Enhanced resting-state dynamics of the hemoglobin signal as a novel biomarker for detection of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graber, Harry L., E-mail: harry.graber@downstate.edu; Xu, Yong; Barbour, Randall L. [SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11203 (United States); NIRx Medical Technologies, LLC, Glen Head, New York 11545 (United States); Al abdi, Rabah [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Asarian, Armand P.; Pappas, Peter J. [The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States); Dresner, Lisa [SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11203 (United States); Patel, Naresh [Kaiser Permanente-Modesto Medical Center, Modesto, California 95356 (United States); Jagarlamundi, Kuppuswamy [Sarah Bush Lincoln Regional Cancer Center, 1000 Health Center Drive, Mattoon, Illinois 61938 (United States); Solomon, William B. [Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11219 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The work presented here demonstrates an application of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) to the problem of breast-cancer diagnosis. The potential for using spatial and temporal variability measures of the hemoglobin signal to identify useful biomarkers was studied. Methods: DOT imaging data were collected using two instrumentation platforms the authors developed, which were suitable for exploring tissue dynamics while performing a simultaneous bilateral exam. For each component of the hemoglobin signal (e.g., total, oxygenated), the image time series was reduced to eight scalar metrics that were affected by one or more dynamic properties of the breast microvasculature (e.g., average amplitude, amplitude heterogeneity, strength of spatial coordination). Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analyses, comparing groups of subjects with breast cancer to various control groups (i.e., all noncancer subjects, only those with diagnosed benign breast pathology, and only those with no known breast pathology), were performed to evaluate the effect of cancer on the magnitudes of the metrics and of their interbreast differences and ratios. Results: For women with known breast cancer, simultaneous bilateral DOT breast measures reveal a marked increase in the resting-state amplitude of the vasomotor response in the hemoglobin signal for the affected breast, compared to the contralateral, noncancer breast. Reconstructed 3D spatial maps of observed dynamics also show that this behavior extends well beyond the tumor border. In an effort to identify biomarkers that have the potential to support clinical aims, a group of scalar quantities extracted from the time series measures was systematically examined. This analysis showed that many of the quantities obtained by computing paired responses from the bilateral scans (e.g., interbreast differences, ratios) reveal statistically significant differences between the cancer-positive and -negative subject groups, while the

  11. Enhanced resting-state dynamics of the hemoglobin signal as a novel biomarker for detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, Harry L.; Xu, Yong; Barbour, Randall L.; Al abdi, Rabah; Asarian, Armand P.; Pappas, Peter J.; Dresner, Lisa; Patel, Naresh; Jagarlamundi, Kuppuswamy; Solomon, William B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The work presented here demonstrates an application of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) to the problem of breast-cancer diagnosis. The potential for using spatial and temporal variability measures of the hemoglobin signal to identify useful biomarkers was studied. Methods: DOT imaging data were collected using two instrumentation platforms the authors developed, which were suitable for exploring tissue dynamics while performing a simultaneous bilateral exam. For each component of the hemoglobin signal (e.g., total, oxygenated), the image time series was reduced to eight scalar metrics that were affected by one or more dynamic properties of the breast microvasculature (e.g., average amplitude, amplitude heterogeneity, strength of spatial coordination). Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analyses, comparing groups of subjects with breast cancer to various control groups (i.e., all noncancer subjects, only those with diagnosed benign breast pathology, and only those with no known breast pathology), were performed to evaluate the effect of cancer on the magnitudes of the metrics and of their interbreast differences and ratios. Results: For women with known breast cancer, simultaneous bilateral DOT breast measures reveal a marked increase in the resting-state amplitude of the vasomotor response in the hemoglobin signal for the affected breast, compared to the contralateral, noncancer breast. Reconstructed 3D spatial maps of observed dynamics also show that this behavior extends well beyond the tumor border. In an effort to identify biomarkers that have the potential to support clinical aims, a group of scalar quantities extracted from the time series measures was systematically examined. This analysis showed that many of the quantities obtained by computing paired responses from the bilateral scans (e.g., interbreast differences, ratios) reveal statistically significant differences between the cancer-positive and -negative subject groups, while the

  12. Validation of the 18-gene classifier as a prognostic biomarker of distant metastasis in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skye Hung-Chun Cheng

    Full Text Available We validated an 18-gene classifier (GC initially developed to predict local/regional recurrence after mastectomy in estimating distant metastasis risk. The 18-gene scoring algorithm defines scores as: <21, low risk; ≥21, high risk. Six hundred eighty-three patients with primary operable breast cancer and fresh frozen tumor tissues available were included. The primary outcome was the 5-year probability of freedom from distant metastasis (DMFP. Two external datasets were used to test the predictive accuracy of 18-GC. The 5-year rates of DMFP for patients classified as low-risk (n = 146, 21.7% and high-risk (n = 537, 78.6% were 96.2% (95% CI, 91.1%-98.8% and 80.9% (74.6%-81.9%, respectively (median follow-up interval, 71.8 months. The 5-year rates of DMFP of the low-risk group in stage I (n = 62, 35.6%, stage II (n = 66, 20.1%, and stage III (n = 18, 10.3% were 100%, 94.2% (78.5%-98.5%, and 90.9% (50.8%-98.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that 18-GC is an independent prognostic factor of distant metastasis (adjusted hazard ratio, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.8-14.1; p = 0.0017 for scores of ≥21. External validation showed that the 5-year rate of DMFP in the low- and high-risk patients was 94.1% (82.9%-100% and 80.3% (70.7%-89.9%, p = 0.06 in a Singapore dataset, and 89.5% (81.9%-94.1% and 73.6% (67.2%-79.0%, p = 0.0039 in the GEO-GSE20685 dataset, respectively. In conclusion, 18-GC is a viable prognostic biomarker for breast cancer to estimate distant metastasis risk.

  13. Frequency and Circadian Timing of Eating May Influence Biomarkers of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance Associated with Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Marinac, Catherine R.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Natarajan, Loki; Gallo, Linda C.; Breen, Caitlin I.; Patterson, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that there is interplay between the frequency and circadian timing of eating and metabolic health. We examined the associations of eating frequency and timing with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers putatively associated with breast cancer risk in women participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination 2009-2010 Survey. Eating frequency and timing variables were calculated from 24-hour food records and included (1) proportion of calories consumed in ...

  14. Long non-coding RNAs may serve as biomarkers in breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weimin; Chen, Bo; Yang, Shifeng; Ding, Xiaowen; Zou, Dehong; Mo, Wenju; He, Xiangming; Zhang, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play important regulatory role in certain type of cancers biology, including breast and lung cancers. However, the lncRNA expression in breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, databases of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the lncRNA profiler of contained candidate 192 lncRNAs were utilized. 11 lncRNAs were differentially expressed in breast cancer, 9 candidate lncRNAs were differentially expressed in lung cancer. In order to find the aberrant expression of lncRNAs in breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer, seven samples of primary breast cancer and lung cancer were studied for the expression of selected lncRNAs. The results showed that SNHG6 and NEAT1 were reversely expressed in breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer compared with primary breast or lung cancer. In addition, a significant correlation of lncRNAs was found in the patients whose age was above 56 in breast cancer. What's more, PVT1 expression was negatively correlated with the pathological stage, and the level of ER, PR, HER2, p53 in breast cancer. Furthermore, lncRNA expression did not have significant relationship with the 5-year survival of patients with breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer. The findings revealed that PVT1, SNHG6, NEAT1 may serve as a prognostic marker for breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer. Therefore, these lncRNAs are potential molecular indicators in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer in the future. PMID:28938549

  15. Use of posttreatment imaging and biomarkers in survivors of early-stage breast cancer: Inappropriate surveillance or necessary care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Erin E; Tang, Tania; Lee, Janet S; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Shen, Ernest; Rowley, Braden; Maeda, Jared L; Mosen, David M; Ruckdeschel, John C; Gould, Michael K

    2016-03-15

    Advanced imaging and serum biomarkers are commonly used for surveillance in patients with early-stage breast cancer, despite recommendations against this practice. Incentives to perform such low-value testing may be less prominent in integrated health care delivery systems. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate and compare the use of these services within 2 integrated systems: Kaiser Permanente (KP) and Intermountain Healthcare (IH). The authors also sought to distinguish the indication for testing: diagnostic purposes or routine surveillance. Patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 0 to II breast cancer diagnosed between 2009 and 2010 were identified and the use of imaging and biomarker tests over an 18-month period were quantified, starting at 1 year after diagnosis. Chart abstraction was performed on a random sample of patients who received testing to identify the indication for testing. Multivariate regression was used to explore associations with the use of nonrecommended care. A total of 6585 patients were identified; 22% had stage 0 disease, 44% had stage I disease, and 34% had stage II disease. Overall, 24% of patients received at least 1 imaging test (25% at KP vs 22% at IH; P = .009) and 28% of patients received at least 1 biomarker (36% at KP vs 13% at IH; Ptests were performed to evaluate symptoms or signs. Virtually all biomarkers were ordered for routine surveillance. Stage of disease, medical center that provided the services, and provider experience were found to be significantly associated with the use of biomarkers. Advanced imaging was most often performed for appropriate indications, but biomarkers were used for nonrecommended surveillance. Distinguishing between inappropriate use for surveillance and appropriate diagnostic testing is essential when evaluating adherence to recommendations. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  16. Breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collaborative article gives an overview of breast cancer in LICs, ... approach to the problem; therefore they are published as two separate ... attached to the diagnosis of breast cancer. ... Their founding statement in its early form is included.

  17. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  18. miRNA as potential biomarkers of breast cancer in the Lebanese population and in young women: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah J Nassar

    Full Text Available Relative to western populations, the percentage of women diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age in Lebanon is high. While the younger age of the Lebanese population compared to the West certainly contributes to this difference, potential genetic, reproductive and/or biological factors likely play an important role. The objective of this study is to investigate the contribution of miRNAs in this setting through the analysis of the expression of five reported dysregulated miRNAs, miR-148b, miR-10b, miR-21, miR-221, and miR-155 in 20 normal and 57 cancerous breast tissues from Lebanese breast cancer patients. After finding their relative expression by quantitative reverse transcription real time PCR, the results were analyzed with respect to the patients' clinical and histopathology presentations. Compared to normal breast tissues, significant upregulation of miR-155, miR-21 and miR-148b, notable downregulation of miR-10b and non-significant expression of miR-221 were observed in tumor tissues. Moreover, miR-10b was significantly underexpressed in estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR negative tumors relative to ER/PR positive tumor tissues. miR-155 was also significantly overexpressed in postmenopausal patients and in those of age at diagnosis greater than 40 years old as well as in PR negative or in human epidermal growth factor 2 (Her2 positive tissues. This study is the first one to report miRNA expression patterns in Lebanese breast cancer patients. We found that differential miRNA expression in breast cancer could be variable between Lebanese and Western populations. miR-10b was positively correlated with the ER and PR status and miR-155 could be a noteworthy biomarker for the menopausal state, age at diagnosis, PR and Her2 status. Hence, miRNA can be used as biomarkers for early breast cancer detection.

  19. The potential biomarkers in predicting pathologic response of breast cancer to three different chemotherapy regimens: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chaoyang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preoperative chemotherapy (PCT has become the standard of care in locally advanced breast cancer. The identification of patient-specific tumor characteristics that can improve the ability to predict response to therapy would help optimize treatment, improve treatment outcomes, and avoid unnecessary exposure to potential toxicities. This study is to determine whether selected biomarkers could predict pathologic response (PR of breast tumors to three different PCT regimens, and to identify a subset of patients who would benefit from a given type of treatment. Methods 118 patients with primary breast tumor were identified and three PCT regimens including DEC (docetaxel+epirubicin+cyclophosphamide, VFC (vinorelbine/vincristine+5-fluorouracil+cyclophosphamide and EFC (epirubicin+5-fluorouracil+cyclophosphamide were investigated. Expression of steroid receptors, HER2, P-gp, MRP, GST-pi and Topo-II was evaluated by immunohistochemical scoring on tumor tissues obtained before and after PCT. The PR of breast carcinoma was graded according to Sataloff's classification. Chi square test, logistic regression and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel assay were performed to determine the association between biomarkers and PR, as well as the effectiveness of each regimen on induction of PR. Results There was a clear-cut correlation between the expression of ER and decreased PR to PCT in all three different regimens (p p Conclusion ER is an independent predictive factor for PR to PCT regimens including DEC, VFC and EFC in primary breast tumors, while HER2 is only predictive for DEC regimen. Expression of PgR, Topo-II, P-gp, MRP and GST-pi are not predictive for PR to any PCT regimens investigated. Results obtained in this clinical study may be helpful for the selection of appropriate treatments for breast cancer patients.

  20. Del-1 Expression as a Potential Biomarker in Triple-Negative Early Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jung; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Wan Wook; Jung, Jin Hyang; Park, Ho Yong; Park, Ji-Young; Chae, Yee Soo

    2018-01-01

    A differential diagnostic role for plasma Del-1 was proposed for early breast cancer (EBC) in our previous study. We examined tumoral Del-1 expression and analyzed its prognostic impact among patients with EBC. Del-1 mRNA expression was assessed in breast epithelial and cancer cells. Meanwhile, the tumoral expression of Del-1 was determined based on tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry results from 440 patients. While a high Del-1 mRNA expression was found in all the breast cancer cell lines, the expression was significantly higher in MDA-MB-231. Tumoral expression of Del-1 was also significantly associated with a negative expression of estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor, and low expression of Ki-67, particularly in the case of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (p breast cancer cell lines exhibited Del-1 expression, the expression rate and intensity were specifically prominent in TNBC. In addition, based on its relationship to an unfavorable histology and worse survival trend, Del-1 could act as a molecular target in TNBC patients. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. CA 15-3: uses and limitation as a biomarker for breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    CA 15-3 which detects soluble forms of MUC-1 protein is the most widely used serum marker in patients with breast cancer. Its main use is for monitoring therapy in patients with metastatic disease. In monitoring therapy in this setting, CA 15-3 should not be used alone but measured in conjunction with diagnostic imaging, clinical history and physical examination. CA 15-3 is particularly valuable for treatment monitoring in patients that have disease that cannot be evaluated using existing radiological procedures. CA 15-3 may also be used in the postoperative surveillance of asymptomatic women who have undergone surgery for invasive breast cancer. In this setting, serial determination can provide median lead-times of 5-6 months in the early detection of recurrent\\/metastatic breast cancer. It is unclear however, whether administering systemic therapy based on this lead-time improves patient outcome. Consequently, expert panels disagree on the utility of regularly measuring CA 15-3 in the postoperative surveillance of asymptomatic women following a diagnosis of breast cancer. The main limitation of CA 15-3 as a marker for breast cancer is that serum levels are rarely increased in patients with early or localized disease.

  2. Translational database selection and multiplexed sequence capture for up front filtering of reliable breast cancer biomarker candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik L Ståhl

    Full Text Available Biomarker identification is of utmost importance for the development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics. Here we make use of a translational database selection strategy, utilizing data from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA on differentially expressed protein patterns in healthy and breast cancer tissues as a means to filter out potential biomarkers for underlying genetic causatives of the disease. DNA was isolated from ten breast cancer biopsies, and the protein coding and flanking non-coding genomic regions corresponding to the selected proteins were extracted in a multiplexed format from the samples using a single DNA sequence capture array. Deep sequencing revealed an even enrichment of the multiplexed samples and a great variation of genetic alterations in the tumors of the sampled individuals. Benefiting from the upstream filtering method, the final set of biomarker candidates could be completely verified through bidirectional Sanger sequencing, revealing a 40 percent false positive rate despite high read coverage. Of the variants encountered in translated regions, nine novel non-synonymous variations were identified and verified, two of which were present in more than one of the ten tumor samples.

  3. ROLE OF DNA METHYLATION AS A DIAGNOSTIC BIOMARKER OF SPORADIC BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirsma Arif Harahap

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The initiation and progression of breast cancer have been recognized for many years to be secondary to the accumulation of genetic mutations which lead to aberrant cellular function. Genetic mutations, either inherited or sporadic, may result in the activation of oncogenes and the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. The more recent discovery that reversible alterations in histone proteins and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA can also lead to tumorigenesis has introduced a novel term to the field of cancer research: epigenetics.  Epigenetics refers to the study of heritable changes in gene regulation that do not involve a change in the DNA sequence. The most often studied in epigenetics of breast cancer is DNA methylation. That a promoter methylation result in transcription blockade supports the notion that cellular inhibition takes place. Compared to normal tissues, hypermethylation occurs from double to triple in cancerous ones. DNA methylation plays a crucial role in oncogenesis and is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Detection of aberrantly methylated CpG islands in promoter region of several genes in DNA sample derived from nipple aspirates, serum, or cancer tissue associated with down regulation of expression or loss of function of these genes has been associated with early stages of breast cancer, where  hypermethylation of CpG island points to poorer prognosis in breast cancer.  DNA methylation has been identified as signature for TNBC. Methylation of BRCA1 gene is frequently demonstrated in young, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients. Methylation of specific genes is known to differ across race and socioeconomic status. BRCA1 methylation in premenopausal women with sporadic breast cancer in West Sumatra region has been higher than in Western women. DNA methylation may be used to enhance current breast cancer classification. There is such a distinction between methylation and gene expression profiles of breast cancer that not

  4. Deep Sequencing of T-cell Receptor DNA as a Biomarker of Clonally Expanded TILs in Breast Cancer after Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, David B; Yuan, Jianda; Redmond, David; Wen, Y Hanna; Durack, Jeremy C; Emerson, Ryan; Solomon, Stephen; Dong, Zhiwan; Wong, Phillip; Comstock, Christopher; Diab, Adi; Sung, Janice; Maybody, Majid; Morris, Elizabeth; Brogi, Edi; Morrow, Monica; Sacchini, Virgilio; Elemento, Olivier; Robins, Harlan; Patil, Sujata; Allison, James P; Wolchok, Jedd D; Hudis, Clifford; Norton, Larry; McArthur, Heather L

    2016-10-01

    In early-stage breast cancer, the degree of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) predicts response to chemotherapy and overall survival. Combination immunotherapy with immune checkpoint antibody plus tumor cryoablation can induce lymphocytic infiltrates and improve survival in mice. We used T-cell receptor (TCR) DNA sequencing to evaluate both the effect of cryoimmunotherapy in humans and the feasibility of TCR sequencing in early-stage breast cancer. In a pilot clinical trial, 18 women with early-stage breast cancer were treated preoperatively with cryoablation, single-dose anti-CTLA-4 (ipilimumab), or cryoablation + ipilimumab. TCRs within serially collected peripheral blood and tumor tissue were sequenced. In baseline tumor tissues, T-cell density as measured by TCR sequencing correlated with TIL scores obtained by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. However, tumors with little or no lymphocytes by H&E contained up to 3.6 × 10 6 TCR DNA sequences, highlighting the sensitivity of the ImmunoSEQ platform. In this dataset, ipilimumab increased intratumoral T-cell density over time, whereas cryoablation ± ipilimumab diversified and remodeled the intratumoral T-cell clonal repertoire. Compared with monotherapy, cryoablation plus ipilimumab was associated with numerically greater numbers of peripheral blood and intratumoral T-cell clones expanding robustly following therapy. In conclusion, TCR sequencing correlates with H&E lymphocyte scoring and provides additional information on clonal diversity. These findings support further study of the use of TCR sequencing as a biomarker for T-cell responses to therapy and for the study of cryoimmunotherapy in early-stage breast cancer. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(10); 835-44. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Hypermethylated 14-3-3-σ and ESR1 gene promoters in serum as candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment efficacy of breast cancer metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurita, Mercedes; Lara, Pedro C; Moral, Rosario del; Torres, Blanca; Linares-Fernández, José Luis; Arrabal, Sandra Ríos; Martínez-Galán, Joaquina; Oliver, Francisco Javier; Ruiz de Almodóvar, José Mariano

    2010-01-01

    Numerous hypermethylated genes have been reported in breast cancer, and the silencing of these genes plays an important role in carcinogenesis, tumor progression and diagnosis. These hypermethylated promoters are very rarely found in normal breast. It has been suggested that aberrant hypermethylation may be useful as a biomarker, with implications for breast cancer etiology, diagnosis, and management. The relationship between primary neoplasm and metastasis remains largely unknown. There has been no comprehensive comparative study on the clinical usefulness of tumor-associated methylated DNA biomarkers in primary breast carcinoma and metastatic breast carcinoma. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between clinical extension of breast cancer and methylation status of Estrogen Receptor1 (ESR1) and Stratifin (14-3-3-σ) gene promoters in disease-free and metastatic breast cancer patients. We studied two cohorts of patients: 77 patients treated for breast cancer with no signs of disease, and 34 patients with metastatic breast cancer. DNA was obtained from serum samples, and promoter methylation status was determined by using DNA bisulfite modification and quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Serum levels of methylated gene promoter 14-3-3-σ significantly differed between Control and Metastatic Breast Cancer groups (P < 0.001), and between Disease-Free and Metastatic Breast Cancer groups (P < 0.001). The ratio of the 14-3-3-σ level before the first chemotherapy cycle to the level just before administration of the second chemotherapy cycle was defined as the Biomarker Response Ratio [BRR]. We calculated BRR values for the 'continuous decline' and 'rise-and-fall' groups. Subsequent ROC analysis showed a sensitivity of 75% (95% CI: 47.6 - 86.7) and a specificity of 66.7% (95% CI: 41.0 - 86.7) to discriminate between the groups for a cut-off level of BRR = 2.39. The area under the ROC curve (Z = 0.804 ± 0

  6. S100A14 is a novel independent prognostic biomarker in the triple-negative breast cancer subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehmsen, Sidse; Hansen, Lea Tykgaard; Bak, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a heterogeneous subgroup with generally poor outcome and lack of an effective targeted therapy. Prognostic or predictive biomarkers to guide treatment decisions for this group of patients are needed. To evaluate the potential of S100A14 protein...... as a novel biomarker in TNBC, the protein expression of S100A14 was correlated with clinical outcomes in a Pilot Sample set and a Danish cohort of predominantly TNBC patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis identified a prognostic impact of S100A14 on disease-free survival and overall survival, showing that tumors......-), had equally poor outcomes as those with tumor-positive axillary lymph nodes (N+), while TNBC/N- patients with low S100A14 expression had a significantly better disease free survival (p = 0.013). Multivariate analysis revealed that S100A14 is an independent prognostic factor for TNBC patients (p = 0...

  7. Evaluation of Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule as a Biomarker for Breast Cancer in Egyptian Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shepiny, M.S.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, serum activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) levels were evaluated in 41 primary breast cancer patients and 20 healthy females, and its diagnostic value was quantified, and compared with those of carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Also, its prognostic value was examined. Serum ALCAM levels were also evaluated before and after surgical treatment. Serum levels of ALCAM and CA 15-3 were significantly higher in breast cancer patients than healthy controls (P=0.002, P=0.043 respectively), but the difference in serum CEA levels did not reach statistical significance. Serum ALCAM levels had significant area under the curve (AUC) (P=0.002), but serum levels of CA 15-3 and CEA had nonsignificant AUCs, and various combinations between them did not result in any improvement. A significant association was found between serum levels of ALCAM and CEA with age and menopausal status in breast cancer patients. Non-significant difference was shown in serum levels of ALCAM, CA 15-3 and CEA before and after surgical treatment. In conclusion, this study suggests that serum ALCAM may represent a novel diagnostic bio marker for breast cancer

  8. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  9. ANX7 as a Bio-Marker in Prostate and Breast Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Srivastava

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The ANX7 gene codes for a Ca2+-activated GTPase, which has been implicated in both exocytotic secretion in cells and control of growth. In this review, we summarize information regarding increased tumor frequency in the Anx7 knockout mice, ANX7 growth suppression of human cancer cell lines, and ANX7 expression in human tumor tissue micro-arrays. The loss of ANX7 is significant in metastatic and hormone refractory prostate cancer compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia. In addition, ANX7 expression has prognostic value for predicting survival of breast cancer patients.

  10. Breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gablerová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    In this work the topic of breast cancer treated more generally and mainly focused on risk factors for the development. The theoretical part describes the general knowledge about breast cancer as a stage or treatment. The practical part is to have clarified the risk factors that have some bearing on the diagnosis of breast cancer. What level are involved in the probability of occurrence? Can we eliminate them? As a comparison of risk factors examined in the Czech Republic, England, Australia a...

  11. Plasma levels of the MMP-9:TIMP-1 complex as prognostic biomarker in breast cancer: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorsen, Stine B; Møller, Susanne; Brünner, Nils; Schrohl, Anne-Sofie; Stenvang, Jan; Christensen, Sarah LT; Würtz, Sidse Ø; Lundberg, Martin; Nielsen, Birgitte S; Vinther, Lena; Knowles, Mick; Gee, Nick; Fredriksson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide more than one million women are annually diagnosed with breast cancer. A considerable fraction of these women receive systemic adjuvant therapy; however, some are cured by primary surgery and radiotherapy alone. Prognostic biomarkers guide stratification of patients into different risk groups and hence improve management of breast cancer patients. Plasma levels of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its natural inhibitor Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) have previously been associated with poor patient outcome and resistance to certain forms of chemotherapy. To pursue additional prognostic information from MMP-9 and TIMP-1, the level of the MMP-9 and TIMP-1 complex (MMP-9:TIMP-1) was investigated in plasma from breast cancer patients. Detection of protein:protein complexes in plasma was performed using a commercially available ELISA kit and, for the first time, the highly sensitive in-solution proximity ligation assay (PLA). We screened plasma from 465 patients with primary breast cancer for prognostic value of the MMP-9:TIMP-1 complex. Both assays were validated and applied for quantification of MMP-9:TIMP-1 concentration. In this retrospective study, we analyzed the association between the concentration of the MMP-9:TIMP-1 complex and clinicopathological data and disease free survival (DFS) in univariate and multivariate survival analyses. Following successful validation both assays were applied for MMP-9:TIMP-1 measurements. Of the clinicopathological parameters, only menopausal status demonstrated significant association with the MMP-9:TIMP-1 complex; P = 0.03 and P = 0.028 for the ELISA and PLA measurements, respectively. We found no correlation between the MMP-9:TIMP-1 protein complex and DFS neither in univariate nor in multivariate survival analyses. Despite earlier reports linking MMP-9 and TIMP-1 with prognosis in breast cancer patients, we here demonstrate that plasma levels of the MMP-9:TIMP-1 protein complex hold no

  12. Membrane progesterone receptor alpha as a potential prognostic biomarker for breast cancer survival: a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxuan Xie

    Full Text Available Classically, the actions of progesterone (P4 are attributed to the binding of nuclear progesterone receptor (PR and subsequent activation of its downstream target genes. These mechanisms, however, are not applicable to PR- or basal phenotype breast cancer (BPBC due to lack of PR in these cancers. Recently, the function of membrane progesterone receptor alpha (mPRα in human BPBC cell lines was studied in our lab. We proposed that the signaling cascades of P4→mPRα pathway may play an essential role in controlling cell proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT of breast cancer. Using human breast cancer tissue microarrays, we found in this study that the average intensity of mPRα expression, but not percentage of breast cancer with high level of mPRα expression (mPRα-HiEx, was significantly lower in the TNM stage 4 patients compared to those with TNM 1-3 patients; and both average intensities of mPRα expression and mPRα-HiEx rates were significantly higher in cancers negative for ER, as compared with those cancers with ER+. However, after adjusting for age at diagnosis and/or TNM stage, only average intensities of mPRα expression were associated with ER status. In addition, we found that the rates of mPRα-HiEx were significantly higher in cancers with epithelial growth factor receptor-1 (EGFR+ and high level of Ki67 expression, indicating positive correlation between mPRα over expression and EGFR or Ki67. Further analysis indicated that both mPRα-HiEx rate and average intensity of mPRα expression were significantly higher in HER2+ subtype cancers (i.e. HER2+ER-PR- as compared to ER+ subtype cancers. These data support our hypothesis that P4 modulates the activities of the PI3K and cell proliferation pathways through the caveolar membrane bound growth factor receptors such as mPRα and growth factor receptors. Future large longitudinal studies with larger sample size and survival outcomes are necessary to confirm our

  13. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  14. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  15. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  16. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  17. Effects of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Metabolic Syndrome, Sarcopenic Obesity, and Circulating Biomarkers in Overweight or Obese Survivors of Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Courneya, Kerry S; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Sami, Nathalie; Lee, Kyuwan; Buchanan, Thomas A; Spicer, Darcy V; Tripathy, Debu; Bernstein, Leslie; Mortimer, Joanne E

    2018-03-20

    Purpose Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast cancer recurrence in survivors of breast cancer. This randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of a 16-week combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention on metabolic syndrome, sarcopenic obesity, and serum biomarkers among ethnically diverse, sedentary, overweight, or obese survivors of breast cancer. Methods Eligible survivors of breast cancer (N = 100) were randomly assigned to exercise (n = 50) or usual care (n = 50). The exercise group participated in supervised moderate-to-vigorous-65% to 85% of heart rate maximum-aerobic and resistance exercise three times per week for 16 weeks. Metabolic syndrome z-score (primary outcome), sarcopenic obesity, and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline, postintervention (4 months), and 3-month follow-up (exercise only). Results Participants were age 53 ± 10.4 years, 46% were obese, and 74% were ethnic minorities. Adherence to the intervention was 95%, and postintervention assessments were available in 91% of participants. Postintervention metabolic syndrome z-score was significantly improved in exercise versus usual care (between-group difference, -4.4; 95% CI, -5.9 to -2.7; P metabolic syndrome variables remained significantly improved compared with baseline in the exercise group ( P exercise effectively attenuated metabolic syndrome, sarcopenic obesity, and relevant biomarkers in an ethnically diverse sample of sedentary, overweight, or obese survivors of breast cancer. Our findings suggest a targeted exercise prescription for improving metabolic syndrome in survivors of breast cancer and support the incorporation of supervised clinical exercise programs into breast cancer treatment and survivorship care plans.

  18. Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM histogram biomarkers for prediction of neoadjuvant treatment response in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene Y. Cho

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the prognostic capabilities of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM metrics and their ability to predict response to neoadjuvant treatment (NAT. Additionally, to observe changes in IVIM metrics between pre- and post-treatment MRI. Methods: This IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study observed 31 breast cancer patients (32 lesions. Patients underwent standard bilateral breast MRI along with diffusion-weighted imaging before and after NAT. Six patients underwent an additional IVIM-MRI scan 12–14 weeks after initial scan and 2 cycles of treatment. In addition to apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC from monoexponential decay, IVIM mean values (tissue diffusivity Dt, perfusion fraction fp, and pseudodiffusivity Dp and histogram metrics were derived using a biexponential model. An additional filter identified voxels of highly vascular tumor tissue (VTT, excluding necrotic or normal tissue. Clinical data include histology of biopsy and clinical response to treatment through RECIST assessment. Comparisons of treatment response were made using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Results: Average, kurtosis, and skewness of pseudodiffusion Dp significantly differentiated RECIST responders from nonresponders. ADC and Dt values generally increased (∼70% and VTT% values generally decreased (∼20% post-treatment. Conclusion: Dp metrics showed prognostic capabilities; slow and heterogeneous pseudodiffusion offer poor prognosis. Baseline ADC/Dt parameters were not significant predictors of response. This work suggests that IVIM mean values and heterogeneity metrics may have prognostic value in the setting of breast cancer NAT. Keywords: Breast cancer, Diffusion weighted MRI, Intravoxel incoherent motion, Neoadjuvant treatment, Response evaluation criteria in solid tumors

  19. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  20. Annexin A2 and its downstream IL-6 and HB-EGF as secretory biomarkers in the differential diagnosis of Her-2 negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Praveenkumar; Patil, Vidya S; Mohan, Rajashekar; D'souza, Leonard Clinton; Bargale, Anil; Patil, Basavaraj R; Dinesh, U S; Haridas, Vikram; Kulkarni, Shrirang P

    2017-07-01

    Background AnnexinA2 (AnxA2) membrane deposition has a critical role in HB-EGF shedding as well as IL-6 secretion in breast cancer cells. This autocrine cycle has a major role in cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastasis. The objective of the study is to demonstrate annexinA2-mediated autocrine regulation via HB-EGF and IL-6 in Her-2 negative breast cancer progression. Methods Secretory annexinA2, HB-EGF and IL-6 were analysed in the peripheral blood sample of Her-2 negative ( n = 20) and positive breast cancer patients ( n = 16). Simultaneously, tissue expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry. The membrane deposition of these secretory ligands and their autocrine regulation was demonstrated using triple-negative breast cancer cell line model. Results Annexina2 and HB-EGF expression are inversely correlated with Her-2, whereas IL-6 expression is seen in both Her-2 negative and positive breast cancer cells. RNA interference studies and upregulation of annexinA2 proved that annexinA2 is the upstream of this autocrine pathway. Abundant soluble serum annexinA2 is secreted in Her-2 negative breast cancer (359.28 ± 63.73 ng/mL) compared with normal (286.10 ± 70.04 ng/mL, P breast cancer phenotypes as compared with normal ( P breast cancer tissues, increased secretion compared with normal cells, and their major role in the regulation of EGFR downstream signalling makes these molecules as a potential tissue and serum biomarker and an excellent therapeutic target in Her-2 negative breast cancer.

  1. Pharmacokinetic Tumor Heterogeneity as a Prognostic Biomarker for Classifying Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrooghy, Majid; Ashraf, Ahmed B; Daye, Dania; McDonald, Elizabeth S; Rosen, Mark; Mies, Carolyn; Feldman, Michael; Kontos, Despina

    2015-06-01

    Heterogeneity in cancer can affect response to therapy and patient prognosis. Histologic measures have classically been used to measure heterogeneity, although a reliable noninvasive measurement is needed both to establish baseline risk of recurrence and monitor response to treatment. Here, we propose using spatiotemporal wavelet kinetic features from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to quantify intratumor heterogeneity in breast cancer. Tumor pixels are first partitioned into homogeneous subregions using pharmacokinetic measures. Heterogeneity wavelet kinetic (HetWave) features are then extracted from these partitions to obtain spatiotemporal patterns of the wavelet coefficients and the contrast agent uptake. The HetWave features are evaluated in terms of their prognostic value using a logistic regression classifier with genetic algorithm wrapper-based feature selection to classify breast cancer recurrence risk as determined by a validated gene expression assay. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and area under the curve (AUC) are computed to assess classifier performance using leave-one-out cross validation. The HetWave features outperform other commonly used features (AUC = 0.88 HetWave versus 0.70 standard features). The combination of HetWave and standard features further increases classifier performance (AUCs 0.94). The rate of the spatial frequency pattern over the pharmacokinetic partitions can provide valuable prognostic information. HetWave could be a powerful feature extraction approach for characterizing tumor heterogeneity, providing valuable prognostic information.

  2. Selenium and Breast Cancer Chemoprevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry J

    2005-01-01

    .... The intermediate biomarkers being studied are as follows: indicators of oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules such as DNA and lipids, indicators of IGF metabolic status, and cellular indicators of breast cancer risk...

  3. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  4. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  5. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.; Krygier, G.; Castillo, C.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  6. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... modulators and aromatase inhibitors, reduce the risk of breast cancer in women with a high risk of the disease. These medications carry a risk of side effects, so doctors reserve these medications for women who ...

  7. Inflammatory biomarkers and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Schultz, Martin; Gaardsting, Anne

    2017-01-01

    and previous cancer diagnoses compared to patients who were not diagnosed with cancer. Previous cancer, C-reactive protein (CRP) and suPAR were significantly associated with newly diagnosed cancer during follow-up in multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and CRP. Neither any of the PRRs......In Denmark, patients with serious nonspecific symptoms and signs of cancer (NSSC) are referred to the diagnostic outpatient clinics (DOCs) where an accelerated cancer diagnostic program is initiated. Various immunological and inflammatory biomarkers have been associated with cancer, including...... soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) pentraxin-3, mannose-binding lectin, ficolin-1, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3. We aimed to evaluate these biomarkers and compare their diagnostic ability to classical biomarkers for diagnosing cancer...

  8. Gene profiling and circulating tumor cells as biomarker to prognostic of patients with locoregional breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyoshi, Renata K; Gehrke, Flávia de Sousa; Alves, Beatriz C A; Vilas-Bôas, Viviane; Coló, Anna E; Sousa, Naiara; Nunes, João; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Del Giglio, Auro

    2015-09-01

    The gene profile of primary tumors, as well as the identification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), can provide important prognostic and predictive information. In this study, our objective was to perform tumor gene profiling (TGP) in combination with CTC characterization in women with nonmetastatic breast cancer. Biological samples (from peripheral blood and tumors) from 167 patients diagnosed with stage I, II, and III mammary carcinoma, who were also referred for adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy, were assessed for the following parameters: (a) the presence of CTCs identified by the expression of CK-19 and c-erbB-2 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) fraction by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and (b) the TGP, which was determined by analyzing the expression of 21 genes in paraffin-embedded tissue samples by quantitative multiplex RT-PCR with the Plexor® system. We observed a statistically significant correlation between the progression-free interval (PFI) and the clinical stage (p = 0.000701), the TGP score (p = 0.006538), and the presence of hormone receptors in the tumor (p = 0.0432). We observed no correlation between the PFI and the presence or absence of CK-19 or HER2 expression in the PBMC fraction prior to the start of treatment or in the two following readouts. Multivariate analysis revealed that only the TGP score significantly correlated with the PFI (p = 0.029247). The TGP is an important prognostic variable for patients with locoregional breast cancer. The presence of CTCs adds no prognostic value to the information already provided by the TGP.

  9. Proteotranscriptomic Profiling of 231-BR Breast Cancer Cells: Identification of Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Brain Metastasis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Matthew D.; Chalkley, Robert J.; Faulkner, Sam; Keene, Sheridan; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A.; Scott, Rodney J.; Falkenby, Lasse G.; Cairns, Murray J.; Larsen, Martin R.; Bradshaw, Ralph A.; Hondermarck, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases are a devastating consequence of cancer and currently there are no specific biomarkers or therapeutic targets for risk prediction, diagnosis, and treatment. Here the proteome of the brain metastatic breast cancer cell line 231-BR has been compared with that of the parental cell line MDA-MB-231, which is also metastatic but has no organ selectivity. Using SILAC and nanoLC-MS/MS, 1957 proteins were identified in reciprocal labeling experiments and 1584 were quantified in the two cell lines. A total of 152 proteins were confidently determined to be up- or down-regulated by more than twofold in 231-BR. Of note, 112/152 proteins were decreased as compared with only 40/152 that were increased, suggesting that down-regulation of specific proteins is an important part of the mechanism underlying the ability of breast cancer cells to metastasize to the brain. When matched against transcriptomic data, 43% of individual protein changes were associated with corresponding changes in mRNA, indicating that the transcript level is a limited predictor of protein level. In addition, differential miRNA analyses showed that most miRNA changes in 231-BR were up- (36/45) as compared with down-regulations (9/45). Pathway analysis revealed that proteome changes were mostly related to cell signaling and cell cycle, metabolism and extracellular matrix remodeling. The major protein changes in 231-BR were confirmed by parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry and consisted in increases (by more than fivefold) in the matrix metalloproteinase-1, ephrin-B1, stomatin, myc target-1, and decreases (by more than 10-fold) in transglutaminase-2, the S100 calcium-binding protein A4, and l-plastin. The clinicopathological significance of these major proteomic changes to predict the occurrence of brain metastases, and their potential value as therapeutic targets, warrants further investigation. PMID:26041846

  10. Novel Stromal Biomarkers in Human Breast Cancer Tissues Provide Evidence for the More Malignant Phenotype of Estrogen Receptor-Negative Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa I. Khamis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research efforts were focused on genetic alterations in epithelial cancer cells. Epithelial-stromal interactions play a crucial role in cancer initiation, progression, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis; however, the active role of stroma in human breast tumorigenesis in relation to estrogen receptor (ER status of epithelial cells has not been explored. Using proteomics and biochemical approaches, we identified two stromal proteins in ER-positive and ER-negative human breast cancer tissues that may affect malignant transformation in breast cancer. Two putative biomarkers, T-cell receptor alpha (TCR-α and zinc finger and BRCA1-interacting protein with a KRAB domain (ZBRK1, were detected in leukocytes of ER-positive and endothelial cells of ER-negative tissues, respectively. Our data suggest an immunosuppressive role of leukocytes in invasive breast tumors, propose a multifunctional nature of ZBRK1 in estrogen receptor regulation and angiogenesis, and demonstrate the aggressiveness of ER-negative human breast carcinomas. This research project may identify new stromal drug targets for the treatment of breast cancer patients.

  11. Profiling of microRNAs in tumor interstitial fluid of breast tumors – a novel resource to identify biomarkers for prognostic classification and detection of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvorsen, Ann Rita; Helland, Åslaug; Gromov, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    and to elucidate the cross-talk that exists among cells in a tumor microenvironment. Matched tumor interstitial fluid samples (TIF, n = 60), normal interstitial fluid samples (NIF, n = 51), corresponding tumor tissue specimens (n = 54), and serum samples (n = 27) were collected from patients with breast cancer......, and detectable microRNAs were analyzed and compared. In addition, serum data from 32 patients with breast cancer and 22 healthy controls were obtained for a validation study. To identify potential serum biomarkers of breast cancer, first the microRNA profiles of TIF and NIF samples were compared. A total of 266...... microRNAs were present at higher level in the TIF samples as compared to normal counterparts. Sixty-one of these microRNAs were present in > 75% of the serum samples and were subsequently tested in a validation set. Seven of the 61 microRNAs were associated with poor survival, while 23 were associated...

  12. Usefulness of Traditional Serum Biomarkers for Management of Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppino Mirabelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of serum tumor markers levels in breast cancer (BC patients is an economic and noninvasive diagnostic assay frequently requested by clinical oncologists to get information about the presence or absence of disease as well as its evolution. Despite their wide use in clinical practice, there is still an intense debate between scientific organizations about the real usefulness for patient monitoring during followup as well as response to therapy evaluation in case of advanced BC. In this review, we want to highlight the current recommendations published by scientific organizations about the use of “established” BC serum markers (CEA, TPA, TPS, CIFRA-21, CA15-3, and s-HER2 in clinical oncology practice. Moreover, we will focus on recent papers evidencing the usefulness of tumor markers levels measurement as a guide for the prescription and diagnostic integration of molecular imaging exams such as those performed by hybrid 18-fluorofeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography. This technology is nowadays able to detect early cancer lesions undetectable by conventional morphological imaging investigation and most likely responsible for increasing of serum tumor markers levels.

  13. Diagnostic and prognostic epigenetic biomarkers in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Montezuma, Diana; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Growing cancer incidence and mortality worldwide demands development of accurate biomarkers to perfect detection, diagnosis, prognostication and monitoring. Urologic (prostate, bladder, kidney), lung, breast and colorectal cancers are the most common and despite major advances in their characterization, this has seldom translated into biomarkers amenable for clinical practice. Epigenetic alterations are innovative cancer biomarkers owing to stability, frequency, reversibility and accessibility in body fluids, entailing great potential of assay development to assist in patient management. Several studies identified putative epigenetic cancer biomarkers, some of which have been commercialized. However, large multicenter validation studies are required to foster translation to the clinics. Herein we review the most promising epigenetic detection, diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for the most common cancers.

  14. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu

    2017-07-05

    Early-stage cancer detection could reduce breast cancer death rates significantly in the long-term. The most critical point for best prognosis is to identify early-stage cancer cells. Investigators have studied many breast diagnostic approaches, including mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computerized tomography, positron emission tomography and biopsy. However, these techniques have some limitations such as being expensive, time consuming and not suitable for young women. Developing a high-sensitive and rapid early-stage breast cancer diagnostic method is urgent. In recent years, investigators have paid their attention in the development of biosensors to detect breast cancer using different biomarkers. Apart from biosensors and biomarkers, microwave imaging techniques have also been intensely studied as a promising diagnostic tool for rapid and cost-effective early-stage breast cancer detection. This paper aims to provide an overview on recent important achievements in breast screening methods (particularly on microwave imaging) and breast biomarkers along with biosensors for rapidly diagnosing breast cancer.

  15. Toxic elements as biomarkers for breast cancer: a meta-analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouybari L

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leila Jouybari,1 Marzieh Saei Ghare Naz,2 Akram Sanagoo,1 Faezeh Kiani,3 Fatemeh Sayehmiri,4 Kourosh Sayehmiri,5 Ali Hasanpour Dehkordi6 1Nursing Research Center, Goletsan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran; 2Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Student Research Committee, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran; 4Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran; 6Department of Medical Surgical, Nursing and Midwifery, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran Aims and background: Breast cancer (BC is responsible for a large proportion of incidence of cancer in the world. Identifying the risk factors contributing to the incidence of BC is crucial to find efficient preventive and management strategies for this disease. Several studies have examined Arsenic (As, Cadmium (Cd, and Nickel (Ni as risk factors for BC. The present study aimed at studying the link between As, Cd, and Ni concentrations and BC by using a meta-analysis.Materials and methods: All case–control studies addressing the relationship between As, Cd, and Ni concentrations with BC were identified through electronic search databases (­Scopus, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Library. The relevant data obtained from these papers were analyzed by a random-effects model. The heterogeneity of studies was secured by using I2 index. Funnel plots and Egger’s test were used to examine publication bias.Results: In the present study, due to different measurement methods used for measuring As, Cd, and Ni, the concentration of these elements was measured in various subgroups (1: plasma, 2: breast tissue, and 3: scalp hair and nail of individuals with BC and healthy subjects. The overall integration of data from the 3

  16. Frequency and Circadian Timing of Eating May Influence Biomarkers of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance Associated with Breast Cancer Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine R Marinac

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that there is interplay between the frequency and circadian timing of eating and metabolic health. We examined the associations of eating frequency and timing with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers putatively associated with breast cancer risk in women participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination 2009-2010 Survey. Eating frequency and timing variables were calculated from 24-hour food records and included (1 proportion of calories consumed in the evening (5 pm-midnight, (2 number of eating episodes per day, and (3 nighttime fasting duration. Linear regression models examined each eating frequency and timing exposure variable with C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations and the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR. Each 10 percent increase in the proportion of calories consumed in the evening was associated with a 3 percent increase in CRP. Conversely, eating one additional meal or snack per day was associated with an 8 percent reduction in CRP. There was a significant interaction between proportion of calories consumed in the evening and fasting duration with CRP (p = 0.02. A longer nighttime fasting duration was associated with an 8 percent lower CRP only among women who ate less than 30% of their total daily calories in the evening (p = 0.01. None of the eating frequency and timing variables were significantly associated with HOMA-IR. These findings suggest that eating more frequently, reducing evening energy intake, and fasting for longer nightly intervals may lower systemic inflammation and subsequently reduce breast cancer risk. Randomized trials are needed to validate these associations.

  17. Frequency and Circadian Timing of Eating May Influence Biomarkers of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance Associated with Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinac, Catherine R; Sears, Dorothy D; Natarajan, Loki; Gallo, Linda C; Breen, Caitlin I; Patterson, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that there is interplay between the frequency and circadian timing of eating and metabolic health. We examined the associations of eating frequency and timing with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers putatively associated with breast cancer risk in women participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination 2009-2010 Survey. Eating frequency and timing variables were calculated from 24-hour food records and included (1) proportion of calories consumed in the evening (5 pm-midnight), (2) number of eating episodes per day, and (3) nighttime fasting duration. Linear regression models examined each eating frequency and timing exposure variable with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Each 10 percent increase in the proportion of calories consumed in the evening was associated with a 3 percent increase in CRP. Conversely, eating one additional meal or snack per day was associated with an 8 percent reduction in CRP. There was a significant interaction between proportion of calories consumed in the evening and fasting duration with CRP (p = 0.02). A longer nighttime fasting duration was associated with an 8 percent lower CRP only among women who ate less than 30% of their total daily calories in the evening (p = 0.01). None of the eating frequency and timing variables were significantly associated with HOMA-IR. These findings suggest that eating more frequently, reducing evening energy intake, and fasting for longer nightly intervals may lower systemic inflammation and subsequently reduce breast cancer risk. Randomized trials are needed to validate these associations.

  18. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... white women. Inflammatory breast tumors are frequently hormone receptor negative, which means they cannot be treated with ...

  19. Long chain fatty Acyl-CoA synthetase 4 is a biomarker for and mediator of hormone resistance in human breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Wu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the role of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4 in breast cancer. Public databases were utilized to analyze the relationship between ACSL4 mRNA expression and the presence of steroid hormone and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 in both breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples. In addition, cell lines were utilized to assess the consequences of either increased or decreased levels of ACSL4 expression. Proliferation, migration, anchorage-independent growth and apoptosis were used as biological end points. Effects on mRNA expression and signal transduction pathways were also monitored. A meta-analysis of public gene expression databases indicated that ACSL4 expression is positively correlated with a unique subtype of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC, characterized by the absence of androgen receptor (AR and therefore referred to as quadruple negative breast cancer (QNBC. Results of experiments in breast cancer cell lines suggest that simultaneous expression of ACSL4 and a receptor is associated with hormone resistance. Forced expression of ACSL4 in ACSL4-negative, estrogen receptor α (ER-positive MCF-7 cells resulted in increased growth, invasion and anchorage independent growth, as well as a loss of dependence on estrogen that was accompanied by a reduction in the levels of steroid hormone receptors. Sensitivity to tamoxifen, triacsin C and etoposide was also attenuated. Similarly, when HER2-positive, ACSL4-negative, SKBr3 breast cancer cells were induced to express ACSL4, the proliferation rate increased and the apoptotic effect of lapatinib was reduced. The growth stimulatory effect of ACSL4 expression was also observed in vivo in nude mice when MCF-7 control and ACSL4-expressing cells were utilized to induce tumors. Our data strongly suggest that ACSL4 can serve as both a biomarker for, and mediator of, an aggressive breast cancer phenotype.

  20. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  1. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  2. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right away. He or she will do a physical exam. They will ask you about your health history and your family’s history of breast cancer. ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food ...

  3. Biomarkers of cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loumaye, Audrey; Thissen, Jean-Paul

    2017-12-01

    Cachexia is a complex multifactorial syndrome, characterized by loss of skeletal muscle and fat mass, which affects the majority of advanced cancer patients and is associated with poor prognosis. Interestingly, reversing muscle loss in animal models of cancer cachexia leads to prolong survival. Therefore, detecting cachexia and maintaining muscle mass represent a major goal in the care of cancer patients. However, early diagnosis of cancer cachexia is currently limited for several reasons. Indeed, cachexia development is variable according to tumor and host characteristics. In addition, safe, accessible and non-invasive tools to detect skeletal muscle atrophy are desperately lacking in clinical practice. Finally, the precise molecular mechanisms and the key players involved in cancer cachexia remain poorly characterized. The need for an early diagnosis of cancer cachexia supports therefore the quest for a biomarker that might reflect skeletal muscle atrophy process. Current research offers different promising ways to identify such a biomarker. Initially, the quest for a biomarker of cancer cachexia has mostly focused on mediators of muscle atrophy, produced by both tumor and host, in an attempt to define new therapeutic approaches. In another hand, molecules released by the muscle into the circulation during the atrophy process have been also considered as potential biomarkers. More recently, several "omics" studies are emerging to identify new muscular or circulating markers of cancer cachexia. Some genetic markers could also contribute to identify patients more susceptible to develop cachexia. This article reviews our current knowledge regarding potential biomarkers of cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  5. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of breast cancer that can occur in men include Paget's disease of the nipple and inflammatory breast cancer. Inherited genes that increase breast cancer risk Some men inherit abnormal (mutated) genes from their parents that ...

  6. Study on IL-2 and CA 15-3 level as combined biomarkers in monitoring chemotherapeutic response among invasive breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Ahmed Muthanna Abdul; Hamid, Auni Fatin Abdul; Shahfiza Noor, Nurul; Appalanaido, Gokula Kumar; Bariyah Sahul Hamid, Shahrul

    2017-05-01

    In Malaysia, breast cancer is the most frequent type of disease among women. This study was designed to determine the clinical usefulness of carbohydrate antigen (CA 15-3) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) levels as combined biomarkers in monitoring breast cancer patient’s response to chemotherapy. Ethical approval was obtained to recruit patients with histologically confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) attending Oncology Clinic at Advanced Medical and Dental Institute. Whole blood was collected from 10 IDC breast cancer patients’ pre and post primary chemotherapy. Plasma was separated from the whole blood to determine the CA 15-3 level and IL-2 level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) pre and post-treatment. In addition, the histological findings, tumour stage and other patients’ data were obtained from the medical record. Findings showed that IL-2 had borderline significant changes between pre- and post-chemotherapy (p = 0.074) whereas for CA 15-3, there was insignificant differences of CA 15-3 level between pre and post-chemotherapy (p > 0.05). It was noted that only CA 15-3 level had significant correlation with tumour size. This study demonstrates that IL-2 level requires further investigation in a larger sample size to correlate its potential use as combined biomarker with CA 15-3 in monitoring response to chemotherapy.

  7. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  8. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  9. SIAH and EGFR, Two RAS Pathway Biomarkers, are Highly Prognostic in Locally Advanced and Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L. Siewertsz van Reesema

    2016-09-01

    Funding: This work was supported by the Dorothy G. Hoefer Foundation for Breast Cancer Research (A.H. Tang; Center for Innovative Technology (CIT-Commonwealth Research Commercialization Fund (CRCF (MF14S-009-LS to A.H. Tang, and National Cancer Institute (CA140550 to A.H. Tang.

  10. Validation of New Cancer Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Michael J; Sturgeon, Catherine M; Söletormos, Georg

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are playing increasingly important roles in the detection and management of patients with cancer. Despite an enormous number of publications on cancer biomarkers, few of these biomarkers are in widespread clinical use. CONTENT: In this review, we discuss the key steps...... in advancing a newly discovered cancer candidate biomarker from pilot studies to clinical application. Four main steps are necessary for a biomarker to reach the clinic: analytical validation of the biomarker assay, clinical validation of the biomarker test, demonstration of clinical value from performance...... of the biomarker test, and regulatory approval. In addition to these 4 steps, all biomarker studies should be reported in a detailed and transparent manner, using previously published checklists and guidelines. Finally, all biomarker studies relating to demonstration of clinical value should be registered before...

  11. Status of oral ulcerative mucositis and biomarkers to monitor posttraumatic stress disorder effects in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Wings T Y; Liu, Qing; Yip, Michael C W; Wang, Min; Chow, Louis W C; Cheung, Mary N B; Yip, Adrian Y S; Ng, Elizabeth L Y

    2013-06-28

    This study was designed to assess oral ulcerative mucositis, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, heart rate and thyroid function in breast cancer patients in relation to the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder 
(PTSD). A total of 120 female breast cancer patients and women 100 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. PTSD status was assessed by questionnaire. Before and after treatment (modified radical mastectomy and chemotherapy), serum samples were collected and measured for levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) by ELISA. Oral ulcerative mucositis was evaluated by the number and duration of oral ulcers and the degree of pain. Breast cancer patients experienced long-term PTSD and had elevated serum T3 and T4 levels. Patients experienced more severe pain and longer duration of oral ulcers compared with the healthy group. Oral ulcers were significantly associated with PTSD score in terms of the number of ulcers (p=0.0025), the degree of pain (pthyroid function is altered in breast cancer patients with PTSD. Elevation of T3 and T4 and oral ulcerative mucositis might be indicative of the emotional status of breast cancer patients.

  12. Molecular detection of peripheral blood breast cancer mRNA transcripts as a surrogate biomarker for circulating tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lasa

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are becoming a scientifically recognized indicator of primary tumors and/or metastasis. These cells can now be accurately detected and characterized as the result of technological advances. We analyzed the presence of CTCs in the peripheral blood of patients with metastatic breast cancer by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR using a panel of selected genes. The analysis of a single marker, without an EpCAM based enrichment approach, allowed the positive identification of 35% of the metastatic breast cancer patients. The analysis of five genes (SCGB2, TFF1, TFF3, Muc1, KRT20 performed in all the samples increased the detection to 61%. We describe a sensitive, reproducible and easy to implement approach to characterize CTC in patients with metastasic breast cancer.

  13. Center for the Evaluation of Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Table S1, including mammography (BI-RADS) score and breast density at the last mammogram before diagnosis, lymph node positivity, tumor size, number of...Bibliography 1.& Fletcher RH. Should all people over the age of 50 have regular fecal occult-blood tests? If it works, why not do it? New England Journal...blocked for 15 minutes at room temperature in fluores- cence-activated cell sorting (FACS) buffer (PBS, 0.1% bovine serum albumin (BSA), 0.02% sodium

  14. Identification of New Serum Biomarkers for Early Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis Using Lipid Microarrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Du, Guangwei

    2007-01-01

    ... explored. Dysregulation of cellular signaling in cancer cells would be expected to lead to irregular metabolism of many lipids, which could be sensed by immune system and cause the production of novel autoantibodies...

  15. Identification and analysis of cell-specific biomarkers of breast cancer subpopulations by recombinant antibody selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    som selektionsmateriale bevarer det oprindelige cellestadie og mikromiljø for de valgte celler. Som et ”proof-of-concept” blev der foretaget selektioner for antistoffragmenter, som bandt til antigener specifikt udtrykt i et lille område af vævssnittet. Dette område var endothelcellerne i et blodkar...... antistoffragmenter som er specifikke for brystkæft. Yderligere karakterisering af disse antistoffragmenter samt identifikation af deres beslægtede antigener, vil kunne optrævle nye biomarkører for brystkræft, der kan være nyttige for bedre stratificering og for udviklingen af nye, målrettede behandlingsformer....

  16. Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultrasound or a breast MRI cannot rule out breast cancer then you will need a biopsy to confirm diagnosis. If diagnosed When first diagnosed with breast cancer, many men are in shock. After all, ...

  17. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  18. MiR-190b, the highest up-regulated miRNA in ERα-positive compared to ERα-negative breast tumors, a new biomarker in breast cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizeron-Clairac, Geraldine; Lallemand, François; Vacher, Sophie; Lidereau, Rosette; Bieche, Ivan; Callens, Celine

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) show differential expression across breast cancer subtypes and have both oncogenic and tumor-suppressive roles. Numerous microarray studies reported different expression patterns of miRNAs in breast cancers and found clinical interest for several miRNAs but often with contradictory results. Aim of this study is to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed in estrogen receptor positive (ER + ) and negative (ER − ) breast primary tumors to better understand the molecular basis for the phenotypic differences between these two sub-types of carcinomas and to find potential clinically relevant miRNAs. We used the robust and reproductive tool of quantitative RT-PCR in a large cohort of well-annotated 153 breast cancers with long-term follow-up to identify miRNAs specifically differentially expressed between ER + and ER − breast cancers. Cytotoxicity tests and transfection experiments were then used to examine the role and the regulation mechanisms of selected miRNAs. We identified a robust collection of 20 miRNAs significantly deregulated in ER + compared to ER − breast cancers : 12 up-regulated and eight down-regulated miRNAs. MiR-190b retained our attention as it was the miRNA the most strongly over-expressed in ER + compared to ER − with a fold change upper to 23. It was also significantly up-regulated in ER + /Normal breast tissue and down-regulated in ER − /Normal breast tissue. Functional experiments showed that miR-190b expression is not directly regulated by estradiol and that miR-190b does not affect breast cancer cell lines proliferation. Expression level of miR-190b impacts metastasis-free and event-free survival independently of ER status. This study reveals miR-190b as the highest up-regulated miRNA in hormone-dependent breast cancers. Due to its specificity and high expression level, miR-190b could therefore represent a new biomarker in hormone-dependent breast cancers but its exact role carcinogenesis remains to

  19. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  20. WAVE3 is a Biomarker for Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    insure reproducibility of the results. f) Repeat tasks a to e for the specimens with questionable results. Completed. See below Task 7: A BC TMA...miRs 570, 542, 103, 107 and 302, all of which have been found to be deregulated during cancer progression and metastasis [26,33,39–44], therefore

  1. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  2. Profilin-1 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells is associated with alterations in proteomics biomarkers of cell proliferation, survival, and motility as revealed by global proteomics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumans, Joëlle V F; Gau, David; Poljak, Anne; Wasinger, Valerie; Roy, Partha; Moens, Pierre D J

    2014-12-01

    Despite early screening programs and new therapeutic strategies, metastatic breast cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death in women in industrialized countries and regions. There is a need for novel biomarkers of susceptibility, progression, and therapeutic response. Global analyses or systems science approaches with omics technologies offer concrete ways forward in biomarker discovery for breast cancer. Previous studies have shown that expression of profilin-1 (PFN1), a ubiquitously expressed actin-binding protein, is downregulated in invasive and metastatic breast cancer. It has also been reported that PFN1 overexpression can suppress tumorigenic ability and motility/invasiveness of breast cancer cells. To obtain insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of how elevating PFN1 level induces these phenotypic changes in breast cancer cells, we investigated the alteration in global protein expression profiles of breast cancer cells upon stable overexpression of PFN1 by a combination of three different proteome analysis methods (2-DE, iTRAQ, label-free). Using MDA-MB-231 as a model breast cancer cell line, we provide evidence that PFN1 overexpression is associated with alterations in the expression of proteins that have been functionally linked to cell proliferation (FKPB1A, HDGF, MIF, PRDX1, TXNRD1, LGALS1, STMN1, LASP1, S100A11, S100A6), survival (HSPE1, HSPB1, HSPD1, HSPA5 and PPIA, YWHAZ, CFL1, NME1) and motility (CFL1, CORO1B, PFN2, PLS3, FLNA, FLNB, NME2, ARHGDIB). In view of the pleotropic effects of PFN1 overexpression in breast cancer cells as suggested by these new findings, we propose that PFN1-induced phenotypic changes in cancer cells involve multiple mechanisms. Our data reported here might also offer innovative strategies for identification and validation of novel therapeutic targets and companion diagnostics for persons with, or susceptibility to, breast cancer.

  3. Loss of PTEN as a Predictive Biomarker of Response to Lithium Chloride, A Potential Targeted Treatment for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Acad Sci USA 2007; 104:7564-9. 11. Carpten JD, Faber AL, Horn C, Donoho GP, Briggs SL, Robbins CM, et al. A transforming mutation in the pleckstrin...overexpressing breast cancers with lithium citrate Toni M. Brand and Deric L. Wheeler* Department of Human Oncology; University of Wisconsin School of

  4. Integration of Serum Protein Biomarker and Tumor Associated Autoantibody Expression Data Increases the Ability of a Blood-Based Proteomic Assay to Identify Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith C Henderson

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in breast imaging, the ability to accurately detect Breast Cancer (BC remains a challenge. With the discovery of key biomarkers and protein signatures for BC, proteomic technologies are currently poised to serve as an ideal diagnostic adjunct to imaging. Research studies have shown that breast tumors are associated with systemic changes in levels of both serum protein biomarkers (SPB and tumor associated autoantibodies (TAAb. However, the independent contribution of SPB and TAAb expression data for identifying BC relative to a combinatorial SPB and TAAb approach has not been fully investigated. This study evaluates these contributions using a retrospective cohort of pre-biopsy serum samples with known clinical outcomes collected from a single site, thus minimizing potential site-to-site variation and enabling direct assessment of SPB and TAAb contributions to identify BC. All serum samples (n = 210 were collected prior to biopsy. These specimens were obtained from 18 participants with no evidence of breast disease (ND, 92 participants diagnosed with Benign Breast Disease (BBD and 100 participants diagnosed with BC, including DCIS. All BBD and BC diagnoses were based on pathology results from biopsy. Statistical models were developed to differentiate BC from non-BC (i.e., BBD and ND using expression data from SPB alone, TAAb alone, and a combination of SPB and TAAb. When SPB data was independently used for modeling, clinical sensitivity and specificity for detection of BC were 74.7% and 77.0%, respectively. When TAAb data was independently used, clinical sensitivity and specificity for detection of BC were 72.2% and 70.8%, respectively. When modeling integrated data from both SPB and TAAb, the clinical sensitivity and specificity for detection of BC improved to 81.0% and 78.8%, respectively. These data demonstrate the benefit of the integration of SPB and TAAb data and strongly support the further development of

  5. Disposable inkjet-printed electrochemical platform for detection of clinically relevant HER-2 breast cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Susanita; Fera, Samantha N; Jones, Abby L; Baldo, Thaisa A; Mosa, Islam M; Rusling, James F; Krause, Colleen E

    2018-05-01

    Rapidly fabricated, disposable sensor platforms hold tremendous promise for point-of-care detection. Here, we present an inexpensive (Receptor 2 (HER-2). Capture antibodies were bound to a chemically modified surface on the WEA and placed into a microfluidic device. A full sandwich immunoassay was constructed following a simultaneous injection of target protein, biotinylated antibody, and polymerized horseradish peroxide labels into the microfluidic device housing the WEA. With an ultra fast assay time, of only 15mins a clinically relevant limit of detection of 12pgmL -1 was achieved. Excellent reproducibility and sensitivity were observed through recovery assays preformed in human serum with recoveries ranging from 76% to 103%. These easily fabricated and scalable electrochemical sensor platforms can be readily adapted for multiplex detection following this rapid assay protocol for cancer diagnostics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE'): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, Scot M; Playdon, Mary C; Wolfe, Pamela; McGinley, John N; Wisthoff, Mark R; Daeninck, Elizabeth A; Jiang, Weiqin; Zhu, Zongjian; Thompson, Henry J

    2011-07-06

    Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m²) will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF), IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. While clinical data indicate that excess weight for height is associated with poor prognosis for long term

  7. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeninck Elizabeth A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Methods/Design Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2 will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF, IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. Discussion While clinical data indicate that excess weight

  8. Using image analysis as a tool for assessment of prognostic and predictive biomarkers for breast cancer: How reliable is it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2 are important and well-established prognostic and predictive biomarkers for breast cancers and routinely tested on patient′s tumor samples by immunohistochemical (IHC study. The accuracy of these test results has substantial impact on patient management. A critical factor that contributes to the result is the interpretation (scoring of IHC. This study investigates how computerized image analysis can play a role in a reliable scoring, and identifies potential pitfalls with common methods. Materials and Methods : Whole slide images of 33 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC (10 ER and 23 HER2 were scored by pathologist under the light microscope and confirmed by another pathologist. The HER2 results were additionally confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The scoring criteria were adherent to the guidelines recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists. Whole slide stains were then scored by commercially available image analysis algorithms from Definiens (Munich, Germany and Aperio Technologies (Vista, CA, USA. Each algorithm was modified specifically for each marker and tissue. The results were compared with the semi-quantitative manual scoring, which was considered the gold standard in this study. Results : For HER2 positive group, each algorithm scored 23/23 cases within the range established by the pathologist. For ER, both algorithms scored 10/10 cases within range. The performance of each algorithm varies somewhat from the percentage of staining as compared to the pathologist′s reading. Conclusions : Commercially available computerized image analysis can be useful in the evaluation of ER and HER2 IHC results. In order to achieve accurate results either manual pathologist region selection is necessary, or an automated region selection tool must be employed. Specificity can

  9. Geriatric assessment and biomarkers in patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving first-line mono-chemotherapy: Results from the randomized phase III PELICAN trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honecker, Friedemann; Harbeck, Nadia; Schnabel, Claudia; Wedding, Ulrich; Waldenmaier, Dirk; Saupe, Steffen; Jäger, Elke; Schmidt, Marcus; Kreienberg, Rolf; Müller, Lothar; Otremba, Burkhard; Dorn, Julia; Warm, Mathias; Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; de Wit, Maike

    2018-03-01

    To determine predictive/prognostic factors for patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) receiving first-line monochemotherapy using biomarker analysis and geriatric assessment (GA). Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) and GA as clinical parameters, and prognostic inflammatory and nutritional index (PINI), and Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) as biomarkers were analyzed for association with clinical outcome within the randomized phase III PEg-LIposomal Doxorubicin vs. CApecitabin iN MBC (PELICAN) trial of first-line pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) or capecitabine. Of 210 patients, 38% were >65years old. GA (n=152) classified 74% as fit, 10% as compromised, and 16% as frail. Biomarkers showed no age dependency. In multivariate analysis (n=70) KPS, GA, cumulative illness rating scale-geriatrics (CIRS-G), and GPS were significantly associated with time to progression, and KPS, CIRS-G, and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) from GA, and PINI showed a significant correlation with overall survival. GA evaluation was feasible. KPS significantly correlated with efficacy outcomes. Items of a GA and biomarkers of inflammation and nutrition may have prognostic significance in patients with MBC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  11. Methylated genes as new cancer biomarkers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M J

    2012-02-01

    Aberrant hypermethylation of promoter regions in specific genes is a key event in the formation and progression of cancer. In at least some situations, these aberrant alterations occur early in the formation of malignancy and appear to be tumour specific. Multiple reports have suggested that measurement of the methylation status of the promoter regions of specific genes can aid early detection of cancer, determine prognosis and predict therapy responses. Promising DNA methylation biomarkers include the use of methylated GSTP1 for aiding the early diagnosis of prostate cancer, methylated PITX2 for predicting outcome in lymph node-negative breast cancer patients and methylated MGMT in predicting benefit from alkylating agents in patients with glioblastomas. However, prior to clinical utilisation, these findings require validation in prospective clinical studies. Furthermore, assays for measuring gene methylation need to be standardised, simplified and evaluated in external quality assurance programmes. It is concluded that methylated genes have the potential to provide a new generation of cancer biomarkers.

  12. Serum Adipocytokines (Visfatin and Resistin: New Biomarkers of Breast Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa A. El-Benhawy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is associated with an increased risk for breast cancer in women. Increased estrogen levels are suggested as one possible explanation, but this does not fully explain the relationship between obesity and breast cancer. One alternative explanation is secretion by adipocytes of metabolites, hormones and cytokines, collectively known as adipocytokines, which regulate physiological and pathological processes. Among these adipokines are visfatin and resistin. This study investigates whether visfatin or resistin in serum of breast cancer patients can be used as potential diagnostic and prognostic tools for breast cancer, taking into account clinicopathological features and anthropometric parameters. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 70 breast cancer patients (35 obese and 35 non-obese and 20 healthy females matched for age and body mass index as the control group. Serum visfatin levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and serum resistin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Inflammatory status was assessed by measuring C-reactive protein levels by an automated turbidimetric analyzer. Results: We observed highly elevated serum resistin and visfatin levels in breast cancer patients compared to controls, independent of body mass index. Serum resistin and visfatin levels were likely to be associated with increased breast cancer risk and correlated with the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein. Conclusion: Targeting resistin and visfatin inhibition can be an effective therapeutic strategy in breast cancer by downregulating the inflammatory microenvironment in breast tissue. Serum visfatin promises to be a novel biomarker of diagnostic and prognostic value. Larger prospective studies are required to confirm our findings.

  13. Imaging biomarkers to predict response to anti-HER2 (ErbB2) therapy in preclinical models of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chirayu; Miller, Todd W.; Wyatt, Shelby K.; McKinley, Eliot T.; Olivares, Maria Graciela; Sanchez, Violeta; Nolting, Donald D.; Buck, Jason R.; Zhao, Ping; Ansari, M. Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Gore, John C.; Schiff, Rachel; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Manning, H. Charles

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate non-invasive imaging methods as predictive biomarkers of response to trastuzumab in mouse models of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. The correlation between tumor regression and molecular imaging of apoptosis, glucose metabolism, and cellular proliferation was evaluated longitudinally in responding and non-responding tumor-bearing cohorts. Experimental Design Mammary tumors from MMTV/HER2 transgenic female mice were transplanted into syngeneic female mice. BT474 human breast carcinoma cell line xenografts were grown in athymic nude mice. Tumor cell apoptosis (NIR700-Annexin-V accumulation), glucose metabolism ([18F]FDG-PET), and proliferation ([18F]FLT-PET) were evaluated throughout a bi-weekly trastuzumab regimen. Imaging metrics were validated by direct measurement of tumor size and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of cleaved caspase-3, phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) and Ki67. Results NIR700-Annexin-V accumulated significantly in trastuzumab-treated MMTV/HER2 and BT474 tumors that ultimately regressed, but not in non-responding or vehicle-treated tumors. Uptake of [18F]FDG was not affected by trastuzumab treatment in MMTV/HER2 or BT474 tumors. [18F]FLT PET imaging predicted trastuzumab response in BT474 tumors but not in MMTV/HER2 tumors, which exhibited modest uptake of [18F]FLT. Close agreement was observed between imaging metrics and IHC analysis. Conclusions Molecular imaging of apoptosis accurately predicts trastuzumab-induced regression of HER2(+) tumors and may warrant clinical exploration to predict early response to neoadjuvant trastuzumab. Trastuzumab does not appear to alter glucose metabolism substantially enough to afford [18F]FDG-PET significant predictive value in this setting. Although promising in one preclinical model, further studies are required to determine the overall value of [18F]FLT-PET as a biomarker of response to trastuzumab in HER2+ breast cancer. PMID:19584166

  14. Circulating microRNAs in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, Rimi; Hamam, Dana; Alsaleh, Khalid A.

    2017-01-01

    Effective management of breast cancer depends on early diagnosis and proper monitoring of patients' response to therapy. However, these goals are difficult to achieve because of the lack of sensitive and specific biomarkers for early detection and for disease monitoring. Accumulating evidence...... in the past several years has highlighted the potential use of peripheral blood circulating nucleic acids such as DNA, mRNA and micro (mi)RNA in breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis and for monitoring response to anticancer therapy. Among these, circulating miRNA is increasingly recognized as a promising...... circulating miRNAs as diagnostic, prognostic or predictive biomarkers in breast cancer management....

  15. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Molecular Beacons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Lily

    2008-01-01

    .... We proposed to use molecular beacon technology to detect the level of expression of several biomarker genes that are highly expressed in breast cancer cells but not in normal breast epithelial cells...

  16. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...

  17. Optical redox imaging of fixed unstained tissue slides to identify biomarkers for breast cancer diagnosis/prognosis: feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Li, Yusheng; Feng, Min; Zhang, Paul; Quinn, William J.; Baur, Joseph A.; Li, Lin Z.

    2018-02-01

    We previously showed that optical redox imaging (ORI) of snap-frozen breast biopsies by the Chance redox scanner readily discriminates cancer from normal tissue. Moreover, indices of redox heterogeneity differentiate among tumor xenografts with different metastatic potential. These observations suggest that ORI of fluorescence of NADH and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp) may provide diagnostic/prognostic value for clinical applications. In this work, we investigate whether ORI of formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded (FFPE) unstained clinical tissue slides of breast tumors is feasible and comparable to ORI of snap-frozen tumors. If ORI of FFPE is validated, it will enhance the versatility of ORI as a novel diagnostic/prognostic assay as FFPE samples are readily available. ORI of fixed tissue slides was performed using a fluorescence microscope equipped with a precision automated stage and appropriate optical filters. We developed a vignette correction algorithm to remove the tiling effect of stitched-images. The preliminary data from imaging fixed slides of breast tumor xenografts showed intratumor redox heterogeneity patterns similar to that of the frozen tissues imaged by the Chance redox scanner. From ORI of human breast tissue slides we identified certain redox differences among normal, ductal carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. We found paraformaldehyde fixation causes no change in NADH signals but enhances Fp signals of fresh muscle fibers. We also investigated the stability of the fluorescence microscope and reproducibility of tissue slide fluorescence signals. We plan to validate the diagnostic/prognostic value of ORI using clinically annotated breast cancer sample set from patients with long-term follow-up data.

  18. Plasma alpha-1-acid glycoprotein as a potential predictive biomarker for non-haematological adverse events of docetaxel in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabir, Rafid Salim; Ho, Gwo Fuang; Annuar, Muhammad Azrif Bin Ahmad; Stanslas, Johnson

    2018-03-01

    Rash and oral mucositis are major non-haematological adverse events (AEs) of docetaxel, in addition to fatigue, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea, which restrict the use of the drug in cancer therapy. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) is an acute phase reactant glycoprotein and is a primary carrier of docetaxel in the blood. Docetaxel has extensive binding (>98%) to plasma proteins such as AAG, lipoproteins and albumin. To study the association between plasma AAG level and non-haematological AEs of docetaxel in Malaysian breast cancer patients of three major ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians). One hundred and twenty Malaysian breast cancer patients receiving docetaxel as single agent chemotherapy were investigated for AAG plasma level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Toxicity assessment was determined using Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events v4.0. The association between AAG and toxicity were then established. There was interethnic variation of plasma AAG level; it was 182 ± 85 mg/dl in Chinese, 237 ± 94 mg/dl in Malays and 240 ± 83 mg/dl in Indians. It was found that low plasma levels of AAG were significantly associated with oral mucositis and rash. This study proposes plasma AAG as a potential predictive biomarker of docetaxel non-haematological AEs namely oral mucositis and rash.

  19. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  20. Circulating microRNAs in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, Rimi; Hamam, Dana; Alsaleh, Khalid A

    2017-01-01

    Effective management of breast cancer depends on early diagnosis and proper monitoring of patients' response to therapy. However, these goals are difficult to achieve because of the lack of sensitive and specific biomarkers for early detection and for disease monitoring. Accumulating evidence in ...... circulating miRNAs as diagnostic, prognostic or predictive biomarkers in breast cancer management.......Effective management of breast cancer depends on early diagnosis and proper monitoring of patients' response to therapy. However, these goals are difficult to achieve because of the lack of sensitive and specific biomarkers for early detection and for disease monitoring. Accumulating evidence...... in the past several years has highlighted the potential use of peripheral blood circulating nucleic acids such as DNA, mRNA and micro (mi)RNA in breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis and for monitoring response to anticancer therapy. Among these, circulating miRNA is increasingly recognized as a promising...

  1. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... only hormone therapy after a hysterectomy . Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Aromatase inhibitors . Less exposure of breast ...

  3. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, Diane; Lancaster, Gillian A; Manning, John T

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  4. The genesis of breast cancer is a two-step phenomenon. II. Dissociation of two biomarkers in cancer patients from a low risk area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Kobayashi, S; Akita, T; Nakamura, Y

    1992-01-01

    The association of dual steroidal disorders with breast cancer, as proposed on the basis of a case-control study in a high risk area of Japan, was tested for its validity in breast cancer patients from a low risk area of Japan. A state of glucocorticoid excess, the first hormonal trait of a breast cancer patient, was assessed using a urinary steroid parameter (a reduction of the androsterone to tetrahydrocortisol ratio by definition), and/or using a physical parameter (an elevation of the waist to hip circumference ratio by definition). Inclination to ovulation failure, the second hormonal trait, was tested using another urinary steroid parameter (a specified disorder of progestin metabolism by definition), and/or a demographic parameter (a reduction in the number of live births by definition). Results obtained are as follows: 1) premenopausal breast cancer patients from a low risk area were found to have the second trait but not the first trait, as tested using 2 parameters for each trait. 2) Postmenopausal cancer patients from a low risk area as well as pre- and post-menopausal cancer patients from a high risk area had both the 2 hormonal traits. 3) There was no discrepancy of results between any 2 test systems with the identification of 2 hormonal traits in 4 cancer patient groups. The significance of the dissociation of 2 hormonal traits, as observed in premenopausal cancer patients from a low risk area, is discussed in favor of the two-step carcinogenesis theory. Possible interaction of heredity and environment in the genesis of breast cancer is also taken into consideration.

  5. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  6. Checkpoint inhibitors in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polk, Anne; Svane, Inge-Marie; Andersson, Michael

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of compounds directed against immune checkpoints are currently under clinical development. In this review we summarize current research in breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A computer-based literature search was carried out using PubMed and EMBASE; data...... reported at international meetings and clinicaltrials.gov were included as well. RESULTS: The obtained overall response rate of PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy varied from 5 to 30% in heavily pretreated triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). The median duration of progression free survival and overall survival were...... and induce long standing anti-tumor immunity in a subgroup of breast cancer patients. However, the identification of predictive biomarkers is crucial for further development of this treatment modality....

  7. The Role of Immunohistochemical Biomarkers as Prognostic Factors by the Use of a Tissue Microarray in Breast Cancer Patients Under 45-years-old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Seog; Choi, Doo Ho; Jin, So Young

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the association of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Her-2, COX-2, and survivin with the clinicopathological features and outcomes in young Korean women with breast cancer using recently developed tissue microarray (TMA) technology. A cohort of 212 young patients with breast cancer diagnosed at the age of 45 years or younger from March 1994 to August 2005, were enrolled in this study. The age range of patients was 23∼45 years (median age, 39 years). The minimum and median follow-up periods were 24 months and 60 months, respectively. Serial sections of primary tumors were processed by the use of a TMA for immunohistochemical staining for five biomarkers. The correlation of these five biomarkers and the clinicopathological features and outcomes were analyzed by statistical methods. The majority of the patients were stage T1 (90 patients) or T2 (101 patients), and 105 patients (49.5%) had an axillary node metastasis. The 5-year overall and relapse free survival rates for all of the patients were 90.4% and 82.3%, respectively, and 36 patients had a locoregional or distant metastasis as a first event. Positive expression of ER, PR, Her-2, COX-2, and survivin was determined in 38.2%, 45.3%, 25.9%, 41.5%, and 43.4%, of the tumor samples, respectively. Tumor stage, nodal status, age, as well as expression of ER, PR, and HER-2 status were significantly associated with the disease free survival rate. Tumor stage, nodal status, as well as expression of ER, PR, and HER-2 were significantly related with the overall survival rate. Expression of COX-2 and survivin were not single independent prognostic factors for the disease free and overall survival rate although co-expression of HER-2 and COX-2 had a tendency as a poor prognostic factor. By multivariate analysis, only T stage and lymph node status were significant prognostic factors, and ER status was a marginally significant prognostic factor (p=0.075). Expression of ER, PR and HER-2

  8. Prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Ian N

    2016-11-21

    Modifiable lifestyle factors may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated particularly with post-menopausal breast cancer. Diet is important, and exercise equivalent to running for up to 8 hours each week reduces the risk of breast cancer, both in its own right and through reducing obesity. Alcohol consumption may be responsible for 5.8% of breast cancers in Australia and it is recommended to reduce this to two standard drinks per day. Drinking alcohol and smoking increases the risk for breast cancer and, therefore, it is important to quit tobacco smoking. Prolonged use of combined oestrogen and progesterone hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives may increase breast cancer risk and this must be factored into individual decisions about their use. Ionising radiation, either from diagnostic or therapeutic radiation or through occupational exposure, is associated with a high incidence of breast cancer and exposure may be reduced in some cases. Tamoxifen chemoprevention may reduce the incidence of oestrogen receptor positive cancer in 51% of women with high risk of breast cancer. Uncommon but serious side effects include thromboembolism and uterine cancer. Raloxifene, which can also reduce osteoporosis, can be used in post-menopausal women and is not associated with the development of uterine cancer. Surgical prophylaxis with bilateral mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy can reduce the risk of breast cancer in patients carrying BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. For preventive treatments, mammographic screening can identify other women at high risk.

  9. The biomarker-based validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake status of folate, pyridoxine and cobalamin among Iranian primary breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzpanah, S; Taleban, F-A; Mehdipour, P; Atri, M; Hooshyareh-rad, A; Sabour, S

    2014-03-01

    Folate, pyridoxine and cobalamin are coenzymatically essential in one-carbon methyl metabolism, and their deficiencies could explain some alterations during breast carcinogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the validity of folate, pyridoxine and cobalamin estimates from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on the basis of their corresponding fasting plasma biomarkers, in breast cancer (BC) patients. In a prospective, consecutive case series, 149 women with primary BC aged between 30 and 69 years as a representative sample of Iranian women with BC were recruited. The 136-item FFQ was used for the validity assay. Fasting plasma folate and cobalamin were tested by automated electrochemiluminescence. The high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used to determine the plasma levels of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and total homocysteine (tHcy). Area under the curve (AUC) for assessing the diagnostic accuracy of folate-related data through an FFQ was 0.74 (Pfasting plasma concentrations. Our data supported the validity of new FFQ to rank individuals by dietary intake status of folate and cobalamin.

  10. Breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euhus, David M; Diaz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women with 232,670 new cases estimated in the USA for 2014. Approaches for reducing breast cancer risk include lifestyle modification, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. Lifestyle modification has a variety of health benefits with few associated risks and is appropriate for all women regardless of breast cancer risk. Chemoprevention options have expanded rapidly, but most are directed at estrogen receptor positive breast cancer and uptake is low. Prophylactic surgery introduces significant additional risks of its own and is generally reserved for the highest risk women. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  12. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  13. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Breast cancer Breast cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  15. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  16. The Role of Exosomes in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michelle C; Gallagher, William M; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2015-12-01

    Although it has been long realized that eukaryotic cells release complex vesicular structures into their environment, only in recent years has it been established that these entities are not merely junk or debris, but that they are tailor-made specialized minimaps of their cell of origin and of both physiological and pathological relevance. These exosomes and microvesicles (ectosomes), collectively termed extracellular vesicles (EVs), are often defined and subgrouped first and foremost according to size and proposed origin (exosomes approximately 30-120 nm, endosomal origin; microvesicles 120-1000 nm, from the cell membrane). There is growing interest in elucidating the relevance and roles of EVs in cancer. Much of the pioneering work on EVs in cancer has focused on breast cancer, possibly because breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. This review provides an in-depth summary of such studies, supporting key roles for exosomes and other EVs in breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis, stem cell stimulation, apoptosis, immune system modulation, and anti-cancer drug resistance. Exosomes as diagnostic, prognostic, and/or predictive biomarkers and their potential use in the development of therapeutics are discussed. Although not fully elucidated, the involvement of exosomes in breast cancer development, progression, and resistance is becoming increasingly apparent from preclinical and clinical studies, with mounting interest in the potential exploitation of these vesicles for breast cancer biomarkers, as drug delivery systems, and in the development of future novel breast cancer therapies. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  17. Breast Cancer Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, Fadwa J.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very common health problem in Saudi females that can be reduced by early detection through introducing breast cancer screening. Literature review reveals significant reduction in breast cancer incidence and outcome after the beginning of breast cancer screening. The objectives of this article are to highlight the significance of breast cancer screening in different international societies and to write the major guidelines of breast cancer screening in relation to other departments involved with more emphasis on the Pathology Department guidelines in tissue handling, diagnostic criteria and significance of the diagnosis. This article summaries and acknowledges major work carried out before, and recommends similar modified work in order to meet the requirement for the Saudi society. (author)

  18. Design of the SHAPE-2 study: the effect of physical activity, in addition to weight loss, on biomarkers of postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A.M.; Iestra, Jolein I.; Schuit, Albertine J.; May, Anne M.; Takken, Tim; Veldhuis, Wouter B.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Wittink, Harriet; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity and overweight are two known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. Former exercise intervention studies showed that physical activity influences sex hormone levels, known to be related to postmenopausal breast cancer, mainly when concordant loss of body weight

  19. Epigenetic suppression of neprilysin regulates breast cancer invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, H M; Khoury, R J; Majmudar, P R; Blaylock, T; Hawkins, K; Salama, M S; Scott, M D; Cosminsky, B; Utreja, N K; Britt, J; Conway, R E

    2016-03-07

    In women, invasive breast cancer is the second most common cancer and the second cause of cancer-related death. Therefore, identifying novel regulators of breast cancer invasion could lead to additional biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Neprilysin, a cell-surface enzyme that cleaves and inactivates a number of substrates including endothelin-1 (ET1), has been implicated in breast cancer, but whether neprilysin promotes or inhibits breast cancer cell progression and metastasis is unclear. Here, we asked whether neprilysin expression predicts and functionally regulates breast cancer cell invasion. RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines revealed decreased neprilysin expression compared with normal epithelial cells. Expression was also suppressed in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) compared with normal tissue. In addition, in vtro invasion assays demonstrated that neprilysin overexpression decreased breast cancer cell invasion, whereas neprilysin suppression augmented invasion. Furthermore, inhibiting neprilysin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells increased ET1 levels significantly, whereas overexpressing neprilysin decreased extracellular-signal related kinase (ERK) activation, indicating that neprilysin negatively regulates ET1-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. To determine whether neprilysin was epigenetically suppressed in breast cancer, we performed bisulfite conversion analysis of breast cancer cells and clinical tumor samples. We found that the neprilysin promoter was hypermethylated in breast cancer; chemical reversal of methylation in MDA-MB-231 cells reactivated neprilysin expression and inhibited cancer cell invasion. Analysis of cancer databases revealed that neprilysin methylation significantly associates with survival in stage I IDC and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer subtypes. These results demonstrate that neprilysin negatively regulates the ET axis in breast cancer

  20. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    cells we observed that it promoted transformation of HMLE cells, suggesting a tumor suppressive role of Merlin in breast cancer (Figure 4B). A...08-1-0767 TITLE: Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yashaswi Shrestha...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-1-0767 Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes Yashaswi Shrestha Dana-Farber

  1. Breast cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, M.; Villena, C.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in female breast imaging have substantially influenced the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. Mammography using conventional or digital technique is considered the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Other modalities such as breast ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast play an important role in diagnostic imaging, staging, and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a faster, less invasive, and more cost-effective method than surgical biopsy for verifying the histological diagnosis. New methods such as breast tomosynthesis, contrast-enhanced mammography, and positron emission tomography promise to further improve breast imaging. Further studies are mandatory to adapt these new methods to clinical needs and to evaluate their performance in clinical practice. (orig.) [de

  2. Analysis of PI3K/mTOR Pathway Biomarkers and Their Prognostic Value in Women with Hormone Receptor–Positive, HER2-Negative Early Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy A. Azim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway alterations have been shown to play significant roles in the development, progression, and metastatic spread of breast cancer. Furthermore, they have been implicated in the process of drug resistance, especially endocrinal therapies. In this study, we aimed to define the correlation between the PI3K mutations and the expression of the phosphorylated forms of different downstream molecules in women with estrogen receptor (ER–positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative (luminal early breast cancer treated at Cairo university hospitals. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing was used to detect mutations in the PIK3CA hotspots (in exons 9 and 20. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarray blocks prepared from samples of 35 Egyptian luminal breast cancer patients in the pathology department of Centre Léon Bérard (CLB. The intensity and the percentage of stained tumor cells were integrated to define high versus low biomarker expression. The cytoplasmic and nuclear stainings were graded separately. Patients were followed for a median of 4.7 years (2.1 to 6.9 years. Correlation was done between PI3K mutations and the immunohistochemistry expression of pAKT, LKB1, p4EBP1, and pS6 ribosomal protein (pS6RP with the clinicopathologic features and disease free survival (DFS of the patients. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 51.3 years (range, 25 to 82 years. Tumors were larger than 20 mm in 79.2% of the cases, whereas 57.9% had axillary lymph node deposits. Only 12.3% of the patients had SBR grade I tumors, 50.8% had grade II, and 36.8% had grade III. ERs were negative in 6 patients (17% after pathology review. Thirty-two cases were assessable for LKB1 and pAKT, 33 for p4EBP1 and pS6RP, and 24 for PI3K mutations. Nuclear LKB1, cytoplasmic LKB1, nuclear pAKT, cytoplasmic pAKT, nuclear p4EBP1, and cytoplasmic pS6RP expression was high in 65.6%, 62.5%, 62.5%, 68.8%, 42.4%, and 57

  3. Standardized evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer: results of the ring studies of the international immuno-oncology biomarker working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkert, Carsten; Wienert, Stephan; Poterie, Audrey; Loibl, Sibylle; Budczies, Jan; Badve, Sunil; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Bane, Anita; Bedri, Shahinaz; Brock, Jane; Chmielik, Ewa; Christgen, Matthias; Colpaert, Cecile; Demaria, Sandra; Van den Eynden, Gert; Floris, Giuseppe; Fox, Stephen B; Gao, Dongxia; Ingold Heppner, Barbara; Kim, S Rim; Kos, Zuzana; Kreipe, Hans H; Lakhani, Sunil R; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Radosevic-Robin, Nina; Rimm, David L; Schnitt, Stuart J; Sinn, Bruno V; Sinn, Peter; Sirtaine, Nicolas; O'Toole, Sandra A; Viale, Giuseppe; Van de Vijver, Koen; de Wind, Roland; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Klauschen, Frederick; Untch, Michael; Fasching, Peter A; Reimer, Toralf; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Michiels, Stefan; Loi, Sherene; Salgado, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Multiple independent studies have shown that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are prognostic in breast cancer with potential relevance for response to immune-checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Although many groups are currently evaluating TIL, there is no standardized system for diagnostic applications. This study reports the results of two ring studies investigating TIL conducted by the International Working Group on Immuno-oncology Biomarkers. The study aim was to determine the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for evaluation of TIL by different pathologists. A total of 120 slides were evaluated by a large group of pathologists with a web-based system in ring study 1 and a more advanced software-system in ring study 2 that included an integrated feedback with standardized reference images. The predefined aim for successful ring studies 1 and 2 was an ICC above 0.7 (lower limit of 95% confidence interval (CI)). In ring study 1 the prespecified endpoint was not reached (ICC: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.62-0.78). On the basis of an analysis of sources of variation, we developed a more advanced digital image evaluation system for ring study 2, which improved the ICC to 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.92). The Fleiss' kappa value for international standardization project shows that reproducible evaluation of TIL is feasible in breast cancer. This opens the way for standardized reporting of tumor immunological parameters in clinical studies and diagnostic practice. The software-guided image evaluation approach used in ring study 2 may be of value as a tool for evaluation of TIL in clinical trials and diagnostic practice. The experience gained from this approach might be applicable to the standardization of other diagnostic parameters in histopathology.

  4. Characterisation of the HLA-DRB1*07:01 biomarker for lapatinib-induced liver toxicity during treatment of early-stage breast cancer patients with lapatinib in combination with trastuzumab and/or taxanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spraggs, C F; Parham, L R; Briley, L P

    2018-01-01

    HLA-DRB1*07:01 allele carriage was characterised as a risk biomarker for lapatinib-induced liver injury in a large global study evaluating lapatinib, alone and in combination with trastuzumab and taxanes, as adjuvant therapy for advanced breast cancer (adjuvant lapatinib and/or trastuzumab treatm.......The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2017.39....

  5. Characterisation of the HLA-DRB1*07:01 biomarker for lapatinib-induced liver toxicity during treatment of early-stage breast cancer patients with lapatinib in combination with trastuzumab and/or taxanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spraggs, C F; Parham, L R; Briley, L P

    2017-01-01

    HLA-DRB1*07:01 allele carriage was characterised as a risk biomarker for lapatinib-induced liver injury in a large global study evaluating lapatinib, alone and in combination with trastuzumab and taxanes, as adjuvant therapy for advanced breast cancer (adjuvant lapatinib and/or trastuzumab treatm.......The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2017.39....

  6. Breast cancer statistics, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  7. Pilot Study on MAGE-C2 as a Potential Biomarker for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In the current study, we measured the expression status of melanoma antigen gene c2 (MAGE-C2 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC and analyzed its prognostic with the clinical pathological features of patients with TNBC. Methods. The expressions statuses of MAGE-C2 were detected in TNBC tissues and paracarcinoma tissues by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and western blotting. Then, we investigated the relationship of MAGE-C2 expression status and clinicopathological parameters of TNBC patients by the chi-squared test. Finally, we discussed the relations of MAGE-C2 expression state and prognosis of patients with TNBC by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. Results. High MAGE-C2 expression was found in 38.18% (42/110 of TNBC tissues. In adjacent tissues it was 9.09% (10/110. High MAGE-C2 expression in TNBC patients was closely associated with lymph node status, tumor node metastasis (TNM stage, and lymphovascular invasion (P<0.001. TNBC patients with high MAGE-C2 expression had significantly shorter survival time than low expression patients. We also found that age, lymph node status, TNM stage, lymphovascular invasion, and MAGE-C2 expression status were closely associated with overall survival of TNBC patients (P<0.05. Conclusion. High MAGE-C2 expression may serve as an independent prognostic factor for TNBC patients.

  8. DIAGNOSIS OF MUCINOUS BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. К. Saribekyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the diagnostic results of 27 patients with mucinous breast cancer, which is a rare type of invasive ductal breast cancer accounting for less than 2% of all breast cancers. The role of radiological, histological and cytological examination in the diagnosis of mucinous breast cancer is evaluated. In cases with large tumors, it was difficult to differentiate mucinous breast cancer from fibrocystic and other benign breast lesions.

  9. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Hayley

    2005-01-01

    ...; they also are at considerable risk for breast cancer recurrence. According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology, survivors should undergo careful breast cancer surveillance, including annual mammography and breast self-exam...

  10. Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristina Pilekær

    Each year approximately 4,800 Danish women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Several clinical and pathological factors are used as prognostic and predictive markers to categorize the patients into groups of high or low risk. Around 90% of all patients are allocated to the high risk group...... clinical courses, and they may be useful as novel prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer. The aim of the present project was to predict the development of metastasis in lymph node negative breast cancer patients by RNA profiling. We collected and analyzed 82 primary breast tumors from patients who...... and the time of event. Previous findings have shown that high expression of the lncRNA HOTAIR is correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. We validated this finding by demonstrating that high HOTAIR expression in our primary tumors was significantly associated with worse prognosis independent...

  11. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnithan, Jaya; Macklis, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  12. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  13. BRCAness as a Biomarker for Predicting Prognosis and Response to Anthracycline-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Patients with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Mori

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a heterogeneous tumor that encompasses many different subclasses of the disease. In this study, we assessed BRCAness, defined as the shared characteristics between sporadic and BRCA1-mutated tumors, in a large cohort of TNBC cases.The BRCAness of 262 patients with primary TNBCs resected between January 2004 and December 2014 was determined through the isolation of DNA from tumor tissue. Classification of BRCAness was performed using multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. The tumor subtypes were determined immunohistochemically using resected specimens.Of the 262 TNBCs, the results of the MLPA assays showed that 174 (66.4% tumors had BRCAness. Patients with BRCAness tumors were younger than patients with non-BRCAness tumors (P = 0.003. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding their pathological stages. The BRCAness group had a significantly shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS compared with the non-BRCAness group (P = 0.04 and had a shorter overall survival (OS although this did not reach statistical significance. Adjuvant treatments with anthracycline-based regimens provided significantly greater benefits to the BRCAness group (P = 0.003 for RFS, and P = 0.03 for OS. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that BRCAness was an independent negative prognostic factor, and the anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy was an independent positive prognostic factor for both RFS and OS in TNBC.The 66.4% patients of TNBCs showed BRCAness. BRCAness is essential as a biomarker in the subclassification of TNBCs and might be of use for predicting their prognosis. Furthermore, this biomarker might be a predictive factor for the effectiveness of anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with TNBCs.

  14. Cell-based quantification of biomarkers from an ultra-fast microfluidic immunofluorescent staining: application to human breast cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliozzi, D.; Nguyen, H. T.; Gijs, M. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is one of the main techniques currently used in the clinics for biomarker characterization. It consists in colorimetric labeling with specific antibodies followed by microscopy analysis. The results are then used for diagnosis and therapeutic targeting. Well-known drawbacks of such protocols are their limited accuracy and precision, which prevent the clinicians from having quantitative and robust IHC results. With our work, we combined rapid microfluidic immunofluorescent staining with efficient image-based cell segmentation and signal quantification to increase the robustness of both experimental and analytical protocols. The experimental protocol is very simple and based on fast-fluidic-exchange in a microfluidic chamber created on top of the formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded (FFPE) slide by clamping it a silicon chip with a polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) sealing ring. The image-processing protocol is based on enhancement and subsequent thresholding of the local contrast of the obtained fluorescence image. As a case study, given that the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein is often used as a biomarker for breast cancer, we applied our method to HER2+ and HER2- cell lines. We report very fast (5 minutes) immunofluorescence staining of both HER2 and cytokeratin (a marker used to define the tumor region) on FFPE slides. The image-processing program can segment cells correctly and give a cell-based quantitative immunofluorescent signal. With this method, we found a reproducible well-defined separation for the HER2-to-cytokeratin ratio for positive and negative control samples.

  15. Breast cancer and HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intuition might dictate that the outcome of both surgical and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer in these patients would be poor because of the effect on immunity. We recently published a prospective cohort study which compared the treatment outcomes of breast cancer in HIV- infected and -uninfected patients.3 This was ...

  16. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  18. [Fibrocystic breast disease--breast cancer sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habor, V; Habor, A; Copotoiu, C; Panţîru, A

    2010-01-01

    Fibrocystic breast disease has developed a major issue: the breast cancer sequence. Its involvement regarding the increse of breast cancer risk has 2 aspects: it may be either the marker of a prone tissue or a premalignant hystological deffect. Difficult differential diagnosis of benign proliferative breast lession and carcinoma led to the idea of sequency between the two: cancer does not initiate on normal mammary epithelia; it takes several proliferative stages for it to occur. In our series we analized a number of 677 breast surgical procedures where the pathologic examination reveals 115 cases (17%) of coexistence between cancer and fibrocystic breast disease. This aspect has proved to be related to earlier debut of breast cancer, suggesting that epithelial hyperplasia is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  19. Biomarker discovery in low-grade breast cancer using isobaric stable isotope tags and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS) based quantitative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Pavel; Roumeliotis, Theodoros; Hrstka, Roman; Nenutil, Rudolf; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Garbis, Spiros D

    2009-01-01

    The present pilot study constitutes a proof-of-principle in the use of a quantitative LC-MS/MS based proteomic method for the comparative analysis of representative low-grade breast primary tumor tissues with and without metastases and metastasis in lymph node relative to the nonmetastatic tumor type. The study method incorporated iTRAQ stable isotope labeling, two-dimensional liquid chromatography, nanoelectrospray ionization and high resolution tandem mass spectrometry using the hybrid QqTOF platform (iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS). The principal aims of this study were (1) to define the protein spectrum obtainable using this approach, and (2) to highlight potential candidates for verification and validation studies focused on biomarkers involved in metastatic processes in breast cancer. The study resulted in the reproducible identification of 605 nonredundant proteins (p biomarker discovery program.

  20. A gene expression signature of retinoblastoma loss-of-function is a predictive biomarker of resistance to palbociclib in breast cancer cell lines and is prognostic in patients with ER positive early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malorni, Luca; Piazza, Silvano; Ciani, Yari; Guarducci, Cristina; Bonechi, Martina; Biagioni, Chiara; Hart, Christopher D; Verardo, Roberto; Di Leo, Angelo; Migliaccio, Ilenia

    2016-09-13

    Palbociclib is a CDK4/6 inhibitor that received FDA approval for treatment of hormone receptor positive (HR+) HER2 negative (HER2neg) advanced breast cancer. To better personalize patients treatment it is critical to identify subgroups that would mostly benefit from it. We hypothesize that complex alterations of the Retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway might be implicated in resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors and aim to investigate whether signatures of Rb loss-of-function would identify breast cancer cell lines resistant to palbociclib. We established a gene expression signature of Rb loss-of-function (RBsig) by identifying genes correlated with E2F1 and E2F2 expression in breast cancers within The Cancer Genome Atlas. We assessed the RBsig prognostic role in the METABRIC and in a comprehensive breast cancer meta-dataset. Finally, we analyzed whether RBsig would discriminate palbociclib-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cells in a large RNA sequencing-based dataset. The RBsig was associated with RB1 genetic status in all tumors (p <7e-32) and in luminal or basal subtypes (p < 7e-11 and p < 0.002, respectively). The RBsig was prognostic in the METABRIC dataset (discovery: HR = 1.93 [1.5-2.4] p = 1.4e-08; validation: HR = 2.01 [1.6-2.5] p = 1.3e-09). Untreated and endocrine treated patients with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer expressing high RBsig had significantly worse recurrence free survival compared to those with low RBsig (HR = 2.37 [1.8 - 3.2] p = 1.87e-08 and HR = 2.62 [1.9- 3.5] p = 8.6e-11, respectively). The RBsig was able to identify palbociclib resistant and sensitive breast cancer cells (ROC AUC = 0,7778). Signatures of RB loss might be helpful in personalizing treatment of patients with HR+/HER2neg breast cancer. Further validation in patients receiving palbociclib is warranted.

  1. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. Receptor conversion in distant breast cancer metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, L.D.C.

    2013-01-01

    The routine pathological work-up of breast cancer includes the evaluation of the estrogen receptor (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) which reveals biological information about the tumour as well as provides predictive biomarkers regarding hormonal

  3. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Raloxifene Hydrochloride Tamoxifen Citrate Drugs ...

  4. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  5. Dietary influence on estrogens and cytokines in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Nian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer affects one out of eight women in their lifetime. Many factors contribute to the development of breast cancer, such as hereditary mutations and lifetime exposure to environmental factors, including estrogen. In addition, overweight and obesity, especially with increased waist circumference, are known to be associated with breast cancer risk. This review will summarize our understanding of the effect of diet on breast cancer incidence and progression. Since some inflammatory cytokines that are changed by a high-fat diet are known to promote the growth of breast cancer cells, these cytokines may serve as biomarkers to monitor the dietary influence for women at high risk of breast cancer and as future therapeutic targets for breast cancer treatment.

  6. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongen, J.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  7. Obesity and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf

    The relationship between adiposity and breast cancer risk and prognosis is complex, with associations that differ depending on when body size is assessed (e.g., pre- vs. postmenopausal obesity) and when breast cancer is diagnosed (i.e., pre- vs. postmenopausal disease). Further, the impact of obesity on risk differs by tumor hormone receptor status (e.g., estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor) and, among postmenopausal women, use of exogenous hormones (i.e., hormone replacement therapy (HRT)). In the context of these complexities, this review focuses on associations between childhood and adolescent adiposity, general adiposity, weight changes (i.e., loss and gain), abdominal adiposity, and breast cancer risk and survival. Finally, we discuss potential mechanisms linking adiposity to breast cancer.

  8. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...

  9. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Breast Cancer Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  10. Breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, A.

    1987-01-01

    Many studies have shown that breast cancer screening is able to reduce breast cancer mortality, including the HIP study, the Swedish Trial and the Netherlands studies. Mammography is considered as the most effective method for breast cancer screening but it might be unfeasible for some reasons: - the population acceptability of the method might be low. Indeed, most populations of the South of Europe are less compliant to mass screening than populations of the North of Europe; - the medical equipment and personnel - radiologists and pathologists - might be insufficient; - it might be too costly for the National Health Service, specially where the incidence rate of breast cancer is relatively low (i.e. Greece, Portugal). The validity of screening tests is judged by their sensitivity and their specificity

  11. Progranulin as a prognostic biomarker for breast cancer recurrence in patients who had hormone receptor-positive tumors: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoe Koo

    Full Text Available Progranulin (PGRN is considered to play an important role in breast cancer tumorigenesis and in inhibiting tamoxifen-induced apoptosis. We aimed to determine whether PGRN levels are associated with breast cancer recurrence after curative surgery.We evaluated the associations between preoperative serum PGRN levels and breast cancer recurrence in a cohort of 697 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients who underwent curative surgery between April 2001 and December 2004. The mean age ± standard deviation (SD was 46 ± 9.8 years, and all patients with hormone receptor (HR-positive tumors received adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. At a median follow-up of 62.2 months (range, 2.9-98.2, 89 patients (12.8% had experienced a recurrence and 51 patients (7.3% had died. In the HR-positive group, serum PGRN levels were associated with recurrence according to the log-rank test for trend (p for trend = 0.049. There was no association between PGRN levels and recurrence in the HR-negative group (p for trend = 0.658. Adjusted hazard ratios, including possible confounders, revealed a linear relationship between serum PGRN levels and recurrence in the HR-positive group (p for trend = 0.049, and this association was further strengthened after excluding patients who had no lymph node metastasis (p for trend = 0.038.Serum PGRN levels were clinically significant for predicting recurrence in patients with HR-positive breast cancer during adjuvant tamoxifen therapy.

  12. Randomized Trial Comparing Telephone Versus In-Person Weight Loss Counseling on Body Composition and Circulating Biomarkers in Women Treated for Breast Cancer: The Lifestyle, Exercise, and Nutrition (LEAN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Maura; Cartmel, Brenda; Loftfield, Erikka; Sanft, Tara; Chagpar, Anees B; Zhou, Yang; Playdon, Mary; Li, Fangyong; Irwin, Melinda L

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer mortality. The gold standard approach to weight loss is in-person counseling, but telephone counseling may be more feasible. We examined the effect of in-person versus telephone weight loss counseling versus usual care on 6-month changes in body composition, physical activity, diet, and serum biomarkers. One hundred breast cancer survivors with a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to in-person counseling (n = 33), telephone counseling (n = 34), or usual care (UC) (n = 33). In-person and telephone counseling included 11 30-minute counseling sessions over 6 months. These focused on reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavioral therapy. Body composition, physical activity, diet, and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline and 6 months. The mean age of participants was 59 ± 7.5 years old, with a mean BMI of 33.1 ± 6.6 kg/m(2), and the mean time from diagnosis was 2.9 ± 2.1 years. Fifty-one percent of the participants had stage I breast cancer. Average 6-month weight loss was 6.4%, 5.4%, and 2.0% for in-person, telephone, and UC groups, respectively (P = .004, P = .009, and P = .46 comparing in-person with UC, telephone with UC, and in-person with telephone, respectively). A significant 30% decrease in C-reactive protein levels was observed among women randomly assigned to the combined weight loss intervention groups compared with a 1% decrease among women randomly assigned to UC (P = .05). Both in-person and telephone counseling were effective weight loss strategies, with favorable effects on C-reactive protein levels. Our findings may help guide the incorporation of weight loss counseling into breast cancer treatment and care. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. 14. Breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, A K; Fentiman, I S

    2002-05-01

    Increased risk of breast cancer may result from potentially modifiable causes such as endogenous hormone levels, obesity, HRT, and non-lactation, or non-modifiable factors including genetic susceptibility and increasing age. The Gail model, based on known factors, may be useful for estimating lifetime risk in some individuals, but those risk factors that are easier to modify may have a limited impact on the totality of breast cancer. Tamoxifen prevention still remains contentious, with a significant reduction in risk of breast cancer in women given tamoxifen in the NSABP P1 study but no effect in the Italian and Royal Marsden trials. Raloxifene, tested in the MORE trial, reduced the incidence of breast cancer by 65% but this was restricted to oestrogen receptor positive tumours. Lifestyle factors such as diet, obesity, exercise and age at first full term pregnancy and number of pregnancies have a mild to moderate impact on risk, so may have little effect on the incidence of breast cancer. Reduction of alcohol intake could lead to a modest reduction in the risk of breast cancer but possibly adversely affect other diseases. Fat reduction and GnRH analogue reduce mammographic density but have not yet been shown to affect risk. For women with BRCA1/2 mutation, options include unproven surveillance and prophylactic mastectomy with an unquantified risk reduction. Interesting new candidates for chemoprevention include aromatase inhibitors, new generation SERMs, demethylating agents, non-selective COX inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and polyamine synthetic inhibitors.

  14. PET Metabolic Biomarkers for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Croteau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The body's main fuel sources are fats, carbohydrates (glucose, proteins, and ketone bodies. It is well known that an important hallmark of cancer cells is the overconsumption of glucose. Positron emission tomography (PET imaging using the glucose analog 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG has been a powerful cancer diagnostic tool for many decades. Apart from surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy represent the two main domains for cancer therapy, targeting tumor proliferation, cell division, and DNA replication–-all processes that require a large amount of energy. Currently, in vivo clinical imaging of metabolism is performed almost exclusively using PET radiotracers that assess oxygen consumption and mechanisms of energy substrate consumption. This paper reviews the utility of PET imaging biomarkers for the detection of cancer proliferation, vascularization, metabolism, treatment response, and follow-up after radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and chemotherapy-related side effects.

  15. Breast-density assessment with hand-held ultrasound: A novel biomarker to assess breast cancer risk and to tailor screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Sergio J; Goksel, Orcun; Martini, Katharina; Forte, Serafino; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A; Rominger, Marga B

    2018-03-19

    To assess feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of a novel hand-held ultrasound (US) method for breast density assessment that measures the speed of sound (SoS), in comparison to the ACR mammographic (MG) categories. ACR-MG density (a=fatty to d=extremely dense) and SoS-US were assessed in the retromamillary, inner and outer segments of 106 women by two radiographers. A conventional US system was used for SoS-US. A reflector served as timing reference for US signals transmitted through the breasts. Four blinded readers assessed average SoS (m/s), ΔSoS (segment-variation SoS; m/s) and the ACR-MG density. The highest SoS and ΔSoS values of the three segments were used for MG-ACR whole breast comparison. SoS-US breasts were examined in densities a-d were 1,421 m/s (SD 14), 1,432 m/s (SD 17), 1,448 m/s (SD 20) and 1,500 m/s (SD 31), with significant differences between all groups (pdensity was evident (r s =0.622, p=density without discomfort, readers evaluated measurements with high inter-reader agreement, and SoS-US correlated significantly with ACR-MG breast-density categories. • The novel speed-of-sound ultrasound correlated significantly with mammographic ACR breast density categories. • Radiographers measured breast density without women discomfort or radiation. • SoS-US can be implemented on a standard US machine. • SoS-US shows potential for a quantifiable, cost-effective assessment of breast density.

  16. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... 4 ). This risk reduction is limited to hormone receptor –positive breast cancer; age at first full-term ...

  17. Human Breast Cancer Histoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Pavinder; Ward, Brenda; Saha, Baisakhi; Young, Lillian; Groshen, Susan; Techy, Geza; Lu, Yani; Atkinson, Roscoe; Taylor, Clive R.; Ingram, Marylou

    2011-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of heterotypic cellular interaction in the tumor microenvironment, which is recognized to play major roles in cancer progression, has been hampered due to unavailability of an appropriate in vitro co-culture model. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro 3-dimensional human breast cancer model, which consists of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Breast cancer cells (UACC-893) and fibroblasts at various densities were co-cultured in a rotating suspension culture system to establish co-culture parameters. Subsequently, UACC-893, BT.20, or MDA.MB.453 were co-cultured with fibroblasts for 9 days. Co-cultures resulted in the generation of breast cancer histoid (BCH) with cancer cells showing the invasion of fibroblast spheroids, which were visualized by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of sections (4 µm thick) of BCH. A reproducible quantitative expression of C-erbB.2 was detected in UACC-893 cancer cells in BCH sections by IHC staining and the Automated Cellular Imaging System. BCH sections also consistently exhibited qualitative expression of pancytokeratins, p53, Ki-67, or E-cadherin in cancer cells and that of vimentin or GSTPi in fibroblasts, fibronectin in the basement membrane and collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. The expression of the protein analytes and cellular architecture of BCH were markedly similar to those of breast cancer tissue. PMID:22034518

  18. Identification of Novel Biomarkers and Targeting Tumor-Initiating Cell Clones of the Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehmsen, Sidse

    Brystkræft påvirker mere end 10% af kvinderne i vestlige lande og er den hyppigste årsag til kræftrelateret dødelighed blandt kvinder på verdensplan. Den triple-negative brystkræft-subtype (TNBC, (ER-/PR-/HER2normal)) udgør ca. 10% af alle brystkræfttilfældene, samtidig er den aggressiv og forbun....... En af de nyeste strategier inden for terapi mod CSC’er er at ramme essentielle signalveje inden for selv-fornyelse of metastasering. Formålet med arbejdet præsenteret i denne afhandling er at identificere nye biomarkører, der kan undergruppere den ellers meget heterogene gruppe af TNBC...

  19. Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Cisplatin in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szallasi, Zoltan Imre; Eklund, Aron Charles; Li, Qiyuan

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent not used routinely for breast cancer treatment. As a DNA cross-linking agent, cisplatin may be effective treatment for hereditary BRCA1-mutated breast cancers. Because sporadic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and BRCA1-associated breast cancer...... samples were evaluated for selected biomarkers. Results Six (22%) of 28 patients achieved pathologic complete responses, including both patients with BRCA1 germline mutations;18 (64%) patients had a clinical complete or partial response. Fourteen (50%) patients showed good pathologic responses (Miller...

  20. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  1. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  2. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  3. Methylated genes as new cancer biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Nils; Duffy, M.J; Napieralski, R.

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant hypermethylation of promoter regions in specific genes is a key event in the formation and progression of cancer. In at least some situations, these aberrant alterations occur early in the formation of malignancy and appear to be tumour specific. Multiple reports have suggested that meas......Aberrant hypermethylation of promoter regions in specific genes is a key event in the formation and progression of cancer. In at least some situations, these aberrant alterations occur early in the formation of malignancy and appear to be tumour specific. Multiple reports have suggested...... that measurement of the methylation status of the promoter regions of specific genes can aid early detection of cancer, determine prognosis and predict therapy responses. Promising DNA methylation biomarkers include the use of methylated GSTP1 for aiding the early diagnosis of prostate cancer, methylated PITX2...... for predicting outcome in lymph node-negative breast cancer patients and methylated MGMT in predicting benefit from alkylating agents in patients with glioblastomas. However, prior to clinical utilisation, these findings require validation in prospective clinical studies. Furthermore, assays for measuring gene...

  4. Biomarkers of HIV-associated Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Flepisi, Brian Thabile; Bouic, Patrick; Sissolak, Gerhard; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Cancer biomarkers have provided great opportunities for improving the management of cancer patients by enhancing the efficiency of early detection, diagnosis, and efficacy of treatment. Every cell type has a unique molecular signature, referred to as biomarkers, which are identifiable characteristics such as levels or activities of a myriad of genes, proteins, or other molecular features. Biomarkers can facilitate the molecular definition of cancer, provide information about the course of can...

  5. Expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneyte, Ian F.; Kristel, Petra M. P.; Maliepaard, Marc; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is involved in in vitro multidrug resistance and was first identified in the breast cancer cell line MCF7/AdrVp. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BCRP in resistance of breast cancer to anthracycline treatment. EXPERIMENTAL

  6. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  7. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janowsky, Esther

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our current work is to determine whether there are differences in blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxy- vitamin D between women with breast cancer and two control groups of women without breast cancer...

  8. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Theresa; Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action, the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, and the optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention are summarized.

  9. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is small. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of breast cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast cancer MRI is a procedure that ...

  10. BREAST RECONSTRUCTIONS AFTER BREAST CANCER TREATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Vrabič

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breasts are an important symbol of physical beauty, feminity, mothering and sexual desire through the entire history of mankind. Lost of the whole or part of the breast is functional and aesthetic disturbance for woman. It is understandable, that the woman, who is concerned over breast loss, is as appropriate as another person´s concern over the loss of a limb or other body part. Before the 1960, breast reconstruction was considered as a dangerous procedure and it was almost prohibited. Considering the psychological importance of the breast in modern society, the possibility of breast reconstruction for the woman about to undergo a mastectomy is a comforting alternative. We can perform breast reconstruction with autologous tissue (autologous reconstruction, with breast implants and combination of both methods. For autologous reconstruction we can use local tissue (local flaps, or tissue from distant parts of the body (free vascular tissue transfer. Tissue expansion must be performed first, in many cases of breast reconstructions with breast implants. Conclusions. Possibility of breast reconstruction made a big progress last 3 decades. Today we are able to reconstruct almost every defect of the breast and the entire breast. Breast reconstruction rise the quality of life for breast cancer patients. Breast reconstruction is a team work of experts from many medicine specialites. In Slovenia we can offer breast reconstruction for breast cancer patients in Ljubljana, where plastic surgeons from Clinical Department for Plastic Surgery and Burns cooperate with oncologic surgeons. Ten years ago a similar cooperation between plastic surgeons and surgeons of the Centre for Breast Diseases was established in Maribor.

  11. Preventing invasive breast cancer using endocrine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorat, Mangesh A; Cuzick, Jack

    2017-08-01

    Developments in breast cancer treatment have resulted in reduction in breast cancer mortality in the developed world. However incidence continues to rise and greater use of preventive interventions including the use of therapeutic agents is needed to control this burden. High quality evidence from 9 major trials involving more than 83000 participants shows that selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) reduce breast cancer incidence by 38%. Combined results from 2 large trials with 8424 participants show that aromatase inhibitors (AIs) reduce breast cancer incidence by 53%. These benefits are restricted to prevention of ER positive breast cancers. Restricting preventive therapy to high-risk women improves the benefit-harm balance and many guidelines now encourage healthcare professionals to discuss preventive therapy in these women. Further research is needed to improve our risk-prediction models for the identification of high risk women for preventive therapy with greater accuracy and to develop surrogate biomarkers of response. Long-term follow-up of the IBIS-I trial has provided valuable insights into the durability of benefits from preventive therapy, and underscores the need for such follow up to fully evaluate other agents. Full utilisation of preventive therapy also requires greater knowledge and awareness among both doctors and patients about benefits, harms and risk factors. Healthcare professionals should routinely discuss preventive therapy with women at high-risk of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, P.

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may

  13. Breast Cancer Basics and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... more than 232,670 new cases of female breast cancer in the United States in 2014. More than ...

  14. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  15. Breast cancer in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, S.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Petri, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. Methods We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi......-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration. Results...... There were 86 SLE breast cancers and 4498 female SLE cancer-free controls. Patients were followed on average for 7.6 years. Versus controls, SLE breast cancer cases tended to be white and older. Breast cancer cases were similar to controls regarding anti-dsDNA positivity, disease activity, and most drug...

  16. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE'): study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, Scot M; Playdon, Mary C; Wolfe, Pamela; McGinley, John N; Wisthoff, Mark R; Daeninck, Elizabeth A; Jiang, Weiqin; Zhu, Zongjian; Thompson, Henry J

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m 2 ) will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF), IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. While clinical data indicate that excess weight for height is associated with poor prognosis for long term

  17. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, M.H.; Cannon-Albright, L.A.; Goldgar, D.E.; Ward, J.H.; Marshall, C.J.; Schumann, G.B.; Hogle, H.; McWhorter, W.P.; Wright, E.C.; Tran, T.D.; Bishop, D.T.; Kushner, J.P.; Eyre, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  18. Quantitative imaging as cancer biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoff, David A.

    2015-03-01

    The ability to assay tumor biologic features and the impact of drugs on tumor biology is fundamental to drug development. Advances in our ability to measure genomics, gene expression, protein expression, and cellular biology have led to a host of new targets for anticancer drug therapy. In translating new drugs into clinical trials and clinical practice, these same assays serve to identify patients most likely to benefit from specific anticancer treatments. As cancer therapy becomes more individualized and targeted, there is an increasing need to characterize tumors and identify therapeutic targets to select therapy most likely to be successful in treating the individual patient's cancer. Thus far assays to identify cancer therapeutic targets or anticancer drug pharmacodynamics have been based upon in vitro assay of tissue or blood samples. Advances in molecular imaging, particularly PET, have led to the ability to perform quantitative non-invasive molecular assays. Imaging has traditionally relied on structural and anatomic features to detect cancer and determine its extent. More recently, imaging has expanded to include the ability to image regional biochemistry and molecular biology, often termed molecular imaging. Molecular imaging can be considered an in vivo assay technique, capable of measuring regional tumor biology without perturbing it. This makes molecular imaging a unique tool for cancer drug development, complementary to traditional assay methods, and a potentially powerful method for guiding targeted therapy in clinical trials and clinical practice. The ability to quantify, in absolute measures, regional in vivo biologic parameters strongly supports the use of molecular imaging as a tool to guide therapy. This review summarizes current and future applications of quantitative molecular imaging as a biomarker for cancer therapy, including the use of imaging to (1) identify patients whose tumors express a specific therapeutic target; (2) determine

  19. Imaging biomarker roadmap for cancer studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Connor, James P. B.; Aboagye, Eric O.; Adams, Judith E.; Aerts, Hugo J. W. L.; Barrington, Sally F.; Beer, Ambros J.; Boellaard, Ronald; Bohndiek, Sarah E.; Brady, Michael; Brown, Gina; Buckley, David L.; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Clarke, Laurence P.; Collette, Sandra; Cook, Gary J.; Desouza, Nandita M.; Dickson, John C.; Dive, Caroline; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L.; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Gallagher, Ferdia A.; Gilbert, Fiona J.; Gillies, Robert J.; Goh, Vicky; Griffiths, J. R.; Groves, Ashley M.; Halligan, Steve; Harris, Adrian L.; Hawkes, David J.; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Huang, Erich P.; Hutton, Brian F.; Jackson, Edward F.; Jayson, Gordon C.; Jones, Andrew; Koh, Dow-Mu; Lacombe, Denis; Lambin, Philippe; Lassau, Nathalie; Leach, Martin O.; Lee, Ting-Yim; Leen, Edward L.; Lewis, Jason S.; Liu, Yan; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Manoharan, Prakash; Maxwell, Ross J.; Miles, Kenneth A.; Morgan, Bruno; Morris, Steve; Ng, Tony; Padhani, Anwar R.; Parker, Geoff J. M.; Partridge, Mike; Pathak, Arvind P.; Peet, Andrew C.; Punwani, Shonit; Reynolds, Andrew R.; Robinson, Simon P.; Shankar, Lalitha K.; Sharma, Ricky A.; Soloviev, Dmitry; Stroobants, Sigrid G.; Sullivan, Daniel C.; Taylor, Stuart A.; Tofts, Paul S.; Tozer, Gillian M.; van Herk, Marcel B.; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Wason, James; Williams, Kaye J.; Workman, Paul; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Brindle, Kevin M.; McShane, Lisa M.; Jackson, Alan; Waterton, John C.

    Imaging biomarkers (IBs) are integral to the routine management of patients with cancer. IBs used daily in oncology include clinical TNM stage, objective response and left ventricular ejection fraction. Other CT, MRI, PET and ultrasonography biomarkers are used extensively in cancer research and

  20. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  1. Breast Cancer Survival Defined by the ER/PR/HER2 Subtypes and a Surrogate Classification according to Tumor Grade and Immunohistochemical Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Parise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ER, PR, and HER2 are routinely available in breast cancer specimens. The purpose of this study is to contrast breast cancer-specific survival for the eight ER/PR/HER2 subtypes with survival of an immunohistochemical surrogate for the molecular subtype based on the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes and tumor grade. Methods. We identified 123,780 cases of stages 1–3 primary female invasive breast cancer from California Cancer Registry. The surrogate classification was derived using ER/PR/HER2 and tumor grade. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess differences in survival and risk of mortality for the ER/PR/HER2 subtypes and surrogate classification within each stage. Results. The luminal B/HER2− surrogate classification had a higher risk of mortality than the luminal B/HER2+ for all stages of disease. There was no difference in risk of mortality between the ER+/PR+/HER2− and ER+/PR+/HER2+ in stage 3. With one exception in stage 3, the ER-negative subtypes all had an increased risk of mortality when compared with the ER-positive subtypes. Conclusions. Assessment of survival using ER/PR/HER2 illustrates the heterogeneity of HER2+ subtypes. The surrogate classification provides clear separation in survival and adjusted mortality but underestimates the wide variability within the subtypes that make up the classification.

  2. Circulating tumor cells in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidard, Francois-Clement; Proudhon, Charlotte; Pierga, Jean-Yves

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade, technically reliable circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection methods allowed the collection of large datasets of CTC counts in cancer patients. These data can be used either as a dynamic prognostic biomarker or as tumor material for "liquid biopsy". Breast cancer appears to be the cancer type in which CTC have been the most extensively studied so far, with level-of-evidence-1 studies supporting the clinical validity of CTC count in both early and metastatic stage. This review summarizes and discusses the clinical results obtained in breast cancer patients, the issues faced by the molecular characterization of CTC and the biological findings about cancer biology and metastasis that were obtained from CTC. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Breast cancer screening with digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaane, Per

    2017-01-01

    To give an overview of studies comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in breast cancer screening. The implementation of tomosynthesis in breast imaging is rapidly increasing world-wide. Experimental clinical studies of relevance for DBT screening have shown that tomosynthesis might have a great potential in breast cancer screening, although most of these retrospective reading studies are based on small populations, so that final conclusions are difficult to draw from individual reports. Several retrospective studies and three prospective trials on tomosynthesis in breast cancer screening have been published so far, confirming the great potential of DBT in mammography screening. The main results of these screening studies are presented. The retrospective screening studies from USA have all shown a significant decrease in the recall rate using DBT as adjunct to mammography. Most of these studies have also shown an increase in the cancer detection rate, and the non-significant results in some studies might be explained by a lack of statistical power. All the three prospective European trials have shown a significant increase in the cancer detection rate. The retrospective and the prospective screening studies comparing FFDM and DBT have all demonstrated that tomosynthesis has a great potential for improving breast cancer screening. DBT should be regarded as a better mammogram that could improve or overcome limitations of the conventional mammography, and tomosynthesis might be considered as the new technique in the next future of breast cancer screening.

  4. Other biomarkers for detecting prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas; Corradi, Renato; Eastham, James A

    2010-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for detecting prostate cancer since 1994. Although it is the best cancer biomarker available, PSA is not perfect. It lacks both the sensitivity and specificity to accurately detect the presence of prostate cancer. None of the PSA thresholds currently in use consistently identify patients with prostate cancer and exclude patients without cancer. Novel approaches to improve our ability to detect prostate cancer and predict the course of the disease are needed. Additional methods for detecting prostate cancer have been evaluated. Despite the discovery of many new biomarkers, only a few have shown some clinical value. These markers include human kallikrein 2, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen, early prostate cancer antigen, PCA3, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase and glutathione S-transferase pi hypermethylation. We review the reports on biomarkers for prostate cancer detection, and their possible role in the clinical practice.

  5. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact of the increasing incidence and mortality due to breast cancer. ... ported to be increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. ... A lump with more than three quarters of its margin being .... accounted for 36.8% of the false negative cases rate. The.

  6. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  7. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiglazov, V.F.

    1989-01-01

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  8. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  9. Mastopathy and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, K.

    2007-01-01

    Mastopathy (mastopathia fibroso-cystica) and breast cancer are two major epidemiologic, economic and medical problems of women. In Poland, annually, 0.2 - 1.6 billion Polish zlotys is spent on diagnosis and treatment of mastopathy; half of that sum is spent improperly. Many papers suggest relationships between these two diseases, however, it is not certain, whether, or how much, mastopathy increases breast cancer incidence. The available papers from the recent years indicate increased risk, but the methodology of these data is not perfect. It is not excluded that fibrocystic diseases of the breast increase breast cancer incidence. If such an influence exists, independent of other well-know factors, it is probably very small. Moreover, due to the diversity of medical information there is a lack of diagnostic and therapeutic standards in mastopathy. Different types of scans, hormonal, biochemical and immunohistochemical examinations are performed improperly, and there has been no genetic analysis of mastopathy. Therefore, there is a strong need of well planned, prospective trials in this field. (author)

  10. Decision impact and feasibility of different ASCO-recommended biomarkers in early breast cancer: Prospective comparison of molecular marker EndoPredict and protein marker uPA/PAI-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Ettl

    Full Text Available Adjuvant therapy decisions in early breast cancer are based on accurate risk assessment. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and plaminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 have been the first biomarkers in hormone receptor (HR positive breast cancer to reach highest level of evidence. The EndoPredict test (EPclin combines gene expression information with nodal status and tumor size. The aim of this prospective study was to compare uPA/PAI-1 and EPclin as prognostic biomarkers with regard to feasibility, risk stratification and impact on adjuvant therapy recommendation.395 patients with HR positive, HER2 negative, intermediate risk breast cancer were enrolled. Relations and concordance of histologic grading as well as EPclin and uPA/PAI-1 values were assessed by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and Cohen's Kappa. To compare decision impact of EPclin and uPA/PAI-1 three independent case discussions were held: One with known uPA/PAI-1 and EPclin results, one blinded to EPclin alone and another one blinded to both EPclin and uPA/PAI-1.EPclin could be determined in all 395 (100%, uPA/PAI-1 in 190 (48% of the tumor samples. EPclin allocated 250 patients (63% to the low-risk group and 145 patients (37% to the high-risk group, whereas uPA/PAI-1 allocated 88 patients (46% to the low-risk group and 102 patients (54% to the high-risk group. In 59% of cases, both tests showed concordant results. EPclin resulted more frequently in a change of therapy recommendation than the uPA/PAI-1 test (46% vs 24%. Recommendation of adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX was abandoned twice as often by EPclin (45% compared to uPA/PAI-1 (22%.In this first prospective comparison of EPclin and uPA/PAI-1 we found, that EPclin is superior to uPA/PAI-1 with respect to feasibility and decision impact. This leads to substantial avoidance of adjuvant CTX in endocrine-sensitive, HER2-negative breast cancer. Data collection for patients´ clinical outcome is ongoing.

  11. Prospective Biomarker Analysis of the Randomized CHER-LOB Study Evaluating the Dual Anti-HER2 Treatment With Trastuzumab and Lapatinib Plus Chemotherapy as Neoadjuvant Therapy for HER2-Positive Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Valentina; Dieci, Maria Vittoria; Frassoldati, Antonio; Maiorana, Antonino; Ficarra, Guido; Bettelli, Stefania; Tagliafico, Enrico; Bicciato, Silvio; Generali, Daniele Giulio; Cagossi, Katia; Bisagni, Giancarlo; Sarti, Samanta; Musolino, Antonino; Ellis, Catherine; Crescenzo, Rocco; Conte, PierFranco

    2015-09-01

    The CHER-LOB randomized phase II study showed that the combination of lapatinib and trastuzumab plus chemotherapy increases the pathologic complete remission (pCR) rate compared with chemotherapy plus either trastuzumab or lapatinib. A biomarker program was prospectively planned to identify potential predictors of sensitivity to different treatments and to evaluate treatment effect on tumor biomarkers. Overall, 121 breast cancer patients positive for human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) were randomly assigned to neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab, lapatinib, or both trastuzumab and lapatinib. Pre- and post-treatment samples were centrally evaluated for HER2, p95-HER2, phosphorylated AKT (pAKT), phosphatase and tensin homolog, Ki67, apoptosis, and PIK3CA mutations. Fresh-frozen tissue samples were collected for genomic analyses. A mutation in PIK3CA exon 20 or 9 was documented in 20% of cases. Overall, the pCR rates were similar in PIK3CA wild-type and PIK3CA-mutated patients (33.3% vs. 22.7%; p = .323). For patients receiving trastuzumab plus lapatinib, the probability of pCR was higher in PIK3CA wild-type tumors (48.4% vs. 12.5%; p = .06). Ki67, pAKT, and apoptosis measured on the residual disease were significantly reduced from baseline. The degree of Ki67 inhibition was significantly higher in patients receiving the dual anti-HER2 blockade. The integrated analysis of gene expression and copy number data demonstrated that a 50-gene signature specifically predicted the lapatinib-induced pCR. PIK3CA mutations seem to identify patients who are less likely to benefit from dual anti-HER2 inhibition. p95-HER2 and markers of phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway deregulation are not confirmed as markers of different sensitivity to trastuzumab or lapatinib. HER2 is currently the only validated marker to select breast cancer patients for anti-HER2 treatment; however, it is becoming evident that HER2-positive breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. In addition, more

  12. Cutaneous manifestations of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka B. Owczarczyk-Saczonek; Dawid Sigorski; Paweł Różanowski; Agnieszka Markiewicz; Waldemar J. Placek

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm among women in Poland and in the European Union. According to most recent data of the Polish National Cancer Registry, in 2014 breast cancer was diagnosed in over 17,000 women. Based on the National Health Fund records, it is estimated that there are about 55,000–60,000 women in Poland who have a history of breast cancer diagnosis and are potentially at a risk of relapse. The most common sign of breast cancer is the presence of a nodule, how...

  13. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  14. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  15. Hereditary forms of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bella, V.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common oncologic disease in the female population. Besides the sporadic occurrence it occurs in the familial and hereditary form. Persons with the occurrence of positive family anamnesis of breast cancer should be actively investigated. In the indicated cases it is necessary to send the woman to genetic examination. In case that the hereditary form of breast cancer is affirmed it is necessary to examine her family relatives. Women with the hereditary form of breast cancer occur in about 5 – 10 % portion from all women diagnosed with breast cancer. Nowadays we already know that 80 % of hereditary breast cancers are due to germ mutations in BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 gene. Persons with detected gene mutations must be dispensarized in the centres intended for it. (author)

  16. Progesterone in Breast Cancer Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Monica C.; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of steroid hormones in breast carcinogenesis is well established. Recent evidence suggests that angiogenesis can be regulated by hormones. Both oestrogen and progesterone have been implicated in the angiogenic process of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a growth factor involved in angiogenesis in breast cancer that is up-regulated by estrogens. In our study we evaluated the role of progesterone in the expression of ...

  17. Male breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, F.; Vidal, M.A.; Caballero, A.J.; Martinez, A.; Lluch, A.

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the radiological and ultrasonographic signs that contribute to the diagnosis of male breast cancer to establish its differential diagnosis with regard to the most common pathologies involving the male breast. We studied 14 patients diagnosed as heaving breast cancer over the past 23 years. We reviewed their medical records, personal and familial history disease, use of pharmacological agents and the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings. The literature on this subject was also reviewed. Given the fact that his lesion is rare and unexpected in men, a large percentage of the cases, especially those studied in the early years of the study period, involved very advanced stages of the disease at diagnosis. The most common clinical finding was retroarelar mass. Mammography usually reveals a well.defined mass and ultrasound shows a well-defined, hypoechoic, heterogeneous mass. The most frequent histological type is, an in women, the infiltrating ductal carcinoma. A palpable breast mass in a man should suggest possible malignant disease. Thus, mammographic and ultrasonographic studies should be performed early, accompanied, if necessary, by aspiration biopsy; with these measures the prognosis may approximate that of women. (Author) 21 refs

  18. Carboplatin treatment of antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mathilde S; Yde, Christina Westmose; Christensen, Ib J

    2012-01-01

    Antiestrogen resistance is a major clinical problem in current breast cancer treatment. Therefore, biomarkers and new treatment options for antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer are needed. In this study, we investigated whether antiestrogen‑resistant breast cancer cell lines have increased...... sensitivity to carboplatin, as it was previously shown with cisplatin, and whether low Bcl-2 expression levels have a potential value as marker for increased carboplatin sensitivity. Breast cancer cells resistant to the pure antiestrogen fulvestrant, and two out of four cell lines resistant...... to the antiestrogen tamoxifen, were more sensitive to carboplatin treatment compared to the parental MCF-7 cell line. This indicates that carboplatin may be an advantageous treatment in antiestrogen‑resistant breast cancer; however, a marker for increased sensitivity would be needed. Low Bcl-2 expression...

  19. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  20. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    ...) develop breast cancer less frequently. However, these drugs have side effects toward the stomach, liver and kidneys, particularly at the high doses potentially required to prevent breast cancer...

  1. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  2. Dosimetry of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez C, G; Restrepo, J; Aguirre, C A [Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali (Colombia)

    1996-08-01

    The systemic therapy of breast cancer has also changed profoundly during the last 60 years, and in this time the integration of treatment modalities involve a major area of investigation. The dosimetry of breast cancer presents different complications which can range from the Physician`s handling of the neoplasia up to the simple aspects of physical simulation, contour design, radiation fields, irregular surfaces and computer programs containing mathematical equations which differ little or largely with the reality of the radiation distribution into the volume to be irradiated. We have studied the problem using two types of measurements to determine how the radiation distribution is in irregular surfaces, and designing an easier skill to be used with each patient, in order to optimize the treatment with respect to the simulation and verification process. (author). 7 refs.

  3. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  4. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  5. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudgar, Amy V; Mankoff, David A

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine, basing treatment approaches on patient traits and specific molecular features of disease processes, has an important role in the management of patients with breast cancer as targeted therapies continue to improve. PET imaging offers noninvasive information that is complementary to traditional tissue biomarkers, including information about tumor burden, tumor metabolism, receptor status, and proliferation. Several PET agents that image breast cancer receptors can visually demonstrate the extent and heterogeneity of receptor-positive disease and help predict which tumors are likely to respond to targeted treatments. This review presents applications of PET imaging in the targeted treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In situ breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Luis

    2004-01-01

    In situ breast cancer, particularly the ductal type, is increasing in frequency in the developed countries as well as in Ecuador, most probably. These lesions carry a higher risk of developing a subsequent invasive cancer. Treatment has changed recently due to results of randomized studies, from classical mastectomy to conservative surgery associated to radiotherapy. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index is currently the most usual instrument to guide diagnosis and treatment. Tamoxifen seems to decrease significantly the risk of tumor recurrence after initial treatment. (The author)

  7. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  8. Characterisation of the HLA-DRB1*07:01 biomarker for lapatinib-induced liver toxicity during treatment of early-stage breast cancer patients with lapatinib in combination with trastuzumab and/or taxanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraggs, C F; Parham, L R; Briley, L P; Warren, L; Williams, L S; Fraser, D J; Jiang, Z; Aziz, Z; Ahmed, S; Demetriou, G; Mehta, A; Jackson, N; Byrne, J; Andersson, M; Toi, M; Harris, L; Gralow, J; Zujewski, J A; Crescenzo, R; Armour, A; Perez, E; Piccart, M

    2017-08-08

    HLA-DRB1*07:01 allele carriage was characterised as a risk biomarker for lapatinib-induced liver injury in a large global study evaluating lapatinib, alone and in combination with trastuzumab and taxanes, as adjuvant therapy for advanced breast cancer (adjuvant lapatinib and/or trastuzumab treatment optimisation). HLA-DRB1*07:01 carriage was associated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations in lapatinib-treated patients (odds ratio 6.5, P=3 × 10 -26 , n=4482) and the risk and severity of ALT elevation for lapatinib-treated patients was higher in homozygous than heterozygous HLA-DRB1*07:01 genotype carriers. A higher ALT case incidence plus weaker HLA association observed during concurrent administration of lapatinib and taxane suggested a subset of liver injury in this combination group that was HLA-DRB1*07:01 independent. Furthermore, the incidence of ALT elevation demonstrated an expected correlation with geographic HLA-DRB1*07:01 carriage frequency. Robust ALT elevation risk estimates for HLA-DRB1*07:01 may support causality discrimination and safety risk management during the use of lapatinib combination therapy for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2017.39.

  9. Nanomaterials based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, Bansi D; Kumar, Saurabh; Pandey, Chandra Mouli

    2016-01-01

    Biosensors have enormous potential to contribute to the evolution of new molecular diagnostic techniques for patients suffering with cancerous diseases. A major obstacle preventing faster development of biosensors pertains to the fact that cancer is a highly complex set of diseases. The oncologists currently rely on a few biomarkers and histological characterization of tumors. Some of the signatures include epigenetic and genetic markers, protein profiles, changes in gene expression, and post-translational modifications of proteins. These molecular signatures offer new opportunities for development of biosensors for cancer detection. In this context, conducting paper has recently been found to play an important role towards the fabrication of a biosensor for cancer biomarker detection. In this paper we will focus on results of some of the recent studies obtained in our laboratories relating to fabrication and application of nanomaterial modified paper based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection. (paper)

  10. The value of TOP2A gene copy number variation as a biomarker in breast cancer: Update of DBCG trial 89D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.V.; Ejlertsen, B.; Moller, S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous analyses of TOP2A and HER2 in the Danish Breast Cancer Coopererative Group (DBCG) trial 89D suggested that TOP2A amplifications and possible also deletions are predictive markers for the effect of adjuvant epirubicin in patients with primary breast cancer. We present an updated......% reduction in the risk of an event (p=0.002) and a 51% reduction in the risk of death (p=0.01) if allocated to CEF compared to 6% and 10% in TOP2A normal patients. A similar but non-significant trend (p=0.08) was shown in patients with TOP2A deletions. Clear statistical evidence of a differential benefit......, favoring CEF among patients with TOP2A aberrations was found for RFS (p=0.02 for interaction) but not for OS (p=0.14 for interaction). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this updated analysis of TOP2A aberrations in DBCG trial 89D suggests a differential benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with primary...

  11. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-05

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  12. Use of Autoantibodies to Detect the Onset of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Lacombe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of screening mammography has resulted in increased detection of early-stage breast disease, particularly for in situ carcinoma and early-stage breast cancer. However, the majority of women with abnormalities noted on screening mammograms are not diagnosed with cancer because of several factors, including radiologist assessment, patient age, breast density, malpractice concerns, and quality control procedures. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a highly sensitive detection tool that has become standard for women at very high risk of developing breast cancer, it lacks sufficient specificity and costeffectiveness for use as a general screening tool. Therefore, there is an important need to improve screening and diagnosis of early-invasive and noninvasive tumors, that is, in situ carcinoma. The great potential for molecular tools to improve breast cancer outcomes based on early diagnosis has driven the search for diagnostic biomarkers. Identification of tumor-specific markers capable of eliciting an immune response in the early stages of tumor development seems to provide an effective approach for early diagnosis. The aim of this review is to describe several autoantibodies identified during breast cancer diagnosis. We will focus on these molecules highlighted in the past two years and discuss the potential future use of autoantibodies as biomarkers of early-stage breast cancer.

  13. Brachytherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spikalovas, V.; Mudenas, A.; Karoesiene, E.; Mickevicius, R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1987-1995 a total of 347 patients with breast cancer underwent interstitial treatment. Two methods of irradiation were applied. 1. When patients refused surgery, external radiotherapy was given followed by implant radiotherapy for a dose of 20-30 Gy. Needle sources were applied for treatment with an increasing activity on the ends. The application of special template devices made it possible to implant radioactive sources in a strictly pre-set geometry. This allowed to place the sources in the necessary geometry for the whole course of irradiation. Dosimetric planning was performed in Gray-equivalents to a selected isodose curve mostly 85%. Treatment time was 20-50 hours. 2. In cases when the tumour was localized in the medial quadrant of breast, interstitial therapy was applied to the parasternal lymph nodes. During mastectomy catheters were placed in a. thoracica interna of the corresponding side. On the first or second postoperative day flexible radioactive sources were inserted into catheters. Their active length was 10-12 cm. Irradiation dose at a distance of 2 cm from the centre of source was 40-45 Gy. Results: There was minimum radiation effect on the adjusting organs and tissues. Local recurrence of tumour in the region of irradiation was in 6 patients. Conclusions: The application of interstitial radiotherapy in treatment of breast cancer is effective and the results of radiation treatment are encouraging

  14. Inflammatory breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an extremely aggressive disease that progresses rapidly and carries a very grim prognosis. It is characterized by erythema, rapid enlargement of the breast, skin ridging, and a characteristics peau d´orange appearance of the skin secondary to dermal lymphatic tumor involvement. Although a palpable tumor may not by present, about 55% to 85% of patient will present with metastases to the axillary or supraclavicular lymph nodes. Diagnosis of IBC is made on the basis of these clinical characteristics, as well as histologic verification of carcinoma. Accurate diagnosis is critically important, as multimodal therapy can significantly improve outcome if instituted early enough. Primary systemic treatment (neoadjuvant, induction, initials) is standard treatment for inflammatory breast cancer. If treatment response is not satisfactory it is necessary to look for new treatment regimens with different concept of dose intensity, density and sequence of treatment. In the neoadjuvant setting it is possible to employ all targeted and non-targeted therapies as was shown in a number of clinical trials. (author)

  15. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Ko, Eun Sook; Yi, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results

  16. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  17. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-06

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. DNA Methylation Biomarkers: Cancer and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mikeska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are naturally-occurring characteristics by which a particular pathological process or disease can be identified or monitored. They can reflect past environmental exposures, predict disease onset or course, or determine a patient’s response to therapy. Epigenetic changes are such characteristics, with most epigenetic biomarkers discovered to date based on the epigenetic mark of DNA methylation. Many tissue types are suitable for the discovery of DNA methylation biomarkers including cell-based samples such as blood and tumor material and cell-free DNA samples such as plasma. DNA methylation biomarkers with diagnostic, prognostic and predictive power are already in clinical trials or in a clinical setting for cancer. Outside cancer, strong evidence that complex disease originates in early life is opening up exciting new avenues for the detection of DNA methylation biomarkers for adverse early life environment and for estimation of future disease risk. However, there are a number of limitations to overcome before such biomarkers reach the clinic. Nevertheless, DNA methylation biomarkers have great potential to contribute to personalized medicine throughout life. We review the current state of play for DNA methylation biomarkers, discuss the barriers that must be crossed on the way to implementation in a clinical setting, and predict their future use for human disease.

  19. Break Breast Cancer Addiction by CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Haitao; Jaeger, MariaLynn; Walker, Averi; Wei, Daniel; Leiker, Katie; Weitao, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading diagnosed cancer for women globally. Evolution of breast cancer in tumorigenesis, metastasis and treatment resistance appears to be driven by the aberrant gene expression and protein degradation encoded by the cancer genomes. The uncontrolled cancer growth relies on these cellular events, thus constituting the cancerous programs and rendering the addiction towards them. These programs are likely the potential anticancer biomarkers for Personalized Medicine of brea...

  20. System delays in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    registry with an audit capability. We suggest targeting an 8-week period for the work-up and staging of every patient with breast cancer. The establishment of ... or less' and 'women with symptoms and signs suggestive of breast cancer must be ...

  1. Conventional surgery in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapia Herrera, Andres

    2013-01-01

    General aspects of breast cancer were described from the epidemiological point of view, clinical and pathological, as well as its impact at global and national levels. Parenchyma conservative surgery and/or breast skin was analyzed exhaustively as a cancer treatment analyzed exhaustively, to your specifications, requirements, technical aspects, risks, benefits, degree of oncological safety and benefits for patients [es

  2. Breast cancer in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JhfBK: A I'ccr-mvicw Journal of liiomeclical Scicnccs. July 2002, Vol. 1 No. 1 pp 33-42. Breast cancer in the elderly. ABSTRACT. Between Janua~y 1997 and December 2001,107 patients were admitted and treated for breast cancer at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of these, 27. (25.2%) were aged 60 ...

  3. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  4. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screenings Most Schools Can Do More to Help Students Stay Sun Safe Parents and Friends Can Influence ... Starts in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer ... notice a change in the size or shape of your breast, feel pain in your breast, have nipple discharge other than ...

  5. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  6. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  7. Radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnerty, N.A.; Buzdar, A.U.; Blumenschein, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1983, sixteen patients with a history of irradiation at an early age to the head, neck, or chest areas for a variety of conditions in whom breast cancer subsequently developed were seen at out institute. The median latent period between the irradiation and the development of breast cancer was 420 months. The distribution of patients by stage of the disease and the median age at diagnosis of this subgroup was similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. The subsequent course of this disease was also similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. A substantial number of women have been exposed to irradiation at a young age, and these women are at a higher risk of having breast cancer develop. These women should be closely observed to discover the disease in an early curable stage

  8. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... interactions of pregnancy-related mammotrophic factors, ligands, and receptors? What is the time course of pregnancy-related ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  10. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  11. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Tests may include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  12. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  13. Biomarkers and Targeted Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fataneh Karandish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC constitutes 90% of pancreatic cancers. PDAC is a complex and devastating disease with only 1%–3% survival rate in five years after the second stage. Treatment of PDAC is complicated due to the tumor microenvironment, changing cell behaviors to the mesenchymal type, altered drug delivery, and drug resistance. Considering that pancreatic cancer shows early invasion and metastasis, critical research is needed to explore different aspects of the disease, such as elaboration of biomarkers, specific signaling pathways, and gene aberration. In this review, we highlight the biomarkers, the fundamental signaling pathways, and their importance in targeted drug delivery for pancreatic cancers.

  14. Biomarkers and Targeted Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandish, Fataneh; Mallik, Sanku

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) constitutes 90% of pancreatic cancers. PDAC is a complex and devastating disease with only 1%-3% survival rate in five years after the second stage. Treatment of PDAC is complicated due to the tumor microenvironment, changing cell behaviors to the mesenchymal type, altered drug delivery, and drug resistance. Considering that pancreatic cancer shows early invasion and metastasis, critical research is needed to explore different aspects of the disease, such as elaboration of biomarkers, specific signaling pathways, and gene aberration. In this review, we highlight the biomarkers, the fundamental signaling pathways, and their importance in targeted drug delivery for pancreatic cancers.

  15. Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: can biomarkers improve current management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, John M S; Nofech-Moses, Sharon; Rakovitch, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Screening for invasive cancer has led to a marked increase in the detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). DCIS is, if appropriately managed, a low-risk disease which has a small chance of impacting on patient life expectancy. However, despite significant advances in prognostic marker development in invasive breast cancer, there are no validated diagnostic assays to inform treatment choice for women with DCIS. Therefore we are unable to target effective treatment strategies to women at high risk and avoid over-treatment of women at low risk of progression to invasive breast cancer. Paradoxically, one effect of this uncertainty is undertreatment of some women. We review current practice and research in the field to identify key challenges in the management of DCIS. The impact of clinical research, particularly on the over and undertreatment of women with DCIS is assessed. We note slow progress toward development of diagnostic biomarkers and highlight key opportunities to accelerate advances in this area. DCIS is a low-risk disease, its incidence is increasing, and current treatment is effective. However, many women are either over- or undertreated. Despite repeated calls for development of diagnostic biomarkers, progress in this area has been slow, reflecting a relative lack of investment of research effort and funding. Given the low event rate in treated patients and the lateness of recurrences, many previous studies have only limited power to identify independent prognostic and predictive biomarkers. However, the potential for such biomarkers to personalize treatment for DCIS is extremely high.

  16. Breast cancer in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, C.M. de; Villas-Boas, C.L.P.; Koch, H.A.; Nogueira, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    After a study of all cases of masculine breast cancer registered at the INCa from 1983 to 1989, the author present the most usual clinical, radiological and histopathological findings. The ductal infiltrating type of carcinoma was predominant; there were also six cases of secondary implant and two patients who died. The value of this article lies on the opportunity of presenting 11 cases of this pathology, which represent only 0,2% of malignant tumors in men, and to describe its manifestations and call the attention of radiologists for this entity. (author)

  17. Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Burhan; Aziz, Shiekh Aejaz; Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Mir, Mohammad Hussain

    2017-01-01

    The study was meant to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with breast cancer and to establish its role as an independent risk factor on occurrence of breast cancer. Fifty women aged between 40 and 80 years with breast cancer and fifty controls of similar age were assessed for metabolic syndrome prevalence and breast cancer risk factors, including age at menarche, reproductive status, live births, breastfeeding, and family history of breast cancer, age at diagnosis of breast cancer, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found in 40.0% of breast cancer patients, and 18.0% of those in control group ( P = 0.02). An independent and positive association was seen between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 3.037; 95% confidence interval 1.214-7.597). Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in breast cancer patients and is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.

  18. Breast cancer in Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohene-Yeboah, M.; Adjei, E.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women.To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 and June 30th 2009 patients presenting with breast lumps were assessed by clinical examination, imaging studies and pathological examination. Relevant clinical and pathological were recorded prospectively data on all patients with microscopically proven breast cancer. The cancers were graded according to the modified Bloom-Richardson system. Tissue immunoperoxidase stains for oestrogen, progesterone receptors and c-erb2 oncogene were performed with commercially prepared antigens and reagents.Nineteen thousand four hundred and twenty – three (19,423) patients were seen during the study period. There were 330 (1.7%) patients with histologically proven breast cancer. The mean age was 49.1 years. A palpable breast lump was detected in 248 patients (75.2%). Two hundred and eighty –one patients (85.2%) presented with Stages III and IV , 271 (82.1%) invasive and 230 ( 85.2%) high grade carcinomas. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 32 and 9 cases respectively. Her2 protein was positive in 11 cases. In Kumasi, as in other parts of Ghana, breast cancer affects mostly young pre-menopausal who present with advanced disease. The cancers have unfavourable prognostic features and are unlikely to respond to hormonal therapy. (au)

  19. Exosomes in development, metastasis and drug resistance of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan-dan; Wu, Ying; Shen, Hong-yu; Lv, Meng-meng; Chen, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Zhong, Shan-liang; Tang, Jin-hai; Zhao, Jian-hua

    2015-08-01

    Transport through the cell membrane can be divided into active, passive and vesicular types (exosomes). Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released by a variety of cells. Emerging evidence shows that exosomes play a critical role in cancers. Exosomes mediate communication between stroma and cancer cells through the transfer of nucleic acid and proteins. It is demonstrated that the contents and the quantity of exosomes will change after occurrence of cancers. Over the last decade, growing attention has been paid to the role of exosomes in the development of breast cancer, the most life-threatening cancer in women. Breast cancer could induce salivary glands to secret specific exosomes, which could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Exosome-delivered nucleic acid and proteins partly facilitate the tumorigenesis, metastasis and resistance of breast cancer. Exosomes could also transmit anti-cancer drugs outside breast cancer cells, therefore leading to drug resistance. However, exosomes are effective tools for transportation of anti-cancer drugs with lower immunogenicity and toxicity. This is a promising way to establish a drug delivery system. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  20. Self assessment and detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Priyanka; Yadav, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths in India. Approx. three million patients suffering from the disease while Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in India. Post operative radiotherapy after the breast conservative surgery and mastectomy have been shown to reduce the rates of local recurrence and death due to breast carcinomas. Hence awareness of breast cancer signs, symptoms and self assessment plays critical role in the care of breast cancer patients

  1. Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0461 TITLE: Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jose Silva CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0461 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) l 5d...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC, ~5% of all breast cancers ) is the most lethal form of breast cancer , presenting a 5- year

  2. [Management of breast cancer in a woman with breast implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacle, S; Lifrange, E; Nizet, J-L

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer, currently one woman on eight, also concerns patients who underwent augmentation surgery. Breast implants have already been the subject of numerous publications concerning the risk of inducing breast cancer or of delaying its diagnosis; however, no significant causal relationship has been established. The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic consequences when breast cancer is identified in a patient with breast implants.

  3. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  4. Estrogens in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzieff, V.; Vázquez, A.

    2004-01-01

    The prolonged exposure to estrogen increases the risk of cancer breast, the precise role of estrogen in the carcinogenesis process is unclear. They are capable of inducing cell proliferation through different channels receptor Estrogen (ER) known, for example through MAPkinasa sensitivity the promoter of proliferation effect depends on the level of RE, or type to â, integrity (mutations may alter its function) and ligand. The different types of estrogens and related compounds have different profile of affinity for RE and effect end. The modulatory role of progestogens proliferation is very complex, and the interaction between the effector pathways of progestin’s, estrogens, EGF and IGF family - maybe others - determines the final effect .. Estrogens are mutagenic per se weak, but is now known for its hepatic metabolism occur highly reactive species such as quinones, and catechol, powerful mutagens in vitro. Direct or indirect genotoxicity probably explains Part of the effects of estrogen on tumor cells. The use of hormone replacement (HTR) increases the risk of CM, as proportional to the time of use. The combination with progestin seems to be increased risk (R R 2). It is unclear the role of phyto estrogens in the prevention the CM. In the male breast is known that the proliferative response to parenchymal different hormonal maneuvers is different. The effect is minimal castration are and maximum with the combination of estrogen and progesterone. It is unclear, however, the risk of the population exposed to hormone therapy for cancer prostate or otherwise

  5. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy affecting women in Nigeria. Regular breast self examination reduces morbidity and mortality from this disease. Objective: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer, breast self examination and practice amongst secondary school teachers in Enugu , Nigeria.

  6. Mitosis counting in breast cancer : object-level interobserver agreement and comparison to an automatic method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veta, M.; van Diest, P.J.; Jiwa, M.; Al-Janabi, S.; Pluim, J.P.W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor proliferation speed, most commonly assessed by counting of mitotic figures in histological slide preparations, is an important biomarker for breast cancer. Although mitosis counting is routinely performed by pathologists, it is a tedious and subjective task with poor

  7. Mitosis Counting in Breast Cancer : Object-Level Interobserver Agreement and Comparison to an Automatic Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veta, Mitko; van Diest, Paul J; Jiwa, Mehdi; Al-Janabi, Shaimaa; Pluim, JPW

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor proliferation speed, most commonly assessed by counting of mitotic figures in histological slide preparations, is an important biomarker for breast cancer. Although mitosis counting is routinely performed by pathologists, it is a tedious and subjective task with poor

  8. Estrogen-Induced Depurination of DNA: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavalieri, Ercole L

    2008-01-01

    ... and their reaction with DNA. Compelling evidence obtained in the various specific aims of this COE will be decisive for determining the risk of breast cancer by using the depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts as biomarkers...

  9. Estrogen-Induced Depurination of DNA: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavalieri, Ercole L

    2007-01-01

    ... and their reaction with DNA. Compelling evidence obtained in the various specific aims of this COE will be decisive for determining the risk of breast cancer by using the depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts as biomarkers...

  10. Novel Growth Factor as Prognostic Marker for Estrogen-Independence in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serrero, Ginette

    2003-01-01

    The Concept Award focused on investigating the expression on the biomarker PCDGF/GP88 in breast cancer and its effect on the acquisition of estrogen independence and tamoxifen resistance, a hallmark...

  11. Integrated Development of Serum Molecular Markers for Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    development of breast cancer screening test. Increasing our understanding of the role of biomarkers in the etiology and progression of breast cancer...granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia . Hypertens Pregnancy 1999;18:95 – 106. 50. Bux J, Hofmann C, Welte K. Serum G-CSF

  12. Epigenetics in breast and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2015-01-01

    Most recent investigations into cancer etiology have identified a key role played by epigenetics. Specifically, aberrant DNA and histone modifications which silence tumor suppressor genes or promote oncogenes have been demonstrated in multiple cancer models. While the role of epigenetics in several solid tumor cancers such as colorectal cancer are well established, there is emerging evidence that epigenetics also plays a critical role in breast and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, DNA methylation profiles have been linked to hormone receptor status and tumor progression. Similarly in prostate cancer, epigenetic patterns have been associated with androgen receptor status and response to therapy. The regulation of key receptor pathways and activities which affect clinical therapy treatment options by epigenetics renders this field high priority for elucidating mechanisms and potential targets. A new set of methylation arrays are now available to screen epigenetic changes and provide the cutting-edge tools needed to perform such investigations. The role of nutritional interventions affecting epigenetic changes particularly holds promise. Ultimately, determining the causes and outcomes from epigenetic changes will inform translational applications for utilization as biomarkers for risk and prognosis as well as candidates for therapy.

  13. The Effect of Simvastatin on Breast Cancer Cell Growth in Women With Stage I-II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  14. Metastasis of breast cancer rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, L.; Santander, G.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Metastases to the breast are rare, corresponding approximately to 3% of breast cancers. Primary tumors that spread more commonly are own breast, often following them in melanomas, neuroendocrine, ovarian and lymphoma. Medical history: A 59-year consultation rectoragias repeated and thinning. It is studied and finally intervenes (low anterior resection) diagnosed with rectal cancer whose Histopathology revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma stage III. Concomitantly the patient has a left breast lump that was studied with mammography, which revealed a dense mass of larger diameter 4 cm in topografiada 3 hour left breast with well defined contours and ultrasonographic structure solid. MI lumpectomy is performed whose pathology reports a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with cytoarchitectural features matching the lesion of rectum. Hormone receptors were negative. The patient is treated as a rectal cancer with RT spread over QT (5FU i /c). Died 7 months after diagnosis. Discusion: In literature are reported only 3 cases of breast metastases secondary to rectal cancer; how unusual this presentation justify this report.In this event they occurred in patients with a previous diagnosis of rectal cancer and in the context of systemic lesion progression. In our case clinician early diagnosis of rectal and breast metastases was synchronous. The mammographic image consistent with those described for these cases in the literature.The development of metastases in breast tissue is associated with a poor prognosis as which correlates with the survival of the patient

  15. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0390 TITLE: Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zheng Li CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0390 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Zheng Li 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...14 Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast  Cancer   A. Introduction (1paragraph) The overall goal of this proposal is to prepare TrkC

  16. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... white blood cells that help fight illness. If breast cancer spreads, the lymph nodes in the underarm (called ... if they contain cancer cells. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. Sentinel node biopsy and ...

  17. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  18. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , ... Disclosures Footnotes Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. ...

  19. National Native American Breast Cancer Survivor's Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burhansstipanov, Linda

    2002-01-01

    .... The purpose of this project is to improve the survival from breast cancer and quality of life after being diagnosed with breast cancer for both the patient and loved ones of the cancer patient...

  20. National Native American Breast Cancer Survivor's Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burhansstipanov, Linda

    2003-01-01

    .... The purpose of this project is to improve the survival from breast cancer and quality of life after being diagnosed with breast cancer for both the patient and loved ones of the cancer patient...

  1. Basal 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography as a prognostic biomarker in patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Vicente, Ana Maria; Soriano Castrejon, Angel; Lopez-Fidalgo, Jesus Fernando; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Mar Munoz Sanchez, Maria del; Alvarez Cabellos, Ruth; Espinosa Aunion, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between basal 18 F-FDG PET/CT information in breast tumours and survival in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). This prospective, multicentre study included 198 women diagnosed with LABC. All patients underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in tumor (T), lymph nodes (N) and the N/T ratio was obtained in all cases. Stage according to PET/CT imaging (metabolic stage) and conventional imaging techniques (clinical stage) was established. During follow-up, patient status was established (disease free status or not). The relationship between all the variables and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. A ROC analysis was performed to obtain a cut-off value of SUVmax that was useful in the prediction of outcome. The mean SUVmax ± SD values in the primary tumour, lymph nodes and the SUVmax N/T index were 7.40 ± 5.57, 4.17 ± 4.74 and 0.73 ± 1.20, respectively. Higher semiquantitative metabolic values were found in more advanced metabolic and clinical stages. During follow-up, 78.4 % of patients were free of disease. Significant relationships were observed between SUVT and SUVN and patient status. With respect to OS and DFS, significant differences were detected for the metabolic stage. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that using the cut-off values, a primary-tumour SUVmax ≥ 6.05 or a nodal SUVmax ≥2.25 were significantly correlated with DFS and OS. PET imaging with 18 F-FDG offers prognostic information for LABC that can be obtained preoperatively and noninvasively. (orig.)

  2. Basal {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography as a prognostic biomarker in patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Vicente, Ana Maria; Soriano Castrejon, Angel [University General Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Ciudad Real (Spain); Lopez-Fidalgo, Jesus Fernando; Amo-Salas, Mariano [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Department of Mathematics, Ciudad Real (Spain); Mar Munoz Sanchez, Maria del [Virgen de la Luz Hospital, Oncology Department, Cuenca (Spain); Alvarez Cabellos, Ruth [Virgen de la Salud Hospital, Oncology Department, Toledo (Spain); Espinosa Aunion, Ruth [La Mancha Centro Hospital, Oncology Department, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    To explore the relationship between basal {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT information in breast tumours and survival in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). This prospective, multicentre study included 198 women diagnosed with LABC. All patients underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in tumor (T), lymph nodes (N) and the N/T ratio was obtained in all cases. Stage according to PET/CT imaging (metabolic stage) and conventional imaging techniques (clinical stage) was established. During follow-up, patient status was established (disease free status or not). The relationship between all the variables and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. A ROC analysis was performed to obtain a cut-off value of SUVmax that was useful in the prediction of outcome. The mean SUVmax ± SD values in the primary tumour, lymph nodes and the SUVmax N/T index were 7.40 ± 5.57, 4.17 ± 4.74 and 0.73 ± 1.20, respectively. Higher semiquantitative metabolic values were found in more advanced metabolic and clinical stages. During follow-up, 78.4 % of patients were free of disease. Significant relationships were observed between SUVT and SUVN and patient status. With respect to OS and DFS, significant differences were detected for the metabolic stage. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that using the cut-off values, a primary-tumour SUVmax ≥ 6.05 or a nodal SUVmax ≥2.25 were significantly correlated with DFS and OS. PET imaging with {sup 18}F-FDG offers prognostic information for LABC that can be obtained preoperatively and noninvasively. (orig.)

  3. Breast cancer cell lines: friend or foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdall, Sarah E; Hanby, Andrew M; Lansdown, Mark RJ; Speirs, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer research is conducted using established breast cancer cell lines as in vitro models. An alternative is to use cultures established from primary breast tumours. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of using both of these models in translational breast cancer research

  4. Mammographic detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Mammography, whether film or xerography, is a complementary examination to breast palpation in the detection of breast cancer. According to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society, mammography should be performed on every asymptomatic woman, at least once, over the age of 35. Annual mammography after 50 is also advised. The radiation dose to the breast from current equipment is so low as to not be considered a factor in denying a woman this screening examination. Mammography has a role in evaluating the woman with solitary and multiple breast masses. It is the only proved reliable modality able to detect nonpalpable breast cancers and small tumors less than 2 cm in size. All nonpalpable lesions should be excised by directed biopsy, using a preoperative localization technique

  5. CBD: a biomarker database for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueli; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Cao, Yang; Ye, Benchen; Peng, Qiliang; Liu, Xingyun; Shen, Bairong; Zhang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) biomarker database (CBD) was established based on 870 identified CRC biomarkers and their relevant information from 1115 original articles in PubMed published from 1986 to 2017. In this version of the CBD, CRC biomarker data were collected, sorted, displayed and analysed. The CBD with the credible contents as a powerful and time-saving tool provide more comprehensive and accurate information for further CRC biomarker research. The CBD was constructed under MySQL server. HTML, PHP and JavaScript languages have been used to implement the web interface. The Apache was selected as HTTP server. All of these web operations were implemented under the Windows system. The CBD could provide to users the multiple individual biomarker information and categorized into the biological category, source and application of biomarkers; the experiment methods, results, authors and publication resources; the research region, the average age of cohort, gender, race, the number of tumours, tumour location and stage. We only collect data from the articles with clear and credible results to prove the biomarkers are useful in the diagnosis, treatment or prognosis of CRC. The CBD can also provide a professional platform to researchers who are interested in CRC research to communicate, exchange their research ideas and further design high-quality research in CRC. They can submit their new findings to our database via the submission page and communicate with us in the CBD.Database URL: http://sysbio.suda.edu.cn/CBD/.

  6. Chemical Biomarkers of Human Breast Milk Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Marchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is, without question, the best source of nutrition for infants containing the optimal balance of fats, carbohydrates and proteins for developing babies. Breastfeeding provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity and development building a powerful bond between mother and her child. Recognition of the manifold benefits of breast milk has led to the adoption of breast-feeding policies by numerous health and professional organizations such as the World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics.In industrially developed as well as in developing nations, human milk contamination by toxic chemicals such as heavy metals, dioxins and organohalogen compounds, however, is widespread and is the consequence of decades of inadequately controlled pollution. Through breastfeeding, the mother may transfer to the suckling infant potentially toxic chemicals to which the mother has previously been exposed.In the present review, environmental exposure, acquisition and current levels of old and emerging classes of breast milk pollutants are systematically presented. Although scientific evidences indicated that the advantages of breast-feeding outweigh any risks from contaminants, it is important to identify contaminant trends, to locate disproportionately exposed populations, and to take public health measures to improve chemical BM pollution as possible.

  7. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in globally and in Nigeria. In Nigeria, cases of breast cancer cases have been prevalent for three decades and more than 90% of cases can be detected by women themselves through breast self – examination. The objective of this study ...

  8. Breast Cancer Methylomes Establish an Epigenomic Foundation for Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Turcan, Sevin; Rimner, Andreas; Kaufman, Andrew; Giri, Dilip; Morris, Luc G. T.; Shen, Ronglai; Seshan, Venkatraman; Mo, Qianxing; Heguy, Adriana; Baylin, Stephen B.; Ahuja, Nita; Viale, Agnes; Massague, Joan; Norton, Larry; Vahdat, Linda T.; Moynahan, Mary Ellen; Chan, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer-specific alterations in DNA methylation are hallmarks of human malignancies; however, the nature of the breast cancer epigenome and its effects on metastatic behavior remain obscure. To address this issue, we used genome-wide analysis to characterize the methylomes of breast cancers with diverse metastatic behavior. Groups of breast tumors were characterized by the presence or absence of coordinate hypermethylation at a large number of genes, demonstrating a breast CpG island methylator phenotype (B-CIMP). The B-CIMP provided a distinct epigenomic profile and was a strong determinant of metastatic potential. Specifically, the presence of the B-CIMP in tumors was associated with low metastatic risk and survival, and the absence of the B-CIMP was associated with high metastatic risk and death. B-CIMP loci were highly enriched for genes that make up the metastasis transcriptome. Methylation at B-CIMP genes accounted for much of the transcriptomal diversity between breast cancers of varying prognosis, indicating a fundamental epigenomic contribution to metastasis. Comparison of the loci affected by the B-CIMP with those affected by the hypermethylator phenotype in glioma and colon cancer revealed that the CIMP signature was shared by multiple human malignancies. Our data provide a unifying epigenomic framework linking breast cancers with varying outcome and transcriptomic changes underlying metastasis. These findings significantly enhance our understanding of breast cancer oncogenesis and aid the development of new prognostic biomarkers for this common malignancy. PMID:21430268

  9. Using Aptamers for Cancer Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Min Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are single-stranded synthetic DNA- or RNA-based oligonucleotides that fold into various shapes to bind to a specific target, which includes proteins, metals, and molecules. Aptamers have high affinity and high specificity that are comparable to that of antibodies. They are obtained using iterative method, called (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment SELEX and cell-based SELEX (cell-SELEX. Aptamers can be paired with recent advances in nanotechnology, microarray, microfluidics, and other technologies for applications in clinical medicine. One particular area that aptamers can shed a light on is biomarker discovery. Biomarkers are important in diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In this paper, we will describe ways in which aptamers can be used to discover biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics.

  10. Radiofrequency Tagged Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-18

    Positive Axillary Lymph Node; Stage 0 Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer AJCC v7

  11. Prognostic Factors in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Leary, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    .... During this time effective adjuvant therapy was not available to treat early breast cancer. Social security numbers for a subset of these women were obtained by crossmatching AFIP records with the DEERS database...

  12. Mevalonates, Ras and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... This selective inhibition appears to be a consequence of expression of oncogenic Ras. Here we are evaluating the ability of Fmev to selectively interfere with proliferation of breast cancer cells...

  13. Molecular genetics of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radice, P.; Pierotti, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the last two decades, molecular studies have enlightened the complexity of the genetic alterations that occur in breast cancer cells. To date, more than 40 different genes or loci have been found to be altered in breast carcinomas. Although some of these genes, as for example ERBB2, appear to be mutated in a high proportion of cases, their mechanism of action and their role in the different stages of cancer development are still poorly understood. More recently, two major determinants of the inherited predisposition to breast cancer, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been isolated. As a consequence, it is now possible to screen families with a positive history of breast carcinomas for the identification of mutations carriers, in order to address these individuals into adequate programs of cancer surveillance and prevention

  14. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  15. Management of male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Dimitro v

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of male breast cancer is still under discussion due to lack of information from prospective, randomized clinical trials and low incidence of this disease. Current management is based largely on extrapolation from data related to treatment of female breast cancer. Over the last two decades, several review articles have discussed mainly retrospective and anecdotal data related to hormonal and chemotherapy treatment modalities. In this review, we present the most recent information and future considerations related to the management of male breast cancer. In addition to the conventional treatment options we will discuss the possible role of targeted therapy. Establishing a national or global registry for male breast cancer will provide more precise information about the natural history of the disease and will facilitate the design and execution of prospective, randomized multicenter clinical trials.

  16. Melatonin, Aging and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Steven

    2001-01-01

    ... conditions for tumor induction, promotion and progression. The pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, has been shown by numerous laboratories to inhibit the proliferation of both human and animal models of breast cancer...

  17. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  18. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...

  19. [Sexuality after breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Judith; Bitzer, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    Sexual complaints are an often reported complication of breast cancer treatment, however still under diagnosed and rarely subject of oncologic counseling. The etiology is multifactorial: predisposing factors, triggers and maintaining factors can be identified on a somatic, psychological and social-interactional level. Accordingly, the development of the therapeutic approach is based on the identification and, where possible, modification or compensation of those factors which explain and maintain the sexual problems. Most often, loss of appetence is being reported, however, as it may develop secondary to sexual pain (dyspareunia) which is partly due to lack of lubrication as a consequence of therapy induced hormonal changes, the entire sexual interaction as well as sexual experiences since diagnosis and treatment should be systematically assessed. For treatment, vaginal atrophy, climacteric symptoms and, most importantly, the psychological and relational adjustment process to illness induced changes have to be considered.

  20. Antiangiogenic therapy in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gampenrieder, Simon Peter; Westphal, Theresa; Greil, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Summary Based on a strong rationale for anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) treatment in breast cancer and promising preclinical data, great hopes have been placed on the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab. Clinical trials, however, reported conflicting results. In metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2)-negative breast cancer, the addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy improved consistently progression-free survival (PFS), however, without effect on overall...

  1. Breast cancer in Accra, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Most can- cers (97.1%) were found in women with only 24. (2.9%) in males, giving a female:male ratio of. 33.2:1. Figure 1: Age characteristics of breast cancers in Accra. Ductal type represents the most common (90.1%) breast cancer cases followed by lobular carcinomas. (3.9%) (Table 1). The ductal to lobular ratio is.

  2. Dormancy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banys M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Malgorzata Banys,1,2 Andreas D Hartkopf,1 Natalia Krawczyk,1 Tatjana Kaiser,1 Franziska Meier-Stiegen,1 Tanja Fehm,1 Hans Neubauer11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg, Hamburg, GermanyAbstract: Tumor dormancy describes a prolonged quiescent state in which tumor cells are present, but disease progression is not yet clinically apparent. Breast cancer is especially known for long asymptomatic periods, up to 25 years, with no evidence of the disease, followed by a relapse. Factors that determine the cell's decision to enter a dormant state and that control its duration remain unclear. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding how tumor cells circulating in the blood interact and extravasate into secondary sites and which factors might determine whether these cells survive, remain dormant, or become macrometastases. The mechanisms of tumor cell dormancy are still not clear. Two different hypotheses are currently discussed: tumor cells persist either by completely withdrawing from the cell cycle or by continuing to proliferate at a slow rate that is counterbalanced by cell death. Because dormant disseminated tumor cells may be the founders of metastasis, one hypothesis is that dormant tumor cells, or at least a fraction of them, share stem cell-like characteristics that may be responsible for their long half-lives and their suggested resistance to standard chemotherapy. Therefore, knowledge of the biology of tumor cell dormancy may be the basis from which to develop innovative targeted therapies to control or eliminate this tumor cell fraction. In this review, we discuss biological mechanisms and clinical implications of tumor dormancy in breast cancer patients.Keywords: tumor dormancy, disseminated tumor cell, circulating tumor cell, targeted therapy

  3. Basal (18)F-FDG PET/CT as a predictive biomarker of tumor response for neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vicente, A M; Soriano Castrejón, A; Pruneda-González, R E; Fernández Calvo, G; Muñoz Sánchez, M M; Álvarez Cabellos, R; Espinosa Aunión, R; Relea Calatayud, F

    2016-01-01

    To explore the relation between tumor kinetic assessed by (18)F-FDG PET and final neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) response within a molecular phenotype perspective. Prospective study included 144 women with breast cancer. All patients underwent a dual-time point (18)F-FDG PET/CT previous to NC. The retention index (RI), between SUV-1 and SUV-2 was calculated. Molecular subtypes were re-grouped in low, intermediate and high-risk biological phenotypes. After NC, all residual primary tumor specimens were histopathologically classified in tumor regression grades (TRG) and response groups. The relation between SUV-1, SUV-2 and RI with the TRG and response groups was evaluated in all molecular subtypes and in accordance with the risk categories. Responder's lesions showed significant greater SUVmax compared to non-responders. The RI value did not show any significant relation with response. Attending to molecular phenotypes, statistical differences were observed with greater SUV for responders having high-risk molecular subtypes. Glycolytic tumor characteristics showed a significant correlation with NC response and dependence of risk phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of MicroRNA Regulation in Obesity-Associated Breast Cancer: Nutritional Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiappan, Ravi; Rajarajan, Dheeran

    2017-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed in women, and the incidence of breast cancer is increasing every year. Obesity has been identified as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer progression. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to breast cancer development is not yet understood; however, there are a few mechanisms counted as potential producers of breast cancer in obesity, including insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and sex hormones. Recent emerging evidence suggests that alterations in microRNA (miRNA) expressions are found in several diseases, including breast cancer and obesity; however, miRNA roles in obesity-linked breast cancer are beginning to unravel. miRNAs are thought to be potential noninvasive biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients with comorbid conditions of obesity as well as therapeutic targets. Recent studies have evidenced that nutrients and other dietary factors protect against cancer and obesity through modulation of miRNA expressions. Herein, we summarize a comprehensive overview of up-to-date information related to miRNAs and their molecular targets involved in obesity-associated breast cancer. We also address the mechanisms by which dietary factors modulate miRNA expression and its protective roles in obesity-associated breast cancer. It is hoped that this review would provide new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity-associated breast cancer to reduce the burden of breast cancer. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Break Breast Cancer Addiction by CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haitao; Jaeger, MariaLynn; Walker, Averi; Wei, Daniel; Leiker, Katie; Weitao, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading diagnosed cancer for women globally. Evolution of breast cancer in tumorigenesis, metastasis and treatment resistance appears to be driven by the aberrant gene expression and protein degradation encoded by the cancer genomes. The uncontrolled cancer growth relies on these cellular events, thus constituting the cancerous programs and rendering the addiction towards them. These programs are likely the potential anticancer biomarkers for Personalized Medicine of breast cancer. This review intends to delineate the impact of the CRSPR/Cas-mediated genome editing in identification and validation of these anticancer biomarkers. It reviews the progress in three aspects of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the breast cancer genomes: Somatic genome editing, transcription and protein degradation addictions.

  6. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  7. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pelttari, L.M.; Khan, S.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737\\ud and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast\\ud cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer\\ud predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the\\ud coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for\\ud identifi...

  8. RAD51B in familial breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pelttari, LM; Khan, S; Vuorela, M; Kiiski, JI; Vilske, S; Nevanlinna, V; Ranta, S; Schleutker, J; Winqvist, R; Kallioniemi, A; Dörk, T; Bogdanova, NV; Figueroa, J; Pharoah, PDP; Schmidt, MK

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possi...

  9. Radioisotope techniques used in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au-Yong Ting Kun

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancer in women. Treatment and prognosis of breast cancer depend very much on accurate diagnosis, staging and follow-up of patients. Recently, there are several radioisotope techniques developed and have great impact on management of breast cancer. These include scintimammography, sentinel lymph node detection and positron emission tomography. This article is to review these important techniques

  10. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...

  11. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah

    2017-10-02

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  12. Breast Cancer: Reactions, Choices, Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Alexia N.

    2000-01-01

    Women with breast cancer often experience a predictable set of emotional and psychological reactions to their cancer diagnosis according to recognized influencing factors such as age at the time of diagnosis and stage of life. The time between a breast biopsy and the receipt of the pathology results has been identified by patients as the most stressful period throughout the entire cancer experience. Treatment decisions, until recently, were made solely by physicians while patients assumed passive roles. Increasingly, breast cancer patients want to assume an active role in their treatment decisions and care and are no longer satisfied to be passive observers. More and more women educate themselves about their disease through the Internet, investigating available treatment options, side effects, and in some cases, alternative therapies. This new type of breast cancer patient wants to be cared for by physicians who embrace the patient as part of the team. They appreciate the physician who is not threatened by the educated breast cancer patient and understands that she is ultimately motivated by an attempt to regain some of the control the cancer has taken away from her. PMID:21765661

  13. Molecular alterations and biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, William M.; Pritchard, Colin C.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of precision medicine is now a clinical reality. Advances in our understanding of the molecular genetics of colorectal cancer genetics is leading to the development of a variety of biomarkers that are being used as early detection markers, prognostic markers, and markers for predicting treatment responses. This is no more evident than in the recent advances in testing colorectal cancers for specific molecular alterations in order to guide treatment with the monoclonal antibody therapies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this review, we update a prior review published in 2010 and describe our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and how these alterations relate to emerging biomarkers for early detection and risk stratification (diagnostic markers), prognosis (prognostic markers), and the prediction of treatment responses (predictive markers). PMID:24178577

  14. Microwaves for breast cancer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdelhamid Elkayal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is potentially an effective method for the treatment of cancer, especially breast cancer tumors. One of the most attractive attributes of hyperthermia is the possibility of providing therapeutic benefit noninvasively, minimizing side effects. To be effective, a hyperthermia treatment must selectively heat the cancerous tissue, elevating the temperature in the tumor without exposing healthy tissue to excessive temperature elevations. In this paper, a suggested simple model of Annular Phased Array (APA using eight half wavelength linear dipoles is presented. New software (COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS is used to calculate the temperature distribution inside a model of a three layered breast (skin, breast tissue, and tumor. In addition, the effect of changing the amplitude and phases of the array elements on the temperature distributions and the conditions on the values of the phases are demonstrated in order to achieve the objective of hyperthermia for breast tumor treatment.

  15. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Nearly 7,000 women with early-stage, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer were enrolled in the trial ...

  16. Environmental exposures, breast development and cancer risk: Through the looking glass of breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michele R; Winn, Deborah M; Collman, Gwen W; Rizzo, Jeanne; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2015-07-01

    This review summarizes the report entitled: Breast Cancer and the Environment: Prioritizing Prevention, highlights research gaps and the importance of focusing on early life exposures for breast development and breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Proteomic analysis of tissue samples in translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Moreira, José; Gromova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, many proteomic technologies have been applied, with varying success, to the study of tissue samples of breast carcinoma for protein expression profiling in order to discover protein biomarkers/signatures suitable for: characterization and subtyping of tumors; early diagnosis...... the translation of basic discoveries into the daily breast cancer clinical practice. In particular, we address major issues in experimental design by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of current proteomic strategies in the context of the analysis of human breast tissue specimens....

  18. ABRAXAS (FAM175A) and Breast Cancer Susceptibility: No Evidence of Association in the Breast Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Anne-Laure; Lesueur, Fabienne; Coulombe, Yan; Gobeil, Stéphane; Soucy, Penny; Hamdi, Yosr; Desjardins, Sylvie; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Vallée, Maxime; Voegele, Catherine; Hopper, John L; Andrulis, Irene L; Southey, Melissa C; John, Esther M; Masson, Jean-Yves; Tavtigian, Sean V; Simard, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Approximately half of the familial aggregation of breast cancer remains unexplained. This proportion is less for early-onset disease where familial aggregation is greater, suggesting that other susceptibility genes remain to be discovered. The majority of known breast cancer susceptibility genes are involved in the DNA double-strand break repair pathway. ABRAXAS is involved in this pathway and mutations in this gene impair BRCA1 recruitment to DNA damage foci and increase cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Moreover, a recurrent germline mutation was reported in Finnish high-risk breast cancer families. To determine if ABRAXAS could be a breast cancer susceptibility gene in other populations, we conducted a population-based case-control mutation screening study of the coding exons and exon/intron boundaries of ABRAXAS in the Breast Cancer Family Registry. In addition to the common variant p.Asp373Asn, sixteen distinct rare variants were identified. Although no significant difference in allele frequencies between cases and controls was observed for the identified variants, two variants, p.Gly39Val and p.Thr141Ile, were shown to diminish phosphorylation of gamma-H2AX in MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, an important biomarker of DNA double-strand breaks. Overall, likely damaging or neutral variants were evenly represented among cases and controls suggesting that rare variants in ABRAXAS may explain only a small proportion of hereditary breast cancer.

  19. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACTH CAF CMF FAC TAC TC TCH TH THP Radiation Therapy Whole Breast Radiation Partial Breast Radiation ... Basics Treatments and Your Bone Health Bone Health Tests Improving Bone Health Medicines To Protect Bones Diet, ...

  20. Mammographic Breast Density in Malaysian Women with Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal; Humairah Samad Cheung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mammographic breast density of women with breast cancer detected on voluntary mammographic screening at two selected screening centers in Malaysia. This was a retrospective study of Full-Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) images of 150 Malaysian women with biopsy-proven breast cancer. The study population comprised 73 Malays (37.7 %), 59 Chinese (39.3 %) and 18 Indians (12.0 %). The Tabar breast density Patterns (I - V) were used to evaluate mammographic breast density. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results were compared with findings from a similar study on a group of 668 women who did not have breast cancer. The results showed that 44.7 % of the study population had dense breasts (Patterns IV and V), 14.7 % had predominantly fatty breasts (Patterns II and III) while 40.7 % had Pattern I. The proportion of study population with dense breasts decreased with age. In conclusion, the proportion of women with dense breasts decreased with age. Majority of the women with cancer (44.7 %) had dense breasts of Tabar Patterns IV and V, which has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer detected by voluntary mammographic screening. The results support the notion that increased breast density is a risk factor of breast cancer. (author)

  1. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  2. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-analysis techniques. Dose-response analyses by number of prescriptions were also performed. Analyses were repeated investigating propranolol use before cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: The combined study population included 55,252 and 133,251 breast cancer patients in the analysis of breast cancer-specific and all...

  3. Archives of Breast Cancer: An Academic Multidisciplinary Breast Cancer Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kaviani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Archives of Breast Cancer (ABC, a new journal with sole focus on breast diseases and especially breast cancer. Breast cancer is a devastating disease that impacts many women and threatens their health and wellbeing. A large number of health professionals from a wide spectrum of clinical disciplines, such as surgery, medical oncology, public health, pathology, radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology, and nuclear medicine, are involved in dealing with such a challenging and common disease.The concept of applying a multidisciplinary approach to clinical and non-clinical aspects of breast cancer has been found to be of vital importance to the understanding of this prevalent type of cancer. Such collaboration can also improve the quantity and quality of the research in this field. To this end, journals which choose to publish multidisciplinary articles as their primary focus can serve as the academic forum to share ideas from a variety of expertise. Archives of Breast Cancer can certainly add to the depth and quality of the research in the field. Articles on a single topic would be readily available to the readers from multiple disciplines and all in one journal. This would eventually lead to fruitful interaction among specialists seeking to investigate this disease, yet,from different perspectives. The benefits of this interaction in the process of devising appropriate strategies and approaches in dealing with the problem are crystal clear.The world of medical sciences has witnessed an abundant increase in the quality and quantity of breast-cancer-related research. In the past 20 years, the number of published articles indexed in PubMed from 1994 to 2014 is more than 5 times than the number published before 1993 (about 170,000 compared to 30,000. Meanwhile, the number of PubMed indexed medical journals dedicated to breast cancer research has also risen from 5 in 1993 to 17 in 2014. This increasing trend highlights an essential need for

  4. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  5. Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among female undergraduate students in a higher teachers training college in Cameroon. ... Conclusion: Though most students are aware of the existence of breast cancer, their overall knowledge on its risk factors and clinical presentation is insufficient with a ...

  6. DNA Methylation Alterations in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2002-01-01

    We have performed the NotI-MseI MS-AFLP experiments using normal and tumor DNA from breast cancer patients and determined the identity of bands exhibiting consistent changes in breast cancer DNA fingerprint...

  7. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    .... Also, how these agents prevent breast cancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can be taken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...

  8. Fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuwei; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors are growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, exerting their roles in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and development of breast cancer. Recent genetic studies have identified some subtypes of fibroblast growth factor receptors as strong genetic loci associated with breast cancer. In this article, we review the recent epidemiological findings and experiment results of fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer. First, we summarized the structure and physiological function of fibroblast growth factor receptors in humans. Then, we discussed the common genetic variations in fibroblast growth factor receptors that affect breast cancer risk. In addition, we also introduced the potential roles of each fibroblast growth factor receptors isoform in breast cancer. Finally, we explored the potential therapeutics targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors for breast cancer. Based on the biological mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor receptors leading to the pathogenesis in breast cancer, targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors may provide new opportunities for breast cancer therapeutic strategies.

  9. BREAST CANCER SCREENING IN A RESOURCE POOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    al rates of breast cancer, hence screening of asympto- matic, apparently healthy ... screening tools in women who attended free breast cancer screening exercise in a ..... signs of malignancy. www.appliedradiology.mobi/uploadedfiles/Issues/2.

  10. Ron in Breast Development and Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltz, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    ... in a murine model of human breast cancer. These results are in agreement with human cancer studies documenting an upregulation of this receptor in breast tumors as well as are consistent with the correlation between Ron overexpression...

  11. IGF-IR Signaling in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Surmacz, Ewa

    1997-01-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is involved in the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and may be important in breast cancer etiology and progression...

  12. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazario, Cruz M; Freudenheim, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case-control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico...

  13. HER2 Genetic Link to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    When researchers discovered the HER2 gene's importance to breast cancer growth, this led to the development of trastuzumab and other treatments that have improved survival for women with HER2-positive breast cancer.

  14. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  15. Screening diagnostic program breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Zhakova, I.I.; Budnikova, N.V.; Rukhlyadko, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors propose their screening program for detection of breast cancer. It includes the entire complex of present-day screening diagnostic methods, starting from an original system for the formation of groups at risk of breast cancer and completed by the direct diagnostic model of detection of the condition, oriented at a differentiated approach to the use of mammographic techniques. The proposed organizational and methodologic screening measures are both economic and diagnostically effective, thus meeting the principal requirements to screening programs. Screening of 8541 risk-groups patients helped detect 867 nodular formations, 244 of which were cancer and 623 benign formations. 8 refs., 3 figs.,

  16. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  17. Breast Cancer Screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kalager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Effective breast cancer screening should detect early-stage cancer and prevent advanced disease. Objective: To assess the association between screening and the size of detected tumors and to estimate overdiagnosis (detection of tumors that would not become clinically relevant). Design......) and nonadvanced (≤20 mm) breast cancer tumors in screened and nonscreened women were measured. Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of overdiagnosis: comparing the incidence of advanced and nonadvanced tumors among women aged 50 to 84 years in screening and nonscreening areas; and comparing...... rate ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.43 to 1.54]). The first estimation approach found that 271 invasive breast cancer tumors and 179 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were overdiagnosed in 2010 (overdiagnosis rate of 24.4% [including DCIS] and 14.7% [excluding DCIS]). The second approach, which accounted...

  18. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  19. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  20. PET imaging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardieri, E.; Crippa, F.

    2001-01-01

    The basis of tumour imaging with PET is a specific uptake mechanism of positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals. Among the potential tracers for breast cancer (fluorodeoxyglucose, methionine, tyrosine, fluoro-estradiol, nor-progesterone), 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose labelled with fluorine (FDG) is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical because breast cancer is particularly avid of FDG and 18 F has the advantages of the a relatively long physical half-life. Mammography is the first choice examination in studying breast masses, due to its very good performances, an excellent compliance and the best value regarding the cost/effectiveness aspects. The FDG uptake in tissue correlates with the histological grade and potential aggressiveness of breast cancer and this may have prognostic consequences. Besides the evaluation of breast lesions, FDG-PET shows a great efficacy in staging lymph node involvement prior surgery and this could have a great value in loco-regional staging. Whole body PET provides also information with regard to metastasis localizations both in soft tissue and bone, and plays an important clinical role mainly in detecting recurrent metastatic disease. In fact for its metabolic characteristics PET visualizes regions of enhanced metabolic activity and can complete other imaging modalities based on structural anatomic changes. Even though CT and MRI show superior resolution characteristics, it has been demonstrated that PET provides more accurate information in discriminating between viable tumour, fibrotic scar or necrosis. These statements are coming from the examination of more than 2000 breast cancer detection

  1. Breast density does not impact the ability of Videssa® Breast to detect breast cancer in women under age 50.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Reese

    Full Text Available Breast density is associated with reduced imaging resolution in the detection of breast cancer. A biochemical approach that is not affected by density would provide an important tool to healthcare professionals who are managing women with dense breasts and suspicious imaging findings. Videssa® Breast is a combinatorial proteomic biomarker assay (CPBA, comprised of Serum Protein Biomarkers (SPB and Tumor Associated Autoantibodies (TAAb integrated with patient-specific clinical data to produce a diagnostic score that reliably detects breast cancer (BC as an adjunctive tool to imaging. The performance of Videssa® Breast was evaluated in the dense (a and b and non-dense (c and d groups in a population of n = 545 women under age 50. The sensitivity and specificity in the dense breast group were calculated to be 88.9% and 81.2%, respectively, and 92.3% and 86.6%, respectively, for the non-dense group. No significant differences were observed in the sensitivity (p = 1.0 or specificity (p = 0.18 between these groups. The NPV was 99.3% and 99.1% in non-dense and dense groups, respectively. Unlike imaging, Videssa® Breast does not appear to be impacted by breast density; it can effectively detect breast cancer in women with dense and non-dense breasts alike. Thus, Videssa® Breast provides a powerful tool for healthcare providers when women with dense breasts present with challenging imaging findings. In addition, Videssa® Breast provides assurance to women with dense breasts that they do not have breast cancer, reducing further anxiety in this higher risk patient population.

  2. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy After Mastectomy in Preventing Recurrence in Patients With Stage IIa-IIIa Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-06

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Medullary Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  3. Breast self examination and breast cancer: Knowledge and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... within their communities for screening behaviours in health promotion. Medical ... breast self examination (BSE) and breast cancer to be effective health educators. ... female students drawn from schools within the College of Health sciences, ...

  4. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1982-01-01

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures. (orig.)

  5. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1982-03-01

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures.

  6. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  7. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... oncology nurse and a registered dietitian. Read More "Screening For Breast Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer ...

  8. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0366 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...communications 215, 566 (Oct 13, 1995). 87. S. J. Reshkin, R. A. Cardone , S. Harguindey, Na+-H+ exchanger, pH regulation and cancer. Recent patents on anti-cancer drug discovery 8, 85 (Jan 1, 2013).

  9. New Treatment Option for Young Women with Hormone-Sensitive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... breast cancer, defined as estrogen and/or progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer, represents 79 percent of breast ...

  10. Cdx2 Polymorphism Affects the Activities of Vitamin D Receptor in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines and Human Breast Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, Anna; Korita, Etleva; Goeman, Frauke; Sacconi, Andrea; Biagioni, Francesca; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Falvo, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954) human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative). These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression. PMID:25849303

  11. Cdx2 polymorphism affects the activities of vitamin D receptor in human breast cancer cell lines and human breast carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pulito

    Full Text Available Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR. It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954 human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative. These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression.

  12. Advancement of mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies to explore triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Sayem; Banks, Charles A S; Adams, Mark K; Florens, Laurence; Lukong, Kiven E; Washburn, Michael P

    2016-12-20

    Understanding the complexity of cancer biology requires extensive information about the cancer proteome over the course of the disease. The recent advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies have led to the accumulation of an incredible amount of such proteomic information. This information allows us to identify protein signatures or protein biomarkers, which can be used to improve cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. For example, mass spectrometry-based proteomics has been used in breast cancer research for over two decades to elucidate protein function. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases with distinct molecular features that are reflected in tumour characteristics and clinical outcomes. Compared with all other subtypes of breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer is perhaps the most distinct in nature and heterogeneity. In this review, we provide an introductory overview of the application of advanced proteomic technologies to triple-negative breast cancer research.

  13. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Estrogen Receptor Status; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Status; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  14. Cancer biomarker discovery: the entropic hallmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2010-08-18

    It is a commonly accepted belief that cancer cells modify their transcriptional state during the progression of the disease. We propose that the progression of cancer cells towards malignant phenotypes can be efficiently tracked using high-throughput technologies that follow the gradual changes observed in the gene expression profiles by employing Shannon's mathematical theory of communication. Methods based on Information Theory can then quantify the divergence of cancer cells' transcriptional profiles from those of normally appearing cells of the originating tissues. The relevance of the proposed methods can be evaluated using microarray datasets available in the public domain but the method is in principle applicable to other high-throughput methods. Using melanoma and prostate cancer datasets we illustrate how it is possible to employ Shannon Entropy and the Jensen-Shannon divergence to trace the transcriptional changes progression of the disease. We establish how the variations of these two measures correlate with established biomarkers of cancer progression. The Information Theory measures allow us to identify novel biomarkers for both progressive and relatively more sudden transcriptional changes leading to malignant phenotypes. At the same time, the methodology was able to validate a large number of genes and processes that seem to be implicated in the progression of melanoma and prostate cancer. We thus present a quantitative guiding rule, a new unifying hallmark of cancer: the cancer cell's transcriptome changes lead to measurable observed transitions of Normalized Shannon Entropy values (as measured by high-throughput technologies). At the same time, tumor cells increment their divergence from the normal tissue profile increasing their disorder via creation of states that we might not directly measure. This unifying hallmark allows, via the the Jensen-Shannon divergence, to identify the arrow of time of the processes from the gene expression profiles

  15. Proteomic Analyses Reveal High Expression of Decorin and Endoplasmin (HSP90B1) Are Associated with Breast Cancer Metastasis and Decreased Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Cawthorn, Thomas R.; Moreno, Juan C.; Dharsee, Moyez; Tran-Thanh, Danh; Ackloo, Suzanne; Zhu, Pei Hong; Sardana, Girish; Chen, Jian; Kupchak, Peter; Jacks, Lindsay M.; Miller, Naomi A.; Youngson, Bruce J.; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Guidos, Cynthia J.; Vallis, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide in terms of incidence and mortality. About 10% of North American women will be diagnosed with breast cancer during their lifetime and 20% of those will die of the disease. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and biomarkers able to correctly classify patients into prognostic groups are needed to better tailor treatment options and improve outcomes. One powerful method used for biomarker discovery is sample scree...

  16. Job Authority and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2013-01-01

    Using the 1957-2011 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I integrate the gender relations theory, a life course perspective, and a biosocial stress perspective to explore the effect of women's job authority in 1975 (at age 36) and 1993 (at age 54) on breast cancer incidence up to 2011. Findings indicate that women with the authority to hire, fire, and influence others' pay had a significantly higher risk of a breast cancer diagnosis over the next 30 years compared to housewives and employed women with no job authority. Because job authority conferred the highest risk of breast cancer for women who also spent more hours dealing with people at work in 1975, I suggest that the assertion of job authority by women in the 1970s involved stressful interpersonal experiences, such as social isolation and negative social interactions, that may have increased the risk of breast cancer via prolonged dysregulation of the glucocorticoid system and exposure of breast tissue to the adverse effects of chronically elevated cortisol. This study contributes to sociology by emphasizing gendered biosocial pathways through which women's occupational experiences become embodied and drive forward physiological repercussions.

  17. Up-regulation of bone marrow stromal protein 2 (BST2) in breast cancer with bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Dongqing; Cao, Jie; Li, Zhen; Zheng, Xin; Yao, Yao; Li, Wanglin; Yuan, Ziqiang

    2009-01-01

    cell lines and tumor tissues by real time RT-PCR, Western blot and TMA. Furthermore, serum levels of BST2 measured by ELISA were also significantly higher among patients with breast cancer metastatic to bone compared to breast cancer patients without metastatic to bone (P < .0001). Most importantly, the breast cancer cell line that transfected with BST2 demonstrated increased BST2 expressions, which was associated with increased cancer cell migration and cell proliferation. These results provide novel data indicating the BST2 protein expression is associated with the formation of bone metastases in human breast cancer. We believe that BST2 may be a potential biomarker in breast cancer with bone metastasis

  18. Quality indicators for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poortmans, Philip; Aznar, Marianne; Bartelink, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer has considerably changed over the years, from simple simulator-based 2-dimensional techniques to sophisticated image-guided individualized treatments, with maximally protected normal structures. This has led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of breast...... cancer patients in terms of disease control, survival, and quality of life. This progress is based on clinical research and paralleled by progress in delivering sophisticated radiation treatment. Clinical trials resulted in identifying patients groups who will benefit from radiation treatment. They also...

  19. Cardiac dose sparing and avoidance techniques in breast cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Chirag; Badiyan, Shahed; Berry, Sameer; Khan, Atif J.; Goyal, Sharad; Schulte, Kevin; Nanavati, Anish; Lynch, Melanie; Vicini, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer radiotherapy represents an essential component in the overall management of both early stage and locally advanced breast cancer. As the number of breast cancer survivors has increased, chronic sequelae of breast cancer radiotherapy become more important. While recently published data suggest a potential for an increase in cardiac events with radiotherapy, these studies do not consider the impact of newer radiotherapy techniques commonly utilized. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to evaluate cardiac dose sparing techniques in breast cancer radiotherapy. Current options for cardiac protection/avoidance include (1) maneuvers that displace the heart from the field such as coordinating the breathing cycle or through prone patient positioning, (2) technological advances such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or proton beam therapy (PBT), and (3) techniques that treat a smaller volume around the lumpectomy cavity such as accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), or intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT). While these techniques have shown promise dosimetrically, limited data on late cardiac events exist due to the difficulties of long-term follow up. Future studies are required to validate the efficacy of cardiac dose sparing techniques and may use surrogates for cardiac events such as biomarkers or perfusion imaging

  20. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  1. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  2. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ja; Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  3. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  4. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-28

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmich, L.R.; During, M.; Henriksen, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  6. Inflammatory Markers and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    breast cancer [26, 27] or cytologic atypia [28], while another observed elevated IL-6 levels among breast cancer cases with insulin resistance [29...Relation between insulin resistance and serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF- alpha in overweight or obese women with early stage breast cancer...without oophorectomy, hysterectomy with uni- or bilateral oophorectomy), prior breast biopsy (no, yes), ever been pregnant (no, yes), and

  7. Common breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with triple negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Lee, Adam M.; Slager, Susan; Lesnick, Timothy; Olswold, Curtis; Fasching, Peter A.; Miron, Penelope; Eccles, Diana; Carpenter, Jane E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Ambrosone, Christine; Winqvist, Robert; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Ekici, Arif B.; Tapper, William J; Gerty, Susan M; Durcan, Lorraine; Graham, Nikki; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stephan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fostira, Florentia; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M.; Fountzilas, George; Clarke, Christine L.; Balleine, Rosemary; Olson, Janet E.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Diasio, Robert B.; Pathak, Harsh; Ross, Eric; Weaver, JoEllen; Rüdiger, Thomas; Försti, Asta; Dünnebier, Thomas; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Kulkarni, Swati; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Van Limbergen, Erik; Janssen, Hilde; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Verhoef, Senno; Tomlinson, Ian; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Beesley, Jonathan; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Blows, Fiona M.; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W; Lambrechts, Diether; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Severi, Gianluca; Hamann, Ute; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Nevanlinna, Heli; Wang, Xianshu; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiological factors which promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS) display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with risk of triple negative breast cancer, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.11) and rs8100241 (19p13.11). Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple negative breast cancer. PMID:21844186

  8. Early clinical development of epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoko; Lim, Bora; Wang, Xiaoping; Ueno, Naoto T.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted treatment has been evaluated but has not shown a clear clinical benefit for breast cancer. This review article aims to consider the knowledge of the biological background of EGFR pathways in dissecting clinical studies of EGFR targeted treatment in breast cancer. Areas covered This review focuses on the role of the EGFR pathway and the investigational drugs that target EGFR for breast cancer. Expert opinion Recent studies have indicated that EGFR targeted therapy for breast cancer has some promising effects for patients with triple-negative breast cancer, basal-like breast cancer, and inflammatory breast cancer. However, predictive and prognostic biomarkers for EGFR targeted therapy have not been identified. The overexpression or amplification of EGFR itself may not be the true factor of induction of the canonical pathway as an oncogenic driver of breast cancer. Instead, downstream, non-canonical pathways related to EGFR may contribute to some aspects of the biological behavior of breast cancer; therefore, the blockade of the receptor could result in sufficient suppression of downstream pathways to inhibit the aggressive behavior of breast cancer. Mechanistic studies to investigate the dynamic interaction between the EGFR pathway and non-canonical pathways are warranted. PMID:28271910

  9. Early clinical development of epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoko; Lim, Bora; Wang, Xiaoping; Ueno, Naoto T

    2017-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted treatment has been evaluated but has not shown a clear clinical benefit for breast cancer. This review article aims to consider the knowledge of the biological background of EGFR pathways in dissecting clinical studies of EGFR targeted treatment in breast cancer. Areas covered: This review focuses on the role of the EGFR pathway and the investigational drugs that target EGFR for breast cancer. Expert opinion: Recent studies have indicated that EGFR targeted therapy for breast cancer has some promising effects for patients with triple-negative breast cancer, basal-like breast cancer, and inflammatory breast cancer. However, predictive and prognostic biomarkers for EGFR targeted therapy have not been identified. The overexpression or amplification of EGFR itself may not be the true factor of induction of the canonical pathway as an oncogenic driver of breast cancer. Instead, downstream, non-canonical pathways related to EGFR may contribute to some aspects of the biological behavior of breast cancer; therefore, the blockade of the receptor could result in sufficient suppression of downstream pathways to inhibit the aggressive behavior of breast cancer. Mechanistic studies to investigate the dynamic interaction between the EGFR pathway and non-canonical pathways are warranted.

  10. Diabetes and Breast Cancer Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen K Bronsveld

    Full Text Available Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes.This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000-2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (≤50 and >50 years, women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories to women without diabetes, to select ~300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR, HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211 and women without diabetes (n = 101, irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%CI:1.07-5.55, HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%CI:1.11-7.22, and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%CI:1.03-9.60 tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95%CI:0.95-6.45 and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88-7.67 tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general.We found no compelling evidence that women with diabetes

  11. Diabetes and Breast Cancer Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsveld, Heleen K; Jensen, Vibeke; Vahl, Pernille; De Bruin, Marie L; Cornelissen, Sten; Sanders, Joyce; Auvinen, Anssi; Haukka, Jari; Andersen, Morten; Vestergaard, Peter; Schmidt, Marjanka K

    2017-01-01

    Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes. This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000-2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (≤50 and >50 years), women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories) to women without diabetes, to select ~300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR), HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211) and women without diabetes (n = 101), irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%CI:1.07-5.55)), HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%CI:1.11-7.22)), and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%CI:1.03-9.60) tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95%CI:0.95-6.45)) and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88-7.67) tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general. We found no compelling evidence that women with diabetes, treated

  12. MicroRNA-384 inhibits the progression of breast cancer by targeting ACVR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongxia; Zhang, Zheying; Wang, Jianqiang

    2018-04-20

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in females worldwide. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 15% of all breast cancer cases and has a poorer prognosis than other subtypes. Moreover, the treatment for breast cancer, especially for TNBC, remains unsatisfactory. Therefore, novel therapies are urgently needed. Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are a class of biomarkers and therapeutic targets in many types of cancers. In the present study, the expression of miR-384 was explored in GSE58606 and in fresh breast cancer tissues by qPCR. The results showed that miR-384 was decreased in breast cancer, especially in TNBC. The results of MTT, colony formation, soft agar, Transwell migration, wound healing and the tumorigenesis assay demonstranted that overexpression of miR-384 inhibited the proliferation and migration of breast cancer in vitro and in vivo; knockdown of miR-384 enhanced the proliferation and migration of breast cancer. In addition, luciferase assay showed that Activin A receptor type 1 (ACVR1) was a direct target of miR-384 and is involved in the inhibitory effects of miR-384 on breast cancer progression. Furthermore, this study indicated that ACVR1 activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in breast cancer. In conclusion, our findings revealed functional and mechanistic links between miR-384 and ACVR1 in the progression of breast cancer. miR-384 not only plays an important role in the progression of breast cancer, but has promise as a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer especially for TNBC.

  13. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  14. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  15. System of breast cancer recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhkova, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the resUlts of the multimodality system of breast cancer recognition using methods, of clinical X-ray and cytological examinations. Altogether 1671 women were examined; breast cancer was detected in 165. Stage 1 was detected in 63 patients, Stage 2 in 34, Stage 3 in 34, and Stage 4 in 8. In 7% of the cases, tumors were inpalpable and could be detected by X-ray only. In 9.9% of the cases, the multicentric nature of tumor growth was established. In 71% tumors had a mixed histological structure. The system of breast cancer recognition provided for accurate diagnosis in 98% of the cases making it possible to avoid surgical intervention in 38%. Good diagnostic results are possible under conditions of a special mammology unit where a roentgenologist working in a close contact with surgeonns working in a close contact with surgeos and morphologists, performs the first stages of diagnosis beginning from clinical examination up to special methods that require X-ray control (paracentesis, ductography, pneumocystography, preoperative marking of the breast and marking of the remote sectors of the breast)

  16. Noninvasive imaging of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medarova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    With the development of molecularly targeted cancer therapies, it is highly advantageous to be able to determine their efficacy, to improve overall patient survival. Non-invasive imaging techniques are currently available for visualizing different pathological conditions of the human body, but their use for cancer monitoring is limited due to the lack of tumor-specific imaging probes. This review will attempt to summarize the current clinical diagnostic approaches for breast cancer detection, staging, and therapy assessment. In addition, I will present some novel concepts from the field of molecular imaging that form the basis of some of our research. We believe that this general imaging strategy has the potential of significantly advancing our ability to diagnose breast cancer at the earliest stages of the pathology, before any overt clinical symptoms have developed, as well as to better direct the development of molecularly-targeted individualized therapy protocols.

  17. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development...

  18. Understanding and potentially reducing second breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Long term survival after breast cancer diagnosis has increased markedly in the last decade: 15-year relative survival after breast cancer diagnosis is now 75% in the US. Associated with these excellent survival prospects, however, long term studies suggest that contralateral second breast cancer rates are in the range from 10 to 15% at 15 years post treatment, and are still higher for BRCA1/2 carriers, as well as for still longer term survivors. These second cancer risks are much higher than those for a comparable healthy woman to develop a first breast cancer. It follows that women with breast cancer are highly prone to develop a second breast cancer. We propose here a new option for reducing the disturbingly high risk of a contralateral second breast cancer. in patients with both estrogen positive and negative primary breast cancer: prophylactic mammary irradiation (PMI) of the contralateral breast. The rationale behind PMI is evidence that standard post-Iumpectomy radiotherapy of the affected (ipsilateral) breast substantially reduces the long-term genetically-based second cancer risk in the ipsilateral breast, by killing the existing premalignant cells in that breast. This suggests that there are relatively few premalignant cells in the breast (hundreds or thousands, not millions), so even a fairly modest radiation cell-kill level across the whole breast would be expected to kill essentially all of them. If this is so, then a modest radiation dose-much lower than that to the affected breast--delivered uniformly to the whole contralateral breast, and typically delivered at the same time as the radiotherapy of the ipsilateral breast, would have the potential to markedly reduce second-cancer risks in the contralateral breast by killing essentially all the pre-malignant cells in that breast while causing only a very low level of radiation-induced sequelae. Therefore we hypothesize that low-dose prophylactic mammary irradiation of the contralateral breast

  19. Up-regulated Proteins in the Fluid Bathing the Tumour Cell Microenvironment as Potential Serological Markers for Early Detection of Cancer of the Breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Bunkenborg, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is by far the most common diagnosed form of cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in women today. Clinically useful biomarkers for early detection of breast cancer could lead to a significant reduction in mortality. Here we describe a detailed analysis using gel-based proteom...

  20. Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R

    2013-01-01

    Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....

  1. Breast Cancer Tissue Repository

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iglehart, J

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Tissue Repository at Duke enters its fourth year of finding. The purpose of the Repository at Duke is to provide substantial quantities of frozen tissue for explorative molecular studies...

  2. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  3. Breast Cancer Vaccines: New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetti, Rosaria; Dell’Aversana, Carmela; Giorgio, Cristina; Astorri, Roberta; Altucci, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a persistent global challenge for its high frequency in women (although it seldom occurs in men), due to the large diffusion of risk factors and gene mutations, and for its peculiar biology and microenvironment. To date, BC can benefit from different therapeutic strategies involving surgery, ablation, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and more specific approaches such as hormone therapy and the administration of various substances impairing cancer growth, aggressivity, and rec...

  4. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Thomas van Overeem; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...... of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making....

  5. Mass screening in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strax, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some questions about mass screening in breast cancer are answered it being concluded that: 1. mass screening for the detection of early breast cancer is the only means with proven potential for lowering the death rate of the disease; 2. mammography is an importante - if not the most important modality in mass screening; 3. new film - screen combinations generally available are capable of producing mammograms of excelent quality with radiation doses down to .1 rad into the body of breast. The risk of malignant changes from such dosage - even when given periodically is negligeable. New equipment, to be available, shortly, will use the new film - screen combinations in an automated manner with must reduce cost in time, filme, personnel and processing - of more than 50%. This would make mass screening more practical. (M.A.) [pt

  6. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  7. Mutation analysis of breast cancer gene BRCA among breast cancer Jordanian females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoum, Manar F.; Al-Kayed, Sameer A.

    2004-01-01

    To screen mutations of the tumor suppressor breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) within 3 exons among Jordanian breast cancer females. A total of 135 Jordanian breast cancer females were genetically analyzed by denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) for mutation detection in 3 BRCA1 exons (2, 11 and 20) between 2000-2002 in Al-Basheer Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Of the studied patients 50 had a family history of breast cancer, 28 had a family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and 57 had no family history of any cancer. Five germline mutations were detected among breast cancer females with a family history of breast cancers (one in exon 2 and 4 mutations in exon 11). Another germline mutation (within exon 11) was detected among breast cancer females with family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and no mutation was detected among breast cancer females with no family history of any cancer or among normal control females. Screening mutations within exon 2, exon 11 and exon 20 showed that most screened mutations were within BRCA1 exon 11 among breast cancer Jordanian families with a family history of breast cancer. (author)

  8. Radiation pneumonitis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrino, R.; Carvalho, H.A.; Gomes, H.C.; Kuang, L.F.; Aguilar, P.B.; Lederman, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-nine observations of patients with breast cancer frm 1980 to 1985 were reviewed. All of them received radiotherapy. In 44.9% radiologic findings of radiation pneumonitis were detected and only 9% presented mild or moderate respiratory symptoms. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Genetic determinants of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the

  10. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria...

  11. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  12. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  13. Pharmacogenetics and breast cancer management: current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccolini, Joseph; Fanciullino, Raphaelle; Serdjebi, Cindy; Milano, Gérard

    2015-05-01

    Breast cancer has benefited from a number of innovative therapeutics over the last decade. Cytotoxics, hormone therapy, targeted therapies and biologics can now be given to ensure optimal management of patients. As life expectancy of breast cancer patients has been significantly stretched and that several lines of treatment are now made available, determining the best drug or drug combinations to be primarily given and the best dosing and scheduling for each patient is critical for ensuring an optimal toxicity/efficacy balance. Defining patient's characteristics at the tumor level (pharmacogenomics) and the constitutional level (pharmacogenetics) is a rising trend in oncology. This review covers the latest strategies based upon the search of relevant biomarkers for efficacy, resistance and toxicity to be undertaken at the bedside to shift towards precision medicine in breast cancer patients. In the expanding era of bioguided medicine, identifying relevant and clinically validated biomarkers from the plethora of published material remains an uneasy task. Sorting the variety of genetic and molecular markers that have been investigated over the last decade on their level of evidence and addressing the issue of drug exposure should help to improve the management of breast cancer therapy.

  14. Haemorheological Changes in African Breast Cancer Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    complications, African patients with breast cancer may well be predisposed to thrombotic complications during illness. ... having breast cancer were studied. The patients were diagnosed by one of the authors from histological biopsy from the lump removed from the breast. None of ... statistics (Student's t-test for paired data.

  15. Bilateral breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Jun, Hwang Yoon; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical features of bilateral breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records(n=23) and mammograms (n=15) of 23 patients with bilateral breast cancer. Patients' age, location of the tumor and pathologic staging were determined from clinical records. Mammographic features were classified as spiculated mass, nonspiculated mass, mass with microcalcification, microcalcification only, asymmetric density, and normal. Of the 23 cases of bilateral breast cancer, 8(34.8%) were synchronous and 15(65.2%) were metachronous. Age at diagnosis of cancer in the first breast was between 27 and 59(mean 43) years ; there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between patients with synchronous and metachronous cancer. The mean interval between the diagnosis of each lesion of the metachronous pairs was 9.1 years. In 11 of 23 cases(48%), tumors were locaated in the same quadrant, and in the other 12 cases(52%), they were in different quadrant. At mammography, five of 15 metachronous cancers(33%) were similar in appearance and 10 pairs(67%) were different. In 4 of 23 cases(17%), cancer in the first breast was at stage 0 and stage 1, and in 13 of 23(57%), cancer in the second breast was at this same stage. In bilateral breast cancer, the two breasts frequently show different mammographic features. Cancer of the second breast was at an early stage; this suggest that regular examination and mammography are important and can allow early detection of contralateral breast cancer

  16. MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer: One More Turn in Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroles, Pilar; Asensio, Pilar E; Tormo, Eduardo; Martin, Eduardo T; Pineda, Begoña; Merlo, Begoña P; Espin, Estefanía; Armas, Estefanía E; Lluch, Ana; Hernández, Ana L

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that critically regulate the expression of genes. MiRNAs are involved in physiological cellular processes; however, their deregulation has been associated with several pathologies, including cancer. In human breast cancer, differently expressed levels of miRNAs have been identified from those in normal breast tissues. Moreover, several miRNAs have been correlated with pathological phenotype, cancer subtype and therapy response in breast cancer. The resistance to therapy is increasingly a problem in patient management, and miRNAs are emerging as novel therapeutic targets and potential predictive biomarkers for treatment. This review provides an overview of the current situation of miRNAs in breast cancer, focusing on their involvement in resistance and the circulating miRNA. The mechanisms of therapeutic resistance regulated by miRNAs, such as the regulation of receptors, the modification of enzymes of drug metabolism, the inhibition of cell cycle control or pro-apoptotic proteins, the alteration of histone activity and the regulation of DNA repair machinery among others, are discussed for breast cancer clinical subtypes. Additionally, in this review, we summarize the recent knowledge that has established miRNA detection in peripheral body fluids as a suitable biomarker. We review the detection of miRNA in liquid biopsies and its implications for the diagnosis and monitoring of breast cancer. This new generation of cancer biomarkers may lead to a significant improvement in patient management.

  17. Dampening Enthusiasm for Circulating MicroRNA in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Leidner, Rom S.; Li, Li; Thompson, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide platforms for high-throughput profiling of circulating miRNA (oligoarray or miR-Seq) offer enormous promise for agnostic discovery of circulating miRNA biomarkers as a pathway for development in breast cancer detection. By harmonizing data from 15 previous reports, we found widespread inconsistencies across prior studies. Whether this arises from differences in study design, such as sample source or profiling platform, is unclear. As a reproducibility experiment, we generated a ge...

  18. Physical Activity, Biomarkers, and Disease Outcomes in Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenreich, Christine M.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Siddiqi, Sameer M.; McTiernan, Anne; Alfano, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors often seek information about how lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, may influence their prognosis. We systematically reviewed studies that examined relationships between physical activity and mortality (cancer-specific and all-cause) and/or cancer biomarkers. Methods We identified 45 articles published from January 1950 to August 2011 through MEDLINE database searches that were related to physical activity, cancer survival, and biomarkers potentially relevant to cancer survival. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement to guide this review. Study characteristics, mortality outcomes, and biomarker-relevant and subgroup results were abstracted for each article that met the inclusion criteria (ie, research articles that included participants with a cancer diagnosis, mortality outcomes, and an assessment of physical activity). Results There was consistent evidence from 27 observational studies that physical activity is associated with reduced all-cause, breast cancer–specific, and colon cancer–specific mortality. There is currently insufficient evidence regarding the association between physical activity and mortality for survivors of other cancers. Randomized controlled trials of exercise that included biomarker endpoints suggest that exercise may result in beneficial changes in the circulating level of insulin, insulin-related pathways, inflammation, and, possibly, immunity; however, the evidence is still preliminary. Conclusions Future research directions identified include the need for more observational studies on additional types of cancer with larger sample sizes; the need to examine whether the association between physical activity and mortality varies by tumor, clinical, or risk factor characteristics; and the need for research on the biological mechanisms involved in the association between physical activity and survival after a cancer diagnosis. Future randomized

  19. Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Petra; Savage, Michelle I.; Brown, Powel H.

    2013-01-01

    With a better understanding of the etiology of breast cancer, molecularly targeted drugs have been developed and are being testing for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Targeted drugs that inhibit the estrogen receptor (ER) or estrogen-activated pathways include the selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer and promising results of AIs in breast cancer trials, suggest that AIs might be even more effective in the prevention of ER-positive breast cancer. However, these agents only prevent ER-positive breast cancer. Therefore, current research is focused on identifying preventive therapies for other forms of breast cancer such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, breast cancer that does express ER, progesterone receptor, or HER2). HER2-positive breast cancers are currently treated with anti-HER2 therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and preclinical and clinical studies are now being conducted to test these drugs for the prevention of HER2-positive breast cancers. Several promising agents currently being tested in cancer prevention trials for the prevention of TNBC include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, vitamin D, and rexinoids, both of which activate nuclear hormone receptors (the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors). This review discusses currently used breast cancer preventive drugs, and describes the progress of research striving to identify and develop more effective preventive agents for all forms of breast cancer. PMID:24069582

  20. Phase II cancer clinical trials for biomarker-guided treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2018-01-01

    The design and analysis of cancer clinical trials with biomarker depend on various factors, such as the phase of trials, the type of biomarker, whether the used biomarker is validated or not, and the study objectives. In this article, we demonstrate the design and analysis of two Phase II cancer clinical trials, one with a predictive biomarker and the other with an imaging prognostic biomarker. Statistical testing methods and their sample size calculation methods are presented for each trial. We assume that the primary endpoint of these trials is a time to event variable, but this concept can be used for any type of endpoint.

  1. MicroRNA Expression in Laser Micro-dissected Breast Cancer Tissue Samples - a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seclaman, Edward; Narita, Diana; Anghel, Andrei; Cireap, Natalia; Ilina, Razvan; Sirbu, Ioan Ovidiu; Marian, Catalin

    2017-10-28

    Breast cancer continues to represent a significant public health burden despite outstanding research advances regarding the molecular mechanisms of cancer biology, biomarkers for diagnostics and prognostic and therapeutic management of this disease. The studies of micro RNAs in breast cancer have underlined their potential as biomarkers and therapeutic targets; however most of these studies are still done on largely heterogeneous whole breast tissue samples. In this pilot study we have investigated the expression of four micro RNAs (miR-21, 145, 155, 92) known to be involved in breast cancer, in homogenous cell populations collected by laser capture microdissection from breast tissue section slides. Micro RNA expression was assessed by real time PCR, and associations with clinical and pathological characteristics were also explored. Our results have confirmed previous associations of miR-21 expression with poor prognosis characteristics of breast cancers such as high stage, large and highly proliferative tumors. No statistically significant associations were found with the other micro RNAs investigated, possibly due to the small sample size of our study. Our results also suggest that miR-484 could be a suitable endogenous control for data normalization in breast tissues, these results needing further confirmation by future studies. In summary, our pilot study showed the feasibility of detecting micro RNAs expression in homogenous laser captured microdissected invasive breast cancer samples, and confirmed some of the previously reported associations with poor prognostic characteristics of breast tumors.

  2. Metabolic syndrome biomarkers and early breast cancer in Saudi women: evidence for the presence of a systemic stress response and/or a pre-existing metabolic syndrome-related neoplasia risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alokail, Majed S; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Abdulkareem, Amal; Draz, Hossam M; Yakout, Sobhy M; Alnaami, Abdullah M; Sabico, Shaun; Alenad, Amal M; Chrousos, George P

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has been linked to many adverse health consequences, including breast cancer. This study aims to determine adipocytokine and other biological changes in recently diagnosed breast cancer patients before therapy is started. A total of 109 female Saudi subjects [56 newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve, histologically-confirmed breast cancer cases and 53 age- and BMI-matched controls] were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric data were collected. Serum insulin, adipocytokines and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations were measured using a customized multiplex Luminex assay. Hypersensitive C-Reactive Protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and angiotensin II (ANG II) were measured using ELISA. A few days in the diagnosis, breast cancer subjects had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (p = 0.03), glucose (p = 0.01), triglycerides (p = 0.001), leptin (p = 0.044), resistin (p = 0.04), ANG II (p = 0.02), TNF-α (p = 0.045), and CRP (p = 0.04) than the controls. On the other hand, HDL (p = 0.01) and adiponectin (p = 0.02) were significantly lower in cancer subjects than controls. A significant association was found between elevated triglycerides (TG) and breast cancer [OR (95% CI), 6.1(1.8, 15.6), p = 0.004], as well as elevated ANG II [OR (95% CI), 5.2(1.2, 14.3), p = 0.03]. On the other hand, aPAI and HDL correlated negatively with breast cancer [OR (95% CI), 0.076(0.01, 0.34), p = 0.001; 0.30(0.09, 0.95), p 0.04, respectively]. Circulating ANGII and triglycerides were positively associated with early breast cancer. In contrast, HDL-cholesterol correlated negatively with ANG II and aPAI in these patients. This suggests that patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer have biochemical changes consistent with an activated stress response and/or that patients with metabolic syndrome manifestations have a higher risk of developing this disease

  3. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ikeda, Debra

    2002-01-01

    .... Choline peaks are present in 57% of breast cancers but contrary to other research data some invasive ductal cancers do not contain choline as a detectable metabolite, particularly in lobular cancer that has dispersed cells...

  4. Computed tomography of the breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sup; Lee, Ki Chu

    1985-01-01

    The indication of computed tomography for the breast lesion are 1) Unusually extensive or small breast caused technical difficulties in performing mammograms. 2) Questionable mammographic findings, especially in dense proliferative breast parenchyme. 3) Microcancer. 4) Suspicious regional lymph node enlargement or invasive of the chest wall by breast cancer. The diagnosis of breast CT in breast cancer is based on pathologic anatomic changes and characteristic increase of mean CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement. Authors analysed CT of the 34 patients who were clinically suspected breast cancer, and compared with mammography. The results are as follows: 1. Pathological diagnosis of 34 cases were 27 cases of breast cancer, 4 cases of fibrocystic disease, 2 cases of fibroadenoma, and 1 case of intraductal papilloma. The diagnostic accuracy of CT in 27 breast cancer was 93% (25 cases) and mammography 71% (19 case). 2. Correct diagnosis of CT in 7 benign breast disease is in 5 cases and mammography in 5 cases. 3. The most important finding of CT in breast cancer is characteristic increase of CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement (200 ml, 65%): over average 50 HU in 19 cases of 27 breast cancers, 30-50 HU in a 6 cases, 20-30 HU in 2 cases with tumor necrosis. 4. Computed with mammography, other more valuable CT findings of breast cancer are axillary lymph node enlargement and adjacentic pectoral muscle invasion. 5. In conclusion, breast CT is considered as valuable diagnostic tool in evaluation of breast cancer, but not of benign breast disease

  5. Computed tomography of the breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sup; Lee, Ki Chu [Hallym University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    The indication of computed tomography for the breast lesion are 1) Unusually extensive or small breast caused technical difficulties in performing mammograms. 2) Questionable mammographic findings, especially in dense proliferative breast parenchyme. 3) Microcancer. 4) Suspicious regional lymph node enlargement or invasive of the chest wall by breast cancer. The diagnosis of breast CT in breast cancer is based on pathologic anatomic changes and characteristic increase of mean CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement. Authors analysed CT of the 34 patients who were clinically suspected breast cancer, and compared with mammography. The results are as follows: 1. Pathological diagnosis of 34 cases were 27 cases of breast cancer, 4 cases of fibrocystic disease, 2 cases of fibroadenoma, and 1 case of intraductal papilloma. The diagnostic accuracy of CT in 27 breast cancer was 93% (25 cases) and mammography 71% (19 case). 2. Correct diagnosis of CT in 7 benign breast disease is in 5 cases and mammography in 5 cases. 3. The most important finding of CT in breast cancer is characteristic increase of CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement (200 ml, 65%): over average 50 HU in 19 cases of 27 breast cancers, 30-50 HU in a 6 cases, 20-30 HU in 2 cases with tumor necrosis. 4. Computed with mammography, other more valuable CT findings of breast cancer are axillary lymph node enlargement and adjacentic pectoral muscle invasion. 5. In conclusion, breast CT is considered as valuable diagnostic tool in evaluation of breast cancer, but not of benign breast disease.

  6. Breast tissue, oral and urinary microbiomes in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hannah; Altemus, Jessica; Niazi, Farshad; Green, Holly; Calhoun, Benjamin C.; Sturgis, Charles; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Eng, Charis

    2017-01-01

    It has long been proposed that the gut microbiome contributes to breast carcinogenesis by modifying systemic estrogen levels. This is often cited as a possible mechanism linking breast cancer and high-fat, low-fiber diets as well as antibiotic exposure, associations previously identified in population-based studies. More recently, a distinct microbiome has been identified within breast milk and tissue, but few studies have characterized differences in the breast tissue microbiota of patients ...

  7. Glycosylation-Based Serum Biomarkers for Cancer Diagnostics and Prognostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Alan; Utratna, Marta; O'Dwyer, Michael E; Joshi, Lokesh; Kilcoyne, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death in developed countries with approximately 14 million newly diagnosed individuals and over 6 million cancer-related deaths in 2012. Many cancers are discovered at a more advanced stage but better survival rates are correlated with earlier detection. Current clinically approved cancer biomarkers are most effective when applied to patients with widespread cancer. Single biomarkers with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity have not been identified for the most common cancers and some biomarkers are ineffective for the detection of early stage cancers. Thus, novel biomarkers with better diagnostic and prognostic performance are required. Aberrant protein glycosylation is well known hallmark of cancer and represents a promising source of potential biomarkers. Glycoproteins enter circulation from tissues or blood cells through active secretion or leakage and patient serum is an attractive option as a source for biomarkers from a clinical and diagnostic perspective. A plethora of technical approaches have been developed to address the challenges of glycosylation structure detection and determination. This review summarises currently utilised glycoprotein biomarkers and novel glycosylation-based biomarkers from the serum glycoproteome under investigation as cancer diagnostics and for monitoring and prognostics and includes details of recent high throughput and other emerging glycoanalytical techniques.

  8. Ron in Breast Development and Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltz, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    .... Virtually nothing is known regarding the function of Ron in the breast. However, two recent studies have shown that Ron is over-expressed and highly phosphorylated in a significant fraction of human and feline breast cancers...

  9. Ron in Breast Development and Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltz, Susan

    2003-01-01

    .... Virtually nothing is known regarding the function of Ron in the breast. However, two recent studies have shown the Ron is over- expressed and highly phosphorylated in a significant fraction of human and feline breast cancers...

  10. Breast carcinoma after cancer therapy in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.P.; Corkery, J.; Vawter, G.; Fine, W.; Sallan, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    Among 910 survivors of childhood cancer, four developed infiltrating carcinoma of the breast and another had noninfiltrating breast tumor. Expected frequency was 0.3 cases of breast cancer in the series. The affected women developed breast carcinoma at ages 20, 25 and 38 years, and the men at ages 38 and 39 years, respectively. Each patient had received orthovoltage chest irradiation for treatment of Wilms' tumor or bone sarcoma between seven and 34 years previously, and estimated radiation dose to the breast exceeded 300 rad in each instance. Four patients also received diverse forms of chemotherapy. Survivors of childhood cancer have increased risk of developing breast cancer and should undergo periodic screening, particularly after breast tissue had been irradiated. Individualized radiotherapy planning can help exclude the breasts from treatment fields for some thoracic neoplasms

  11. Notch and VEGF Interactions in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shawber, Carrie J

    2006-01-01

    The proposal objective is to define Notch and VEGFR-3 in breast cancer. We investigated this relationship in primary endothelial cell cultures, mouse embryos, human breast tumors, and mouse mammary tumor xenografts...

  12. Alterations in the Immune Cell Composition in Premalignant Breast Tissue that Precede Breast Cancer Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnim, Amy C; Hoskin, Tanya L; Arshad, Muhammad; Frost, Marlene H; Winham, Stacey J; Brahmbhatt, Rushin A; Pena, Alvaro; Carter, Jodi M; Stallings-Mann, Melody L; Murphy, Linda M; Miller, Erin E; Denison, Lori A; Vachon, Celine M; Knutson, Keith L; Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: Little is known about the role of the immune system in the earliest stages of breast carcinogenesis. We studied quantitative differences in immune cell types between breast tissues from normal donors and those from women with benign breast disease (BBD). Experimental Design: A breast tissue matched case-control study was created from donors to the Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank (KTB) and from women diagnosed with BBD at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) who either subsequently developed cancer (BBD cases) or remained cancer-free (BBD controls). Serial tissue sections underwent immunostaining and digital quantification of cell number per mm 2 for CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, CD20 + B cells, and CD68 + macrophages and quantification of positive pixel measure for CD11c (dendritic cells). Results: In 94 age-matched triplets, BBD lobules showed greater densities of CD8 + T cells, CD11c + dendritic cells, CD20 + B cells, and CD68 + macrophages compared with KTB normals. Relative to BBD controls, BBD cases had lower CD20 + cell density ( P = 0.04). Nearly 42% of BBD cases had no CD20 + B cells in evaluated lobules compared with 28% of BBD controls ( P = 0.02). The absence of CD20 + cells versus the presence in all lobules showed an adjusted OR of 5.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-23.1) for subsequent breast cancer risk. Conclusions: Elevated infiltration of both innate and adaptive immune effectors in BBD tissues suggests an immunogenic microenvironment. The reduced B-cell infiltration in women with later breast cancer suggests a role for B cells in preventing disease progression and as a possible biomarker for breast cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3945-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Epigenetics in Breast and Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2015-01-01

    Most recent investigations into cancer etiology have identified a key role played by epigenetics. Specifically, aberrant DNA and histone modifications which silence tumor suppressor genes or promote oncogenes have been demonstrated in multiple cancer models. While the role of epigenetics in several solid tumor cancers such as colorectal cancer are well established, there is emerging evidence that epigenetics also plays a critical role in breast and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, DNA methy...

  14. Drug transporters in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Stenvang, Jan; Moreira, José

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances that have taken place in the past decade, including the development of novel molecular targeted agents, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of cancer treatment. In breast cancer, anthracyclines and taxanes are the two main chemotherapeutic options used on a routine...... basis. Although effective, their usefulness is limited by the inevitable development of resistance, a lack of response to drug-induced cancer cell death. A large body of research has resulted in the characterization of a plethora of mechanisms involved in resistance; ATP-binding cassette transporter...

  15. Breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Jung; Shin, Sang Soo [Dept. of of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyo Soon; Baek, Jang Mi; Seon, Hyun Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Park, Min Ho [Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging and to describe the MR imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. From 2006 to 2013, MR images of 23 patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were reviewed to evaluate lesion detection and imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. MR images were analyzed by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System and an additional MR-detected lesion with no mammographic or sonographic abnormality was determined. MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients, even in marked background parenchymal enhancement. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was seen as a mass in 20 patients and as non-mass enhancement with segmental distribution in 3 patients. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (85%), non-circumscribed margin (85%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%). An additional site of cancer was detected with MR imaging in 5 patients (21.7%) and the type of surgery was changed. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was usually seen as an irregular mass with heterogeneous enhancement on MR images. Although these findings were not specific, MR imaging was useful in evaluating the disease extent of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

  16. Breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shin Jung; Shin, Sang Soo; Lim, Hyo Soon; Baek, Jang Mi; Seon, Hyun Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Park, Min Ho

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging and to describe the MR imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. From 2006 to 2013, MR images of 23 patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were reviewed to evaluate lesion detection and imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. MR images were analyzed by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System and an additional MR-detected lesion with no mammographic or sonographic abnormality was determined. MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients, even in marked background parenchymal enhancement. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was seen as a mass in 20 patients and as non-mass enhancement with segmental distribution in 3 patients. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (85%), non-circumscribed margin (85%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%). An additional site of cancer was detected with MR imaging in 5 patients (21.7%) and the type of surgery was changed. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was usually seen as an irregular mass with heterogeneous enhancement on MR images. Although these findings were not specific, MR imaging was useful in evaluating the disease extent of pregnancy-associated breast cancer

  17. Epidemiology of radiogenic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of epidemiologic studies of radiogenic breast cancer is to use empirical data from human populations exposed to radiation, in order to delineate increases in risk of breast cancer as a function of the radiation characteristics and the characteristics of the women exposed. In addition, such empirical data may be used to test hypotheses concerning the biological mechanism of radiation-induced breast cancer, and this mechanism in turn may serve as a useful model both for other radiogenic solid tumors, and for breast tumors induced by other carcinogens. Specifically, the objective may be formulated in terms of developing an appropriate relatively simple mathematical model, whose functional form may be tested and whose parameters may be estimated from the relevant human data. It is necessary to derive such a model, both because of the sampling instability of estimates based on small subgroups of populations and also because observations may not be available in populations with the characteristics of interest. These latter two restrictions are exemplified by the problem of estimating an increase in risk for individuals with relatively small exposures, and the problem of estimating lifetime risk

  18. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  19. Renal Cancer Biomarkers | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute's Laboratory of Proteomics and Analytical Technologies is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic cancer biomarkers from clinical specimens.

  20. Analysis and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Poulami Das; Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir K. Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to identify abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test, if necessary. We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps. Normal ductalepithelial cells and ductal / lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper. In fact, features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue. We also ...

  1. The Japanese Guidelines for Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashima, Chisato; Hamashima C, Chisato; Hattori, Masakazu; Honjo, Satoshi; Kasahara, Yoshio; Katayama, Takafumi; Nakai, Masahiro; Nakayama, Tomio; Morita, Takako; Ohta, Koji; Ohnuki, Koji; Sagawa, Motoyasu; Saito, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Seiju; Shimada, Tomoyuki; Sobue, Tomotaka; Suto, Akihiko

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of breast cancer has progressively increased, making it the leading cause of cancer deaths in Japan. Breast cancer accounts for 20.4% of all new cancers with a reported age-standardized rate of 63.6 per 100 000 women. The Japanese guidelines for breast cancer screening were developed based on a previously established method. The efficacies of mammography with and without clinical breast examination, clinical breast examination and ultrasonography with and without mammography were evaluated. Based on the balance of the benefits and harms, recommendations for population-based and opportunistic screenings were formulated. Five randomized controlled trials of mammographic screening without clinical breast examination were identified for mortality reduction from breast cancer. The overall relative risk for women aged 40-74 years was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.83). Three randomized controlled trials of mammographic screening with clinical breast examination served as eligible evidence for mortality reduction from breast cancer. The overall relative risk for women aged 40-64 years was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-0.98). The major harms of mammographic screening were radiation exposure, false-positive cases and overdiagnosis. Although two case-control studies evaluating mortality reduction from breast cancer were found for clinical breast examination, there was no study assessing the effectiveness of ultrasonography for breast cancer screening. Mammographic screening without clinical breast examination for women aged 40-74 years and with clinical breast examination for women aged 40-64 years is recommended for population-based and opportunistic screenings. Clinical breast examination and ultrasonography are not recommended for population-based screening because of insufficient evidence regarding their effectiveness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  3. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  4. Cancer Biomarker Discovery: Lectin-Based Strategies Targeting Glycoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clark

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker discovery can identify molecular markers in various cancers that can be used for detection, screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease progression. Lectin-affinity is a technique that can be used for the enrichment of glycoproteins from a complex sample, facilitating the discovery of novel cancer biomarkers associated with a disease state.

  5. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  6. Breast cancer and the environment: a life course approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Breast Cancer and the Environment: The Scientific Evidence, Research Methodology, and Future Directions; Institute of Medicine

    2012-01-01

    .... Breast Cancer and the Environment reviews the current evidence on a selection of environmental risk factors for breast cancer, considers gene-environment interactions in breast cancer, and explores...

  7. Immunoglobulin free light chains are biomarkers of poor prognosis in basal-like breast cancer and are potential targets in tumor-associated inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormelink, T.G.; Powe, D.G.; Kuijpers, S.A.; Abudukelimu, A.; Fens, M.H.; Pieters, E.H.; Kassing-Van der Ven, W.W.; Habashy, H.O.; Ellis, I.O.; Blokhuis, B.R.; Thio, M.; Hennink, W.E.; Storm, Gerrit; Redegeld, F.A.; Schiffelers, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is an important component of various cancers and its inflammatory cells and mediators have been shown to have prognostic potential. Tumor-infiltrating mast cells can promote tumor growth and angiogenesis, but the mechanism of mast cell activation is unclear. In earlier studies, we

  8. Electrochemical sensors in breast cancer diagnostics and follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Marques

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The detection of tumor biomarkers can have a major contribution to the management of breast cancer. So far the only serum biomarker in current use in breast cancer is the cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3. This biomarker is used in advanced breast cancer to monitor patients and to help to identify treatment failure. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER 2 is another biomarker whose characterization is usually made in tissue samples from primary tumour or metastasis and has been used as a prognostic factor but mainly as a target in immunotherapy treatment. Some previous studies suggest that the detection of the extracellular domain of HER2 (HER2-ECD in blood can be a prognostic factor, with even better results than its detection in tissue. Recent techniques for circulating protein biomarker detection use immunoassays, but some are, for example, not sufficiently sensitive for the detection of low biomarker concentrations. To overcome some of these problems, electrochemical (biosensors, and especially the ones using voltammetric detection, can be adequate alternatives because of their high selectivity and sensitivity which allows early detection of many diseases. Furthermore, electrochemical (biosensors are excellent to be included into point-of-care devices due to their fast response, simplicity, low cost, easy miniaturization and integration into automatic systems. Another advantage is the possibility of combining individual sensors into multiplexed detection systems. Like this they can provide fast recording of biomarker profiles of tumours which can play an important role in early detection and personalized medicine.Methods: Both individual as well as multiplexed electrochemical immunosensors were developed for the detection of CA15-3 and HER2-ECD. For this purpose a sandwich immunoassay was employed and the analytical signal was based on the voltammetric detection of enzymatically deposited silver. Screen-printed carbon

  9. Fertility after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Orešković, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2014-02-01

    In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established

  10. Efficacy of reovirus against breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jingzhi; Chen Jue; Dong Shengxiang; Yan Weili; Wu Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the role of oncolytic reovirus in breast cancer, a tumor xenograft model of NOD/SCID mice was established using a biopsy sample of a primary infiltrating ductal carcinoma obtained from a breast cancer patient. The result of HE and TUNEL was analyzed after injecting the reovirus peritoneally for 3 days. The results showed that estrogen supplementation was required to establish appropriate human breast cancer xenograft model of NOD/SCID mice. 29.6% of these transplanted tumors grew with supplementation of Estrogen. Otherwise none grew (P<0.01). ER of the xenograft model was positive.After treatment with reovirus for 3 days, breast cancer cells were disrupted and disappeared which induced tissue looseness. The rate of apoptosis increased double than before. The biological characteristics of tumor xenograft model confirm with the primary breast cancer. The oncolytic reovirus can kill breast cancer in short time. (authors)

  11. Breast cancer with axillary lymph node involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaid, A.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Azoury, F.; Heymann, S.; Marsiglia, H.; Bourgier, C.; Belaid, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Pichenot, C.; Verstraet, R.; Marsiglia, H.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in western countries. There are one million new cases per year in the world which represents 22% of all female cancers, and more than 370.000 deaths due to breast cancer per year (14% of cancer mortality). More than half of breast cancers are associated with axillary nodal involvement. Post-operative radiation therapy (XRT) is a crucial part of locoregional treatment in axillary nodal involvement breast cancer owing to a 15-years risk reduction of locoregional recurrence of 70% and to a 5.4% risk reduction of specific mortality. In 3D-conformal irradiation in such breast cancers, target volumes are chest wall when mastectomy was performed or breast and boost of tumor bed in case of breast conservative surgery, and supra-clavicular and/or axillary and/or internal mammary node areas. The main organs at risk are ipsilateral lung, heart and brachial plexus. The aim of this article is to describe epidemiologic, radio anatomic and prognostic features of axillary nodal involvement breast cancer and to propose guidelines for 3D-conformal treatment planning in locally advanced breast cancers. This review is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  12. Breast cancer and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism

  13. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-06

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  14. Breast cancer screening in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, L S; Haynes, S G

    1996-01-01

    There is currently an epidemic of breast cancer in women 65 years of age and older. The purposes of this paper are to explore the breast cancer screening behaviors of older women and to identify some of the determinants of screening in these women. Data were analyzed from the 1987 National Health Interview Survey, a continuous nationwide household interview survey of the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population. As in other studies, the utilization of breast cancer screening by older women was less in older women than in younger women. This was true for both mammography and clinical breast examination. A number of determinants of screening in older women were identified here. Women with a usual source of care and/or no activity limitation, as well as high school graduates, were the ones most likely to have received a screening mammogram and/or a screening clinical breast exam during the past year. The failure of older women to receive adequate breast cancer screening is an important concern which should be reevaluated, given the breast cancer epidemic in this population. This study identified a number of determinants of breast cancer screening in older women. For the most part, these determinants point to the primary care physician as the key to breast cancer screening in these women. Therefore, the primary care physician must be informed of, and encouraged to follow, the recommendations for periodic breast cancer screening in older women.

  15. Emerging Concepts and Methodologies in Cancer Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meixia; Zhang, Jinxiang; Zhang, Lanjing

    2017-01-01

    Cancer biomarker discovery is a critical part of cancer prevention and treatment. Despite the decades of effort, only a small number of cancer biomarkers have been identified for and validated in clinical settings. Conceptual and methodological breakthroughs may help accelerate the discovery of additional cancer biomarkers, particularly their use for diagnostics. In this review, we have attempted to review the emerging concepts in cancer biomarker discovery, including real-world evidence, open access data, and data paucity in rare or uncommon cancers. We have also summarized the recent methodological progress in cancer biomarker discovery, such as high-throughput sequencing, liquid biopsy, big data, artificial intelligence (AI), and deep learning and neural networks. Much attention has been given to the methodological details and comparison of the methodologies. Notably, these concepts and methodologies interact with each other and will likely lead to synergistic effects when carefully combined. Newer, more innovative concepts and methodologies are emerging as the current emerging ones became mainstream and widely applied to the field. Some future challenges are also discussed. This review contributes to the development of future theoretical frameworks and technologies in cancer biomarker discovery and will contribute to the discovery of more useful cancer biomarkers.

  16. Tumor interstitial fluid - a treasure trove of cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J; Timmermans-Wielenga, Vera; Talman, Mai-Lis; Serizawa, Reza R; Moreira, José M A

    2013-11-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical secretion, non-classical secretion, secretion via exosomes and membrane protein shedding. Consequently, the interstitial aqueous phase of solid tumors is a highly promising resource for the discovery of molecules associated with pathological changes in tissues. Firstly, it allows one to delve deeper into the regulatory mechanisms and functions of secretion-related processes in tumor development. Secondly, the anomalous secretion of molecules that is innate to tumors and the tumor microenvironment, being associated with cancer progression, offers a valuable source for biomarker discovery and possible targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we provide an overview of the features of tumor-associated interstitial fluids, based on recent and updated information obtained mainly from our studies of breast cancer. Data from the study of interstitial fluids recovered from several other types of cancer are also discussed. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled: The Updated Secretome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rasskazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief overview of the main methods of breast cancer screening. Proven effectiveness of mammography as a screening method in reducing mortality from breast cancer, specified limits of the method. The main trend of increasing the effectiveness of screening is the transition to digital technologies. Properly organized screening with the active participation of the population reduces mortality from breast cancer by 30%.

  18. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    kinase inhibition on ERK activity in breast cancer cells, the role of the calpain proteolytic pathway in breast cancer-induced cachexia , and the...research training; breast cancer; fatty acids and prevention; nutrition and prevention; alternative prevention 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...growth. In in vivo experiments, mice were fed diets that were rich in either omega-3 (fish oil) or omega-6 (corn oil) fatty acids. Three weeks after

  19. Osthole inhibits bone metastasis of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chunyu; Sun, Zhenping; Guo, Baofeng; Ye, Yiyi; Han, Xianghui; Qin, Yuenong; Liu, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common sites for breast cancer metastasis, which greatly contributes to patient morbidity and mortality. Osthole, a major extract from Cnidium monnieri (L.), exhibits many biological and pharmacological activities, however, its potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of breast cancer bone metastases remain poorly understood. In this study, we set out to investigate whether osthole could inhibit breast cancer metastasis to bone in mice and clarified the potent...

  20. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    tyrosine kinases with an SH3, SH2 and catalytic domain, it lacks a native myristylation signal shared by most members of this class [14], [38]. The...therapeutics and consequently, improve clinical outcomes. We aim to identify novel drivers of breast oncogenesis. We hypothesize that a kinase gain-of...human mammary epithelial cells. A pBabe-Puro-Myr-Flag kinase open reading frame (ORF) library was screened in immortalized human mammary epithelial

  1. Breast cancer in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecka, Barbara; Litwiniuk, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) in young women is rare, affecting only 4-6% of women under the age of 40. Regardless, BC remains the most common malignancy among younger patients. Recently, a significant increase in BC rates has been observed among pre-menopausal subjects. Breast cancer in young women requires special attention due to its specific morphologic and prognostic characteristics and unique aspects, including fertility preservation and psychosocial issues (e.g. its impact on family life and career). Young women are more likely to have tumors with higher incidence of negative clinicopathologic features (higher histological grade, more lymph node positivity, lower estrogen receptor (ER) positivity, higher rates of Her2/neu overexpression). Also, they tend to be diagnosed at more advanced stages of the disease. That, in turn, contributes to less favorable prognosis as compared to older women. Young women are generally treated similarly to older patients. Surgical management includes mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery, followed by radiation therapy (younger women have higher local recurrence rates than older women, especially after breast-conserving therapy). Although the basics of chemotherapy are the same for patients of all ages, younger women have some special considerations. It is important to consider options for fertility preservation before starting systemic treatment. Patients should have access to genetic testing as their results may affect the choice of therapy. Younger women and their families should receive adequate psychological support and counselling.

  2. Proteomic profiling of mammary carcinomas identifies C7orf24, a gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase, as a potential cancer biomarker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Friis, Esbern

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women today and is the most common cancer (excluding skin cancers) among women in the Western world. Although cancers detected by screening mammography are significantly smaller than nonscreening ones, noninvasive biomarkers for detection...... in different types of cancer suggests deregulation of C7orf24 to be a general event in epithelial carcinogenesis, indicating that this protein may play an important role in cancer cell biology and thus constitute a novel therapeutic target. Furthermore, as C7orf24 is externalized to the tissue extracellular...... fluid and can be detected in serum, this protein also represents a potential serological marker....

  3. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer and its Prognosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melbye, Mads

    1998-01-01

    ...: Reproductive factors and breast cancer risk Having started the process of working with these questions, we discovered a unique opportunity to differentiate the outcome variable of breast cancer...

  4. Prognostic factors of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Ortega, Jose Maria; Morales Wong, Mario Miguel; Lopez Cuevas, Zoraida; Diaz Valdez, Marilin

    2011-01-01

    The prognostic factors must to be differentiated of the predictive ones. A prognostic factor is any measurement used at moment of the surgery correlated with the free interval of disease or global survival in the absence of the systemic adjuvant treatment and as result is able to correlate with the natural history of the disease. In contrast, a predictive factor is any measurement associated with the response to a given treatment. Among the prognostic factors of the breast cancer are included the clinical, histological, biological, genetic and psychosocial factors. In present review of psychosocial prognostic factors has been demonstrated that the stress and the depression are negative prognostic factors in patients presenting with breast cancer. It is essential to remember that the assessment of just one prognostic parameter is a help but it is not useful to clinical and therapeutic management of the patient.(author)

  5. Virus-Targeted Therapeutic for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faller, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    .... Our approach initially involves investigation of EBV sequences in breast cancer cell lines and specimens, determination of whether treatment with Arginine Butyrate will induce the viral thymidine...

  6. Biopsychosocial Research Training in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antoni, Michael

    1998-01-01

    .... Three others successfully defended their Master's theses. Training throughout YR 4 was closely coordinated with ongoing ACS-funded and NCI-funded biopsychosocial breast cancer research projects...

  7. Pleiotrophin Signaling Through PTNR in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powers, Ciaron

    2001-01-01

    ... of intracellular signaling cascades. The pleiotrophin signaling pathway is known to be important in angiogenesis and breast cancer growth, but the exact mechanisms of pleiotrophin signaling remain undefined...

  8. Paclitaxel and doxorubicin in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, J; Boesgaard, M; Paaske, T

    1996-01-01

    For the past decades the anthracyclines have been regarded as among the most active drugs for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, the 5-year survival rate in patients with stage IV breast cancer continues to be below 20%, and new active drugs and drug combinations clearly must...... be explored. Paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) has been demonstrated to be highly effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer, including those with anthracycline-resistant breast cancer, a fact that has led to efforts to combine paclitaxel and anthracyclines...

  9. Identification of cancer protein biomarkers using proteomic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mor, Gil G.; Ward, David C.; Bray-Ward, Patricia

    2016-10-18

    The claimed invention describes methods to diagnose or aid in the diagnosis of cancer. The claimed methods are based on the identification of biomarkers which are particularly well suited to discriminate between cancer subjects and healthy subjects. These biomarkers were identified using a unique and novel screening method described herein. The biomarkers identified herein can also be used in the prognosis and monitoring of cancer. The invention comprises the use of leptin, prolactin, OPN and IGF-II for diagnosing, prognosis and monitoring of ovarian cancer.

  10. Adherence to Guidelines for Breast Surveillance in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Kathryn J; Sangaralingham, Lindsey; Freedman, Rachel A; Mougalian, Sarah; Neuman, Heather; Greenberg, Caprice; Jemal, Ahmedin; Duma, Narjust; Haddad, Tufia C; Lemaine, Valerie; Ghosh, Karthik; Hieken, Tina J; Hunt, Katie; Vachon, Celine; Gross, Cary; Shah, Nilay D

    2018-05-01

    Background: Guidelines recommend annual mammography after curative-intent treatment for breast cancer. The goal of this study was to assess contemporary patterns of breast imaging after breast cancer treatment. Methods: Administrative claims data were used to identify privately insured and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries with nonmetastatic breast cancer who had residual breast tissue (not bilateral mastectomy) after breast surgery between January 2005 and May 2015. We calculated the proportion of patients who had a mammogram, MRI, both, or neither during each of 5 subsequent 13-month periods. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics, healthcare use, and breast imaging in the first and fifth years after surgery. Results: A total of 27,212 patients were followed for a median of 2.9 years (interquartile range, 1.8-4.6) after definitive breast cancer surgery. In year 1, 78% were screened using mammography alone, 1% using MRI alone, and 8% using both tests; 13% did not undergo either. By year 5, the proportion of the remaining cohort (n=4,790) who had no breast imaging was 19%. Older age was associated with an increased likelihood of mammography and a decreased likelihood of MRI during the first and fifth years. Black race, mastectomy, chemotherapy, and no MRI at baseline were all associated with a decreased likelihood of both types of imaging. Conclusions: Even in an insured cohort, a substantial proportion of breast cancer survivors do not undergo annual surveillance breast imaging, particularly as time passes. Understanding factors associated with imaging in cancer survivors may help improve adherence to survivorship care guidelines. Copyright © 2018 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  11. Proteomics analysis of human breast milk to assess breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslebagh, Roshanak; Channaveerappa, Devika; Arcaro, Kathleen F; Darie, Costel C

    2018-02-01

    Detection of breast cancer (BC) in young women is challenging because mammography, the most common tool for detecting BC, is not effective on the dense breast tissue characteristic of young women. In addition to the limited means for detecting their BC, young women face a transient increased risk of pregnancy-associated BC. As a consequence, reproductively active women could benefit significantly from a tool that provides them with accurate risk assessment and early detection of BC. One potential method for detection of BC is biochemical monitoring of proteins and other molecules in bodily fluids such as serum, nipple aspirate, ductal lavage, tear, urine, saliva and breast milk. Of all these fluids, only breast milk provides access to a large volume of breast tissue, in the form of exfoliated epithelial cells, and to the local breast environment, in the form of molecules in the milk. Thus, analysis of breast milk is a non-invasive method with significant potential for assessing BC risk. Here we analyzed human breast milk by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics to build a biomarker signature for early detection of BC. Ten milk samples from eight women provided five paired-groups (cancer versus control) for analysis of dysregulatedproteins: two within woman comparisons (milk from a diseased breast versus a healthy breast of the same woman) and three across women comparisons (milk from a woman with cancer versus a woman without cancer). Despite a wide range in the time between milk donation and cancer diagnosis (cancer diagnosis occurred from 1 month before to 24 months after milk donation), the levels of some proteins differed significantly between cancer and control in several of the five comparison groups. These pilot data are supportive of the idea that molecular analysis of breast milk will identify proteins informative for early detection and accurate assessment of BC risk, and warrant further research. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier

  12. Human breast tissue disposition and bioactivity of limonene in women with early stage breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica A.; Lang, Julie E.; Ley, Michele; Nagle, Ray; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Thompson, Patricia A; Cordova, Catherine; Waer, Amy; Chow, H.-H. Sherry

    2013-01-01

    Limonene is a bioactive food component found in citrus peel oil that has demonstrated chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities in preclinical studies. We conducted an open label pilot clinical study to determine the human breast tissue disposition of limonene and its associated bioactivity. We recruited forty-three women with newly diagnosed operable breast cancer electing to undergo surgical excision to take 2 grams of limonene daily for 2 – 6 weeks before surgery. Blood and breast tissue were collected to determine drug/metabolite concentrations and limonene-induced changes in systemic and tissue biomarkers of breast cancer risk or carcinogenesis. Limonene was found to preferentially concentrate in the breast tissue, reaching high tissue concentration (mean=41.3 μg/g tissue) while the major active circulating metabolite, perillic acid, did not concentrate in the breast tissue. Limonene intervention resulted in a 22% reduction in cyclin D1 expression (P=0.002) in tumor tissue but minimal changes in tissue Ki67 and cleaved caspase 3 expression. No significant changes in serum leptin, adiponectin, TGF-β1, IGFBP-3 and IL-6 levels were observed following limonene intervention. There was a small but statistically significant post-intervention increase in IGF-1 levels. We conclude that limonene distributed extensively to human breast tissue and reduced breast tumor cyclin D1 expression that may lead to cell cycle arrest and reduced cell proliferation. Further placebo-controlled clinical trials and translational research are warranted to establish limonene’s role for breast cancer prevention or treatment. PMID:23554130

  13. Human breast tissue disposition and bioactivity of limonene in women with early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica A; Lang, Julie E; Ley, Michele; Nagle, Ray; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Thompson, Patricia A; Cordova, Catherine; Waer, Amy; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2013-06-01

    Limonene is a bioactive food component found in citrus peel oil that has shown chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities in preclinical studies. We conducted an open-label pilot clinical study to determine the human breast tissue disposition of limonene and its associated bioactivity. We recruited 43 women with newly diagnosed operable breast cancer electing to undergo surgical excision to take 2 grams of limonene daily for two to six weeks before surgery. Blood and breast tissue were collected to determine drug/metabolite concentrations and limonene-induced changes in systemic and tissue biomarkers of breast cancer risk or carcinogenesis. Limonene was found to preferentially concentrate in the breast tissue, reaching high tissue concentration (mean = 41.3 μg/g tissue), whereas the major active circulating metabolite, perillic acid, did not concentrate in the breast tissue. Limonene intervention resulted in a 22% reduction in cyclin D1 expression (P = 0.002) in tumor tissue but minimal changes in tissue Ki67 and cleaved caspase-3 expression. No significant changes in serum leptin, adiponectin, TGF-β1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were observed following limonene intervention. There was a small but statistically significant postintervention increase in insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels. We conclude that limonene distributed extensively to human breast tissue and reduced breast tumor cyclin D1 expression that may lead to cell-cycle arrest and reduced cell proliferation. Furthermore, placebo-controlled clinical trials and translational research are warranted to establish limonene's role for breast cancer prevention or treatment.

  14. Identification and prognostic value of anterior gradient protein 2 expression in breast cancer based on tissue microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jilong; Gong, Guohua; Zhang, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Breast cancer has attracted substantial attention as one of the major cancers causing death in women. It is crucial to find potential biomarkers of prognostic value in breast cancer. In this study, the expression pattern of anterior gradient protein 2 in breast cancer was identified based on the main molecular subgroups. Through analysis of 69 samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, we found that anterior gradient protein 2 expression was significantly higher in non-triple-negative breast cancer tissues compared with normal tissues and triple-negative breast cancer tissues (p gradient protein 2 expression pattern. Furthermore, we performed immunohistochemical analysis. The quantification results revealed that anterior gradient protein 2 is highly expressed in non-triple-negative breast cancer (grade 3 excluded) and grade 1 + 2 (triple-negative breast cancer excluded) tumours compared with normal tissues. Anterior gradient protein 2 was significantly highly expressed in non-triple-negative breast cancer (grade 3 excluded) and non-triple-negative breast cancer tissues compared with triple-negative breast cancer tissues (p gradient protein 2 was significantly highly expressed in grade 1 + 2 (triple-negative breast cancer excluded) and grade 1 + 2 tissues compared with grade 3 tissues (p gradient protein 2 expression was significantly associated with histologic type, histological grade, oestrogen status and progesterone status. Univariate analysis of clinicopathological variables showed that anterior gradient protein 2 expression, tumour size and lymph node status were significantly correlated with overall survival in patients with grade 1 and 2 tumours. Cox multivariate analysis revealed anterior gradient protein 2 as a putative independent indicator of unfavourable outcomes (p = 0.031). All these data clearly showed that anterior gradient protein 2 is highly expressed in breast cancer and can be regarded as a putative biomarker for

  15. Genomic Instability and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    distinguish these possibilities. The possible function of human SWI5-MEI5 in meiosis also needs to be investigated. It remains to be determined whether the... human SWI5-MEI5 complex acts in meiosis and, if it does, whether it acts with DMC1, RAD51, or both. Considering that SWI5-MEI5 is the only human ...tumorigenesis. This has been clearly illustrated in familial breast cancer, since human genetic studies reveal that many genes involved in DNA damage response

  16. The Breast Cancer DNA Interactome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    an antisense orientation compared with the IGF1R gene, and it is expressed exclusively from the paternal allele, with the maternal allele being...orientation compared with the IGF1R gene, and it is expressed exclusively from the paternal allele, with the maternal allele being silenced...progression and metastasis is not yet fully understood. Our major goal has been to characterize physical interactions among selected breast cancer gene loci

  17. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  18. Phosphoproteins in extracellular vesicles as candidate markers for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Hsuan; Xue, Liang; Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Paez, Juan Sebastian Paez; Pan, Li; Andaluz, Hillary; Wendt, Michael K; Iliuk, Anton B; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Tao, W Andy

    2017-03-21

    The state of protein phosphorylation can be a key determinant of cellular physiology such as early-stage cancer, but the development of phosphoproteins in biofluids for disease diagnosis remains elusive. Here we demonstrate a strategy to isolate and identify phosphoproteins in extracellular vesicles (EVs) from human plasma as potential markers to differentiate disease from healthy states. We identified close to 10,000 unique phosphopeptides in EVs isolated from small volumes of plasma samples. Using label-free quantitative phosphoproteomics, we identified 144 phosphoproteins in plasma EVs that are significantly higher in patients diagnosed with breast cancer compared with healthy controls. Several biomarkers were validated in individual patients using paralleled reaction monitoring for targeted quantitation. This study demonstrates that the development of phosphoproteins in plasma EV as disease biomarkers is highly feasible and may transform cancer screening and monitoring.

  19. Role of Aspirin in Breast Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y; Holmes, Michelle D

    2017-07-01

    Chemotherapy and hormonal therapy have significantly decreased breast cancer mortality, although with considerable side effects and financial costs. In the USA, over three million women are living after a breast cancer diagnosis and are eager for new treatments that are low in toxicity and cost. Multiple observational studies have reported improved breast cancer survival with regular aspirin use. Furthermore, pooled data from five large randomized trials of aspirin for cardiovascular disease showed that subjects on aspirin had decreased risk of cancer mortality and decreased risk of metastatic cancer. Although the potential mechanism for aspirin preventing breast cancer is not known, possible pathways may involve platelets, inflammation, cyclooxygenase (COX) 2, hormones, or PI3 kinase. This review article summarizes the current epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence as well as possible underlying mechanisms that justify current phase III randomized trials of aspirin to improve breast cancer survival.

  20. Tetrofosmin in metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghammer, P.; Obwegeser, R.; Ulm, M.; Wiltschke, C.; Kubista, E.; Sinzinger, H.; Zielinski, C.

    1997-01-01

    Tetrofosmin (1,2-bis[bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino]ethan) is currently under investigation for its tumor seeking properties, encouraged by the incidental finding of a malignant breast-lesion on myocardial scintigraphy in 1995 (Rambaldi et al, Clin Nucl Med 1995) using tetrofosmin. Recent reports have confirmed tetrofosmins role in detecting primary tumors in breast cancer. To investigate whether tetrofosmin significantly helps detect metastatic lesions in such patients we performed tetrofosmin scintigraphy in 21 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients and methods: Median age of patients was 61 years. In one patient the primary site was unknown. All patients had at least one distant metastasis. 550 MBq of 99m-Tc-tetrofosmin was administered ten minutes before imaging was begun. After obtaining a planar image, a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was done of every suspected distant lesion. CT-scans or MRI were used to confirm positive correlation with tetrofosmin scintigraphy. Results: Tetrofosmin scintigraphy correctly diagnosed metastatic disease in 71 % of patients with no false negative and two false positive results. In each of the two patients a mediastinal hot spot suggestive of malignancy was found, but none of those lesions could be proven using CT scans. Excluding patients with liver metastasis from the present analysis, 91 % of all metastasis would have been correctly diagnosed. The first patient in our department had a large metastasis in the upper mediastinum which could not be seen on regular chest films. In the patient in whom the primary site of cancer was unknown, tetrofosmin scintigraphy showed three consecutive nodules in the left mammary, gland in a coronary fashion. Magnetic resonance imaging then confirmed two single nodules of 0.8 cm in diameter. Conclusions: Evaluating 21 patients, the present study was performed to investigate tetrofosmins properties of detecting metastatic lesions in patients with breast cancer. A 91