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Sample records for breast cancer aggressiveness

  1. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  2. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis Molecular expression of vascular markers by aggressive breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During embryogenesis, the formation of primary vascular networks occurs via the processes of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. In uveal melanoma, vasculogenic mimicry describes the 'embryonic-like' ability of aggressive, but not nonaggressive, tumor cells to form networks surrounding spheroids of tumor cells in three-dimensional culture; these recapitulate the patterned networks seen in patients' aggressive tumors and correlates with poor prognosis. The molecular profile of these aggressive tumor cells suggests that they have a deregulated genotype, capable of expressing vascular phenotypes. Similarly, the embryonic-like phenotype expressed by the aggressive human breast cancer cells is associated with their ability to express a variety of vascular markers. These studies may offer new insights for consideration in breast cancer diagnosis and therapeutic intervention strategies

  3. The antihelmintic drug pyrvinium pamoate targets aggressive breast cancer.

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    Wei Xu

    Full Text Available WNT signaling plays a key role in the self-renewal of tumor initiation cells (TICs. In this study, we used pyrvinium pamoate (PP, an FDA-approved antihelmintic drug that inhibits WNT signaling, to test whether pharmacologic inhibition of WNT signaling can specifically target TICs of aggressive breast cancer cells. SUM-149, an inflammatory breast cancer cell line, and SUM-159, a metaplastic basal-type breast cancer cell line, were used in these studies. We found that PP inhibited primary and secondary mammosphere formation of cancer cells at nanomolar concentrations, at least 10 times less than the dose needed to have a toxic effect on cancer cells. A comparable mammosphere formation IC50 dose to that observed in cancer cell lines was obtained using malignant pleural effusion samples from patients with IBC. A decrease in activity of the TIC surrogate aldehyde dehydrogenase was observed in PP-treated cells, and inhibition of WNT signaling by PP was associated with down-regulation of a panel of markers associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In vivo, intratumoral injection was associated with tumor necrosis, and intraperitoneal injection into mice with tumor xenografts caused significant tumor growth delay and a trend toward decreased lung metastasis. In in vitro mammosphere-based and monolayer-based clonogenic assays, we found that PP radiosensitized cells in monolayer culture but not mammosphere culture. These findings suggest WNT signaling inhibition may be a feasible strategy for targeting aggressive breast cancer. Investigation and modification of the bioavailability and toxicity profile of systemic PP are warranted.

  4. Tryptophan content for monitoring breast cancer cell aggressiveness by native fluorescence spectroscopy

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    Zhang, Lin; Pu, Yang; Xue, Jianpeng; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Xu, Baogang; Achilefu, Samuel; Alfano, R. R.

    2014-03-01

    This study shows tryptophan as the key native marker in cells to determine the level of aggressive cancer in breast cell lines using native fluorescence spectroscopy. An algorithm based on the ratio of tryptophan fluorescence intensity at 340 nm to intensity at 460 nm is associated with aggressiveness of the cancer cells. The higher the ratio is, the more aggressive the tumor towards metastasis.

  5. CEST-MRI detects metabolite levels altered by breast cancer cell aggressiveness and chemotherapy response.

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    Chan, Kannie W Y; Jiang, Lu; Cheng, Menglin; Wijnen, Jannie P; Liu, Guanshu; Huang, Peng; van Zijl, Peter C M; McMahon, Michael T; Glunde, Kristine

    2016-06-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is an MRI contrast mechanism that detects the exchange of protons from distinct hydroxyl, amine, and amide groups to tissue water through the transfer of signal loss, with repeated exchange enhancing their effective signal. We applied CEST to detect systematically 15 common cellular metabolites in a panel of differentially aggressive human breast cancer cell lines. The highest CEST contrast was generated by creatine, myo-inositol, glutamate, and glycerophosphocholine, whose cellular concentrations decreased with increasing breast cancer aggressiveness. These decreased metabolite concentrations resulted in turn in a decreased CEST profile with increasing breast cancer aggressiveness in water-soluble extracts of breast cell lines. Treatment of both breast cancer cell lines with the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin resulted in increased metabolic CEST profiles, which correlated with significant increases in creatine, phosphocreatine, and glycerophosphocholine. CEST can detect breast cancer aggressiveness and response to chemotherapy in water-soluble extracts of breast cell lines. The presented results help shed light on possible contributions from CEST-active metabolites to the CEST contrast produced by breast cancers. The metabolic CEST profile may improve detection sensitivity over conventional MRS, and may have the potential to assess breast cancer aggressiveness and response to chemotherapy non-invasively using MRI if specialized metabolic CEST profile detection can be realized in vivo. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27100284

  6. Relevance of BCAR4 in tamoxifen resistance and tumour aggressiveness of human breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F.E. Godinho (Marcia F.E.); A.M. Sieuwerts (Anieta); M.P. Look (Maxime); D.N. Meijer (Dies); J.A. Foekens (John); L.C.J. Dorssers (Lambert); T.L.A. van Agthoven (Thecla)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Breast cancer anti-oestrogen resistance 4 (BCAR4) was identified in a search for genes involved in anti-oestrogen resistance in breast cancer. We explored whether BCAR4 is predictive for tamoxifen resistance and prognostic for tumour aggressiveness, and studied its function.Me

  7. Treatment of breast cancer in young women: do we need more aggressive therapies?

    OpenAIRE

    Cancello, Giuseppe; Montagna, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer diagnosed in young patients has been reported to have a more aggressive biologic behaviour and to be associated with a more unfavorable prognosis compared with the disease in older patients. However controversies exist regarding the optimal treatment and if more aggressive therapies are really crucial in this population.

  8. The transcription factor REST is lost in aggressive breast cancer.

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    Matthew P Wagoner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The function of the tumor suppressor RE1 silencing transcription factor (REST is lost in colon and small cell lung cancers and is known to induce anchorage-independent growth in human mammary epithelial cells. However, nothing is currently known about the role of this tumor suppressor in breast cancer. Here, we test the hypothesis that loss of REST function plays a role in breast cancer. To assay breast tumors for REST function, we developed a 24-gene signature composed of direct targets of the transcriptional repressor. Using the 24- gene signature, we identified a previously undefined RESTless breast tumor subtype. Using gene set enrichment analysis, we confirmed the aberrant expression of REST target genes in the REST-less tumors, including neuronal gene targets of REST that are normally not expressed outside the nervous system. Examination of REST mRNA identified a truncated splice variant of REST present in the REST-less tumor population, but not other tumors. Histological analysis of 182 outcome-associated breast tumor tissues also identified a subpopulation of tumors that lack full-length, functional REST and over-express the neuroendocrine marker and REST target gene Chromogranin A. Importantly, patients whose tumors were found to be REST-less using either the 24-gene signature or histology had significantly poorer prognosis and were more than twice as likely to undergo disease recurrence within the first 3 years after diagnosis. We show here that REST function is lost in breast cancer, at least in part via an alternative splicing mechanism. Patients with REST-less breast cancer undergo significantly more early disease recurrence than those with fully functional REST, regardless of estrogen receptor or HER2 status. Importantly, REST status may serve as a predictor of poor prognosis, helping to untangle the heterogeneity inherent in disease course and response to treatment. Additionally, the alternative splicing observed in REST

  9. Expression of eag1 channel associated with the aggressive clinicopathological features and subtype of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guang-Xu; Yu, Yun-Cui; He, Xiang-ping; Ren, Sheng-Nan; Fang, Xue-Dong; Liu, Fen; He, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds: Expression of eag1 channel (Eag1) is associated with cell malignant transformation, tumor cell metastasis and poor prognosis of the patient. This study aimed at examining whether expression of the Eag1 associated with aggressive clinicopathological feature and the molecular subtype of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: 109 patients who received breast cancer operation during January 2009 to December 2010 in Chinese-Japanese Friendship Hospital of Jilin University were recruite...

  10. Chronic ethanol exposure enhances the aggressiveness of breast cancer: the role of p38γ.

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    Xu, Mei; Wang, Siying; Ren, Zhenhua; Frank, Jacqueline A; Yang, Xiuwei H; Zhang, Zhuo; Ke, Zun-Ji; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2016-01-19

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that ethanol may enhance aggressiveness of breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that short term exposure to ethanol (12-48 hours) increased migration/invasion in breast cancer cells overexpressing ErbB2, but not in breast cancer cells with low expression of ErbB2, such as MCF7, BT20 and T47D breast cancer cells. In this study, we showed that chronic ethanol exposure transformed breast cancer cells that were not responsive to short term ethanol treatment to a more aggressive phenotype. Chronic ethanol exposure (10 days - 2 months) at 100 (22 mM) or 200 mg/dl (44 mM) caused the scattering of MCF7, BT20 and T47D cell colonies in a 3-dimension culture system. Chronic ethanol exposure also increased colony formation in an anchorage-independent condition and stimulated cell invasion/migration. Chronic ethanol exposure increased cancer stem-like cell (CSC) population by more than 20 folds. Breast cancer cells exposed to ethanol in vitro displayed a much higher growth rate and metastasis in mice. Ethanol selectively activated p38γ MAPK and RhoC but not p38α/β in a concentration-dependent manner. SP-MCF7 cells, a derivative of MCF7 cells which compose mainly CSC expressed high levels of phosphorylated p38γ MAPK. Knocking-down p38γ MAPK blocked ethanol-induced RhoC activation, cell scattering, invasion/migration and ethanol-increased CSC population. Furthermore, knocking-down p38γ MAPK mitigated ethanol-induced tumor growth and metastasis in mice. These results suggest that chronic ethanol exposure can enhance the aggressiveness of breast cancer by activating p38γ MAPK/RhoC pathway. PMID:26655092

  11. A novel role for flotillin-1 in H-Ras-regulated breast cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Minsoo; Yong, Hae-Young; Kim, Eun-Sook; Son, Hwajin; Jeon, You Rim; Hwang, Jin-Sun; Kim, Myeong-Ok; Cha, Yujin; Choi, Wahn Soo; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Kyung-Min; Kim, Ki-Bum; Lee, Jae-Seon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Haemin; Kim, Hong-Hee; Kim, Eun Joo; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Hoe Suk; Moon, Woo Kyung; Choi Kim, Hyeong-Reh; Moon, Aree

    2016-03-01

    Elevated expression and aberrant activation of Ras have been implicated in breast cancer aggressiveness. H-Ras, but not N-Ras, induces breast cell invasion. A crucial link between lipid rafts and H-Ras function has been suggested. This study sought to identify the lipid raft protein(s) responsible for H-Ras-induced tumorigenicity and invasiveness of breast cancer. We conducted a comparative proteomic analysis of lipid raft proteins from invasive MCF10A human breast epithelial cells engineered to express active H-Ras and non-invasive cells expressing active N-Ras. Here, we identified a lipid raft protein flotillin-1 as an important regulator of H-Ras activation and breast cell invasion. Flotillin-1 was required for epidermal growth factor-induced activation of H-Ras, but not that of N-Ras, in MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Flotillin-1 knockdown inhibited the invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T TNBC cells in vitro and in vivo. In xenograft mouse tumor models of these TNBC cell lines, we showed that flotillin-1 played a critical role in tumor growth. Using human breast cancer samples, we provided clinical evidence for the metastatic potential of flotillin-1. Membrane staining of flotillin-1 was positively correlated with metastatic spread (p = 0.013) and inversely correlated with patient disease-free survival rates (p = 0.005). Expression of flotillin-1 was associated with H-Ras in breast cancer, especially in TNBC (p < 0.001). Our findings provide insight into the molecular basis of Ras isoform-specific interplay with flotillin-1, leading to tumorigenicity and aggressiveness of breast cancer.

  12. Study in mice shows that an aggressive type of breast cancer is linked to an inflammatory protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberrant expression of an inflammatory protein, nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), may enhance the progression and metastasis of an aggressive and less common form of breast cancer, known as the estrogen receptor-negative type of disease.

  13. Breast cancer cells mechanosensing in engineered matrices: Correlation with aggressive phenotype.

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    Li, Ji; Wu, Yang; Schimmel, Nicholas; Al-Ameen, Mohammad Ali; Ghosh, Gargi

    2016-08-01

    The pathogenesis of cancer is often driven by the modulation of the tumor microenvironment. Recent reports have highlighted that the progressive stiffening of tumor matrix is crucial for malignant transformation. Though extensive work has been done analyzing the mechanotransductive signals involved in tumor progression, it is still not clear whether the stiffness induced changes in cancer cell behavior is conserved across the invasive/aggressive phenotype of cells. Here, we used synthetic hydrogel based cell culture platform to correlate the aggressive potential of the breast cancer cells to the responses to matrix stiffness. The cellular functions such as proliferation, migration, and angiogenic capability were characterized. We report that the proliferation and motility of the highly aggressive cell line MDA-MB-231 increased with increase in matrix rigidity. We also demonstrated for the first time that the change in matrix stiffness stimulated the angiogenic activity of these cells as manifested from enhanced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Inhibition of actomyosin contractility attenuated proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells on stiff matrices while promoted the growth on soft gels. In addition, the release of VEGF was reduced upon inhibition of contractility. The less and non-aggressive breast cancer cells, SKBr3 and MCF-7 respectively displayed less dependency on matrix stiffness. PMID:26874251

  14. Combined effects of IL-8 and CXCR2 gene polymorphisms on breast cancer susceptibility and aggressiveness

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    Helal Ahmed N

    2010-06-01

    aggressive phenotype of breast carcinoma as defined by a large tumor size, a high histological grade, and auxiliary's lymph node metastasis. A significant association between the IL-8 (-251 A allele and the aggressive form of breast carcinoma was also found. Moreover, the presence of the IL-8 (-251 A and/or the CXCR2 (+ 1208 T allele showed a significant association with a decreased overall survival and disease-free survival in breast carcinoma patients. Conclusion Our results indicated that the polymorphisms in IL-8 and CXCR2 genes are associated with increased breast cancer risk, as well as disease progress, supporting our hypothesis for IL-8 and ELR+CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR2 involvement in breast cancer pathogenesis.

  15. Diffusion-weighted imaging in breast cancer: relationship between apparent diffusion coefficient and tumour aggressiveness

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    Costantini, M.; Belli, P.; Rinaldi, P. [Department of Bio-Sciences and Radiological Imaging, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Bufi, E., E-mail: reagandus@alice.i [Department of Bio-Sciences and Radiological Imaging, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Giardina, G. [Department of Bio-Sciences and Radiological Imaging, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Franceschini, G. [Department of Surgery, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Petrone, G. [Department of Pathology, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Bonomo, L. [Department of Bio-Sciences and Radiological Imaging, Catholic University, Rome (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Aim: To assess the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging in diagnosing and characterizing breast malignancy. Materials and methods: From April 2006 to April 2009, all consecutive patients with breast cancer undergoing breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and subsequent surgery in our hospital were enrolled in this study. MRI was performed using a 1.5 T MRI unit using a dedicated, bilateral, four-channel breast coil. The MRI protocol included a diffusion sequence acquired using b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2}. For each malignant lesion the relationships between tumour grade and histology and the relative value of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were analysed. Results: There were 136 female patients with 162 lesions. Histology revealed 149 invasive carcinomas and 13 ductal carcinomas in situ. There were 34 grade 1, 61 grade 2, and 67 grade 3 lesions. The mean ADC value of all malignant lesions was 1.03 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. The mean ADC values for invasive and in situ carcinomas were 1.03 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 1.05 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The mean ADC values for grade 1, 2, and 3 tumours were 1.25 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, 1.02 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and 0.92 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, respectively. A statistically significant (p < 0.001) inverse correlation was disclosed between the ADC value and the tumour grading. The mean ADC value of the 'less aggressive' group of disease (G1 and in situ lesions) was 1.19 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, whereas the mean ADC value of the 'more aggressive' group (G2-G3 invasive carcinomas) was 0.96 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The study confirms the usefulness of diffusion imaging in assessing the aggressiveness of breast tumours. ADC appears to be a promising parameter in the evaluation of the degree of malignancy of breast cancer tissue.

  16. The role and indications of aggressive locoregional therapy in metastatic inflammatory breast cancer.

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    Yan, Yi; Tang, Lili; Tong, Wei; Zhou, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    We seek to confirm the effect and explore the indications of aggressive locoregional management in patients with metastatic inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Between 2003 and 2014, we reviewed the records of 156 patients with metastatic IBC from five large centers of Breast Surgery in the region of central south of China. Clinicopathologic data were collected to access overall survival (OS), prognostic factors and the indications for locoregional treatment. 75 (48%) patients underwent aggressive locoregional therapy. Patients in locoregional therapy group had a median OS of 24 months compared with 17 months of those in no locoregional therapy group. 2-year OS rate of these two groups was 52% and 32%, separately. Locoregional therapy (HR = 0.556; 95% CI 0.385-0.803; p = 0.002) was confirmed to be an independent prognostic factor, which could significantly improve OS of patients with metastatic IBC. For locoregional therapy group, statistical differences were observed in all subgroups stratified by the factors that were significant in univariate analysis except in the subgroups of stable disease, Charlson comorbidity index ≥3 and cerebral metastasis. Therefore, systemic therapy efficacy, Charlson comorbidity index and cerebral metastasis status appeared to be important indexes for choice of locoregional therapy in different individuals. PMID:27174789

  17. What Is Breast Cancer?

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    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  18. No Effect of NGAL/lipocalin-2 on Aggressiveness of Cancer in the MMTV-PyMT/FVB/N Mouse Model for Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Elisabeth P; Glenthøj, Andreas; Häger, Mattias;

    2012-01-01

    NGAL/lipocalin-2 is a siderophore-binding protein that is highly expressed in several cancers. It is suggested to confer a proliferative advantage to cancer cells. Its expression has been correlated with aggressiveness of breast cancer as determined both in patients and in mouse breast cancer...... models. This was recently confirmed in two mouse models of spontaneous breast cancer in wild-type and lipocalin-2-deficient mice. We used a similar strategy using a different mouse strain. Lipocalin-2-deficient mice and mouse mammary tumor virus-polyoma middle T antigen (MMTV-PyMT) mice were crossed...... expression in tumors of MMTV-PyMT-positive and wild-type mice was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and by immunohistochemistry. The expression of the lipocalin-2 receptors 24p3R and megalin and of Mmp-9, transferrin receptor, and Bdh2 (a producer of a mammalian siderophore) were quantitated by real...

  19. LIMT is a novel metastasis inhibiting lncRNA suppressed by EGF and downregulated in aggressive breast cancer.

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    Sas-Chen, Aldema; Aure, Miriam R; Leibovich, Limor; Carvalho, Silvia; Enuka, Yehoshua; Körner, Cindy; Polycarpou-Schwarz, Maria; Lavi, Sara; Nevo, Nava; Kuznetsov, Yuri; Yuan, Justin; Azuaje, Francisco; Ulitsky, Igor; Diederichs, Sven; Wiemann, Stefan; Yakhini, Zohar; Kristensen, Vessela N; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Yarden, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as regulators of gene expression in pathogenesis, including cancer. Recently, lncRNAs have been implicated in progression of specific subtypes of breast cancer. One aggressive, basal-like subtype associates with increased EGFR signaling, while another, the HER2-enriched subtype, engages a kin of EGFR Based on the premise that EGFR-regulated lncRNAs might control the aggressiveness of basal-like tumors, we identified multiple EGFR-inducible lncRNAs in basal-like normal cells and overlaid them with the transcriptomes of over 3,000 breast cancer patients. This led to the identification of 11 prognostic lncRNAs. Functional analyses of this group uncovered LINC01089 (here renamed LncRNA Inhibiting Metastasis; LIMT), a highly conserved lncRNA, which is depleted in basal-like and in HER2-positive tumors, and the low expression of which predicts poor patient prognosis. Interestingly, EGF rapidly downregulates LIMT expression by enhancing histone deacetylation at the respective promoter. We also find that LIMT inhibits extracellular matrix invasion of mammary cells in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo In conclusion, lncRNAs dynamically regulated by growth factors might act as novel drivers of cancer progression and serve as prognostic biomarkers. PMID:27485121

  20. Loss of WIF-1 and Wnt5a expression is related to aggressiveness of sporadic breast cancer in Tunisian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifa, Fatma; Karray-Chouayekh, Sondes; Jmal, Emna; Jmaa, Zeineb Ben; Khabir, Abdelmajid; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahia; Frikha, Mounir; Daoud, Jamel; Mokdad-Gargouri, Raja

    2013-06-01

    Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is common in various human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of 2 members of the Wnt family (WIF-1 and Wnt5a) in sporadic and hereditary breast cancer tissues. WIF-1, is a secreted antagonist that binds Wnt ligands, and therefore inhibits the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Wnt5a is one of the members of the noncanonical Wnt family that mainly acts through calcium signaling pathway. The expression of WIF-1 was analyzed by methylation-specific PCR and RT-PCR, and the level of Wnt5a ligand was quantified by RT-QPCR in breast cancer tissues. Methylation of WIF-1 was detected in 71.3 % and 81.8 % of sporadic and hereditary cases, respectively. Aberrant methylation of WIF-1 was associated with advanced TNM stage and triple negative cases in sporadic breast carcinoma (p=0.001 and p=0.037, respectively). In hereditary cases, methylation of WIF-1 correlated with age at diagnosis (p=0.027) and p53 status (p=0.035). Regarding patients' survival, WIF-1 methylated promoter conferred a reduced overall survival rate, and particularly in a group of patients with advanced TNM stage (p log rank=0.006). Furthermore, aberrant CpG methylation of the WIF-1 promoter was significantly associated with transcriptional silencing of this tumor suppressor gene in sporadic breast cancer tissues (p=0.036). On the other hand, in sporadic tumor tissues, the level of Wnt5a mRNA was significantly lower compared to normal tissues (p=0.031) and lower still in those showing more aggressive behavior, suggesting that Wnt5a, a ligand involved in the noncanonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway, could act as a tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer. PMID:23417837

  1. Breast cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Thomas W.; Naylor, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumors are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to th...

  2. Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell-specific apoptosis and suppresses tumor aggressiveness in cultured human breast cancer cells

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    Suhail Mahmoud M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gum resins obtained from trees of the Burseraceae family (Boswellia sp. are important ingredients in incense and perfumes. Extracts prepared from Boswellia sp. gum resins have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic effects. Essential oil prepared by distillation of the gum resin traditionally used for aromatic therapy has also been shown to have tumor cell-specific anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. The objective of this study was to optimize conditions for preparing Boswellea sacra essential oil with the highest biological activity in inducing tumor cell-specific cytotoxicity and suppressing aggressive tumor phenotypes in human breast cancer cells. Methods Boswellia sacra essential oil was prepared from Omani Hougari grade resins through hydrodistillation at 78 or 100 oC for 12 hours. Chemical compositions were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; and total boswellic acids contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Boswellia sacra essential oil-mediated cell viability and death were studied in established human breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF7, MDA-MB-231 and an immortalized normal human breast cell line (MCF10-2A. Apoptosis was assayed by genomic DNA fragmentation. Anti-invasive and anti-multicellular tumor properties were evaluated by cellular network and spheroid formation models, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to study Boswellia sacra essential oil-regulated proteins involved in apoptosis, signaling pathways, and cell cycle regulation. Results More abundant high molecular weight compounds, including boswellic acids, were present in Boswellia sacra essential oil prepared at 100 oC hydrodistillation. All three human breast cancer cell lines were sensitive to essential oil treatment with reduced cell viability and elevated cell death, whereas the immortalized normal human breast cell line was more resistant to essential oil

  3. miR-134 in extracellular vesicles reduces triple-negative breast cancer aggression and increases drug sensitivity.

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    O'Brien, Keith; Lowry, Michelle C; Corcoran, Claire; Martinez, Vanesa G; Daly, Melissa; Rani, Sweta; Gallagher, William M; Radomski, Marek W; MacLeod, Roderick A F; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2015-10-20

    Exosomes (EVs) have relevance in cell-to-cell communication carrying pro-tumorigenic factors that participate in oncogenesis and drug resistance and are proposed to have potential as self-delivery systems. Advancing on our studies of EVs in triple-negative breast cancer, here we more comprehensively analysed isogenic cell line variants and their EV populations, tissues cell line variants and their EV populations, as well as breast tumour and normal tissues. Profiling 384 miRNAs showed EV miRNA content to be highly representative of their cells of origin. miRNAs most substantially down-regulated in aggressive cells and their EVs originated from 14q32. Analysis of miR-134, the most substantially down-regulated miRNA, supported its clinical relevance in breast tumours compared to matched normal breast tissue. Functional studies indicated that miR-134 controls STAT5B which, in turn, controls Hsp90. miR-134 delivered by direct transfection into Hs578Ts(i)8 cells (in which it was greatly down-regulated) reduced STAT5B, Hsp90, and Bcl-2 levels, reduced cellular proliferation, and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Delivery via miR-134-enriched EVs also reduced STAT5B and Hsp90, reduced cellular migration and invasion, and enhanced sensitivity to anti-Hsp90 drugs. While the differing effects achieved by transfection or EV delivery are likely to be, at least partly, due to specific amounts of miR-134 delivered by these routes, these EV-based studies identified miRNA-134 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic for breast cancer. PMID:26416415

  4. Breast Cancer

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    ... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...

  5. Anti-MUC1 Antibody in Nipple Aspirate Fluids Correlates with Tumor Aggressiveness in Breast Cancer: A Feasibility Study

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    Ebru Menekse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies against MUC1 are found in circulation of breast cancer (BC patients. We hypothesized that anti-MUC1 antibodies might be present in even a higher concentration in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF and could be used to predict aggressiveness of BC. Serum and NAF samples were collected from high risk lesions, BC, and healthy contralateral breasts. ELISA was used to measure the amount of IgG, IgM, and IgA against a tumor-specific MUC1 peptide derived from the extracellular tandem repeat domain of MUC1. Tumor characteristics were recorded prospectively; 120 NAF samples were obtained from a total of 77 women in the study. There was no significant difference of anti-MUC1 antibody levels compared to BC with other lesions. Anti-MUC1 IgG level in NAF was higher in triple negative tumors (P=0.02; serum anti-MUC1 IgG levels were significantly higher in patients with ER (− tumor and recurrent disease (P=0.01; NAF anti-MUC1 IgA levels were significantly higher in patients with LVI and Her2-neu (+ tumors (P<0.05. These results show that NAF could be a reliable biomarker to predict tumor aggressiveness in BC. A larger study will be needed to confirm these data and to investigate the potential of anti-MUC1 antibodies in NAF and serum to predict disease outcome.

  6. Thrombin stimulation of inflammatory breast cancer cells leads to aggressiveness via the EGFR-PAR1-Pak1 pathway.

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    Ohshiro, Kazufumi; Bui-Nguyen, Tri M; Divijendra Natha, Reddy S; Schwartz, Arnold M; Levine, Paul; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-12-27

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) accounts for a small fraction but aggressive form of epithelial breast cancer. Although the role of thrombin in cancer is beginning to be unfolded, its impact on the biology of IBC remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish the role of thrombin on the invasiveness of IBC cells. The IBC SUM149 cell line was treated with thrombin in the absence or presence of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor erlotinib and protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) inhibitor. The effects of pharmacological inhibitors on the ability of thrombin to stimulate the growth rate and invasiveness were examined. We found that the inhibition of putative cellular targets of thrombin action suppresses both the growth and invasiveness of SUM149 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, thrombin-mediated increased invasion of SUM149 cells was routed through EGFR phosphorylation, and in turn, stimulation of the p21-activated kinase (Pak1) activity in a EGFR-sensitive manner. Interestingly, thrombin-mediated activation of the Pak1 pathway stimulation was blocked by erlotinib and PAR1 inhibitor. For proof-of-principle studies, we found immunohistochemical evidence of Pak1 activation as well as expression of PAR1 in IBC. Thrombin utilizes EGFR to relay signals promoting SUM149 cell growth and invasion via the Pak1 pathway. The study provides the rationale for future therapeutic approaches in mitigating the invasive nature of IBC by targeting Pak1 and/or EGFR.

  7. Small Molecule Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors of ErbB2/HER2/Neu in the Treatment of Aggressive Breast Cancer

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    Richard L. Schroeder

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 is a member of the erbB class of tyrosine kinase receptors. These proteins are normally expressed at the surface of healthy cells and play critical roles in the signal transduction cascade in a myriad of biochemical pathways responsible for cell growth and differentiation. However, it is widely known that amplification and subsequent overexpression of the HER2 encoding oncogene results in unregulated cell proliferation in an aggressive form of breast cancer known as HER2-positive breast cancer. Existing therapies such as trastuzumab (Herceptin® and lapatinib (Tyverb/Tykerb®, a monoclonal antibody inhibitor and a dual EGFR/HER2 kinase inhibitor, respectively, are currently used in the treatment of HER2-positive cancers, although issues with high recurrence and acquired resistance still remain. Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors provide attractive therapeutic targets, as they are able to block cell signaling associated with many of the proposed mechanisms for HER2 resistance. In this regard we aim to present a review on the available HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors, as well as those currently in development. The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as sequential or combinatorial therapeutic strategies with other HER family inhibitors is also discussed.

  8. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks ... the risk. Women who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested ...

  9. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  10. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... perform breast self-exams each month. However, the importance of self-exams for detecting breast cancer is ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  11. Disseminated breast cancer cells acquire a highly malignant and aggressive metastatic phenotype during metastatic latency in the bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn G Marsden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs in the bone marrow may exist in a dormant state for extended periods of time, maintaining the ability to proliferate upon activation, engraft at new sites, and form detectable metastases. However, understanding of the behavior and biology of dormant breast cancer cells in the bone marrow niche remains limited, as well as their potential involvement in tumor recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of dormant disseminated breast cancer cells (prior to activation in the bone marrow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total bone marrow, isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. As a negative control, bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. The resultant tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Mouse lungs, livers, and kidneys were analyzed by H+E staining to detect metastases. The injection of bone marrow isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, resulted in large tumor formation in the mammary fat pad 2 months post-injection. However, the injection of bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice did not result in tumor formation in the mammary fat pad. The DTC-derived tumors exhibited accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. The resultant tumors and the majority of metastatic lesions within the lung and liver exhibited a mesenchymal-like phenotype. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Dormant DTCs within the bone marrow are highly malignant upon injection into the mammary fat pad, with the accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. These results suggest the acquisition of a more aggressive phenotype of DTCs during

  12. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  13. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  14. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  15. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  16. Risk, Characteristics, and Prognosis of Breast Cancer after Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Veit-Rubin, Nikolaus; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Vinh Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Bouchardy Magnin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.

  17. Chronic oxidative stress causes estrogen-independent aggressive phenotype, and epigenetic inactivation of estrogen receptor alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingaiah, Prathap Kumar S; Ponnusamy, Logeswari; Singh, Kamaleshwar P

    2015-08-01

    The role of chronic oxidative stress in the development and aggressive growth of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer is well known; however, the mechanistic understanding is not clear. Estrogen-independent growth is one of the features of aggressive subtype of breast cancer. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxidative stress on estrogen sensitivity and expression of nuclear estrogen receptors in ER-positive breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells chronically exposed to hydrogen peroxide were used as a cell model in this study, and their growth in response to 17-β estradiol was evaluated by cell viability, cell cycle, and cell migration analysis. Results were further confirmed at molecular level by analysis of gene expressions at transcript and protein levels. Histone H3 modifications, expression of epigenetic regulatory genes, and the effect of DNA demethylation were also analyzed. Loss of growth in response to estrogen with a decrease in ERα expression was observed in MCF-7 cells adapted to chronic oxidative stress. Increases in mtTFA and NRF1 in these cells further suggested the role of mitochondria-dependent redox-sensitive growth signaling as an alternative pathway to estrogen-dependent growth. Changes in expression of epigenetic regulatory genes, levels of histone H3 modifications as well as significant restorations of both ERα expression and estrogen response by 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine further confirmed the epigenetic basis for estrogen-independent growth in these cells. In conclusion, results of this study suggest that chronic oxidative stress can convert estrogen-dependent nonaggressive breast cancer cells into estrogen-independent aggressive form potentially by epigenetic mechanism.

  18. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  19. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... click the brackets in the lower right-hand corner of the video screen. To reduce the videos, ... with breast cancer are under way. With early detection, and prompt and appropriate treatment, the outlook for ...

  20. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  1. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  2. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  4. A mouse model for triple-negative breast cancer tumor-initiating cells (TNBC-TICs) exhibits similar aggressive phenotype to the human disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) exhibit characteristics quite distinct from other kinds of breast cancer, presenting as an aggressive disease--recurring and metastasizing more often than other kinds of breast cancer, without tumor-specific treatment options and accounts for 15% of all types of breast cancer with higher percentages in premenopausal African-American and Hispanic women. The reason for this aggressive phenotype is currently the focus of intensive research. However, progress is hampered by the lack of suitable TNBC cell model systems. To understand the mechanistic basis for the aggressiveness of TNBC, we produced a stable TNBC cell line by sorting for 4T1 cells that do not express the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) or the gene for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). As a control, we produced a stable triple-positive breast cancer (TPBC) cell line by transfecting 4T1 cells with rat HER2, ER and PgR genes and sorted for cells with high expression of ER and PgR by flow cytometry and high expression of the HER2 gene by Western blot analysis. We isolated tumor-initiating cells (TICs) by sorting for CD24+/CD44high/ALDH1+ cells from TNBC (TNBC-TICs) and TPBC (TPBC-TICs) stable cell lines. Limiting dilution transplantation experiments revealed that CD24+/CD44high/ALDH1+ cells derived from TNBC (TNBC-TICs) and TPBC (TPBC-TICs) were significantly more effective at repopulating the mammary glands of naïve female BALB/c mice than CD24-/CD44-/ALDH1- cells. Implantation of the TNBC-TICs resulted in significantly larger tumors, which metastasized to the lungs to a significantly greater extent than TNBC, TPBC-TICs, TPBC or parental 4T1 cells. We further demonstrated that the increased aggressiveness of TNBC-TICs correlates with the presence of high levels of mouse twenty-five kDa heat shock protein (Hsp25/mouse HspB1) and seventy-two kDa heat shock protein (Hsp72/HspA1A). Taken together, we have developed a TNBC-TICs model system

  5. IL-1β produced by aggressive breast cancer cells is one of the factors that dictate their interactions with mesenchymal stem cells through chemokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Pauline; Bouclier, Céline; Serret, Julien; Bièche, Ivan; Brigitte, Madly; Caicedo, Andres; Sanchez, Elodie; Vacher, Sophie; Vignais, Marie-Luce; Bourin, Philippe; Geneviève, David; Molina, Franck; Jorgensen, Christian; Lazennec, Gwendal

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to understand whether the nature of breast cancer cells could modify the nature of the dialog of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with cancer cells. By treating MSCs with the conditioned medium of metastatic Estrogen-receptor (ER)-negative MDA-MB-231, or non-metastatic ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells, we observed that a number of chemokines were produced at higher levels by MSCs treated with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium (CM). MDA-MB-231 cells were able to induce NF-κB signaling in MSC cells. This was shown by the use of a NF-kB chemical inhibitor or an IκB dominant negative mutant, nuclear translocation of p65 and induction of NF-κB signature. Our results suggest that MDA-MB-231 cells exert their effects on MSCs through the secretion of IL-1β, that activates MSCs and induces the same chemokines as the MDA-MB-231CM. In addition, inhibition of IL-1β secretion in the MDA-MB-231 cells reduces the induced production of a panel of chemokines by MSCs, as well the motility of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our data suggest that aggressive breast cancer cells secrete IL-1β, which increases the production of chemokines by MSCs.

  6. Anterior gradient protein 3 is associated with less aggressive tumors and better outcome of breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obacz J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Joanna Obacz,1 Veronika Brychtova,1 Jan Podhorec,1 Pavel Fabian,2 Petr Dobes,1 Borivoj Vojtesek,1 Roman Hrstka1 1Regional Centre for Applied Molecular Oncology (RECAMO, 2Department of Pathology, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic Abstract: Anterior gradient protein (AGR 3 is a highly related homologue of pro-oncogenic AGR2 and belongs to the family of protein disulfide isomerases. Although AGR3 was found in breast, ovary, prostate, and liver cancer, it remains of yet poorly defined function in tumo-rigenesis. This study aimed to determine AGR3 expression in a cohort of 129 primary breast carcinomas and evaluate the clinical and prognostic significance of AGR3 in these tumors. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of AGR3 staining to varying degrees in 80% of analyzed specimens. The percentage of AGR3-positive cells significantly correlated with estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor (both P<0.0001 as well as low histological grade (P=0.003, and inversely correlated with the level of Ki-67 expression (P<0.0001. In the whole cohort, AGR3 expression was associated with longer progression-free survival (PFS, whereas AGR3-positive subgroup of low-histological grade tumors showed both significantly longer PFS and overall survival. In conclusion, AGR3 is associated with the level of differentiation, slowly proliferating tumors, and more favorable prognosis of breast cancer patients. Keywords: AGR3, patient survival, protein disulfide isomerase, ER-positive breast cancer, immuno­histochemistry

  7. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  8. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other less common types of breast cancer include: Medullary Mucinous Tubular Metaplastic Papillary breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer is a faster-growing type of cancer that accounts for about 1% to 5% of all breast cancers. Paget’s disease is a type of cancer that begins in ...

  9. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  10. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  11. Elevated mammaglobin (h-MAM) expression in breast cancer is associated with clinical and biological features defining a less aggressive tumour phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammaglobin (h-MAM) is expressed mainly by breast epithelial cells, and this feature has been used to detect circulating breast cancer cells and occult metastases in sentinel axillary lymph nodes of breast cancer patients. However, the biological role of mammaglobin is completely unknown. We studied 128 fresh-frozen breast cancer specimens by means of reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and quantified their h-MAM mRNA expression. This was then correlated with histological and nuclear grade, oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression, c-erb-B2 and mutant p53 expression, as well as with cellular proliferation measured by means of the Ki67 labelling index, DNA ploidy and S-phase, and finally with the presence or not of invaded axillary nodes in the mastectomy specimen. In the univariate analysis, high h-MAM expression (above the median for the whole group) correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression, diploid DNA content, low Ki67 labelling index, low nuclear grade and almost significantly (P = 0.058) with the absence of axillary nodal invasion in the mastectomy specimen. In a final, multivariate model, only progesterone receptor expression, diploid DNA content and absence of nodal invasion were found to be independently associated with high h-MAM expression. All of the features associated with mammaglobin expression reflect, without exception, a less aggressive tumour phenotype. Further studies are needed to clarify whether this is attributable to h-MAM expression itself, or to another mechanism of which mammaglobin expression forms part

  12. Downregulation of miR-92a is associated with aggressive breast cancer features and increased tumour macrophage infiltration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Nilsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression on a posttranscriptional level. These regulatory RNAs have been implicated in numerous cellular processes and are further deregulated in different cancer types, including breast cancer. MiR-92a is part of the miR-17∼92 cluster, which was first reported to be linked to tumourigenesis. However, little is known about the expression of miR-92a in breast cancer and potential associations to tumour properties. The expression of miR-92a was therefore characterized in 144 invasive breast cancer samples using in situ hybridization and related to clinico-pathological data as well as to selected key properties of the tumour stroma, including the presence of macrophages (CD68 and cancer activated fibroblasts (alpha-SMA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To measure miR-92a levels, an in situ hybridisation protocol was developed and validated using cell lines and miR-92a inhibitors. The expression in the tumour samples was objectively evaluated using digital image analysis program subtracting background activities. We found that the miR-92a expression varied between tumours and was inversely correlated to tumour grade (r = -0.276, p = 0.003 and recurrence-free survival (p = 0.008 and provided independent prognostic information in multivariate Cox analysis (HR: 0.375, CI: 0.145-0.972, p = 0.043. MiR-92a was moreover inversely correlated to the number of infiltrating macrophages in the tumour stroma (r = -0.357, p<0.001, and downregulation of miR-92a promoted cell migration (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that downregulation of miR-92a in breast cancer is linked to key epithelial and stromal properties as well as clinical outcome.

  13. Overexpression of leptin and leptin receptors in breast cancer positively correlates with clinicopathological features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Xiang-hou; GU Jun-chao; BAI Qing-yang; YU Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ Obesity has been reported to increase postmenopausal breast cancer risk by 30% to 50%, and obese breast cancer patients have been shown to present more aggressive breast cancer pathological features.

  14. Resistin and interleukin-6 exhibit racially-disparate expression in breast cancer patients, display molecular association and promote growth and aggressiveness of tumor cells through STAT3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Sachin K; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Bhardwaj, Arun; Singh, Ajay P; Tyagi, Nikhil; Marimuthu, Saravanakumar; Dyess, Donna L; Dal Zotto, Valeria; Carter, James E; Singh, Seema

    2015-05-10

    African-American (AA) women with breast cancer (BC) are diagnosed with more aggressive disease, have higher risk of recurrence and poorer prognosis as compared to Caucasian American (CA) women. Therefore, it is imperative to define the factors associated with such disparities to reduce the unequal burden of cancer. Emerging data suggest that inherent differences exist in the tumor microenvironment of AA and CA BC patients, however, its molecular bases and functional impact have remained poorly understood. Here, we conducted cytokine profiling in serum samples from AA and CA BC patients and identified resistin and IL-6 to be the most differentially-expressed cytokines with relative greater expression in AA patients. Resistin and IL-6 exhibited positive correlation in serum levels and treatment of BC cells with resistin led to enhanced production of IL-6. Moreover, resistin also enhanced the expression and phosphorylation of STAT3, and treatment of BC cells with IL-6-neutralizing antibody prior to resistin stimulation abolished STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, resistin promoted growth and aggressiveness of BC cells, and these effects were mediated through STAT3 activation. Together, these findings suggest a crucial role of resistin, IL-6 and STAT3 in BC racial disparity.

  15. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  16. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  17. The p53 pathway in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gasco, Milena; Shami, Shukri; Crook, Tim

    2002-01-01

    p53 mutation remains the most common genetic change identified in human neoplasia. In breast cancer, p53 mutation is associated with more aggressive disease and worse overall survival. The frequency of mutation in p53 is, however, lower in breast cancer than in other solid tumours. Changes, both genetic and epigenetic, have been identified in regulators of p53 activity and in some downstream transcriptional targets of p53 in breast cancers that express wild-type p53. Molecular pathological an...

  18. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  19. The Third International Inflammatory Breast Cancer Conference

    OpenAIRE

    van Golen, Kenneth L; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive and deadly form of breast cancer. Disease-specific research and conferences have been organized since 2008 with the intent to bring together experts in various disciplines. This report focus on the Third International IBC Conference held in Philadelphia on December 2012.

  20. Nuclear β-catenin and CD44 upregulation characterize invasive cell populations in non-aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In breast cancer cells, the metastatic cell state is strongly correlated to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the CD44+/CD24- stem cell phenotype. However, the MCF-7 cell line, which has a luminal epithelial-like phenotype and lacks a CD44+/CD24- subpopulation, has rare cell populations with higher Matrigel invasive ability. Thus, what are the potentially important differences between invasive and non-invasive breast cancer cells, and are the differences related to EMT or CD44/CD24 expression? Throughout the sequential selection process using Matrigel, we obtained MCF-7-14 cells of opposite migratory and invasive capabilities from MCF-7 cells. Comparative analysis of epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression was performed between parental MCF-7, selected MCF-7-14, and aggressive mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, using microarray expression profiles of these cells, we selected differentially expressed genes for their invasive potential, and performed pathway and network analysis to identify a set of interesting genes, which were evaluated by RT-PCR, flow cytometry or function-blocking antibody treatment. MCF-7-14 cells had enhanced migratory and invasive ability compared with MCF-7 cells. Although MCF-7-14 cells, similar to MCF-7 cells, expressed E-cadherin but neither vimentin nor fibronectin, β-catenin was expressed not only on the cell membrane but also in the nucleus. Furthermore, using gene expression profiles of MCF-7, MCF-7-14 and MDA-MB-231 cells, we demonstrated that MCF-7-14 cells have alterations in signaling pathways regulating cell migration and identified a set of genes (PIK3R1, SOCS2, BMP7, CD44 and CD24). Interestingly, MCF-7-14 and its invasive clone CL6 cells displayed increased CD44 expression and downregulated CD24 expression compared with MCF-7 cells. Anti-CD44 antibody treatment significantly decreased cell migration and invasion in both MCF-7-14 and MCF-7-14 CL6 cells as well as MDA-MB-231 cells. MCF-7-14 cells are a

  1. Biomarkers to Distinguish Aggressive Cancers from Non-aggressive or Non-progressing Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distinguishing aggressive cancers from non-aggressive or non-progressing cancers is an issue of both clinical and public health importance particularly for those cancers with an available screening test. With respect to breast cancer, mammographic screening has been shown in randomized trials to reduce breast cancer mortality, but given the limitations of its sensitivity and specificity some breast cancers are missed by screening. These so called interval detected breast cancers diagnosed between regular screenings are known to have a more aggressive clinical profile. In addition, of those cancers detected by mammography some are indolent while others are more likely to recur despite treatment. The pilot study proposed herein is highly responsive to the EDRN supplement titled “Biomarkers to Distinguish Aggressive Cancers from Nonaggressive or Non-progressing Cancers” in that it addresses both of the research objectives related to these issues outlined in the notice for this supplement: Aim 1: To identify biomarkers in tumor tissue related to risk of interval detected vs. mammography screen detected breast cancer focusing on early stage invasive disease. We will compare gene expression profiles using the whole genome-cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension and Ligation (DASL) assay of 50 screen detected cancers to those of 50 interval detected cancers. Through this approach we will advance our understanding of the molecular characteristics of interval vs. screen detected breast cancers and discover novel biomarkers that distinguish between them. Aim 2: To identify biomarkers in tumor tissue related to risk of cancer recurrence among patients with screen detected early stage invasive breast cancer. Using the DASL assay we will compare gene expression profiles from screen detected early stage breast cancer that either recurred within five years or never recurred within five years. These two groups of patients will be matched on multiple factors including

  2. Breast Cancer In Women Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  3. Secretory breast cancer. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, A; Maggi, S; Bersigotti, L; Lazzarin, G; Nuccetelli, E; Amanti, C

    2013-04-01

    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor initially described in children but occurring equally in adult population. This unusual breast cancer subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases. However, surgery is still considered the most appropriate treatment for this pathology. We describe the case of a 50 -year-old woman who has undergone a breast conservative surgery for a little tumor, preoperatively diagnosticated by a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a well differentiated infiltrating carcinoma.

  4. Types of Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about this condition, see Inflammatory Breast Cancer . Paget disease of the nipple This type of breast cancer ... carcinoma (this is a type of metaplastic carcinoma) Medullary carcinoma Mucinous (or colloid) carcinoma Papillary carcinoma Tubular ...

  5. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  6. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention en español Cáncer de mama You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear ...

  7. Stratification and therapeutic potential of PML in metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martín, Natalia; Piva, Marco; Urosevic, Jelena; Aldaz, Paula; Sutherland, James D; Fernández-Ruiz, Sonia; Arreal, Leire; Torrano, Verónica; Cortazar, Ana R; Planet, Evarist; Guiu, Marc; Radosevic-Robin, Nina; Garcia, Stephane; Macías, Iratxe; Salvador, Fernando; Domenici, Giacomo; Rueda, Oscar M; Zabala-Letona, Amaia; Arruabarrena-Aristorena, Amaia; Zúñiga-García, Patricia; Caro-Maldonado, Alfredo; Valcárcel-Jiménez, Lorea; Sánchez-Mosquera, Pilar; Varela-Rey, Marta; Martínez-Chantar, Maria Luz; Anguita, Juan; Ibrahim, Yasir H; Scaltriti, Maurizio; Lawrie, Charles H; Aransay, Ana M; Iovanna, Juan L; Baselga, Jose; Caldas, Carlos; Barrio, Rosa; Serra, Violeta; Vivanco, Maria dM; Matheu, Ander; Gomis, Roger R; Carracedo, Arkaitz

    2016-01-01

    Patient stratification has been instrumental for the success of targeted therapies in breast cancer. However, the molecular basis of metastatic breast cancer and its therapeutic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood. Here we show that PML is a novel target in aggressive breast cancer. The acquisition of aggressiveness and metastatic features in breast tumours is accompanied by the elevated PML expression and enhanced sensitivity to its inhibition. Interestingly, we find that STAT3 is responsible, at least in part, for the transcriptional upregulation of PML in breast cancer. Moreover, PML targeting hampers breast cancer initiation and metastatic seeding. Mechanistically, this biological activity relies on the regulation of the stem cell gene SOX9 through interaction of PML with its promoter region. Altogether, we identify a novel pathway sustaining breast cancer aggressiveness that can be therapeutically exploited in combination with PML-based stratification. PMID:27553708

  8. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uden, D J P; van Laarhoven, H W M; Westenberg, A H; de Wilt, J H W; Blanken-Peeters, C F J M

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimodal therapeutic approach has significantly improved patient survival. However, the median overall survival among women with IBC is still poor. By elucidating the biologic characteristics of IBC, new treatment options may become available. We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language literature on IBC through computerized literature searches. The objective of the current review is to present an overview of the literature related to the biology, imaging and multidisciplinary treatment of inflammatory breast cancer.

  9. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  10. 18F-FDG PET/CT in the early prediction of pathological response in aggressive subtypes of breast cancer: review of the literature and recommendations for use in clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) might be helpful in avoiding the toxicity of ineffective chemotherapy and allowing refinement of treatment. We conducted a review of the literature regarding the applicability of 18F-FDG PET/CT to the prediction of an early pathological response in different subgroups of breast cancer. Clinical research in this field has intensified in the last few years. Early studies by various groups have shown the potential of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the early assessment of response to NAC. However, interim PET/CT in breast cancer has not yet gained wide acceptance compared to its use in other settings such as lymphomas. This is in part due to a lack of consensus that early evaluation of response can be used to direct change in therapy in the neoadjuvant breast cancer setting, and only limited data showing that response-adaptive therapy leads to improved outcomes. However, one major element that has hampered the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in directing neoadjuvant therapy is its evaluation in populations with mixed subtypes of breast cancer. However, major improvements have occurred in recent years. Pilot studies have highlighted the need for considering breast cancer subtype and the type of treatment, and have offered criteria for the use of PET/CT for the early prediction of response in specific settings. 18F-FDG PET/CT has considerable potential for the early prediction of pathological complete response to NAC in aggressive subtypes such as triple-negative or HER2-positive breast cancers. The results of a multicentre trial that used early metabolic response on 18F-FDG PET/CT as a means to select poor responders to adapt neoadjuvant treatment have recently been published. Other trials are ongoing or being planned. (orig.)

  11. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the early prediction of pathological response in aggressive subtypes of breast cancer: review of the literature and recommendations for use in clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groheux, David [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris Cedex 10 (France); INSERM/CNRS UMR944/7212, University Paris-Diderot, PRES Paris Cite, Paris (France); Mankoff, David [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia (United States); Espie, Marc [INSERM/CNRS UMR944/7212, University Paris-Diderot, PRES Paris Cite, Paris (France); Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Breast Diseases Centre, Paris (France); Hindie, Elif [University of Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haut-Leveque Hospital, Bordeaux (France)

    2016-05-15

    Early assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) might be helpful in avoiding the toxicity of ineffective chemotherapy and allowing refinement of treatment. We conducted a review of the literature regarding the applicability of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to the prediction of an early pathological response in different subgroups of breast cancer. Clinical research in this field has intensified in the last few years. Early studies by various groups have shown the potential of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the early assessment of response to NAC. However, interim PET/CT in breast cancer has not yet gained wide acceptance compared to its use in other settings such as lymphomas. This is in part due to a lack of consensus that early evaluation of response can be used to direct change in therapy in the neoadjuvant breast cancer setting, and only limited data showing that response-adaptive therapy leads to improved outcomes. However, one major element that has hampered the use of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in directing neoadjuvant therapy is its evaluation in populations with mixed subtypes of breast cancer. However, major improvements have occurred in recent years. Pilot studies have highlighted the need for considering breast cancer subtype and the type of treatment, and have offered criteria for the use of PET/CT for the early prediction of response in specific settings. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT has considerable potential for the early prediction of pathological complete response to NAC in aggressive subtypes such as triple-negative or HER2-positive breast cancers. The results of a multicentre trial that used early metabolic response on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT as a means to select poor responders to adapt neoadjuvant treatment have recently been published. Other trials are ongoing or being planned. (orig.)

  12. IL-1β produced by aggressive breast cancer cells is one of the factors that dictate their interactions with mesenchymal stem cells through chemokine production

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Pauline; Bouclier, Céline; Serret, Julien; Bièche, Ivan; Brigitte, Madly; Caicedo, Andres; Sanchez, Elodie; Vacher, Sophie; Vignais, Marie-Luce; Bourin, Philippe; Geneviève, David; Molina, Franck; Jorgensen, Christian; Lazennec, Gwendal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to understand whether the nature of breast cancer cells could modify the nature of the dialog of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with cancer cells. By treating MSCs with the conditioned medium of metastatic Estrogen-receptor (ER)-negative MDA-MB-231, or non-metastatic ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells, we observed that a number of chemokines were produced at higher levels by MSCs treated with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium (CM). MDA-MB-231 cells were able to induce N...

  13. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  14. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  15. Association between mammographic density and basal-like and luminal A breast cancer subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Troester, Melissa A.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer overall, but few studies have examined the association between mammographic density and specific subtypes of breast cancer, especially aggressive basal-like breast cancers. Because basal-like breast cancers are less frequently screen-detected, it is important to understand how mammographic density relates to risk of basal-like breast cancer. Methods We estimated associations between mammographic density and breast can...

  16. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  17. Familial breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Phipps, R. F.; Perry, P M

    1988-01-01

    Familial breast cancer is important because of all the known risk factors associated with developing the disease. The one with the most predictability is a positive family history. It is also important because a family history causes anxiety in the families concerned, and young women will often ask their chance of developing the disease. This form of breast cancer accounts for 10% of causes and has factors that distinguish it from the sporadic variety. Relatives of familial breast cancer pati...

  18. Breast cancer (metastatic)

    OpenAIRE

    Stebbing, Justin; Slater, Sarah; Slevin, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    Median survival from metastatic breast cancer is 12 months without treatment, but young people can survive up to 20 years with the disease, whereas in other metastatic cancers this would be considered very unusual.

  19. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  20. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer: consensus statement for standardized diagnosis and treatment. Annals of Oncology 2011; 22(3):515-523. [PubMed Abstract] Fouad TM, Kogawa T, Reuben JM, Ueno NT. The role of inflammation in inflammatory breast cancer. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 2014; 816:53-73. [PubMed ...

  1. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer.

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  3. Triple negative breast cancer: an Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Murtaza Akhtar, Subhrajit Dasgupta, Murtuza Rangwala Department of Surgery, NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in the world. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a recently identified biological variant with aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis. Data of hormonal status from the Indian population is scarce due to financial constraints in performing immunohistochemistry evaluation. The present study aims to prospectively analyze receptor status of all breast cancer patients and identify TNBC and compare their clinical profile and short term survival with other non-TNBC group. Materials and methods: All cytologically and histopathologically confirmed cases of carcinoma breast were prospectively enrolled. In a longitudinal study at tertiary care hospital in central India based on the hormonal status, they were further divided into TNBC and other groups. Comparison of risk factors, clinical profile and short-term survival was carried out. Results: A total 85 patients were enrolled and of them 37 (43.7% were TNBC. On comparing risk factors ie, age, age at menarche, total reproductive age, age at first child birth, and menopausal status – no statistical significance was observed between the TNBC and non-TNBC groups. But on comparison of clinical profile TNBC tumors were significantly large with majority of patients presenting as locally advanced breast cancer (83%. No statistical difference was observed in axillary lymph node status between two groups. TNBC tumors were histologically more aggressive (grade 3 compared to other groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in short term overall survival but all three deaths were observed in the TNBC group only and two local recurrences after surgery were observed in the TNBC group. Conclusion: TNBC forms a large proportion of carcinoma breast patients in a central

  4. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  5. Circulating tumor cells in newly diagnosed inflammatory breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mego, Michal; Giordano, Antonio; De Giorgi, Ugo; Masuda, Hiroko; Hsu, Limin; Giuliano, Mario; Fouad, Tamer M.; Dawood, Shaheenah; Ueno, Naoto T.; Valero, Vicente; Andreopoulou, Eleni; Alvarez, Ricardo H.; Wendy A Woodward; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are an independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is one of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer. The prognostic value of a CTC count in newly diagnosed IBC has not been established. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of a baseline CTC count in patients with newly diagnosed IBC. Methods This retrosp...

  6. HER2 status and breast cancer therapy: recent advances

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Debu

    2009-01-01

    The phenotype imparted by expression of the HER2 gene in breast cancer and progress made in modifying the disease's natural history through pharmacologically modulating its function has served as a paradigm for rationally targeted therapy and personalized medicine. About 20-25% of breast cancer cases are associated with HER2 gene amplification and overexpression, creating a distinct subtype of breast cancer that is associated with more aggressive behaviour, higher likelihood of overall and br...

  7. MMP1, MMP9, and COX2 Expressions in Promonocytes Are Induced by Breast Cancer Cells and Correlate with Collagen Degradation, Transformation-Like Morphological Changes in MCF-10A Acini, and Tumor Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimal-Ramírez, G. K.; Espinoza-Sánchez, N. A.; Utrera-Barillas, D.; Benítez-Bribiesca, L.; Velázquez, J. R.; Arriaga-Pizano, L. A.; Monroy-García, A.; Reyes-Maldonado, E.; Domínguez-López, M. L.; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Fuentes-Pananá, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated immune cells often lack immune effector activities, and instead they present protumoral functions. To understand how tumors promote this immunological switch, invasive and noninvasive breast cancer cell (BRC) lines were cocultured with a promonocytic cell line in a Matrigel-based 3D system. We hypothesized that if communication exists between tumor and immune cells, coculturing would result in augmented expression of genes associated with tumor malignancy. Upregulation of proteases MMP1 and MMP9 and inflammatory COX2 genes was found likely in response to soluble factors. Interestingly, changes were more apparent in promonocytes and correlated with the aggressiveness of the BRC line. Increased gene expression was confirmed by collagen degradation assays and immunocytochemistry of prostaglandin 2, a product of COX2 activity. Untransformed MCF-10A cells were then used as a sensor of soluble factors with transformation-like capabilities, finding that acini formed in the presence of supernatants of the highly aggressive BRC/promonocyte cocultures often exhibited total loss of the normal architecture. These data support that tumor cells can modify immune cell gene expression and tumor aggressiveness may importantly reside in this capacity. Modeling interactions in the tumor stroma will allow the identification of genes useful as cancer prognostic markers and therapy targets. PMID:23762835

  8. MMP1, MMP9, and COX2 Expressions in Promonocytes Are Induced by Breast Cancer Cells and Correlate with Collagen Degradation, Transformation-Like Morphological Changes in MCF-10A Acini, and Tumor Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Chimal-Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-associated immune cells often lack immune effector activities, and instead they present protumoral functions. To understand how tumors promote this immunological switch, invasive and noninvasive breast cancer cell (BRC lines were cocultured with a promonocytic cell line in a Matrigel-based 3D system. We hypothesized that if communication exists between tumor and immune cells, coculturing would result in augmented expression of genes associated with tumor malignancy. Upregulation of proteases MMP1 and MMP9 and inflammatory COX2 genes was found likely in response to soluble factors. Interestingly, changes were more apparent in promonocytes and correlated with the aggressiveness of the BRC line. Increased gene expression was confirmed by collagen degradation assays and immunocytochemistry of prostaglandin 2, a product of COX2 activity. Untransformed MCF-10A cells were then used as a sensor of soluble factors with transformation-like capabilities, finding that acini formed in the presence of supernatants of the highly aggressive BRC/promonocyte cocultures often exhibited total loss of the normal architecture. These data support that tumor cells can modify immune cell gene expression and tumor aggressiveness may importantly reside in this capacity. Modeling interactions in the tumor stroma will allow the identification of genes useful as cancer prognostic markers and therapy targets.

  9. Methylxanthines and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, C; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R N

    1987-10-15

    We investigated the relationship between methylxanthine consumption and breast cancer using data from a case-control study which included 1,510 cases and 1,882 controls identified through a nation-wide breast cancer screening program. There was no evidence of a positive association between methylxanthine consumption and risk of breast cancer. In fact, there was some suggestion of a negative association, particularly in women diagnosed after age 50. In addition, there was no evidence of increased risk with past or recent methylxanthine consumption, or with the consumption of caffeine or specific beverages, most notably brewed or instant caffeinated coffee and tea. PMID:3117709

  10. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  11. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the risk of breast cancer: Having an abortion. Making diet changes such as eating less fat or more ... does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Reviewers and Updates Editorial Boards ...

  12. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthesis Complementary Therapy Types of Complementary Therapy Acupuncture Art Therapy Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided Imagery Hypnosis Massage Therapy Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Yoga and Breast Cancer Getting ...

  13. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...

  14. The breast cancer conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    For decades, rates of breast cancer have been going up faster in rich countries than in poor ones. Scientists are beginning to understand more about its causes but unanswered questions remain. Patrick Adams reports.

  15. Women and breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Lippman, M E

    1987-01-01

    One in every 12 women will develop breast cancer; the incidence increases with age, dietary fat intake, caloric intake, height, and weight. The 10-year survival rate of breast cancer patients who refuse therapy is virtually zero. Segmental mastectomy plus radiation and lumpectomy, combined with systemic (adjuvant)chemotherapy, are alternatives under investigation at the National Institutes of Health that may increase the survival rate by decreasing metastatic complications.

  16. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Lawson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  17. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  18. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  19. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P;

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...

  20. Breast cancer statistics and markers

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika Siva Donepudi; Kasturi Kondapalli; Seelam Jeevan Amos; Pavithra Venkanteshan

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO...

  1. Breast cancer in adolescent and young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewefel, Hanan; Salhia, Bodour

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among adolescent and young adult (AYA) women, accounting for approximately 14% of all AYA cancer diagnoses and 7% of all breast cancer. Breast cancer in AYA women is believed to represent a more biologically aggressive disease, but aside from commonly known hereditary predispositions, little is still known about the underlying molecular genetic causes. This review examines the current trends of breast cancer in AYA women as they relate to clinical, social, genetic, and molecular pathologic characteristics. We highlight existing trends, treatment and imaging approaches, and health burdens as they relate to breast cancer in AYA women and provide a discussion on ways to help improve the overall management of this breast cancer cohort. PMID:25034440

  2. Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  3. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk to your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  4. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... inhibitor, can do an even better job of preventing breast cancer than the SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors stop an enzyme ...

  5. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Theresa; Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action, the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, and the optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention are summarized.

  6. "Targeting" triple-negative breast cancer: the lessons learned from BRCA1-associated breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Rita

    2011-04-01

    Breast cancer has long been recognized as a heterogeneous entity, with distinct subsets characterized by differences in tumor biology and response to therapy. With the advent of molecular profiling, we have gained a further appreciation of the heterogeneity of this complex disease. While the last decade has seen advances in the treatment of hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/erb-B2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers, outcomes for women with estrogen receptor (ER)-, progesterone receptor (PR)-, and HER2-negative-or "triple-negative"-breast cancer (TNBC) remain poor. A better understanding of the shared biology of BRCA1-associated breast cancer and sporadic TNBC holds much promise for changing the outlook for women with this aggressive disease. This review focuses on our current understanding of the clinicopathological features of TNBC, therapeutic options and ongoing research efforts.

  7. Cathepsin b: a potential prognostic marker for inflammatory breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo-Medved Dora; Shaalan Mohamed A; El-Shinawi Mohamed; Mohamed Mona M; Nouh Mohamed A; Khaled Hussein M; Sloane Bonnie F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive form of breast cancer. In non-IBC, the cysteine protease cathepsin B (CTSB) is known to be involved in cancer progression and invasion; however, very little is known about its role in IBC. Methods In this study, we enrolled 23 IBC and 27 non-IBC patients. All patient tissues used for analysis were from untreated patients. Using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, we assessed the levels of expression of CTSB in IB...

  8. A Comparison of Cholesterol Uptake and Storage in Inflammatory and Noninflammatory Breast Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Breonna J. Martin; van Golen, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Although there are many subtypes of breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is arguably the deadliest. Research over the past decade has demonstrated that IBC is a distinct entity from other forms of breast cancer. Important risk factors that have been associated with the development of aggressive breast cancers, such as IBC, include obesity and diet, which are evident in the United States, where the overconsumption of high-fat foods continues to contribute to obesity in the nation. H...

  9. Breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabanek, P

    1988-01-01

    Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...

  10. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  11. [Breast cancer update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armuss, A

    2014-06-01

    Breast Cancer, with a life-time prevalence of about 10-12%, is the most common cancer in women. In 2013, the actress Angelina Jolie, by announcing she had a double mastectomy, increased the awareness of a family history of breast and ovarian cancer and the treatment available to reduce the inherited risks. In Germany, each year about 25 out of 100,000 women (age-standardized according to European Standard) die of the disease. The number of newly diagnosed cases is about 72,000 per year. In comparison, many other countries record higher levels. Investing in the development of new therapies has therefore been key for many years. Prevention programs, such as the mammography screening are publicly touted, in both cases with the aim to reduce breast cancer mortality. To accurately assess the risk in underwriting, it is important to know about the risk factors for the development of breast cancer, as well as the latest advances in prevention, therapy and their prognostic classification. The following article provides an overview. PMID:25000626

  12. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jennrich; Claus Schulte-Uebbing

    2016-01-01

    Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includ...

  13. [Molecular classification of bladder cancer. Possible similarities to breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, R M; Fritz, V; Stöhr, R; Hartmann, A

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic decisions for breast cancer are increasingly becoming based on subtype-specific gene expression tests. For bladder cancer very similar subtypes have been identified by genome-wide mRNA analysis, which as for breast cancer differ with respect to the prognosis and response to therapy on the basis of their hormone dependency. At the DNA level, however, the type of mutations and their frequencies within the subtypes are strikingly different between bladder and breast cancers. It will be interesting to see whether possible driver mutations can serve as therapeutic targets in both indications. In contrast, the apparent hormone dependency of a substantial number of bladder carcinomas suggests that hormonal and anti-hormonal treatment can be valid therapy options similar to breast cancer. Moreover, gender-specific differences with respect to the incidence and aggressiveness of male compared to female bladder cancers can be explained by hormonal effects. Together with forthcoming immunomodulatory therapies these multiple therapy options raise and give new hope to efficiently combat this aggressive disease. PMID:26780243

  14. Resolving breast cancer heterogeneity by searching reliable protein cancer biomarkers in the breast fluid secretome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major goals in cancer research is to find and evaluate the early presence of biomarkers in human fluids and tissues. To resolve the complex cell heterogeneity of a tumor mass, it will be useful to characterize the intricate biomolecular composition of tumor microenvironment (the so called cancer secretome), validating secreted proteins as early biomarkers of cancer initiation and progression. This approach is not broadly applicable because of the paucity of well validated and FDA-approved biomarkers and because most of the candidate biomarkers are mainly organ-specific rather than tumor-specific. For these reasons, there is an urgent need to identify and validate a panel of biomarker combinations for early detection of human tumors. This is especially important for breast cancer, the cancer spread most worldwide among women. It is well known that patients with early diagnosed breast cancer live longer, require less extensive treatment and fare better than patients with more aggressive and/or advanced disease. In the frame of searching breast cancer biomarkers (especially using nipple aspirate fluid mirroring breast microenvironment), studies have highlighted an optimal combination of well-known biomarkers: uPA + PAI-1 + TF. When individually investigated they did not show perfect accuracy in predicting the presence of breast cancer, whereas the triple combination has been demonstrated to be highly predictive of pre-cancer and/or cancerous conditions, approaching 97-100% accuracy. Despite the heterogeneous composition of breast cancer and the difficulties to find specific breast cancer biomolecules, the noninvasive analysis of the nipple aspirate fluid secretome may significantly improve the discovery of promising biomarkers, helping also the differentiation among benign and invasive breast diseases, opening new frontiers in early oncoproteomics

  15. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  16. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie;

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight into the t......Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  17. Breast Cancer and Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Bardwell, Wayne A; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom in breast cancer patients and survivors. A rather nebulous concept, fatigue overlaps with sleepiness and depressed mood. In this chapter, we cover methods for assessing fatigue; describe the occurrence of fatigue before, during and after initial treatment; present possible underlying mechanisms of fatigue; and, enumerate approaches to its treatment.

  18. Nonlinear Growth Kinetics of Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Implications for Cancer Stem Cell Targeted Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xinfeng; Johnson, Sara; Liu, Shou; Kanojia, Deepak; Yue, Wei; Singn, Udai; Wang, Qian; Wang, Qi; Nie, Qing; Chen, Hexin

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in primary breast cancer tissues and cell lines. The CSC population varies widely among cancerous tissues and cell lines, and is often associated with aggressive breast cancers. Despite of intensive research, how the CSC population is regulated within a tumor is still not well understood so far. In this paper, we present a mathematical model to explore the growth kinetics of CSC population both in vitro and in vivo. Our mathematical models and sup...

  19. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-23

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  20. Breast cancer surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173

  1. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  2. NIH scientists identify molecular link between metabolism and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A protein associated with conditions of metabolic imbalance, such as diabetes and obesity, may play a role in the development of aggressive forms of breast cancer, according to new findings by researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of th

  3. TP53 genetic alterations in Arab breast cancer patients: Novel mutations, pattern and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    AL-QASEM, ABEER J.; Toulimat, Mohamed; Abdelmoneim M Eldali; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Yousef, Nujoud; Al-Daihan, Sooad K; Al-Tassan, Nada; Al-Tweigeri, Taher; ABOUSSEKHRA, ABDELILAH

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health concern. The incidence and mortality of breast cancer varies significantly in ethnically and geographically distinct populations. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) breast cancer has shown an increase in incidence and is characterized by early onset and aggressiveness. The tumor suppressor TP53 gene is a crucial genetic factor that plays a significant role in breast carcinogenesis. Furthermore, studies have shown a correlation between certain ...

  4. Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC): clues for targeted therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Sandra V.; Robertson, Fredika M; Pei, Jianming; Aburto-Chumpitaz, Lucy; Mu, Zhaomei; Chu, Khoi; Alpaugh, R. K.; Yong HUANG; Cao, Yu; Ye, Zaiming; Cai, Kathy Q.; Boley, Kimberly M; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.; Devarajan, Karthik; Addya, Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive type of advanced breast cancer characterized by rapid proliferation, early metastatic development and poor prognosis. Since there are few preclinical models of IBC, there is a general lack of understanding of the complexity of the disease. Recently, we have developed a new model of IBC derived from the pleural effusion of a woman with metastatic secondary IBC. FC-IBC02 cells are triple negative and form clusters (mammospheres) in suspens...

  5. Embryonic morphogen nodal promotes breast cancer growth and progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela F Quail

    Full Text Available Breast cancers expressing human embryonic stem cell (hESC-associated genes are more likely to progress than well-differentiated cancers and are thus associated with poor patient prognosis. Elevated proliferation and evasion of growth control are similarly associated with disease progression, and are classical hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we demonstrate that the hESC-associated factor Nodal promotes breast cancer growth. Specifically, we show that Nodal is elevated in aggressive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578t human breast cancer cell lines, compared to poorly aggressive MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines. Nodal knockdown in aggressive breast cancer cells via shRNA reduces tumour incidence and significantly blunts tumour growth at primary sites. In vitro, using Trypan Blue exclusion assays, Western blot analysis of phosphorylated histone H3 and cleaved caspase-9, and real time RT-PCR analysis of BAX and BCL2 gene expression, we demonstrate that Nodal promotes expansion of breast cancer cells, likely via a combinatorial mechanism involving increased proliferation and decreased apopotosis. In an experimental model of metastasis using beta-glucuronidase (GUSB-deficient NOD/SCID/mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII mice, we show that although Nodal is not required for the formation of small (<100 cells micrometastases at secondary sites, it supports an elevated proliferation:apoptosis ratio (Ki67:TUNEL in micrometastatic lesions. Indeed, at longer time points (8 weeks, we determined that Nodal is necessary for the subsequent development of macrometastatic lesions. Our findings demonstrate that Nodal supports tumour growth at primary and secondary sites by increasing the ratio of proliferation:apoptosis in breast cancer cells. As Nodal expression is relatively limited to embryonic systems and cancer, this study establishes Nodal as a potential tumour-specific target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  6. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone ... be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), ...

  7. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  8. Inflammatory breast cancer in a previously treated case of breast cancer: a diagnostic dilemma for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravind, Rahul; Kumar, Priyadarshini Venkatram; Prabaharan, Sasikala

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a relatively rare and aggressive subtype, accounting for nearly 2.5% of all diagnosed breast cancers worldwide. It is usually characterised by an acute onset, rapid clinical progression, poor prognosis and micrometastasis at the time of presentation. Prompt recognition of clinical symptoms and identification of warning signs are vital in diagnosing and appropriately treating a patient with IBC. PMID:27060073

  9. Tamoxifen Resistance in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Minsun

    2012-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a central component of the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer as a partial agonist of ER. It has been clinically used for the last 30 years and is currently available as a chemopreventive agent in women with high risk for breast cancer. The most challenging issue with tamoxifen use is the development of resistance in an initially responsive breast tumor. This review summarizes the roles of ER as the therapeutic target of tamoxifen in cancer treatment, clin...

  10. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Anna H.; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort stud...

  11. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  12. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  13. Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159031.html Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer Discovery might eventually lead to better ... tissue samples from 170 people with a less aggressive type of brain tumor. This led to the ...

  14. Extensive Surgery Best for an Aggressive Brain Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159415.html Extensive Surgery Best for an Aggressive Brain Cancer: Study Although larger procedure carries more ... News) -- When it comes to battling a particularly aggressive form of brain tumor, more extensive surgeries may ...

  15. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  16. Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kemp, W.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    At present, the risk of a woman developing invasive breast cancer during her life is about 1 in 8. This makes breast cancer the most prevalent type of cancer in women worldwide. As the risk of dying from breast cancer for a woman is about 1 in 36, early breast cancer detection and effective treatmen

  17. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  18. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Norman F.; Lisa J Martin; Bronskill, Michael; Martin J. Yaffe; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon

    2010-01-01

    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associat...

  19. Vascular and Cognitive Assessments in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy After Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-27

    Cognitive/Functional Effects; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  20. Cancer/testis antigens: novel tools for discerning aggressive and non-aggressive prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takumi Shiraishi; Robert H Getzenberg; Prakash Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the 1980s has dramatically altered and benefited the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer.However,the widespread use of PSA testing has resulted in overdetection and overtreatment of potentially indolent disease.Thus,a clinical dilemma today in the management of prostate cancer is to discern men with aggressive disease who need definitive treatment from men whose disease are not lethal.Although several serum and tissue biomarkers have been evaluated during the past decade,improved markers are still needed to enhance the accuracy,with which patients at risk can be discerned and treated more aggressively.The cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of proteins that are restricted to the testis in the normal adult,but are aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers.Because of their restricted expression pattern,the CTAs represent attractive biomarker candidates for cancer diagnosis/prognosis.Furthermore,several studies to date have reported the differential expression of CTAs in prostate cancer.Here,we review recent developments that demonstrate the potential of the CTAs as biomarkers to discern the aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer.

  1. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  2. Circadian clocks and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeman, Victoria; Jack L. Williams; Meng, Qing-Jun; Streuli, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks respond to environmental time cues to coordinate 24-hour oscillations in almost every tissue of the body. In the breast, circadian clocks regulate the rhythmic expression of numerous genes. Disrupted expression of circadian genes can alter breast biology and may promote cancer. Here we overview circadian mechanisms, and the connection between the molecular clock and breast biology. We describe how disruption of circadian genes contributes to cancer via multiple mechanisms, an...

  3. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt w...

  4. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  5. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  6. How to target estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefort, H; Glondu, M; Sahla, M E; Platet, N; Garcia, M

    2003-06-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers generally have a better prognosis and are often responsive to anti-estrogen therapy, which is the first example of a successful therapy targeted on a specific protein, the ER. Unfortunately ER-negative breast cancers are more aggressive and unresponsive to anti-estrogens. Other targeted therapies are thus urgently needed, based on breast cancer oncogene inhibition or suppressor gene activation as far as molecular studies have demonstrated the alteration of expression, or structure of these genes in human breast cancer. Using the MDA-MB.231 human breast cancer cell line as a model of ER-negative breast cancers, we are investigating two of these approaches in our laboratory. Our first approach was to transfect the ER or various ER-deleted variants into an ER-negative cell line in an attempt to recover anti-estrogen responsiveness. The unliganded receptor, and surprisingly estradiol, were both found to inhibit tumor growth and invasiveness in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms of these inhibitions in ER-negative cancer cells are being studied, in an attempt to target the ER sequence responsible for such inhibition in these cancer cells. Another strategy is trying to inhibit the activity or expression of an oncogene specifically overexpressed in most breast cancers. This approach was recently shown by others to be efficient in breast cancer therapy with HER2-Neu oncogene amplification using Herceptin. Without excluding other molecular putative targets, we have focused our research on cathepsin D as a potential target, since it is often overexpressed in aggressive human breast cancers, including ER-negative tumors, and rarely associated with HER2-Neu amplification. Our first results obtained in vitro on cell lines and in vivo in tumor xenografts in nude mice, illustrate that the mode of action of cathepsin D in breast cancer is useful to guide the development of these therapies. In the past 20 years we have learned that the

  7. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  8. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per;

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  9. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  10. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  11. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  12. HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer - a Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Sultana, Sabira; Ahmed, Saeed; Akhtar, Naheed; Tariq, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of among all cancers with increased incidence, high mortality rate, and high economic and social costs. The the most common type of cancer among females worldwide, breast cancer is actually the uncontrolled proliferation of cells which attain malignancy. Recently it has shown that breast cancer contributes 11% among all types of cancer diagnosed globally on an annual basis and it is one of the leading causes of death among women. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) is a receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 normally involved in the proliferation and division of breast cells. In some abnormal cases the HER2 gene does not work correctly and makes too many copies of itself. HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancers constitute an aggressive type of breast cancer and tend to grow faster and are more likely to spread. However, therapies that specifically target HER2, such as Herceptin® (traztuzumab), are very effective. HER2 targeted therapies, has significantly improved the therapeutic outcome for patients with HER2 positive breast cancer. PMID:27221828

  13. Breast cancer in Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women.To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 and June 30th 2009 patients presenting with breast lumps were assessed by clinical examination, imaging studies and pathological examination. Relevant clinical and pathological were recorded prospectively data on all patients with microscopically proven breast cancer. The cancers were graded according to the modified Bloom-Richardson system. Tissue immunoperoxidase stains for oestrogen, progesterone receptors and c-erb2 oncogene were performed with commercially prepared antigens and reagents.Nineteen thousand four hundred and twenty – three (19,423) patients were seen during the study period. There were 330 (1.7%) patients with histologically proven breast cancer. The mean age was 49.1 years. A palpable breast lump was detected in 248 patients (75.2%). Two hundred and eighty –one patients (85.2%) presented with Stages III and IV , 271 (82.1%) invasive and 230 ( 85.2%) high grade carcinomas. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 32 and 9 cases respectively. Her2 protein was positive in 11 cases. In Kumasi, as in other parts of Ghana, breast cancer affects mostly young pre-menopausal who present with advanced disease. The cancers have unfavourable prognostic features and are unlikely to respond to hormonal therapy. (au)

  14. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991

  15. Inflammatory breast cancer: high incidence of detection of mixed human cytomegalovirus genotypes associated with disease pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    MonaMostafaMohamed; MohamedEl-Shinawi; M.AkramNouh; RobertJ.Schneider; ElsayedTarekElsayed

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is highly metastatic, aggressive and fatal form of breast cancer. Patients presenting with IBC are characterized by a high number of axillary lymph node metastases. Recently, we found that IBC carcinoma tissues contain significantly higher levels of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA compared to other breast cancer tissues, that may regulate cell signaling pathways. In fact, HCMV pathogenesis and clinical outcome can be statistically associated with multiple HCM...

  16. International expert panel on inflammatory breast cancer: consensus statement for standardized diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    S Dawood; Merajver, S. D.; Viens, P.; Vermeulen, P B; Swain, S. M.; Buchholz, T. A.; Dirix, L Y; Levine, P. H.; Lucci, A.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Robertson, F. M.; Woodward, W. A.; W. T. Yang; Ueno, N T; Cristofanilli, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) represents the most aggressive presentation of breast cancer. Women diagnosed with IBC typically have a poorer prognosis compared with those diagnosed with non-IBC tumors. Recommendations and guidelines published to date on the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of women with breast cancer have focused primarily on non-IBC tumors. Establishing a minimum standard for clinical diagnosis and treatment of IBC is needed.

  17. Inflammatory Breast Cancer: High Incidence of Detection of Mixed Human Cytomegalovirus Genotypes Associated with Disease Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Hossam Taha; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Nouh, M. Akram; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Elsayed, Elsayed Tarek; Schneider, Robert J.; Mohamed, Mona Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a highly metastatic, aggressive, and fatal form of breast cancer. Patients presenting with IBC are characterized by a high number of axillary lymph node metastases. Recently, we found that IBC carcinoma tissues contain significantly higher levels of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA compared to other breast cancer tissues that may regulate cell signaling pathways. In fact, HCMV pathogenesis and clinical outcome can be statistically associated with multiple H...

  18. [Radiotherapy of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin, C; Barillot, I; Azria, D; Belkacémi, Y; Bollet, M; Chauvet, B; Cowen, D; Cutuli, B; Fourquet, A; Hannoun-Lévi, J M; Leblanc, M; Mahé, M A

    2016-09-01

    In breast cancer, radiotherapy is an essential component of the treatment. After conservative surgery for an infiltrating carcinoma, radiotherapy must be systematically performed, regardless of the characteristics of the disease, because it decreases the rate of local recurrence and by this way, specific mortality. Partial breast irradiation could not be proposed routinely but only in very selected and informed patients. For ductal carcinoma in situ, adjuvant radiotherapy must be also systematically performed after lumpectomy. After mastectomy, chest wall irradiation is required for pT3-T4 tumours and if there is an axillary nodal involvement, whatever the number of involved lymph nodes. After neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy, in case of pN0 disease, chest wall irradiation is recommended if there is a clinically or radiologically T3-T4 or node positive disease before chemotherapy. Axillary irradiation is recommended only if there is no axillary surgical dissection and a positive sentinel lymph node. Supra and infra-clavicular irradiation is advised in case of positive axillary nodes. Internal mammary irradiation must be discussed case by case, according to the benefit/risk ratio (cardiac toxicity). Dose to the chest wall or the breast must be between 45-50Gy with a conventional fractionation. A boost dose over the tumour bed is required if the patient is younger than 60 years old. Hypofractionation (42.5 Gy in 16 fractions, or 41.6 Gy en 13 or 40 Gy en 15) is possible after tumorectomy and if a nodal irradiation is not mandatory. Delineation of the breast, the chest wall and the nodal areas are based on clinical and radiological evaluations. 3D-conformal irradiation is the recommended technique, intensity-modulated radiotherapy must be proposed only in case of specific clinical situations. Respiratory gating could be useful to decrease the cardiac dose. Concomitant administration of chemotherapy in unadvised, but hormonal treatment could be start with

  19. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  20. Epigenetics and Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An T. Vo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several of the active compounds in foods, poisons, drugs, and industrial chemicals may, by epigenetic mechanisms, increase or decrease the risk of breast cancers. Enzymes that are involved in DNA methylation and histone modifications have been shown to be altered in several types of breast and other cancers resulting in abnormal patterns of methylation and/or acetylation. Hypermethylation at the CpG islands found in estrogen response element (ERE promoters occurs in conjunction with ligand-bonded alpha subunit estrogen receptor (Erα dimers wherein the ligand ERα dimer complex acts as a transcription factor and binds to the ERE promoter. Ligands could be 17-β-estradiol (E2, phytoestrogens, heterocyclic amines, and many other identified food additives and heavy metals. The dimer recruits DNA methyltransferases which catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM to 5′-cytosine on CpG islands. Other enzymes are recruited to the region by ligand-ERα dimers which activate DNA demethylases to act simultaneously to increase gene expression of protooncogenes and growth-promoting genes. Ligand-ERα dimers also recruit histone acetyltransferase to the ERE promoter region. Histone demethylases such as JMJD2B and histone methyltransferases are enzymes which demethylate lysine residues on histones H3 and/or H4. This makes the chromatin accessible for transcription factors and enzymes.

  1. Prognostic Value of Cancer Stem Cells Markers in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Collina, Francesca; Di Bonito, Maurizio; Li Bergolis, Valeria; De Laurentiis, Michelino; Vitagliano, Carlo; Cerrone, Margherita; Nuzzo, Francesco; Cantile, Monica; Botti, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a significant clinical relevance of being associated with a shorter median time to relapse and death and does not respond to endocrine therapy or other available targeted agents. Increased aggressiveness of this tumor, as well as resistance to standard drug therapies, may be associated with the presence of stem cell populations within the tumor. Several stemness markers have been described for the various histological subtypes of breast cancer, such as...

  2. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  3. Molecular imaging of HER2-positive breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capala, Jacek; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    HER2 overexpression is correlated with aggressive tumor behavior and poor clinical outcome. Therefore, HER2 has become an important prognostic and predictive factor, as well as a target for molecular therapies. The article reviews recent advances in molecular imaging of HER2 that could facilitate...... individual approaches to targeted therapy of HER2-positive breast cancers....

  4. [Management of breast cancer in a woman with breast implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacle, S; Lifrange, E; Nizet, J-L

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer, currently one woman on eight, also concerns patients who underwent augmentation surgery. Breast implants have already been the subject of numerous publications concerning the risk of inducing breast cancer or of delaying its diagnosis; however, no significant causal relationship has been established. The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic consequences when breast cancer is identified in a patient with breast implants.

  5. Neoadjuvant treatment for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Semiglazov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available linical trials have shown that the status of the women achieving complete pathomorphological repression (CPR of a tumor is characterized by significantly improved survival as compared to that of those who have not to an equal degree. The achievement of CPR as an intermediate marker for improved survival is chiefly observed in women with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer (BC: triple-negative and HER-2-positive. In patients with the latter subtype, addition of trastuzumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy doubles the rate of CPR and correlates with higher survival rates. The performed clinical trials have established that neoadjuvant endocrine therapy is the most suitable treatment for patients with steroid hormone receptor overexpression. Whether it may be used in combination with targeted (anti-HER-2 therapy for estrogen and HER-2 coexpression is being investigated. Neoadjuvant therapy for suitable BC stages can accelerate the assessment of novel medications through identification of predictive biological markers for response (CPR in particular. Although standard neoadjuvant therapy gives an obvious benefit to patients with CPR, other patients with the so-called residual disease are at high recurrence risk.

  6. RECQL4 helicase has oncogenic potential in sporadic breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Arvind; Agarwal, Devika; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek Ma; Lu, Huiming; Croteau, Deborah L; Moseley, Paul; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Green, Andrew R; Ball, Graham; Rakha, Emad A; Chan, Stephen Yt; Ellis, Ian O; Wang, Lisa L; Zhao, Yongliang; Balajee, Adayabalam S; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2016-03-01

    RECQL4 helicase is a molecular motor that unwinds DNA, a process essential during DNA replication and DNA repair. Germ-line mutations in RECQL4 cause type II Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), characterized by a premature ageing phenotype and cancer predisposition. RECQL4 is widely considered to be a tumour suppressor, although its role in human breast cancer is largely unknown. As the RECQL4 gene is localized to chromosome 8q24, a site frequently amplified in sporadic breast cancers, we hypothesized that it may play an oncogenic role in breast tumourigenesis. To address this, we analysed large cohorts for gene copy number changes (n = 1977), mRNA expression (n = 1977) and protein level (n = 1902). Breast cancer incidence was also explored in 58 patients with type II RTS. DNA replication dynamics and chemosensitivity was evaluated in RECQL4-depleted breast cancer cells in vitro. Amplification or gain in gene copy number (30.6%), high-level mRNA expression (51%) and high levels of protein (23%) significantly associated with aggressive tumour behaviour, including lymph node positivity, larger tumour size, HER2 overexpression, ER-negativity, triple-negative phenotypes and poor survival. RECQL4 depletion impaired the DNA replication rate and increased chemosensitivity in cultured breast cancer cells. Thus, although recognized as a 'safe guardian of the genome', our data provide compelling evidence that RECQL4 is tumour promoting in established breast cancers. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Quality indicators for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poortmans, Philip; Aznar, Marianne; Bartelink, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer has considerably changed over the years, from simple simulator-based 2-dimensional techniques to sophisticated image-guided individualized treatments, with maximally protected normal structures. This has led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of breast...

  8. Male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottini, Laura; Palli, Domenico; Rizzo, Sergio; Federico, Mario; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Male breast cancer (MaleBC) is a rare disease, accounting for development; low-penetrance gene mutations (i.e. CHEK-2) are more common but involve a lower risk increase. About 90% of all male breast tumors have proved to be invasive ductal carcinomas, expressing high levels of hormone receptors with evident therapeutic returns. The most common clinical sign of BC onset in men is a painless palpable retroareolar lump, which should be evaluated by means of mammography, ultrasonography and core biopsy or fine needle aspiration (FNA). To date, there are no published data from prospective randomized trials supporting a specific therapeutic approach in MaleBC. Tumor size together with the number of axillary nodes involved are the main prognostic factors and should guide the treatment choice. Locoregional approaches include surgery and radiotherapy (RT), depending upon the initial clinical presentation. When systemic treatment (adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic) is delivered, the choice between hormonal and or chemotherapy (CT) should depend upon the clinical and biological features, according to the FBC management guidelines. However great caution is required because of high rates of age-related comorbidities. PMID:19427229

  9. Mammographic screening for breast cancer: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Warwick; Peters, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, BreastScreen Australia celebrated 20 years of mammographic screening for breast cancer in Australia. There has been a reduction in mortality from breast cancer over the last two decades, coincident with mammographic screening. However, there are concerns that mammographic screening may result in overdiagnosis of breast cancer and that the reduction in mortality from breast cancer is the result of better treatment rather than screening. This article reviews the evidence on which mammo...

  10. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trials is available from the NCI website . Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Breast Cancer Treatment of locally advanced ... NIH). NIH is the federal government’s center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an ...

  12. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  13. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jennrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includes various well-documented pathomechanisms. In the sense of primary and secondary prevention, the cancer-triggering potential of aluminium and its use in anti-perspirant deodorants must be re-evaluated. For the same reason the access to a targeted diagnosis and treatment of aluminium loading must be facilitated.

  14. Dormancy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banys M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Malgorzata Banys,1,2 Andreas D Hartkopf,1 Natalia Krawczyk,1 Tatjana Kaiser,1 Franziska Meier-Stiegen,1 Tanja Fehm,1 Hans Neubauer11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg, Hamburg, GermanyAbstract: Tumor dormancy describes a prolonged quiescent state in which tumor cells are present, but disease progression is not yet clinically apparent. Breast cancer is especially known for long asymptomatic periods, up to 25 years, with no evidence of the disease, followed by a relapse. Factors that determine the cell's decision to enter a dormant state and that control its duration remain unclear. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding how tumor cells circulating in the blood interact and extravasate into secondary sites and which factors might determine whether these cells survive, remain dormant, or become macrometastases. The mechanisms of tumor cell dormancy are still not clear. Two different hypotheses are currently discussed: tumor cells persist either by completely withdrawing from the cell cycle or by continuing to proliferate at a slow rate that is counterbalanced by cell death. Because dormant disseminated tumor cells may be the founders of metastasis, one hypothesis is that dormant tumor cells, or at least a fraction of them, share stem cell-like characteristics that may be responsible for their long half-lives and their suggested resistance to standard chemotherapy. Therefore, knowledge of the biology of tumor cell dormancy may be the basis from which to develop innovative targeted therapies to control or eliminate this tumor cell fraction. In this review, we discuss biological mechanisms and clinical implications of tumor dormancy in breast cancer patients.Keywords: tumor dormancy, disseminated tumor cell, circulating tumor cell, targeted therapy

  15. Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BRCA mutations, including prostate cancer , pancreatic cancer , and testicular cancer . Because breast cancer in men can be caused ... Breast Cancer In Men? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer ...

  16. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  17. Update on inflammatory breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lerebours, Florence; Bieche, Ivan; Lidereau, Rosette

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is both the least frequent and the most severe form of epithelial breast cancer. The diagnosis is based on clinical inflammatory signs and is reinforced by pathological findings. Significant progress has been made in the management of IBC in the past 20 years. Yet survival among IBC patients is still only one-half that among patients with non-IBC. Identification of the molecular determinants of IBC would probably lead to more specific treatments and to improve...

  18. Endobronchial metastasis in breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Albertini, R E; Ekberg, N L

    1980-01-01

    Ten patients with endobronchial metastasis from primary breast cancer were found among 1200 fibreoptic bronchoscopies. Six of these patients had radiological signs suggesting bronchial obstruction. The diagnosis was verified in nine cases by means of bronchoscopic biopsy or cytology and in one by thoracotomy. Endobronchial metastasis should be considered when symptoms or chest films suggest endobronchial disease in a patient with a history of breast cancer.

  19. Leptomeningeal metastases in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Brian J.; Kesari, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) metastasis from breast cancer may be characterized as either parenchymal brain metastasis (BM) or leptomeningeal (LM) metastasis. BM are much more common (about 80% of all CNS metastases), and have been more extensively studied than LM. CNS metastasis in breast cancer has been associated with reduced overall survival, with the shortest survival generally observed in cases of LM. Here, we review the epidemiology, prognostic factors, diagnostic tools, currently avai...

  20. Soy Isoflavones Supplementation in Treating Women at High Risk For or With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-06

    BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  1. Preventing Overdiagnosis and Overtreatment: Just the Next Step in the Evolution of Breast Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Rita A; Wong, Jasmine M; Esserman, Laura J

    2015-06-01

    The problem of overdiagnosis and overtreatment has been highlighted in breast cancer and many other cancer types, most notably prostate cancer. Addressing this problem presents an opportunity to continue the evolution of breast cancer care. Advances in technology, such as molecular subtyping, have increased the understanding of breast cancer biology and the range of associated behavior, and have provided tools that allow greater personalization of treatment. This article identifies 3 areas of breast cancer care where opportunity currently exists to refine management strategies and help decrease overtreatment and overdiagnosis: the use of adjuvant-external beam radiation in invasive breast cancer, the application of aggressive treatment for all ductal carcinoma in situ, and the authors' approach to breast cancer screening. Personalizing treatment based on patient and tumor characteristics holds promise for minimizing harms and maximizing benefits. This approach will allow continual improvement and ultimately result in providing the right treatment for each patient.

  2. Inflammatory breast cancer: A decade of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Nascimento, Vinicius C; Rajan, Ruben; Redfern, Andrew; Saunders, Christobel

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an aggressive and rare form of breast cancer. At present, there are no established diagnostic, radiological, pathological or molecular diagnostic criteria for this entity. The aim of this study was to examine the patterns of presentation, treatment and outcomes of IBC in this institution over the course of a decade. This is a retrospective observational study using data from the Royal Perth Hospital from January 2001 to December 2010. Our results identified 57 women with IBC, representing 1.9% of all new breast cancer presentations. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple negative tumors were overrepresented (41% and 18%, respectively). Forty-four (77%) patients had early disease at diagnosis, of whom 35 underwent surgery and 16 are relapse-free. All six patients achieving complete pathological response were relapse-free in contrast to 11 (38%) with lesser responses at a median follow-up of 59 months. Median survival in 13 patients with metastatic disease at diagnosis was 21.7 months, with two patients still in remission. Clearly, this small but important group continues to offer management challenges and warrants ongoing study, including better molecular and pathological profiling of tumors to allow improved diagnostic clarity and more effective targeted therapy. PMID:26899402

  3. Genomic profiling of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anjita; Singh, Alok Kumar; Maurya, Sanjeev Kumar; Rai, Rajani; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Mohan; Shukla, Hari S

    2009-05-01

    Genome study provides significant changes in the advancement of molecular diagnosis and treatment in Breast cancer. Several recent critical advances and high-throughput techniques identified the genomic trouble and dramatically accelerated the pace of research in preventing and curing this malignancy. Tumor-suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes, DNA-repair genes, carcinogen-metabolism genes are critically involved in progression of breast cancer. We reviewed imperative finding in breast genetics, ongoing work to segregate further susceptible genes, and preliminary studies on molecular profiling.

  4. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...

  5. Markers of subtypes in inflammatory breast cancer studied by immunohistochemistry: Prominent expression of P-cadherin

    OpenAIRE

    Viens Patrice; Xerri Luc; Esterni Benjamin; Ben Arab Saïda; Charafe-Jauffret Emmanuelle; Mrad Karima; Labidi Intidhar S; Ben Hamida Azza; Bertucci François; Birnbaum Daniel; Jacquemier Jocelyne

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a distinct and aggressive form of locally-advanced breast cancer with high metastatic potential. In Tunisia, IBC is associated with a high death rate. Among the major molecular subtypes, basal breast carcinomas are poorly differentiated, have metastatic potential and poor prognosis, but respond relatively well to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of molecular subtypes in IBC and identify factors that m...

  6. EXPRESSION OF SURVIVIN AND E-CADHERIN IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-feng; LIU Ji-hong; WANG Li-fen; FENG XIAO-Mei; YAO Ji-hong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family, and is involved in the regulation of cell division. E-cadherin functionally belongs to transmembrane glycoproteins family, it is responsible for intercellular junction mechanism that is crucial for the mutual association of vertebrate cells. These genes are thought to be associated with cancer aggression. This study was to investigate the relationship between surviving gene, E-cadherin expression and invasion clinicopathological features of breast cancer. Methods: The expression of surviving gene and E-cadherin were detected by SP immunohistochemical technique in tissues of 66 breast cancer, 20 breast fibroadenoma and 20 adjacent breast tissue. Results: The positive rate of surviving gene expression in breast cancer was 42.2%, significantly higher (P=0.025) than those in breast fibroadenoma (35.0%), and adjacent breast tissue (10.0%). The positive rate of E-cadherin in the groups of adjacent breast tissue, breast fibroadenoma and breast cancer were 100%, 100% and 42.4%, there was significant difference between the group of benign and malignant tumor (P=0.005). The positive rate of surviving in breast cancer with local lymph node metastasis was significant higher than that in breast cancer without lymph node metastasis (P=0.01), and E-cadherin in breast cancer with local lymph node metastasis was significant lower than that without lymph node metastasis (P=o.o1). There was no significant difference among the groups of pathological types and TNM stages in the expression of surviving (P=0.966 & P=0.856), but there was significant difference in the expression of E-cadherin among these groups (P=0.01 & P=0.023). Conclusion: The loss or decrease of E-cadherin expression may promote the exfoliation of cancerous cells from original tissues, and surviving gene may promote the viability of the exfoliated cancer cells and the formation of new metastasis focus. These 2 factors cooperate with each other

  7. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  8. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  9. Drug transporters in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Stenvang, Jan; Moreira, José;

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances that have taken place in the past decade, including the development of novel molecular targeted agents, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of cancer treatment. In breast cancer, anthracyclines and taxanes are the two main chemotherapeutic options used on a routine...

  10. DNA methylation markers for breast cancer prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dedeurwaerder, Sarah; Fuks, François

    2012-01-01

    Currently, most of the prognostic and predictive gene expression signatures emerging for breast cancer concern the tumor component. In Dedeurwaerder et al. we show that DNA methylation profiling of breast tumors is a particularly sensitive means of capturing features of the immune component of breast tumors. Most importantly, correlation is observed between T-cell marker genes and breast cancer clinical outcome.

  11. Lung cancer after treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorigan, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Howell, Anthony; Thatcher, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Improvements in the outcome of breast cancer mean that more patients are living longer and are, therefore, at risk of developing a second malignancy. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of the risk of lung cancer arising in patients previously treated for early stage breast cancer. We review data on the effect of treatment factors (ie, surgery type, radiotherapy technique, and adjuvant chemotherapy) and patient factors (ie, age and smoking) on the risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer. The evidence suggests that older radiotherapy techniques were associated with a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer in the ipsilateral lung, but there is no clear evidence of an increased risk with modern techniques. Smoking is an important risk factor, and increases the risk of lung cancer in those receiving radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not significantly associated with an increased risk. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with time elapsed since treatment, but any effect of age at treatment is unclear.

  12. Aromatase Inhibitors and Other Compounds for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  13. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  14. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  15. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can breast cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes breast cancer? Many risk factors ... Genes have instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  16. Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer SusceptibilitySuzanne. E. FentonUS EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  18. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Targeted therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy ... fatigue, and pain at the injection site. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs and anti-androgens LHRH ...

  19. Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159781.html Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise Moderate physical activity can ease stress that impairs ... to memory problems among breast cancer survivors, but exercise can help, according to new research. "We found ...

  20. IMMUNOPHENOTYPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INFLAMMATORY BREAST CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. Berishvili; N. N. Tupitsyn; K. P. Laktionov

    2014-01-01

    The investigation enrolled 31 patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) treated at the N. N. Blokhin Cancer Research Center from 2006 to 2008. IBC is diagnosed on the basis of signs of rapid progression, such as localized or generalized breast induration, red- ness and edema. IBC accounts for less than 5% of all diagnosed breast cancers and is the most lethal form of primary breast cancer. We studied tumor markers of the immunophenotype of IBC and levels and subpopulations of immunocompe...

  1. Sexuality After Breast Cancer: Need for Guideline

    OpenAIRE

    Vaziri, Sh; Lotfi Kashani, F

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical experiences have revealed that patients with breast cancer experience various sexual problems following their treatment. Breast cancer negatively impacts the sexual life of the afflicted couples, and as a traumatic event can influence women’s psychosexual functioning and intimate relationship. This review focuses on sexuality after breast cancer and on a growing need for bio-psycho-social guidelines for breast cancer treatment. Methods This study aims to review the literat...

  2. Physical activity and breast cancer survival

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunleye, Adeyemi A; Holmes, Michelle D.

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity improves quality of life after a breast cancer diagnosis, and a beneficial effect on survival would be particularly welcome. Four observational studies have now reported decreased total mortality among physically active women with breast cancer; the two largest have also reported decreased breast cancer specific mortality. The estrogen pathway and the insulin pathway are two potential mechanisms by which physical activity could affect breast cancer survival. Randomized trial...

  3. Dilemma of Pregnant Ladies with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zainur Rashid Z; S Sulaiha S A; Lew K G; Nurhana S

    2009-01-01

    Gestational breast cancer (GBC) or pregnancyassociatedbreast cancer was defined as breast cancerdiagnosed during pregnancy and within 1 year ofdelivery. Breast cancer is the second commonest cancerafter cervical seen in pregnancy and lactation.Nevertheless, the incidence is low and accounts forapproximately 1 in 3000 of pregnancies. A delay indiagnosis is common and 70% to 89% of patients withoperable primary lesions already have positive axillarylymph nodes. Breast cancer identified during p...

  4. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in one breast only) diagnosed after age 50 Grandmother with breast cancer diagnosed at age 75 Get ... breast cancer diagnosed at age 45 and paternal grandmother (father’s mother) with breast cancer diagnosed at age ...

  5. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures. (orig.)

  6. Breast metastases from rectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia; FANG Yu; LI Ang; LI Fei

    2011-01-01

    Metastases to the breast from extramammary neoplasms are very rare, constituting 2.7% of all malignant breast tumours. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the breast is primary breast cancer. Rectal cancer metastasizing to the breast is extremely rare. We report a case of aggressive rectal carcinoma with metastasis to the breast.

  7. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  8. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  9. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  10. Cdx2 polymorphism affects the activities of vitamin D receptor in human breast cancer cell lines and human breast carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pulito

    Full Text Available Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR. It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954 human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative. These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression.

  11. Cdx2 polymorphism affects the activities of vitamin D receptor in human breast cancer cell lines and human breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulito, Claudio; Terrenato, Irene; Di Benedetto, Anna; Korita, Etleva; Goeman, Frauke; Sacconi, Andrea; Biagioni, Francesca; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Falvo, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954) human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative). These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression. PMID:25849303

  12. Measuring relative utilization of aerobic glycolysis in breast cancer cells by positional isotopic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da-Qing; Freund, Dana M; Harris, Benjamin R E; Wang, Defeng; Cleary, Margot P; Hegeman, Adrian D

    2016-09-01

    The ability of cancer cells to produce lactate through aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of cancer. In this study, we established a positional isotopic labeling and LC-MS-based method that can specifically measure the conversion of glucose to lactate in glycolysis. We show that the rate of aerobic glycolysis is closely correlated with glucose uptake and lactate production in breast cancer cells. We also found that the production of [3-(13) C]lactate is significantly elevated in metastatic breast cancer cells and in early stage metastatic mammary tumors in mice. Our findings may enable the development of a biomarker for the diagnosis of aggressive breast cancer. PMID:27531463

  13. Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Krishnappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer (PSBBC is a rare clinical entity. The reported incidence ranges between 0.3% and 12%. There are several controversial issues regarding PSBBC pertaining to the diagnostic criteria, nomenclature, and management policies. Materials and Methods: Fourteen cases of PSBBC treated between 2001 to 2010 at our institute were retrospectively analysed in regards to demographic data, management and follow up. Results: PSBBC constituted 0.19% of total breast cancer patients at our institute. Age ranged from 28 to 78 years. PSBBC were detected by clinical examination in eight cases and by mammography in six cases. Twelve patients underwent bilateral modified radical mastectomy, one had unilateral mastectomy on one side and breast conservation on the other side and one patient has bilateral breast conservation. Majority of patients belonged to stage 2 and stage 3. All patients were found to have invasive ductal carcinoma. Five cases were ER/PR positive and 8 patients were triple hormone receptor negative. Eight patients received unilateral and six received bilateral adjuvant radiotherapy. Nine patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. 5 patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Median follow up of patients was 15.4 months. Conclusion: PSBBC is a rare event warranting awareness and screening of the contralateral breast in patients with unilateral breast cancer. These patients require individualized treatment planning based on the tumor factors of the index lesion. Further multi institutional prospective studies are needed for adequate understanding of management of PSBBC.

  14. Inhibition of heregulin expression blocks tumorigenicity and metastasis of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Shamon-Taylor, Lisa A.; Mehmi, Inderjit; Tang, Careen K.; Cardillo, Marina; Lupu, Ruth

    2001-12-20

    The growth factor Heregulin (HRG) is expressed in 30% of breast cancer tumors. HRG induces tumorigenicity and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Our investigation into whether blockage of HRG reduces the aggressiveness of breast cancer cells demonstrated that transfection of MDA-MB-231 with an HRG antisense cDNA suppressed proliferation, tumorigenicity, and metastasis. Blockage of the aggressive phenotype is mediated possibly through inactivation of the erbB signaling pathways and a decrease in MMP-9 activity. Our study is the first to report that HRG is a key promoter of breast cancer progression and should be deemed as a potential target in developing therapies for the treatment of breast carcinomas.

  15. Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Stepišnik, Urška

    2013-01-01

    There are a lot of aspects of aggressiveness and everybody understands and defines it differently. Professionals define aggressiveness as actually inflicting damage to other organism or object6, the reaction which aims in damaging living organism or object. The objectives of aggressive behaviour are physical and mental damage. The difference between aggressiveness and aggression is that the term aggression relates to a momentary reaction, aggressiveness, however, means permanent characteristi...

  16. Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Stomach Resembling Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eo, Wan Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are infrequent, with an estimated incidence rate of approximately 0.3%. Gastric metastases usually are derived from lobular rather than from ductal breast cancer. The most frequent type of a breast cancer metastasis as seen on endoscopy to the stomach is linitis plastica; features of a metastatic lesion that resemble early gastric cancer (EGC) are extremely rare. In this report, we present a case of a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from an infi...

  17. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  18. Increased Expression of Serglycin in Specific Carcinomas and Aggressive Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Korpetinou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present pilot study, we examined the presence of serglycin in lung, breast, prostate, and colon cancer and evaluated its expression in cell lines and tissues. We found that serglycin was expressed and constitutively secreted in culture medium in high levels in more aggressive cancer cells. It is worth noticing that aggressive cancer cells that harbor KRAS or EGFR mutations secreted serglycin constitutively in elevated levels. Furthermore, we detected the transcription of an alternative splice variant of serglycin lacking exon 2 in specific cell lines. In a limited number of tissue samples analyzed, serglycin was detected in normal epithelium but was also expressed in higher levels in advanced grade tumors as shown by immunohistochemistry. Serglycin staining was diffuse, granular, and mainly cytoplasmic. In some cancer cells serglycin also exhibited membrane and/or nuclear immunolocalization. Interestingly, the stromal cells of the reactive tumor stroma were positive for serglycin, suggesting an enhanced biosynthesis for this proteoglycan in activated tumor microenvironment. Our study investigated for first time the distribution of serglycin in normal epithelial and cancerous lesions in most common cancer types. The elevated levels of serglycin in aggressive cancer and stromal cells may suggest a key role for serglycin in disease progression.

  19. Breast cancer. Selected legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynstra, N A

    1994-07-01

    Several legal and ethical issues may arise during the course of screening for and diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Among the most active legal areas are reimbursement for therapies deemed experimental by certain insurance companies, such as high dose chemotherapy/autologous bone marrow transplantation (HDCT/ABMT) and off-label drug use; these reimbursement issues are discussed. Legal issues in mammography screening and insurance coverage and legal issues relative to informed consent in breast cancer treatment also are discussed. PMID:8004625

  20. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard;

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria...

  1. Breast cancer - background and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary is to provide the reader with a brief overview of the key concepts relating to epidemiology and etiology; clinical presentation and patterns of spread; Canadian guidelines for management; prognosis; and current Canadian screening recommendations in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. This information will enable the reader to have the appropriate background knowledge before delving into the subsequent articles in this special CJMRT breast cancer edition. A variety of references have been provided for readers who are interested in more than a skeleton version of the current literature. (author)

  2. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  3. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  4. Integrated genomic analysis of breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addou-Klouche, L; Adélaïde, J; Cornen, S; Bekhouche, I; Finetti, P; Guille, A; Sircoulomb, F; Raynaud, S; Bertucci, F; Birnbaum, D; Chaffanet, M

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent and the most deadly cancer in women in Western countries. Different classifications of disease (anatomoclinical, pathological, prognostic, genetic) are used for guiding the management of patients. Unfortunately, they fail to reflect the whole clinical heterogeneity of the disease. Consequently, molecularly distinct diseases are grouped in similar clinical classes, likely explaining the different clinical outcome between patients in a given class, and the fact that selection of the most appropriate diagnostic or therapeutic strategy for each patient is not done accurately. Today, treatment is efficient in only 70.0-75.0% of cases overall. Our repertoire of efficient drugs is limited but is being expanded with the discovery of new molecular targets for new drugs, based on the identification of candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSG) functionally relevant in disease. Development of new drugs makes therapeutical decisions even more demanding of reliable classifiers and prognostic/predictive tests. Breast cancer is a complex, heterogeneous disease at the molecular level. The combinatorial molecular origin and the heterogeneity of malignant cells, and the variability of the host background, create distinct subgroups of tumors endowed with different phenotypic features such as response to therapy and clinical outcome. Cellular and molecular analyses can identify new classes biologically and clinically relevant, as well as provide new clinically relevant markers and targets. The various stages of mammary tumorigenesis are not clearly defined and the genetic and epigenetic events critical to the development and aggressiveness of breast cancer are not precisely known. Because the phenotype of tumors is dependent on many genes, a large-scale and integrated molecular characterization of the genetic and epigenetic alterations and gene expression deregulation should allow the identification of new molecular classes clinically

  5. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  6. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  7. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  8. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  9. Cancer cell differentiation heterogeneity and aggressive behavior in solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jögi, Annika; Vaapil, Marica; Johansson, Martin; Påhlman, Sven

    2012-05-01

    The differentiation stage of tumors is a central aspect in the histopathological classification of solid malignancies. The differentiation stage is strongly associated with tumor behavior, and generally an immature tumor is more aggressive than the more differentiated counterpart. While this is common knowledge in surgical pathology, the contribution of differentiation-related gene expression and functions to tumor behavior is often overlooked in the experimental, tumor biological setting. The mechanisms by which tumor cell differentiation stages are perturbed or affected are poorly explored but have recently come into focus with the introduction.of the tumor stem cell concept. While developmental biologists view the differentiation as a unidirectional event, pathologists and tumor biologists have introduced the concept of dedifferentiation to explain phenotypic changes occurring in solid tumors. In this review we discuss the impact of the tumor cell differentiation stage as used in surgical pathology. We further discuss knowledge gained from exploring the molecular basis of the differentiation and dedifferentiation processes in neuroblastoma and breast cancer, two tumor forms where the tumor cell differentiation concept is used in the clinical diagnostic work and where the tumor stem cell theory has been applied.

  10. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J.; Joshi, Amit D.; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I. Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of eviden

  11. PCNA immunostaining in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, M C; Furnival, C M; Parsons, P G; Townsend, E

    1993-08-01

    Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) has been shown to be of prognostic value in patients with certain types of cancer. The aim of this study was to determine if the abundance of PCNA is inversely correlated with survival of patients with breast cancer. Paraffin blocks were available from 68 patients, all of whom had been followed clinically for at least 5 years. Sections from 20 patients showed no reactivity to PCNA and were excluded from the study because it was not possible to distinguish between true negatives and false negatives (those due to poor fixation of the original specimens). The PCNA index (the number of stained cancer cells as a percentage of the total number of cancer cells present) was calculated for the remaining 48 patients. Results were analysed by Wilcoxon's rank sum test (two tailed) and Pearson's correlation coefficient. There was no statistical difference between the PCNA indices of those patients dead from their disease within 5 years of diagnosis compared with those alive and without signs of breast cancer at 5 years. There was also no correlation between PCNA index and size of the cancer, involvement of axillary lymph nodes, time to recurrence or time to death. There was, however, a significant correlation between PCNA index and histological grade (P = 0.029). It appears that PCNA staining of stored paraffin sections is of little prognostic value in patients with breast cancer. PMID:8101708

  12. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Larner, F; Woodley, LN; Shousha, S; Moyes, A; Humphreys-Williams, E; Strekopytov, S; Halliday, AN; Rehkämper, M; Coombes, RC

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn i...

  13. The p53 codon 72 polymorphism is associated with risk and early onset of breast cancer among Saudi women

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qasem, Abeer; Toulimat, Mohamed; Tulbah, Asma; Elkum, Naser; Al-Tweigeri, Taher; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer has a major impact on the health of women worldwide. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), breast cancer incidence is on the increase and is characterized by early onset and aggressiveness. Owing to the importance of the TP53 gene in breast carcinogenesis, we analyzed the possible link between TP53 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the risk of breast cancer in Saudi women by direct sequencing of the TP53 gene exon 4 from 100 breast cancer tissues. The proportion of the ...

  14. Prognostic value of breast cancer subtypes on breast cancer specific survival, distant metastases and local relapse rates in conservatively managed early stage breast cancer: a retrospective clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Sanpaolo, Pietro; Barbieri, Viviana; Genovesi, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    International audience To ascertain if breast cancer subtypes had prognostic effect on breast cancer specific survival, distant metastases and local relapse rates in women affected by early stage breast cancer.

  15. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Düring, Maria; Henriksen, Trine Foged;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  16. Loss of Dickkopf 3 Promotes the Tumorigenesis of Basal Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsy, Eva; Topuz, Aylin Sophie; Geisler, Cordelia; Stahl, Sarah; Garczyk, Stefan; von Stillfried, Saskia; Hoss, Mareike; Gluz, Oleg; Hartmann, Arndt; Knüchel, Ruth; Dahl, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Dickkopf 3 (DKK3) has been associated with tumor suppression of various tumor entities including breast cancer. However, the functional impact of DKK3 on the tumorigenesis of distinct molecular breast cancer subtypes has not been considered so far. Therefore, we initiated a study analyzing the subtype-specific DKK3 expression pattern as well as its prognostic and functional impact with respect to breast cancer subtypes. Based on three independent tissue cohorts including one in silico dataset (n = 30, n = 463 and n = 791) we observed a clear down-regulation of DKK3 expression in breast cancer samples compared to healthy breast tissue controls on mRNA and protein level. Interestingly, most abundant reduction of DKK3 expression was detected in the highly aggressive basal breast cancer subtype. Analyzing a large in silico dataset comprising 3,554 cases showed that low DKK3 mRNA expression was significantly associated with reduced recurrence free survival (RFS) of luminal and basal-like breast cancer cases. Functionally, DKK3 re-expression in human breast cancer cell lines led to suppression of cell growth possibly mediated by up-regulation of apoptosis in basal-like but not in luminal-like breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, ectopic DKK3 expression in mesenchymal basal breast cancer cells resulted in partial restoration of epithelial cell morphology which was molecularly supported by higher expression of epithelial markers like E-Cadherin and down-regulation of mesenchymal markers such as Snail 1. Hence, we provide evidence that down-regulation of DKK3 especially promotes tumorigenesis of the aggressive basal breast cancer subtype. Further studies decoding the underlying molecular mechanisms of DKK3-mediated effects may help to identify novel targeted therapies for this clinically highly relevant breast cancer subtype. PMID:27467270

  17. Nanoparticle-based Paclitaxel vs Solvent-based Paclitaxel as Part of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer (GeparSepto)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  18. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed By Aldesleukin and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Inflammatory Stage IIIB or Metastatic Stage IV Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  19. [Breast cancer in Sub-Saharan African women: review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Madani; Antoine, Martine; André, Fabrice; Callard, Patrice; Bernaudin, Jean-François; Diallo, Dapa A

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer is the second most frequent cancer in Sub-Saharan African women with an incidence of 15-53 per 100,000 women. Using PubMed, we reviewed all the articles published on this topic between 1989 and 2009. Breast cancer is usually diagnosed in women younger than in developed countries (mean age: 42-53 years), with later stages (III or IV, i.e. with axillary nodes and distant metastases). Reported tumors are mostly invasive ductal carcinomas with aggressive characteristics: grade III histoprognosis, absence of hormonal receptors or HER2 expression. According to the new breast cancer classification, nearly half of these tumors should be classified as triple negative. However, studies are rare and require confirmation. In conclusion, data on epidemiology and biology of breast cancer in Sub-Saharan African women are still scarce and need more extensive studies. In these countries, the pattern of breast cancer will likely change in the future, according to the evolution of lifestyle namely urbanisation. There is a great need for commitment of research and clinical resources in Sub-Saharan Africa in order to develop specific strategies. PMID:21700549

  20. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard;

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development...

  1. Src: marker or actor of prostate cancer aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie eVlaeminck-Guillem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A key question for urologic practitioners is whether an apparently organ-confined prostate cancer is actually aggressive or not. The dilemma is to specifically identify among all prostate tumors the very aggressive high-grade cancers that will become life-threatening by developing extra-prostatic invasion and metastatic potential and the indolent cancers that will never modify a patient’s life expectancy. A choice must be made between several therapeutic options to achieve the optimal personalized management of the disease that causes as little harm as possible to patients. Reliable clinical, biological or pathological markers that would enable distinctions to be made between aggressive and indolen prostate cancers in routine practice at the time of initial diagnosis are still lacking. The molecular mechanisms that explain why a prostate cancer is aggressive or not are also poorly understood. Among the potential markers and/or actors in prostate cancer aggressiveness, Src and other members of the Src kinase family, are valuable candidates. Activation of Src-dependent intracellular pathways is frequently observed in prostate cancer. Indeed, Src is at the cross-roads of several pathways (including androgen receptor, TGFbeta, Bcl-2, Akt/PTEN or MAPK and ERK …, and is now known to influence some of the cellular and tissular events that accompany tumor progression: cell proliferation, cell motility, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, resistance to apoptosis, angiogenesis, neuroendocrine differentiation, and metastatic spread. Recent work even suggests that Src could also play a part in prostate cancer initiation in coordination with the androgen receptor. The aim of this review is to gather data that explores the links between the Src kinase family and prostate cancer progression and aggressiveness.

  2. Nanotechnology for breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takemi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Sakamoto, Jason H; Tasciotti, Ennio; Robertson, Fredika M; Ferrari, Mauro

    2009-02-01

    Breast cancer is the field of medicine with the greatest presence of nanotechnological therapeutic agents in the clinic. A pegylated form of liposomally encapsulated doxorubicin is routinely used for treatment against metastatic cancer, and albumin nanoparticulate chaperones of paclitaxel were approved for locally recurrent and metastatic disease in 2005. These drugs have yielded substantial clinical benefit, and are steadily gathering greater beneficial impact. Clinical trials currently employing these drugs in combination with chemo and biological therapeutics exceed 150 worldwide. Despite these advancements, breast cancer morbidity and mortality is unacceptably high. Nanotechnology offers potential solutions to the historical challenge that has rendered breast cancer so difficult to contain and eradicate: the extreme biological diversity of the disease presentation in the patient population and in the evolutionary changes of any individual disease, the multiple pathways that drive disease progression, the onset of 'resistance' to established therapeutic cocktails, and the gravity of the side effects to treatment, which result from generally very poor distribution of the injected therapeutic agents in the body. A fundamental requirement for success in the development of new therapeutic strategies is that breast cancer specialists-in the clinic, the pharmaceutical and the basic biological laboratory-and nanotechnologists-engineers, physicists, chemists and mathematicians-optimize their ability to work in close collaboration. This further requires a mutual openness across cultural and language barriers, academic reward systems, and many other 'environmental' divides. This paper is respectfully submitted to the community to help foster the mutual interactions of the breast cancer world with micro- and nano-technology, and in particular to encourage the latter community to direct ever increasing attention to breast cancer, where an extraordinary beneficial impact may

  3. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  4. MMP1, MMP9, and COX2 Expressions in Promonocytes Are Induced by Breast Cancer Cells and Correlate with Collagen Degradation, Transformation-Like Morphological Changes in MCF-10A Acini, and Tumor Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Chimal-Ramírez, G. K.; Espinoza-Sánchez, N. A.; Utrera-Barillas, D.; L. Benítez-Bribiesca; Velázquez, J. R.; Arriaga-Pizano, L. A.; Monroy-García, A.; Reyes-Maldonado, E.; Domínguez-López, M. L.; Patricia Piña-Sánchez; Fuentes-Pananá, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated immune cells often lack immune effector activities, and instead they present protumoral functions. To understand how tumors promote this immunological switch, invasive and noninvasive breast cancer cell (BRC) lines were cocultured with a promonocytic cell line in a Matrigel-based 3D system. We hypothesized that if communication exists between tumor and immune cells, coculturing would result in augmented expression of genes associated with tumor malignancy. Upregulation of pro...

  5. Inflammatory lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate upregulates C-reactive protein via C/EBPβ and potentiates breast cancer progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, E.S.; Cha, Y.; Ham, M.; Jung, J.; Kim, S.G.; Hwang, S.; Kleemann, R.; Moon, A.

    2014-01-01

    A crucial role of the inflammatory lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in breast cancer aggressiveness has been reported. Recent clinical studies have suggested that C-reactive protein (CRP) has a role in breast cancer development. However, limited information is available on the molecular basis for

  6. Adipocytokines and breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Wen-wen; FU Chun-li; SUN Yu; WU Qing; CHEN Li

    2007-01-01

    Background Many researches suggested that obesity increased the risk of breast cancer, but the mechanism was currently unknown. Adipocytokines might mediate the relationship. Our study was aimed to investigate the relationship between serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin and the onset, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.Methods Blood samples were collected from 80 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipids, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were assayed simultaneously.Results Serum levels of adiponectin ((8.60±2.92) mg/L vs (10.37±2.81) mg/L, P=0.001) and HDL-c were significantly decreased in breast cancer patients in comparison to controls. Serum levels of resistin ((26.35±5.36) μg/L vs (23.32±4.75)μg/L, P=0.000), leptin ((1.35±0.42) μg/L vs (1.06±0.39) μg/L, P=0.003), FBG and triglyceride (TG) in breast cancer patients were increased in contrast to controls, respectively. However, we did not find the significant difference of the serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin between premenopausal breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P=0.091, 0.109 and 0.084, respectively). The serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were significantly different between patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and those without LNM (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.006, respectively).The stepwise regression analysis indicated that the tumor size had the close correlation with leptin (R2=0.414, P=0.000)and FBG (R2=0.602, P=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced serum levels of adiponectin (OR:0.805;95%CI: 0.704-0.921; P=0.001), HDL (OR: 0.087; 95%CI: 0.011-0.691, P=0.021), elevated leptin (OR:2.235;95%CI:1.898-4.526; P=0.004) and resistin (OR: 1.335; 95%CI: 1.114-2.354; P=0.012) increased the risk for

  7. Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R;

    2013-01-01

    Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....

  8. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stimulate the growth of breast cancer cells: Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) bind to estrogen receptors , preventing estrogen from binding. Examples of SERMs approved by the FDA are tamoxifen (Nolvadex®), ... called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs), inhibit an enzyme ...

  9. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; van Overeem Hansen, Thomas; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...

  10. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  11. Mouse Stirs up Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen Pilcher; 孙雯

    2004-01-01

    @@ The humble house mouse could be more dangerous than we thought,according to a study that suggests a rodent① virus plays a role in the development of breast cancer. But the finding is contentious② and reignites③ a long-standing④wrangle⑤ about the potential⑥ causes of the disease.

  12. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard;

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  13. Mutation analysis of breast cancer gene BRCA among breast cancer Jordanian females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To screen mutations of the tumor suppressor breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) within 3 exons among Jordanian breast cancer females. A total of 135 Jordanian breast cancer females were genetically analyzed by denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) for mutation detection in 3 BRCA1 exons (2, 11 and 20) between 2000-2002 in Al-Basheer Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Of the studied patients 50 had a family history of breast cancer, 28 had a family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and 57 had no family history of any cancer. Five germline mutations were detected among breast cancer females with a family history of breast cancers (one in exon 2 and 4 mutations in exon 11). Another germline mutation (within exon 11) was detected among breast cancer females with family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and no mutation was detected among breast cancer females with no family history of any cancer or among normal control females. Screening mutations within exon 2, exon 11 and exon 20 showed that most screened mutations were within BRCA1 exon 11 among breast cancer Jordanian families with a family history of breast cancer. (author)

  14. Bilateral breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Jun, Hwang Yoon; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical features of bilateral breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records(n=23) and mammograms (n=15) of 23 patients with bilateral breast cancer. Patients' age, location of the tumor and pathologic staging were determined from clinical records. Mammographic features were classified as spiculated mass, nonspiculated mass, mass with microcalcification, microcalcification only, asymmetric density, and normal. Of the 23 cases of bilateral breast cancer, 8(34.8%) were synchronous and 15(65.2%) were metachronous. Age at diagnosis of cancer in the first breast was between 27 and 59(mean 43) years ; there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between patients with synchronous and metachronous cancer. The mean interval between the diagnosis of each lesion of the metachronous pairs was 9.1 years. In 11 of 23 cases(48%), tumors were locaated in the same quadrant, and in the other 12 cases(52%), they were in different quadrant. At mammography, five of 15 metachronous cancers(33%) were similar in appearance and 10 pairs(67%) were different. In 4 of 23 cases(17%), cancer in the first breast was at stage 0 and stage 1, and in 13 of 23(57%), cancer in the second breast was at this same stage. In bilateral breast cancer, the two breasts frequently show different mammographic features. Cancer of the second breast was at an early stage; this suggest that regular examination and mammography are important and can allow early detection of contralateral breast cancer.

  15. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  16. RECURRENCE PATTERN FOLLOWING BREAST - CONSERVING SURGERY FOR EARLY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the Local Recurrence and metastasis pattern after Breast - Conserving Surgery for early breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2014 in department of surgery in VIMS Bellary, 70 patients with stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma were treated with breast - conserving surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. In this study we investigated the prognostic value of clinical and pathological factors in early breast cancer patients treated with BCS. All of the surgeries were performed by a single surgical team. Recurrence and its risk factors were evaluated.

  17. Melatonin: an Inhibitor of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Steven M. Hill; Belancio, Victoria P; Dauchy, Robert T; Xiang, Shulin; Brimer, Samantha; Mao, Lulu; Hauch, Adam; Lundberg, Peter W.; Summers, Whitney; YUAN, LIN; Frasch, Tripp; Blask, David E.

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses recent work on melatonin-mediated circadian regulation and metabolic and molecular signaling mechanisms involved in human breast cancer growth and associated consequences of circadian disruption by exposure to light at night (LEN). The anti-cancer actions of the circadian melatonin signal in human breast cancer cell lines and xenografts heavily involve MT1 receptor-mediated mechanisms. In estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive human breast cancer, melatonin, via the MT1 ...

  18. HSP90 Inhibitor AT13387 and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Advanced Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-08

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  19. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects more likely to occur after breast cancer treatment include: Lymphedema Post-mastectomy pain syndrome Chemo brain If the cancer comes back (recurs) If cancer does recur, your treatment options will depend on the location of the ...

  20. Nonlinear Growth Kinetics of Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Implications for Cancer Stem Cell Targeted Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinfeng; Johnson, Sara; Liu, Shou; Kanojia, Deepak; Yue, Wei; Singn, Udai; Wang, Qian; Wang, Qi; Nie, Qing; Chen, Hexin

    2013-08-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in primary breast cancer tissues and cell lines. The CSC population varies widely among cancerous tissues and cell lines, and is often associated with aggressive breast cancers. Despite of intensive research, how the CSC population is regulated within a tumor is still not well understood so far. In this paper, we present a mathematical model to explore the growth kinetics of CSC population both in vitro and in vivo. Our mathematical models and supporting experiments suggest that there exist non-linear growth kinetics of CSCs and negative feedback mechanisms to control the balance between the population of CSCs and that of non-stem cancer cells. The model predictions can help us explain a few long-standing questions in the field of cancer stem cell research, and can be potentially used to predict the efficicacy of anti-cancer therapy.

  1. Breast metastasis from vaginal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Scharifker, Daniel; Varsegi, George; Almeida, Zoyla

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare malignancy accounting for 1-2% of all pelvic neoplasms. Dissemination usually occurs through local invasion and rarely metastasises to distal locations. Metastasis of vaginal cancer to the breast is extremely infrequent and unique. A 66-year-old Asian woman presented with vaginal bleeding and was found to have a vaginal mass and a left breast mass. Pathological assessment of the biopsies revealed identical squamous cell characteristics of both masses. We describe a very rare and novel case of a distally located vaginal carcinoma with metastasis to the breast Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IV (FIGO IVB). Robot-assisted extrafascial total hysterectomy with local vaginal mass excision and partial mastectomy of the left breast were performed. After surgery, the patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy followed by breast and pelvic radiotherapy, with maintained complete remission after 3 years of follow-up. This combination of findings and treatment is very distinct with a unique and favourable response. PMID:27444140

  2. Brain metastases free survival differs between breast cancer subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, A; Bago-Horvath, Z; De Vries, C; Dubsky, P; Pluschnig, U; Rudas, M; Rottenfusser, A; Knauer, M; Eiter, H; Fitzal, F; Dieckmann, K; Mader, R M; Gnant, M; Zielinski, C C; Steger, G G; Preusser, M; Bartsch, R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Brain metastases (BM) are frequently diagnosed in patients with HER-2-positive metastatic breast cancer; in addition, an increasing incidence was reported for triple-negative tumours. We aimed to compare brain metastases free survival (BMFS) of breast cancer subtypes in patients treated between 1996 until 2010. Methods: Brain metastases free survival was measured as the interval from diagnosis of extracranial breast cancer metastases until diagnosis of BM. HER-2 status was analysed by immunohistochemistry and reanalysed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation if a score of 2+ was gained. Oestrogen-receptor (ER) and progesterone-receptor (PgR) status was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Brain metastases free survival curves were estimated with the Kaplan–Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Results: Data of 213 patients (46 luminal/124 HER-2/43 triple-negative subtype) with BM from breast cancer were available for the analysis. Brain metastases free survival differed significantly between breast cancer subtypes. Median BMFS in triple-negative tumours was 14 months (95% CI: 11.34–16.66) compared with 18 months (95% CI: 14.46–21.54) in HER-2-positive tumours (P=0.001) and 34 months (95% CI: 23.71–44.29) in luminal tumours (P=0.001), respectively. In HER-2-positive patients, co-positivity for ER and HER-2 prolonged BMFS (26 vs 15 m; P=0.033); in luminal tumours, co-expression of ER and PgR was not significantly associated with BMFS. Brain metastases free survival in patients with lung metastases was significantly shorter (17 vs 21 months; P=0.014). Conclusion: Brain metastases free survival in triple-negative breast cancer, as well as in HER-2-positive/ER-negative, is significantly shorter compared with HER-2/ER co-positive or luminal tumours, mirroring the aggressiveness of these breast cancer subtypes. PMID:22233926

  3. Epigenetic Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Zhong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Both genetic and epigenetic alterations can control the progression of cancer. Genetic alterations are impossible to reverse, while epigenetic alterations are reversible. This advantage suggests that epigenetic modifications should be preferred in therapy applications. DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases have become the primary targets for studies in epigenetic therapy. Some DNA methylation inhibitors and histone deacetylation inhibitors are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, the uses of epigenetic targets are believed to have great potential as a lasting favorable approach in treating breast cancer.

  4. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  5. BIOSYNTHESIS OF microRNAs AND THEIR ROLE IN GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barcelos de Paula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aggressive nature of breast cancer in young women may be related to the occurrence of mutations in the BRCA1/BRCA2 genes responsible for DNA repair. Despite of cases are associated with and without a family history of breast and ovarian cancer such changes are present in only a small percentage of cases, which corresponds to 80-10% of patients with familial breast cancer and 3.2-10.6% of women withbreast cancer non-familial (sporadic. The penetrance rate of this variability is not well understood today, but we know that reproductive factors, risks posed by particular mutations and other genetic modifiers The expression profile of miRNAs can also reveal changes in the regulatory processes that distinguish the appearance of cancer familial and sporadic breast cancer in young patients. miRNAs have been described as related to the aggressiveness of breast cancer and the sensitivity of human mammary tumor strains to antiestrogen. Such evidence indicates that the molecular mechanisms responsible for the aggressive behavior of breast carcinoma in young women has not been sufficiently clarified.

  6. Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene1 (BRCA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiksiri, S.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene1 (BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene for breast and ovarian cancers. The gene locates at chromosome 17q21 and encodes for 1863 amino acids protein. It is believed that BRCA1 protein is involved in many functions such as DNA repair, centrosome replication, cell cycle checkpoint and replication of other genes. More than 800 mutations have been found in the population with an increased risk of cancer incidence in their families. Germ-line mutation of BRCA1 accounts for 5-10 percent of all breast cancer cases. Epigenetic modifications also reduce the function of normal BRCA1 gene. Several methods are used for laboratory diagnosis of cancer-related mutations. The development of breast cancer in carriers at risk with BRCA1 mutations may be prevented by suitable prevention plans such as breast cancer screening, ovarian cancer screening, surgery and cancer chemotherapy.

  7. Fructose as a carbon source induces an aggressive phenotype in MDA-MB-468 breast tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONZAVI-KARBASSI, BEHJATOLAH; HINE, R. JEAN; STANLEY, JOSEPH S.; RAMANI, VISHNU PRAKASH; CARCEL-TRULLOLS, JAIME; WHITEHEAD, TRACY L.; KELLY, THOMAS; SIEGEL, ERIC R.; ARTAUD, CECILE; SHAAF, SAEID; SAHA, RINKU; JOUSHEGHANY, FARIBA; HENRY-TILLMAN, RONDA; KIEBER-EMMONS, THOMAS

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is a universal feature of cancer cells, and certain glycan structures are well-known markers for tumor progression. Availability and composition of sugars in the microenvironment may affect cell glycosylation. Recent studies of human breast tumor cell lines indicate their ability to take up and utilize fructose. Here we tested the hypothesis that adding fructose to culture as a carbon source induces phenotypic changes in cultured human breast tumor cells that are associated with metastatic disease. MDA-MB-468 cells were adapted to culture media in which fructose was substituted for glucose. Changes in cell surface glycan structures, expression of genes related to glycan assembly, cytoskeleton F-actin, migration, adhesion and invasion were determined. Cells cultured in fructose expressed distinct cell-surface glycans. The addition of fructose affected sialylation and fucosylation patterns. Fructose feeding also increased binding of leukoagglutinating Phaseolus vulgaris isolectin, suggesting a possible rise in expression of branching β-1, 6 GlcNAc structures. Rhodamine-phalloidin staining revealed an altered F-actin cytoskeletal system. Fructose accelerated cellular migration and increased invasion. These data suggest that changing the carbon source of the less aggressive MDA-MB-468 cell line induced characteristics associated with more aggressive phenotypes. These data could be of fundamental importance due to the markedly increased consumption of sweeteners containing free fructose in recent years, as they suggest that the presence of fructose in nutritional micro-environment of tumor cells may negatively affect the outcome for some breast cancer patients. PMID:20664930

  8. Triple-negative (ER, PgR, HER-2/neu breast cancer in Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak W Patil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinayak W Patil1, Rajeev Singhai1, Amit V Patil2, Prakash D Gurav21Department of Biochemistry, Grant Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, India; 2Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Miraj, IndiaAbstract: The aim of our study was to analyze triple-negative (TN breast cancer, which is defined as being negative for the estrogen receptor (ER, the progesterone receptor (PgR, and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu and which represents a subset of breast cancer with different biologic behavior. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic indicators of lymph node-negative TN breast cancer. Medical records were reviewed from patients with node-negative breast cancer who underwent curative surgery at Grant Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, India, from May 2007 to October 2010. Clinicopathological variables and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Among 683 patients included, 136 had TN breast cancer and 529 had non-TN breast cancer. TN breast cancer correlated with younger age (<35 years, P = 0.003 and a higher histopathologic and nuclear grade (P < 0.001. It also correlated with a molecular profile associated with biological aggressiveness: negative for Bcl-2 expression (P < 0.001, positive for the epidermal growth factor receptor (P = 0.003, and a high level of p53 (P < 0.001 and Ki-67 expression (P < 0.00. The relapse rates during the follow-up period (median 56.8 months were 14.7% for TN breast cancer and 6.6% for non-TN breast cancer (P = 0.004. Relapse-free survival (RFS was significantly shorter among patients with TN breast cancer compared with those with non-TN breast cancer: 3.5-year RFS rate 85.5% versus 94.2%, respectively; P = 0.001. On multivariate analysis, young age, close resection margin, and triple negativity were independent predictors of shorter RFS. TN breast cancer had a higher relapse rate and more aggressive clinicopathological

  9. The Adjunctive Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Lung Yang; Huei-Lung Liang; Chen-Pin Chou; Jer-Shyung Huang; Huay-Ben Pan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and digital mammography (DM) for breast cancers. Materials and Methods. Fifty-seven female patients with pathologically proved breast cancer were enrolled. Three readers gave a subjective assessment superiority of the index lesions (mass, focal asymmetry, architectural distortion, or calcifications) and a forced BIRADS score, based on DM reading alone and with additional DBT information. The relevance between...

  10. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  11. Molecular subtyping of serous ovarian tumors reveals multiple connections to intrinsic breast cancer subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny-Maria Jönsson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Transcriptional profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer has revealed molecular subtypes correlating to biological and clinical features. We aimed to determine gene expression differences between malignant, benign and borderline serous ovarian tumors, and investigate similarities with the well-established intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer. METHODS: Global gene expression profiling using Illumina's HT12 Bead Arrays was applied to 59 fresh-frozen serous ovarian malignant, benign and borderline tumors. Nearest centroid classification was performed applying previously published gene profiles for the ovarian and breast cancer subtypes. Correlations to gene expression modules representing key biological breast cancer features were also sought. Validation was performed using an independent, publicly available dataset. RESULTS: 5,944 genes were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant serous ovarian tumors, with cell cycle processes enriched in the malignant subgroup. Borderline tumors were split between the two clusters. Significant correlations between the malignant serous tumors and the highly aggressive ovarian cancer signatures, and the basal-like breast cancer subtype were found. The benign and borderline serous tumors together were significantly correlated to the normal-like breast cancer subtype and the ovarian cancer signature derived from borderline tumors. The borderline tumors in the study dataset, in addition, also correlated significantly to the luminal A breast cancer subtype. These findings remained when analyzed in an independent dataset, supporting links between the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer and breast cancer beyond those recently acknowledged. CONCLUSIONS: These data link the transcriptional profiles of serous ovarian cancer to the intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer, in line with the shared clinical and molecular features between high-grade serous ovarian cancer and

  12. Molecular genetics of breast cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurður Ingvarsson 1956

    1999-01-01

    Somatic changes in the genome of breast cancer cells include amplifications, deletions and gene mutations. Several chromosome regions harboring known oncogenes are found amplified in breast tumors. Despite the high number of chromosome regions deleted in breast tumors the functional relationship to known genes at these locations and cancer growth is mainly undiscovered. Mutations in two tumor suppressor genes (TSG) have been described in a subset of breast carcinomas. These TSG are the TP53, ...

  13. Evolution of Imaging in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Evelyn M; Crowley, James; Hagan, Catherine; Atkinson, Lisa L

    2016-06-01

    The following topics are discussed in this article. A historical review of the evolution of breast cancer imaging from thermography through digital breast tomosynthesis, molecular breast imaging, and advanced breast magnetic resonance imaging. Discussion of multiple clinical trials, their strengths, and weaknesses. Historical perspective on the Mammography Quality Standards Act and its relationship with development and implementation of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). PMID:27029017

  14. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  15. Metaplastic breast cancer: clinical overview and molecular aberrations for potential targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouharb, Sausan; Moulder, Stacy

    2015-03-01

    Metaplastic breast cancer is a rare subtype of invasive mammary carcinoma, with an aggressive behavior and usually poor outcome. Responses to systemic chemotherapy are suboptimal compared to patients with standard invasive ductal carcinoma. Limited data are available in regards to best treatment modalities, including chemotherapy. This review gives an overview of metaplastic breast cancer and its clinical and pathologic characteristics, in addition to treatment strategies, clinical trials, and future directions.

  16. Inflammatory breast cancer: New factors contribute to disease etiology: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Mona M.; Diaa Al-Raawi; Sabet, Salwa F.; Mohamed El-Shinawi

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a highly metastatic and fatal form of breast cancer. In fact, IBC is characterized by specific morphological, phenotypic, and biological properties that distinguish it from non-IBC. The aggressive behavior of IBC being more common among young women and the low survival rate alarmed researchers to explore the disease biology. Despite the basic and translational studies needed to understand IBC disease biology and identify specific biomarkers, studies are lim...

  17. Triciribine Phosphate, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-13

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  18. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  19. Breast cancer and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism

  20. Primary breast lymphoma in the right breast during treatment for left breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuzawa Kengo; Kinoshita Tadahiko; Iwashita Yukio; Nishimura Ataru; Nagata Shigeyuki; Tashiro Hideya; Wakasugi Kenzo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary breast lymphoma is a rare condition, and distinguishing it from breast cancer is important because their treatments differ radically. Moreover, a recent report showed that mastectomy offered no benefit in the treatment of primary breast lymphoma. Case presentation A 59-year-old woman was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and local radiation after surgery for left breast cancer. She presented with a rapidly growing mass in the right breast at 20 months after surger...

  1. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  2. Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161233.html Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens Greater self-esteem noted in ... interviewed to assess their mental health, perception of breast cancer risk, and levels of distress about breast cancer. The ...

  3. Electric power, melatonin, and breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    In this paper, the epidemiology of breast cancer will be discussed, followed by a brief description of the effect of electric fields on melatonin and the relation of melatonin to mammary cancer in rats. Finally, there will be a consideration of factors such as alcohol that affect melatonin and their relation to breast cancer risk. 55 refs.

  4. [Influences and psychological structures in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, R; Rodovalho, J C; Ferreira, T C

    1986-12-01

    A sample of 16 patients with malignant breast tumors were examined by means of an interview, a questionnaire, and the Szondi Test together with a comparison group of 56 patients with benign breast tumors. The patients were divided into two age groups, those below and above 40 years of age. In this way studies done in other countries to investigate the personality structure of cancer patients were replicated. Emphasis was given to the following issues: self-destructive and/or masochistic tendencies, attitudes of depressive resignation, and conflicts with respect to femininity and motherhood. The results showed several significant differences by which benign tumor patients can be better characterized. These patients presented symptoms, experiences and structures of the neurotic type. The cancer patients presented structures closer to the psychosomatic type, with rigid negation of conflicts (in relation to sex, identification, violence and aggression), and with an unreal insertion in the world. Their somatizations are not conversive; they are interpreted as effects of the destructive and violent tendencies which, without release for the lack of adequate contacts with objects, are directed toward themselves. However, this cannot properly be called a masochistic structure because the destructive tendencies do not have a sexual origin, rather they are part of a vehement negation of others and of life itself, in the sense of a primary death drive. It is impossible to tell, however, to what point these characteristics are already the effects of the breast problems, or whether they have more causal relevance as certain previous personal experiences indicate. PMID:3591399

  5. Pilot Implementation of Breast Cancer Early Detection Programs in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, Raúl; Díaz, Sandra; Sánchez, Oswaldo; Perry, Fernando; Piñeros, Marion; Poveda, César; Salguero, Edgar; Osorio, Dimelza

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is increasing in developing countries, and Colombia has a double burden from cervical and breast cancer. Suitable guidelines for breast cancer early detection are needed, and the Breast Health Global Initiative provides a favorable framework for breast cancer control in low resource nations. The Colombian National Cancer Institute developed evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer early detection in which coordinated early detection in symptomatic women and hospital-based scr...

  6. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rasskazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief overview of the main methods of breast cancer screening. Proven effectiveness of mammography as a screening method in reducing mortality from breast cancer, specified limits of the method. The main trend of increasing the effectiveness of screening is the transition to digital technologies. Properly organized screening with the active participation of the population reduces mortality from breast cancer by 30%.

  7. Menopausal hot flushes after breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fenlon, D.R.; Corner, J.L.; Haviland, J

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed to improve understanding of the natural history and impact of hot flushes after breast cancer. Data were collected from women participating in an RCT of relaxation to reduce the incidence of flushes from breast cancer follow-up clinics from two hospitals in South-East England. Repondents were 150 women experiencing hot flushes following completion of primary treatment for breast cancer. This study utilized a flush diary, the Hot Flushes and Night Sweats Questionnaire (HFNSQ...

  8. Adulthood lifetime physical activity and breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Peplonska, Beata; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hartman, Terryl J.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Blair, Aaron; Zatonski, Witold; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown that breast cancer risk is reduced 30% to 40% in highly physically active compared with inactive women. However, the effects of moderate activities, timing of activities, and intervening effects of other risk factors remain less clear. METHODS: We analyzed data on physical activity patterns in 2176 incident breast cancer cases and 2326 controls in a population-based breast cancer case-control study in Poland conducted in 2000-2003. Using unconditio...

  9. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s) and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  10. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  11. Sorting Reality from What We Think We Know About Breast Cancer in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Sulma I.; Harford, Joe B.

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the features of breast cancer in Africa and the parallels between breast cancer in indigenous Africans and in African American women, including a shift toward earlier onset; a tendency toward poorer outcomes; and an increased likelihood for the tumors to be negative for the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), and/or the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) [1,2]. One of the more aggressive forms of breast cancer is termed ‘‘triple...

  12. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer: a clinician's message for patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroff, Leon

    2004-08-01

    The Women's Health Initiative agrees with some but not all case-control and cohort studies that current use of postmenopausal estrogen-progestin therapy is associated with a small increase in the risk of breast cancer. It is not known whether this is because of new tumor growth or an effect of hormonal therapy on preexisting tumors. Many studies indicate that women who develop breast cancer while using postmenopausal hormone therapy have a reduced risk of dying from breast cancer; this is consistent with an effect on preexisting tumors so that tumors appear at a less virulent and aggressive stage.

  13. Gene Therapy in Human Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Abaan, Ogan D.

    2002-01-01

    Gene therapy, being a novel treatment for many diseases, is readily applicable for the treatment of cancer patients. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. There are many clinical protocols for the treatment of breast cancer, and gene therapy is now being considered within current protocols. This review will focus on the basic concepts of cancer gene therapy strategies (suicide gene, tumor suppressor gene, anti-angiogenesis, immunotherapy, oncolytic viruses and ribozyme/antisens...

  14. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Denbinobin suppresses breast cancer metastasis through the inhibition of Src-mediated signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Hsuan; Peng, Chieh-Yu; Pai, Hui-Chen; Teng, Che-Ming; Chen, Chien-Chih; Yang, Chia-Ron

    2011-08-01

    Denbinobin (5-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy- 1,4-phenanthraquinone), a biologically active chemical isolated from Ephemerantha lonchophylla, has been demonstrated to display anti-cancer activity. Breast cancer is the leading cause of female mortality, and the high mortality is mainly attributable to metastasis. Src kinase activity is elevated in many human cancers, including breast cancer, and is often associated with aggressive disease. In the present study, we examined the anti-metastatic effects of denbinobin through decreasing Src kinase activity in human and mouse breast cancer cells. Denbinobin caused significant block of Src kinase activity in both human and mouse breast cancer cells. Moreover, phosphorylation of the signaling molecules focal adhesion kinase, Crk-associated substrate and paxillin downstream of Src was also inhibited by denbinobin. Furthermore, denbinobin inhibited the in vitro migration, invasion and in vivo metastasis of breast cancers in a mouse metastatic model. The denbinobin-treated group showed a significant reduction in tumor metastasis, orthrotopic tumor volume, and spleen enlargement compared to the control group. In addition, transfection of breast cancer cells with a plasmid coding for a constitutively active Src prevented the denbinobin-mediated phosphorylation of Src and downstream molecules and cell migration. Our findings provide evidences that denbinobin inhibits Src-mediated signaling pathways involved in controlling breast cancer migration and metastasis, suggesting that it has therapeutic potential in breast cancer treatment. PMID:21062671

  16. Risk of non-sentinel node metastases in patients with symptomatic cancers compared to screen-detected breast cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove F; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Balslev, Eva;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Symptomatic breast cancers may be more aggressive as compared to screen-detected breast cancers. This could favor axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with symptomatic breast cancer and positive sentinel nodes. METHOD: We identified 955 patients registered in the Danish...... Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) Database in 2008 - 2010 with micrometastases (773) or isolated tumor cells (ITC) (182) in the sentinel node. Patients were cross-checked in the Danish Quality Database of Mammography Screening and 481 patients were identified as screen-detected cancers....... The remaining 474 patients were considered as having symptomatic cancers. Multivariate analyses of the risk of non-sentinel node metastases were performed including known risk factors for non-sentinel node metastases as well as method of detection. RESULTS: 18% of the patients had metastases in non...

  17. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  18. Breast cancer and the consumption of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, L; Miller, D R; Helmrich, S P; Kaufman, D W; Schottenfeld, D; Stolley, P D; Shapiro, S

    1985-09-01

    The hypothesis has been raised that coffee consumption may increase the incidence of breast cancer, based on the report that fibrocystic breast disease, a risk factor for breast cancer, regresses after abstention from coffee and other methylxanthines. The relation between recent coffee consumption and the risk of breast cancer was evaluated in a case-control study, based on interviews conducted 1975-1982 at several mainly eastern US teaching and community hospitals. The responses of 2,651 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer were compared with those of 1,501 controls with nonmalignant conditions and 385 controls with cancers at other sites. The relative risk estimates for levels of coffee drinking up to seven or more cups daily, relative to none, approximated 1.0 with narrow 95% confidence intervals. After allowance for confounding, the relative risk estimate for drinking at least five cups a day was 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.6) using the noncancer controls and 1.1 (0.7-1.6) using the cancer controls. Coffee consumption was not associated with an increase in the risk of breast cancer among women with a history of fibrocystic breast disease, nor were tea or decaffeinated coffee associated with an increase in the risk of breast cancer. The results suggest that the recent consumption of coffee does not influence the incidence of breast cancer. PMID:4025289

  19. Typhoid Vaccine in Testing Response to Immune Stress in Patients With Stage I-IIIA Breast Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Depression; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  20. Biotinidase is a novel marker for papillary thyroid cancer aggressiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony K-C So

    Full Text Available Biotinidase was identified in secretome analysis of thyroid cancer cell lines using proteomics. The goal of the current study was to analyze the expression of biotinidase in thyroid cancer tissues and fine needle aspiration (FNA samples to evaluate its diagnostic and prognostic potential in thyroid cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of biotinidase was carried out in 129 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC, 34 benign thyroid tissues and 43 FNA samples and correlated with patients' prognosis. Overall biotinidase expression was decreased in PTC compared to benign nodules (p = 0.001. Comparison of aggressive and non-aggressive PTC showed decrease in overall biotinidase expression in the former (p = 0.001. Loss of overall biotinidase expression was associated with poor disease free survival (p = 0.019, Hazards ratio (HR = 3.1. We examined the effect of subcellular compartmentalization of nuclear and cytoplasmic biotinidase on patient survival. Decreased nuclear expression of biotinidase was observed in PTC as compared to benign tissues (p<0.001. Upon stratification within PTC, nuclear expression was reduced in aggressive as compared to non-aggressive tumors (p<0.001. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significant association of loss of nuclear biotinidase expression with reduced disease free survival (p = 0.014, HR = 5.4. Cytoplasmic biotinidase expression was reduced in aggressive thyroid cancers in comparison with non-aggressive tumors (p = 0.002, Odds ratio (OR = 0.29 which was evident by its significant association with advanced T stage (p = 0.003, OR = 0.28, nodal metastasis (p<0.001, OR = 0.16, advanced TNM stage (p<0.001, OR = 0.21 and extrathyroidal extension (p = 0.001, OR = 0.23. However, in multivariate analysis extrathyroidal extension emerged as the most significant prognostic marker for aggressive thyroid carcinomas (p = 0.015, HR = 12.8. In conclusion, loss of overall

  1. Breast cancer management: Past, present and evolving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is known from ancient time,and the treatment strategy evolved as our understanding of the disease changed with time. In 460 BC Hippocrates described breast cancer as a humoral disease and presently after a lot of studies breast cancer is considered as a local disease with systemic roots. For most of the twentieth century Halsted radical mastectomy was the "established and standardized operation for cancer of the breast in all stages, early or late". New information about tumor biology and its behavior suggested that less radical surgery might be just as effective as the more extensive one. Eventually, with the use of adjuvant therapy likeradiation and systemic therapy, the extent of surgical resection in the breast and axilla got reduced further and led to an era of breast conservation. The radiation treatment of breast cancer has evolved from 2D to 3D Conformal and to accelarated partial breast irradiation, aiming to reduce normal tissue toxicity and overall treatment time. Systemic therapy in the form of hormone therapy, chemotherapy and biological agents is now a well-established modality in treatment of breast cancer. The current perspective of breast cancer management is based on the rapidly evolving and increasingly integrated study on the genetic, molecular , biochemical and cellular basis of disease. The challenge for the future is to take advantage of this knowledge for the prediction of therapeutic outcome and develop therapies and rapidly apply more novel biologic therapeutics.

  2. Defining Aggressive Prostate Cancer Using a 12-Gene Model1

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek A Bismar; Demichelis, Francesca; Riva, Alberto; Kim, Robert; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; He, Le; Kutok, Jeff; Aster, Jonathan C; Tang, Jeffery; Kuefer, Rainer; Hofer, Matthias D.; Febbo, Phillip G; Arul M Chinnaiyan; Mark A. Rubin

    2006-01-01

    The critical clinical question in prostate cancer research is: How do we develop means of distinguishing aggressive disease from indolent disease? Using a combination of proteomic and expression array data, we identified a set of 36 genes with concordant dysregulation of protein products that could be evaluated in situ by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Another five prostate cancer biomarkers were included using linear discriminant analysis, we determined that the optimal model used to pre...

  3. Osteopontin is a marker for cancer aggressiveness and patient survival

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, G.F.; Lett, G S; Haubein, N C

    2010-01-01

    Background: Only a fraction of molecular cancer markers identified in the scientific literature have found clinical use. Specifically, few predictors of invasiveness are established in diagnostics. Meta-analysis is a valuable tool for biomarker validation. Here, we evaluate Osteopontin as a marker for tumor aggressiveness (grade, stage, early progression) and patient survival. Methods: Publications through 2008 with the keywords ‘osteopontin AND cancer' were retrieved. Titles and abstracts we...

  4. Association between breast and thyroid cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association

  5. Breast cancer phenotypes regulated by tissue factor-factor VII pathway: Possible therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizume, Shiro; Miyagi, Yohei

    2014-12-10

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women, worldwide. Fortunately, breast cancer is relatively chemosensitive, with recent advances leading to the development of effective therapeutic strategies, significantly increasing disease cure rate. However, disease recurrence and treatment of cases lacking therapeutic molecular targets, such as epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and hormone receptors, referred to as triple-negative breast cancers, still pose major hurdles in the treatment of breast cancer. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches to treat aggressive breast cancers are essential. Blood coagulation factor VII (fVII) is produced in the liver and secreted into the blood stream. Tissue factor (TF), the cellular receptor for fVII, is an integral membrane protein that plays key roles in the extrinsic coagulation cascade. TF is overexpressed in breast cancer tissues. The TF-fVII complex may be formed in the absence of injury, because fVII potentially exists in the tissue fluid within cancer tissues. The active form of this complex (TF-fVIIa) may stimulate the expression of numerous malignant phenotypes in breast cancer cells. Thus, the TF-fVII pathway is a potentially attractive target for breast cancer treatment. To date, a number of studies investigating the mechanisms by which TF-fVII signaling contributes to breast cancer progression, have been conducted. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms controlling TF and fVII synthesis and regulation in breast cancer cells. Our current understanding of the TF-fVII pathway as a mediator of breast cancer progression will be also described. Finally, we will discuss how this knowledge can be applied to the design of future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25493229

  6. Long-term side effects of adjuvant breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast cancer accounts for one-third of all cancers in females and 24% of the patients are younger than 55 years of age. More than 10% all Dutch women will develop breast cancer and 70-80% of all breast cancer patients will survive over 5 years.

  7. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with

  8. Breast cancer in women using digoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggar, Robert J; Andersen, Louise Elisabeth; Kroman, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Digoxin use is associated with increased incidence of breast and uterus cancers. We postulated that digoxin use might affect tumor characteristics and increase relapse risk in women with breast cancer. METHODS: Incident breast cancer cases in Danish women (n = 49,312; 1995 to 2008...... in Cox regression models. RESULTS: At diagnosis, tumors in digoxin users were more likely ER+ (85.4% vs. 78.6%: P = 0.002) and have grade 1 ductal histology (37.2% vs. 25.7%; P = 0.004), compared to non-users. 45 relapses occurred in women already using digoxin at breast cancer diagnosis (1,487 person...... cancers arising in digoxin-using women had better prognostic features. After adjustment for markers, overall breast cancer relapse risk in digoxin users was not increased significantly, although recurrence hazards for ER+ tumors were higher in the first year following diagnosis....

  9. Manganese superoxide dismutase and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Christensen, Mariann; Lash, Timothy L;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inhibits oxidative damage and cancer therapy effectiveness. A polymorphism in its encoding gene (SOD2: Val16Ala rs4880) may confer poorer breast cancer survival, but data are inconsistent. We examined the association of SOD2 genotype and breast......-metastatic breast cancer from 1990-2001, received adjuvant Cyclo, and were registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. We identified 118 patients with BCR and 213 matched breast cancer controls. We genotyped SOD2 and used conditional logistic regression to compute the odds ratio (OR) and associated 95...... cancer recurrence (BCR) among patients treated with cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy (Cyclo). We compared our findings with published studies using meta-analyses. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of BCR among women in Jutland, Denmark. Subjects were diagnosed with non...

  10. Interleukin-8 in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović-Raković, Nataša; Milovanović, Jelena

    2013-10-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine that has an autocrine and/or paracrine tumor-promoting role and significant potential as a prognostic and/or predictive cancer biomarker. In breast cancer, which is mostly determined by expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), IL-8 could play a specific role. IL-8 is highly expressed in ER- breast cancers, but it increases invasiveness and metastatic potential of both ER- and ER+ breast cancer cells. It is also highly expressed in HER2+ breast cancers. Because of the complex crosstalk between these receptors and IL-8, its role is mainly determined by delicate balance in their signaling pathways. Therefore, the main point of this review was to analyze the possible influence of IL-8 in breast cancer progression related to its interaction with ER and HER2 and the consequent therapeutic implications of these relations.

  11. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center

    OpenAIRE

    Connors, Shahnjayla K.; Goodman, Melody S.; Myckatyn, Terence; Margenthaler, Julie; Gehlert, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is an integral part of breast cancer treatment that positively impacts quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Although breast reconstruction rates have increased over time, African American women remain less likely to receive breast reconstruction compared to Caucasian women. National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers, specialized institutions with more standardized models of cancer treatment, report higher breast r...

  12. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  13. TP53 genetic alterations in Arab breast cancer patients: Novel mutations, pattern and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-QASEM, ABEER J.; TOULIMAT, MOHAMED; ELDALI, ABDELMONEIM M.; TULBAH, ASMA; AL-YOUSEF, NUJOUD; AL-DAIHAN, SOOAD K.; AL-TASSAN, NADA; AL-TWEIGERI, TAHER; ABOUSSEKHRA, ABDELILAH

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health concern. The incidence and mortality of breast cancer varies significantly in ethnically and geographically distinct populations. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) breast cancer has shown an increase in incidence and is characterized by early onset and aggressiveness. The tumor suppressor TP53 gene is a crucial genetic factor that plays a significant role in breast carcinogenesis. Furthermore, studies have shown a correlation between certain p53 mutations and response to therapy in breast cancer. In the present study, TP53 mutations were identified by direct sequencing of the gene (exons 4–9) from 119 breast cancer tissues. The prevalence of TP53 mutations in Arab breast cancer patients living in the KSA is among the highest in the world (40%). Notably, 73% of the patients whose tumors harbored p53 mutations were less than 50 years of age. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified 7 novel mutations and 16 mutations in breast cancer tissues. Notably, all the novel point mutations were found in exon 4, wherein 29% of the mutations were localized. Furthermore, an excess of G:C→A:T transitions (49%) at non-CpG sites was noted, suggesting exposure to particular environmental carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds. The results indicate that the TP53 gene plays a significant role in breast carcinogenesis and the early onset of the disease among Arab female individuals. PMID:22866089

  14. TP53 genetic alterations in Arab breast cancer patients: Novel mutations, pattern and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qasem, Abeer J; Toulimat, Mohamed; Eldali, Abdelmoneim M; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Yousef, Nujoud; Al-Daihan, Sooad K; Al-Tassan, Nada; Al-Tweigeri, Taher; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health concern. The incidence and mortality of breast cancer varies significantly in ethnically and geographically distinct populations. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) breast cancer has shown an increase in incidence and is characterized by early onset and aggressiveness. The tumor suppressor TP53 gene is a crucial genetic factor that plays a significant role in breast carcinogenesis. Furthermore, studies have shown a correlation between certain p53 mutations and response to therapy in breast cancer. In the present study, TP53 mutations were identified by direct sequencing of the gene (exons 4-9) from 119 breast cancer tissues. The prevalence of TP53 mutations in Arab breast cancer patients living in the KSA is among the highest in the world (40%). Notably, 73% of the patients whose tumors harbored p53 mutations were less than 50 years of age. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified 7 novel mutations and 16 mutations in breast cancer tissues. Notably, all the novel point mutations were found in exon 4, wherein 29% of the mutations were localized. Furthermore, an excess of G:C→A:T transitions (49%) at non-CpG sites was noted, suggesting exposure to particular environmental carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds. The results indicate that the TP53 gene plays a significant role in breast carcinogenesis and the early onset of the disease among Arab female individuals. PMID:22866089

  15. Stem cells in human breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Oliveira, Lucinei; Jeffrey, Stefanie S; Ribeiro Silva, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Increasing data support cancer as a stem cell-based disease. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have beenfound in different human cancers, and recent evidenceindicates that breast cancer originates from and ismaintained by its own CSCs, as well as the normalmammary gland. Mammary stem cells and breast CSCshave been identified and purified in in vitroculturesystems, transplantation assays and/or by cell surfaceantigen identification. Cell surface markers enable thefunctional isolation of stem cells that...

  16. European Breast Cancer Service Screening Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig;

    2014-01-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast...... seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer...

  17. Patient-initiated breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the results of a breast cancer screening program sponsored by organizations at workplace or community locations. A comprehensive mobile breast cancer screening program, including education, breast physical examination, and mammography, was provided to 89 local organizations at $50.00 per examination over an 18-month period. The examination was patient initiated, following the ACS screening guidelines. Estimates of eligible women were provided by each organization. A total of 5,030 women at 89 organizations were screened for breast cancer. Approximately 25,727 women were eligible

  18. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative

  19. BRCA1 and miRNAs: An Emerging Therapeutic Target and Intervention Tool in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mintu Pal*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced BRCA1 activity, either by germ-line mutations in inherited breast cancer or by epigenetic down-regulation in sporadic cancers,represents a key pathway in tumour development and progression. Although best known for its role in the maintenance of chromosome integrity, BRCA1 has recently been found to play a role in chromatin remodelling and transcriptional regulation, as well as in mammary epithelial stem cell differentiation or mammary stem cell fate decision. While BRCA1 potentially plays a significant role in both mammary tumour development and malignant progression, its function connection to tumor development is poorly understood. Recent studies have uncovered a new role of BRCA1 in the regulation of small (~19-25 nucleotides non-coding microRNA (miRNA expression in breast cancer cells. Several studies have also shown that aggressive breast cancers and breast cancer stem cells exhibit distinctive profiles of miRNA expression, suggesting that BRCA1 associated differential expression of miRNAs can regulate important cellular functions facilitating the maintenance of breast cancer stem cells and/or promoting breast cancer aggression. In this context, we will review recent progress in the understanding of the BRCA1 function, with emphasis on the implication of the development and progression of breast cancer via differential expression of miRNAs and discuss how these studies can improve our understanding of breast cancer pathogenesis. We will also discuss the perspectives of BRCA1 function through miRNAs and the role of miRNAs in regulating BRCA1 in breast cancer, more specifically tumor suppressor, miR-125 and oncogene, mir-155 as diagnostic and prognostic tools in clinical practice, and as new avenues for therapeutic interventions.

  20. Identification of genes involved in breast cancer and breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolou P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Panagiotis Apostolou, Maria Toloudi, Ioannis Papasotiriou Research and Development Department, Research Genetic Cancer Centre Ltd, Florina, Greece Abstract: Breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in women. Great progress has been made in its treatment but relapse is common. One hypothesis to account for the high recurrence rates is the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple malignant cell types. This study aimed to determine genes that are expressed in breast cancer and breast CSCs and to investigate their correlation with stemness. RNA was extracted from established breast cancer cell lines and from CSCs derived from five different breast cancer patients. DNA microarray analysis was performed and any upregulated genes were also studied in other cancer types, including colorectal and lung cancer. For genes that were expressed only in breast cancer, knockdown-based experiments were performed. Finally, the gene expression levels of stemness transcription factors were measured. The outcome of the analysis indicated a group of genes that were aberrantly expressed mainly in breast cancer cells with stemness properties. Knockdown experiments confirmed the impact of several of these on NANOG, OCT3/4, and SOX2 transcription factors. It seems that several genes that are not directly related with hormone metabolism and basic signal transduction pathways might have an important role in relapse and disease progression and, thus, can be targeted for new treatment approaches for breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, cancer stem cells, stemness, DNA microarray

  1. Cutaneous Silicone Granuloma Mimicking Breast Cancer after Ruptured Breast Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous manifestations due to migration of silicone from ruptured implants are rare. Migrated silicone with cutaneous involvement has been found in the chest wall, abdominal wall, and lower extremities. We describe a case of cutaneous silicone granuloma in the breast exhibiting unusual growth mimicking breast cancer after a ruptured implant.

  2. Breast self examination and survival from breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Geyte, M.; Mant, D.; Vessey, M P; Jones, L.; Yudkin, P

    1992-01-01

    The survival of 616 women aged 15-59 with breast cancer, 226 of whom had been taught and practised breast self examination (BSE) prior to diagnosis and 390 of whom had not, is reported. Six year survival rates were 73.1% in the BSE taught group and 66.1% in other women (P = 0.07).

  3. A new look at breast density and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haars, G.

    2008-01-01

    Breast density, as visible on mammograms, comprises connective and epithelial tissue and can be seen to represent the glandular target tissue for breast cancer, whereas the non-dense tissue mainly comprises fat. High percentages of density are established to be one of the strongest risk factors of b

  4. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  5. Endocurietherapy of breast cancer III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently introduced the implantation of Iridium192 as a method of local treatment of breast cancer in Austria. The afterloading technique is described. This modality should be used as a boost to the 'high-risk' areas following conservative breast surgery and combined with megavoltage external irradiation. Interstitial implantation may also be used as a primary form of treatment. A report on 35 patients is presented, 25 of whom underwent a curative schedule for T1-2, N0-1 tumors. 10 patients were treated individually. The aesthetic results are very pleasing. There were no severe complications and no early local recurrences. The interpretation of the results can be only in the form of trends because of the short follow-up time of 1 year. (Author)

  6. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950-80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiationinduced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer

  7. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  8. Paclitaxel and doxorubicin in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, J; Boesgaard, M; Paaske, T;

    1996-01-01

    be explored. Paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) has been demonstrated to be highly effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer, including those with anthracycline-resistant breast cancer, a fact that has led to efforts to combine paclitaxel and anthracyclines...

  9. Urinary phytoestrogens and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkelaar, den I.; Keinan-Boker, L.; Veer, van't P.; Arts, C.J.M.; Adlercreutz, H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.; Peeters, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant substances that are structurally or functionally similar to estradiol. We report the associations of two major phytoestrogens, genistein and enterolactone, with breast cancer risk, using urinary specimens collected 1-9 years before breast cancer was diagnosed. The

  10. Breast cancer radiotherapy and cardiac risk

    OpenAIRE

    Anusheel Munshi; Kaustav Talapatra; Debanarayan Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women in the developed world and its incidence in the developing world is on the rise. Management of breast cancer requires a multimodality approach and an integration of the services of surgery, radiation, and medical oncology. Radiotherapy after mastectomy or breast conservation leads to reduction in local recurrence by two-thirds. Recent trials and metaanalyses have also demonstrated overall survival benefit with radiotherapy...

  11. Progress of the correlation study between mammographic appearances and expression of p53, Ki-67 in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is one of the most common female malignant tumors. The occurrence and development of breast cancer are often accompanied by abnormal gene expression. It has been well accepted that p53, Ki -67 are the commonly used biological indicators for clinical endocrine therapy and prognosis prediction. The oncogene expression reflects the malignant biological behavior of breast cancer from different perspectives. Those aggressive behaviors cause a variety of changes in histopathology and thus in imaging. Therefore, the imaging features of breast cancer may indirectly demonstrate the status of p53, Ki-67. Until now, because of its facility, low cost and high accuracy, mammography is still the preferred method in breast cancer screening and diagnosis. The relationship of mammographic appearances and gene expression in patients with breast cancer has potential clinical value in preoperative evaluation and planning of non-surgical treatment for those who are not able to perform immunohistochemistry. (authors)

  12. Cannabinoids reduce ErbB2-driven breast cancer progression through Akt inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Juana M; Moreno-Bueno Gema; Cerutti Camilla; Pérez-Gómez Eduardo; Mira Emilia; Andradas Clara; Caffarel María M; García-Real Isabel; Palacios José; Mañes Santos; Guzmán Manuel; Sánchez Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background ErbB2-positive breast cancer is characterized by highly aggressive phenotypes and reduced responsiveness to standard therapies. Although specific ErbB2-targeted therapies have been designed, only a small percentage of patients respond to these treatments and most of them eventually relapse. The existence of this population of particularly aggressive and non-responding or relapsing patients urges the search for novel therapies. The purpose of this study was to determine whe...

  13. ADP ribosylation factor like 2 (Arl2 regulates breast tumor aggressivity in immunodeficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Beghin

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that ADP ribosylation factor like 2 (Arl2, a small GTPase, content influences microtubule dynamics and cell cycle distribution in breast tumor cells, as well as the degree and distribution of phosphorylated P53. Here we show, in two different human breast adenocarcinoma models, that Arl2 content has a major impact on breast tumor cell aggressivity both in vitro and in vivo. Cells with reduced content of Arl2 displayed reduced contact inhibition, increased clonogenic or cluster formation as well as a proliferative advantage over control cells in an in vitro competition assay. These cells also caused larger tumors in SCID mice, a phenotype which was mimicked by the in vivo administration of siRNA directed against Arl2. Cells with increased Arl2 content displayed reduced aggressivity, both in vitro and in vivo, with enhanced necrosis and were also found to contain increased PP2A phosphatase activity. A rt-PCR analysis of fresh human tumor breast samples suggested that low Arl2 expression was associated with larger tumor size and greater risk of lymph node involvement at diagnosis. These data underline the role of Arl2, a small GTPase, as an important regulator of breast tumor cell aggressivity, both in vitro and in vivo.

  14. A review on metastatic breast cancer in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Alizadeh Otaghvar; Mostafa Hosseini; Adnan Tizmaghz; Ghazaal Shabestanipour; Hamid Noori

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is a disease of early breast cancer that usually occurs several years after the early breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. According to the new statistics in Iran 6160 breast cancers are diagnosed in the country each year and 1063 cases lead to death. In this paper, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment have been investigated. In this study, case–control clinical trials and open studies with adequate data were collected. Due to t...

  15. A refined molecular taxonomy of breast cancer. : molecular classification of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Guedj, Michael; Marisa, Laëtitia; De Reynies, Aurélien; Orsetti, Béatrice; Schiappa, Renaud; Bibeau, Frédéric; MacGrogan, Gaëtan; Lerebours, Florence; Finetti, Pascal; Longy, Michel; Bertheau, Philippe; Bertrand, Françoise; Bonnet, Françoise; Martin, Anne-Laure; Feugeas, Jean-Paul

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The current histoclinical breast cancer classification is simple but imprecise. Several molecular classifications of breast cancers based on expression profiling have been proposed as alternatives. However, their reliability and clinical utility have been repeatedly questioned, notably because most of them were derived from relatively small initial patient populations. We analyzed the transcriptomes of 537 breast tumors using three unsupervised classification methods. ...

  16. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses......, in breast cancer survivors could regulate breast cancer cell viability in vitro. Methods: Blood samples were collected from breast cancer survivors, partaking in either a 6-month training intervention or across a 2 h acute exercise session. Changes in training parameters and systemic factors were evaluated...... and pre/post exercise-conditioned sera from both studies were used to stimulate breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro. Results: Six months of training increased VO2peak (16.4 %, p

  17. FGF receptor genes and breast cancer susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, D; Pineda, S; Michailidou, K;

    2014-01-01

    Background:Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying...... genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.Methods:Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry......, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression.Results:Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk...

  18. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...... excluded a biased trial and included 600,000 women in the analyses. Three trials with adequate randomisation did not show a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality at 13 years (relative risk (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 1.02); four trials with suboptimal randomisation showed...... a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality with an RR of 0.75 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.83). The RR for all seven trials combined was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.87). We found that breast cancer mortality was an unreliable outcome that was biased in favour of screening, mainly because of differential...

  19. PDL1 expression in inflammatory breast cancer is frequent and predicts for the pathological response to chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bertucci, François; Finetti, Pascal; Colpaert, Cécile; Mamessier, Emilie; Parizel, Maxime; Dirix, Luc; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel; Van Laere, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed PDL1 mRNA expression in 306 breast cancer samples, including 112 samples of an aggressive form, inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). PDL1 expression was heterogeneous, but was higher in IBC than in non-IBC. Compared to normal breast samples, PDL1 was overexpressed in 38% of IBC. In IBC, PDL1 overexpression was associated with estrogen receptor-negative status, basal and ERBB2-enriched aggressive subtypes, and clinico-biological signs of anti-tumor T-cell cytotoxic res...

  20. SATB1 tethers multiple gene loci to reprogram expression profiledriving breast cancer metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hye-Jung; Kohwi, Yoshinori; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2006-07-13

    Global changes in gene expression occur during tumor progression, as indicated by expression profiling of metastatic tumors. How this occurs is poorly understood. SATB1 functions as a genome organizer by folding chromatin via tethering multiple genomic loci and recruiting chromatin remodeling enzymes to regulate chromatin structure and expression of a large number of genes. Here we show that SATB1 is expressed at high levels in aggressive breast cancer cells, and is undetectable in non-malignant breast epithelial cells. Importantly, RNAi-mediated removal of SATB1 from highly-aggressive MDA-MB-231 cells altered the expression levels of over 1200 genes, restored breast-like acinar polarity in three-dimensional cultures, and prevented the metastastic phenotype in vivo. Conversely, overexpression of SATB1 in the less-aggressive breast cancer cell line Hs578T altered the gene expression profile and increased metastasis dramatically in vivo. Thus, SATB1 is a global regulator of gene expression in breast cancer cells, directly regulating crucial metastasis-associated genes, including ERRB2 (HER2/NEU), TGF-{beta}1, matrix metalloproteinase 3, and metastasin. The identification of SATB1 as a protein that re-programs chromatin organization and transcription profiles to promote breast cancer metastasis suggests a new model for metastasis and may provide means of therapeutic intervention.

  1. Breast-feeding and breast cancer in the offspring.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekbom, A.; C. C. Hsieh; Trichopoulos, D; Yen, Y. Y.; Petridou, E; Adami, H. O.

    1993-01-01

    The causation of breast cancer in certain strains of mice by a virus that can be transmitted vertically, through the milk produced during lactation, has led to the hypothesis that a similar phenomenon could exist in humans. There have been laboratory-based studies in humans suggesting that a virus may be involved in the etiology of female breast cancer although other investigations did not support this hypothesis. Descriptive data and epidemiologic evidence of ecologic nature do not indicate ...

  2. Depression in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Jovana; Nenadović, Milutin

    2016-06-30

    Breast cancer is the third most common illness in the world and the most frequent malignant disease with women. Cytotoxic therapy is connected to significant psychiatric adverse effects, and the appearance of depressive symptoms is the most common. The main goal is determining the degree of depression with breast cancer patients in the oncology ward of the University Clinical Hospital in Niš and its connection to their marital status, age, level of education, economic status and the number of therapy cycles. This research is a prospective study. The statistical data analysis included measures of descriptive and analytical statistics. The presence of depressive symptoms of different intensity was showed in 76.00% of the interviewees in group I, and the second included 77.4%. The frequency distributions show that 27.084% interviewees from the first group showed signs of depressive symptoms, while the second included 25%. The intensity of these symptoms categorizes them into the group of moderate to significantly expressed depressive states, so they require therapeutic treatment. Depression is significantly more often recorded with cancer patients receiving cytotoxic therapy; mild depression is the most common, followed by moderate and severe depression. PMID:27138829

  3. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  4. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Sherman, Mark E;

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancers demonstrate substantial biological, clinical and etiological heterogeneity. We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes. Subtype...

  5. Role of KCNMA1 in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oeggerli

    Full Text Available KCNMA1 encodes the α-subunit of the large conductance, voltage and Ca(2+-activated (BK potassium channel and has been reported as a target gene of genomic amplification at 10q22 in prostate cancer. To investigate the prevalence of the amplification in other human cancers, the copy number of KCNMA1 was analyzed by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH in 2,445 tumors across 118 different tumor types. Amplification of KCNMA1 was restricted to a small but distinct fraction of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer with the highest prevalence in invasive ductal breast cancers and serous carcinoma of ovary and endometrium (3-7%. We performed an extensive analysis on breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMA of 1,200 tumors linked to prognosis. KCNMA1 amplification was significantly associated with high tumor stage, high grade, high tumor cell proliferation, and poor prognosis. Immunofluorescence revealed moderate or strong KCNMA1 protein expression in 8 out of 9 human breast cancers and in the breast cancer cell line MFM223. KCNMA1-function in breast cancer cell lines was confirmed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings and proliferation assays, using siRNA-knockdown, BK channel activators such as 17ß-estradiol and the BK-channel blocker paxilline. Our findings revealed that enhanced expression of KCNMA1 correlates with and contributes to high proliferation rate and malignancy of breast cancer.

  6. Lymphedema: What Every Woman with Breast Cancer Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Lymphedema: What Every Woman With Breast Cancer Should Know ... for breast cancer may be at risk for lymphedema in the arm, breast, and chest. Here we ...

  7. A case of synchronous multiple bilateral breast cancer after breast augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Chishima, Takashi; Harada, Fumi; Matsubara, Yuka

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer after breast augmentation is not rare, but cases of bilateral breast cancer after augmentation are not often reported. A 43-year-old woman attended our hospital because of a mass in her left breast. She had undergone breast augmentation by implants 4 years before at a cosmetic surgery clinic. There were operative scars in her bilateral axilla. A detailed examination revealed bilateral breast cancer, and we performed nipple-sparing mastectomy in both breasts. Sentinel lymph node ...

  8. Blood-based biomarkers of aggressive prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Men Long Liong

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is a bimodal disease with aggressive and indolent forms. Current prostate-specific-antigen testing and digital rectal examination screening provide ambiguous results leading to both under-and over-treatment. Accurate, consistent diagnosis is crucial to risk-stratify patients and facilitate clinical decision making as to treatment versus active surveillance. Diagnosis is currently achieved by needle biopsy, a painful procedure. Thus, there is a clinical need for a minimally-invasive test to determine prostate cancer aggressiveness. A blood sample to predict Gleason score, which is known to reflect aggressiveness of the cancer, could serve as such a test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood mRNA was isolated from North American and Malaysian prostate cancer patients/controls. Microarray analysis was conducted utilizing the Affymetrix U133 plus 2·0 platform. Expression profiles from 255 patients/controls generated 85 candidate biomarkers. Following quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis, ten disease-associated biomarkers remained for paired statistical analysis and normalization. RESULTS: Microarray analysis was conducted to identify 85 genes differentially expressed between aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8 and controls. Expression of these genes was qRT-PCR verified. Statistical analysis yielded a final seven-gene panel evaluated as six gene-ratio duplexes. This molecular signature predicted as aggressive (ie, Gleason score ≥8 55% of G6 samples, 49% of G7(3+4, 79% of G7(4+3 and 83% of G8-10, while rejecting 98% of controls. CONCLUSION: In this study, we have developed a novel, blood-based biomarker panel which can be used as the basis of a simple blood test to identify men with aggressive prostate cancer and thereby reduce the overdiagnosis and overtreatment that currently results from diagnosis using PSA alone. We discuss possible clinical uses of the panel to identify men more likely to benefit from

  9. Breast cancer screening among females in Iran and recommendations for improved practice: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Giridhara R; Samari, Goleen; Cohen, Sharon Phoebe; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Wahbe, Randa May; Mermash, Sherin; Galal, Osman M

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer amongst women, in Iran comprising 21.4% of female cancers. There are several screening modalities for breast cancer including breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and mammography. This research reviews the literature surrounding the implementation of these screening approaches in the Islamic Republic of Iran. After initial results produced approximately 208 articles, a total of 96 articles were included because they specifically addressed epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer, culture, religion, health seeking behavior, screening programs and the health system in Iran. Literature showed that breast self-examination and clinical breast examination were most common as there is no population-based mammography screening program in Iran. Additionally, most women appear to obtain information through the mass media. Results also indicate that Islamic beliefs and preventative medicine are very much aligned and can be used to promote breast cancer screening in Iran. These results highlight that there is a need for aggressive preventative measures focusing on breast self examination and gradually moving towards national mammography programs in Iran ideally disseminated through the media with government support.

  10. Review of ultrasound appearance in inflammatory breast cancer: A pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardhana, Dilupani Y; Nascimento, Vinicius C; Dissanayake, Deepthi; Taylor, Donna; Metcalf, Cecily; Saunders, Christobel; Wylie, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare malignancy accounting for 1-2% of breast cancers. It has an aggressive clinical presentation and poor prognosis. The sonographic findings in 41 patients with a clinical diagnosis of IBC and biopsy-proven breast malignancy are presented in this study. The most common finding was the presence of skin thickening (92%). Multiple small anechoic spaces within the dermis, correlating with the presence of dermal lymphatic invasion by tumour emboli on histopathology were noted in approximately one-third of cases. Other sonographic findings included single or multiple masses, parenchymal oedema, axillary lymphadenopathy, echogenic foci consistent with microcalcifications and increased vascularity. PMID:26631841

  11. Initial evaluation of inflammatory breast cancer with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Sager, Sait; Asa, Sertac; Doner, Rana Kaya; Leblebici, Cem; Halac, Metin

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive form of locally advanced breast cancer. We present here 18F FDG PET/CT findings of two patients with IBC. These patients were referred to the Nuclear Medicine department for staging of IBC. FDG PET/CT images showed diffuse infiltration of breasts with multiple lymph nodes and multiple metastases in whole-body PET/CT images. FDG PET provides additional information regarding lymph nodes or distant metastases in the initial evaluation of IBC.

  12. Initial evaluation of inflammatory breast cancer with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive form of locally advanced breast cancer. We present here '18F FDG PET/CT findings of two patients with IBC. These patients were referred to the Nuclear Medicine department for staging of IBC. FDG PET/CT images showed diffuse infiltration of breasts with multiple lymph nodes and multiple metastases in whole-body PET/CT images. FDG PET provides additional information regarding lymph nodes or distant metastases in the initial evaluation of IBC. (author)

  13. 78 FR 61805 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... against breast cancer. While we still do not know the exact causes, we do know that some women are at an... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9028 of September 30, 2013 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By... solidarity with those battling breast cancer and those at risk for breast cancer. This disease touches...

  14. Use of proteomics for the early diagnosis fo breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, A.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality rates in The Netherlands are among the highest in Europe. To improve breast cancer survival, early detection is of vital importance. The introduction of the national breast cancer screening program has led to an improvement in stage distribution at diagnosis of breast cancer.

  15. Breast-conservation treatment of breast cancer in elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent 3 years, 8 elderly women with breast cancer of various stages were treated with breast-conservation treatment (BCT) combined with endocrine therapy and/or systemic chemotherapy mainly based on patients' obvious desire. Until now, one out of these 8 patients had died of heart failure with no evidence of breast cancer progression, and the other 7 patients are alive with no evidence of disease. As for side effects of the therapy, no severe sequelae have been experienced so far. Cosmetic results of the therapy were considerably sufficient. (author)

  16. Questionnaires in Identifying Upper Extremity Function and Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-24

    Musculoskeletal Complication; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-Related Toxicity

  17. Cyclin D1, Id1 and EMT in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehn Sophie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclin D1 is a well-characterised cell cycle regulator with established oncogenic capabilities. Despite these properties, studies report contrasting links to tumour aggressiveness. It has previously been shown that silencing cyclin D1 increases the migratory capacity of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with concomitant increase in 'inhibitor of differentiation 1' (ID1 gene expression. Id1 is known to be associated with more invasive features of cancer and with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Here, we sought to determine if the increase in cell motility following cyclin D1 silencing was mediated by Id1 and enhanced EMT-features. To further substantiate these findings we aimed to delineate the link between CCND1, ID1 and EMT, as well as clinical properties in primary breast cancer. Methods Protein and gene expression of ID1, CCND1 and EMT markers were determined in MDA-MB-231 and ZR75 cells by western blot and qPCR. Cell migration and promoter occupancy were monitored by transwell and ChIP assays, respectively. Gene expression was analysed from publicly available datasets. Results The increase in cell migration following cyclin D1 silencing in MDA-MB-231 cells was abolished by Id1 siRNA treatment and we observed cyclin D1 occupancy of the Id1 promoter region. Moreover, ID1 and SNAI2 gene expression was increased following cyclin D1 knock-down, an effect reversed with Id1 siRNA treatment. Similar migratory and SNAI2 increases were noted for the ER-positive ZR75-1 cell line, but in an Id1-independent manner. In a meta-analysis of 1107 breast cancer samples, CCND1low/ID1high tumours displayed increased expression of EMT markers and were associated with reduced recurrence free survival. Finally, a greater percentage of CCND1low/ID1high tumours were found in the EMT-like 'claudin-low' subtype of breast cancer than in other subtypes. Conclusions These results indicate that increased migration of MDA-MB-231 cells following

  18. Female breast cancer in Vietnam:a comparison across Asian speciifc regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phuong Dung Yun Trieu; Claudia Mello-Thoms; Patrick C. Brennan

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies and the leading cause of cancer death of women over the world. A large number of females with breast cancer in Vietnam and other Southeast Asian (SEA) countries present at an early age with more aggressive tumors compared with women in Australia. Despite experiencing a low incidence rate, the increasing incidence rate among SEA countries exceeds that of the Westernized world. Changes in reproductive factors, environmental exposures, and lifestyle are the possible causes of this trend. However, limited evidence shows that these factors are associated with breast cancer in the Vietnamese population. Breast cancer incidence rates within Vietnam are not uniform and appear to be dependent on geographic location. Findings from this review have important implications for breast cancer control and treatment in Vietnam. A good understanding of the morphology of the breast and the type and nature of breast cancers presenting in Vietnam is required to facilitate the introduction of an effective national breast screening program.

  19. FoxD3 deficiency promotes breast cancer progression by induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. • FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • FoxD3 deficiency induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition. - Abstract: The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) plays an important role in the development of neural crest and gastric cancer cells. However, the function and mechanisms of FOXD3 in the breast tumorigenesis and progression is still limited. Here, we report that FOXD3 is a tumor suppressor of breast cancer tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. We found that FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. Patients with low FOXD3 expression have a poor outcome. Depletion of FOXD3 expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, whereas overexpression of FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, depletion of FOXD3 is linked to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype. Our results indicate FOXD3 exhibits tumor suppressive activity and may be useful for breast therapy

  20. FoxD3 deficiency promotes breast cancer progression by induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Tian-Li [Department of General Surgery, The People’s Hospital of Wuqing, Tianjin (China); Zhao, Hong-Meng [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Li, Yue [Department of Respiration, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin (China); Chen, Ao-Xiang; Sun, Xuan [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Ge, Jie, E-mail: gejie198003@163.com [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. • FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • FoxD3 deficiency induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition. - Abstract: The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) plays an important role in the development of neural crest and gastric cancer cells. However, the function and mechanisms of FOXD3 in the breast tumorigenesis and progression is still limited. Here, we report that FOXD3 is a tumor suppressor of breast cancer tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. We found that FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. Patients with low FOXD3 expression have a poor outcome. Depletion of FOXD3 expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, whereas overexpression of FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, depletion of FOXD3 is linked to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype. Our results indicate FOXD3 exhibits tumor suppressive activity and may be useful for breast therapy.

  1. Screening for breast cancer post reduction mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate whether remodelling of the breast after breast reduction surgery has an effect on mammographic cancer detection. Methods and materials: For women who attended population-based screening between January 1998 to December 2007, data were extracted on their age, history of previous breast reduction, and the result of screening (recall for further assessment, cancer, or no cancer). The number of cancers detected, recalls per 1000 screens and the characteristics of the cancers detected in the two groups was compared. Results: In total 244,147 women with 736,219 screening episodes were reviewed. In the 4743 women who had a breast reduction, 51 breast cancers were detected [age standardized rate (ASR) of 4.28 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 3.11-5.46], compared with 4342 breast cancers in 239 404 women screened in the non-reduction group (ASR of 5.99 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 5.81-6.16). There were fewer cancers in the breast reduction group with a relative risk of 0.71. There was no significant difference in the rate of recall between the two groups, with a crude recall rate of 46.1 per 1000 screening episodes post-breast reduction compared with 50.7 per 1000 screening episodes for women without breast reduction. There was no significant difference in the pathological type or location of the cancer between the two groups of women. Conclusion: Postoperative breast changes following reduction mammoplasty do not significantly hinder analysis of the screening mammogram.

  2. Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer MH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Magid H Amer Department of Medicine, St Rita's Medical Center, Lima, OH, USA Background: Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. Methods: In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9% patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1% with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0% with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3% patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0% had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7% had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18% compared with unilateral (28% and metachronous primaries (90%. There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%, opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%, and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163. This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1% or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689. There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ≤5

  3. Breast Cancer and its Radiotherapeutic Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women after skin cancer. In Iran, the presentation age of this cancer is younger than the global average. There are different therapeutic methods for treatment of breast cancer and the choice of treatment depends on the stage of the disease as well as its type and characteristics. Therapeutic methods include surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, each consisting of a variety of techniques. The two main surgical techniques are lumpectomy and mastectomy. The main systemic methods are biological therapy (immunotherapy), hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy is mainly categorized into external-beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. In this paper, we present a brief review of the different types of breast cancer and their treatments using conventional and modern radiotherapy methods, as well as the treatment efficacy and side effects of breast radiotherapy.

  4. Aetio-pathogenesis of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Haruna Abdulkareem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a literature review on the aetiology and pathogenesis of breast cancer, which is the most common cancer worldwide, and the second leading cause of cancer death, especially in Western countries. Several aetiological factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis, and include age, genetics, family history, diet, alcohol, obesity, lifestyle, physical inactivity, as well as endocrine factors. These factors act separately or together in the causation of breast cancer. More recently, triple negative breast cancer has been described in certain categories of patients and is associated with poorer prognosis and earlier recurrence compared with the conventional breast cancer. Therefore, adequate knowledge of these factors is important in identifying high risk groups and individuals, which will help in screening, early detection and follow-up. This will help to decrease the morbidity and mortality from this life-threatening disease.

  5. Estimation of volumetric breast density for breast cancer risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.; Boyd, Norman F.; Jong, Roberta A.

    2000-04-01

    Mammographic density (MD) has been shown to be a strong risk predictor for breast cancer. Compared to subjective assessment by a radiologist, computer-aided analysis of digitized mammograms provides a quantitative and more reproducible method for assessing breast density. However, the current methods of estimating breast density based on the area of bright signal in a mammogram do not reflect the true, volumetric quantity of dense tissue in the breast. A computerized method to estimate the amount of radiographically dense tissue in the overall volume of the breast has been developed to provide an automatic, user-independent tool for breast cancer risk assessment. The procedure for volumetric density estimation consists of first correcting the image for inhomogeneity, then performing a volume density calculation. First, optical sensitometry is used to convert all images to the logarithm of relative exposure (LRE), in order to simplify the image correction operations. The field non-uniformity correction, which takes into account heel effect, inverse square law, path obliquity and intrinsic field and grid non- uniformity is obtained by imaging a spherical section PMMA phantom. The processed LRE image of the phantom is then used as a correction offset for actual mammograms. From information about the thickness and placement of the breast, as well as the parameters of a breast-like calibration step wedge placed in the mammogram, MD of the breast is calculated. Post processing and a simple calibration phantom enable user- independent, reliable and repeatable volumetric estimation of density in breast-equivalent phantoms. Initial results obtained on known density phantoms show the estimation to vary less than 5% in MD from the actual value. This can be compared to estimated mammographic density differences of 30% between the true and non-corrected values. Since a more simplistic breast density measurement based on the projected area has been shown to be a strong indicator

  6. Does Secondary Inflammatory Breast Cancer Represent Post-Surgical Metastatic Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Salman Hashmi; Ladan Zolfaghari; Levine, Paul H

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of accelerated tumor growth following surgery has been observed repeatedly and merits further study. Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) is widely recognized as an extremely aggressive malignancy characterized by micrometastasis at the time of diagnosis, with one interesting subgroup defined as secondary IBC where pathologically identifiable IBC appears after surgical treatment of a primary non-inflammatory breast cancer. One possible mechanism can be related to the stimulation...

  7. Preferential, enhanced breast cancer cell migration on biomimetic electrospun nanofiber ‘cell highways’

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Mark Tyler; Short, Aaron; Cole, Sara L.; Gross, Amy C; Winter, Jessica; Eubank, Tim D.; Lannutti, John J

    2014-01-01

    Background Aggressive metastatic breast cancer cells seemingly evade surgical resection and current therapies, leading to colonization in distant organs and tissues and poor patient prognosis. Therefore, high-throughput in vitro tools allowing rapid, accurate, and novel anti-metastatic drug screening are grossly overdue. Conversely, aligned nanofiber constitutes a prominent component of the late-stage breast tumor margin extracellular matrix. This parallel suggests that the use of a synthetic...

  8. Chromosomal instability detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in Japanese breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, S; Kawasome, C; Kinoshita, M; Koyama, H; Noguchi, S

    2001-06-01

    The relationship between chromosomal instability (CIN) and prognostic factors was investigated in 31 breast cancers and 5 benign breast lesions (three fibroadenomas and two papillomas). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific DNA probes of chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, 10, 11, 17 and 18, CIN for each case was determined. CIN varied from 8.1% to 59.3% among the breast cancer patients tested, and was significantly higher than that observed in the benign breast lesions (p<0.01). Moreover, CIN showed a significant correlation with lymph node metastases (p<0.05) and estrogen receptor negativity (p<0.01). These findings suggest that CIN might be useful in the prediction of the biological aggressiveness of breast cancers. PMID:11412824

  9. Preventing aggressive prostate cancer with proven cardiovascular disease preventive methods

    OpenAIRE

    Moyad, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death in the U.S. for 114 of the last 115 years. Risk factors for prostate cancer have primarily mirrored risk proven risk factors for CVD, especially aggressive disease. Obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, unhealthy dietary habits or caloric excess, lack of physical activity, and inflammation are just some of these shared risk factors. The evidence also suggests proven CVD preventive measures are identi...

  10. Computational Analysis of mRNA Expression Profiles Identifies the ITG Family and PIK3R3 as Crucial Genes for Regulating Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Klahan, Sukhontip; Wu, Mei-Shin; Hsi, Edward; Huang, Chi-Cheng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2014-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2/neu). TNBC has worse clinical outcomes than other breast cancer subtypes. However, the key molecules and mechanisms of TNBC migration remain unclear. In this study, we compared two normalized microarray datasets from GEO database between Asian (GSE33926) and non-Asian populations (GSE46581) to det...

  11. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyuan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges.

  12. Cytogenetic report of a male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, L R; Rogatto, S R; Rainho, C A;

    1995-01-01

    of chromosome 8 in the characterization of the subtype of ductal breast carcinomas and demonstrate that chromosome 17, which is frequently involved in female breast cancers, is also responsible for the development or progression of primary breast cancers in males.......The cytogenetic findings on G-banding in an infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma in a 69-year-old man are reported. The main abnormalities observed were trisomy of chromosomes 8 and 9 and structural rearrangement in the long arm of chromosome 17 (add(17)(q25)). Our results confirm the trisomy...

  13. Suppression of Ovarian Function With Either Tamoxifen or Exemestane Compared With Tamoxifen Alone in Treating Premenopausal Women With Hormone-Responsive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  14. Characterization of a naturally occurring breast cancer subset enriched in EMT and stem cell characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, Bryan T.; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana-Maria; Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Gilcrease, Michael Z.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Lee, Ju-Seog; Fridlyand, Jane; Sahin, Aysegul; Agarwal, Roshan; Joy, Corwin; Liu, Wenbin; Stivers, David; Baggerly, Keith; Carey, Mark; Lluch, Ana; Monteagudo, Carlos; He, Xiaping; Weigman, Victor; Fan, Cheng; Palazzo, Juan; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Nolden, Laura K.; Wang, Nicholas J.; Valero, Vicente; Gray, Joe W.; Perou, Charles M.; Mills, Gordon B.

    2009-05-19

    Metaplastic breast cancers (MBC) are aggressive, chemoresistant tumors characterized by lineage plasticity. To advance understanding of their pathogenesis and relatedness to other breast cancer subtypes, 28 MBCs were compared with common breast cancers using comparative genomic hybridization, transcriptional profiling, and reverse-phase protein arrays and by sequencing for common breast cancer mutations. MBCs showed unique DNA copy number aberrations compared with common breast cancers. PIK3CA mutations were detected in 9 of 19 MBCs (47.4%) versus 80 of 232 hormone receptor-positive cancers (34.5%; P = 0.32), 17 of 75 HER-2-positive samples (22.7%; P = 0.04), 20 of 240 basal-like cancers (8.3%; P < 0.0001), and 0 of 14 claudin-low tumors (P = 0.004). Of 7 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway phosphorylation sites, 6 were more highly phosphorylated in MBCs than in other breast tumor subtypes. The majority of MBCs displayed mRNA profiles different from those of the most common, including basal-like cancers. By transcriptional profiling, MBCs and the recently identified claudin-low breast cancer subset constitute related receptor-negative subgroups characterized by low expression of GATA3-regulated genes and of genes responsible for cell-cell adhesion with enrichment for markers linked to stem cell function and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In contrast to other breast cancers, claudin-low tumors and most MBCs showed a significant similarity to a 'tumorigenic' signature defined using CD44{sup +}/CD24{sup -} breast tumor-initiating stem cell-like cells. MBCs and claudin-low tumors are thus enriched in EMT and stem cell-like features, and may arise from an earlier, more chemoresistant breast epithelial precursor than basal-like or luminal cancers. PIK3CA mutations, EMT, and stem cell-like characteristics likely contribute to the poor outcomes of MBC and suggest novel therapeutic targets.

  15. Management of breast cancer in very young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Shoshana M; Partridge, Ann H

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women age 40 and younger in developed countries, and although generally improving, survival rates for young women with breast cancer remain lower than for older women. Young women are more likely to develop more aggressive subtypes of breast cancer (more triple negative and more Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 [HER2]-positive disease) and present with more advanced stage disease. Previous research has demonstrated that young age is an independent risk factor for disease recurrence and death, although recent data suggest this may not be the case in certain tumor molecular subtypes. Recent preliminary evidence suggests potential unique biologic features of breast cancer that occurs in young women although this has yet to have been translated into treatment differences. There are clearly host differences that affect the management of breast cancer for young patients including generally being premenopausal at diagnosis, and fertility, genetics, and social/emotional issues in particular should be considered early in the course of their care. Despite an increased risk of local recurrence, young age alone is not a contraindication to breast conserving therapy given the equivalent survival seen in this population with either mastectomy or breast conservation. However, many young women in recent years are choosing bilateral mastectomy, even without a known hereditary predisposition to the disease. For those who need chemotherapy, multi-agent chemotherapy and biologic therapy targeting the tumor similar to the treatment in older women is the standard approach. Select young women will do well with hormone therapy only. Recent data from the TEXT and SOFT trials evaluating the optimal endocrine therapy for the first 5 years, and the ATTom and ATLAS trials demonstrating benefit from extended duration of tamoxifen (10 vs. 5 years), have further defined options for adjuvant endocrine therapy for young women

  16. Understanding Lymphedema (For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Understanding Lymphedema: For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Lymphedema can be caused by surgery or radiation therapy ...

  17. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk ... June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women with a gene mutation known as BRCA1 have an increased risk ...

  18. Radiation as a cause of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening

  19. Radiation as a cause of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Silverstone, S.M.

    1976-09-01

    The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening.

  20. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P;

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use....

  1. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed.

  2. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:269-281, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27060854

  3. Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ≤5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). High similarities

  4. Friend leukemia virus integration 1 activates the Rho GTPase pathway and is associated with metastasis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Li, Wei; Li, Lingyu; Zhang, Shilin; Yan, Xu; Wen, Xue; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Huimin; Li, Ailing; Hu, Ji-Fan; Cui, Jiuwei

    2015-09-15

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignant disease in women worldwide. In patients with breast cancer, metastasis to distant sites directly determines the survival outcome. However, the molecular mechanism underlying metastasis in breast cancer remains to be defined. In this report, we found that Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (FLI1) proto-oncogene was differentially expressed between the aggressive MDA-MB231 and the non-aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Congruently, immunohistochemical staining of clinical samples revealed that FLI1 was overexpressed in breast cancers as compared with the adjacent tissues. The abundance of FLI1 protein was strongly correlated with the advanced stage, poor differentiation, and lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients. Knockdown of FLI1 with small interfering RNAs significantly attenuated the potential of migration and invasion in highly metastatic human breast cancer cells. FLI1 oncoprotein activated the Rho GTPase pathway that is known to play a role in tumor metastasis. This study for the first time identifies FLI1 as a clinically and functionally important target gene of metastasis, providing a rationale for developing FLI1 inhibitors in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26156017

  5. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Dunning, Alison M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Rosenberg, Efraim H.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J.; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N.; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.19, P = 8.88 x 10−16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16–1.32, P = 6.19 x 10−11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  6. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa M Pelttari

    Full Text Available Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS. We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259 and population controls (n = 3586 from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR: 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.11-1.19, P = 8.88 x 10-16 and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16-1.32, P = 6.19 x 10-11, compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk.

  7. GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer cells and patient breast cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Gowrishankar

    Full Text Available F18 2-Fluoro 2-deoxyglucose (FDG has been the gold standard in positron emission tomography (PET oncologic imaging since its introduction into the clinics several years ago. Seeking to complement FDG in the diagnosis of breast cancer using radio labeled fructose based analogs, we investigated the expression of the chief fructose transporter-GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells and human tissues. Our results indicate that GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer tissues as assessed by an extensive immunohistochemistry study. RT-PCR studies showed that the GLUT 5 mRNA was present at minimal amounts in breast cancer cell lines. Further knocking down the expression of GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells using RNA interference did not affect the fructose uptake in these cell lines. Taken together these results are consistent with GLUT 5 not being essential for fructose uptake in breast cancer cells and tissues.

  8. Cyr61 promotes breast tumorigenesis and cancer progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Bogart, Daphne F.; Castaneda, Jessica M.; Li, Patricia; Lupu, Ruth

    2002-01-16

    Cyr61, a member of the CCN family of genes, is an angiogenic factor. We have shown that it is overexpressed in invasive and metastatic human breast cancer cells and tissues. Here, we investigated whether Cyr61 is necessary and/or sufficient to bypass the ''normal'' estrogen (E2) requirements for breast cancer cell growth. Our results demonstrate that under E2-depleted condition, Cyr61 is sufficient to induce MCF-7 cells grow in the absence of E2. MCF-7 cells transfected with Cyr61 (MCF-7/Cyr61) became E2-independent but still E2-responsive. On the other hand, MCF-7/vector cells remain E2-dependent. MCF-7/Cyr61 cells acquire an antiestrogen-resistant phenotype, one of the most common clinical occurrences during breast cancer progression. MCF-7/Cyr61 cells are anchorage-independent and capable of forming Matrigel outgrowth patterns in the absence of E2. ERa expression in MCF-7/Cyr61 cells is decreased although still functional. Additionally, MCF-7/Cyr61 cells are tumorigenic in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. The tumors resemble human invasive carcinomas with increased vascularization and overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our results demonstrate that Cyr61 is a tumor-promoting factor and a key regulator of breast cancer progression. This study provides evidence that Cyr61 is sufficient to induce E2-independence and anti-E2 resistance, and to promote invasiveness in vitro, and to induce tumorigenesis in vivo, all of which are characteristics of an aggressive breast cancer phenotype.

  9. Breast cancer onset in twins and women with bilateral disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartman, Mikael; Hall, Per; Edgren, Gustaf;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Little is known of the onset of breast cancer in high-risk populations. We investigated the risk of breast cancer in twin sisters and in the contralateral breast taking family history into consideration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed a Scandinavian population-based cohort of 2......,499 female twin pairs, in which at least one had a diagnosis of breast cancer and estimated the risk of breast cancer in the sister. Using a total of 11 million individuals in Sweden with complete family links, we identified 93,448 women with breast cancer and estimated the risk of a bilateral breast cancer....... RESULTS: The incidence of breast cancer in twin sisters of breast cancer patients was 0.64% per year and 0.42% per year in mono- and dizygotic twin sisters, respectively. In comparison, the risk of familial (affected first-degree relative) and nonfamilial bilateral breast cancer was 1.03% per year and 0...

  10. Hypoxia Induced Tumor Metabolic Switch Contributes to Pancreatic Cancer Aggressiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains one of the most lethal of all solid tumors with an overall five-year survival rate of only 3–5%. Its aggressive biology and resistance to conventional and targeted therapeutic agents lead to a typical clinical presentation of incurable disease once diagnosed. The disease is characterized by the presence of a dense stroma of fibroblasts and inflammatory cells, termed desmoplasia, which limits the oxygen diffusion in the organ, creating a strong hypoxic environment within the tumor. In this review, we argue that hypoxia is responsible for the highly aggressive and metastatic characteristics of this tumor and drives pancreatic cancer cells to oncogenic and metabolic changes facilitating their proliferation. However, the molecular changes leading to metabolic adaptations of pancreatic cancer cells remain unclear. Cachexia is a hallmark of this disease and illustrates that this cancer is a real metabolic disease. Hence, this tumor must harbor metabolic pathways which are probably tied in a complex inter-organ dialog during the development of this cancer. Such a hypothesis would better explain how under fuel source limitation, pancreatic cancer cells are maintained, show a growth advantage, and develop metastasis

  11. Hornerin, an S100 family protein, is functional in breast cells and aberrantly expressed in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleming Jodie M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests an emerging role for S100 protein in breast cancer and tumor progression. These ubiquitous proteins are involved in numerous normal and pathological cell functions including inflammatory and immune responses, Ca2+ homeostasis, the dynamics of cytoskeleton constituents, as well as cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. Our previous proteomic analysis demonstrated the presence of hornerin, an S100 family member, in breast tissue and extracellular matrix. Hornerin has been reported in healthy skin as well as psoriatic and regenerating skin after wound healing, suggesting a role in inflammatory/immune response or proliferation. In the present study we investigated hornerin’s potential role in normal breast cells and breast cancer. Methods The expression levels and localization of hornerin in human breast tissue, breast tumor biopsies, primary breast cells and breast cancer cell lines, as well as murine mammary tissue were measured via immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and PCR. Antibodies were developed against the N- and C-terminus of the protein for detection of proteolytic fragments and their specific subcellular localization via fluorescent immunocytochemisty. Lastly, cells were treated with H2O2 to detect changes in hornerin expression during induction of apoptosis/necrosis. Results Breast epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts and macrophages express hornerin and show unique regulation of expression during distinct phases of mammary development. Furthermore, hornerin expression is decreased in invasive ductal carcinomas compared to invasive lobular carcinomas and less aggressive breast carcinoma phenotypes, and cellular expression of hornerin is altered during induction of apoptosis. Finally, we demonstrate the presence of post-translational fragments that display differential subcellular localization. Conclusions Our data opens new possibilities for hornerin and its

  12. Addition of vasopressin synthetic analogue [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard chemotherapy enhances tumour growth inhibition and impairs metastatic spread in aggressive breast tumour models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garona, Juan; Pifano, Marina; Pastrian, Maria B; Gomez, Daniel E; Ripoll, Giselle V; Alonso, Daniel F

    2016-08-01

    [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP is a novel 2nd generation vasopressin analogue with robust antitumour activity against metastatic breast cancer. We recently reported that, by acting on vasopressin V2r membrane receptor present in tumour cells and microvascular endothelium, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis and metastatic progression of the disease without overt toxicity. Despite chemotherapy remaining as a primary therapeutic option for aggressive breast cancer, its use is limited by low selectivity and associated adverse effects. In this regard, we evaluated potential combinational benefits by adding [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard-of-care chemotherapy. In vitro, combination of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with sub-IC50 concentrations of paclitaxel or carmustine resulted in a cooperative inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in comparison to single-agent therapy. In vivo antitumour efficacy of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition to chemotherapy was first evaluated using the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. Tumour-bearing mice were treated with i.v. injections of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice weekly) in combination with weekly cycles of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg i.p.). After 6 weeks of treatment, combination regimen resulted in greater tumour growth inhibition compared to monotherapy. [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition was also associated with reduction of local aggressiveness, and impairment of tumour invasion and infiltration of the skin. Benefits of combined therapy were confirmed in the hormone-independent and metastatic F3II breast cancer model by combining [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with carmustine (25 mg/kg i.p.). Interestingly, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP plus cytotoxic agents severely impaired colony forming ability of tumour cells and inhibited breast cancer metastasis to lung. The present study shows that [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP may complement conventional chemotherapy by modulating metastatic progression and early stages of microtumour establishment, and thus supports further preclinical testing of

  13. Addition of vasopressin synthetic analogue [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard chemotherapy enhances tumour growth inhibition and impairs metastatic spread in aggressive breast tumour models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garona, Juan; Pifano, Marina; Pastrian, Maria B; Gomez, Daniel E; Ripoll, Giselle V; Alonso, Daniel F

    2016-08-01

    [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP is a novel 2nd generation vasopressin analogue with robust antitumour activity against metastatic breast cancer. We recently reported that, by acting on vasopressin V2r membrane receptor present in tumour cells and microvascular endothelium, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis and metastatic progression of the disease without overt toxicity. Despite chemotherapy remaining as a primary therapeutic option for aggressive breast cancer, its use is limited by low selectivity and associated adverse effects. In this regard, we evaluated potential combinational benefits by adding [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard-of-care chemotherapy. In vitro, combination of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with sub-IC50 concentrations of paclitaxel or carmustine resulted in a cooperative inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in comparison to single-agent therapy. In vivo antitumour efficacy of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition to chemotherapy was first evaluated using the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. Tumour-bearing mice were treated with i.v. injections of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice weekly) in combination with weekly cycles of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg i.p.). After 6 weeks of treatment, combination regimen resulted in greater tumour growth inhibition compared to monotherapy. [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition was also associated with reduction of local aggressiveness, and impairment of tumour invasion and infiltration of the skin. Benefits of combined therapy were confirmed in the hormone-independent and metastatic F3II breast cancer model by combining [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with carmustine (25 mg/kg i.p.). Interestingly, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP plus cytotoxic agents severely impaired colony forming ability of tumour cells and inhibited breast cancer metastasis to lung. The present study shows that [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP may complement conventional chemotherapy by modulating metastatic progression and early stages of microtumour establishment, and thus supports further preclinical testing of

  14. Suppression of Spry1 inhibits triple-negative breast cancer malignancy by decreasing EGF/EGFR mediated mesenchymal phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Qing He; Hongyu Jing; Lucy Liaw; Lindsey Gower; Calvin Vary; Shucheng Hua; Xuehui Yang

    2016-01-01

    Sprouty (Spry) proteins have been implicated in cancer progression, but their role in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a subtype of lethal and aggressive breast cancer, is unknown. Here, we reported that Spry1 is significantly expressed in TNBC specimen and MDA-MB-231 cells. To understand Spry1 regulation of signaling events controlling breast cancer phenotype, we used lentiviral delivery of human Spry1 shRNAs to suppress Spry1 expression in MDA-MB-231, an established TNBC cell line. Spr...

  15. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  16. Increased risk for depression after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer...... or a major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...... were estimated with Poisson regression models. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with the two outcomes among patients with breast cancer. RESULTS: We identified 44,494 women with breast cancer. In the first year after diagnosis, the rate ratio for a hospital contact...

  17. Breast Cancer Basics and You: Introduction | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You: Introduction Past Issues / Spring - ... women, although male breast cancer is rare. The Breasts Inside a woman's breast are 15 to 20 ...

  18. Breast Cancer Basics and You | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You Past Issues / Summer 2014 ... women, although male breast cancer is rare. The Breasts Inside a woman's breast are 15 to 20 ...

  19. Depression and conservative surgery for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauriceia C. L. de Medeiros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is prevalent among women and associated with reduced quality of life, and therefore it is important to determine its incidence in adult women, especially in those with breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of depression in women who underwent conservative surgery for breast cancer with or without breast reconstruction. METHODS: Seventy-five women aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled. Patients had undergone conservative surgery for breast cancer with immediate breast reconstruction (n = 25 or without breast reconstruction (n = 25 at least one year before the study. The control group consisted of 25 women without cancer, but of similar age and educational level distribution as the other two groups. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression. The collected data were assessed using analysis of variance and the χ2 test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in age (p = 0.72 or educational level (p = 0.20. A smaller number of patients had undergone the menopause (p = 0.02 in the control group than in other groups. There were no significant differences in occurrence of depression between groups (χ2=9.97; p = 0.126. CONCLUSÍON: Conservative surgery for breast cancer did not affect the occurrence of depression in women, regardless of whether breast reconstruction was performed.

  20. Defining Aggressive Prostate Cancer Using a 12-Gene Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A. Bismar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical clinical question in prostate cancer research is: How do we develop means of distinguishing aggressive disease from indolent disease? Using a combination of proteomic and expression array data, we identified a set of 36 genes with concordant dysregulation of protein products that could be evaluated in situ by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Another five prostate cancer biomarkers were included using linear discriminant analysis, we determined that the optimal model used to predict prostate cancer progression consisted of 12 proteins. Using a separate patient population, transcriptional levels of the 12 genes encoding for these proteins predicted prostate-specific antigen failure in 79 men following surgery for clinically localized prostate cancer (P = .0015. This study demonstrates that cross-platform models can lead to predictive models with the possible advantage of being more robust through this selection process.

  1. Future possibilities in the prevention of breast cancer: Fat and fiber and breast cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Ross L.

    2000-01-01

    The potential for a reduction in dietary fat or for an increase in dietary fiber to reduce breast cancer risk has been debated for some years. It is argued here that available research data, even though extensive, leave open hypotheses ranging from little or no potential to major public health potential for breast cancer prevention by means of these dietary maneuvers. Some elements of a research strategy for testing these and other dietary breast cancer prevention hypotheses are described.

  2. Breast cancer survival and season of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Dorthe; Bjerre, Karsten D; Tjønneland, Anne M;

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has been suggested to influence the incidence and prognosis of breast cancer, and studies have found better overall survival (OS) after diagnosis for breast cancer in summer-autumn, where the vitamin D level are expected to be highest. Objective To compare the prognostic...... outcome for early breast cancer patients operated at different seasons of the year. Design Open population-based cohort study. Setting Danish women operated 1978-2010. Cases 79 658 adjusted for age at surgery, period of surgery, tumour size, axillary lymph node status and hormone receptor status...

  3. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa. V.; Labbok, Miriam H; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common s...

  4. The Basic Facts of Korean Breast Cancer in 2012: Results from a Nationwide Survey and Breast Cancer Registry Database

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Zisun; Min, Sun Young; Yoon, Chan Seok; Jung, Kyu-Won; Ko, Beom Seok; Kang, Eunyoung; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Seokwon; Hur, Min Hee; ,

    2015-01-01

    The Korean Breast Cancer Society has constructed a nationwide breast cancer database through utilization of an online registration program. We have reported the basic facts about breast cancer in Korea in 2012, and analyzed the changing patterns in the clinical characteristics and management of breast cancer in Korea over the last 10 years. Data on patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer were collected for the year 2012 from 97 hospitals and clinics nationwide using a questionnaire survey...

  5. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival For some ... after Beginning 5 or 10 Years of Adjuvant Tamoxifen 5 Years 10 Years Risk of Recurrence 25. ...

  6. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as that of many other diseases and cancers. Testicular conditions Some studies have suggested that certain conditions, ... Breast Cancer In Men? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer ...

  7. Tamoxifen OK for Breast Cancer Patients without Uterine Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161118.html Tamoxifen OK for Breast Cancer Patients Without Uterine Abnormalities: ... For most women, taking the breast cancer drug tamoxifen doesn't increase their risk of uterine cancer, ...

  8. Awareness is the first step in battle against breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, the majority of women diagnosed with breast cancer do not survive because their cancer is detected too late. Motunrayo Bello reports on the challenges of dealing with breast cancer in Nigeria.

  9. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1......), and their ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... premenopausal 2:16a-OHE1 was suggestive of reduced breast cancer risk overall (study-adjusted ORIIIvsI=0.80; 95% CI: 0.49-1.32) and for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) subtype (ORIIIvsI=0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.84). Among postmenopausal women, 2:16a-OHE1 was unrelated to breast cancer risk (study-adjusted ORIIIvs...

  10. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Untch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM

  11. TOX3 mutations in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Owain Jones

    Full Text Available TOX3 maps to 16q12, a region commonly lost in breast cancers and recently implicated in the risk of developing breast cancer. However, not much is known of the role of TOX3 itself in breast cancer biology. This is the first study to determine the importance of TOX3 mutations in breast cancers. We screened TOX3 for mutations in 133 breast tumours and identified four mutations (three missense, one in-frame deletion of 30 base pairs in six primary tumours, corresponding to an overall mutation frequency of 4.5%. One potentially deleterious missense mutation in exon 3 (Leu129Phe was identified in one tumour (genomic DNA and cDNA. Whilst copy number changes of 16q12 are common in breast cancer, our data show that mutations of TOX3 are present at low frequency in tumours. Our results support that TOX3 should be further investigated to elucidate its role in breast cancer biology.

  12. Radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an indispensible part of the management of all stages of breast cancer. In this article, the common indications for radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer (stages 0, I, and II) are reviewed, including whole-breast radiotherapy as part of breast-conserving treatment for early invasive breast cancer and pre-invasive disease of ductal carcinoma in situ, post-mastectomy radiotherapy, locoregional radiotherapy, and partial breast irradiation. Key clinical studies tha...

  13. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average. PMID:26758047

  14. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average.

  15. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cassano, E; Rizzo, S; Bozzini, A; S. Menna; Bellomi, M

    2006-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely demonstrated. During the last few years, the introduction of ultrasound contrast media has been considered a promising tool for studying the vascular pattern of focal lesions within the breast. Our purpose was to assess whether contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound examination, performed using specific contrast imaging modes, can be helpful for detection and characterization of breast lesions, and for predi...

  16. Cancer Hallmarks, Biomarkers and Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Liangjian; Li, Ting; Bai, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease encompassing multiple tumor entities, each characterized by distinct morphology, behavior and clinical implications. Besides estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, novel biomarkers have shown their prognostic and predictive values, complicating our understanding towards to the heterogeneity of such cancers. Ten cancer hallmarks have been proposed by Weinberg to characterize cancer and its carcinogenesis. By reviewing biomarkers and breast cancer molecular subtypes, we propose that the divergent outcome observed from patients stratified by hormone status are driven by different cancer hallmarks. 'Sustaining proliferative signaling' further differentiates cancers with positive hormone receptors. 'Activating invasion and metastasis' and 'evading immune destruction' drive the differentiation of triple negative breast cancers. 'Resisting cell death', 'genome instability and mutation' and 'deregulating cellular energetics' refine breast cancer classification with their predictive values. 'Evading growth suppressors', 'enabling replicative immortality', 'inducing angiogenesis' and 'tumor-promoting inflammation' have not been involved in breast cancer classification which need more focus in the future biomarker-related research. This review novels in its global view on breast cancer heterogeneity, which clarifies many confusions in this field and contributes to precision medicine. PMID:27390604

  17. Tripartite motif containing 28 (TRIM28) promotes breast cancer metastasis by stabilizing TWIST1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chunli; Cheng, Jingliang; Zhou, Boxv; Zhu, Li; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; He, Tao; Zhou, Sufang; He, Jian; Lu, Xiaoling; Chen, Hanchun; Zhang, Dianzheng; Zhao, Yongxiang; Fu, Junjiang

    2016-01-01

    TRIM28 regulates its target genes at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Here we report that a TRIM28-TWIST1-EMT axis exists in breast cancer cells and TRIM28 promotes breast cancer metastasis by stabilizing TWIST1 and subsequently enhancing EMT. We find that TRIM28 is highly expressed in both cancer cell lines and advanced breast cancer tissues, and the levels of TRIM28 and TWIST1 are positively correlated with the aggressiveness of breast carcinomas. Overexpression and depletion of TRIM28 up- and down-regulates the protein, but not the mRNA levels of TWIST1, respectively, suggesting that TRIM28 upregulates TWIST1 post-transcriptionally. Overexpression of TRIM28 in breast cancer cell line promotes cell migration and invasion. Knockdown of TRIM28 reduces the protein level of TWIST1 with concurrent upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin and consequently inhibits cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, Immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays demonstrated that TRIM28 interacts with TWIST1 directly and this interaction is presumed to protect TWIST1 from degradation. Our study revealed a novel mechanism in breast cancer cells that TRIM28 enhances metastasis by stabilizing TWIST1, suggesting that targeting TRIM28 could be an efficacious strategy in breast cancer treatment. PMID:27412325

  18. Breast Surgery International--breast cancer in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelin, K; Apffelstaedt, J P; Abdullah, H; Murray, E M; Ajuluchuku, E U

    2002-01-01

    Breast Surgery International (BSI) was formed in 1999 as an integrated society within the International Surgical Society ISS/SIC. One goal is to promote breast surgery world wide and focus on the situation in the developing countries. An edited summary of a symposium on locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) and the current situation in two African countries and in Malaysia is reported. Diagnosis, management and treatment options differ from recommendations that prevail due to lack of resources, lack of access to facilities and cultural and socioeconomic barriers. Younger age at onset, more men are affected and locally advanced breast cancer dominates the clinical panorama. A rational treatment plan for LABC should have chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy as armaments. A unique opportunity exists for international interchange within a professional organization such as BSI, for providing training opportunities, for clinical and experimental studies of the world' s most common female malignancy. PMID:12449462

  19. Micropapillary Lung Cancer with Breast Metastasis Simulating Primary Breast Cancer due to Architectural Distortion on Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Ran; Hong, Eun Kyung; Lee, See Yeon [Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Jae Yoon [The Methodist Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Houston (United States)

    2012-03-15

    A 47-year-old Korean woman with right middle lobe lung adenocarcinoma, malignant pleural effusion, and multiple lymph node and bone metastases, after three months of lung cancer diagnosis, presented with a palpable right breast mass. Images of the right breast demonstrated architectural distortion that strongly suggested primary breast cancer. Breast biopsy revealed metastatic lung cancer with a negative result for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and mammaglobin, and a positive result for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). We present a case of breast metastasis from a case of lung cancer with an extensive micropapillary component, which was initially misinterpreted as a primary breast cancer due to unusual image findings with architectural distortion.

  20. Aromatase inhibitor strategies in metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L McArthur

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Heather L McArthur, Patrick G MorrisBreast Cancer Medicine Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Despite ongoing therapeutic innovations, metastatic breast cancer (MBC remains a treatable but incurable disease. In the developed world, a diagnosis of MBC without a preceding diagnosis of early stage disease is a rare event. However, approximately one-third of women with early stage breast cancer ultimately experience a distant recurrence. Because the majority of breast cancers express estrogen and/or progesterone receptors and are accordingly considered hormone-sensitive, therapeutic strategies that interfere with hormone-mediated tumorigenesis have been a cornerstone of the breast cancer management paradigm for decades. Historically, the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen has been the most extensively studied and widely used hormone maneuver in breast cancer. However, a recent therapeutic innovation, namely the successful development of third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs, has had a dramatic impact on the treatment paradigm for women with hormone-sensitive MBC. Because of the demonstrated efficacy in postmenopausal breast cancer patients, the generally favorable side-effect profile, and the convenience of oral administration, AIs are now in widespread clinical use. Currently, there are three clinically available third-generation AIs: two reversible, nonsteroidal AIs, letrozole and anastrozole; and one irreversible, steroidal AI, exemestane. All three agents are at least as efficacious as tamoxifen as monotherapy for postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive MBC. Current clinical research aims to improve upon existing strategies by evaluating AIs in combination with systemic chemotherapy regimens and/or novel targeted agents. It is hoped that these therapeutic innovations will lead to ongoing improvements in quality of life parameters and ideally survival for women

  1. Overexpression of Gli1 in cancer interstitial tissues predicts early relapse after radical operation of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Hua Li; Hai-Feng Gao; Yan Wang; Fang Liu; Xiao-Feng Tian; Yang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate whether Gli1 expression is important in relapse after radical operation of breast cancer.Methods:Using immunohistochemistry,Glil expression was analyzed in human primary breast cancer (n=284) and paracancerous tissues (n=20),and also in local lymph nodes (n=28) and metastatic lymph nodes (n=28).Results:Initial analysis of Gli1 expression in a small cohort of 20 breast tumors and their paracancerous tissues showed a tendency towards Gli1 overexpression in breast cancer tissues (P<0.001).Further,Gli1 expression in 284 breast cancer tissue samples was analyzed and a significant correlation was found between increased expression of nuclear Gli1 and unfavorable recurrence-free survival (RFS) (P<0.05).The nuclear expression of Gli1 in metastatic lymph nodes following relapse after radical operation was much higher than that in the local lymph nodes of primary carcinoma (P<0.05).Most interestingly,the expression of Gli1 was much higher in the interstitial tissues of the relapsed group than of the non-relapsed group (P<0.001).Conclusions:Breast cancer shows a high prevalence of Gli1 expression,which is significantly correlated with aggressive features and unfavorable RFS.Nuclear Gli1 overexpression,especially in the interstitial tissues,signified early relapse after radical operation of breast cancer.

  2. MODERN VIEWS ON BILATERAL BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented modern literature data on the features of the pathogenesis, course, clinical and morphological expression and tumor characteristics, parameters and nodal metastasis of hematogenous bilateral breast cancer. Highlight the results of domestic and foreign studies in recent years to determine the prognostic factors and recurrence of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer. It was revealed that the frequency of bilateral breast tumor lesions varies widely, ranging from 0.1 to 20%, with metachronous tumors recorded significantly higher (69.6% than the synchronous (22.7%. The probability of occurrence of metachronous breast cancer is higher in women with a family history, as well as if they have a gene mutation BRCA-1. Found that the most common histological type of breast tumor with bilateral lesions is invasive ductal. However, the incidence of invasive lobular cancer and non-invasive lobular cancer is slightly higher among synchronous bilateral cancer compared with unilateral disease. Studies have shown that in a double-sided synchronous breast cancer tumor, as a rule, has a lower degree of differentiation, and the higher the expression level of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Relevance of the issue because the identification of patterns in the study of lymphatic and hematogenous features bilateral metastasis of mammary tumors provides a basis for speculation about the differences in the progression of neoplastic disease in these groups and is a cause for further detailed research in this area to identify and evaluate the prognosis and also the choice of tactics of such patients.

  3. HER2 breast cancer therapies: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conleth G Murphy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Conleth G Murphy, Shanu ModiBreast Cancer Medicine Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Amplification of the HER2 gene and/or overexpression of its protein product have been found in up to 25% to 30% of human breast cancers and have been shown to be associated with poorer outcomes compared to ‘HER2 normal’ breast cancer. Research has focused on developing therapies directed to the HER2 receptor and its pathway. These include the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, which has improved outcomes when used in patients with both advanced and early breast cancer. Lapatinib is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor which has demonstrated activity in advanced breast cancer and is currently being evaluated in early stage disease. We discuss the therapeutic rationale and clinical trial experience with these agents. Other novel and emerging strategies targeting the HER2 receptor and its pathway are also discussed. These strategies include novel HER2 antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors, antibody–drug conjugates, agents targeting downstream components of the HER2 signaling pathway, and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 inhibitors.Keywords: HER2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, breast cancer, trastuzumab, lapatinib

  4. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieli-Conwright CM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength, negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass, increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, exercise, physical well-being

  5. Breast cancer and serum organochlorine residues

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier, Corinne; Albert, Adelin; Herman, Philippe; Hamoir, Etienne; Gaspard, Ulysse; Meurisse, Michel; Plomteux, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Background: Controversy still exists about the breast carcinogenic properties in humans of environmental xenoestrogens (organochlorines), justifying new investigations. Aims: To compare the blood levels of total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in samples collected at the time of breast cancer discovery, in order to avoid the potential consequences of body weight change ( after chemotherapy or radiotherapy) on the pesticide residue levels. Methods: Blood level...

  6. Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help prevent or reduce the effects of lymphedema are discussed in the section " What happens after treatment for breast cancer in men? " If your arm is swollen, tight, or painful after lymph node surgery, be sure to tell someone ... lymphedema after breast surgery, see our document Lymphedema: What ...

  7. [Treatment of elderly patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaschburg, B.; Pedersen, A.; Tuxen, M.K.;

    2008-01-01

    The latest investigations have been searched in order to present new guidelines for the treatment of elderly patients with primary breast cancer. It is concluded that breast-conserving surgery should be offered as well as the sentinel node technique. Axillary lymph node dissection is not necessary...

  8. Ultrasound Elastography in Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, J.; Ewertsen, C; Sletting, S;

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an established method for characterization of focal lesions in the breast. Different techniques and analyses of the images may be used for the characterization. This article addresses the use of ultrasound elastography in breast cancer diagnosis. In the first part...

  9. Breast cancer radiotherapy: controversies and prospectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-ming; WANG Yong-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Despite consensus on breast cancer radiotherapy, there are still some controversies over post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), appropriate sequence of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment, and radiotherapy after preoperative systemic therapy.

  10. Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Screening Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…

  11. Genotyping and Phenotyping of Male Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornegoor, R.

    2012-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease and most of the knowledge has been extrapolated from females, although these entities are likely different. A better understanding of male breast carcinogenesis is crucial for developing novel targets suitable for personalized treatment. A major problem in studyi

  12. Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Community Health Resource Center Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy English 乳房切除術後的乳房重建 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF American Cancer Society Exercises After Breast Surgery English 乳房手術後的運動 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) ...

  13. Discovery and validation of breast cancer subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Bukholm Ida RK; Noh Dong-Young; Han Wonshik; Børresen-Dale Anne-Lise; Langerød Anita; Jeffrey Stefanie S; Kapp Amy V; Nicolau Monica; Brown Patrick O; Tibshirani Robert

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies demonstrated breast cancer tumor tissue samples could be classified into different subtypes based upon DNA microarray profiles. The most recent study presented evidence for the existence of five different subtypes: normal breast-like, basal, luminal A, luminal B, and ERBB2+. Results Based upon the analysis of 599 microarrays (five separate cDNA microarray datasets) using a ...

  14. Brain metastases of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Diane; Smith, Quentin R; Lockman, Paul R; Bronder, Julie; Gril, Brunilde; Chambers, Ann F; Weil, Robert J; Steeg, Patricia S

    Central nervous system or brain metastases traditionally occur in 10-16% of metastatic breast cancer patients and are associated with a dismal prognosis. The development of brain metastases has been associated with young age, and tumors that are estrogen receptor negative, Her-2+ or of the basal phenotype. Treatment typically includes whole brain irradiation, or either stereotactic radiosurgery or surgery with whole brain radiation, resulting in an approximately 20% one year survival. The blood-brain barrier is a formidable obstacle to the delivery of chemotherapeutics to the brain. Mouse experimental metastasis model systems have been developed for brain metastasis using selected sublines of human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. Using micron sized iron particles and MRI imaging, the fate of MDA-MB-231BR cells has been mapped: Approximately 2% of injected cells form larger macroscopic metastases, while 5% of cells remain as dormant cells in the brain. New therapies with permeability for the blood-brain barrier are needed to counteract both types of tumor cells. PMID:17473372

  15. Characterization of MTAP Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Patients and Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Franco Vieira de Oliveira

    Full Text Available MTAP is a ubiquitously expressed gene important for adenine and methionine salvage. The gene is located at 9p21, a chromosome region often deleted in breast carcinomas, similar to CDKN2A, a recognized tumor suppressor gene. Several research groups have shown that MTAP acts as a tumor suppressor, and some therapeutic approaches were proposed based on a tumors´ MTAP status. We analyzed MTAP and CDKN2A gene (RT-qPCR and protein (western-blotting expression in seven breast cancer cell lines and evaluated their promoter methylation patterns to better characterize the contribution of these genes to breast cancer. Cytotoxicity assays with inhibitors of de novo adenine synthesis (5-FU, AZA and MTX after MTAP gene knockdown showed an increased sensitivity, mainly to 5-FU. MTAP expression was also evaluated in two groups of samples from breast cancer patients, fresh tumors and paired normal breast tissue, and from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE core breast cancer samples diagnosed as Luminal-A tumors and triple negative breast tumors (TNBC. The difference of MTAP expression between fresh tumors and normal tissues was not statistically significant. However, MTAP expression was significantly higher in Luminal-A breast tumors than in TNBC, suggesting the lack of expression in more aggressive breast tumors and the possibility of using the new approaches based on MTAP status in TNBC.

  16. The myth about contraceptives and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, J

    1993-03-18

    Science and modern medicine accord us many advantages, e.g., contraceptive drugs, but many people still do not use them. Contraceptive drugs include oral contraceptives and injectables. OCs are very effective and are associated with minor side effects (e.g., mood changes, breast tenderness, nausea, and changes in weight, mild headache, and spotting between periods), perhaps explaining why they are one of the most often used contraceptive in essentially every country. Women who smoke; are 35 years old; or either have or have a family history of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and use OCs are at higher risk of a cardiovascular episode. On the other hand, OCs protect against ovarian and endometrial cancers. Research does not yet confirm or disprove their effect on breast cancer development. OCs appear not to be linked to breast cancer through age 59. Yet, studies of women 45 years old suggest that OCs increases the breast cancer risk in these women who had their first menses before age 13 and used OCs for a long time before their first pregnancy. OCs may facilitate growth of breast tumors that other causes activated, and therefore, do not likely increase the overall risk. Researchers recognize the death of knowledge about breast cancer development, so they call for more research, including basic molecular, cellular, and biochemical studies. In Nigeria, breast cancer is rare, while deaths due to pregnancy and childbirth are common, indicating that OC use can prevent many female deaths. Prolonged breast feeding; later age at first menses; earlier age at menopause; earlier age at first full-term pregnancy larger families; low fat, high fiber diets; and thinness, all of which are common in developing countries, have a protective effect against breast cancer. Further, women in developing countries begin OC use later than women in developed countries.

  17. Breast cancer and sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Erica N; Dizon, Don S

    2015-04-01

    As the most common malignancy affecting women within the United States, breast cancer can bring about multiple physical and psychological challenges. Among the greatest challenges are those associated with female sexual function. Chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, surgeries and radiation can all have a large effect in altering a woman's sexual health and function. Sexual concerns result in significant emotional distress, including sadness/depression, issues related to personal appearance, stigma, and negative impacts on personal relationships. In this article, we discuss some of the specific challenges that present with each type of treatment and the socio-physical impact they have on survivorship. Among the most detrimental to sexual function, are the use of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. Additionally, anatomical changes that transpire in patients who have undergone surgery or radiation therapy (RT), disrupt perceptions of body image. Here we will discuss and also review the contemporary literature to determine effective management and treatment of sexual dysfunction. PMID:26816822

  18. MRI evaluation of the contralateral breast in patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Taneja; Amarnath Jena; Syed. Mohd. Shuaib Zaidi; Anuj Khurana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Contralateral breast cancer can be synchronous and/or metachronous in patients with cancer of one breast. Detection of a synchronous breast cancer may affect patient management. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast (DCE-MRI) is a sensitive technique for detecting contralateral lesions occult on the other imaging modalities in women already diagnosed with cancer of one breast. Aim: The aim was to assess the incidence of mammographically occult synchronous contralateral bre...

  19. Autophagy Inhibition to Increase Radiosensitization in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Diana Hwang; El-Zein, Randa; Dave, Bhuvanesh

    2015-01-01

    Currently, many breast cancer patients with localized breast cancer undergo breast-conserving therapy, consisting of local excision followed by radiation therapy. Following radiation therapy, breast cancer cells are noted to undergo induction of autophagy, development of radioresistance, and enrichment of breast cancer stem cell subpopulations. It is hypothesized that inhibition of the cytoprotective autophagy that arises following radiation therapy increases radiosensitivity and confers long...

  20. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Europe and Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiy Opeyemi Abdulrahman; Ganiyu Adebisi Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to remain the most lethal malignancy in women across the world. This study reviews some of the epidemiological similarities and differences in breast cancer between white European women and black African women with the aim of optimising care for women with breast malignancy across the world. The incidence of breast cancer is lower among African women than their European counterparts. Majority of women in Europe are postmenopausal when they present with breast cancer; h...

  1. Elevated expression of chemokine C-C ligand 2 in stroma is associated with recurrent basal-like breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Min; Yu, Elaine; Staggs, Vincent; Fan, Fang; Cheng, Nikki

    2016-08-01

    Despite advances in treatment, up to 30% of breast cancer patients experience disease recurrence accompanied by more aggressive disease and poorer prognosis. Treatment of breast cancer is complicated by the presence of multiple breast cancer subtypes, including: luminal, Her2 overexpressing, and aggressive basal-like breast cancers. Identifying new biomarkers specific to breast cancer subtypes could enhance the prediction of patient prognosis and contribute to improved treatment strategies. The microenvironment influences breast cancer progression through expression of growth factors, angiogenic factors and other soluble proteins. In particular, chemokine C-C ligand 2 (CCL2) regulates macrophage recruitment to primary tumors and signals to cancer cells to promote breast tumor progression. Here we employed a software-based approach to evaluate the prognostic significance of CCL2 protein expression in breast cancer subtypes in relation to its expression in the epithelium or stroma or in relation to fibroblast-specific protein 1 (Fsp1), a mesenchymal marker. Immunohistochemistry analysis of tissue microarrays revealed that CCL2 significantly correlated with Fsp1 expression in the stroma and tumor epithelium of invasive ductal carcinoma. In the overall cohort of invasive ductal carcinomas (n=427), CCL2 and Fsp1 expression in whole tissues, stroma and epithelium were inversely associated with cancer stage and tumor size. When factoring in molecular subtype, stromal CCL2 was observed to be most highly expressed in basal-like breast cancers. By Cox regression modeling, stromal CCL2, but not epithelial CCL2, expression was significantly associated with decreased recurrence-free survival. Furthermore, stromal CCL2 (HR=7.51 P=0.007) was associated with a greater hazard than cancer stage (HR=2.45, P=0.048) in multivariate analysis. These studies indicate that stromal CCL2 is associated with decreased recurrence-free survival in patients with basal-like breast cancer, with

  2. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Estrogen-alone hormone therapy does not increase the risk of ...

  3. [Postoperative inconveniences after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartner, R.; Callesen, T.; Kroman, N.;

    2008-01-01

    The most common postoperative inconveniences after breast cancer surgery are pain, nausea and vomiting, which contribute to reduced patient satisfaction, prolonged hospital stays and delayed courses of rehabilitation. This article summarizes the literature regarding available procedure...

  4. IMMUNOPHENOTYPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INFLAMMATORY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Berishvili

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation enrolled 31 patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC treated at the N. N. Blokhin Cancer Research Center from 2006 to 2008. IBC is diagnosed on the basis of signs of rapid progression, such as localized or generalized breast induration, red- ness and edema. IBC accounts for less than 5% of all diagnosed breast cancers and is the most lethal form of primary breast cancer. We studied tumor markers of the immunophenotype of IBC and levels and subpopulations of immunocompetent tumor-infiltrating cells. We found that expression of HLA-DR is in negative correlation with MUC-1 expression and lymphoid cells tumor infiltration is asso- ciated with the increase in T-cell subpopulations.

  5. FastStats: Mammography/Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Mammography and Breast Cancer Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Mammography use Percent of women 40 years of age ...

  6. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    of women offered screening compared to a population of women not offered screening for breast cancer. METHODS: One thousand women, aged 50-69 years, were randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System to receive part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1......): the sample consisted of 500 women living in a geographical area where screening mammography had been offered for more than 10 years and 500 women living in an area where the public health authorities had never invited women to breast cancer screening. RESULTS: A total of 759 women returned the questionnaire....... Those living in areas where screening was not offered reported more negative psychosocial aspects compared to women living in areas where screening was offered. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that women tend to perceive breast cancer screening as a reassuring preventive initiative. Alternatively...

  7. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Jonathan [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Small, William [Loyola Univ. Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States). Stritch School of Medicine, Cardianl Bernardin Cancer Center; Woloschak, Gayle E. (ed.) [Northwestern Univ. Feinberg, Chicago, IL (United States). School of Medicine

    2015-10-01

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  8. ALND for Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from a randomized clinical trial that compared axillary lymph node dissection versus no axillary lymph node dissection in women with breast cancer and only micrometastases in their sentinel lymph nodes.

  9. Bringing Breast Cancer Technologies to Market | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR research is recognized in novel competition to encourage the commercialization of breast cancer inventions. Editor’s note: This article was originally published in CCR Connections (Volume 8, No. 1). The Breast Cancer Startup Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition, and was one of three finalists recognized by HHS Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell and Deputy Secretary Bill Corr. For more information on the Challenge, see previous article on the Poster website. Start-up companies are instrumental in bringing the fruits of scientific research to market. Recognizing an opportunity to bring entrepreneurial minds to bear on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, the Avon Foundation for Women partnered with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation to launch the Breast Cancer Startup Challenge.

  10. Dilemma of Pregnant Ladies with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainur Rashid Z

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gestational breast cancer (GBC or pregnancyassociatedbreast cancer was defined as breast cancerdiagnosed during pregnancy and within 1 year ofdelivery. Breast cancer is the second commonest cancerafter cervical seen in pregnancy and lactation.Nevertheless, the incidence is low and accounts forapproximately 1 in 3000 of pregnancies. A delay indiagnosis is common and 70% to 89% of patients withoperable primary lesions already have positive axillarylymph nodes. Breast cancer identified during pregnancycan be extremely distressing for the mother despite ithas similar course of disease and prognosis seen in nonpregnantwomen of the same age and stage of disease.Diagnostic and treatment options should be carefullydecided to prevent further harm to the mother or anypotential risk to the developing fetus.

  11. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  13. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  14. Once-Daily Radiation Therapy for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive breast cancer variant treated with multimodality therapy. A variety of approaches intended to escalate the intensity and efficacy of radiation therapy have been reported, including twice-daily radiation therapy, dose escalation, and aggressive use of bolus. Herein, we examine our outcomes for patients treated with once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive bolus utilization, focusing on treatment technique. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with nonmetastatic IBC treated from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and predictors thereof were assessed. Results: Fifty-two women with IBC were identified, 49 (94%) of whom were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation was delivered in once-daily fractions of 1.8 to 2.25 Gy (median, 2 Gy). Patients were typically treated with daily 1-cm bolus throughout treatment, and 33 (63%) received a subsequent boost to the mastectomy scar. Five-year Kaplan Meier survival estimates for LRC, DFS, and OS were 81%, 56%, and 64%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was associated with poorer OS (P<.001; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1). Extracapsular extension was associated with worse LRC (P=.02), DFS (P=.007), and OS (P=.002). Age greater than 50 years was associated with better DFS (P=.03). Pathologic complete response was associated with a trend toward improved LRC (P=.06). Conclusions: Once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive use of bolus for IBC results in outcomes consistent with previous reports using various intensified radiation therapy regimens. LRC remains a challenge despite modern systemic therapy. Extracapsular extension, age ≤50 years, and lack of complete response to chemotherapy appear to be associated with worse outcomes. Novel strategies are needed in IBC

  15. Once-Daily Radiation Therapy for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lindsay [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Harmsen, William [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Blanchard, Miran [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goetz, Matthew [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Jakub, James [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mutter, Robert; Petersen, Ivy; Rooney, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stauder, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yan, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Laack, Nadia, E-mail: laack.nadia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive breast cancer variant treated with multimodality therapy. A variety of approaches intended to escalate the intensity and efficacy of radiation therapy have been reported, including twice-daily radiation therapy, dose escalation, and aggressive use of bolus. Herein, we examine our outcomes for patients treated with once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive bolus utilization, focusing on treatment technique. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with nonmetastatic IBC treated from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and predictors thereof were assessed. Results: Fifty-two women with IBC were identified, 49 (94%) of whom were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation was delivered in once-daily fractions of 1.8 to 2.25 Gy (median, 2 Gy). Patients were typically treated with daily 1-cm bolus throughout treatment, and 33 (63%) received a subsequent boost to the mastectomy scar. Five-year Kaplan Meier survival estimates for LRC, DFS, and OS were 81%, 56%, and 64%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was associated with poorer OS (P<.001; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1). Extracapsular extension was associated with worse LRC (P=.02), DFS (P=.007), and OS (P=.002). Age greater than 50 years was associated with better DFS (P=.03). Pathologic complete response was associated with a trend toward improved LRC (P=.06). Conclusions: Once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive use of bolus for IBC results in outcomes consistent with previous reports using various intensified radiation therapy regimens. LRC remains a challenge despite modern systemic therapy. Extracapsular extension, age ≤50 years, and lack of complete response to chemotherapy appear to be associated with worse outcomes. Novel strategies are needed in IBC

  16. Plasma Protein Carbonyls and Breast Cancer Risk in Sisters Discordant for Breast Cancer from the New York Site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Zipprich, Jennifer; Terry, Mary Beth; Liao, Yuyan; Agrawal, Meenakshi; Gurvich, Irina; Senie, Ruby; Santella, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are important in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including breast cancer. Several population-based case-control studies have demonstrated that various biomarkers of oxidative stress are associated with an increase in breast cancer risk. We selected sisters discordant for breast cancer (n=645) from the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry to explore factors that contribute to variation in plasma protein carbonyls, and to determine whether this bio...

  17. [Changes in the surgical treatment of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, T

    1988-01-01

    The principle in surgery for breast cancer is to clean out and remove en masse the primary lesion within the breast as well as the lymph nodes (metastases) in the vicinity. This fundamental approach to surgical intervention was established by Halsted and Meyer at the close of the nineteenth century. This has been termed typical mastectomy to this day and standard radical mastectomy has been the method used. Later, a more expanded type of radical surgery was performed on somewhat more advanced cases, but a less radical approach then came about. Since 1960, the excision of nodes in the cerebrum and cerebellum was not used for early cancer, and in some cases a more conservative approach in which only part of the breasts was removed resulted, as Europe and the United States were heavily toward reduced operations. Thus, it was considered that axillary expurgation was needed, but that excision of nodes in the cerebrum and cerebellum was not essential in every case. One approach is less aggressive, whether as to the expurgation or excision of the surrounding area of the breast; in certain cases, treatment may be combined with radiation and the surgery minimized. The above-mentioned operative procedure which leaves brain nodes intact has been called modified radical mastectomy. This is subdivided into the Auchincloss method, in which modes in the cerebellum are extirpated, and the Patey method, in which the cerebral nodes are preserved. In Japan this approach has been used for breast cancer in Stage I and Stage II, with surgery gradually becoming the mainstream. Conservative breast operation procedures such as tumor extirpation, partial breast removal or segmental resection are still rare in Japan but very common in Europe and the United States. Since remote metastases frequently occur through the circulation in breast cancer, in recent years it has generally been regarded as a whole-body disease and, in terms of the advance of the cancer in each case, the method of

  18. Scintigraphic diagnosis of breast cancer in highly selected patients with dense breast and silicon breast augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Bai, M. S.; Park, H. B.; Kim, S. Z.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The comparable diagnostic accuracy of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scintimammogram (SM) in patients with dense and fatty breasts was reported in the U. S and Canadian multicenter clinical trials (JNM 37 : p74-75, 1996). This is not the case with mammography which misses breast cancer in dense breasts often. The reported incidence of dense breast among Korean is about 50% as opposed to 25% in western population seen on mammograms. Therefore, dense breast would be more problematic in the evaluation of breast cancer among Korean. Thirty five highly selected patients with breast mass and 2 patients after silicon mammoplasty were evaluated by sonography (US), mammography (Mam) and SM. The patient's age ranged from 28 to 40 (average 34.6). Each patient received 20 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc MIBI intravenously and in 5-10 min simultaneous prone lateral views were obtained for 10 min followed by a supine anterior view with arms up for 10 min. Interpretive criteria of breast cancer by SM was any focal increased uptake (mild-marked) within the breast (single or multiple). In two patients with silicon mammoplasty, US and Mam were not useful while SM excluded breast cancer although small (> 1.0 cm) lesion could not be completely excluded. In 19 patients with biopsy confirmed carcinoma (larger than 1.5 cm), The results of three modalities were the following. The remaining 15 patients considered to have benign diseases (76% by Mam, 93% by US, 93% by SM) and are being followed at the surgical clinic. In conclusion, SM is very useful in the evaluation of breast mass in highly selected patients with dense breast which is more common among Korean and in patients after silicon augmentation. Therefore, SM should be used more often in patients (especially young) with dense breast and after mammoplasty than mammography in the detection of breast cancer.

  19. Ovarian stimulation in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Elkin; González, Naira; Muñoz, Luis; Aguilar, Jesús; Velasco, Juan A García

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women under 50. Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have yielded an important decrease in mortality in the last 20 years. In many cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy develop side effects on the reproductive function. Therefore, before the anti-cancer treatment impairs fertility, clinicians should offer some techniques for fertility preservation for women planning motherhood in the future. In order to obtain more available oocytes for IVF, the ovary must be stimulated. New protocols which prevent exposure to increased estrogen during gonadotropin stimulation, measurements to avoid the delay in starting anti-cancer treatment or the outcome of ovarian stimulation have been addressed in this review. There is no evidence of association between ovarian stimulation and breast cancer. It seems that there are more relevant other confluent factors than ovarian stimulation. Factors that can modify the risk of breast cancer include: parity, age at full-term birth, age of menarche, and family history. There is an association between breast cancer and exogenous estrogen. Therefore, specific protocols to stimulate patients with breast cancer include anti-estrogen agents such as letrozole. By using letrozole plus recombinant follicular stimulating hormone, patients develop a multifollicular growth with only a mild increase in estradiol serum levels. Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) takes around 10 days, and we discuss new strategies to start COS as soon as possible. Protocols starting during the luteal phase or after inducing the menses currently prevent a delay in starting ovarian stimulation. Patients with breast cancer have a poorer response to COS compared with patients without cancer who are stimulated with conventional protocols of gonadotropins. Although many centres offer fertility preservation and many patients undergo ovarian stimulation, there are not enough studies to evaluate the recurrence, breast cancer

  20. Insulin resistance and breast-cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, P F; Bonfrèr, J M; van Noord, P A; Hart, A A; de Jong-Bakker, M; Nooijen, W J

    1992-10-21

    Life-style has a major influence on the incidence of breast cancer. To evaluate the effects of life-style related metabolic-endocrine factors on breast cancer risk we conducted a case-control study comparing 223 women aged 38 to 75 years presenting with operable (stage I or II) breast cancer and 441 women of the same age having no breast cancer, who participated in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women reporting diabetes mellitus were excluded. Sera from 110 women of the same age group presenting with early stage melanoma, lymphoma or cervical cancer were used as a second 'other-cancer control group'. Serum levels of C-peptide were significantly higher in early breast cancer cases compared to controls. The same was found for the ratios C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine, indicating insulin resistance. Sex hormone binding globulin was inversely, triglycerides and available estradiol were positively related to C-peptide. Serum C-peptide levels were related to body mass index (BMI), and to waist/hip ratio (WHR), in particular in controls. However, the relative increase of C-peptide, C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine in cases was independent of BMI or WHR. The log relative risk was linearly related to the log C-peptide levels. Relative risk according to quintiles, and adjusted for age, family history, BMI and WHR, for women at the 80% level was 2.9 as compared with those at the 20% level for C-peptide. Elevated C-peptide or C-peptide to fructosamine values were not observed in the sera from women belonging to the 'other-cancer control group'. This study suggests that hyperinsulinemia with insulin resistance is a significant risk factor for breast cancer independent of general adiposity or body fat distribution. PMID:1399128

  1. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening.

  2. Breast Cancer: Surgery at the South Egypt Cancer Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Ahmed A.S.; Mohamed Abou Elmagd Salem; Hamza Abbass

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI) hospital durin...

  3. miRNome of inflammatory breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Maltseva, Diana V; Galatenko, Vladimir V; Samatov, Timur R.; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana O; Khaustova, Nadezhda A; Nechaev, Ilya N; Shkurnikov, Maxim U; Lebedev, Alexey E; Mityakina, Irina A; Kaprin, Andrey D; Schumacher, Udo; Tonevitsky, Alexander G

    2014-01-01

    Background Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an extremely malignant form of breast cancer which can be easily misdiagnosed. Conclusive prognostic IBC molecular biomarkers which are also providing the perspectives for targeted therapy are lacking so far. The aim of this study was to reveal the IBC-specific miRNA expression profile and to evaluate its association with clinicopathological parameters. Methods miRNA expression profiles of 13 IBC and 17 non-IBC patients were characterized using c...

  4. Genetic determinants of breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingmei

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to identify genetic risk factors using both hypothesis-based and hypothesis-free approaches. In an attempt to identify common disease susceptibility alleles for breast cancer, we started off with a hypothesis-free approach, and performed a combined analysis of three genome-wide association studies (GWAS), involving 2,702 women of European ancestry with invasive breast cancer and 5,726 controls. As GWAS has been said to underperform for stu...

  5. Role of ornithine decarboxylase in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wensheng Deng; Xian Jiang; Yu Mei; Jingzhong Sun; Rong Ma; Xianxi Liu; Hui Sun; Hui Tian; Xueying Sun

    2008-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis that decarboxylates ornithine to putrescine, has become a promising target for cancer research. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of ODC in breast cancer. We detected expression of ODC in breast cancer tissues and four breast cancer cell lines, and transfected breast cancer cells with an adenoviral vector carrying antisense ODC (rAd-ODC/Ex3as) and examined their growth and migration.ODC was overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and cell lines compared with non-tumor tissues and normal breast epithelial celis,and there was a positive correlation between the level of ODC mRNA and the staging of tumors.The expression of ODC correlated with cyclin D1,a cell cycle protein,in synchronized breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.Gene transfection of rAd-ODC/Ex3as markedly down-regulated expression Of ODC and cyclin D1,resulting in suppression of proliferation and cell cycle arrest at G0-G1 phase,and the inhibifion of colony formation,an anchorage-independent growth pattern,and the migratory ability of MDA-MB-231 cells.rAd-ODC/Ex3as also markedly reduced the concentration of putrescine,but not spermidine or spermine,in MDA-MB-231 cells.The results suggested that the ODC gene might act as aprognostic factor for breast cancer and it could be a promising therapeutic target.

  6. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Dieli-Conwright CM; Orozco BZ

    2015-01-01

    Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offs...

  7. Breast Cancer Chemoprevention: Old and New Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Cazzaniga; Bernardo Bonanni

    2012-01-01

    In 1976, Sporn has defined chemoprevention as “the use of pharmacologic or natural agents that inhibit the development of invasive breast cancer either by blocking the DNA damage that initiates carcinogenesis, or by arresting or reversing the progression of premalignant cells in which such damage has already occurred.” Although the precise mechanism or mechanisms that promote a breast cancer are not completely established, the success of several recent clinical trials in preventive settings i...

  8. Significance of immunohistochemistry in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zaha, Dana Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The biological characteristics of the tumour are used to estimate prognosis and select appropriate systemic therapy for patients with (breast) cancer. The advent of molecular technology has incorporated new biomarkers along with immunohistochemical and serum biomarkers. Immunohistochemical markers are often used to guide treatment decisions, to classify breast cancer into subtypes that are biologically distinct and behave differently, and both as prognostic and predictive factors. Steroid hor...

  9. Lactobacilli Modulate Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF)-1 Regulatory Pathway in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Esfandiary; Zahra Taherian-Esfahani; Atieh Abedin-Do, Reza Mirfakhraie; Mahdieh Shirzad; Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard; Elahe Motevaseli

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF)-1 plays an essential role in the body’s response to low oxygen concentrations and regulates expression of several genes implicated in homeostasis, vascularization, anaerobic metabolism as well as immunological responses. Increased levels of HIF-1α are associated with increased proliferation and more aggressive breast tumor development. Lactobacilli have been shown to exert anti-cancer effects on several malignancies including breast cancer. However...

  10. T cell-prolymphocytic leukemia detected in a patient of breast cancer at the time of recurrence: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Manish; Raina, Vinod; GUPTA Ritu; Das, Prasenjit

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Therapy related second malignancy of the hematological system is small but real risk after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. It includes acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); however T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) has not been described earlier in relation to breast cancer and its therapy. T-PLL is a rare chronic T-cell lymphoproliferative disease with a mature post-thymic T-cell immunophenotype and aggressive clinical course. Case presen...

  11. The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A renewal of the search for a link between breast cancer and thyroid disease has once again demonstrated an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with breast cancer. This is the most recent of many studies showing an association between a variety of thyroid disorders and breast cancer. Such an association is not surprising as both diseases are female predominant with a similar postmenopausal peak incidence. The significance of the presence of thyroid autoantibodies, particularly thyroid peroxidase antibodies, in serum from patients with breast cancer is unknown, but it has been suggested that antibody positivity is associated with better prognosis. One area in which thyroid and breast functions overlap is in the uptake and utilization of dietary iodide. Experimental findings showing the ability of iodine or iodine-rich seaweed to inhibit breast tumour development is supported by the relatively low rate of breast cancer in Japanese women who consume a diet containing iodine-rich seaweed. However, there is as yet no direct evidence that iodine, iodinated compounds, or a combination of iodine and selenium is the antimammary carcinogenic element in the Japanese diet. It remains to be resolved whether the perceived breast cancer–thyroid disease relationship is thyroid or iodine related or, in the case of thyroid autoantibodies, is the consequence of an immune response to the carcinoma. Is this response breast specific and does it relate to iodine status? These and many other questions await resolution before a definitive role in the natural history of breast carcinoma can be assigned to the thyroid

  12. Progestogens and risk of breast cancer: a link between bone and breast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Ricarte, María; de Castro Pérez, Ana; Tarín, Juan J; Cano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the data supporting the role of receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL, in progestogen-induced breast cancer. Both experimental and clinical studies have been included. The expression of both RANK and RANKL has been described in epithelial cells of both mice and humans. Experiments of gain and loss of function in mice have shown that RANK/RANKL mediate alveologenesis during pregnancy or the estrous cycle. Moreover, the participation of the RANK/RANKL has been detected in models of breast carcinogenesis associated with progestogens-like medroxyprogesterone acetate. Recent clinical studies have found that the expression of RANK is associated with parameters of aggressiveness of the tumor. PMID:26299383

  13. The Adjunctive Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Lung Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT and digital mammography (DM for breast cancers. Materials and Methods. Fifty-seven female patients with pathologically proved breast cancer were enrolled. Three readers gave a subjective assessment superiority of the index lesions (mass, focal asymmetry, architectural distortion, or calcifications and a forced BIRADS score, based on DM reading alone and with additional DBT information. The relevance between BIRADS category and index lesions of breast cancer was compared by chi-square test. Result. A total of 59 breast cancers were reviewed, including 17 (28.8% mass lesions, 12 (20.3% focal asymmetry/density, 6 (10.2% architecture distortion, 23 (39.0% calcifications, and 1 (1.7% intracystic tumor. Combo DBT was perceived to be more informative in 58.8% mass lesions, 83.3% density, 94.4% architecture distortion, and only 11.6% calcifications. As to the forced BIRADS score, 84.4% BIRADS 0 on DM was upgraded to BIRADS 4 or 5 on DBT, whereas only 27.3% BIRADS 4A on DM was upgraded on DBT, as BIRADS 4A lesions were mostly calcifications. A significant P value (<0.001 between the BIRADS category and index lesions was noted. Conclusion. Adjunctive DBT gives exquisite information for mass lesion, focal asymmetry, and/or architecture distortion to improve the diagnostic performance in mammography.

  14. BREAST CANCER: IS OBESITY A RISK FACTOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most epidemiological studies established obesity as an important risk factor for breast cancer. It is one of the few risk factors that women can modify. Now-a-days breast cancer is considered to be a life-style disease. The relation of obesity to breast cancer is complex one. Obesity is found to be associated with increased risk of cancer in post-menopausal women, but relation is reverse in pre-menopausal women. In these patients, obesity increases risk due to enhanced oestrogenic activity in obese females. Apart from it, other factors like Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1, Leptin has also been involved. Due to big breasts in obese females there is delay in seeking medical attention, delay in diagnosis, poor response to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and associated complication during treatment. We study the effect of obesity (Weight, BMI, WHR as a risk factor in occurrence of breast cancer in local population of Southern part of Rajasthan in India. We found no significant association between obesity and increased risk of breast cancer in local population of this region where women are multiparous, physically active and usually do not use exogenous hormones.

  15. Targeting γ-secretase in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Jianxun Han,1 Qiang Shen21Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 2Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: γ-secretase complexes are multisubunit protease complexes that perform the intramembrane cleavage of more than 60 type-I transmembrane proteins, including Notch receptors. Since dysregulated Notch signaling has been implicated in the tumorigenesis and progression of breast cancer, small molecule γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs are being tested for their therapeutic potential in breast cancer treatment in several clinical trials. Here, the structure of γ-secretase complex and the development of GSIs are briefly reviewed, the roles of Notch and several other γ-secretase substrates in breast cancer are discussed, and the difference between γ-secretase inhibition and Notch inhibition, as well as the side effects associated with GSIs, are described. A better understanding of molecular mechanisms that affect the responsiveness of breast cancer to GSI might help to develop strategies to enhance the antitumor activity and, at the same time, alleviate the side effects of GSI.Keywords: γ-secretase, GSI, Notch, breast cancer

  16. MRI for breast cancer: Current indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography is the only imaging study that has been proven in multiple large randomized trials to decrease breast cancer mortality. Mammography, however, has its limitations and, as such, other modalities that can complement it are being studied. One of these is dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI, which has emerged as an important adjunctive modality and is at present the most sensitive modality that we have to evaluate the breast. The American College of Radiology, in its 2004 practice guidelines, has outlined the 12 current indications for breast MRI. This manuscript reviews and provides examples of each of these

  17. Breast Cancer Diagnosis Using Machine Learning Algorithms - A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.Gayathri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has become a common factor now-a-days. Despite the fact, not all general hospitalshave the facilities to diagnose breast cancer through mammograms. Waiting for diagnosing a breastcancer for a long time may increase the possibility of the cancer spreading. Therefore a computerizedbreast cancer diagnosis has been developed to reduce the time taken to diagnose the breast cancer andreduce the death rate. This paper summarizes the survey on breast cancer diagnosis using various machinelearning algorithms and methods, which are used to improve the accuracy of predicting cancer. This surveycan also help us to know about number of papers that are implemented to diagnose the breast cancer.

  18. Chromosomal instability in the lymphocytes of breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsimran Kaur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic instability in the tumor tissue has been correlated with tumor progression. In the present study, chromosomal aberrations (CAs in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs of breast tumor patients were studied to assess whether chromosomal instability (CIN in PBLs correlates with aggressiveness of breast tumor (i.e., disease stage and has any prognostic utility. Cultured blood lymphocyte metaphases were scored for aberrations in 31 breast cancer patients and 20 healthy age and sex-matched controls. A variety of CAs, including aneuploidy, polyploidy, terminal deletions, acentric fragments, double minutes, chromatid separations, ring chromosome, marker chromosome, chromatid gaps, and breaks were seen in PBLs of the patients. The CAs in patients were higher than in controls. A comparison of the frequency of metaphases with aberrations by grouping the patients according to the stage of advancement of disease did not reveal any consistent pattern of variation in lymphocytic CIN. Neither was any specific chromosomal abnormality found to be associated with the stage of cancer. This might be indicative of the fact that cancer patients have constitutional CIN, which predisposes them to the disease, and this inherent difference in the level of genomic instability might play a role in disease progression and response to treatment.

  19. Digital subtraction angiography for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsurumi, Kiyohiko; Okuyama, Nobuo

    1987-07-01

    We performed digital subtraction angiography (DSA) on 42 patients with breast diseases to investigate its efficiency. As a result we came to the following conclusions: 1. The sensitivity was well evaluated in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA) of breast. 2. IA-DSA could diagnose difficult cases like cancer which had undergone augmentation mammoplasty, or like Paget's disease and others. 3. DSA was a safe examination method. 4. The sensitivity of IA-DSA of breast cancer is superior to intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA).

  20. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and breast cancer in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The landscape of oncologic practice has changed deeply during the past few years and there is now a need, through a multidisciplinary approach, for imaging to provide accurate evaluation of morphology and function and to guide treatment (Image Guided Therapy). Increasing emphasis has been put on Position Emission Tomography (PET) role in various cancers among clinicians and patients despite a general context of healthcare expenditure limitation. Positron Emission Tomography has currently a limited role in breast cancer, but also general radiologists and specialists should be aware of these indications, especially when staging aggressive cancers and looking for recurrence. Currently, the hybrid systems associating PET and Computed Tomography (CT) and in the same device [Rohren EM, Turkington TG, Coleman RE. Clinical applications of PET in oncology. Radiology 2004;231:305-32; Blodgett TM, Meltzer CM, Townsend DW. PET/CT: form and function. Radiology 2007;242:360-85; von Schulthess GK, Steinert HC, Hany TF. Integrated PET/CT: current applications and futures directions. Radiology 2006;238(2):405-22], or PET-CT, are more commonly used and the two techniques are adding their potentialities. Other techniques, MRI in particular, may also compete with PET in some instance and as far as ionizing radiations dose limitation is considered, some breast cancers becoming some form of a chronic disease. Breast cancer is a very complex, non-uniform, disease and molecular imaging at large may contribute to a better knowledge and to new drugs development. Ongoing research, Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and new tracers, are likely to bring improvements in patient care [Kelloff GJ, Hoffman JM, Johnson B, et al. Progress and promise of FDG-PET Imaging for cancer patient management and oncologic drug development. Clin Cancer Res 2005;1(April (8)): 2005

  1. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and breast cancer in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavayssiere, Robert [Centre d' Imagerie Paris-Nord, 1, avenue Charles Peguy, 95200 Sarcelles (France); Institut du Sein Henri Hartmann (ISHH), 1, rue des Dames Augustines, 92200 Neuilly sur Seine (France)], E-mail: cab.lav@wanadoo.fr; Cabee, Anne-Elizabeth [Centre d' Imagerie Paris-Nord, 1, avenue Charles Peguy, 95200 Sarcelles (France); Institut du Sein Henri Hartmann (ISHH), 1, rue des Dames Augustines, 92200 Neuilly sur Seine (France); Centre RMX, 80, avenue Felix Faure, 75105 Paris (France); Filmont, Jean-Emmanuel [Institut du Sein Henri Hartmann (ISHH), 1, rue des Dames Augustines, 92200 Neuilly sur Seine (France); American Hospital of Paris, Nuclear Medicine, 63, boulevard Victor Hugo - BP 109, 92202 Neuilly sur Seine Cedex (France)

    2009-01-15

    The landscape of oncologic practice has changed deeply during the past few years and there is now a need, through a multidisciplinary approach, for imaging to provide accurate evaluation of morphology and function and to guide treatment (Image Guided Therapy). Increasing emphasis has been put on Position Emission Tomography (PET) role in various cancers among clinicians and patients despite a general context of healthcare expenditure limitation. Positron Emission Tomography has currently a limited role in breast cancer, but also general radiologists and specialists should be aware of these indications, especially when staging aggressive cancers and looking for recurrence. Currently, the hybrid systems associating PET and Computed Tomography (CT) and in the same device [Rohren EM, Turkington TG, Coleman RE. Clinical applications of PET in oncology. Radiology 2004;231:305-32; Blodgett TM, Meltzer CM, Townsend DW. PET/CT: form and function. Radiology 2007;242:360-85; von Schulthess GK, Steinert HC, Hany TF. Integrated PET/CT: current applications and futures directions. Radiology 2006;238(2):405-22], or PET-CT, are more commonly used and the two techniques are adding their potentialities. Other techniques, MRI in particular, may also compete with PET in some instance and as far as ionizing radiations dose limitation is considered, some breast cancers becoming some form of a chronic disease. Breast cancer is a very complex, non-uniform, disease and molecular imaging at large may contribute to a better knowledge and to new drugs development. Ongoing research, Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and new tracers, are likely to bring improvements in patient care [Kelloff GJ, Hoffman JM, Johnson B, et al. Progress and promise of FDG-PET Imaging for cancer patient management and oncologic drug development. Clin Cancer Res 2005;1(April (8)): 2005].

  2. Evidence based radiation oncology: Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is, similar to surgery, a local treatment. In the case of breast cancer, it is generally given after conservative or after more extensive, tumour and patient adapted, surgery. The target volumes can be the breast and/or the thoracic wall and/or the regional lymph node areas. The integration and the extent of radiotherapy as part of the comprehensive treatment of the breast cancer patient, including the amount of surgery and the sequencing with the systemic treatments, has to be well discussed with all medical specialists involved in treating breast cancer on a multidisciplinary basis. Guidelines for the appropriate prescription and execution of radiotherapy are of utmost importance. However, individualisation based on the individual patients' and tumours' characteristics should always be envisaged. Materials and methods: Based on a review of the literature the level of evidence that is available for the indications for radiotherapy is summarised, as well as the main clinical questions that are unanswered today. An overview of the recent and ongoing clinical trails in breast cancer will highlight some of the current ongoing debates. Conclusions: In the case of breast cancer, radiotherapy, given after as well conservative as extensive risk-adapted surgery, significantly reduces the risk of local and regional recurrences. Especially for patients with an intermediate to high absolute risk for local recurrences, a positive influence on overall survival has been shown, notably when appropriate radiotherapy techniques are used. Most important is that the best results that we can offer to our breast cancer patients for all clinical endpoints (local and regional control; quality of life; cosmetic results; survival) can be obtained by a multidisciplinary and patient-oriented approach, involving all those involved in the treatment of breast cancer patients

  3. Sexuality after breast cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Emilee; Emilee, Gilbert; Ussher, J M; Perz, J

    2010-08-01

    It is widely recognised that women's sexuality can be particularly complex after breast cancer, with sexual changes often becoming the most problematic aspect of a woman's life. The impact of such changes can last for many years after successful treatment, and can be associated with serious physical and emotional side-effects. The objective of this paper is to review research on breast cancer and sexuality from the years 1998 to 2010. Research has documented a range of physical changes to a woman's sexuality following breast cancer, including disturbances to sexual functioning, as well as disruptions to sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, sexual desire, and sexual pleasure, resulting from chemotherapy, chemically induced menopause, tamoxifen, and breast cancer surgery. Women's intrapsychic experience of changes to sexuality includes a fear of loss of fertility, negative body image, feelings of sexual unattractiveness, loss of femininity, depression and anxiety, as well as alterations to a sense of sexual self. The discursive construction of femininity and sexuality shapes the way women construct and experience their illness and their body - leading many women to try to appear 'normal' to others post-breast surgery. Finally, the quality of a woman's partnered relationship consistently predicts sexual health post-breast cancer - reinforcing the importance of recognising the intersubjective nature of issues surrounding breast cancer and sexuality. It is concluded that analyses of sexuality in the context of breast cancer cannot conceptualise the physical body separately from women's intrapsychic negotiation, her social and relational context, and the discursive constructions of sexuality and femininity: a material-discursive-intrapsychic interaction.

  4. Current Status of Poly(ADP-ribose Polymerase Inhibitors as Novel Therapeutic Agents for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Hiller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is an aggressive type of breast cancer that is clinically defined as lacking estrogen and progesterone receptors, as well as being ERBB2 (HER-2 negative. Without specific therapeutic targets, TNBC carries a worse prognosis than other types of breast cancer in the absence of therapy. Research has now further differentiated breast cancer into subtypes based on genetic expression patterns. One of these subtypes, basal-like, frequently overlaps with the clinical picture of TNBC. Additionally, both TNBC and basal-like breast cancer link to BRCA mutations. Recent pharmaceutical advances have created a class of drugs, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors, which are showing potential to effectively treat these patients. The aim of this paper is to summarize the basis behind PARP inhibitors and update the current status of their development in clinical trials for the treatment of TNBC.

  5. 75 FR 62297 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8572 of October 1, 2010 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the... fight against breast cancer, it remains the most frequently diagnosed type of non-skin cancer and the... will be diagnosed and nearly 40,000 lives will be claimed. During National Breast Cancer...

  6. Aggressive approach in a case of cancer cervix with uremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G Janaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of cervix is the most common cancer in developing countries. Majority of them present in locally advanced stages. A 36-year-old lady presented with bleeding and white discharge per vagina since four months, vomiting and reduced urine output since two weeks. Patient had an exophytic cervical growth. Investigation revealed elevated serum creatinine. Patient received single fraction radiation and underwent percutaneous nephrostomy. At one month follow-up, serum creatinine returned to almost normal level. Patient underwent bilateral ante grade stenting and completed concurrent chemoradiotherapy. In selected subsets of patients, aggressive management offered longer palliation and good quality of life.

  7. Breast cancer in Egypt: a fact sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Zawilla N

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor among women. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women; 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people.

  8. Emerging Breast Cancer Epidemic: Evidence from Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Akarolo-Anthony, Sally Nneoma Sarah; Adebamowo, Clement Adebayo

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is an increasingly important public health problem in developing countries, including Africa [1]. As public and professional awareness of the cancer problem has grown, so has interest in the pattern of disease presentation, its epidemiology and treatment outcome. To date, however, there has been limited research about breast cancer in Africa. In the absence of systematic population-based cancer registration, most information has come from small clinical and pathology case series and th...

  9. Towards Evidence-Based Management of Inherited Breast and Breast-Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Møller Pål

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Inherited breast-ovarian cancer was described in 1866. The underlying genetic defects in BRCA1/2 were demonstrated 128 years later. We now have 10 years of experience with genetic testing in BRCA kindreds. The majority of breast cancer kindreds (familial breast cancer) do not demonstrate ovarian cancer and are not associated with BRCA mutations. The effect of early diagnosis and treatment is monitored through international collaborations. BRCA1-associated breast cancer is biologicall...

  10. Epigenetic suppression of neprilysin regulates breast cancer invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, H M; Khoury, R J; Majmudar, P R; Blaylock, T; Hawkins, K; Salama, M S; Scott, M D; Cosminsky, B; Utreja, N K; Britt, J; Conway, R E

    2016-01-01

    In women, invasive breast cancer is the second most common cancer and the second cause of cancer-related death. Therefore, identifying novel regulators of breast cancer invasion could lead to additional biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Neprilysin, a cell-surface enzyme that cleaves and inactivates a number of substrates including endothelin-1 (ET1), has been implicated in breast cancer, but whether neprilysin promotes or inhibits breast cancer cell progression and metastasis is unclear. Here, we asked whether neprilysin expression predicts and functionally regulates breast cancer cell invasion. RT–PCR and flow cytometry analysis of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines revealed decreased neprilysin expression compared with normal epithelial cells. Expression was also suppressed in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) compared with normal tissue. In addition, in vtro invasion assays demonstrated that neprilysin overexpression decreased breast cancer cell invasion, whereas neprilysin suppression augmented invasion. Furthermore, inhibiting neprilysin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells increased ET1 levels significantly, whereas overexpressing neprilysin decreased extracellular-signal related kinase (ERK) activation, indicating that neprilysin negatively regulates ET1-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. To determine whether neprilysin was epigenetically suppressed in breast cancer, we performed bisulfite conversion analysis of breast cancer cells and clinical tumor samples. We found that the neprilysin promoter was hypermethylated in breast cancer; chemical reversal of methylation in MDA-MB-231 cells reactivated neprilysin expression and inhibited cancer cell invasion. Analysis of cancer databases revealed that neprilysin methylation significantly associates with survival in stage I IDC and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer subtypes. These results demonstrate that neprilysin negatively regulates the ET axis in breast cancer

  11. Exercise in patients coping with breast cancer: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Eyigor, Sibel; Kanyilmaz, Selcen

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women, but fortunately has high survival rates. Many studies have been performed to investigate the effects of exercise in patients diagnosed with breast cancer. There is evidence that exercise after the diagnosis of breast cancer improves mortality, morbidity, health related quality of life, fatigue, physical functioning, muscle strength, and emotional wellbeing. Based on scientific data, breast cancer patients should be recommended to parti...

  12. Molecular basis of the triple negative breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Feyda Nursal

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women and more than 1 million breast cancer cases are diagnosed each year all over the world. Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease in terms of its molecular structure, mutation type, metastase properties, clinical course and therapeutic response. Breast cancer is divided into subtypes based on expression properties of molecular markers as estrogen receptor, progestron receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Triple-...

  13. Comparison of breast cancer mucin (BCM) and CA 15-3 in human breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, M.B.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Wall, E. van der; Nortier, J.W.R.; Schornagel, J.H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Mucin (BCM) enzyme immunoassay utilizes two monoclonal antibodies (Mab), M85/34 and F36/22, for the identification of a mucin-like glycoprotein in serum of breast cancer patients. We have compared BCM with CA 15-3, another member of the human mammary epithelial antigen family. Seru

  14. Surgical Procedures for Breast Cancer - Mastectomy and Breast Conserving Therapy (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... performed BCT procedure in the United States and Canada. (See "Breast conserving therapy" .) Radiation therapy Invasive breast ... breast cancer The following organizations also provide reliable health ... and undertakings, oral or written, are hereby expressly superseded and canceled. ...

  15. The clinical and functional significance of c-Met in breast cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Yen, Colan M; Jones, J Louise; Kermorgant, Stephanie

    2015-04-08

    c-Met is a receptor tyrosine kinase that upon binding of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), activates downstream pathways with diverse cellular functions that are important in organ development and cancer progression. Anomalous c-Met signalling has been described in a variety of cancer types, and the receptor is regarded as a novel therapeutic target. In breast cancer there is a need to develop new treatments, particularly for the aggressive subtypes such as triple-negative and basal-like cancer, which currently lack targeted therapy. Over the last two decades, much has been learnt about the functional role of c-Met signalling in different models of breast development and cancer. This work has been complemented by clinical studies, establishing the prognostic significance of c-Met in tissue samples of breast cancer. While the clinical trials of anti-c-Met therapy in advanced breast cancer progress, there is a need to review the existing evidence so that the potential of these treatments can be better appreciated. The aim of this article is to examine the role of HGF/c-Met signalling in in vitro and in vivo models of breast cancer, to describe the mechanisms of aberrant c-Met signalling in human tissues, and to give a brief overview of the anti-c-Met therapies currently being evaluated in breast cancer patients. We will show that the HGF/c-Met pathway is associated with breast cancer progression and suggest that there is a firm basis for continued development of anti-c-Met treatment, particularly for patients with basal-like and triple-negative breast cancer.

  16. Genomic tumor evolution of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Fumiaki; Saji, Shigehira; Toi, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Owing to recent technical development of comprehensive genome-wide analysis such as next generation sequencing, deep biological insights of breast cancer have been revealed. Information of genomic mutations and rearrangements in patients' tumors is indispensable to understand the mechanism in carcinogenesis, progression, metastasis, and resistance to systemic treatment of breast cancer. To date, comprehensive genomic analyses illustrate not only base substitution patterns and lists of driver mutations and key rearrangements, but also a manner of tumor evolution. Breast cancer genome is dynamically changing and evolving during cancer development course from non-invasive disease via invasive primary tumor to metastatic tumor, and during treatment exposure. The accumulation pattern of base substitution and genomic rearrangement looks gradual and punctuated, respectively, in analogy with contrasting theories for evolution manner of species, Darwin's phyletic gradualism, and Eldredge and Gould's "punctuated equilibrium". Liquid biopsy is a non-invasive method to detect the genomic evolution of breast cancer. Genomic mutation patterns in circulating tumor cells and circulating cell-free tumor DNA represent those of tumors existing in patient body. Liquid biopsy methods are now under development for future application to clinical practice of cancer treatment. In this article, latest knowledge regarding breast cancer genome, especially in terms of 'tumor evolution', is summarized. PMID:25998191

  17. Serum‐derived exosomes from mice with highly metastatic breast cancer transfer increased metastatic capacity to a poorly metastatic tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Gorczynski, Reginald M.; Erin, Nuray; Zhu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Altered interaction between CD200 and CD200R represents an example of “checkpoint blockade” disrupting an effective, tumor‐directed, host response in murine breast cancer cells. In CD200R1KO mice, long‐term cure of EMT6 breast cancer, including metastatic spread to lung and liver, was achieved in BALB/c mice. The reverse was observed with 4THM tumors, an aggressive, inflammatory breast cancer, with increased tumor metastasis in CD200R1KO. We explored possible explanations for this di...

  18. Proteomic maps of breast cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyanova, Stefka; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kronqvist, Pauliina;

    2016-01-01

    Systems-wide profiling of breast cancer has almost always entailed RNA and DNA analysis by microarray and sequencing techniques. Marked developments in proteomic technologies now enable very deep profiling of clinical samples, with high identification and quantification accuracy. We analysed 40...... oestrogen receptor positive (luminal), Her2 positive and triple negative breast tumours and reached a quantitative depth of >10,000 proteins. These proteomic profiles identified functional differences between breast cancer subtypes, related to energy metabolism, cell growth, mRNA translation and cell......-cell communication. Furthermore, we derived a signature of 19 proteins, which differ between the breast cancer subtypes, through support vector machine (SVM)-based classification and feature selection. Remarkably, only three proteins of the signature were associated with gene copy number variations and eleven were...

  19. Genetic determinants of postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjana, Einarsdottir

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer is overall the most common cancer in women worldwide and endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in the industrialized world. History of a first-degree relative with breast or endometrial cancer has been related to a twofold increase in risk of the respective diseases. Whilst genetic risk factors for endometrial cancer in general or for breast cancer in women not carrying any high-penetrance mutations are largely unknown, a polygenic model h...

  20. INHIBITION OF SPONTANEOUS APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵志敏; 江明; 吴炅; 余黎民; 韩企夏; 张延璆; 沈镇宙

    1996-01-01

    Breast tumorigenesis proceeds through an accumulation of specific genetic alteration. Breast malignant transformation is dependent on not only the rate of cell production but also on apoptcsis,a genetically prograined process of autonomous ceil death. We investigated whether breast tumorigenesis involved an altered susceptibility to apoptosis and proliferation by examining normal breast epithelium and breast cancer sampies. We found there is a great inhibition of spontaneous apoptosis in breast cancer ceils compared with normal breast epithelium. The inhibition of apoptosis in breast cancer may contribute to neoplastic transformation.