Sample records for breast alk1-negative anaplastic

  1. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma associated with breast implants

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    Vid Bajuk


    Full Text Available An increasing number of women worldwide decide for esthetic correction of breasts with silicone implants and post-cancer breast reconstruction with tissue expanders and silicone breast implants. It is estimated that more than 10 million women around the globe have them. Tere are approximately 200 known cases of patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL linked with silicone breast implants reported in medical literature. ALCL is a rare disease with an annual incidence of 0.1–0.3/100 000 women with breast silicone implants. In the presence of clinical signs, physician should also consider this rare form of ALCL in differential diagnosis. Patients are on average 50 years old. Long afer implantation surgery, the patient may experience breast swelling, pain and/or asymmetry. In diagnostics, ultrasound and cytological examination are required. During ultrasound examination fluid formation (seroma or solid tumor mass can be detected. Treatment is individualized. Due to tumor nature, implant resection and total capsulectomy are usually indicated; also, chemo- and radiotherapy might rarely be required. Five-year survival rate depends on tumor form and correlates well with clinical fndings of seroma or solid mass. In the more frequent form, seroma, fve-year survival rate is 100 %, while in the case of solid tumor mass fve-year survival rate is 75 %. The rarity of this disease makes it difficult to diagnose, but nevertheless, early detection and treatment are important for better recovery.

  2. Presence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase in inflammatory breast cancer. (United States)

    Robertson, Fredika M; Petricoin Iii, Emanuel F; Van Laere, Steven J; Bertucci, Francois; Chu, Khoi; Fernandez, Sandra V; Mu, Zhaomei; Alpaugh, Katherine; Pei, Jianming; Circo, Rita; Wulfkuhle, Julia; Ye, Zaiming; Boley, Kimberly M; Liu, Hui; Moraes, Ricardo; Zhang, Xuejun; Demaria, Ruggero; Barsky, Sanford H; Sun, Guoxian; Cristofanilli, Massimo


    Although Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) is recognized as the most metastatic variant of locally advanced breast cancer, the molecular basis for the distinct clinical presentation and accelerated program of metastasis of IBC is unknown. Reverse phase protein arrays revealed activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and biochemically-linked downstream signaling molecules including JAK1/STAT3, AKT, mTor, PDK1, and AMPKβ in pre-clinical models of IBC. To evaluate the clinical relevance of ALK in IBC, analysis of 25 IBC patient tumors using the FDA approved diagnostic test for ALK genetic abnormalities was performed. These studies revealed that 20/25 (80%) had either increased ALK copy number, low level ALK gene amplification, or ALK gene expression, with a prevalence of ALK alterations in basal-like IBC. One of 25 patients was identified as having an EML4-ALK translocation. The generality of gains in ALK copy number in basal-like breast tumors with IBC characteristics was demonstrated by analysis of 479 breast tumors using the TGCA data-base and our newly developed 79 IBC-like gene signature. The small molecule dual tyrosine kinase cMET/ALK inhibitor, Crizotinib (PF-02341066/Xalkori®, Pfizer Inc), induced both cytotoxicity (IC50 = 0.89 μM) and apoptosis, with abrogation of pALK signaling in IBC tumor cells and in FC-IBC01 tumor xenograft model, a new IBC model derived from pleural effusion cells isolated from an ALK(+) IBC patient. Based on these studies, IBC patients are currently being evaluated for the presence of ALK genetic abnormalities and when eligible, are being enrolled into clinical trials evaluating ALK targeted therapeutics.

  3. Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Leberfinger, Ashley N; Behar, Brittany J; Williams, Nicole C; Rakszawski, Kevin L; Potochny, John D; Mackay, Donald R; Ravnic, Dino J


    Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL), a rare peripheral T-cell lymphoma, is increasing in incidence. However, many practitioners who treat patients with breast cancer are not aware of this disease. To assess how BIA-ALCL develops, its risk factors, diagnosis, and subsequent treatment and to disseminate information about this entity to the medical field. A literature review was performed in an academic medical setting. All review articles, case reports, original research articles, and any other articles relevant to BIA-ALCL were included. Data on BIA-ALCL, such as pathophysiology, patient demographics, presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes, were extracted. Particular focus was paid to age, time to onset, implant type, initial symptoms, treatment, and survival. The search was conducted in January 2017 for studies published in any year. After duplicates were excluded, 304 relevant articles were assessed, and 115 were included from the first documented case in August 1997 through January 2017. Thirty review articles, 44 case reports or series, 15 original research articles, and 26 "other" articles (eg, techniques, special topics, letters) were reviewed. A total of 93 cases have been reported in the literature, and with the addition of 2 unreported cases from the Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, 95 patients were included in this systematic review. Almost all documented BIA-ALCL cases have been associated with a textured device. The underlying mechanism is thought to be due to chronic inflammation from indolent infections, leading to malignant transformation of T cells that are anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) negative and CD30 positive. The mean time to presentation is approximately 10 years after implant placement, with 55 of 83 (66%) patients initially seen with an isolated late-onset seroma and 7 of 83 (8%) with an isolated new breast mass. Ultrasonography with fluid aspiration can be used for diagnosis

  4. Bacterial Biofilm Infection Detected in Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma. (United States)

    Hu, Honghua; Johani, Khalid; Almatroudi, Ahmad; Vickery, Karen; Van Natta, Bruce; Kadin, Marshall E; Brody, Garry; Clemens, Mark; Cheah, Chan Yoon; Lade, Stephen; Joshi, Preeti Avinash; Prince, H Miles; Deva, Anand K


    A recent association between breast implants and the development of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) has been observed. The purpose of this study was to identify whether bacterial biofilm is present in breast implant-associated ALCL and, if so, to compare the bacterial microbiome to nontumor capsule samples from breast implants with contracture. Twenty-six breast implant-associated ALCL samples were analyzed for the presence of biofilm by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, next-generation sequencing, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and scanning electron microscopy, and compared to 62 nontumor capsule specimens. Both the breast implant-associated ALCL and nontumor capsule samples yielded high mean numbers of bacteria (breast implant-associated ALCL, 4.7 × 10 cells/mg of tissue; capsule, 4.9 × 10 cells/mg of tissue). Analysis of the microbiome in breast implant-associated ALCL specimens showed significant differences with species identified in nontumor capsule specimens. There was a significantly greater proportion of Ralstonia spp. present in ALCL specimens compared with nontumor capsule specimens (p associated with nontumor capsule specimens compared with breast implant-associated ALCL specimens (p Bacterial biofilm was visualized both on scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. This novel finding of bacterial biofilm and a distinct microbiome in breast implant-associated ALCL samples points to a possible infectious contributing cause. Breast implants are widely used in both reconstructive and aesthetic surgery, and strategies to reduce their contamination should be more widely studied and practiced. Risk, V.

  5. Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma Associated with Breast Implants: A Case Report of a Transgender Female. (United States)

    Patzelt, Matej; Zarubova, Lucie; Klener, Pavel; Barta, Josef; Benkova, Kamila; Brandejsova, Adrianna; Trneny, Marek; Gürlich, Robert; Sukop, Andrej


    Breast implant-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a rare peripheral T cell lymphoma. BIA-ALCL is a disease of the fibrous capsule surrounding the implant and occurs in patients after both breast reconstruction and augmentation. More than 300 cases have been reported so far, including two in a transgender patient. Here we describe BIA-ALCL presented with a mass in a transgender patient and the first case of BIA-ALCL in the Czech Republic. In 2007, a 33-year-old transgender male to female underwent bilateral breast augmentation as a part of his transformation to female. In June 2014, the patient developed a 5-cm tumorous mass in her left breast. Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest revealed a ruptured implant and a tumorous mass penetrating into the capsule and infiltrating the pectoral muscle. An R0 surgery was indicated-the implant, silicone gel and capsule were removed, and the tumorous mass was resected together with a part of the pectoral muscle. Histology revealed anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. The patient underwent standard staging procedures for lymphoma including a bone marrow trephine biopsy, which confirmed stage IE. The patient was treated with the standard chemotherapy for systemic ALCL-6 cycles of CHOP-21. The patient was tumor-free at the 2-year follow-up. BIA-ALCL has been reported mostly in women who received implants for either reconstructive or aesthetic augmentation. This is the third report of BIA-ALCL in a transgender person, the first in the Czech Republic. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

  6. Variable presentation of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in patients with breast implants. (United States)

    Locke, Michelle B; Lofts, Julian


    Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) has recently been reported in women with breast implants. The incidence of breast implant-related ALCL is extremely rare and most surgeons would not expect to see this disease in their career. However, the senior author has had three women present to his practice with ALCL over a 2-year period. The three patients and their presentation were reviewed to establish the presenting complaint in each case of subsequently diagnosed ALCL. Literature was reviewed to establish appropriate treatment protocols for any subsequent patients. The average time between first implant placement and presentation with breast implant-associated ALCL was 13.3 years (range: 10-16 years) and age at presentation was 49 years (range: 45-53 years). Each presentation was somewhat different, being a palpable mass, a painless seroma and a painful seroma. Both patients with seroma underwent ultrasound-guided aspiration of fluid which confirmed ALCL. All patients underwent implant removal and complete capsulectomy. The patient with a mass at presentation initially declined adjuvant treatment but subsequently developed an ALCL-associated seroma and was treated with surgery and post-operative chemotherapy. Patients with breast implant-associated ALCL can present with different clinical signs and symptoms. Late seroma is a relatively common presentation of breast implant-associated ALCL. While firm guidelines for the management of breast implant-related ALCL are lacking, we suggest that any late seroma in the absence of infection should be managed with aspiration and cytological analysis of the fluid. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  7. Locally advanced breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma: A case report of successful treatment with radiation and chemotherapy

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    Christopher Fleighton Estes


    Full Text Available The development of breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a rare phenomenon. A typical presentation is an effusion associated with a breast implant. Less commonly, disease can become more advanced locoregionally or distantly. The optimal treatment schema is a topic of debate: localized ALCL can potentially be cured with implant removal alone, while other cases in the literature, including those that are more advanced, have been treated with varying combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and external beam radiotherapy. This is a case report of breast implant ALCL with pathologically proven lymph node involvement, the fifth such patient reported. Our patient experienced a favorable outcome with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  8. Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the breast arising in reconstruction mammoplasty capsule of saline filled breast implant after radical mastectomy for breast cancer: an unusual case presentation

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    Sur Monalisa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL of the breast represents 0.04–0.5% of malignant lesions of the breast and accounts for 1.7–2.2% of extra-nodal NHL. Most primary cases are of B-cell phenotype and only rare cases are of T-cell phenotype. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a rare T-cell lymphoma typically seen in children and young adults with the breast being one of the least common locations. There are a total of eleven cases of primary ALCL of the breast described in the literature. Eight of these cases occurred in proximity to breast implants, four in relation to silicone breast implant and three in relation to saline filled breast implant with three out of the eight implant related cases having previous history of breast cancer treated surgically. Adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy is given in only one case. Secondary hematological malignancies after breast cancer chemotherapy have been reported in literature. However in contrast to acute myeloid leukemia (AML, the association between lymphoma and administration of chemotherapy has never been clearly demonstrated. Case Presentation In this report we present a case of primary ALCL of the breast arising in reconstruction mamoplasty capsule of saline filled breast implant after radical mastectomy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma followed by postoperative chemotherapy twelve years ago. Conclusion Primary ALK negative ALCL arising at the site of saline filled breast implant is rare. It is still unclear whether chemotherapy and breast implantation increases risk of secondary hematological malignancies significantly. However, it is important to be aware of these complications and need for careful pathologic examination of tissue removed for implant related complications to make the correct diagnosis for further patient management and treatment. It is important to be aware of this entity at this site as it can be easily misdiagnosed on histologic grounds and to exclude

  9. Flow cytometry of ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of breast implant-associated effusion and capsular tissue. (United States)

    Wu, David; Allen, Camilla T; Fromm, Jonathan R


    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) of the breast capsule is a rare lymphoma involving capsular tissues and/or effusions associated with breast implants. While several studies have detailed the histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of these tumors, no study has yet described flow cytometry features of the neoplastic cells of this entity. Here, we report two cases from our institution in which multi-parametric flow cytometry was performed. The immunophenotype of ALCL in association with breast implant was evaluated by flow cytometry. We show that much like CD30+ tumor cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and ALCL of non-breast implant tumors, the neoplastic cells of this entity can be readily identified by flow cytometry. The neoplastic cells of both cases were largely devoid of T-cell antigens, but had expression of weak CD15, strong CD30, and expression of CD40. These results are correlated with routine morphologic and IHC analysis, supporting the flow cytometry immunophenotype. Flow cytometry can aid in the diagnostic evaluation of effusions or tissue samples in association with breast implant/prostheses. © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  10. Axillary Lymphadenopathy: An Outstanding Presentation for Breast Implant-Associated ALK-Negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma. (United States)

    Tardío, Juan C; Granados, Rosario


    Till date, there is only one reported case of breast implant-associated ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with an axillary presentation that followed an aggressive behavior. We report the case of a 50-year-old female presenting with an axillary lymphadenopathy 8 years after breast prostheses implantation. Clinical examination, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging detected no mammary lesions. The lymph node showed intrasinusoidal infiltration by large pleomorphic cells expressing CD30 and lacking ALK-immunoreactivity. Tumor staging was negative. Cells with identical features were found in the ipsilateral periprosthetic capsule. The patient was treated with CHOP and radiotherapy, and she is alive without evidence of disease after a 30-month follow-up. The diagnosis of an ALK-negative ALCL in an axillary lymph node of a patient with ipsilateral breast prosthesis and negative staging should prompt removal of the implant with capsulectomy, since the pathological study of this specimen allows the correct diagnosis with important prognostic implications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The non-specific symptoms of breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma resulting in delayed diagnosis: A case-based review

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    Reem Dina Jarjis


    Full Text Available Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL is a rare entity that has become known as a distinct clinical condition recently. In general, BIA-ALCL patients with a history of breast implants present with non-specific implant-related complications, resulting in delayed diagnosis and appropriate treatment because of the lack of awareness of BIA-ALCL. The cause and pathogenesis have still not been identified, and there are no evidence-based guidelines on how this condition should be detected, treated or followed up because of the rarity of available data. We present the first published Danish case of anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative BIA-ALCL, and review the current literature to raise awareness of and discuss management options for this rare clinical entity.

  12. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene copy number gain in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC: prevalence, clinicopathologic features and prognostic implication.

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    Min Hwan Kim

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC is the most aggressive form of breast cancer, and its molecular pathogenesis still remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and implication of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK copy number change in IBC patients.We retrospectively collected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues and medical records of IBC patients from several institutes in Korea. ALK gene copy number change and rearrangement were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assay, and ALK expression status was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC staining.Thirty-six IBC patients including those with HER2 (+ breast cancer (16/36, 44.4% and triple-negative breast cancer (13/36, 36.1% were enrolled in this study. ALK copy number gain (CNG was observed in 47.2% (17/36 of patients, including one patient who harbored ALK gene amplification. ALK CNG (+ patients showed significantly worse overall survival compared to ALK CNG (- patients in univariate analysis (24.9 months vs. 38.1 months, p = 0.033. Recurrence free survival (RFS after curative mastectomy was also significantly shorter in ALK CNG (+ patients than in ALK CNG (- patients (n = 22, 12.7 months vs. 43.3 months, p = 0.016. Multivariate Cox regression analysis with adjustment for HER2 and ER statuses showed significantly poorer RFS for ALK CNG (+ patients (HR 5.63, 95% CI 1.11-28.44, p = 0.037.This study shows a significant presence of ALK CNG in IBC patients, and ALK CNG was associated with significantly poorer RFS.

  13. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (United States)

    ... page: // Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive type of thyroid cancer that ...

  14. Anaplastic astrocytoma. (United States)

    Grimm, Sean A; Chamberlain, Marc C


    Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) is a diffusely infiltrating, malignant, astrocytic, primary brain tumor. AA is currently defined by histology although future classification schemes will include molecular alterations. AA can be separated into subgroups, which share similar molecular profiles, age at diagnosis and median survival, based on 1p/19q co-deletion status and IDH mutation status. AA with co-deletion of chromosomes 1p and 19q and IDH mutation have the best prognosis. AA with IDH mutation and no 1p/19q co-deletion have intermediate prognosis and AA with wild-type IDH have the worst prognosis and share many molecular alterations with glioblastoma. Treatment of noncodeleted AA based on preliminary results from the CATNON clinical trial consists of maximal safe resection followed by radiotherapy with post-radiotherapy temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. The role of concurrent TMZ and whether IDH1 subgroups benefit from TMZ is currently being evaluated in the recently completed randomized, prospective Phase III clinical trial, CATNON.

  15. Cytological Diagnosis of Bilateral Breast Implant-Associated Lymphoma of the ALK-Negative Anaplastic Large-Cell Type. Clinical Implications of Peri-Implant Breast Seroma Cytological Reporting. (United States)

    Granados, Rosario; Lumbreras, Eva M; Delgado, Manuel; Aramburu, José A; Tardío, Juan C


    The cytological examination of peri-prosthetic breast effusions allowed the diagnosis of bilateral breast-implant ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL) in the case reported. Ten years after reconstructive surgery with bilateral breast implants, a large unilateral seroma developed and was cytologically analyzed. The presence of CD30 and CD4-positive large-sized atypical lymphoid cells exhibiting horseshoe-shaped nuclei and a brisk mitotic activity rendered the diagnosis of BI-ALCL. Similar cells were seen in the peri-prosthetic fluid intraoperatively collected from the contralateral breast. Although initial histological analysis of the capsulectomy specimens showed unilateral tumor, the cytological findings prompted a more thorough tissue sampling, resulting in the diagnosis of bilateral disease. BI-ALCL usually follows an indolent clinical course; however, there are reported cases with an aggressive behavior. While the presence of bilateral disease is a putative risk factor for a bad prognosis, the small number of cases reported precludes a definitive assessment of this risk. Since most BI-ALCL present with late seromas, cytologic analysis of these effusions in women with breast implants should be mandatory. Cytology is a safe tool for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with breast implant-related late seromas, sometimes proven more sensitive than histological analysis. Complete bilateral capsulectomy and a detailed histological analysis should follow a cytological diagnosis of BI-ALCL in a breast effusion in order to avoid false negative diagnoses. Our case constitutes the first published report of a bilateral BI-ALCL diagnosed by cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:623-627. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Anaplastic large cell neuroblastoma. (United States)

    Abramowsky, Carlos R; Katzenstein, Howard M; Alvarado, Carlos S; Shehata, Bahig M


    Anaplastic large cell neuroblastomas (ALCNB) are a subset of undifferentiated neuroblastomas with marked pleomorphic and anaplastic features that render them diagnostically challenging. We reviewed the records of all patients diagnosed with ALCNB at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta (Egleston Children's Hospital) for their clinical, biologic, and pathologic characteristics and their treatment outcomes. From 1998 to 2006, 7 patients were diagnosed with ALCNB. All patients presented with abdominal-pelvic masses, 3 of them of adrenal origin and 2 with thoracic extension, with clinical stages 3 or 4, and were considered to have high-risk disease. The N-MYC oncogene was amplified in 3 cases and catecholamines were elevated in 5 of 6 patients tested. All pretreatment tumors demonstrate pleomorphic, anaplastic morphology with bizarre mitoses admixed with undifferentiated but monomorphic cells with minimal if any neuropil or neuro-ganglionic differentiation. Immunohistochemical markers for neuron specific enolase (NSE) and synaptophysin were strongly positive in all specimens and chromogranin in 4 of 5. Interestingly, all tumors showed strong Fli-1 nuclear positivity despite a negative CD-99 stain. However, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or fluorescent in-situ hybridization testing for Ewing sarcoma transcripts was negative in 4 available specimens. This same Fli-1 antibody had tested negative on 30 conventional neuroblastomas, indicating a peculiar cross reactivity with this subset of ALCNB. Posttreatment biopsies showed maturation changes to more conventional neuroblastoma histology in 5 of the 7 cases. Follow-up ranged from 9 months to 4 years from diagnosis (median: 25 months). Five patients are still alive after treatment, 1 died 9 months after diagnosis, and another patient refused high-risk therapy and progressed and died 9 months from diagnosis. Anaplastic large cell neuroblastomas are a subset of undifferentiated neuroblastomas characterized by the

  17. Pediatric intracranial primary anaplastic ganglioglioma. (United States)

    Lüdemann, Wolf; Banan, Rouzbeh; Hartmann, Christian; Bertalanffy, Helmut; Di Rocco, Concezio


    Primary intracranial anaplastic gangliogliomas are rare tumors in the pediatric patient group. Most of them present with symptoms of elevated pressure or symptomatic epilepsy. Extraaxial location is far more common than axial location. On MRI examination, they mimic pilocytic astrocytomas. The outcome after surgery depends mainly on the possible amount of surgical resection, and oncological therapy is necessary to prevent recurrence of the disease. An 11-year-old boy presented with headache and double vision due to obstructive hydrocephalus. MRI of the brain revealed an axial partially contrast enhancing lesion in the quadrigeminal plate extending from the cerebellum to the pineal gland and causing hydrocephalus. Subtotal removal of the lesion was performed, and the diagnosis of an anaplastic ganglioglioma was established and confirmed by the reference center. At the latest follow up (3 months), the boy is without any neurological symptoms and scheduled for radiation therapy as well as chemotherapy.

  18. Epileptic seizures in anaplastic gangliogliomas. (United States)

    Zanello, Marc; Pagès, Mélanie; Roux, Alexandre; Peeters, Sophie; Dezamis, Edouard; Puget, Stéphanie; Devaux, Bertrand; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Zerah, Michel; Louvel, Guillaume; Dumont, Sarah N; Meder, Jean-François; Grill, Jacques; Huberfeld, Gilles; Chrétien, Fabrice; Parraga, Eduardo; Sauvageon, Xavier; Varlet, Pascale; Pallud, Johan


    Prevalence and predictors of epileptic seizures are unknown in the malignant variant of ganglioglioma. In a retrospective exploratory dataset of 18 supratentorial anaplastic World Health Organization grade III gangliogliomas, we studied: (i) the prevalence and predictors of epileptic seizures at diagnosis; (ii) the evolution of seizures during tumor evolution; (iii) seizure control rates and predictors of epilepsy control after oncological treatments. Epileptic seizures prevalence progresses throughout the natural course of anaplastic gangliogliomas: 44% at imaging discovery, 67% at histopathological diagnosis, 69% following oncological treatment, 86% at tumor progression, and 100% at the end-of-life phase. The medical control of seizures and their refractory status worsened during the tumor's natural course: 25% of uncontrolled seizures at histopathological diagnosis, 40% following oncological treatment, 45.5% at tumor progression, and 45.5% at the end-of-life phase. Predictors of seizures at diagnosis appeared related to the tumor location (i.e. temporal and/or cortical involvement). Prognostic parameters of seizure control after first-line oncological treatment were temporal tumor location, eosinophilic granular bodies, TP53 mutation, and extent of resection. Prognostic parameters of seizure control at tumor progression were a history of epileptic seizures at diagnosis, seizure control after first-line oncological treatment, eosinophilic granular bodies, and TP53 mutation. Epileptic seizures are frequently observed in anaplastic gangliogliomas and both prevalence and medically refractory status worsen during the tumor's natural course. Both oncological and antiepileptic treatments should be employed to improve the control of epileptic seizures and the quality of life of patients harboring an anaplastic ganglioglioma.

  19. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.

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    O'Neill, J P


    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

  20. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features

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    Cheng ZHI


    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the clinical pathological characteristics, immunophenotyping, diagnosis and differential diagnosis and prognosis of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA with anaplastic features.  Methods  HE staining was used for histological observation. The expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, vimentin (Vim, CD34, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, progestrone receptor (PR, neurofilment protein (NF, neuronal nuclei (NeuN, synaptophysin (Syn, Nestin (Nes, S-100 protein (S-100, P53 and Ki-67 labeling index were detected by immunohistochemical method. BRAF mutation was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification.  Results  A 43-year-old male patient presented with repeatedly paroxysmal tic of limbs and disturbance of consciousness. Cranial MRI revealed multiple abnormal signals in left temporo-occipito-parietal lobe and posterior horn of lateral ventricle, with unclear borderline and cystic degeneration. Surgical removal of the lesion was performed. Histologically, the tumor was biphasic. One part was composed of spindle cells arranged in fascicles or as running water, with weird multinuclear giant cells. Abundant vacuolated lipidized cytoplasm could be seen. Mitosis and "map"-like necrosis were noted. Another part revealed the tumor cells were consistent in size and uniform in distribution, with loose background tissue. Immunohistochemistry showed tumor cells were diffusely positive for GFAP, Vim, S-100, Nes, CD34 and P53, and negative for EMA, Syn, NeuN and NF. Ki-67 labeling index was about 15%. Reticular fiber staining showed abundant reticular fibers in the tumor tissue. BRAF mutation detected by PCR amplification was not found.  Conclusions  Classified as grade Ⅱ in the World Health Organization (WHO classification, the prognosis of PXA is good. A diagnosis of PXA with anaplastic features should be considered when the tumor demonstrates mitotic activity > 5/10 high power field (HPF and/or areas of

  1. Extensive Growth of an Anaplastic Meningioma

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    Hajrullah Ahmeti


    Full Text Available We present the case of a 30-year-old male patient with an almost complete destruction of the calvarial bone through an anaplastic meningioma diagnosed in line with dizziness. Neuroimaging revealed an extensive growing, contrast enhancing lesion expanding at the supra- and infratentorial convexity, infiltrating and destroying large parts of the skull, and infiltrating the skin. Due to progressive ataxia and dysarthria with proven tumor growth in the posterior fossa in the continuing course, parts of the tumor were resected. A surgical procedure with the aim of complete tumor resection in a curative manner was not possible. Six months after the first operation, due to a new tumor progression, most extensive tumor resection was performed. Due to the aggressive and destructive growth with a high rate of recurrence and tendency of metastases, anaplastic meningiomas can be termed as malignant tumors. The extrinsic growth masks the tumor until they reach a size, which makes these tumors almost unresectable. In the best case scenarios, the five-year survival is about 50%. With the presented case, we would like to show the aggressive behavior of anaplastic meningiomas in a very illustrative way. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery reach their limits in this tumor entity.

  2. Extreme Hypoglycaemia in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

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    Lidor Akavia


    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypoglycaemia associated with non-islet cell tumours (NICTH is a rare entity in patients with extra-pancreatic malignancies, mostly attributed to large mesenchymal or epithelial tumours. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma has not previously been associated with NICTH, making this the first publication of such a report. Patient and methods: A 22-year-old, non-diabetic patient was admitted to our department with malaise, itching, night sweats and weight loss. Serum glucose levels at presentation were extremely low, reaching 3 mg/dl at the lowest. Further investigations revealed undetectable blood insulin and C-peptide levels, together with low IGF-1 (34 ng/ml levels. Inguinal lymph node biopsy showed anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and bone marrow biopsy along with supporting blood tests revealed haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Discussion: In conjunction with an adequate hyperglycaemic response to intravenous glucagon, all of the above findings indicate hypoglycaemia as a result of overproduction of high molecular weight IGF-2 precursor protein, generally referred to as ‘Big IGF-2’. Large solid tumours can occasionally produce loosely bound or free Big IGF-2 molecules which circulate throughout the plasma and bind to insulin as well as IGF receptors, thus increasing glucose intake by body tissues, decreasing the release of glucose to the bloodstream by the liver and causing feedback suppression of insulin, IGF-1 and growth hormone production. Therefore, it is exceptional to find Big IGF-2-related hypoglycaemia in non-solid tumours. Our case shows that, although extremely uncommon, rare instances of NICTH can be attributed to the production of Big IGF-2 in non-solid malignancies including anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

  3. Malignant clinical features of anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation. (United States)

    Shibahara, Ichiyo; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Shoji, Takuhiro; Kanamori, Masayuki; Saito, Ryuta; Inoue, Tomoo; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yoji; Watanabe, Takashi; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Mika; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Tominaga, Teiji


    Diagnosis of WHO grade III anaplastic gliomas does not always correspond to its clinical outcome because of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene status. Anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation result in a poor prognosis, similar to grade IV glioblastomas. However, the malignant features of anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine anaplastic gliomas, in particular those without IDH mutation, with regard to their malignant features, recurrence patterns, and association with glioma stem cells. We retrospectively analyzed 86 cases of WHO grade III anaplastic gliomas. Data regarding patient characteristics, recurrence pattern, and prognosis were obtained from medical records. We examined molecular alterations such as IDH mutation, 1p19q loss, TP53 mutation, MGMT promoter methylation, Ki67 labeling index, and CD133, SOX2, and NESTIN expression. Of the 86 patients with anaplastic gliomas, 58 carried IDH mutation, and 40 experienced recurrence. The first recurrence was local in 25 patients and distant in 15. Patients without IDH mutation exhibited significantly higher CD133 and SOX2 expression (P = .025 and .020, respectively) and more frequent distant recurrence than those with IDH mutation (P = .022). Patients with anaplastic gliomas without IDH mutation experienced distant recurrence and exhibited glioma stem cell markers, indicating that this subset may share some malignant characteristics with glioblastomas. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  4. Pathobiology of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

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    Pier Paolo Piccaluga


    Full Text Available The authors revise the concept of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL in the light of the recently updated WHO classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues both on biological and clinical grounds. The main histological findings are illustrated with special reference to the cytological spectrum that is indeed characteristic of the tumor. The phenotype is reported in detail: the expression of the ALK protein as well as the chromosomal abnormalities is discussed with their potential pathogenetic implications. The clinical features of ALCL are presented by underlining the difference in terms of response to therapy and survival between the ALK-positive and ALK-negative forms. Finally, the biological rationale for potential innovative targeted therapies is presented.

  5. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive. (United States)

    Ferreri, Andrés J M; Govi, Silvia; Pileri, Stefano A; Savage, Kerry J


    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive (ALK+ ALCL) is an aggressive CD30-positive T-cell lymphoma that exhibits a chromosomal translocation involving the ALK gene and the expression of ALK protein. No particular risk factor has been clearly identified for ALCL. ALK+ ALCL shows a broad morphologic spectrum, but all cases contain a variable proportion of cells with eccentric, horseshoe- or kidney-shaped nuclei often with an eosinophilic region near the nucleus (hallmark cells). Five morphologic patterns can be recognized. ALK+ ALCL occurs in young subjects (median age ∼35 years), with male predominance, and frequently presents at an advanced stage, with systemic symptoms and extranodal involvement. Near 40% of patients are low risk according to the International Prognostic Index (IPI). Overall, the prognosis of ALK+ ALCL is remarkably better than other T-cell lymphomas. The IPI and the PIT scores in general predict survival in patients with ALK+ ALCL. Standard first-line treatment for ALK+ ALCL consists of doxorubicin-containing polychemotherapy, which is associated with an overall response rate of ∼90%, a 5-year relapse-free survival of ∼60%, and a 5-year overall survival of 70%. Excellent results have been reported with a variety of anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens including CHOP, CHOEP or MACOP-B. Consolidative high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDC/ASCT) has also been evaluated in patients in first remission with favourable results, however, superiority to standard chemotherapy is unproven and this approach remains investigational. Following universally accepted guidelines for the treatment of failed aggressive lymphomas, HDC/ASCT can effectively salvage a proportion of patients with relapsed or refractory ALK+ ALCL. Recently, the development of novel therapies targeting CD30 and ALK appear promising. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anaplastic thyroid cancer: multimodal treatment results. (United States)

    Aslan, Zaki Antonio Taissoun; Granados-García, Martín; Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama; Guerrero-Huerta, Francisco Javier; Gómez-Pedraza, Antonio; Namendys-Silva, Silvio A; Meneses-García, Abelardo; Ordoñez-Mosquera, Juliana María


    Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare and lethal disease. It accounts for 1-2% of thyroid malignancies, but specific mortality is higher than 90%. It is an aggressive locoregional disease with a high metastatic capacity. There is no agreement with regards to the best treatment. We analysed the results of treatment in a mestizo population treated in the National Cancer Institute (Mexico). We reviewed 1,581 files of thyroid carcinomas; of these, 29 (1.83%) had anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Demographic variables, clinical manifestations, tumour characteristics, and treatments were analysed. The median age was 64.5 ± 13.2 years. Females were more affected (female/male ratio: 2.6:1); 21 cases occurred in women (72.4%), and eight in males (27.6%). The most common manifestations were neck enlargement (93.10%) and hoarseness (71.31%). The median tumour size was 8 cm (range: 4-20 cm). The percentage of cases which presented in clinical stage IVA was 10.3%, with 62.1% presenting in clinical stage IVb and 27.6% presenting in clinical stage VIc. Complete resection (R0) (p = 0.05), radiation doses of higher than 33.1 Gy (p = 0.04), and multimodal therapy were associated with better survival. Surgery plus radiotherapy with or without systemic treatment (p = 0.006). The median overall survival was 119 days (IC 95%, 36.3-201.6). Six-month, one-year and two-year survival was 37.9%, 21% and 13%, respectively. Complete surgical resection is associated with better survival but is very difficult to achieve due to aggressive biological behaviour. Multimodal therapy is associated with better survival and a better quality of life. There is a need for more effective systemic treatments as extensive surgical resections have little overall benefit in highly invasive and metastatic disease.

  7. A 16-gene signature distinguishes anaplastic astrocytoma from glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Alige Mahabala Rao

    Full Text Available Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA; Grade III and glioblastoma (GBM; Grade IV are diffusely infiltrating tumors and are called malignant astrocytomas. The treatment regimen and prognosis are distinctly different between anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma patients. Although histopathology based current grading system is well accepted and largely reproducible, intratumoral histologic variations often lead to difficulties in classification of malignant astrocytoma samples. In order to obtain a more robust molecular classifier, we analysed RT-qPCR expression data of 175 differentially regulated genes across astrocytoma using Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAM and found the most discriminatory 16-gene expression signature for the classification of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma. The 16-gene signature obtained in the training set was validated in the test set with diagnostic accuracy of 89%. Additionally, validation of the 16-gene signature in multiple independent cohorts revealed that the signature predicted anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples with accuracy rates of 99%, 88%, and 92% in TCGA, GSE1993 and GSE4422 datasets, respectively. The protein-protein interaction network and pathway analysis suggested that the 16-genes of the signature identified epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT pathway as the most differentially regulated pathway in glioblastoma compared to anaplastic astrocytoma. In addition to identifying 16 gene classification signature, we also demonstrated that genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition may play an important role in distinguishing glioblastoma from anaplastic astrocytoma.

  8. Anaplastic ependymoma simulating glioblastoma in the cerebrum of an adult. (United States)

    Shintaku, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Kenji


    A case of anaplastic ependymoma of the cerebral hemisphere in which the histopathological features closely simulated those of glioblastoma is reported. The patient was a 72-year-old woman with a large, well-demarcated tumor in the left temporal lobe. The tumor was totally extirpated, but recurred 18 months later, and the patient died after 4 months. The extirpated tumor was well circumscribed from the surrounding brain tissue and consisted of a sheet-like, dense proliferation of atypical, short spindle or polygonal cells. Extensive geographic necrosis with nuclear pseudopalisading was seen. Although perivascular pseudorosettes were observed in many areas, true ependymal rosettes were absent. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein and epithelial membrane antigen and ultrastructural study confirmed the ependymal nature of tumor cells. The histopathological spectrum of anaplastic ependymoma is very wide and reflects the basically dual characteristics of ependymal cells: epithelial and glial phenotypes. The present case indicates that some anaplastic ependymomas strongly express the glial phenotype and also show remarkable anaplastic cytological features, thus closely simulating glioblastoma. The diagnostic criteria for anaplastic ependymoma, and the nosological position of highly anaplastic ependymoma and its possible clinical implications, are briefly discussed.

  9. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Computed Tomographic Differentiation from Other Thyroid Masses

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    Lee, Jun Won; Yoon, Dae Young; Choi, Chul Soon; Chang, Suk Ki; Yun, Eun Joo; Seo, Young Lan; Rho, Young-Soo; Jin Cho, Sung; Kim, Keon Ha (Depts. of Radiology, Otorhinolaryngology, and Pathology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (KR))


    Background: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is rare but is one of the most aggressive malignancies. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is important in order to provide appropriate therapy. Purpose: To establish useful computed tomographic (CT) criteria for differentiating anaplastic carcinoma from other thyroid masses. Material and Methods: The CT scans of nine patients with anaplastic carcinomas were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 32 patients with papillary carcinomas (n = 12) or benign lesions (n = 20) exceeding a maximum diameter of 2.0 cm. Image analysis was performed according to the following CT parameters: size, margin (well defined or ill defined), composition (cystic, mixed, or solid), mean attenuation value, ratio of attenuation of the mass to that of the adjacent muscle (M/m attenuation ratio), necrosis (present or absent), and calcification (stippled, nodular, or absent) of the thyroid mass; and tumor-spreading patterns including the presence of surrounding normal thyroid tissue in the involved lobe, involvement of the contralateral thyroid lobe, extension into the adjacent structures, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Results: Anaplastic carcinomas appeared as large (average 4.6 cm), solid (100%), and ill-defined (88.9%) masses accompanied by necrosis (100%), nodular calcification (44.4%), direct invasion into the adjacent organs (55.6%), and cervical lymph node involvement (77.8%). Tumor necrosis was the most valuable parameter in differentiating anaplastic carcinomas from other thyroid masses. Patient age (>70 years) and low attenuation value on postcontrast scan (attenuation value <100 HU, or M/m attenuation ratio <1.3) are also helpful predictors for anaplastic carcinoma. Conclusion: If a patient is older than 70 years of age and has a large necrotic thyroid mass of low attenuation, anaplastic carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis

  10. Microscopic thrombi in anaplastic astrocytoma predict worse survival? (United States)

    Prayson, Nicholas F; Koch, Paul; Angelov, Lilyana; Prayson, Richard A


    The purpose of this study is to determine whether anaplastic astrocytoma patients with intratumoral vascular thrombi have a worse survival than anaplastic astrocytoma patients without thrombi. A retrospective review of 101 patients (60 males; mean age, 53.3 years) with anaplastic astrocytoma (World Health Organization grade III) was conducted. Thrombi were counted relative to the number of involved blood vessels in the initially resected tumor (69 biopsies, 32 subtotal resections) and were correlated with survival and development of postoperative deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Of tumors with thrombi (n = 17), the percentage of blood vessels with thrombi ranged from 1.5% to 20% (mean, 5.6%). Of these patients, 16 died of tumor (mean survival, 15.4 months), and 1 patient was alive with tumor at 180 months. Eighty-four patients with anaplastic astrocytoma had no intravascular tumor thrombi; 75 of these patients died of tumor (mean survival, 26.5 months), 4 patients were alive, and 5 patients were lost to follow-up. Evidence of DVT was found in 2 (18.2%) of 11 tested patients with thrombi vs 10 (18.5%) of 54 patients without thrombi. Patients with microscopic intratumoral thrombi (17% of anaplastic astrocytoma) had a worse survival compared with patients without thrombi; the difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no correlation between the presence of intratumoral thrombi and the development of DVT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Primary cutaneous multifocal CD 30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha L


    Full Text Available A 45-year-old male presented with asymptomatic tumors all over the body. The tumors showed no signs of ulceration or regression. There were generalized, nontender, firm to hard enlarged lymph nodes without hepatosplenomegaly. Biopsy and immunophenotyping revealed CD 30+ anaplastic primary cutaneous large cell lymphoma. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is characterized by single or grouped reddish-brown tumor nodules, which frequently tend to ulcerate. Secondary involvement of lymph nodes is seen in only 25%. The lesions responded dramatically to chemotherapy, but recurred.

  12. [A case of primary central nervous system anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma manifested as a unilateral pachymeningits]. (United States)

    Fujisawa, Etsuco; Shibayama, Hidehiro; Mitobe, Fumi; Katada, Fumiaki; Sato, Susumu; Fukutake, Toshio


    There have been 23 reports of primary central nervous system anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in the literature. Here we report the 24th case of a 40-year-old man who presented with occipital headache for one month. His contrast-enhanced brain MRI showed enhancement around the right temporal lobe, which suggested a diagnosis of hypertrophic pachymeningitis. He improved with steroid therapy. After discharge, however, he was readmitted with generalized convulsive seizures. Finally, he was diagnosed as primary central nervous system ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma by brain biopsy. Primary central nervous system lymphoma invading dura matter can rarely manifests as a unilateral pachymeningitis. Therefore, in case of pachymeningitis, we should pay attention to the possibility of infiltration of lymophoma with meticulous clinical follow-up.

  13. Successful radiopeptide targeting of metastatic anaplastic meningioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biersack Hans-Jürgen


    Full Text Available Abstract A patient with anaplastic meningioma and lung metastases resistant to conventional treatment underwent radiopeptide therapy with 177Lu- DOTA-octreotate in our institute. The treatment resulted in significant improvement in patient's quality of life and inhibition of tumor progression. This case may eventually help to establish the value of radiopeptide therapy in patients with this rare condition.

  14. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: A Review of Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govardhanan Nagaiah


    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is an uncommon malignancy of the thyroid. Only 1-2% of thyroid cancers are anaplastic, but the disease contributes to 14–50% of the mortality with a median survival of 3 to 5 months. Most patients diagnosed with this disease are 65 years of age or older. The incidence of anaplastic thyroid cancer is decreasing worldwide. Most patients present with a rapidly growing neck mass, dysphagia, or voice change. We performed a comprehensive literature search using PubMed focusing on the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer including historical review of treatment and outcomes and investigations of new agents and approaches. A total of sixteen chart review and retrospective studies and eleven prospective studies and/or clinical trials were reviewed. The current standard therapeutic approach is to consider the disease as systemic at time of diagnosis and pursue combined modality therapy incorporating cytoreductive surgical resection where feasible and/or chemoradiation either concurrently or sequentially. Doxorubicin is the most commonly used agent, with a response rate of 22%. Several new agents are currently under investigation. Referral of patients for participation in clinical trials is needed.

  15. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of hard palate as first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Narwal


    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is an uncommon disease, accounting for <5% of all cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report a case of 48-year-old male who presented a clinically benign swelling in the right anterior palatal region since last 2 months. Radiographic evaluation showed no bone loss in palatal area. Histological and radiological examination was in favor of a peripheral reactive lesion like pyogenic granuloma or a benign salivary gland tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative (ALK(− ALCL. Further laboratory tests ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and CD4 cell count was done which showed positivity for HIV. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of ALK(− ALCL in the hard palate presenting as the first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

  16. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation : A case report with a good clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Marijke; Persoon, Adrienne C. M.; Plukker, John T. M.; van der Wal, Jacqueline E.; Links, Thera P.


    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a rare and highly malignant disease. Usually, this type of tumor is irresectable, and almost all patients die within 1 year after diagnosis. We present a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation and good therapeutic outcome. A

  17. MicroRNA Expression Profiling Identifies Molecular Diagnostic Signatures for Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cuiling; Iqbal, Javeed; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie


    Anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs) encompass at least 2 systemic diseases distinguished by the presence or absence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression. We performed genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) profiling on 33 ALK-positive (ALK[+]) ALCLs, 25 ALK-negative (ALK[-]) ALCLs, 9 angioimm...

  18. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer (United States)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang


    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1α, Akt, TGF-β1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1α and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-β1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-β1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1α. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1α.

  19. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in Denmark 1996-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte Bjørn; Londero, Stefano Christian; Hahn, Christoffer Holst


    BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the least common but most malignant thyroid cancer. We aimed to examine the characteristics as well as evaluate the incidence, prognostic factors, and if introduction of a fast track cancer program might influence survival in a cohort of ATC...... patients. METHODS: A cohort study based on prospective data from the national Danish thyroid cancer database DATHYRCA and the national Danish Pathology Register including 219 patients diagnosed from 1996 to 2012, whom were followed until death or through September 2014. RESULTS: We found the median age...

  20. Intravntricular anaplastic hemangiopericytoma: CT and MR imaging findings

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    Choi, Bo Hwa; Moon, Jin Il; Baek, Hye Jin; Cho, Soo Buem; Bae, Kyung Soo; Jeon, Kyung Nyeo [Dept. of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)


    Intracranial hemangiopericytomas (HPC) are uncommon tumors, and their intraventricular occurrence is even rarer. Although the histopathologic findings in HPC are distinct, the diagnosis of intraventricular HPC can be difficult owing to its rarity and nonspecific clinicoradiologic manifestations. Here we present a case of intraventricular anaplastic HPC in a 20-year-old female patient, confirmed on histopathologic examination. We suggest that HPC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of space-occupying lesions of the ventricles. This article also highlights a situation in which clinical suspicion led to a meticulous radiologic review.

  1. Dual anaplastic large cell lymphoma mimicking meningioma: A case report

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    Kim, Keun Ho; Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Lee, Hye Kyung; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Suh, Jung Ho [Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chae Heuck [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)


    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare T cell lymphoma composed of CD30-positive lymphoid cells. Most ALCLs present as nodal disease, with skin, bone, soft tissue, lung, and liver as common extranodal sites. ALCL rarely occurs in the central nervous system and is even more infrequent in the dura of the brain. We report a case of dural-based ALCL secondary to systemic disease in a 17-year-old male that mimicked meningioma on magnetic resonance imaging and angiography.

  2. ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma limited to the skin: clinical, histopathological and molecular analysis of 6 pediatric cases. A report from the ALCL99 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oschlies, I.; Lisfeld, J.; Lamant, L.; Nakazawa, A.; d'Amore, E.S.; Hansson, U.; Hebeda, K.M.; Simonitsch-Klupp, I.; Maldyk, J.; Mullauer, L.; Tinguely, M.; Stucker, M.; Ledeley, M.C.; Siebert, R.; Reiter, A.; Brugieres, L.; Klapper, W.; Woessmann, W.


    Anaplastic large cell lymphomas are peripheral T-cell lymphomas that are characterized by a proliferation of large anaplastic blasts expressing CD30. In children, systemic anaplastic large cell lymphomas often present at advanced clinical stage and harbor translocations involving the anaplastic

  3. Large anaplastic spinal B-cell lymphoma in a cat. (United States)

    Flatland, Bente; Fry, Michael M; Newman, Shelley J; Moore, Peter F; Smith, Joanne R; Thomas, William B; Casimir, Roslyn H


    A 5-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of tetraparesis. The neurologic lesion was localized to the cervical spinal segment (C1-C6). A left axillary mass was identified, and the results of fine needle aspiration cytology indicated malignant round cell neoplasia of possible histiocytic origin. The cells were large, had marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis, occasional bi- and multinucleation, and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Euthanasia was performed due to the poor prognosis associated with severe, progressive neurologic signs and a malignant neoplasm. Postmortem examination revealed spinal cord compression and an extradural mass at the C1-C2 spinal segment, with neoplastic cells in the adjacent vertebral bodies, surrounding skeletal muscle, left axillary lymph node, and bone marrow from the right femur. The initial histologic diagnosis was anaplastic sarcoma, but immunohistochemical results indicated the cells were CD20+ and CD45R+ and CD3-, compatible with a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma. CD79a staining was nonspecific and uninterpretable. Weak to moderate CD18 positivity and E-cadherin positivity were also observed. Clonality of the B-cell population could not be demonstrated using PCR testing for antigen receptor gene rearrangement. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a feline spinal anaplastic B-cell lymphoma exhibiting bi- and multinucleated cells. The prognostic significance of this cell morphology and immunophenotype is unknown.

  4. ALK signaling and target therapy in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio eTabbo


    Full Text Available The discovery by Morris SW et al. in 1994 of the genes contributing to the t(2;5(p23;q35 translocation has put the foundation for a molecular based recognition of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL and pointed out the need for a further stratification of T-cell neoplasia. Likewise the detection of ALK genetic lesions among many human cancers has defined unique subsets of cancer patients, providing new opportunities for innovative therapeutic interventions. The objective of this review is to appraise the molecular mechanisms driving ALK-mediated transformation, and to maintain the neoplastic phenotype. The understanding of these events will allow the design and implementation of novel tailored strategies for a well-defined subset of cancer patients.

  5. Oncolytic vaccinia virotherapy of anaplastic thyroid cancer in vivo. (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Fu; Price, Daniel L; Chen, Chun-Hao; Brader, Peter; Li, Sen; Gonzalez, Lorena; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Yong A; Chen, Nanhai; Szalay, Aladar A; Fong, Yuman; Wong, Richard J


    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a fatal disease with a median survival of only 6 months. Novel therapies are needed to improve dismal outcomes. A mutated, replication-competent, vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68) has oncolytic effects on human ATC cell lines in vitro. We assessed the utility of GLV-1h68 in treating anaplastic thyroid cancer in vivo. Athymic nude mice with xenograft flank tumors of human ATCs (8505C and DRO90-1) were treated with a single intratumoral injection of GLV-1h68 at low dose (5x10(5) plaque-forming unit), high dose (5x10(6) plaque-forming unit), or PBS. Virus-mediated marker gene expression (luciferase, green fluorescent protein, and beta-galactosidase), viral biodistribution, and flank tumor volumes were measured. Luciferase expression was detected 2 d after injection. Continuous viral replication within tumors was reflected by increasing luciferase activity to d 9. At d 10, tumor viral recovery was increased more than 50-fold as compared with the injected dose, and minimal virus was recovered from the lung, liver, brain, heart, spleen, and kidneys. High-dose virus directly injected into normal tissues was undetectable at d 10. The mean volume of control 8505C tumors increased 50.8-fold by d 45, in contrast to 10.5-fold (low dose) and 2.1-fold (high dose; P=0.028) increases for treated tumors. DRO90-1 tumors also showed significant growth inhibition by high-dose virus. No virus-related toxicity was observed throughout the study. GLV-1h68 efficiently infects, expresses transgenes within, and inhibits the growth of ATC in vivo. These promising findings support future clinical trials for patients with ATC.

  6. The biology and management of systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma. (United States)

    Hapgood, Greg; Savage, Kerry J


    Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an aggressive CD30(+) non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) ALCL is associated with the NPM-ALK t(2;5) translocation, which is highly correlated with the identification of the ALK protein by immunohistochemistry. ALK+ ALCL typically occurs in younger patients and has a more favorable prognosis with 5-year survival rates of 70% to 90% in comparison with 40% to 60% for ALK-negative (ALK-) ALCL. Studies support young age as a strong component of the favorable prognosis of ALK+ ALCL. Until recently, no recurrent translocations were identified in ALK- ALCL. However, emerging data now highlight that ALK- ALCL is genetically and clinically heterogeneous with a subset having either a DUSP22 translocation and a survival rate similar to ALK+ ALCL or a less common P63 translocation, the latter associated with an aggressive course. Anthracycline-based regimens such as cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) remain the standard first-line treatment choice for systemic ALCL, but in many patients with ALK- ALCL, it is ineffective, and thus it is often followed by consolidative autologous stem cell transplantation. However, selection of appropriate patients for intensified therapy remains challenging, particularly in light of genetic and clinical heterogeneity in addition to the emergence of new, effective therapies. The antibody drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin is associated with a high response rate (86%) and durable remissions in relapsed/refractory ALCL and is under investigation in the first-line setting. In the future, combining clinical and genetic biomarkers may aid in risk stratification and help guide initial patient management. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  7. Association of Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma and Active Toxoplasmosis in a Child


    Sayyahfar, Shirin; Karimi, Abdollah; Gharib, Atoosa; Fahimzad, Alireza


    Introduction: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a subset of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and an unusual disease in children. Case Presentation: Herein we have reported a 7- year- old girl with a large necrotic skin ulcer on the chest caused by systemic form of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma and simultaneous active toxoplasmosis diagnosed by PCR on lymph node specimen. There were few reports showing a role for toxoplasma infection to cause some malignancies such as lymphoma in adults. Conclusions: Bas...

  8. Primary anaplastic large T cell lymphoma of central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yan


    Full Text Available Background Primary anaplastic large T cell lymphoma (ALCL of central nervous system (CNS can occur in people of all ages, and is usually unrelated with immunodeficiency. It is often misdiagnosed as meningitis, especially tuberculous meningitis, on clinical practice and imaging examination. In pathological diagnosis, the morphological changes of primary ALCL of CNS are similar to the systemic ALCL and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 (ALK-1 can be positive or negative. Being misdiagnosed as meningitis, hormone therapy with glucocorticoid before biopsy is always used, and massive necrosis and a lot of histocyte proliferation and phagocytosis can be found under histological findings. Therefore, when the material is not enough, primary ALCL of CNS is often misdiagnosed as cerebral infarction or malignant histocytosis and so on. This paper reports a case of primary ALCL of CNS and makes a review of relevant literature, so as to summarize the clinical manifestations and elevate the recognition of clinicians and pathologists on this disease. Methods and Results A 12-year-old boy was admitted because of fever, worsening headache, numbness and weakness of right limbs. MRI showed local gyri swelling and abnormal enhancement of pia mater in the right parietal lobe, expanding to the right temporal lobe, and pia mater enhancement in the left parietal lobe. The right temporo-parietal lobe lesion biopsy revealed irregularly shaped tumor cells of large size, rich and eosinophilic cytoplasm and horseshoe-shaped or kidney-shaped nuclei. Immunohistochemical examination showed tumor cells positive for CD3, CD45RO, CD30, ALK-1 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, and negative for CD20 and CD79a. Conclusion Primary ALCL of CNS is an extremely rare tumor which is usually misdiagnosed as meningitis according to clinical and imaging examinations. Therefore, for those patients who are considered as meningitis but with poor treatment effect and replase of illness, brain

  9. A Large Nonmetastatic Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer with Complete Thyroidal Confinement

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    Jeffrey C. Xing


    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is rare but extremely aggressive, which accounts for about 2% of all thyroid cancers yet nearly 50% of thyroid-cancer-associated deaths in the United States. The median survival time from diagnosis is 5 months, with a 1-year survival rate of only 20%. We report here a case of ATC in a 56-year-old man who survived a large ATC. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy study to a large right thyroid mass suggested ATC. Total thyroidectomy with radical lateral neck and central neck dissection removed a well-circumscribed 9.5 cm tumor without extrathyroidal extension or lymphovascular invasion. All 73 lymph nodes removed were negative for metastasis. The tumor consisted of highly pleomorphic, undifferentiated cells with large zones of necrosis and loss of thyroid transcription factor-1 and thyroglobulin expression. A focal well-differentiated component and PAX8 expression confirmed its thyroid follicular cell origin. Nine months after postsurgical adjuvant concurrent radiation therapy and chemotherapy, the patient remained well without clinical, biochemical, and radiographical evidence for cancer recurrence. This is an unusual case of ATC in that it is one of the largest ATC tumors reported to display mild pathologic behavior and relatively long-term patient survival.

  10. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Graves' Disease

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    Sun Hwa Kim


    Full Text Available Radioactive iodine (RAI therapy has been used as a treatment option for Graves' disease, and it has been widely accepted to be safe. On the other hand, some evidence suggests that RAI therapy is possibly associated with a small increased risk of thyroid cancer. Herein, we report a rare case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC associated with Graves' disease, following RAI treatment. A 42-year-old woman had been diagnosed with Graves' disease and although she was treated with an antithyroid drug, she remained in a hyperthyroid state, which led to two RAI treatments. More than 10 years later, the patient revisited our clinic due to hoarseness, dysphagia, and dyspnea, which had lasted for 2 months. Neck computed tomography suggested thyroid carcinoma and a lymph node biopsy showed metastatic papillary carcinoma. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and was finally diagnosed as having an ATC. It is not clear if the occurrence of ATC reported here was influenced by the RAI therapy or alternatively, it may only represent the delayed recognition of a rare change in the natural history of Graves' disease. Nevertheless, this report is worthwhile since it presents a very rare case of ATC that occurred eleven years after the RAI therapy for Graves' disease.

  11. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma: A great mimic on cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A Agnihotri


    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a T-cell lymphoma, accounting for <5% of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cutaneous involvement can be primary or secondary arising in systemic ALCL. The diagnostic feature in both is the presence of pleomorphic, CD30 positive hallmark cells. We present a case of ALCL in a 19-year-old male presenting as an ulcerated scalp swelling. Clinical impression was actinomycosis or scrofuloderma. Cytology smears showed large dispersed pleomorphic cells with hyperlobated nuclei and multinucleated giant cells. The differentials considered were ALCL, rhabdomyosarcoma, and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Immunocytochemistry (ICC showed positivity for leukocyte common antigen (LCA and CD30 while negativity for desmin, favoring ALCL. Computed tomography (CT showed a lytic paravertebral lesion. Subsequently, both paraspinal and scalp lesions were biopsied and immunochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of ALCL. Thus, cutaneous involvement in ALCL can resemble inflammatory and other neoplastic lesions clinically and cytologically. Hence, a high index of suspicion and ICC can aid in the correct diagnosis on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC.

  12. Results of combined treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC

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    Bournaud Claire


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is among the most aggressive human malignancies. It is associated with a high rate of local recurrence and with poor prognosis. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 44 consecutive patients treated between 1996 and 2010 at Leon Berard Cancer Centre, Lyon, France. The combined treatment strategy derived from the one developed at the Institut Gustave Roussy included total thyroidectomy and cervical lymph-node dissection, when feasible, combined with 2 cycles of doxorubicin (60 mg/m2 and cisplatin (100 mg/m2 Q3W, hyperfractionated (1.2 Gy twice daily radiation to the neck and upper mediastinum (46-50 Gy, and then four cycles of doxorubicin-cisplatin. Results Thirty-five patients received the three-phase combined treatment. Complete response after treatment was achieved in 14/44 patients (31.8%. Eight patients had a partial response (18.2%. Twenty-two (50% had progressive disease. All patients with metastases at diagnosis died shortly afterwards. Thirteen patients are still alive. The median survival of the entire population was 8 months. Conclusion Despite the ultimately dismal prognosis of ATC, multimodality treatment significantly improves local control and appears to afford long-term survival in some patients. There is active ongoing research, and results obtained with new targeted systemic treatment appear encouraging.

  13. Increased p53 immunopositivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET is not caused by JC virus

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    Shah Keerti V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background p53 mutations are relatively uncommon in medulloblastoma, but abnormalities in this cell cycle pathway have been associated with anaplasia and worse clinical outcomes. We correlated p53 protein expression with pathological subtype and clinical outcome in 75 embryonal brain tumors. The presence of JC virus, which results in p53 protein accumulation, was also examined. Methods p53 protein levels were evaluated semi-quantitatively in 64 medulloblastomas, 3 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT, and 8 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET using immunohistochemistry. JC viral sequences were analyzed in DNA extracted from 33 frozen medulloblastoma and PNET samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results p53 expression was detected in 18% of non-anaplastic medulloblastomas, 45% of anaplastic medulloblastomas, 67% of ATRT, and 88% of sPNET. The increased p53 immunoreactivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma, ATRT, and sPNET was statistically significant. Log rank analysis of clinical outcome revealed significantly shorter survival in patients with p53 immunopositive embryonal tumors. No JC virus was identified in the embryonal brain tumor samples, while an endogenous human retrovirus (ERV-3 was readily detected. Conclusion Immunoreactivity for p53 protein is more common in anaplastic medulloblastomas, ATRT and sPNET than in non-anaplastic tumors, and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, JC virus infection is not responsible for increased levels of p53 protein.

  14. Association of Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma and Active Toxoplasmosis in a Child. (United States)

    Sayyahfar, Shirin; Karimi, Abdollah; Gharib, Atoosa; Fahimzad, Alireza


    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a subset of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and an unusual disease in children. Herein we have reported a 7- year- old girl with a large necrotic skin ulcer on the chest caused by systemic form of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma and simultaneous active toxoplasmosis diagnosed by PCR on lymph node specimen. There were few reports showing a role for toxoplasma infection to cause some malignancies such as lymphoma in adults. Based to our knowledge, this has been the first report of simultaneous systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma and active toxoplasmosis, documented by positive PCR on tissue biopsy in a child. This case report has suggested more attention to the accompanying Toxoplasma gondii infection as a probable cause of some types of lymphomas.

  15. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: Experience of the Philippine General Hospital

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    Tom Edward Lo


    Full Text Available BackgroundAnaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is a rare type of thyroid malignancy and one of the most aggressive solid tumors, responsible for between 14% and 50% of the total annual mortality associated with thyroid cancer.MethodsA retrospective study was made of all ATC cases diagnosed by biopsy in the Philippine General Hospital between 2008 and 2013.ResultsA total of 15 patients were identified, with a median age at diagnosis of 63 years. All tumors were at least 6 cm in size upon diagnosis. All patients had a previous history of thyroid pathology, presenting with an average duration of 11 years. Eleven patients presented with cervical lymphadenopathies, whereas seven exhibited signs of distant metastases, for which the lungs appeared to be the most common site. More than 70% of the patients presented with a rapidly growing neck mass, leading to airway obstruction. Only three patients were treated using curative surgery; the majority received palliative and supportive forms of treatment. In addition, only three patients were offered radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was not offered to any patient. Only two patients were confirmed to still be alive during the study period. The median survival time for the other patients was 3 months; in the majority of cases the patient died within the first year following diagnosis.ConclusionOur experience with ATC demonstrated concordance with other institutions with respect to current clinical profile, presentation, and prognosis. An absence of distant metastases and lymph node involvement was associated with improved survival outcomes, whereas age at diagnosis and tumor size did not affect survival. Curative surgery offers the most effective means of prolonging survival. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in combination with surgery represents a promising treatment strategy.

  16. ALK and TGF-Beta Resistance in Breast Cancer (United States)


    Award Number: W81XWH‐15‐1‐0650 TITLE: ALK and TGF-Beta Resistance in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Xin-Hua Feng CONTRACTING...and TGF-Beta Resistance in Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH‐15‐1‐0650 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Xin-Hua Feng...response is a hallmark in human cancer . However, the mechanisms underlying TGF- resistance in breast cancer have not been elucidated. Anaplastic

  17. [Clinical effects of microsurgery in spinal cord anaplastic astrocytoma]. (United States)

    Zhang, L; Jia, W Q; Kong, D S; Zhang, Z F; Yang, J


    Objective: To investigate the surgical outcomes and prognosis of spinal cord anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). Methods: A total of 27 consecutive patients diagnosed as spinal cord AA between January 2008 and May 2015 in Department of Neurosurgery of Beijing Tiantan Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. There were 18 males and 9 females, the mean age was (30.7±13.0) years (ranging from 5 to 52 years). The lesions were located at cervical level in 8 patients, at thoracic level in 9 patients, at cervicothoracic level in 3 patients, and at thoracolumbar level in 7 patients, the average number of vertebral was 3.3±1.3.The median time from onset of symptom to surgery was 4 months, ranging from 3 days to 48 months. The clinical presentations were weakness (23 cases), paresthesia (22 cases), pain (20 cases), sphincter disorder (15 cases) and paralysis (7 cases). The preoperative modified McCormick scale was as follows: grade Ⅱ for 6 cases, grade Ⅲ for 7 cases, grade Ⅳ for 7 cases, grade Ⅴ for 7 cases. The tumors were surgically removed via posterior median approach with the monitoring of the somatosensory-evoked potentials to minimize the neurological injury. All of the patients were recommonded to receive adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy postoperatively after pothological verified and followed up by clinic interview or telephone postoperatively. Log-rank test was used to calculate the survival rate. Results: Gross total resection and subtotal resection were achieved in 18 patients and partial resection in 9. Twenty patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and (or) radiotherapy, 7 patients did not received chemoradiation postoperatively. Nineteen patients died and 8 were alive at the last follow-up. The median survival time was 23 months with 1 and 2-year survival rates of 85.2% and 50.0%.There was no statistical significance between subtotal resection group and partial resection group(χ(2)=0.089, P=0.880), the survival rates of patients in chemotherapy group

  18. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer in Sicily: The Role of Environmental Characteristics

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    Martina Tavarelli


    Full Text Available BackgroundAnaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is a rare but extremely aggressive cancer of the thyroid, contributing up to 30–40% of thyroid cancer-specific mortality. We analyzed ATC characteristics and survival rates in Sicily to evaluate the possible influence of environmental factors. With this aim, data regarding ATC incidences in urban/rural and industrial, iodine-deficient, and volcanic vs control areas were compared in Sicily as well as ATC data from Sicily and USA.MethodsUsing the Sicilian Register of Thyroid Cancer (SRTC database incidence, age, gender, tumor size and histotype, extrathyroidal extension, stage, and coexistence with pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC were evaluated in different areas of Sicily and also compared with Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data in USA.ResultsForty-three ATCs were identified in Sicily in the period 2002–2009. In our series only age <70 years at diagnosis (p = 0.01, coexistence with DTC (p = 0.027 and tumor size ≤6 cm (p = 0.012 were significant factors for increased survival at univariate analysis (only age at multivariate analysis. No difference in ATC incidence was found in urban vs rural areas and in iodine-deficient and industrial vs control areas. By contrast, in the volcanic area of Sicily, where DTC incidence is doubled relative to the rest of the island, also ATC incidence was increased. ATC data in Sicily were similar to those reported in the same period in the USA where overall survival rate at 6 and 12 months, however, was smaller.ConclusionThe similar ATC data observed in Sicily and USA (having different genetic background and lifestyle and the increased ATC incidence in the volcanic area of Sicily paralleling the increased incidence of papillary thyroid cancer are compatible with the possibility that casual additional mutations, more frequent in a background of increased cell replication like DCT, are the major causes of ATC rather than

  19. Cardiac anaplastic large cell lymphoma in an 8-year old boy

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    Melchior Lauten


    Full Text Available We report on an 8 year old boy with primary cardiac anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, in whom the diagnosis was challenging and who was treated with modified chemotherapy without radiation therapy according to the ALCL 99 study protocol [1]. Two years and 4 months after completion of therapy the boy is in complete remission with normal cardiac function.

  20. A visual latent semantic approach for automatic analysis and interpretation of anaplastic medulloblastoma virtual slides. (United States)

    Cruz-Roa, Angel; González, Fabio; Galaro, Joseph; Judkins, Alexander R; Ellison, David; Baccon, Jennifer; Madabhushi, Anant; Romero, Eduardo


    A method for automatic analysis and interpretation of histopathology images is presented. The method uses a representation of the image data set based on bag of features histograms built from visual dictionary of Haar-based patches and a novel visual latent semantic strategy for characterizing the visual content of a set of images. One important contribution of the method is the provision of an interpretability layer, which is able to explain a particular classification by visually mapping the most important visual patterns associated with such classification. The method was evaluated on a challenging problem involving automated discrimination of medulloblastoma tumors based on image derived attributes from whole slide images as anaplastic or non-anaplastic. The data set comprised 10 labeled histopathological patient studies, 5 for anaplastic and 5 for non-anaplastic, where 750 square images cropped randomly from cancerous region from whole slide per study. The experimental results show that the new method is competitive in terms of classification accuracy achieving 0.87 in average.

  1. Histopathologic and immunohistological evaluation of anaplastic large cell lymphoma with Epstein-Barr virus in an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). (United States)

    Bak, Eun-Jung; Jho, Yeonsook; Woo, Gye-Hyeong


    An 18-month-old female orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) died after exhibiting fever, cough, and rapid breathing. Based on serological, virological, histopathological and immunohistochemical examination, anaplastic large cell lymphoma was confirmed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of anaplastic large cell lymphoma associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in an orangutan. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Combination therapy with brentuximab vedotin and cisplatin/cytarabine in a patient with primarily refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidegger S


    Full Text Available Simon Heidegger,1 Ambros Beer,2 Eva Geissinger,3 Andreas Rosenwald,3 Christian Peschel,1 Ingo Ringshausen,1 Ulrich Keller11III Medical Department, 2Nuclear Medicine Department, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany; 3Institute of Pathology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, GermanyAbstract: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a common subtype of the heterogeneous group of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, which is characterized by large pleomorphic cells with strong expression of CD30. Translocations involving ALK, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene, are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Such ALK-positive ALCLs are usually responsive to a multidrug chemotherapy with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone. However, there is no general consensus on the optimal therapy for relapsed or refractory ALCL. We report the case of a 24-year-old male suffering from ALK-positive ALCL with an uncommon manifestation of only extranodal disease in the gastric cardia region that showed primary refractoriness to standard CHOP chemotherapy. A combination therapy consisting of the anti-CD30 drug conjugate, brentuximab vedotin, and classical lymphoma salvage regimen DHAP (cisplatin, high-dose cytarabine and dexamethasone was administered. Following two treatment cycles in 21-day intervals, the lymphoma showed considerable regression based on imaging diagnostics and no evidence of vital lymphoma in a subsequent biopsy. We did not observe any increase in toxicity; in particular, polyneuropathy and febrile neutropenia were not observed. In summary, we report that the antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin and a classical regimen used for aggressive lymphoma, DHAP, could be combined as salvage therapy in a case of refractory ALK-positive ALCL. Phase I/II studies will be required for safety and efficacy analysis.Keywords: anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, refractory/relapsed lymphoma, anti-CD30 drug conjugate, DHAP

  3. Anaplastic carcinoma arising in an ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a 17-year-old female. (United States)

    Vella, Joseph; Cracchiolo, Bernadette; Heller, Debra S


    Anaplastic carcinoma arising within a mucinous ovarian neoplasm is rare, with only about 30 reported cases. Reported cases have given a broad age range, ranging from 17 to 72 years of age, but occurrence in adolescents is exceptional, with only a few cases reported. We report a case of anaplastic carcinoma arising in a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a 17-year-old female who presented with severe abdominal pain, an unusual symptom for an ovarian malignancy in the postmenopausal patient, but not in the adolescent. The patient had widespread metastases at the time of presentation, consistent with the aggressive behavior of this neoplasm. This case illustrates that, although rare, epithelial ovarian malignancy is in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in an adolescent.

  4. Unusual presentation of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with diffuse neck and thoracic nodules and hyperthyroidism

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    Yun-Hsuan Lin


    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a highly aggressive endocrine tumor that can be expected to have a poor clinical outcome. Cutaneous metastases from ATC are rare and in the context of disseminated metastases. Owing to the rarity of the disease, no standard treatment has been documented, and few treatment modalities are effective. This case reports neck and thoracic cutaneous metastasis from ATC, with concurrent hyperthyroidism.

  5. A case of CD30+ ALK1- anaplastic large cell lymphoma resembling acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. (United States)

    Afrantou, T; Natsis, K S; Papadopoulos, G; Lagoudaki, R; Poulios, C; Mamouli, D; Kostopoulos, I; Grigoriadis, N


    Central nervous system involvement is an uncommon complication of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The majority of these cases concern B-cell lymphomas. We report a case of systemic T-cell anaplastic large cell lymphoma CD30+ ALK- with CNS involvement at the time of diagnosis and unusual MRI characteristics resembling acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Thyroid Gland, Presenting Like Anaplastic Carcinoma of Thyroid

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    Khalid Riaz


    Full Text Available Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC has unpredictable and diverse behavior. The classic triad of hematuria, loin pain, and abdominal mass is uncommon. At time of diagnosis, 25%–30% of patients are found to have metastases. Bones, lungs, liver, and brain are the frequent sites of metastases. RCC with metastasis to the head and neck region and thyroid gland is the rarest manifestation and anaplastic carcinoma behaving metastatic thyroid mass is an extremely rare presentation of RCC. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old Saudi man with past history of right radical nephrectomy 5 years back presented with 3 months history of rapid increasing neck mass with dysphagia, presenting like anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Tru-cut biopsy turned out to be metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patient was treated with radiation therapy 30 Gy in 10 fractions to mass. Patient died 4 months after the discovery of anaplastic thyroid looking metastasis. Conclusion. Rapidly progressing thyroid metastases secondary to RCC are rare and found often unresectable which are not amenable to surgery. Palliative radiotherapy can be considered for such patients.

  7. Expression profile of biomarkers altered in papillary and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: Contribution of Tunisian patients. (United States)

    Fourati, Asma; El Amine, Olfa; Ben Ayoub, Wided; Cherni, Imen; Goucha, Aida; El May, Michèle Véronique; Gamoudi, Amor; El May, Ahmed


    The objective of this study was to compare the protein expression profile between well-differentiated (papillary) and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma in Tunisian patients. This first Tunisian retrospective study concerned data of 38 thyroid cancer cases (19 papillary carcinoma PTC and 19 anaplastic carcinoma ATC) collected at Salah Azaiez Institute of Tunisia. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate tumor expression of different molecular markers (p53, Ki67, E-cadherin, cyclin D1, bcl2, S100 and Her-2). The molecular expression was correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors. There were 6 differentially expressed markers when comparing anaplastic thyroid carcinoma ATC with papillary thyroid carcinoma PTC. Expression of p53 and Ki67 were significantly increased in 16 and 18 ATC cases respectively, the Ki67 expression was lost in PTC. Cyclin D1, E-cadherin, bcl2 and S100 were overexpressed in PTC tumors; however, they were significantly decreased in ATC. The last marker, Her-2 was expressed in one case of PTC only. Our results, similar with findings of other ethnic groups, showed alteration in expression of molecular markers associated with tumor dedifferentiation, indicating loss of cell cycle control with increased proliferative activity in ATC carcinoma. These data support the hypothesis that ATC may derive from dedifferentiation of preexisting PTC tumor. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A case of tonsillar anaplastic large cell lymphoma-anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative: An unusual site of involvement with review of literature

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    Umesh Das


    Full Text Available We present this unusual case of the clinical importance of a 50-year-old male patient who presented with foreign body sensation in the throat and halitosis of 20 days duration. On examination, there were no palpable lymph nodes and oral cavity revealed an ulcero proliferative growth over the right tonsil. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses and neck revealed a heterogeneously enhancing mass involving the right tonsil measuring 3.8 cm × 3 cm. Biopsy of the tonsillar mass was suggestive of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL with neoplastic large cells positive for CD30, epithelial membrane antigen and CD3 and negative for Tdt, CD56, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK and cytokeratin. A diagnosis of ALK negative ALCL Stage IA was made and the patient was started on chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone every 3 weeks. He received six cycles of chemotherapy followed by 33 gray involved region radiotherapy and reassessment showed total regression of the tonsillar lesion. The patient is in complete remission and now under follow-up for the last 2 years

  9. Analyzing the gene expression profile of anaplastic histology Wilms' tumor with real-time polymerase chain reaction arrays. (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Tao, Yan-Fang; Li, Zhi-Heng; Cao, Lan; Hu, Shao-Yan; Wang, Na-Na; Du, Xiao-Juan; Sun, Li-Chao; Zhao, Wen-Li; Xiao, Pei-Fang; Fang, Fang; Xu, Li-Xiao; Li, Yan-Hong; Li, Gang; Zhao, He; Ni, Jian; Wang, Jian; Feng, Xing; Pan, Jian


    Wilms' tumor (WT) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms of the urinary tract in children. Anaplastic histology (unfavorable histology) accounts for about 10% of whole WTs, and it is the single most important histologic predictor of treatment response and survival in patients with WT; however, until now the molecular basis of this phenotype is not very clearly. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array was designed and tested. Next, the gene expression profile of pediatric anaplastic histology WT and normal adjacent tissues were analyzed. These expression data were anlyzed with Multi Experiment View (MEV) cluster software further. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profiles derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Tool (IPA). 88 real-time PCR primer pairs for quantitative gene expression analysis of key genes involved in pediatric anaplastic histology WT were designed and tested. The gene expression profile of pediatric anaplastic histology WT is significantly different from adjacent normal controls; we identified 15 genes that are up-regulated and 16 genes that are down-regulated in the former. To investigate biological interactions of these differently regulated genes, datasets representing genes with altered expression profiles were imported into the IPA for further analysis, which revealed three significant networks: Cancer, Hematological Disease, and Gene Expression, which included 27 focus molecules and a significance score of 43. The IPA analysis also grouped the differentially expressed genes into biological mechanisms related to Cell Death and Survival 1.15E(-12), Cellular Development 2.84E(-11), Cellular Growth and Proliferation 2.84E(-11), Gene Expression 4.43E(-10), and DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair 1.39E(-07). The important upstream regulators of pediatric anaplastic histology WT were TP53 and TGFβ1 signaling (P = 1.15E(-14) and 3.79E(-13), respectively). Our study


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Bernard F.A.M.; FREEMAN, JL; TSANG, RW; ASA, SL


    The sequence of tumorigenesis in the thyroid is unclear. It has been proposed that anaplastic carcinomas of the thyroid develop by dedifferentiation in pre-existing differentiated carcinomas. We reviewed all anaplastic and insular (poorly differentiated) thyroid carcinomas in a consultation practice

  11. Increased oral availability and brain accumulation of the ALK inhibitor crizotinib by coadministration of the P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) inhibitor elacridar.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, S.C.; Nguyen, L.N.; Sparidans, R.W.; Wagenaar, E.; Beijnen, J.H.; Schinkel, A.H.


    Crizotinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) containing an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement. We used knockout mice to study the roles of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) in

  12. Adult anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma - a diagnostic challenge? A case series and literature review. (United States)

    Fiechter, Michael; Hewer, Ekkehard; Knecht, Urspeter; Wiest, Roland; Beck, Jürgen; Raabe, Andreas; Oertel, Markus F


    Anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma (APA) is an exceptionally rare type of high-grade glioma in adults. Establishing histopathological diagnosis is challenging and its clinical and radiological appearance insidious. By this case series and first literature review we investigated the various clinical, neuroradiological, and histopathological features of APA in adults. An in hospital screening of the database from the Institute of Pathology was conducted to identify cases of APA. Further, we performed a literature review in PubMed using the keywords "anaplastic/malignant/atypical AND pilocytic astrocytoma" and "anaplastic astrocytoma/glioblastoma AND Rosenthal fibers" and summarized the current knowledge about APA in adults. Over the last decade we were able to identify 3 adult patients with APA in our hospital. According to the pertinent literature, the prognosis of APA in adults (documented survival of up to 10 years) appears to be better than in other high-grade gliomas. Few cases were associated with neurofibromatosis type 1, which seems to predispose for development of APA. Although molecular genetics is still of limited value for differentiation of APA from other high-grade glioma, advanced neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance perfusion imaging and spectroscopy allow improved differential work-up. In particular, APA in adults has the ability to mimic various neurological diseases such as tumefactive demyelinating lesions, low-, or high-grade gliomas. Although currently not explicitly recognized as a distinct clinico-pathologic entity it seems that adult APA behaves differently from conventional high-grade glioma and should be included in differential diagnostics to enable adequate patient care. However, further studies are needed to better understand this extremely rare disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The emerging pathogenic and therapeutic importance of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Fergal C


    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) is a gene on chromosome 2p23 that has expression restricted to the brain, testis and small intestine but is not expressed in normal lymphoid tissue. It has similarity to the insulin receptor subfamily of kinases and is emerging as having increased pathologic and potential therapeutic importance in malignant disease. This gene was originally established as being implicated in the pathogenesis of rare diseases including inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) and ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which is a subtype of non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma. Recently the number of diseases in which ALK is implicated in their pathogenesis has increased. In 2007, an inversion of chromosome 2 involving ALK and a fusion partner gene in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer was discovered. In 2008, publications emerged implicating ALK in familial and sporadic cases of neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer of the sympatho-adrenal system. Chromosomal abnormalities involving ALK are translocations, amplifications or mutations. Chromosomal translocations are the longest recognised ALK genetic abnormality. When translocations occur a fusion gene is created between ALK and a gene partner. This has been described in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in which ALK is fused to NPM (nucleolar protein gene) and in non-small cell lung cancer where ALK is fused to EML4 (Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein 4). The most frequently described partner genes in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour are tropomyosin 3\\/4 (TMP3\\/4), however in IMTs a diversity of ALK fusion partners have been found, with the ability to homodimerise a common characteristic. Point mutations and amplification of the ALK gene occur in the childhood cancer neuroblastoma. Therapeutic targeting of ALK fusion genes using tyrosine kinase inhibition, vaccination using an ALK specific antigen and treatment using viral vectors for RNAi are emerging potential therapeutic

  14. Abnormal number cell division of human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell line, SW 1736

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    Keiichi Ikeda


    Full Text Available Cell division, during which a mother cell usually divides into two daughter cells during one cell cycle, is the most important physiological event of cell biology. We observed one-to-four cell division during imaging of live SW1736 human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells transfected with a plasmid expressing the hybrid protein of green fluorescent protein and histone 2B (plasmid eGFP-H2B. Analysis of the images revealed a mother cell divided into four daughter cells. And one of the abnormally divided daughter cells subsequently formed a dinucleate cell.

  15. Imprint cytology facilitating the diagnosis of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma of iliac fossa

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    Suman Singh


    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (C-ALCL is a form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that is characterized by solitary nodules and plaques. In this report, the authors present an unusual case of a 59-year-old male with a solitary ulcerofungative mass in the left iliac fossa clinically masquerading as sqaumous cell carcinoma. The imprint smears of the lesion had characterstic morphological features which helped in the diagnosis. Subsequently, the imprint cytology correlated well with the histopathology and immunohistochemical studies highlighting its utility as simple, rapid, and easy test.

  16. Treatment of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma with superficial x-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Malene E; Gniadecki, Robert


    The optimal radiation schedule for primary cutaneous anaplastic lymphoma (PCALCL) has not been investigated. We report here satisfactory outcomes of low-dose (16-20 Gy, 3-5 fractions), superficial X-ray radiation (40-50 kV) in a series of 10 patients with PCALCL. Only 1 patient developed a local ...... relapse during the median observation time of 25 months; complete remission was recorded in the other patients. This observation indicates that superficial, low dose X-ray therapy may provide a cost-effective alternative to the traditional 35-45 Gy schedules....

  17. [Incidence of anaplastic tumor in structure of other histologic forms of the thyroid gland cancer]. (United States)

    Vinnik, Iu A; Gorbenko, V N; Vas'ko, A R; Kikhtenko, E V; Gargin, V V


    The degrees of invasiveness, proliferative activity, morphofunctional activity of nuclei in the thyroidal gland tumors were studied, while analyzing material, obtained in 1343 patients, suffering thyroidal gland cancer (THGC) and operated on in 2000-2013 yrs. Morphological point quantity of malignancy (as a criterion of the tumor progression grade) and mitotic activity in cellular population were determined in various kinds of THGC. Undifferentiated (anaplastic carcinoma) type of THGC is the most malignant one. There were determined a spindle-like, giant-cell and squamous-cell forms of undifferentiated THGC. The presence of sites of differentiated cancer in 33% of histological preparations witnesses the interrelationship with the earlier existed pathological process.

  18. Extreme neutrophil granulocytosis in a patient with anaplastic large cell lymphoma of T-cell lineage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig, Frederik Neess; Møller, Michael Boe; Hasselbalch, Hans K


    We describe a 47-year-old male admitted with fever and extreme neutrophil granulocytosis (up to 80 x 10(9)/L). All microbiology tests and test for autoimmune disease were negative. CT scan showed pulmonary infiltrates bilaterally, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Conventional patholo...... led to a diagnosis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) of T-cell lineage. Involvement of peripheral blood with leukemoid reaction is a rare manifestation of ALCL. This case emphasizes the importance of immunophenotyping in unexplained extreme granulocytosis....

  19. Complete Remission of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma after Concomitant Treatment with Docetaxel and Radiotherapy

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    Ichiro Abe


    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC although rare is the most lethal form of thyroid cancer. The mortality rate for ATC is very high, with a median survival time of only 5 months; the survival rate at 1 year after diagnosis is <20%. Management of ATC is extremely difficult and rife with uncertainties. Herein, we describe a 75-year-old woman who presented with ATC and was successfully treated using concomitant treatment with docetaxel and high-dose radiotherapy. This case appears to be the first to have been reported in the literature involving complete remission of ATC confirmed by autopsy, suggesting the therapeutic potential of this combination.

  20. Report of a Novel Case of Anaplastic Olfactory Groove Meningioma and Its Methylation Subtype. (United States)

    Foo, Aaron Song Chuan; Tan, Dominic Ti Ming; Tan, Char Loo; Sahm, Felix; von Deimling, Andreas; Yeo, Tseng Tsai


    We report a novel case of a World Health Organization grade 3 anaplastic meningioma arising from the olfactory groove in an 83-year-old woman. Molecular and methylation profiling confirm this lesion to be an NF2 subtype, methylation class intermediate type B meningioma. As most meningiomas in this location are indolent SMO subtype lesions, our report suggests that even though rare, aggressive NF2 subtype meningiomas can also occur along the midline anterior skull base. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Emergency total thyroidectomy for bleeding anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A viable option for palliation

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    Sunil Kumar


    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a rare and highly aggressive thyroid neoplasm. Bleeding from tumor is an uncommon, but potentially life-threatening complication requiring sophisticated intervention facilities which are not usually available at odd hours in emergency. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with exsanguinating hemorrhage from ATC and was treated by emergency total thyroidectomy. The patient is well three months postoperatively. Emergency total thyroidectomy is a viable option for palliation in ATC presenting with bleeding.

  2. De novo anaplastic Kaposi sarcoma in a HIV-negative man: A case report and review of the literature

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    Slim Charfi


    Full Text Available Anaplastic Kaposi sarcoma is a rare variant of Kaposi’s and is typically associated with an agressive clinical course. We report a case of a 67-year-old HIV negative man, presented with multiple, pink nodules on the left ankle and a keratotic lesion of the right heel. Initial histopathological exam concluded to an undifferentiated sarcoma. A second biopsy was performed and concluded to an anaplastic Kaposi sarcoma. Immunohistochemical study was positive for HHV8. Treatment consisted on a tumor excision of all lesions. Our case and the review of the literature highlight the benefit of the non conservative surgical treatment for this aggressive form of Kaposi sarcoma.

  3. Breast lump (United States)

    ... removed with surgery. Breast infections are treated with antibiotics. If you are diagnosed with breast cancer , you will discuss your options carefully and thoroughly with your provider. Alternative Names Breast mass Images Female breast Breast lumps ...

  4. Breast lift (United States)

    Mastopexy; Breast lift with reduction; Breast lift with augmentation ... enlargement with implants) when they have a breast lift. ... it for medical reasons. Women usually have breast lifts to lift sagging, loose breasts. Pregnancy, breastfeeding, and ...

  5. Primary and Secondary T-cell Lymphomas of the Breast: Clinico-pathologic Features of 11 Cases (United States)

    Gualco, Gabriela; Chioato, Lucimara; Harrington, William J.; Weiss, Lawrence M.; Bacchi, Carlos E.


    Breast involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphomas is rare, and exceptional for T-cell lymphomas; we studied the morphologic, immunophenotypic, and clinical features of 11 patients with T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas involving the breast. Four cases fulfilled the definition criteria for primary breast lymphomas, 3 females and 1 male, with a median age of 51 years. One primary breast lymphomas was T-cell lymphoma unspecified, other was subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma, and 2 cases were anaplastic large cell lymphomas. One of the anaplastic large cell lymphoma cases was found surrounding a silicone breast implant and presented as clinically as mastitis; whereas the other case occurred in a man. T-cell lymphoma secondarily involved the breast in 7 patients, all women and 1 bilateral, with a median age of 29 years. These secondary breast lymphomas occurred as part of widespread nodal or leukemic disease. Three patients had adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, including the patient with bilateral lesions, 3 others had precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia, and the other presented with a peripheral-T-cell lymphoma nonotherwise specified type. Breast T-cell lymphomas are very infrequent and are morphologically and clinically heterogeneous. PMID:19318917

  6. Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma in a Child with Type I Diabetes and Unrecognised Coeliac Disease

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    Jemima Sharp


    Full Text Available Screening for coeliac disease is recommended for children from certain risk groups, with implications for diagnostic procedures and dietetic management. The risk of a malignant complication in untreated coeliac disease is not considered high in children. We present the case of a girl with type I diabetes who developed weight loss, fatigue, and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Four years before, when she was asymptomatic, a screening coeliac tTG test was positive, but gluten was not eliminated from her diet. Based on clinical examination, a duodenal biopsy, and an inguinal lymph node biopsy were performed, which confirmed both coeliac disease and an anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. HLA-typing demonstrated that she was homozygous for HLA-DQ8, which is associated with higher risk for celiac disease, more severe gluten sensitivity, and diabetes susceptibility. She responded well to chemotherapy and has been in remission for over 4 years. She remains on a gluten-free diet. This is the first case reporting the association of coeliac disease, type I diabetes, and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in childhood. The case highlights the malignancy risk in a genetically predisposed individual, and the possible role of a perpetuated immunologic response by prolonged gluten exposure.

  7. A comparative evaluation of supervised and unsupervised representation learning approaches for anaplastic medulloblastoma differentiation (United States)

    Cruz-Roa, Angel; Arevalo, John; Basavanhally, Ajay; Madabhushi, Anant; González, Fabio


    Learning data representations directly from the data itself is an approach that has shown great success in different pattern recognition problems, outperforming state-of-the-art feature extraction schemes for different tasks in computer vision, speech recognition and natural language processing. Representation learning applies unsupervised and supervised machine learning methods to large amounts of data to find building-blocks that better represent the information in it. Digitized histopathology images represents a very good testbed for representation learning since it involves large amounts of high complex, visual data. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of different supervised and unsupervised representation learning architectures to specifically address open questions on what type of learning architectures (deep or shallow), type of learning (unsupervised or supervised) is optimal. In this paper we limit ourselves to addressing these questions in the context of distinguishing between anaplastic and non-anaplastic medulloblastomas from routine haematoxylin and eosin stained images. The unsupervised approaches evaluated were sparse autoencoders and topographic reconstruct independent component analysis, and the supervised approach was convolutional neural networks. Experimental results show that shallow architectures with more neurons are better than deeper architectures without taking into account local space invariances and that topographic constraints provide useful invariant features in scale and rotations for efficient tumor differentiation.

  8. Targeted therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma: focus on brentuximab vedotin

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    Chen X


    Full Text Available Xueyan Chen, Lorinda A Soma, Jonathan R FrommDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Despite the relative success of chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, novel therapeutic agents are needed for refractory or relapsed patients. Targeted immunotherapy has emerged as a novel treatment option for these patients. Although unconjugated anti-cluster of differentiation (CD30 antibodies showed minimal antitumor activity in early clinical trials, development of antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs appears promising. Brentuximab vedotin is an ADC composed of an anti-CD30 antibody linked to a potent microtubule-disrupting agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE. It has the ability to target CD30-positive tumor cells and, once bound to CD30, brentuximab vedotin is internalized and MMAE is released to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In two phase II trials, objective response was reported in 75% and 86% of patients with refractory or relapsed HL and systemic ALCL, respectively, with an acceptable toxicity profile. Based on these studies, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA granted accelerated approval of brentuximab vedotin in August 2011 for the treatment of refractory and relapsed HL and ALCL. We review the key characteristics of brentuximab vedotin, clinical data supporting its therapeutic efficacy, and current ongoing trials to explore its utility in other CD30-positive malignancies.Keywords: classical Hodgkin lymphoma, systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma, CD30, brentuximab vedotin, SGN-35

  9. The control of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines by oncolytic poxviruses. (United States)

    Mundi, Neil; Um, Sung; Yoo, John; Rizzo, Giananthony; Black, Morgan; Pinto, Nicole; Palma, David A; Fung, Kevin; MacNeil, Danielle; Mymryk, Joe S; Barrett, John W; Nichols, Anthony C


    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is rare, but its clinical presentation is often dramatic and aggressive and is nearly uniformly fatal. Oncolytic viral therapy is a potential strategy to improve outcomes for patients suffering with this disease. Seven established ATC cell lines were infected with a panel of poxviruses to identify which virus had the most potential as an oncolytic agent. These included myxoma, vaccinia, and tanapox viruses, all modified to express green fluorescence protein (GFP). Viral proliferation was assessed by fluorescence and viral amplification. The effect on cell line growth was assessed by the Presto Blue metabolic assay and a live-dead assay. A replication assay was performed to assess the production of infectious progeny. An additional five ATC cell lines were tested using the assays described above for susceptibility to vaccinia virus. ATC cell lines were differentially susceptible to each virus. Vaccinia virus was superior to myxoma and tanapox viruses for the control of anaplastic thyroid cancer in vitro. Although subsequent investigation using an expanded panel of cell lines revealed differential susceptibility to vaccinia virus, effective control of cell proliferation was still achieved using higher titers. Vaccinia virus was the most potent of the tested poxviruses and was highly effective in controlling proliferation and inducing cell death in ATC cell lines. The efficacy of these viruses offers hope for improving outcomes for patients suffering with ATC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaplastic thyroid cancer – an overview of genetic variations and treatment modalities

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    Reddi HV


    Full Text Available Honey V Reddi,1 Anirudh Kumar,2 Roger Kulstad3 1Transgenomic, Inc., New Haven, CT, USA; 2University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Division of Endocrinology, Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, WI, USA Abstract: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a rare but highly aggressive malignancy that accounts for about 1%–2% of all thyroid cancer diagnoses but is responsible for up to 30%–40% of thyroid cancer deaths. ATCs are poorly differentiated tumors that develop on the background of preexisting, often undiagnosed, papillary thyroid carcinoma or follicular thyroid carcinoma, through progressive accumulation of changes in several oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways, including p53, RAS, RAF, Wnt-β-catenin and the PTEN-AKT pathways. Consequently, the 1-year survival rate after diagnosis ranges from 5% to 15%. Current therapeutic approaches are aimed at common late oncogenic changes and involve inhibition of MAPK and PI3K cell proliferation pathways or restoration of p53 and PTEN tumor suppressor pathways. Since single-modality therapy has limited effect on anaplastic thyroid cancer, aggressive multimodal treatments are now the treatment of choice, in spite of which, the mean survival time from diagnosis to death continues to remain at about 6 months. The current review attempts to summarize the genetics involved in the development and progression of ATC and provides some insight into the therapeutic options being evaluated for this aggressive cancer. Keywords: genetic alterations, treatment strategies, diagnostic testing

  11. Health-related quality of life and cognitive functioning in long-term anaplastic oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, Esther J. J.; Taphoorn, Martin J. B.; Nederend, Sylvie; Klein, Martin; Delgadillo, Daniel; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Bottomley, Andrew; Allgeier, Anouk; Seute, Tatjana; Gijtenbeek, Anja M. M.; de Gans, Jan; Enting, Roelien H.; Tijssen, Cees C.; van den Bent, Martin J.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.


    Overall survival of patients with anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors has been improved due to the addition of procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT), especially in 1p/19q-codeleted tumors. With improved survival, quality of survival becomes pivotal. We

  12. Breast Pain (United States)

    ... result in the development of breast cysts. Breast trauma, prior breast surgery or other factors localized to the breast can lead to breast pain. Breast pain may also start outside the breast — in the chest wall, muscles, joints or heart, for example — and ...

  13. Impact of 1p/19q Codeletion and Histology on Outcomes of Anaplastic Gliomas Treated With Radiation Therapy and Temozolomide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speirs, Christina K.; Simpson, Joseph R.; Robinson, Clifford G.; DeWees, Todd A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Tran, David D.; Linette, Gerry [Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Chicoine, Michael R.; Dacey, Ralph G.; Rich, Keith M.; Dowling, Joshua L.; Leuthardt, Eric C.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Kim, Albert H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Huang, Jiayi, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)


    Purpose: Anaplastic gliomas represent a heterogeneous group of primary high-grade brain tumors, and the optimal postoperative treatment remains controversial. In this report, we present our institutional data on the clinical outcomes of radiation therapy (RT) plus temozolomide (RT + TMZ) for anaplastic gliomas, stratified by histology and 1p/19q codeletion. Methods and Materials: A single-institution retrospective review was conducted of patients with supratentorial anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), mixed anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA), and anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). After surgery, RT was delivered at a median total dose of 60 Gy (range, 31.6-63 Gy) in daily fractions. All patients received standard concurrent TMZ, with or without adjuvant TMZ. Histological/molecular subtypes were defined as codeleted AO/AOA, non-codeleted AO/AOA, and AA. Results: From 2000 to 2012, 111 cases met study criteria and were evaluable. Codeleted AO/AOA had superior overall survival (OS) to non-codeleted AO/AOA (91% vs 68% at 5 years, respectively, P=.02), whereas progression-free survival (PFS) was not significantly different (70% vs 46% at 5 years, respectively, P=.10). AA had inferior OS to non-codeleted AO/AOA (37% vs 68% at 5 years, respectively, P=.007) and inferior PFS (27% vs 46%, respectively, P=.03). On multivariate analysis, age, performance status, and histological or molecular subtype were independent predictors for both PFS and OS. Compared to historical controls, RT + TMZ provided comparable OS to RT with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (RT + PCV) for codeleted AO/AOA, superior OS to RT alone for non-codeleted AO/AOA, and similar OS to RT alone for AA. Conclusions: RT + TMZ may be a promising treatment for both codeleted and non-codeleted AO/AOA, but its role for AA remains unclear.

  14. Fibroadenoma - breast (United States)

    ... fibroadenoma; Breast lump - noncancerous; Breast lump - benign References Hacker NF, Friedlander ML. Breast disease: a gynecologic perspective. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and ...

  15. [Radiological trap and oncological precautions in a patient who has undergone a permanent withdrawal of PIP breast implants]. (United States)

    Koutsomanis, A; Bruant-Rodier, C; Roedlich, M-N; Bretz-Grenier, M-F; Perrot, P; Bodin, F


    We report the case of a 57-year-old patient who presented radiological images similar to ruptured breast implants one year after the supposed withdrawal of the latter. This woman had benefited for the first time from cosmetic PIP breast implants in 2000. Early in 2014, she requested the removal of the implants without renewal because she was feeling pain and functional discomfort. A few months after the operation, she consulted for breast swelling in the upper pole of the breast. Radiological assessment showed liquid formations compatible with the presence of implants. At our request, the rereading of the MRI by the radiologist definitively concluded on a bilateral seroma within the persistent fibrous capsule. In the absence of symptoms, clinical monitoring had been decided. But at the recrudescence of anaplastic large cell lymphoma cases associated with breast implants, a cytological sampling was intended. In case of cytological abnormality or recurrence of the seroma, a surgical procedure should be performed. In conclusion, the removal of a breast implant without capsulectomy may result in the formation of a seroma whose images resemble those of an implant. It is always worthwhile to provide precise clinical data to the radiologist in order to help him to make informed interpretations. Every serous effusion in a breast lodge having contained a silicone implant must evoke the diagnosis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing retroperitoneal anaplastic carcinoma with choriocarcinoma focus after ovarian non-gestastional choriocarcinoma: Case report

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    Nikolić Branka


    Full Text Available Introduction. Choriocarcinoma is a malignant form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN. It is a rare event but also a curable malignancy. In the majority of instancies it developes after any gestational event. In some cases it developes as non-gestational extrauterine malignancy. Prognosis of choriocarcinoma is poor when invasion and metastases appear early and spread fast. This form of choriocarcinoma can lead to incurable and letal outcome. Case report. We presented a 20-year-old patient with abdominal and retroperitoneal malignancy - anaplastic carcinoma combined with choriocarcinoma metastases in. Tumor developed three months after left adnexectomy which had been done because of adnexal tumor. Choriocarcinoma was immunohistochemicaly confirmed in adnexal masses. Two courses of chemotherapy, metotrexate + folic acid (MTX+FA regimen, were administrated. The initial serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin level stayed unknown as well as the last one after the treatment. The patient came from the other country and was hospitalized because of pelvic and abdominal pain and palpable abdominal masses in hypogastrium with progressive anemia. The human chorionic gonadotropin level was 38 mIU/L. Tumor biopsy was done and choriocarcinoma metastases were immunohistochemicaly confirmed with predominant anaplastic carcinoma. Five day course of MTX + cyclophosphamide regimen was administrated and the patient was prepared for operative treatment. Relaparotomy was perforemed and tumor completely exceeded. Tumor mass mostly developed retroperitonely and partialy in abdominal cavity infiltrating intestinal wall with rupture of sigmoid colon. Anaplastic carcinoma, with large fields of necrosis and bleeding, was confirmed after histological examination. Immunohistochemical examination excluded choriocarcinoma in tumor mass. After 20 blood units transfusion, one course of chemotherapy and tumor excision, the patient left hospital on the 9th postoperative day

  17. Breast magnetic resonance imaging: tips for the diagnosis of silicone-induced granuloma of a breast implant capsule (SIGBIC). (United States)

    de Faria Castro Fleury, Eduardo; Gianini, Ana Claudia; Ayres, Veronica; Ramalho, Luciana C; Seleti, Rodrigo Oliveira; Roveda, Decio


    Complications resulting from the placement of silicone breast implants are becoming more frequent in our clinical practice. This is due to the increase in breast aesthetic surgeries at the beginning of the century, where breast augmentation using silicone implants was the main intervention performed. Generally, studies that discuss the complications of breast implants are restricted to reports of intra- or extra-capsular ruptures, contractures and haematomas. Currently, much importance has been given to anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) as a more severe complication related to silicone implants. Recently, granuloma formation induced by silicone particle bleeding from intact breast implants has been described when the free silicone comes into contact with the fibrous capsule of the implant. Few studies have demonstrated the characteristics and diagnostic keys for this entity. The objective of this study is to present cases of SIGBIC diagnosed in our service and to discuss the main findings that allow its diagnosis. Teaching Points • Breast implants induce fibrous capsule formation at the periphery of the implant. • Gel bleeding is inherent in all types of silicone breast implants. • Gel bleeding induces silicone-induced granuloma of breast implants. • Main diagnostic tips: heterogeneous mass, black-drop sign and late enhancement.

  18. Metronomic chemotherapy in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A potentially feasible alternative to therapeutic nihilism

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    Swaroop Revannasiddaiah


    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is one of the most aggressive malignancies and prognostic outlook remains very dismal. Treatment most often is palliative in intent attempting to relieve the patients from local compressive symptoms in the neck. Radical surgery, radiotherapy (RT, and chemotherapy have not been tested in large prospective trials, and current evidence from retrospective series and small trials indicate only marginal survival benefits. Given the poor prognostic and therapeutic outlook, patients must be encouraged to be actively involved in the decision making process. We report the case of an elderly patient who had no response to palliative RT, and was treated with oral metronomic chemotherapy. The response to oral metronomic chemotherapy was dramatic, and the patient has enjoyed complete freedom from symptoms as well as radiologically exhibits a complete regression. Thus, we document the first ever use of a simple, cost-effective, and convenient oral metronomic chemotherapeutic regimen delivering a remarkable response in an elderly patient with ATC.

  19. Primary Cutaneous CD 30+ Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma. A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Miguel Ángel Serra Valdés


    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous CD 30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma is part of the spectrum of primary cutaneous CD30 + lymphoproliferative disorders, together with lymphomatoid papulosis. Its frequency is less than 0.5 x 100 000 inhabitants per year. It accounts for a very small proportion of non-Hodgkins lymphomas. The case of an 80-year-old female patient whose diagnosis was established in 2006 because of lesions on the face and neck is presented. The lesions continued to grow in an exaggerated fashion lately leading to deformity of her face. She was admitted due to neurological manifestations unrelated to the lesions. The presentation of this case is necessary because it requires performing differential diagnosis in clinical practice. Given its rarity, it is of interest to the medical community, especially trainees.

  20. Cachexia secondary to intracranial anaplastic (malignant) ependymoma in a boxer dog. (United States)

    Borrelli, A; Mattiazzi, L; Capucchio, M T; Biolatti, C; Cagnasso, A; Gianella, P; D'Angelo, A


    An eight-year-old female boxer was referred because of weight loss of several months' duration. On physical examination, cachexia was the only reported abnormality. Neurological symptoms were shown only in the last days preceding death and consisted of altered mental status, compulsive behaviour and left rear proprioception deficit. At post-mortem examination, a voluminous, soft, haemorrhagic mass was found invading the floor of the brain. Based on the morphological features of the tumour, marked parenchymal invasion, extensive necrosis and cellular atypia, the mass was classified as an anaplastic ependymoma. This case report shows similarities to the diencephalic syndrome reported in human paediatric medicine in which the main clinical sign is a profound emaciation in spite of normal or slightly diminished caloric intake. Weight loss and cachexia are clinically relevant problems in small animals and these clinical signs should raise a suspicion, among the other differentials, of a brain tumour, even in absence of neurologic signs.

  1. A case of highly aggressive anaplastic seminoma of the testis presenting as fungating scrotal lesion

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    Massimiliano Creta


    Full Text Available Anaplastic seminoma (AS is an uncommon histological variant of classical seminoma of the testis and account for 5%-15% of cases. It is poorly described in the scientific literature. We present the case of a 50-years-old homeless man presenting with fever, marked left scrotal hardness and a fungating left scrotal lesion. He underwent left orchiopexy 40 years before. A computed tomography with contrast media showed a suspect testis cancer with scrotal involvment, extensive intralesional necrosis and multiple systemic metastases. A wide excision of the left hemiscrotum including the testis was performed in order to prevent severe local and systemic infectious complications. Histological examination revealed an AS. General conditions showed a rapid deterioration and the patient died on post operative day 10.

  2. Management of the compromised airway and role of tracheotomy in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. (United States)

    Mani, Navin; McNamara, Katherine; Lowe, Natalie; Loughran, Sean; Yap, Beng K


    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an uncommon thyroid malignancy with a poor prognosis. American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines acknowledge the complexity of airway management in these patients. We studied our local experience with the aim of providing guidance in airway management in ATC. Patients with histologically confirmed ATC from January 2004 to December 2011 were identified from our institutional database. The data were retrospectively analyzed using hospital case notes. Twenty-six patients were identified with ATC, 25 of who died from the disease. Five of 26 patients (19%) had stridor at presentation. A further 6 of 26 patients (23%) developed stridor during or soon after radiotherapy. Nine patients (36%) died of airway obstruction. Tracheotomy can facilitate completion of palliative treatment in those patients with ATC and stridor. Given the short life expectancy of these patients, a balanced decision must be made regarding the role and timing of tracheotomy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Isolated cutaneous involvement in a child with nodal anaplastic large cell lymphoma

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    Vibhu Mendiratta


    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a common childhood T-cell and B-cell neoplasm that originates primarily from lymphoid tissue. Cutaneous involvement can be in the form of a primary extranodal lymphoma, or secondary to metastasis from a non-cutaneous location. The latter is uncommon, and isolated cutaneous involvement is rarely reported. We report a case of isolated secondary cutaneous involvement from nodal anaplastic large cell lymphoma (CD30 + and ALK + in a 7-year-old boy who was on chemotherapy. This case is reported for its unusual clinical presentation as an acute febrile, generalized papulonodular eruption that mimicked deep fungal infection, with the absence of other foci of systemic metastasis.

  4. Acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis mimicking anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: A complicated case. (United States)

    Kanaya, Hiroaki; Konno, Wataru; Fukami, Satoru; Hirabayashi, Hideki; Haruna, Shin-ichi


    The fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis is uncommon, accounting for approximately 10% of all cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis. We report a case of this variant that behaved like a malignant neoplasm. The patient was a 69-year-old man who presented with a right-sided anterior neck mass that had been rapidly growing for 2 weeks. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed clusters of large multinucleated cells suggestive of an anaplastic carcinoma. A week after presentation, we ruled out that possibility when the mass had shrunk slightly. Instead, we diagnosed the patient with an acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis on the basis of laboratory findings. We performed a right thyroid lobectomy, including removal of the isthmus, to clarify the pathology and alleviate pressure symptoms. The final diagnosis was the fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis, with no evidence of malignant changes. Physicians should keep in mind that on rare occasions, Hashimoto thyroiditis mimics a malignant neoplasm.

  5. MiR-20a is upregulated in anaplastic thyroid cancer and targets LIMK1.

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    Yin Xiong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been conflicting reports regarding the function of miR-20a in a variety of cancer types and we previously found it to be dysregulated in sporadic versus familial papillary thyroid cancer. In this study, we studied the expression of miR-20a in normal, benign and malignant thyroid samples, and its effect on thyroid cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of miR-20a in normal, benign and malignant thyroid tissue was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Thyroid cancer cells were transfected with miR-20a and the effect on cellular proliferation, tumor spheroid formation, and invasion was evaluated. Target genes of miR-20 were determined by genome-wide mRNA expression analysis with miR-20a overexpression in thyroid cancer cells and target prediction database. Target genes were validated by quantitative PCR and immunoblotting, and luciferase assays. MiR-20a expression was significantly higher in anaplastic thyroid cancer than in differentiated thyroid cancer, and benign and normal thyroid tissues. MiR-20a significantly inhibited thyroid cancer cell proliferation in vitro (p<0.01 and in vivo (p<0.01, tumor spheroid formation (p<0.05 and invasion (p<0.05 in multiple thyroid cancer cell lines. We found that LIMK1 was a target of miR-20a in thyroid cancer cell lines and direct knockdown of LIMK1 recapitulated the effect of miR-20a in thyroid cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that miR-20a plays a role as a tumor suppressor in thyroid cancer cells and targets LIMK1. Our findings suggest the upregulated expression of miR-20a in anaplastic thyroid cancer counteracts thyroid cancer progression and may have therapeutic potential.

  6. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma ALK-negative clinically mimicking alcoholic hepatitis – a review

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    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos


    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, described less than 30 years ago by Karl Lennert and Herald Stein in Kiel, West Germany, is a T-cell or null non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with distinctive morphology (hallmark cells, prominent sinus and/or perivascular growth pattern, characteristic immunophenotype (CD30+, cytotoxic granules protein+, CD3–/+ and specific genetic features as translocations involving the receptor tyrosine kinase called anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK on 2p23 and variable partners genes, which results in the expression of ALK fusion protein. The absence of ALK expression is also observed and is associated with poorer prognosis that seen with ALK expression. ALK-negative ALCL is more frequent in adults, with both nodal and extra nodal clinical presentation and includes several differential diagnoses with other CD30+ lymphomas. Liver involvement by ALCL is rare and is generally seen as mass formation; the diffuse pattern of infiltration is even more unusual. The authors present a case of a 72-year-old man who presented clinical symptoms of acute hepatic failure. The patient had a long history of alcohol abuse and the diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis was highly considered, although the serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH value was highly elevated. The clinical course was fulminant leading to death on the fourth day of hospitalization. Autopsy demonstrated diffuse neoplastic hepatic infiltration as well as splenic, pulmonary, bone marrow, and minor abdominal lymph nodes involvement by the tumor. Based on morphological, immunophenotypical, and immunohistochemical features, a diagnosis of ALK- negative ALCL was concluded. When there is marked elevation of LDH the possibility of lymphoma, ALCL and other types, should be the principal diagnosis to be considered.

  7. Extracranial bone metastases from recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma on FDG PET/CT: A case report a care-compliant article. (United States)

    Li, Zu-Gui; Mu, Hai-Yu


    Extracranial bone metastases from astrocytoma are rare and frequently detected as part of multiorgan metastases. It is extremely rare for astrocytoma to have extracranial bone metastases alone. The importance of whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) imaging in evaluating extracranial metastasis (ECMs) has not been described effectively due to the rarity of this event. The purpose of our case report is to emphasize the role of FDG PET/CT in the assessment of tumor recurrence and extracranial bone metastases from anaplastic astrocytoma. A 25-year-old woman was firstly admitted with a 4-month history of progressive blurred vision, and 2-month history of intermittent headache. Presurgical MRI imaging revealed a large mass in the left trigone of lateral ventricle. Subsequently, she underwent tumor resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A final pathological diagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO III) was made. Nearly 12 months after the surgery, the follow-up brain MR imaging revealed a contrast-enhanced lesion in the site of operative region. Whole-body FDG PET/CT imaging was performed to evaluate the situation. Postoperative brain FDG PET/CT showed an abnormal focal FDG uptake corresponding to the contrast-enhanced lesion in the operative area, suggesting a tumor recurrence. Whole-body FDG PET/CT also showed multiple FDG-avid osteosclerotic lesions in the body. It was highly suggestive of extracranial bone metastases. A subsequent open bone biopsy of FDG-avid lesion in right iliac crest was performed. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings indicated characteristic of glioma. The patient died 1 month later, nearly 13 months after the initial diagnosis. ECMs from anaplastic astrocytoma are extremely rare but they do occur. Whole-body FDG PET/CT imaging with inclusion of brain was valuable in differentiating tumor recurrence from radiation necrosis and in detecting uncommon extracranial bone metastases

  8. Natural course and prognosis of anaplastic gangliogliomas: a multicenter retrospective study of 43 cases from the French Brain Tumor Database. (United States)

    Terrier, Louis-Marie; Bauchet, Luc; Rigau, Valérie; Amelot, Aymeric; Zouaoui, Sonia; Filipiak, Isabelle; Caille, Agnès; Almairac, Fabien; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie-Hélène; Bergemer-Fouquet, Anne-Marie; Bord, Eric; Cornu, Philippe; Czorny, Alain; Dam Hieu, Phong; Debono, Bertrand; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Emery, Evelyne; Farah, Walid; Gauchotte, Guillaume; Godfraind, Catherine; Guyotat, Jacques; Irthum, Bernard; Janot, Kevin; Le Reste, Pierre-Jean; Liguoro, Dominique; Loiseau, Hugues; Lot, Guillaume; Lubrano, Vincent; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Menei, Philippe; Metellus, Philippe; Milin, Serge; Muckenstrum, Bertrand; Roche, Pierre-Hugues; Rousseau, Audrey; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Vital, Anne; Voirin, Jimmy; Wager, Michel; Zanello, Marc; François, Patrick; Velut, Stéphane; Varlet, Pascale; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Pallud, Johan; Zemmoura, Ilyess


    Anaplastic gangliogliomas (GGGs) are rare tumors whose natural history is poorly documented. We aimed to define their clinical and imaging features and to identify prognostic factors. Consecutive cases of anaplastic GGGs in adults prospectively entered into the French Brain Tumor Database between March 2004 and April 2014 were screened. After diagnosis was confirmed by pathological review, clinical, imaging, therapeutic, and outcome data were collected retrospectively. Forty-three patients with anaplastic GGG (median age, 49.4 y) from 18 centers were included. Presenting symptoms were neurological deficit (37.2%), epileptic seizure (37.2%), or increased intracranial pressure (25.6%). Typical imaging findings were unifocal location (94.7%), contrast enhancement (88.1%), central necrosis (43.2%), and mass effect (47.6%). Therapeutic strategy included surgical resection (95.3%), adjuvant radiochemotherapy (48.8%), or radiotherapy alone (27.9%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 8.0 and 24.7 months, respectively. Three- and 5-year tumor recurrence rates were 69% and 100%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate was 24.9%. Considering unadjusted significant prognostic factors, tumor midline crossing and frontal location were associated with shorter OS. Temporal and parietal locations were associated with longer and shorter PFS, respectively. None of these factors remained statistically significant in multivariate analysis. We report a large series providing clinical, imaging, therapeutic, and prognostic features of adult patients treated for an intracerebral anaplastic GGG. Our results show that pathological diagnosis is difficult, that survivals are only slightly better than for glioblastomas, and that complete surgical resection followed with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy offers longer survival.

  9. Primary rare anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK positive in small intestine: case report and review of the literature. (United States)

    Cao, Qinghua; Liu, Fang; Li, Shurong; Liu, Ni; Li, Lihui; Li, Changzhao; Peng, Tingsheng


    Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK positive in small intestine is clinically rare and the clinical, radiological and pathological information are generally not available. Here, we report a case of 32-year-old male with ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma at the junction of jejunum and ileum, and highlight the clinicopathological features and the differential diagnosis of this type lymphoma. The patient presented with right middle abdominal mass for 1 month with sporadic pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed a mass measured 8.5 × 7.4 × 4 cm at the junction of jejunum and ileum. The diagnosis was made after pathological examination of the excised tissue by enterectomy. Grossly, the mass was located predominately in intestinal wall with grayish appearance and blurry boundary. Microscopically, almost all layers of the intestinal wall were infiltrated by pleomorphic tumor cells with diffuse and cohesive growth pattern. The neoplastic cells were mainly medium to large size with moderate basophilic cytoplasm. Most of them had hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli. "Hallmark" cells were easily detected. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells are characterized by CD30, ALK, CD5, TIA-1, Granzyme B, EMA positive staining, and CD2, CD3, CD7, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD79a negative staining. The Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNAs (EBERs) genome was also negative. A diagnosis as primary small intestinal ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma was finally made. The patient received CHOP chemotherapy and is alive till now without recurrence 5 months after enterectomy. Primary small intestinal ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is rare. The accurate diagnosis should be based on combined consideration of clinical characteristics, CT image and pathological features, and should be distinguished from other lymphomas or solid tumors in small intestine.

  10. Selective therapeutic targeting of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase with liposomal siRNA induces apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis in neuroblastoma.


    Di Paolo, Daniela; Ambrogio, Chiara; Pastorino, Fabio; Brignole, Chiara; Martinengo, Cinzia; Carosio, Roberta; Loi, Monica; Pagnan, Gabriella; Emionite, Laura; Cilli, Michele; Ribatti, Domenico; Allen, Theresa M.; Chiarle, Roberto; Ponzoni, Mirco; Perri, Patrizia


    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a tyrosine kinase receptor that is involved in the pathogenesis of different types of human cancers, including neuroblastoma (NB). In NB, ALK overexpression, or point mutations, are associated with poor prognosis and advanced stage disease. Inhibition of ALK kinase activity by small-molecule inhibitors in lung cancers carrying ALK translocations has shown therapeutic potential. However, secondary mutations may occur that, generate tumor resistance to AL...

  11. Malignant Trigeminal Nerve Sheath Tumor and Anaplastic Astrocytoma Collision Tumor with High Proliferative Activity and Tumor Suppressor P53 Expression

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    Maher Kurdi


    Full Text Available Background. The synchronous development of two primary brain tumors of distinct cell of origin in close proximity or in contact with each other is extremely rare. We present the first case of collision tumor with two histological distinct tumors. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman presented with progressive atypical left facial pain and numbness for 8 months. MRI of the brain showed left middle cranial fossa heterogeneous mass extending into the infratemporal fossa. At surgery, a distinct but intermingled intra- and extradural tumor was demonstrated which was completely removed through left orbitozygomatic-temporal craniotomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had two distinct components: malignant nerve sheath tumor of the trigeminal nerve and temporal lobe anaplastic astrocytoma. Proliferative activity and expressed tumor protein 53 (TP53 gene mutations were demonstrated in both tumors. Conclusions. We describe the first case of malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor (MTNST and anaplastic astrocytoma in collision and discuss the possible hypothesis of this rare occurrence. We propose that MTNST, with TP53 mutation, have participated in the formation of anaplastic astrocytoma, or vice versa.

  12. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma in Chinese patients

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    Wang Yan-Fang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (S-ALCL is a rare disease with a highly variable prognosis and no standard chemotherapy regimen. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK has been reported as an important prognostic factor correlated with S-ALCL in many but not all studies. In our study, we retrospectively analyzed 92 patients with S-ALCL from the Peking University Lymphoma Center for clinical and molecular prognostic factors to make clear the role of ALK and other prognostic factors in Han Chinese S-ALCL. Results The majority of Chinese S-ALCL patients were young male patients (median age 26, male/female ratio 1.7 and the median age was younger than previous reports regardless of ALK expression status. The only statistically significant different clinical characteristic in S-ALCL between ALK positive (ALK+ and ALK negative (ALK- was age, with a younger median age of 22 for ALK+ compared with 30 for ALK-. However, when pediatric patients (≤18 were excluded, there was no age difference between ALK+ and ALK-. The groups did not differ in the proportion of males, those with clinical stage III/IV (49 vs 51% or those with extranodal disease (53 vs 59%. Of 73 evaluable patients, the 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 60% and 47%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that three factors: advanced stage III/IV, lack of expression of ALK, and high Ki-67 expression, were associated with treatment failure in patients with S-ALCL. However, ALK expression correlated with improved survival only in patients younger than 14 years, while not in adult patients. In multivariate analysis, only clinical stage was an independent prognostic factor for survival. Expressions of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1 and B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL-2 correlated with the expression of ALK, but they did not have prognostic significance. High Ki-67 expression was also a poor prognostic factor. Conclusions Our results show that ALK expression alone is not

  13. Biological characteristics and chemosensitivity profile of four human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines. (United States)

    Sekiguchi, M; Shiroko, Y; Arai, T; Kishino, T; Sugawara, I; Kusakabe, T; Suzuki, T; Yamashita, T; Obara, T; Ito, K; Hasumi, K


    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a rapidly growing, aggressive neoplasm affecting the elderly which does not respond to most of the therapies. We established cultured cell lines from four untreated tumors. The cultures grew in a monolayer of spindle-shaped cells in three cell lines and of small polygonal cells in one line, having relatively long doubling times and chromosomal abnormalities. The xenotransplantation of the lines in athymic nude mice produced tumors with a histology similar to the original tumors. The immunocytochemical staining showed the expression of PCNA, HLA-class 1, cytokeratin, vimentin and FAS (fatty acid synthase) but not CEA, desmin or P-glycoprotein. The lines secreted TPA, IL-6, IL-8 and few or no thyroid-related hormones in the culture supernatant. One cell line produced G-CSF. The chemosensitivity assay revealed intrinsic drug resistance to nine out of 11 antineoplastic agents. The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detected MRP (multidrug resistance-associated protein) mRNA but not mdr (multidrug resistance protein)-1 and mdr-3 mRNAs. This finding indicates that the multidrug resistance of these lines is mediated by a P-glycoprotein-unrelated mechanism. The RT-PCR also presented FAS mRNA in all the lines, and IL-6 and IL-8 mRNAs in some of the lines.

  14. Current Status of Targeted Therapy for Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

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    Li MA


    Full Text Available The rate of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC tissues is 3%-5%. The first-in-class ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor, crizotinib, can effectively target these tumors represent a significant advance in the evolution of personalized medicine for NSCLC. A randomized phase III clinical trial in which superiority of crizotinib over chemotherapy was seen in previously treated ALK-positive NSCLC patients demonstrated durable responses and well tolerance in the majority of ALK-positive NSCLC patients treated with crizotinib. However, despite the initial responses, most patients develop acquired resistance to crizotinib. Several novel therapeutic approaches targeting ALK-positive NSCLC are currently under evaluation in clinical trials, including second-generation ALK inhibitors, such as LDK378, CH5424802 (RO5424802, and AP26113, and new agents shock protein 90 inhibitors. This review aims to present the current knowledge on this fusion gene, the treatment advances, and novel drug clinical trials in ALK rearranged NSCLC.

  15. An anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive lung cancer microlesion: A case report

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    Tetsuo Kon


    Full Text Available Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK-positive lung cancers are generally diagnosed at an advanced clinical stage. Herein, we report a case of an ALK-positive lung cancer patient who had a microlesion of this tumor type. The patient was a 51-year-old woman without a smoking history. Computed tomography performed during a lung cancer screening program showed a 7 × 5-mm subpleural nodule with an irregular border in the right lower lobe. The background lung parenchyma was almost normal. Serum tumor marker levels were not elevated. Histological assessment showed destructive growth in the center of the lesion, as confirmed using Victoria blue-hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunostaining for CD34 and D2-40; however, at the other site, the tumor mainly showed intra-alveolar growth with minor lepidic growth. The tumor cells were positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 and ALK. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of the tumor revealed an ALK gene spilt. Accordingly, the tumor was diagnosed as ALK-positive lung cancer. ALK-positive lung cancer presents diverse histological architectures in the early phase.

  16. An evolutionary conserved role for anaplastic lymphoma kinase in behavioral responses to ethanol.

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    Amy W Lasek

    Full Text Available Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk is a gene expressed in the nervous system that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase commonly known for its oncogenic function in various human cancers. We have determined that Alk is associated with altered behavioral responses to ethanol in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, in mice, and in humans. Mutant flies containing transposon insertions in dAlk demonstrate increased resistance to the sedating effect of ethanol. Database analyses revealed that Alk expression levels in the brains of recombinant inbred mice are negatively correlated with ethanol-induced ataxia and ethanol consumption. We therefore tested Alk gene knockout mice and found that they sedate longer in response to high doses of ethanol and consume more ethanol than wild-type mice. Finally, sequencing of human ALK led to the discovery of four polymorphisms associated with a low level of response to ethanol, an intermediate phenotype that is predictive of future alcohol use disorders (AUDs. These results suggest that Alk plays an evolutionary conserved role in ethanol-related behaviors. Moreover, ALK may be a novel candidate gene conferring risk for AUDs as well as a potential target for pharmacological intervention.

  17. Successful Treatment in a Child with Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma and Coexistence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

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    Margarita Baka


    Full Text Available A 13-year-old girl was admitted to our department with a history of severe pain of her left axilla and fever. On physical examination, a block of lymph nodes in her left axilla, diffuse papular rash, and red-violet swelling of her supraclavicular and subclavian region were noted. Imaging investigations revealed left axillar and supraclavicular lymphadenopathy and a small nodular shade in the upper lobe of her left lung. A biopsy from an axillary lymph node established the diagnosis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, whereas DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the same tissue biopsy. Patient was started on chemotherapy for ALCL and achieved remission of all initially involved fields. Nevertheless, two new nodular lesions were detected in the left lower lobe. Biopsy revealed granulomas, and PCR was positive for M. tuberculosis. Our patient received treatment with the combination of isoniazid and rifampin (12 months, pyrazinamide (the first 2 months, and maintenance chemotherapy for her ALCL for one year simultaneously. Four years later, she is disease free for both mycobacterial infection and lymphoma. We are reporting this successful management of mycobacterial infection in a patient with ALCL despite intensive chemotherapy that the patient received at the same time.

  18. Identifying the association between contrast enhancement pattern, surgical resection, and prognosis in anaplastic glioma patients

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    Wang, Yinyan; Jiang, Tao [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing (China); Wang, Kai; Li, Shaowu; Ma, Jun [Capital Medical University, Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Jiangfei [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Dai, Jianping [Capital Medical University, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University, Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China)


    Contrast enhancement observable on magnetic resonance (MR) images reflects the destructive features of malignant gliomas. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between radiologic patterns of tumor enhancement, extent of resection, and prognosis in patients with anaplastic gliomas (AGs). Clinical data from 268 patients with histologically confirmed AGs were retrospectively analyzed. Contrast enhancement patterns were classified based on preoperative T1-contrast MR images. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of MR enhancement patterns on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The pattern of tumor contrast enhancement was associated with the extent of surgical resection in AGs. A gross total resection was more likely to be achieved for AGs with focal enhancement than those with diffuse (p = 0.001) or ring-like (p = 0.024) enhancement. Additionally, patients with focal-enhanced AGs had a significantly longer PFS and OS than those with diffuse (log-rank, p = 0.025 and p = 0.031, respectively) or ring-like (log-rank, p = 0.008 and p = 0.011, respectively) enhanced AGs. Furthermore, multivariate analysis identified the pattern of tumor enhancement as a significant predictor of PFS (p = 0.016, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.485) and OS (p = 0.030, HR = 1.446). Our results suggested that the contrast enhancement pattern on preoperative MR images was associated with the extent of resection and predictive of survival outcomes in AG patients. (orig.)

  19. Effectiveness of interferon-beta and temozolomide combination therapy against temozolomide-refractory recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma

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    Arai Hajime


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant gliomas recur even after extensive surgery and chemo-radiotherapy. Although a relatively novel chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ, has demonstrated promising activity against recurrent glioma, the effects last only a few months and drug resistance develops thereafter in most cases. Induction of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT in tumors is considered to be responsible for resistance to TMZ. Interferon-beta has been reported to suppress MGMT in an experimental glioma model. Here we report a patient with TMZ-refractory anaplastic astrocytoma (AA who was treated successfully with a combination of interferon-beta and TMZ. Case presentation A patient with recurrent AA after radiation-chemotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy was treated with TMZ. After 6 cycles, the tumor became refractory to TMZ, and the patient was treated with interferon-beta at 3 × 106 international units/body, followed by 5 consecutive days of 200 mg/m2 TMZ in cycles of 28 days. After the second cycle the tumor decreased in size by 50% (PR. The tumor showed further shrinkage after 8 months and the patient's KPS improved from 70% to 100%. The immunohistochemical study of the initial tumor specimen confirmed positive MGMT protein expression. Conclusion It is considered that interferon-beta pre-administration increased the TMZ sensitivity of the glioma, which had been refractory to TMZ monotherapy.

  20. Anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas: Is there a role for palliative surgical procedure?

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    Rajan Vaithianathan


    Full Text Available Anaplastic carcinoma (AC or undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare variant among the malignant pancreatic neoplasms. These tumors have a poor prognosis with survival measured in months. The role of surgical palliation to improve the quality of life is not well defined in these patients. We report a case of AC of pancreas in a 65-year-old male patient. Patient had upper abdominal pain with frequent bilious vomiting. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a mass in the body of pancreas with possible infiltration of duodenojejunal flexure (DJF. Laparotomy revealed an inoperable mass with posterior fixity and involvement of the DJF. Patient underwent a palliative duodenojejunostomy. Tissue biopsy from the tumor showed pleomorphic type AC with giant cells. Patient had good symptomatic relief from profuse vomiting and progressed well at follow up. AC of pancreas is a rare and aggressive malignancy with dismal outlook. If obstructive symptoms are present due to duodenal involvement, a palliative bypass may be a worthwhile surgical option in selected cases.

  1. Outcome of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a 20-year British Columbia Cancer Agency experience. (United States)

    Hapgood, Greg; Pickles, Tom; Sehn, Laurie H; Villa, Diego; Klasa, Richard; Scott, David W; Gerrie, Alina S; Gascoyne, Randy D; Slack, Graham W; Parsons, Christina; Morris, James W; Connors, Joseph M; Savage, Kerry J


    Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (PCALCL) is a rare CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorder with excellent outcomes reported despite frequent cutaneous relapses. Limited information exists on the development of systemic lymphoma. The British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) Lymphoid Cancer Database was searched to identify all adults diagnosed with PCALCL from 1993 to 2013. From 2005, the BCCA endorsed radiotherapy (RT) alone for limited stage with data failing to support chemotherapy. Forty-seven patients were identified with a male predominance (n = 31, 66%), median age of 64 years and predominantly limited stage (n = 40, 85%). Median follow-up was 8·4 years. The 5-year time to progression (TTP) was 58% (64% limited versus 29% advanced stage). The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival was 86% and 75%, respectively. In an as-treated analysis, the 5-year DSS for limited stage patients was similar comparing RT to combined modality treatment or chemotherapy alone but the 5-year TTP favoured RT (82% vs. 33%, P = 0·004). The 5-year cumulative risk of developing systemic lymphoma was 14%. Our results confirm the favourable prognosis of PCALCL despite a high relapse rate. Limited stage patients treated with RT alone have excellent outcomes. There is a small risk of systemic lymphoma in PCALCL. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Chemosensitivity of Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Based on a Histoculture Drug Response Assay

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    Takashi Uruno


    Full Text Available The chemosensitivity of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC to some cytotoxic agents was investigated by the histoculture drug response assay (HDRA. Thirty specimens from 22 patients with ATC were obtained from surgically resected subjects. The drugs tested were paclitaxel (PTX, docetaxel (DOC, adriamycin (ADM, nedaplatin (254-S, cisplatin (CDDP, carboplatin (CBDCA, etoposide (VP-16, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, mitomycin C (MMC, and cyclophosphamide (CPA. PTX was the most effective agent, and 25 of 29 cases (86.2% had high inhibition rates (IRs; over 70%, while DOC, another taxane, had lower IRs (median, 32.6%. 254-S had the second highest IR (median 68.1%, higher than other platins, CDDP (median 47.3% and CBDCA (median 27.4%. The IR of 50% dose PTX (20 μg/mL, median 30.6% was markedly decreased, while that of 50% dose 254-S (10 μg/mL, median 63.3% still retained its inhibition effect compared to 100% dose. Most recurrent samples had higher IRs than primary lesions, but the IRs of different drugs differed between primary and recurrent lesions, even with samples from the same patients. PTX has a higher IR to ATC tissues in the HDRA, which suggests that it may be a key drug for the treatment of patients with ATC.

  3. Analysis of Histologic Features Suspecting Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK-Expressing Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma

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    In Ho Choi


    Full Text Available Background: Since 2007 when anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK rearrangements were discovered in non-small cell lung cancer, the ALK gene has received attention due to ALK-targeted therapy, and a notable treatment advantage has been observed in patients harboring the EML4/ALK translocation. However, using ALK-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH as the standard method has demerits such as high cost, a time-consuming process, dependency on interpretation skill, and tissue preparation. We analyzed the histologic findings which could complement the limitation of ALK-FISH test for pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Methods: Two hundred five cases of ALK-positive and 101 of ALK-negative pulmonary adenocarcinoma from January 2007 to May 2013 were enrolled in this study. The histologic findings and ALK immunohistochemistry results were reviewed and compared with the results of ALK-FISH and EGFR/KRAS mutation status. Results: Acinar, cribriform, and solid growth patterns, extracellular and intracellular mucin production, and presence of signet-ring-cell element, and psammoma body were significantly more often present in ALK-positive cancer. In addition, the presence of goblet cell-like cells and presence of nuclear inclusion and groove resembling papillary thyroid carcinoma were common in the ALK-positive group. Conclusions: The above histologic parameters can be helpful in predicting ALK rearranged pulmonary adenocarcinoma, leading to rapid FISH analysis and timely treatment.

  4. Paediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma with leukaemic presentation in children: a report of nine French cases. (United States)

    Spiegel, Alexandra; Paillard, Catherine; Ducassou, Stephane; Perel, Yves; Plantaz, Dominique; Strullu, Marion; Eischen, Alice; Lutz, Patrick; Lamant, Laurence; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile; Brugières, Laurence


    This study aimed to describe the clinical features and outcome of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with leukaemic presentation in children. Among 267 patients included in the French paediatric ALCL database between 1989 and 2012, nine (3%) were described as having cytologically detectable circulating tumour cells. Clinical features combined fever (8/9), nodal and extra-nodal disease (9/9), including hepato-splenic (9/9) and lung involvement (7/9). The level of hyperleucocytosis ranged from 30 to 120 × 10(9) /l, with 12-90% of tumour cells. Diagnosis relied on a lymph node biopsy, with a positive ALK+ antibody immunostain in all nine cases, a T-cell immunophenotype in 7/9 cases and CD3 positivity in 5/9 cases. A small cell component was present in 6/9 cases. Only four patients achieved a complete remission with first-line therapy and 3/4 relapsed. Four patients are alive with a median follow-up of 31 months, two of them after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and five patients died, two of them of disease. In conclusion, ALCL with leukaemic presentation is very unusual and should be considered as high-risk lymphoma requiring new therapeutic strategies. The respective role of new agents and allogeneic HSCT in first complete remission still has to be assessed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Breast Diseases (United States)

    Most women experience breast changes at some time. Your age, hormone levels, and medicines you take may cause lumps, bumps, and discharges (fluids that are not breast milk). If you have a breast lump, pain, ...

  6. Detection of novel genomic aberrations in anaplastic astrocytomas by GTG-banding, SKY, locus-specific FISH, and high density SNP-array. (United States)

    Holland, Heidrun; Ahnert, Peter; Koschny, Ronald; Kirsten, Holger; Bauer, Manfred; Schober, Ralf; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Fritzsch, Dominik; Krupp, Wolfgang


    Astrocytomas represent the largest and most common subgroup of brain tumors. Anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III) may arise from low-grade diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II) or as primary tumors without any precursor lesion. Comprehensive analyses of anaplastic astrocytomas combining both cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic techniques are rare. Therefore, we analyzed genomic alterations of five anaplastic astrocytomas using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays combined with GTG-banding and FISH-techniques. By cytogenetics, we found 169 structural chromosomal aberrations most frequently involving chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, and 12, including two not previously described alterations, a nonreciprocal translocation t(3;11)(p12;q13), and one interstitial chromosomal deletion del(2)(q21q31). Additionally, we detected previously not documented loss of heterozygosity (LOH) without copy number changes in 4/5 anaplastic astrocytomas on chromosome regions 5q11.2, 5q22.1, 6q21, 7q21.11, 7q31.33, 8q11.22, 14q21.1, 17q21.31, and 17q22, suggesting segmental uniparental disomy (UPD), applying high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. UPDs are currently considered to play an important role in the initiation and progression of different malignancies. The significance of previously not described genetic alterations in anaplastic astrocytomas presented here needs to be confirmed in a larger series. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation Therapy for Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: An International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group Multi-institutional Experience

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    Million, Lynn, E-mail: [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Yi, Esther J.; Wu, Frank; Von Eyben, Rie [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Campbell, Belinda A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Dabaja, Bouthaina [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tsang, Richard W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ng, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology/Radiation Oncology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, University of Turin, Turin (Italy); Kirova, Youlia [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Hoppe, Richard T. [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States)


    Purpose: To collect response rates of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, to radiation therapy (RT), and to determine potential prognostic factors predictive of outcome. Methods and Materials: The study was a retrospective analysis of patients with primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma who received RT as primary therapy or after surgical excision. Data collected include initial stage of disease, RT modality (electron/photon), total dose, fractionation, response to treatment, and local recurrence. Radiation therapy was delivered at 8 participating International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group institutions worldwide. Results: Fifty-six patients met the eligibility criteria, and 63 tumors were treated: head and neck (27%), trunk (14%), upper extremities (27%), and lower extremities (32%). Median tumor size was 2.25 cm (range, 0.6-12 cm). T classification included T1, 40 patients (71%); T2, 12 patients (21%); and T3, 4 patients (7%). The median radiation dose was 35 Gy (range, 6-45 Gy). Complete clinical response (CCR) was achieved in 60 of 63 tumors (95%) and partial response in 3 tumors (5%). After CCR, 1 tumor recurred locally (1.7%) after 36 Gy and 7 months after RT. This was the only patient to die of disease. Conclusions: Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a rare, indolent cutaneous lymphoma with a low death rate. This analysis, which was restricted to patients selected for treatment with radiation, indicates that achieving CCR was independent of radiation dose. Because there were too few failures (<2%) for statistical analysis on dose response, 30 Gy seems to be adequate for local control, and even lower doses may suffice.

  8. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with rapid thyrotoxicosis - case report and the review of literature. (United States)

    Daroszewski, Jacek; Paczkowska, Katarzyna; Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska, Aleksandra; Bolanowski, Marek; Jeleń, Michał


    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and constitutes approximately 1.6-5% of malignant neoplasms of thyroid. ATC usually presents with local symptoms due to rapidly enlarging thyroid mass, and has only seldom been reported to be a cause of thyrotoxicosis. Up to date only 9 cases of ATC presented with thyrotoxicosis have been described. We report a case of 66-year-old woman, who had had a large, euthyroid multinodular goiter for almost 50 years. She was consulted a doctor because of a 4-week history of thyrotoxicosis, symptoms of congestive heart failure and a rapid increase in the size of the goiter. Physical examination revealed a large, firm, nontender multinodular goiter. She had atrial fibrillation and bilateral ankle oedema. Thyroid hormone levels were consistent with a hyperthyroid state. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of ATC. Tc99m thyroid scintigraphy visualized non homogenous accumulation of the tracer with some active nodules. She had a treatment of doxorubinomycin and required continuous antithyroid medication. The patient died a year after the presentation. The association between ATC and a thyrotoxic state is very rare. The clinical manifestation of ATC is generally a rapidly enlarging neck mass. Unusual primary symptoms of thyroid malignancy in our patient, was pronounced thyrotoxicosis with atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure. In most cases, thyreotoxicosis concomitant with ATC is a result of the destruction of thyroid follicles by the rapid infiltration with malignant cells. In this patient the most probable cause of thyrotoxicosis was multinodular goiter coexisting with ATC. A simultaneous onset of tumor growth, thyrotoxicosis and a relatively long survival of our patient is worth to notice and discuss.

  9. Spanish consensus for the management of patients with anaplastic cell thyroid carcinoma. (United States)

    Gómez Sáez, José Manuel; Jiménez-Fonseca, Paula; Santamaría Sandi, Javier; Capdevila Castillón, Jaume; Navarro González, Elena; Zafón Llopis, Carles; Ramón Y Cajal Asensio, Teresa; Riesco Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Grande Pulido, Enrique; Galofré Ferrater, Juan Carlos


    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the most aggressive solid tumour known and is a rare but highly lethal form of thyroid cancer that requires a multidisciplinary team approach. No Spanish consensus exists for management of patients with ATC. The Thyroid Cancer Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition and the GETHI (Grupo Español de Enfermedades Huérfanas e Infrecuentes) of the Spanish Society of Oncology, in agreement with the Boards of these Societies, commissioned an independent task force to develop a wide consensus on ATC. The relevant literature was reviewed, including serial PubMed searches supplemented with additional articles. The consensus includes the characteristics, diagnosis, initial evaluation, establishment of treatment goals, approaches to locoregional disease (surgery, radiotherapy, systemic therapy, supportive care during active treatment), approaches to advanced/metastatic disease, palliative care options, monitoring, and long-term follow-up of ATC. For operable disease, a combination of radical surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy, using agents such as doxorubicin, cisplatin and paclitaxel, is the best treatment strategy. Cytotoxic drugs are poorly effective for advanced/metastatic ATC. On the other hand, targeted agents may represent a viable therapeutic option. Patients with stage IVA/IVB resectable disease have the best prognosis, particularly if a multimodal approach is used, and some stage IVB unresectable patients may respond to aggressive therapy. Patients with stage IVC disease should be considered for clinical trials or for hospice/palliative care depending on their preference. This is the first Spanish consensus for ATC, and provides recommendations for management of this extremely aggressive malignancy. Novel systemic therapies are being tested, and more effective combinations are needed to improve patient outcomes. Although more aggressive radiotherapy has reduced locoregional recurrence, mean

  10. Epigenetic deregulation of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene modulates mesenchymal characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinomas. (United States)

    Huang, Tze-Ta; Gonzales, Cara B; Gu, Fei; Hsu, Ya-Ting; Jadhav, Rohit R; Wang, Chiou-Miin; Redding, Spencer W; Tseng, Chih-En; Lee, Ching-Chih; Thompson, Ian M; Chen, Hau-Ren; Huang, Tim Hui-Ming; Kirma, Nameer B


    DNA hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands is associated with epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). We used a methyl-CpG-binding domain protein capture method coupled with next-generation sequencing (MBDCap-seq) to survey global DNA methylation patterns in OSCCs with and without nodal metastasis and normal mucosa (total n = 58). Of 1462 differentially methylated CpG islands identified in OSCCs relative to normal controls, MBDCap-seq profiling uncovered 359 loci linked to lymph node metastasis. Interactive network analysis revealed a subset of these loci (n = 23), including the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, are potential regulators and effectors of invasiveness and metastatic progression. Promoter methylation of ALK was preferentially observed in OSCCs without node metastasis, whereas relatively lower methylation levels were present in metastatic tumors, implicating an active state of ALK transcription in the latter group. The OSCC cell line, SCC4, displayed reduced ALK expression that corresponded to extensive promoter CpG island methylation. SCC4 treatment with demethylating agents induced ALK expression and increased invasion and migration characteristics. Inhibition of ALK activity in OSCC cells with high ALK expression (CAL27, HSC3 and SCC25), decreased cell growth and resulted in changes in invasive potential and mesenchymal marker expression that were cell-line dependent. Although ALK is susceptible to epigenetic silencing during oral tumorigenesis, overwriting this default state may be necessary for modulating invasive processes involved in nodal metastases. Given the complex response of OSCC cells to ALK inhibition, future studies are required to assess the feasibility of targeting ALK to treat invasive OSCCs.

  11. Parvovirus B19 infection in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, papillary thyroid carcinoma, and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. (United States)

    Adamson, Laura A; Fowler, Larry J; Clare-Salzler, Michael J; Hobbs, Jacqueline A


    The human pathogenic parvovirus B19 (B19) has recently been detected in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) tissues at a high frequency in two studies of a Chinese cohort. We wanted to extend these data to include another cohort and expand the thyroid tumor tissue types assessed. In particular, we were interested to find whether B19 also infects anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), one of the most aggressive human cancers. Commercially available thyroid tumor tissue arrays were used to detect B19 capsid protein by immunohistochemistry in various types of thyroid tumors and disorders. The arrays were representative of the four main types of thyroid tumors, as well as other thyroid autoimmune disorders such as HT and Graves' disease, and adenomas, goiters, lymphomas, and normal thyroid tissue. In total, at least 12 different types of thyroid conditions as well as normal tissue were represented, many with multiple subjects. Twenty-one of the 24 (88%) PTC tumors, 3 of the 3 ATC/undifferentiated tumors, and 3 of the 3 HT tissue samples were positive for B19 capsid protein by immunohistochemistry. The localization of the protein differed based on pathological disease type, with a nuclear to cytoplasmic shift seen from unaffected to tumor tissue. We extend the data available on B19 detection in the thyroid to show a high correlation of virus in another cohort of PTC and HT at the protein level. We also show, for the first time, B19 infection of much more highly aggressive ATC/undifferentiated tumors. Nuclear to cytoplasmic shift in B19 protein in cancer tissue suggests a possible link between B19 and thyroid cancer pathogenesis/progression.

  12. Cell culture and Drosophila model systems define three classes of anaplastic lymphoma kinase mutations in neuroblastoma. (United States)

    Chand, Damini; Yamazaki, Yasuo; Ruuth, Kristina; Schönherr, Christina; Martinsson, Tommy; Kogner, Per; Attiyeh, Edward F; Maris, John; Morozova, Olena; Marra, Marco A; Ohira, Miki; Nakagawara, Akira; Sandström, Per-Erik; Palmer, Ruth H; Hallberg, Bengt


    Neuroblastoma is a childhood extracranial solid tumour that is associated with a number of genetic changes. Included in these genetic alterations are mutations in the kinase domain of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), which have been found in both somatic and familial neuroblastoma. In order to treat patients accordingly requires characterisation of these mutations in terms of their response to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Here, we report the identification and characterisation of two novel neuroblastoma ALK mutations (A1099T and R1464STOP), which we have investigated together with several previously reported but uncharacterised ALK mutations (T1087I, D1091N, T1151M, M1166R, F1174I and A1234T). In order to understand the potential role of these ALK mutations in neuroblastoma progression, we have employed cell culture-based systems together with the model organism Drosophila as a readout for ligand-independent activity. Mutation of ALK at position 1174 (F1174I) generates a gain-of-function receptor capable of activating intracellular targets such as ERK (extracellular signal regulated kinase) and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) in a ligand-independent manner. Analysis of these previously uncharacterised ALK mutants and comparison with ALK(F1174) mutants suggests that ALK mutations observed in neuroblastoma fall into three classes. These classes are: (i) gain-of-function ligand-independent mutations such as ALK(F1174l), (ii) kinase-dead ALK mutants, e.g. ALK(I1250T) (Schönherr et al., 2011a) and (iii) ALK mutations that are ligand-dependent in nature. Irrespective of the nature of the observed ALK mutants, in every case the activity of the mutant ALK receptors could be abrogated by the ALK inhibitor crizotinib (Xalkori/PF-02341066), albeit with differing levels of sensitivity.

  13. Cell culture and Drosophila model systems define three classes of anaplastic lymphoma kinase mutations in neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damini Chand


    Neuroblastoma is a childhood extracranial solid tumour that is associated with a number of genetic changes. Included in these genetic alterations are mutations in the kinase domain of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK, which have been found in both somatic and familial neuroblastoma. In order to treat patients accordingly requires characterisation of these mutations in terms of their response to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. Here, we report the identification and characterisation of two novel neuroblastoma ALK mutations (A1099T and R1464STOP, which we have investigated together with several previously reported but uncharacterised ALK mutations (T1087I, D1091N, T1151M, M1166R, F1174I and A1234T. In order to understand the potential role of these ALK mutations in neuroblastoma progression, we have employed cell culture-based systems together with the model organism Drosophila as a readout for ligand-independent activity. Mutation of ALK at position 1174 (F1174I generates a gain-of-function receptor capable of activating intracellular targets such as ERK (extracellular signal regulated kinase and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in a ligand-independent manner. Analysis of these previously uncharacterised ALK mutants and comparison with ALKF1174 mutants suggests that ALK mutations observed in neuroblastoma fall into three classes. These classes are: (i gain-of-function ligand-independent mutations such as ALKF1174l, (ii kinase-dead ALK mutants, e.g. ALKI1250T (Schönherr et al., 2011a and (iii ALK mutations that are ligand-dependent in nature. Irrespective of the nature of the observed ALK mutants, in every case the activity of the mutant ALK receptors could be abrogated by the ALK inhibitor crizotinib (Xalkori/PF-02341066, albeit with differing levels of sensitivity.

  14. A multiinstitutional phase 2 trial of pazopanib monotherapy in advanced anaplastic thyroid cancer. (United States)

    Bible, Keith C; Suman, Vera J; Menefee, Michael E; Smallridge, Robert C; Molina, Julian R; Maples, William J; Karlin, Nina J; Traynor, Anne M; Kumar, Priya; Goh, Boon Cher; Lim, Wan-Teck; Bossou, Ayoko R; Isham, Crescent R; Webster, Kevin P; Kukla, Andrea K; Bieber, Carolyn; Burton, Jill K; Harris, Pamela; Erlichman, Charles


    Pazopanib, an inhibitor of kinases including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, demonstrated impressive activity in progressive metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer, prompting its evaluation in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). Preclinical studies, followed by a multicenter single arm phase 2 trial of continuously administered 800 mg pazopanib daily by mouth (designed to provide 90% chance of detecting a response rate of >20% at the 0.10 significance level when the true response rate is >5%), were undertaken. The primary trial end point was Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) response. Pazopanib displayed activity in the KTC2 ATC xenograft model, prompting clinical evaluation. Sixteen trial patients were enrolled; 15 were treated: 66.7% were female, median age was 66 yr (range 45-77 yr), and 11 of 15 had progressed through prior systemic therapy. Enrollment was halted, triggered by a stopping rule requiring more than one confirmed RECIST response among the first 14 of 33 potential patients. Four patients required one to two dose reductions; severe toxicities (National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria-Adverse Events version 3.0 grades >3) were hypertension (13%) and pharyngolaryngeal pain (13%). Treatment was discontinued because of the following: disease progression (12 patients), death due to a possibly treatment-related tumor hemorrhage (one patient), and intolerability (radiation recall tracheitis and uncontrolled hypertension, one patient each). Although transient disease regression was observed in several patients, there were no confirmed RECIST responses. Median time to progression was 62 d; median survival time was 111 d. Two patients are alive with disease 9.9 and 35 months after the registration; 13 died of disease. Despite preclinical in vivo activity in ATC, pazopanib has minimal single-agent clinical activity in advanced ATC.

  15. A year of anaplastic large cell kinase testing for lung carcinoma: pathological and technical perspectives. (United States)

    Desai, S S; Shah, A S; Prabhash, K; Jambhekar, N A


    An in-frame fusion protein between echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) and anaplastic large cell kinase (ALK) genes is seen in some non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EML4-ALK demonstrates constitutive kinase activity. These ALK-positive lung carcinomas have been shown to respond to ALK kinase inhibitors. ALK gene rearrangement is commonly detected using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). To study the pathological features of ALK positive and negative NSCLC and evaluate the causes of uninterpretable FISH results. This is a retrospective, observational study. The molecular pathology records of patients on whom test for ALK had been performed in a period of 1 year (February 2012 to February 2013) were accessioned. A total 224 cases were identified. Histological features were reviewed. The in situ hybridization was performed using Vysis ALK Dual Color Break Apart Rearrangement Probe (Abbott Molecular Inc.). Signal interpretation under the fluorescent microscope was performed in accordance with College of American Pathologists guidelines. Five patients showed ALK gene rearrangement, 182 were negative and 37 cases were uninterpretable. Five patients with ALK gene rearrangement had a mean age of 48 years and the male to female ratio was 2:3. In the ALK negative cases, the mean age was 54 years and male to female ratio was 3.2:1. Histologically, amongst the rearranged cases, three showed solid pattern, one showed acinar and one showed acinar with signet ring cells on histology. The percentage of ALK gene rearrangement was 2.7% (excluding the uninterpretable cases). These ALK positive patients were relatively younger than ALK negative patients. Solid pattern on histology was associated with ALK positivity. In a quarter of the uninterpretable results, the material submitted was fixed and processed outside.

  16. Breast pain (United States)

    ... the level of of hormones during menstruation or pregnancy often cause breast pain. Some swelling and tenderness just before your period is normal. Some women who have pain in one or both breasts may fear breast cancer . However, breast pain is not a common symptom ...

  17. Ki-1-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma initially diagnosed as Hodgkin's disease by fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. (United States)

    Aljajeh, I A; Das, D K; Krajci, D


    A 45-year-old male presented with a large mass in the left axilla. FNA cytology was interpreted as Hodgkin's disease (HD), lymphocyte depletion (LD) type, but histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination showed features of Ki-1-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Unrepresentative sampling by the FNA from the tumour periphery resulted in a false impression of dual reactive and neoplastic cell populations, which together with the frequent Reed-Sternberg-like cells led to the initial erroneous impression of HD. Therefore, the cytologic diagnosis of HD, LD should be approached with caution.

  18. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography for Other Thyroid Cancers: Medullary, Anaplastic, Lymphoma and So Forth. (United States)

    Araz, Mine; Çayır, Derya


    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is used in staging, restaging, and evaluation of therapy response in many cancers as well as differentiated thyroid carcinomas especially in non-iodine avid variants. Its potential in less frequent thyroid tumors like medullary, anaplastic thyroid cancers, thyroid lymphoma and metastatic tumors of the thyroid however, is not well established yet. The aim of this review is to provide an overview on the recent applications and indications of 18F-FDG PET/CT in these tumors and to focus on the controversies in the clinical setting.

  19. Sinusoidal CD30+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can masquerade as anaplastic large cell lymphoma in pediatric posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders. (United States)

    Bhatt, Neel S; Kelly, Michael E; Batdorf, Bjorn; Gheorghe, Gabriela


    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a known complication of solid organ transplantation. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is frequently seen in this setting. However, CD30+ DLBCL with sinusoidal pattern of involvement has not been reported in pediatric PTLD. We are reporting a 9-year-old female child presented with diffuse lymphadenopathy postheart transplantation. The pattern of involvement was suggestive of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, but the malignant cells were positive for B-cell markers and negative for anaplastic lymphoma kinase. The patient was treated aggressively with multiagent chemotherapy and rituximab. Accurate diagnosis in PTLD is paramount in making management decisions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Wild-Type P53 Induces Sodium/Iodide Symporter Expression Allowing Radioiodide Therapy in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer. (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Li, Dan; Chen, Zhengqi; Yang, Jian; Ma, Yushui; Cai, Haidong; Shan, Chengxiang; Lv, Zhongwei; Zhang, Xiaoping


    Anaplastic thyroid cancer(ATC) is one of the most aggressive solid tumors. Mutations in the p53 gene are common in anaplastic thyroid cancer, but the effects of p53 mutations are yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of p53 in ATC. p53 mutation was detect by immunohistochemistry in ATC tissues. Expression of NIS were measured using immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, western blot, immunofluorescence in ATC tissues and cell line 8505c. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to examine the effect of wild-type p53 on NIS. Radioiodide uptake assay and flow cytometry analysis were used to detect the role of wild-type p53 on radioiodide uptake.and cell apoptosis in ATC cell line. We showed that the p53 mutation can be detected in ATC tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrated that wild-type p53 transactivated the NIS promoter. In 8505c cells transfected with wild-type p53, treatment with radioiodine resulted in increased radioiodine uptake and increased apoptotic cell death compared with 8505c cells harboring the p53 mutation. In summary, transfection with wild-type p53 can increase the therapeutic effect of radioiodine by regulating the expression of the NIS. The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Precision Medicine Approach to Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: Advances in Targeted Drug Therapy Based on Specific Signaling Pathways. (United States)

    Samimi, Hilda; Fallah, Parviz; Naderi Sohi, Alireza; Tavakoli, Rezvan; Naderi, Mahmood; Soleimani, Masoud; Larijani, Bagher; Haghpanah, Vahid


    Personalized medicine is a set of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches in which medical interventions are carried out based on individual patient characteristics. As life expectancy increases in developed and developing countries, the incidence of diseases such as cancer goes up among people in the community. Cancer is a disease that the response to treatment varies from one person to another and also it is costly for individuals, families, and society. Among thyroid cancers, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive, lethal and unresponsive form of the disease. Unfortunately, current drugs are not targetable, and therefore they have restricted role in ATC treatment. Consequently, mortality of this cancer, despite advances in the field of diagnosis and treatment, is one of the most important challenges in medicine. Cellular, molecular and genetic evidences play an important role in finding more effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Review of these evidences confirms the application of personalized medicine in cancer treatment including ATC. A growing body of evidence has elucidated that cellular and molecular mechanisms of cancer would pave the way for defining new biomarkers for targeted therapy, taking into account individual differences. It should be noted that this approach requires further progress in the fields of basic sciences, pharmacogenetics and drug design. An overview of the most important aspects in individualized anaplastic thyroid cancer treatment will be discussed in this review.

  2. Decreased expression of haemoglobin beta (HBB) gene in anaplastic thyroid cancer and recovery of its expression inhibits cell growth. (United States)

    Onda, M; Akaishi, J; Asaka, S; Okamoto, J; Miyamoto, S; Mizutani, K; Yoshida, A; Ito, K; Emi, M


    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most fulminant and foetal diseases in human malignancies. However, the genetic alterations and carcinogenic mechanisms of ATC are still unclear. Recently, we investigated the gene expression profile of 11 anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines (ACL) and significant decreased expression of haemoglobin beta (HBB) gene in ACL. Haemoglobin beta is located at 11p15.5, where loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was reported in various kinds of cancers, including ATC, and it has been suggested that novel tumour suppressor genes might exist in this region. In order to clarify the meaning of decreased expression of HBB in ATC, the expression status of HBB was investigated with ACL, ATC, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and normal human tissues. Haemoglobin beta showed significant decreased expression in ACLs and ATCs; however, in PTC, HBB expressed equal to the normal thyroid gland. In addition, HBB expressed in normal human tissues ubiquitously. To validate the tumour-suppressor function of HBB, cell growth assay was performed. Forced expression of HBB in KTA2 cell, which is a kind of ACL, significantly suppressed KTA2 growth. The mechanism of downregulation of HBB in ATC is still unclear; however, our results suggested the possibility of HBB as a novel tumour-suppressor gene.

  3. Decreased expression of haemoglobin beta (HBB) gene in anaplastic thyroid cancer and recovory of its expression inhibits cell growth (United States)

    Onda, M; Akaishi, J; Asaka, S; Okamoto, J; Miyamoto, S; Mizutani, K; Yoshida, A; Ito, K; Emi, M


    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most fulminant and foetal diseases in human malignancies. However, the genetic alterations and carcinogenic mechanisms of ATC are still unclear. Recently, we investigated the gene expression profile of 11 anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines (ACL) and significant decreased expression of haemoglobin beta (HBB) gene in ACL. Haemoglobin beta is located at 11p15.5, where loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was reported in various kinds of cancers, including ATC, and it has been suggested that novel tumour suppressor genes might exist in this region. In order to clarify the meaning of decreased expression of HBB in ATC, the expression status of HBB was investigated with ACL, ATC, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and normal human tissues. Haemoglobin beta showed significant decreased expression in ACLs and ATCs; however, in PTC, HBB expressed equal to the normal thyroid gland. In addition, HBB expressed in normal human tissues ubiquitously. To validate the tumour-suppressor function of HBB, cell growth assay was performed. Forced expression of HBB in KTA2 cell, which is a kind of ACL, significantly suppressed KTA2 growth. The mechanism of downregulation of HBB in ATC is still unclear; however, our results suggested the possibility of HBB as a novel tumour-suppressor gene. PMID:15956966

  4. A Case of an Unusually Aggressive Cutaneous Anaplastic Large T-Cell Lymphoma in an HIV Patient Treated with CHOP

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    Jorge Hurtado-Cordovi


    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is the second most common malignancy of T-cell phenotype. This case report describes an unusual rapidly progressing cutaneous anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma in an HIV patient. Our patient is a twenty-year-old African American male with perinatally acquired HIV who presented with a 2×2 centimeter necrotic lesion in the right 1st toe; however, 2-3 weeks later multiple smaller lesions appeared on the anterior aspect of the right foot, ankle, and thigh. Biopsy showed cells strongly positive for CD3 and CD30 and negative for CD56 and the ALK gene product. CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis was negative for extracutaneous involvement favoring cutaneous ALCL. Patient was treated with 6 cycles of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy and went into complete remission. Due to the aggressive course that this malignancy follows in HIV patients we suggest prompt treatment with systemic therapy.

  5. An Immunohistochemical Study of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma. (United States)

    Verma, Sonal; Kumar, Madhu; Kumari, Malti; Mehrotra, Raj; Kushwaha, R A S; Goel, Madhumati; Kumar, Ashutosh; Kant, Surya


    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related death. Targeted treatment for specific markers may help in reducing the cancer related morbidity and mortality. To study expression of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK)and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutations in patients of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer NSCLC, that are the targets for specific ALK inhibitors and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Total 69 cases of histologically diagnosed NSCLC were examined retrospectively for immunohistochemical expression of EGFR and ALK, along with positive control of normal placental tissue and anaplastic large cell lymphoma respectively. Of the NSCLC, Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) accounted for 71.0% and adenocarcinoma was 26.1%. ALK expression was seen in single case of 60-year-old female, non-smoker with adenocarcinoma histology. EGFR expression was seen in both SCC (59.18%) and adenocarcinoma in (77.78%) accounting for 63.77% of all cases. Both ALK and EGFR mutation were mutually exclusive. EGFR expression was seen in 63.77% of cases, highlighting the importance of its use in routine analysis, for targeted therapy and better treatment results. Although, ALK expression was seen in 1.45% of all cases, it is an important biomarker in targeted cancer therapy. Also, the mutually exclusive expression of these two markers need further studies to develop a diagnostic algorithm for NSCLC patients.

  6. Influence of insurance status and income in anaplastic astrocytoma: an analysis of 4325 patients. (United States)

    Shin, Jacob Y; Yoon, Ja Kyoung; Diaz, Aidnag Z


    To determine the impact of insurance status and income for anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). Data were extracted from the National Cancer Data Base. Chi square test, Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression models were employed in SPSS 22.0 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) for data analyses. 4325 patients with AA diagnosed from 2004 to 2013 were identified. 2781 (64.3%) had private insurance, 925 (21.4%) Medicare, 396 (9.2%) Medicaid, and 223 (5.2%) were uninsured. Those uninsured were more likely to be Black or Hispanic versus White or Asian (p < 0.001), have lower median income (p < 0.001), less educated (p < 0.001), and not receive adjuvant chemoradiation (p < 0.001). 1651 (38.2%) had income ≥$63,000, 1204 (27.8%) $48,000-$62,999, 889 (20.5%) $38,000-$47,999, and 581 (13.4%) had income <$38,000. Those with lower income were more likely to be Black or Hispanic versus White or Asian (p < 0.001), uninsured (p < 0.001), reside in a rural area (p < 0.001), less educated (p < 0.001), and not receive adjuvant chemoradiation (p < 0.001). Those with private insurance had significantly higher overall survival (OS) than those uninsured, on Medicaid, or on Medicare (p < 0.001). Those with income ≥$63,000 had significantly higher OS than those with lower income (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, age, insurance status, income, and adjuvant therapy were independent prognostic factors for OS. Being uninsured and having income <$38,000 were independent prognostic factors for worse OS in AA. Further investigations are warranted to help determine ways to ensure adequate medical care for those who may be socially disadvantaged so that outcome can be maximized for all patients regardless of socioeconomic status.

  7. The effect of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol on anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells and relationship with NPM-ALK kinase expression and activity


    Bonvini, Paolo; Zorzi, Elisa; Mussolin, Lara; Monaco, Giovanni; Pigazzi, Martina; Basso, Giuseppe; Rosolen, Angelo


    This study by Bonvini and coworkersd describes in vitro data supporting a role for the CDK inhibitor flavopiridol in the treatment of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Moreover, their studies establish a link between ALK over-expression and flavopiridol, as inhibition of ALK activity sensitizes the cells to flavopiridol-induced cell death. See related perspective article on page 897.

  8. IDH mutant diffuse and anaplastic astrocytomas have similar age at presentation and little difference in survival: a grading problem for WHO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuss, D.E.; Mamatjan, Y.; Schrimpf, D.; Capper, D.; Hovestadt, V.; Kratz, A.; Sahm, F.; Koelsche, C.; Korshunov, A.; Olar, A.; Hartmann, C.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Wesseling, P.; Unterberg, A.; Platten, M.; Wick, W.; Herold-Mende, C.; Aldape, K.; Deimling, A. von


    The WHO 2007 classification of tumors of the CNS distinguishes between diffuse astrocytoma WHO grade II (A IIWHO2007) and anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III (AA III WHO2007). Patients with A II WHO2007 are significantly younger and survive significantly longer than those with AA III WHO2007. So

  9. IDH mutant diffuse and anaplastic astrocytomas have similar age at presentation and little difference in survival : a grading problem for WHO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuss, David E.; Mamatjan, Yasin; Schrimpf, Daniel; Capper, David; Hovestadt, Volker; Kratz, Annekathrin; Sahm, Felix; Koelsche, Christian; Korshunov, Andrey; Olar, Adriana; Hartmann, Christian; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Wesseling, Pieter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157872866; Unterberg, Andreas; Platten, Michael; Wick, Wolfgang; Herold-Mende, Christel; Aldape, Kenneth; von Deimling, Andreas


    The WHO 2007 classification of tumors of the CNS distinguishes between diffuse astrocytoma WHO grade II (A IIWHO2007) and anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III (AA IIIWHO2007). Patients with A IIWHO2007 are significantly younger and survive significantly longer than those with AA IIIWHO2007. So far,

  10. Breast Gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husasin Irfan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast gangrene is rare in surgical practice. Gangrene of breast can be idiopathic or secondary to some causative factor. Antibiotics and debridement are used for management. Acute inflammatory infiltrate, severe necrosis of breast tissue, necrotizing arteritis, and venous thrombosis is observed on histopathology. The aim of was to study patients who had breast gangrene. Methods A prospective study of 10 patients who had breast gangrene over a period of 6 years were analyzed Results All the patients in the study group were female. Total of 10 patients were encountered who had breast gangrene. Six patients presented with breast gangrene on the right breast whereas four had on left breast. Out of 10 patients, three had breast abscess after teeth bite followed by gangrene, one had iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of erythematous area of breast under septic conditions. Four had history of application of belladonna on cutaneous breast abscess and had then gangrene. All were lactating female. Amongst the rest two were elderly, one of which was a diabetic who had gangrene of breast and had no application of belladonna. All except one had debridement under cover of broad spectrum antibiotics. Three patients had grafting to cover the raw area. Conclusion Breast gangrene occurs rarely. Etiology is variable and mutifactorial. Teeth bite while lactation and the iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of breast abscess under unsterlised conditions could be causative. Uncontrolled diabetes can be one more causative factor for the breast gangrene. Belladonna application as a topical agent could be inciting factor. Sometimes gangrene of breast can be idiopathic. Treatment is antibiotics and debridement.

  11. Breast Tomosynthesis (United States)

    ... cancers when they are most curable and breast-conservation therapies are available. See the Mammography page for ... special platform and gradually compressed with a clear plastic paddle. Breast compression is necessary during tomosynthesis imaging ...

  12. Breast Exam (United States)

    ... 210:314. Mac Bride MB, et al. The evolution of the breast self-examination to breast awareness. ... of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "," "Mayo ...

  13. Breast cancer (United States)

    ... help you not feel alone. Outlook (Prognosis) New, improved treatments are helping people with breast cancer live ... carcinoma in situ Patient Instructions Breast radiation - discharge Chemotherapy - what to ask your doctor Lymphedema - self-care ...

  14. The effect of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol on anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells and relationship with NPM-ALK kinase expression and activity. (United States)

    Bonvini, Paolo; Zorzi, Elisa; Mussolin, Lara; Monaco, Giovanni; Pigazzi, Martina; Basso, Giuseppe; Rosolen, Angelo


    The loss of cell cycle regulation due to abnormal function of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk) occurs in tumors and leads to genetic instability of chemotherapy-resistant cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of the cdk inhibitor flavopiridol in anaplastic large cell lymphomas, in which unrestrained proliferation depends on NPM-ALK tyrosine kinase activity. Effects of flavopiridol were examined in ALK-positive and -negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells by means of immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses to assess cdk expression and activity, quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to measure drug-induced changes in transcription, and FACS analyses to monitor changes in proliferation and survival. Treatment with flavopiridol resulted in growth inhibition of anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells, along with accumulation of subG(1) cells and disappearance of S phase without cell cycle arrest. Consistent with flavopiridol activity, phosphorylation at cdk2, cdk4, cdk9 sites on RB and RNA polymerase II was inhibited. This correlated with induction of cell death through rapid mitochondrial damage, inhibition of DNA synthesis, and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins and transcripts. Notably, flavopiridol was less active in ALK-positive cells, as apoptosis was observed at higher concentrations and later time points, and resistance to treatment was observed in cells maintaining NPM-ALK signaling. NPM-ALK inhibition affected proliferation but not survival of anaplastic large cell lym-phoma cells, whereas it resulted in a dramatic increase in apoptosis when combined with flavopiridol. This work provides the first demonstration that targeting cdk is effective against anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells, and proves the critical role of NPM-ALK in the regulation of responsiveness of tumor cells with cdk dysregulation.

  15. Breast Cancer (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  16. Anaplastic Variant of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Displays Intricate Genetic Alterations and Distinct Biological Features. (United States)

    Li, Mingyang; Liu, Yixiong; Wang, Yingmei; Chen, Gang; Chen, Qiongrong; Xiao, Hualiang; Liu, Fang; Qi, Chubo; Yu, Zhou; Li, Xia; Fan, Linni; Guo, Ying; Yan, Qingguo; Guo, Shuangping; Wang, Zhe


    Anaplastic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (A-DLBCL) is a rare morphologic variant characterized by the presence of polygonal, bizarre-shaped tumor cells. However, the clinicopathologic and genetic features of this variant are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated 35 cases of A-DLBCL with regard to their clinical, pathologic, and genetic characteristics. The age of the patients ranged from 23 to 89 years (median age, 62 y) with a male to female ratio of 23:12. Twenty-two of 26 (85%) patients had Ann Arbor stage III or IV disease, and 17/26 (65%) patients had a high-intermediate or high International Prognostic Index score. For the 24 patients treated with aggressive chemotherapy regimens, the median overall survival (OS) was 16 months, and the 2-year OS rate was 36%. Immunophenotypically, 30/35 (86%) cases had a non-germinal center B-cell immunophenotype. CD30 expression was present in 18/35 (51%) cases, and the p53 protein stain was positive in 28/35 (80%) cases. Fifteen of 35 (43%) cases expressed both BCL2 and MYC (double expressor). Twenty-nine of 32 (91%) cases tested positive for RELA, RELB, or c-Rel in the nucleus, indicating activation of the NFκB signaling pathway. Cytogenetically, 11/27 (41%) cases had concurrent MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 abnormalities (translocation or extra copy), including 5 cases with triple abnormalities. TP53 mutation was found in 17/30 (57%) cases, whereas the MYD88 L265P, CD79B, and CARD11 mutations were found in 7/35, 4/30, and 5/30 cases, respectively. We compared the A-DLBCL group with 50 patients with DLBCL without anaplastic features (common DLBCL). The OS of patients with A-DLBCL was significantly worse than that of patients with DLBCL without anaplastic features (P=0.004). Cases of A-DLBCL more often had a high International Prognostic Index score and a non-germinal center B-cell immunophenotype, more frequently expressed CD30 and p53, and more often had mutations of TP53 and concurrent abnormalities of MYC and BCL2

  17. Primary Cutaneous CD30 +Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Report of a single large scalp nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Parulkar


    Full Text Available A 93-year -old Caucasian female presented with a 2-month history of a single frontal scalp nodule. The lesion was non-tender however had grown rapidly and was eroded with intermittent bleeding. There were no other skin lesions, lymphadenopathy, or hepatosplenomegaly. Past medical history was significant for breast cancer and review of systems was unremarkable. Physical exam revealed a 10cm x12cm exophytic, fungating, and malodorous tumor of the right frontal scalp (Fig. 1.

  18. Clonal heterogeneity of small-cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung demonstrated by flow-cytometric DNA analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindeløv, L L; Hansen, H H; Christensen, I J


    of contamination of the aspirates with normal cells was determined by differential counts. The ratio of the peak channel numbers for the G1 phase of the tumor cells to that of the diploid standard (DNA index) was calculated and used for ploidy identification. Twenty-nine patients were evaluable with respect to DNA......Flow-cytometric DNA analysis yields information on ploidy and proliferative characteristics of a cell population. The analysis was implemented on small-cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung using a rapid detergent technique for the preparation of fine-needle aspirates for DNA determination...... index determination. The coefficient of variation of the DNA index determinations was estimated as 0.039. In 23 (79%) patients, only one cell line could be detected. Evidence of the presence of 2 tumor cell clones with different ploidy was obtained in the remaining 6 (21%) patients. Of the 35 malignant...

  19. A Case of Orbital Metastasis as Disease Progression of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Lung Cancer Treated with Crizotinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Sakata


    Full Text Available Orbital metastasis of lung cancer is rare. It often causes visual disorder. To date, there are only a few case reports. Crizotinib is an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor that leads to responses in most patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. Visual disorder is one of the popular adverse events of crizotinib, but the symptom almost decreases over time. We report a case of orbital metastasis as the disease progression of ALK-positive lung cancer treated with crizotinib. It should be kept in mind that orbital metastasis can be the disease progression of lung adenocarcinoma with ALK translocation treated with crizotinib. When physicians encounter a patient receiving crizotinib with visual disorder, we must distinguish between adverse events and orbital metastasis.

  20. Low-dose radiotherapy for primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma while on low-dose methotrexate. (United States)

    Cornejo, Christine M; Novoa, Roberto A; Krisch, Robert E; Kim, Ellen J


    Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (pcALCL) is part of a spectrum of CD30+ primary cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders (pcLPDs) that also includes lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP). Localized radiotherapy at doses of 34 to 44 Gy is first-line treatment of pcALCL, but the use of low-dose radiotherapy for pcALCL has not been reported. We present the case of a patient with a history of pcALCL/LyP who was treated with low-dose radiotherapy while on oral low-dose methotrexate (MTX) once weekly. This report suggests that low-dose radiotherapy can be an effective palliative treatment of pcALCL. Low-dose radiotherapy may offer certain advantages over traditional radiotherapy, such as a more economical and efficient treatment for patients, potentially fewer short-term and long-term side effects, and the potential for concomitant use with low-dose MTX.

  1. [Early magnetic resonance imaging detection of a cavernous angioma after cranial radiotherapy for an anaplastic ependymoma in a boy]. (United States)

    Martínez León, M I


    Radiotherapy forms part of most therapeutic, preventive, and conditioning regimens in pediatric oncology. Numerous late secondary effects of cranial radiation are well known. However, radiation-induced cavernous angiomas (RICA) have been reported only sporadically and even fewer cases of earlier presentation of RICA have been reported. In this brief report, we describe a RICA that appeared in a boy treated for a CNS tumor (an infratentorial anaplastic ependymoma) after a short latency period between the end of radiotherapy and the development of the RICA. We comment on the different variables proposed to explain the formation of these lesions, as well as on their imaging features, treatment, prognosis, and follow-up. Copyright © 2010 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Brigatinib in Patients With Crizotinib-Refractory Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong-Wan; Tiseo, Marcello; Ahn, Myung-Ju


    Purpose Most crizotinib-treated patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene ( ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (ALK-positive NSCLC) eventually experience disease progression. We evaluated two regimens of brigatinib, an investigational next-generation ALK inhibitor, in crizotinib......-refractory ALK-positive NSCLC. Patients and Methods Patients were stratified by brain metastases and best response to crizotinib. They were randomly assigned (1:1) to oral brigatinib 90 mg once daily (arm A) or 180 mg once daily with a 7-day lead-in at 90 mg (180 mg once daily [with lead-in]; arm B......). Investigator-assessed confirmed objective response rate (ORR) was the primary end point. Results Of 222 patients enrolled (arm A: n = 112, 109 treated; arm B: n = 110, 110 treated), 154 (69%) had baseline brain metastases and 164 of 222 (74%) had received prior chemotherapy. With 8.0-month median follow...

  3. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Current Treatments and Potential New Therapeutic Options with Emphasis on TfR1/CD71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Parenti


    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is one of the most aggressive human cancers. Actually, ATC is refractory to conventional therapies, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and radioiodine (131I therapy. Accordingly, genetic and molecular characterizations of ATC have been frequently and periodically reviewed in order to identify potential biological markers exploitable for target therapy. This review briefly focuses on main molecular events that characterize ATC and provides an update about preclinical studies. In addition, the overexpression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1/CD71 by neoplastic cells of ATC is emphasized in that it could represent a potential therapeutic target. In this regard, new therapeutic approaches based on the use of monoclonal or recombinant antibodies, or transferrin-gallium-TfR1/CD71 molecular complexes, or lastly small interfering RNAs (siRNAs are proposed.

  4. Anaplastic oligo-astrocytoma occurring after resection of a cerebral cavernous malformation; malignant transformation? Case report and review on etiology. (United States)

    Schreuder, Tobien; Te Lintelo, Merijn; Kubat, Bela; Koehler, Peter


    We report a 71-year-old woman who presented with a cerebral cavernous malformation in the right frontal lobe for which she underwent total resection. Three years later, she was admitted with seizures and neuroimaging revealed a partially calcified lesion in the area of the earlier cavernous malformation, consistent with a residual malformation. A few months later she presented with cognitive decline and neuroimaging now revealed a large mass lesion in the same area as the cavernous malformation, irregularly enhancing, spreading through the corpus callosum to the left frontal lobe. Histological examination showed an anaplastic oligo-astrocytoma. These findings suggest that cerebral cavernous malformations, or at least a subgroup, have the potential for oligodendrocytic and astrocytic transformation. Various hypotheses to explain the etiology of these rare cases are discussed.

  5. A nanocomplex that is both tumor cell-selective and cancer gene-specific for anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu Youli


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many in vitro studies have demonstrated that silencing of cancerous genes by siRNAs is a potential therapeutic approach for blocking tumor growth. However, siRNAs are not cell type-selective, cannot specifically target tumor cells, and therefore have limited in vivo application for siRNA-mediated gene therapy. Results In this study, we tested a functional RNA nanocomplex which exclusively targets and affects human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL by taking advantage of the abnormal expression of CD30, a unique surface biomarker, and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene in lymphoma cells. The nanocomplexes were formulated by incorporating both ALK siRNA and a RNA-based CD30 aptamer probe onto nano-sized polyethyleneimine-citrate carriers. To minimize potential cytotoxicity, the individual components of the nanocomplexes were used at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. Dynamic light scattering showed that formed nanocomplexes were ~140 nm in diameter and remained stable for more than 24 hours in culture medium. Cell binding assays revealed that CD30 aptamer probes selectively targeted nanocomplexes to ALCL cells, and confocal fluorescence microscopy confirmed intracellular delivery of the nanocomplex. Cell transfection analysis showed that nanocomplexes silenced genes in an ALCL cell type-selective fashion. Moreover, exposure of ALCL cells to nanocomplexes carrying both ALK siRNAs and CD30 RNA aptamers specifically silenced ALK gene expression, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Conclusions Taken together, our findings indicate that this functional RNA nanocomplex is both tumor cell type-selective and cancer gene-specific for ALCL cells.

  6. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy (United States)

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy On This Page What is breast reconstruction? How ... are some new developments in breast reconstruction after mastectomy? What is breast reconstruction? Many women who have ...

  7. Breast reconstruction - implants (United States)

    Breast implants surgery; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with implants; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with implants ... to make reconstruction easier. If you will have breast reconstruction later, your surgeon will remove enough skin ...

  8. Breast Cancer Treatment (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  9. Stages of Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  10. Breast Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  11. Breast cancer screening (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  12. 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism and consequent appearing of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: simple case-report or real pathophysiologic link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scanelli


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND 131I is usually employed for the therapy of hyperfunctioning thyroid diseases. This β-emitting radioisotope acts releasing its radiations in small tissue volumes, but it is mandatory to consider, also for the small doses, the carcinogenic risk, well documented with the high 131I dosages used to cure differentiated thyroid cancers. METHODS We describe a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma appeared 4 years after therapy with 131I for Graves’ disease. The patient was treated both surgically and with thyonamides for Graves’ disease 20 years before; thereafter she underwent simple nephrectomy owing to Grawitz disease. After some years of well being, she was treated with 131I for a relapse of Graves’ disease. Four years later, she was treated with interleukin-2 and TNF-α, owing to distant metastases (pancreas, liver and lung of Grawitz cancer. Some months later, because of a rapid enlargement of the thyroid gland, she was thyroidectomized and anaplastic thyroid cancer was histologically documented. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS It is very difficult to investigate the possible transformation of a benign thyroid lesion to a malignant one, and data from the literature are conflicting. Fractioned doses of 131I are known to induce less cancers than high doses: they allow DNA to repair. Nevertheless, in patients with altered or non valid genetic repair’s mechanisms (i.e. patients with p53 mutations and, for this reason, prone to develop cancers, even low doses of 131I can induce carcinogenetic effects. In a patient with a history of cancer, who subsequently develops hyperthyroidism, even low doses of 131I can induce anaplastic thyroid cancer; in these subjects, therefore, other treatments than 131I could be preferred for the therapy of Graves’ disease. In our peculiar case, moreover, some studies have noteworthy demonstrated that certain cytokines (IL-1, TGF-β1 e TNF-α can, rather than inhibit, induce anaplastic thyroid cancer cells

  13. Sialylation by ?-galactoside ?-2,6-sialyltransferase and N-glycans regulate cell adhesion and invasion in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma


    Suzuki, Osamu; ABE, MASAFUMI; HASHIMOTO Yuko


    The interaction between cell surface glycans and extracellular matrix (ECM) including galectins is known to be closely associated with tumor cell adhesion, invasion and metastasis. We analyzed the roles of cell surface sialylation or glycosylation in galectin or ECM-mediated cell adhesion and invasion of human malignant lymphoma cells. Neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens (AU) treatment resulted in reduction of cell adhesion to galectin-8 in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (H-ALCL...

  14. Successful treatment of hepatic oligometastases with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy and radiofrequency ablation in an anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion-positive lung cancer patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Britta; Liu, Mitchell; Sobkin, Paul


    Local ablative therapy with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy may improve survival in oncogene‐addicted lung cancer patients with extracranial oligometastatic disease treated with targeted therapies. There is limited data on the use of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in this same setting. We present...... a case of an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)‐positive lung cancer patient with hepatic oligometastatic progression who was successfully treated with both stereotactic ablative radiation and RFA while continuing with an ALK inhibitor....

  15. Identifying the Association of Contrast Enhancement with Vascular Endothelia Growth Factor Expression in Anaplastic Gliomas: A Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis (United States)

    Li, Hongming; Wang, Jiangfei; Wang, Lei; Dai, Jianping; Jiang, Tao; Ma, Jun


    Contrast enhancement is a crucial radiologic feature of malignant brain tumors, which are associated with genetic changes of the tumor. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential relationship among tumor contrast enhancement with MR imaging, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and survival outcome in anaplastic gliomas. MR images from 240 patients with histologically confirmed anaplastic gliomas were retrospectively analyzed. The volumes of T2 hyperintense, contrast enhanced regions and necrotic regions on postcontrast T1-weighted images were measured. The ratio of the enhanced volume to necrotic volume was compared between patients with high versus low levels of VEGF expression and was further used in the survival analysis. The volumetric ratio of enhancement to necrosis was significantly higher in patients with low VEGF expression than in those with high VEGF expression (Mann-Whitney, p = 0.009). In addition, the enhancement/necrosis ratio was identified as a significant predictor of progression-free survival (Cox regression model, p = 0.004) and overall survival (Cox regression model, p = 0.006) in the multivariate analysis. These results suggest that the volumetric ratio of enhancement to necrosis could serve as a noninvasive radiographic marker associated with VEGF expression and that this ratio is an independent predictor for progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with anaplastic gliomas. PMID:25823012

  16. ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma with urinary bladder involvement diagnosed in urine cytology: A case report and literature review. (United States)

    Lobo, João; Henrique, Rui; Monteiro, Paula; Lobo, Cláudia


    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is an aggressive T-cell neoplasm. It rarely involves the urinary bladder, with just twelve cases reported thus far and only one being ALK-negative. Immunophenotyping (particularly for ALK) is mandatory, both for prognostic and therapeutic reasons. Herein, we report the case of a patient with an ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma involving the bladder which was diagnosed and fully characterized by immunocytochemistry in urine cytology. The patient underwent a cystoscopy and the urine sample disclosed tumor diathesis background and aggregates of atypical cells, with evidence of multinucleation and mitotic figures. Immunocytochemistry revealed strong membrane/Golgi positivity for CD30 and negativity for ALK. The patient was submitted to transurethral resection for therapeutic purposes, which confirmed the diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this represents only the third case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma with bladder involvement diagnosed in urine cytology and the very first with diagnostic findings allowing for immunophenotyping of the disease in a bladder wash. The present report reinforces the role of urine cytology as a suitable method for establishing an earlier diagnosis and characterization of the disease, avoiding submitting patients to invasive procedures like transurethral resections. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:354-358. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Breast Feeding. (United States)

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  18. Breast lymphoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    outside the breast. Histological diagnoses of the so-called primary breast lymphomas included 1 case of Hodgkin's disease and 6 of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (inclUding 2 with T-cell phenotypes). ... adequate specimens; (iI) mammary tissue and lymphomatous infiltrate ... All the patients were female. Their ages ranged from ...

  19. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer


    Scutt, D; Lancaster, GA; Manning, JT


    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  20. Immediate disappearance of hemifacial spasm after partial removal of ponto-medullary junction anaplastic astrocytoma: case report. (United States)

    Castiglione, Melina; Broggi, Morgan; Cordella, Roberto; Acerbi, Francesco; Ferroli, Paolo


    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is generally caused by a neurovascular conflict (NC) at the root exit zone (REZ) of the facial nerve at the brainstem. Although a direct compression to the seventh cranial nerve (CN) by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is generally the most frequent cause, secondary HFS may be related to other pathological conditions. HFS due to an intracranial mass lesion is exceptionally rare and it has been reported in very few cases. The online database was searched for English-language articles reporting cases of HFS due to brainstem mass lesions and the possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in its genesis. A 47-year-old man affected by an anaplastic astrocytoma of the brainstem at the level of the ponto-medullary junction developed right HFS. He underwent a subtotal surgical removal of the tumor with complete resolution of the HFS. This is the ninth reported case of HFS caused by an intrinsic brainstem tumor. The exceptional rarity of the relationship between intra-axial tumors and peripheral HFS was analyzed.

  1. [Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid at the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición Salvador Zubirán]. (United States)

    Sierra, M; Gamboa-Domínguez, A; Herrera, M F; Barredo-Prieto, B; Alvarado de la Barrera, C; Llorente, L; Pérez-Enriquez, B; Rivera, R; González, O; Rull, J A


    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a highly aggressive tumor with a median survival rate of 6 months. To analyze presentation, treatment, morphology, immunohistochemistry, and nuclear DNA analysis of a cohort of patients with ATC. Twelve patients with ATC (11 female) with a mean age of 65 years were seen at our hospital from 1970-1995. The data were obtained from the clinical records and the morphology, immunohistochemic studies and DNA pattern were performed in slides obtained from archival specimens. Previous or coexisting thyroide disease was documented in 10 patients (9 multinodular goiters and one Grave's). The most frequent presentation was a rapidly growing tumor associated with dysphagia, cervical pain, hoarseness and dyspnea. A cold thyroid nodule was detected by thyroid scan in 10 patients. The most frequent subtype was the spindle cell variety. Papillary thyroid carcinoma coexisted in eight cases, two of them corresponded to the tall cell variant. Reactivity for S-100 protein and vimentin was studied in six patients: all were positive for S-100 protein and vimentin, 5/6 for epithelial membrane antigen, half for carcinoembriogenic antigen, 2/6 for thyroglobulin and calcitonin, and one for neuronal specific enolase. These six tumors showed a diploid DNA pattern. Tumor resection was achieved in 2/11 and none survived six years after diagnosis. ATC is a highly aggressive tumor coexisting with thyroid pathologies. Spindle cell variant is the most frequent with positive reactivity for S-100 protein, vimentin and epithelial membrane antigen. Most tumors have a diploid DNA content.

  2. Clinical spectrum of primary cutaneous CD30-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma: an analysis of the Mannheim Cutaneous Lymphoma Registry. (United States)

    Booken, Nina; Goerdt, Sergij; Klemke, Claus-Detlev


    Primary cutaneous CD30(+) anaplastic large cell lymphomas (C-ALCL) have indolent clinical behavior with an estimated 5-year survival rate of 95%. The clinical features and disease courses of C-ALCL identified in the lymphoma registry of Mannheim University hospital are described in the following. All C-ALCL patients identified in the database were analyzed in regard to clinical picture, histology, immunohistochemistry, molecular biology, staging, therapy, follow-up, and outcome. 14 C-ALCL patients were identified. The mean age was 69 years and 57% were men. Solitary skin lesions in one anatomical region were seen in 12 patients upon initial diagnosis. Two patients presented with multiple lesions at different anatomical sites. In 2 patients there was specific lymph node involvement. In one C-ALCL patient, follow-up over 17 months revealed extracutaneous infiltration. Half of the patients relapsed and 36% had multiple episodes. The majority of our patients were treated with surgical excision followed by electron beam radiotherapy. The 5-year survival rate was 93% in C-ALCL. The clinical presentation of C-ALCL varies. Staging procedures and a close clinical pathological correlation at initial diagnosis are essential. Due to a high rate of relapses and the possibility of developing extranodal manifestations over the course of the disease, close follow-up is recommended. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  3. Selinexor (KPT-330) has antitumor activity against anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in vitro and in vivo and enhances sensitivity to doxorubicin. (United States)

    Garg, Manoj; Kanojia, Deepika; Mayakonda, Anand; Ganesan, Trivadi S; Sadhanandhan, Bindhya; Suresh, Sidhanth; S, Sneha; Nagare, Rohit P; Said, Jonathan W; Doan, Ngan B; Ding, Ling-Wen; Baloglu, Erkan; Shacham, Sharon; Kauffman, Michael; Koeffler, H Phillip


    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most lethal malignancies having no effective treatment. Exportin-1 (XPO1) is the key mediator of nuclear export of many tumor suppressor proteins and is overexpressed in human cancers. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of selinexor (XPO1 inhibitor) against human ATC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we showed that XPO1 is robustly expressed in primary ATC samples and human ATC cell lines. Silencing of XPO1 by either shRNA or selinexor significantly reduced cellular growth and induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis of ATC cells by altering the protein expression of cancer-related genes. Moreover, selinexor significantly inhibited tumor growth of ATC xenografts. Microarray analysis showed enrichment of DNA replication, cell cycle, cell cycle checkpoint and TNF pathways in selinexor treated ATC cells. Importantly, selinexor decreased AXL and GAS6 levels in CAL62 and HTH83 cells and suppressed the phosphorylation of downstream targets of AXL signaling such as AKT and P70S6K. Finally, a combination of selinexor with doxorubicin demonstrated a synergistic decrease in the cellular proliferation of several ATC cells. These results provide a rationale for investigating the efficacy of combining selinexor and doxorubicin therapy to improve the outcome of ATC patients.

  4. Radiation therapy dose is associated with improved survival for unresected anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: Outcomes from the National Cancer Data Base. (United States)

    Pezzi, Todd A; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Sheu, Tommy; Blanchard, Pierre; Sandulache, Vlad C; Lai, Stephen Y; Cabanillas, Maria E; Williams, Michelle D; Pezzi, Christopher M; Lu, Charles; Garden, Adam S; Morrison, William H; Rosenthal, David I; Fuller, Clifton D; Gunn, G Brandon


    The outcomes of patients with unresected anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) were assessed, and potential correlations were explored between radiation therapy (RT) dose and overall survival (OS). The study cohort was comprised of patients who underwent either no surgery or grossly incomplete resection. Correlates of OS were explored using univariate analysis and multivariable analysis (MVA). In total, 1288 patients were analyzed. The mean patient age was 70.2 years, 59.7% of patients were women, and 47.6% received neck RT. The median OS was 2.27 months, and 11% of patients remained alive at 1 year. A positive RT dose-survival correlation was observed for the entire study cohort, for those who received systemic therapy, and for those with stage IVA/IVB and IVC disease. On MVA, older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.317; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.137-1.526), ≥ 1 comorbidity (HR, 1.587; 95% CI, 1.379-1.827), distant metastasis (HR, 1.385; 95% CI, 1.216-1.578), receipt of systemic therapy (HR, 0.637; 95% CI, 0.547-0.742), and receipt of RT compared with no RT (Cancer 2017;123:1653-1661. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  5. Fulminant puerperal sepsis due to anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) with therapy-refractory cerebral edema. (United States)

    Freerksen, Nele; Kirschner, Martin; Pecks, Ulrich; Westphal, Saskia; Jost, Edgar; Maass, Nicolai; Bauerschlag, Dirk O


    Lymphoma is among the five most frequent malignancies during pregnancy while anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is rare, accounting only for 2-3 % of all adult-onset non-Hodgkin lymphomas. A 23-year-old gravida 1, para 1 presented with puerperal mastitis and septicemia following secondary cesarean section. Mastitis had been present for a week prior to delivery. A CT scan for further diagnostics revealed numerous prominent lymph nodes. Cerebrospinal fluid testing, bone marrow and lymph node biopsy confirmed diagnosis of ALCL. Systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy was initiated, stabilizing the patient's clinical situation. 30 days postpartum (pp.), a cerebral edema was diagnosed responsible for cerebro-venous hypoperfusion. Immediate ventricle drainage and further therapeutic measures revealed no improvement. The patient died 33 days pp. Puerperal septicemia seemingly caused by mastitis still needs rapid further evaluation if the patient's clinical presentation quickly declines despite antibiotic therapy. Immediate initiation of chemotherapy after confirmation of ALCL is required to increase the therapeutic benefit due to the poor prognosis of ALCL.

  6. Melanoma maligno anaplásico em um eqüino Anaplastic malignant melanoma in a horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ricardo Rissi


    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de melanoma maligno anaplásico em uma égua Crioula, tordilha, com 10 anos de idade, com histórico clínico de apatia, perda de peso progressiva, febre, anorexia e dispnéia. Múltiplas massas pigmentadas e não-pigmentadas, bem delimitadas ou infiltrativas, foram observadas no tecido subcutâneo e em vários órgãos. Histologicamente o neoplasma era composto de populações de células fusiformes, redondas ou poliédricas e, menos freqüentemente, de células multinucleadas e "células em anel de sinete". O diagnóstico foi realizado com base nos achados clinicopatológicos e confirmado pela microscopia eletrônica de transmissão.A case of anaplastic malignant melanoma in a 10-year-old gray mare is described. Clinical signs included depression, progressive weight loss, fever, anorexia, and dyspnea. Multiple circumscribed or infiltrative, pigmented, and non-pigmented tumors were observed in subcutaneous tissue and in several organs. Histological examination revealed a marked variation in neoplastic cell population, which was composed by spindle, round, polyhedrical, and less frequently, multinucleated or signet ring cells. The diagnostic was based up on clinical and pathological findings, and confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy.

  7. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thyroid Diagnosed as Anaplastic Carcinoma: Failure in Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bolfi


    Full Text Available A case of primary squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC of the thyroid which had been initially diagnosed as an anaplastic carcinoma (ATC is described: female, 73 years old, with a fast-growing cervical nodule on the left side and hoarseness for 3 months. Ultrasonography showed a 4.5 cm solid nodule. FNA was compatible with poorly differentiated carcinoma with immunoreactivity for AE1/AE3, EMA. Thyroidectomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed a nonencapsulated tumor. Immunohistochemistry disclosed positivity for AE1/AE3, p53,p63, and Ki67. The diagnosis was ATC. A second opinion reported tumor consisting of squamous cells, with intense inflammatory infiltrate both in tumor and in the adjacent thyroid, with final diagnosis of SCC, associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis. No other primary focus of SCC was found. Patient has shown a 48-month survival period. Clinically, primary SCCs of the thyroid and ATCs are similar. The distinction is often difficult particularly when based on the cytological analysis of FNA material.

  8. A Case of Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia Associated with Adjuvant Temozolomide Chemotherapy for Anaplastic Astrocytoma. (United States)

    Kosugi, Kenzo; Saito, Katsuya; Takahashi, Wataru; Tokuda, Yukina; Tomita, Hideyuki


    Temozolomide (TMZ) is now standard adjuvant therapy in combination with radiotherapy for patients with newly diagnosed malignant glioma. Treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute treatment-related leukemia (t-AML) associated with TMZ chemotherapy for patients with glioma is quite a rare complication. A 43-year-old man with an anaplastic astrocytoma received radiation therapy synchronized with ranimustine and adjuvant TMZ chemotherapy for 15 cycles. Close follow-up magnetic resonance imaging of the head during TMZ chemotherapy showed no evidence of tumor progression. One year after the completion of TMZ chemotherapy, a bone-marrow aspiration was performed because the patient's white blood cell count decreased. He was diagnosed with t-AML based on the bone marrow examination, and then he was referred to the cancer center for the treatment of t-AML. In this case study, we continued adjuvant TMZ therapy beyond the recommended 6 cycles. Currently, there is no consensus as to how long the adjuvant TMZ therapy should be continued for the treatment of residual tumor showing no apparent interval change. A new decision-making tool to assess the clinical benefits against the side effects for long-term adjuvant TMZ therapy is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Breast MRI scan (United States)

    MRI - breast; Magnetic resonance imaging - breast; Breast cancer - MRI; Breast cancer screening - MRI ... radiologist) see some areas more clearly. During the MRI, the person who operates the machine will watch ...

  10. MRI of the Breast (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Breast Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast ... limitations of MRI of the Breast? What is MRI of the Breast? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  11. Premenstrual breast changes (United States)

    Premenstrual tenderness and swelling of the breasts; Breast tenderness - premenstrual; Breast swelling - premenstrual ... Symptoms of premenstrual breast tenderness may range from mild to ... most severe just before each menstrual period Improve during ...

  12. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue (United States)

    ... muscle flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction ...

  13. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... as possible. Learn more about palliative care . Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  14. Breast pain (image) (United States)

    ... breast pain is from hormonal fluctuations from menstruation, pregnancy, puberty, menopause, and breastfeeding. Breast pain can also be associated with fibrocystic breast disease, but it is a very unusual symptom of breast cancer.

  15. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer


    南, 優子; ミナミ, ユウコ; MINAMI, Yuko


    During recent decades, breast cancer incidence has been increasing in Japan. Epidemiological studies have clarified the trend in breast cancer incidence and identified risk factors for breast cancer. Established risk factors for breast cancer include early age at menarche, late age at first birth, low parity, postmenopausal obesity, family history of breast cancer, and history of benign breast disease. Breast-feeding and physical activity may also be associated with breast cancer risk. Detail...

  16. Ectopic breasts: familial functional axillary breasts and breast cancer arising in an axillary breast. (United States)

    Osswald, Sandra S; Osswald, Michael B; Elston, Dirk M


    Supernumerary breasts and nipples are not uncommon and have familial and syndrome associations. Although usually of only cosmetic concern, hormonal changes and inflammatory or neoplastic conditions that affect primary breast tissue also may occur in areas of ectopic breast tissue. We describe cases of familial functional axillary breasts and primary carcinoma of the breast arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue.

  17. Breast Rash (United States)

    ... rashes/rash-in-adults. Accessed Dec. 29, 2016. Papadakis MA, et al., eds. Breast disorders. In: Current ... Accessed Dec. 28, 2016. Papadakis MA, et al., eds. Dermatologic disorders. In: Current ...

  18. Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... a reduced risk of breast cancer. The Mediterranean diet focuses mostly on plant-based foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts. People who follow the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over ...

  19. Breast reduction (United States)

    ... difficulty finding clothes that fit, and low self-confidence. Chronic rashes under your breasts. Unwelcome attention that is making you feel awkward. Inability to participate in sports. Some women may benefit from non-surgical treatments, such as: ...

  20. Dense Breasts (United States)

    ... also appear white on mammography, they can be hidden by or within dense breast tissue. Other imaging ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  1. Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... disease. It’s estimated that about 10% of breast cancer cases are hereditary (run in the family). In many of these cases, you inherited a gene from your parents that has mutated (changed from ...

  2. Safety and activity of crizotinib for paediatric patients with refractory solid tumours or anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: a Children’s Oncology Group phase 1 consortium study (United States)

    Mossé, Yael P; Lim, Megan S; Voss, Stephan D; Wilner, Keith; Ruffner, Katherine; Laliberte, Julie; Rolland, Delphine; Balis, Frank M; Maris, John M; Weigel, Brenda J; Ingle, Ashish M; Ahern, Charlotte; Adamson, Peter C; Blaney, Susan M


    Summary Background Various human cancers have ALK gene translocations, amplifications, or oncogenic mutations, such as anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and neuroblastoma. Therefore, ALK inhibition could be a useful therapeutic strategy in children. We aimed to determine the safety, recommended phase 2 dose, and antitumour activity of crizotinib in children with refractory solid tumours and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Methods In this open-label, phase 1 dose-escalation trial, patients older than 12 months and younger than 22 years with measurable or evaluable solid or CNS tumours, or anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, refractory to therapy and for whom there was no known curative treatment were eligible. Crizotinib was given twice daily without interruption. Six dose levels (100, 130, 165, 215, 280, 365 mg/m2 per dose) were assessed in the dose-finding phase of the study (part A1), which is now completed. The primary endpoint was to estimate the maximum tolerated dose, to define the toxic effects of crizotinib, and to characterise the pharmacokinetics of crizotinib in children with refractory cancer. Additionally, patients with confirmed ALK translocations, mutations, or amplification (part A2 of the study) or neuroblastoma (part A3) could enrol at one dose level lower than was currently given in part A1. We assessed ALK genomic status in tumour tissue and used quantitative RT-PCR to measure NPM-ALK fusion transcript in bone marrow and blood samples of patients with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. All patients who received at least one dose of crizotinib were evaluable for response; patients completing at least one cycle of therapy or experiencing dose limiting toxicity before that were considered fully evaluable for toxicity. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials. gov, NCT00939770. Findings 79 patients were enrolled in the study from Oct 2, 2009, to May 31, 2012. The median age was 10

  3. Safety and activity of crizotinib for paediatric patients with refractory solid tumours or anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: a Children's Oncology Group phase 1 consortium study. (United States)

    Mossé, Yael P; Lim, Megan S; Voss, Stephan D; Wilner, Keith; Ruffner, Katherine; Laliberte, Julie; Rolland, Delphine; Balis, Frank M; Maris, John M; Weigel, Brenda J; Ingle, Ashish M; Ahern, Charlotte; Adamson, Peter C; Blaney, Susan M


    Various human cancers have ALK gene translocations, amplifications, or oncogenic mutations, such as anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and neuroblastoma. Therefore, ALK inhibition could be a useful therapeutic strategy in children. We aimed to determine the safety, recommended phase 2 dose, and antitumour activity of crizotinib in children with refractory solid tumours and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. In this open-label, phase 1 dose-escalation trial, patients older than 12 months and younger than 22 years with measurable or evaluable solid or CNS tumours, or anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, refractory to therapy and for whom there was no known curative treatment were eligible. Crizotinib was given twice daily without interruption. Six dose levels (100, 130, 165, 215, 280, 365 mg/m(2) per dose) were assessed in the dose-finding phase of the study (part A1), which is now completed. The primary endpoint was to estimate the maximum tolerated dose, to define the toxic effects of crizotinib, and to characterise the pharmacokinetics of crizotinib in children with refractory cancer. Additionally, patients with confirmed ALK translocations, mutations, or amplification (part A2 of the study) or neuroblastoma (part A3) could enrol at one dose level lower than was currently given in part A1. We assessed ALK genomic status in tumour tissue and used quantitative RT-PCR to measure NPM-ALK fusion transcript in bone marrow and blood samples of patients with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. All patients who received at least one dose of crizotinib were evaluable for response; patients completing at least one cycle of therapy or experiencing dose limiting toxicity before that were considered fully evaluable for toxicity. This study is registered with, NCT00939770. 79 patients were enrolled in the study from Oct 2, 2009, to May 31, 2012. The median age was 10.1 years (range 1.1-21.4); 43

  4. Immunoexpression of TTF-1 and Ki-67 in a coexistent anaplastic and follicular thyroid cancer with rare long-life surviving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Sowinski


    Full Text Available We report the immunohistochemical diagnosis, including TTF-1 (thyroid transcription factor 1 and Ki-67, of a rare mixed thyroid neoplasm composed of minimally invasive well differentiated follicular areas and highly aggressive undifferentiated anaplastic areas. A 75 old female presented to our clinic with a rapidly growing neck mass. Considering the dynamics of the disease and the multiple challenges presented by the patient: advanced age, tumor size, history of a longstanding goiter we decided to transfer her to the department of surgery. The intraoperative findings were an enlarged right lobe with tracheal and surrounding tissues infiltration. Total thyroidectomy, radical neck lymph nodes dissection and tracheostomy were performed. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed a coexistent anaplastic and follicular thyroid carcinoma. The proliferation index Ki-67, a cell proliferation marker, was found to be significantly higher in the anaplastic areas (30 +/- 5% in the comparison with the follicular areas (2 +/- 1%. The evaluation of the thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1 expression revealed a correlation with the tumor cells aggressiveness accordingly to the cancer areas. After a radical surgery an external adjuvant radiation was applied. The patient is alive and more than five years after diagnosis she presented an increase of the serum thyroglobulin level suggesting, probably, a recurrence of the follicular form of the cancer. According to our survey we suggest that in thyroid cancers TTF-1 and Ki-67 could provides useful information on the differentiation activities of thyroid tumor cells and may be helpful to distinguish well differentiated and undifferentiated areas in a mixed thyroid cancer.

  5. Genetically engineered suicide gene in mesenchymal stem cells using a Tet-On system for anaplastic thyroid cancer. (United States)

    Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar; Oh, Ji Min; Gangadaran, Prakash; Zhu, Liya; Lee, Ho Won; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jaetae; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol


    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the most aggressive malignancy of the thyroid, during which undifferentiated tumors arise from the thyroid follicular epithelium. ATC has a very poor prognosis due to its aggressive behavior and poor response to conventional therapies. Gene-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy using genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is a promising therapeutic strategy. The doxycycline (DOX)-controlled Tet inducible system is the most widely utilized regulatory system and could be a useful tool for therapeutic gene-based therapies. For example, use a synthetic "tetracycline-on" switch system to control the expression of the therapeutic gene thymidine kinase, which converts prodrugs to active drugs. The aim of this study was to develop therapeutic MSCs, harboring an inducible suicide gene, and to validate therapeutic gene expression using optical molecular imaging of ATC. We designed the Tet-On system using a retroviral vector expressing herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV1-sr39TK) with dual reporters (eGFP-Fluc2). Mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC) were transduced using this system with (MSC-Tet-TK/Fluc2) or without (MSC-TK/Fluc) the Tet-On system. Transduced cells were screened and characterized. Engineered MSCs were co-cultured with ATC (CAL62/Rluc) cells in the presence of the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV) and stimulated with DOX. The efficiency of cell killing monitored by assessing Rluc (CAL62/Rluc) and Fluc (MSC-Tet-TK/Fluc and MSC-TK/Fluc) activities using IVIS imaging. Fluc activity increased in MSC-Tet-TK/Fluc cells in a dose dependent manner following DOX treatment (R2 = 0.95), whereas no signal was observed in untreated cells. eGFP could also be visualized after induction with DOX, and the HSV1-TK protein could be detected by western blotting. In MSC-TK/Fluc cells, the Fluc activity increased with increasing cell number (R2 = 0.98), and eGFP could be visualized by fluorescence microscopy. The

  6. p53 constrains progression to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a Braf-mutant mouse model of papillary thyroid cancer (United States)

    McFadden, David G.; Vernon, Amanda; Santiago, Philip M.; Martinez-McFaline, Raul; Bhutkar, Arjun; Crowley, Denise M.; McMahon, Martin; Sadow, Peter M.; Jacks, Tyler


    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has among the worst prognoses of any solid malignancy. The low incidence of the disease has in part precluded systematic clinical trials and tissue collection, and there has been little progress in developing effective therapies. v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) and tumor protein p53 (TP53) mutations cooccur in a high proportion of ATCs, particularly those associated with a precursor papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To develop an adult-onset model of BRAF-mutant ATC, we generated a thyroid-specific CreER transgenic mouse. We used a Cre-regulated BrafV600E mouse and a conditional Trp53 allelic series to demonstrate that p53 constrains progression from PTC to ATC. Gene expression and immunohistochemical analyses of murine tumors identified the cardinal features of human ATC including loss of differentiation, local invasion, distant metastasis, and rapid lethality. We used small-animal ultrasound imaging to monitor autochthonous tumors and showed that treatment with the selective BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 improved survival but did not lead to tumor regression or suppress signaling through the MAPK pathway. The combination of PLX4720 and the mapk/Erk kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD0325901 more completely suppressed MAPK pathway activation in mouse and human ATC cell lines and improved the structural response and survival of ATC-bearing animals. This model expands the limited repertoire of autochthonous models of clinically aggressive thyroid cancer, and these data suggest that small-molecule MAPK pathway inhibitors hold clinical promise in the treatment of advanced thyroid carcinoma. PMID:24711431

  7. The impact of concurrent temozolomide with adjuvant radiation and IDH mutation status among patients with anaplastic astrocytoma. (United States)

    Kizilbash, Sani H; Giannini, Caterina; Voss, Jesse S; Decker, Paul A; Jenkins, Robert B; Hardie, John; Laack, Nadia N; Parney, Ian F; Uhm, Joon H; Buckner, Jan C


    This study assesses the controversial role of temozolomide (TMZ) concurrent with adjuvant radiation (RT) in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). The impact of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) status on therapy and outcomes is also examined. All adult patients diagnosed with AA from 2001 to 2011 and treated with standard doses of adjuvant RT were identified retrospectively for clinical data extraction. IDH status was determined by IDH1-R132H immunostain and sequencing for other mutations in IDH1/IDH2. Cumulative survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit for univariable/multivariable analyses. 136 patients had received concurrent TMZ while 29 had not. Of these, IDH status was determined on 114 and 27 patients, respectively. On univariable analysis, improved five-year survival was independently associated with concurrent TMZ (46.2 vs. 29.3%, p = 0.02) and IDH mutation (78.9 vs. 22.0%, p IDH mutation was additionally associated with a greater likelihood of extensive resection possibly secondary to a more favorable tumor location. Gross total/subtotal resections also led to improved survival when compared to biopsy alone on univariable analysis. On multivariable analysis, the association with five-year survival persisted for both concurrent TMZ and IDH mutation, but not with extent of surgery. Both IDH mutation and concurrent TMZ are associated with improved five-year survival in patients with AA who are receiving adjuvant RT. Secondarily, the association between five-year survival and extent of resection is lost on multivariable analysis. This suggests a possible association between IDH mutation, tumor location and consequent resectability.

  8. Multimodal 18F-Fluciclovine PET/MRI and Ultrasound-Guided Neurosurgery of an Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma. (United States)

    Karlberg, Anna; Berntsen, Erik Magnus; Johansen, Håkon; Myrthue, Mariane; Skjulsvik, Anne Jarstein; Reinertsen, Ingerid; Esmaeili, Morteza; Dai, Hong Yan; Xiao, Yiming; Rivaz, Hassan; Borghammer, Per; Solheim, Ole; Eikenes, Live


    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathologic tissue sampling are routinely performed as part of the diagnostic workup for patients with glioma. Because of the heterogeneous nature of gliomas, there is a risk of undergrading caused by histopathologic sampling errors. MRI has limitations in identifying tumor grade and type, detecting diffuse invasive growth, and separating recurrences from treatment induced changes. Positron emission tomography (PET) can provide quantitative information of cellular activity and metabolism, and may therefore complement MRI. In this report, we present the first patient with brain glioma examined with simultaneous PET/MRI using the amino acid tracer 18F-fluciclovine (18F-FACBC) for intraoperative image-guided surgery. A previously healthy 60-year old woman was admitted to the emergency care with speech difficulties and a mild left-sided hemiparesis. MRI revealed a tumor that was suggestive of glioma. Before surgery, the patient underwent a simultaneous PET/MRI examination. Fused PET/MRI, T1, FLAIR, and intraoperative three-dimensional ultrasound images were used to guide histopathologic tissue sampling and surgical resection. Navigated, image-guided histopathologic samples were compared with PET/MRI image data to assess the additional value of the PET acquisition. Histopathologic analysis showed anaplastic oligodendroglioma in the most malignant parts of the tumor, while several regions were World Health Organization (WHO) grade II. 18F-Fluciclovine uptake was found in parts of the tumor where regional WHO grade, cell proliferation, and cell densities were highest. This finding suggests that PET/MRI with this tracer could be used to improve accuracy in histopathologic tissue sampling and grading, and possibly for guiding treatments targeting the most malignant part of extensive and eloquent gliomas. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Is a Regulator of Alcohol Consumption and Excitatory Synaptic Plasticity in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A. Mangieri


    Full Text Available Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK is a receptor tyrosine kinase recently implicated in biochemical, physiological, and behavioral responses to ethanol. Thus, manipulation of ALK signaling may represent a novel approach to treating alcohol use disorder (AUD. Ethanol induces adaptations in glutamatergic synapses onto nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh medium spiny neurons (MSNs, and putative targets for treating AUD may be validated for further development by assessing how their manipulation modulates accumbal glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we report that Alk knockout (AlkKO mice consumed greater doses of ethanol, relative to wild-type (AlkWT mice, in an operant self-administration model. Using ex vivo electrophysiology to examine excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity at NAcSh MSNs that express dopamine D1 receptors (D1MSNs, we found that the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs in NAcSh D1MSNs was elevated in AlkKO mice and in the presence of an ALK inhibitor, TAE684. Furthermore, when ALK was absent or inhibited, glutamatergic synaptic plasticity – long-term depression of evoked EPSCs – in D1MSNs was attenuated. Thus, loss of ALK activity in mice is associated with elevated ethanol consumption and enhanced excitatory transmission in NAcSh D1MSNs. These findings add to the mounting evidence of a relationship between excitatory synaptic transmission onto NAcSh D1MSNs and ethanol consumption, point toward ALK as one important molecular mediator of this interaction, and further validate ALK as a target for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of AUD.

  10. miR-4295 promotes cell proliferation and invasion in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma via CDKN1A

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    Shao, Mingchen; Geng, Yiwei [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Lu, Peng [Gastrointestinal Surgery Department, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou (China); Xi, Ying [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Wei, Sidong [Liver Transplantation Hepatobiliary Surgery Department, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou (China); Wang, Liuxing; Fan, Qingxia [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Ma, Wang, E-mail: [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many types of cancers by negatively regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional level. However, the role of microRNAs in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), has remained elusive. Here, we identified that miR-4295 promotes ATC cell proliferation by negatively regulates its target gene CDKN1A. In ATC cell lines, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation was promoted by miR-4295, while miR-4295 inhibitor significantly inhibited the cell proliferation. Transwell assay showed that miR-4295 mimics significantly promoted the migration and invasion of ATC cells, whereas miR-4295 inhibitors significantly reduced cell migration and invasion. luciferase assays confirmed that miR-4295 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of CDKN1A, and western blotting showed that miR-4295 suppressed the expression of CDKN1A at the protein levels. This study indicated that miR-4295 negatively regulates CDKN1A and promotes proliferation and invasion of ATC cell lines. Thus, miR-4295 may represent a potential therapeutic target for ATC intervention. - Highlights: • miR-4295 mimics promote the proliferation and invasion of ATC cells. • miR-4295 inhibitors inhibit the proliferation and invasion of ATC cells. • miR-4295 targets 3′UTR of CDKN1A in ATC cells. • miR-4295 negatively regulates CDKN1A in ATC cells.

  11. A novel, diffusely infiltrative xenograft model of human anaplastic oligodendroglioma with mutations in FUBP1, CIC, and IDH1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Klink

    Full Text Available Oligodendroglioma poses a biological conundrum for malignant adult human gliomas: it is a tumor type that is universally incurable for patients, and yet, only a few of the human tumors have been established as cell populations in vitro or as intracranial xenografts in vivo. Their survival, thus, may emerge only within a specific environmental context. To determine the fate of human oligodendroglioma in an experimental model, we studied the development of an anaplastic tumor after intracranial implantation into enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP positive NOD/SCID mice. Remarkably after nearly nine months, the tumor not only engrafted, but it also retained classic histological and genetic features of human oligodendroglioma, in particular cells with a clear cytoplasm, showing an infiltrative growth pattern, and harboring mutations of IDH1 (R132H and of the tumor suppressor genes, FUBP1 and CIC. The xenografts were highly invasive, exhibiting a distinct migration and growth pattern around neurons, especially in the hippocampus, and following white matter tracts of the corpus callosum with tumor cells accumulating around established vasculature. Although tumors exhibited a high growth fraction in vivo, neither cells from the original patient tumor nor the xenograft exhibited significant growth in vitro over a six-month period. This glioma xenograft is the first to display a pure oligodendroglioma histology and expression of R132H. The unexpected property, that the cells fail to grow in vitro even after passage through the mouse, allows us to uniquely investigate the relationship of this oligodendroglioma with the in vivo microenvironment.

  12. Breast Cancer Surgery (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  13. Somatic BRAF c.1799T>A p.V600E Mosaicism syndrome characterized by a linear syringocystadenoma papilliferum, anaplastic astrocytoma, and ocular abnormalities. (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Shido, Kosuke; Niihori, Tetsuya; Niizuma, Hidetaka; Katata, Yu; Iizuka, Chie; Oba, Daiju; Moriya, Kunihiko; Saito-Nanjo, Yuka; Onuma, Masaei; Rikiishi, Takeshi; Sasahara, Yoji; Watanabe, Mika; Aiba, Setsuya; Saito, Ryuta; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Tominaga, Teiji; Aoki, Yoko; Kure, Shigeo


    Genetic mosaicism for somatic mutations of oncogenes is common in genodermatoses, which can be complicated with extra-cutaneous abnormalities. Here we describe an infant with a congenital anaplastic astrocytoma, a linear syringocystadenoma papilliferum, and ocular abnormalities. The BRAF c.1799T>A p.V600E mutation was detected in both the brain and skin tumor cells but not in the blood or normal skin cells, suggesting somatic mosaicsism for the mutation. Clinically, the brain tumor gradually became life threatening without any response to conventional chemotherapies including carboplatin, etoposide, and temozolomide. Vemurafenib, a BRAF p.V600E inhibitor, was administered daily after the detection of the BRAF mutation. This single-agent therapy was dramatically effective against the anaplastic astrocytoma; the tumor regressed, the cerebrospinal fluid cell count and protein levels decreased to normal levels, and hydrocephalus resolved. Moreover, other lesions including a corneal cyst also responded to vemurafenib. The brain tumor continued shrinking after 6 months of treatment. We present a genodermatosis syndrome associated with BRAF c.1799T>A p.V600E mosaicism. This syndrome may represent a new entity in the mosaic RASopathies, partly overlapping with Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome, which is driven by mosaicism of HRAS and/or KRAS activating mutations. Screening for BRAF c.1799T>A p.V600E is especially useful for those with malignant tumors, because it is one of the most-druggable targets. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Case of Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma: Remarkable Decrease in Multiple Lung Metastases within 40 Years after a Single Administration of Radioiodine without Thyroidectomy and with Later Anaplastic Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chio Okuyama


    Full Text Available Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy of childhood and adolescence that is unique because it has an overall favorable prognosis despite its relatively high rate of nodal and distant metastases. Total thyroidectomy and positive 131I therapy are recommended for cases with pulmonary metastases. In contrast, anaplastic thyroid cancer is one of the most aggressive malignancies that have an unfavorable and miserable prognosis. We report a case with an impressively long history. The patient had multiple pulmonary metastases that had been diagnosed by 131I administration when he was 14 years old, about 45 years before he underwent thyroidectomy. He had been kept unaware of his disease by his family and received no treatment for most of his life. Pulmonary nodules were noted at several medical checkups and showed a remarkable decrease in size during the untreated 44-year period after the 131I administration. At age 58, his thyroid cancer was first detected and total thyroidectomy was performed, with subsequent radioiodine therapy for pulmonary metastases. Unfortunately, anaplastic carcinoma developed and he died of disseminated tumors later.

  15. Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Stereotactic breast biopsy uses mammography – a specific type ... Breast Biopsy? What is Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the breast are often ...

  16. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer) (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  18. General Information about Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  19. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia


    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  20. Breast Calcifications (United States)

    ... and require no further testing or follow-up. Microcalcifications. These show up as fine, white specks, similar to grains of salt. They're usually noncancerous, but certain patterns can be an early sign of cancer. If breast calcifications appear suspicious on your initial mammogram, you ...

  1. Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over butter and fish instead of red meat. Breast cancer risk reduction for women with a high risk If your doctor has assessed your family history and determined that you have other factors, such ...

  2. Chronic biofilm infection in breast implants is associated with an increased T-cell lymphocytic infiltrate: implications for breast implant-associated lymphoma. (United States)

    Hu, Honghua; Jacombs, Anita; Vickery, Karen; Merten, Steven L; Pennington, David G; Deva, Anand K


    Biofilm infection of breast implants significantly potentiates capsular contracture. This study investigated whether chronic biofilm infection could promote T-cell hyperplasia. In the pig study, 12 textured and 12 smooth implants were inserted into three adult pigs. Implants were left in situ for a mean period of 8.75 months. In the human study, 57 capsules from patients with Baker grade IV contracture were collected prospectively over a 4-year period. Biofilm and surrounding lymphocytes were analyzed using culture, nucleic acid, and visualization techniques. In the pig study, all samples were positive for bacterial biofilm. There was a significant correlation between the bacterial numbers and grade of capsular contracture (p = 0.04). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that all lymphocytes were significantly more numerous on textured compared with smooth implants (p biofilm. Analysis of lymphocyte numbers showed a T-cell predominance (p biofilm infection around breast prostheses produces an increased T-cell response both in the pig and in humans. A possible link between bacterial biofilm and T-cell hyperplasia is significant in light of breast implant-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Risk, V.

  3. Anaplastic astrocytoma: prognostic factors and survival in 4807 patients with emphasis on receipt and impact of adjuvant therapy. (United States)

    Shin, Jacob Y; Diaz, Aidnag Z


    To determine the receipt and impact of adjuvant therapy on overall survival (OS) for anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). Data were extracted from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Chi square test, Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression models were employed in SPSS 22.0 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) for data analyses. 4807 patients with AA diagnosed from 2004 to 2013 who underwent surgery were identified. 3243 (67.5 %) received adjuvant chemoRT, 525 (10.9 %) adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) alone, 176 (3.7 %) adjuvant chemotherapy alone and 863 (18.0 %) received no adjuvant therapy. Patients were more likely to receive adjuvant chemoRT if they were diagnosed in 2009-2013 (p = 0.022), were ≤ 50 years (p < 0.001), were male (p = 0.043), were Asian or White race (p < 0.001), had private insurance (p < 0.001), had income ≥$38,000 (p < 0.001), or underwent total resection (p < 0.003). Those who received adjuvant chemoRT had significantly better 5-year OS than the other adjuvant treatment types (41.8 % vs. 31.2 % vs. 29.8 % vs. 27.4 %, p < 0.001). This significant 5-year OS benefit was also observed regardless of age at diagnosis. Of those undergoing adjuvant chemoRT, those receiving ≥59.4 Gy had significantly better 5-year OS than those receiving <59.4 Gy (44.4 % vs. 25.9 %, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in OS when comparing 59.4 Gy to higher RT doses. On multivariate analysis, receipt of adjuvant chemoRT, age at diagnosis, extent of disease, and insurance status were independent prognostic factors for OS. Adjuvant chemoRT is an independent prognostic factor for improved OS in AA and concomitant chemoRT should be considered for all clinically suitable patients who have undergone surgery for the disease.

  4. Immunocytochemical analysis of glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT-1) in typical, brain invasive, atypical and anaplastic meningioma. (United States)

    van de Nes, Johannes A P; Griewank, Klaus G; Schmid, Kurt-Werner; Grabellus, Florian


    Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) is one of the major isoforms of the family of glucose transporter proteins that facilitates the import of glucose in human cells to fuel anaerobic metabolism. The present study was meant to determine the extent of the anaerobic/hypoxic state of the intratumoral microenvironment by staining for GLUT-1 in intracranial non-embolized typical (WHO grade I; n = 40), brain invasive and atypical (each WHO grade II; n = 38) and anaplastic meningiomas (WHO grade III, n = 6). In addition, GLUT-1 staining levels were compared with the various histological criteria used for diagnosing WHO grade II and III meningiomas, namely, brain invasion, increased mitotic activity and atypical cytoarchitectural change, defined by the presence of at least three out of hypercellularity, sheet-like growth, prominent nucleoli, small cell change and "spontaneous" necrosis. The level of tumor hypoxia was assessed by converting the extent and intensity of the stainings by multiplication in an immunoreactive score (IRS) and statistically evaluated. The results were as follows. (1) While GLUT-1 expression was found to be mainly weak in WHO grade I meningiomas (IRS = 1-4) and to be consistently strong in WHO grade III meningiomas (IRS = 6-12), in WHO grade II meningiomas GLUT-1 expression was variable (IRS = 1-9). (2) Histologically typical, but brain invasive meningiomas (WHO grade II) showed no or similarly low levels of GLUT-1 expression as observed in WHO grade I meningiomas (IRS = 0-4). (3) GLUT-1 expression was observed in the form of a patchy, multifocal staining reaction in 76% of stained WHO grade I-III meningiomas, while diffuse staining (in 11%) and combined multifocal and areas of diffuse staining (in 13%) were only detected in WHO grades II and III meningiomas, except for uniform staining in angiomatous WHO grade I meningioma. (4) "Spontaneous" necrosis and small cell change typically occurred away from the intratumoral capillary

  5. Concomitant occurrence of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and KRAS (V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) mutations in an ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive lung adenocarcinoma patient with acquired resistance to crizotinib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Henrik H; Grauslund, Morten; Urbanska, Edyta M


    , the events behind crizotinib-resistance currently remain largely uncharacterized. Thus, we report on an anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung carcinoma patient with concomitant occurrence of epidermal growth factor receptor and V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog mutations...

  6. Breast lift (mastopexy) - slideshow (United States)

    ... page: // Breast lift (mastopexy) - series—Incisions To use the sharing features ... to slide 3 out of 3 Overview Breast lift (mastopexy) is usually performed for drooping breasts, which ...

  7. Male Breast Cancer (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  8. Breast radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... You may notice changes in the way your breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation ... after treatment is over. The skin on your breast may become more sensitive or numb. Skin and ...

  9. Breast Cancer Disparities (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  10. Types of Breast Pumps (United States)

    ... Health and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Breast Pumps Types of Breast Pumps Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... a nipple and used for feeding a baby. Types of Breast Pumps There are three basic types ...

  11. Breast Cancer Trends (United States)

    ... 2011 Funding: Increasing Awareness and Support Among Young Women with Breast Cancer Funding: Young Breast Cancer Survivors Funding: Breast Cancer Genomics Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State ...

  12. Inflammatory Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... breast cancer correctly. Their recommendations are summarized below. Minimum criteria for a diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer ... Initial biopsy samples from the affected breast show invasive carcinoma. Further examination of tissue from the affected ...

  13. Breast cancer in pregnancy. (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael


    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Breast reconstruction after breast cancer. (United States)

    Serletti, Joseph M; Fosnot, Joshua; Nelson, Jonas A; Disa, Joseph J; Bucky, Louis P


    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the mental, emotional, and physical benefits of reconstruction in breast cancer patients. 2. Compare the most common techniques of reconstruction in patients and detail benefits and risks associated with each. 3. Outline different methods of reconstruction and identify the method considered best for the patient based on timing of the procedures, body type, adjuvant therapies, and other coexisting conditions. 4. Distinguish between some of the different flaps that can be considered for autologous reconstruction. Breast cancer is unfortunately a common disease affecting millions of women, often at a relatively young age. Reconstruction following mastectomy offers women an opportunity to mollify some of the emotional and aesthetic effects of this devastating disease. Although varying techniques of alloplastic and autologous techniques are available, all strive to achieve the same goal: the satisfactory reformation of a breast mound that appears as natural as possible without clothing and at the very least is normal in appearance under clothing. This article summarizes the various approaches to breast reconstruction and offers a balanced view of the risks and benefits of each, all of which in the end offer the opportunity for excellent and predictable results with a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  15. Imaging Guided Breast Interventions. (United States)

    Masroor, Imrana; Afzal, Shaista; Sufian, Saira Naz


    Breast imaging is a developing field, with new and upcoming innovations, decreasing the morbidity and mortality related to breast pathologies with main emphasis on breast cancer. Breast imaging has an essential role in the detection and management of breast disease. It includes a multimodality approach, i.e. mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine techniques and interventional procedures, done for the diagnosis and definitive management of breast abnormalities. The range of methods to perform biopsy of a suspicious breast lesion found on imaging has also increased markedly from the 1990s with hi-technological progress in surgical as well as percutaneous breast biopsy methods. The image guided percutaneous breast biopsy procedures cause minimal breast scarring, save time, and relieve the patient of the anxiety of going to the operation theatre. The aim of this review was to describe and discuss the different image guided breast biopsy techniques presently employed along with the indications, contraindication, merits and demerits of each method.

  16. [Fibrocystic breast disease--breast cancer sequence]. (United States)

    Habor, V; Habor, A; Copotoiu, C; Panţîru, A


    Fibrocystic breast disease has developed a major issue: the breast cancer sequence. Its involvement regarding the increse of breast cancer risk has 2 aspects: it may be either the marker of a prone tissue or a premalignant hystological deffect. Difficult differential diagnosis of benign proliferative breast lession and carcinoma led to the idea of sequency between the two: cancer does not initiate on normal mammary epithelia; it takes several proliferative stages for it to occur. In our series we analized a number of 677 breast surgical procedures where the pathologic examination reveals 115 cases (17%) of coexistence between cancer and fibrocystic breast disease. This aspect has proved to be related to earlier debut of breast cancer, suggesting that epithelial hyperplasia is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  17. TrkAIII Promotes Microtubule Nucleation and Assembly at the Centrosome in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells, Contributing to an Undifferentiated Anaplastic Phenotype (United States)

    Farina, Antonietta R.; Di Ianni, Natalia; Cappabianca, Lucia; Ruggeri, Pierdomenico; Ragone, Marzia; Ianni, Giulia; Gulino, Alberto; Mackay, Andrew R.


    The alternative TrkAIII splice variant is expressed by advanced stage human neuroblastomas (NBs) and exhibits oncogenic activity in NB models. In the present study, employing stable transfected cell lines and assays of indirect immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, Western blotting, microtubule regrowth, tubulin kinase, and tubulin polymerisation, we report that TrkAIII binds α-tubulin and promotes MT nucleation and assembly at the centrosome. This effect depends upon spontaneous TrkAIII activity, TrkAIII localisation to the centrosome and pericentrosomal area, and the capacity of TrkAIII to bind, phosphorylate, and polymerise tubulin. We propose that this novel role for TrkAIII contributes to MT involvement in the promotion and maintenance of an undifferentiated anaplastic NB cell morphology by restricting and augmenting MT nucleation and assembly at the centrosomal MTOC. PMID:23841091

  18. TrkAIII Promotes Microtubule Nucleation and Assembly at the Centrosome in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells, Contributing to an Undifferentiated Anaplastic Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta R. Farina


    Full Text Available The alternative TrkAIII splice variant is expressed by advanced stage human neuroblastomas (NBs and exhibits oncogenic activity in NB models. In the present study, employing stable transfected cell lines and assays of indirect immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, Western blotting, microtubule regrowth, tubulin kinase, and tubulin polymerisation, we report that TrkAIII binds α-tubulin and promotes MT nucleation and assembly at the centrosome. This effect depends upon spontaneous TrkAIII activity, TrkAIII localisation to the centrosome and pericentrosomal area, and the capacity of TrkAIII to bind, phosphorylate, and polymerise tubulin. We propose that this novel role for TrkAIII contributes to MT involvement in the promotion and maintenance of an undifferentiated anaplastic NB cell morphology by restricting and augmenting MT nucleation and assembly at the centrosomal MTOC.

  19. Breast cancer in men (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  20. Breast Cancer Overview (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  1. Breast Cancer -- Male (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  2. Clonal T-Cell Receptor γ-Chain Gene Rearrangements in Differential Diagnosis of Lymphomatoid Papulosis From Skin Metastasis of Nodal Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma (United States)

    Akilov, Oleg E.; Pillai, Raju K.; Grandinetti, Lisa M.; Kant, Jeffrey A.; Geskin, Larisa


    Background In patients with a history of nodal anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL), differentiation of type C lymphomatoid papulosis from cutaneous involvement of systemic ALCL may be challenging because the 2 entities may exhibit identical histologic features. Although metastatic ALCL generally carries the same clone as the primary lymphoma, expression of a distinct clone likely represents a distinct process. Observations A 54-year-old white man had a history of anaplastic lymphoma kinase 1–negative ALCL in the right inguinal lymph node 6 years ago. A complete response was achieved after 6 cycles of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine [Oncovin], and prednisone administered in 21-day cycles) and radiation therapy. After 3½ years, the patient observed waxing and waning papules and nodules. Examination of the biopsy specimen revealed a dense CD30+ lymphocytic infiltrate; no evidence of systemic malignancy was evident on positron emission tomography. Although clinically the presentation was consistent with lymphomatoid papulosis, metastatic ALCL had to be excluded. Polymerase chain reaction analysis with T-cell receptor γ-chain gene rearrangement (TCR-γR) was performed on the original lymph node and new skin lesions. Results of the TCR-γR analysis were positive for clonality in both lesions. However, separate clonal processes were identified. The identification of distinct clones supported the clinical impression of lymphomatoid papulosis. Conclusion Polymerase chain reaction analysis of TCR-γR is a useful method for distinguishing different clonal processes and is recommended when differentiation of primary and secondary lymphoproliferative disorders is required. PMID:21844453

  3. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)


    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  4. Epidemiology and Survival Analysis of Jordanian Female Breast Cancer Patients Diagnosed from 1997 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Sharkas


    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Jordanian women, yet survival data are scarce. This study aims to assess the observed five-year survival rate of breast cancer in Jordan from 1997 to 2002 and to determine factors that may influence survival. Methods: Data were obtained from the Jordan Cancer Registry (JCR, which is a population-based registry. From 1997-2002, 2121 patients diagnosed with breast cancer were registered in JCR. Relevant data were collected from JCR files, hospital medical records and histopathology reports. Patient's status, whether alive or dead, wasascertained from the Department of Civil Status using patients’ national numbers (ID. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS (version 10. Survival probabilities by age, morphology, grade, stage and other relevant variables were obtained with the Kaplan Meier method. Results: The overall five-year survival for breast cancer in Jordan, regardless of the stage or grade was 64.2%, meanwhile it was 58% in the group aged less than 30 years. The best survival was in the age group 40-49 years (69.3%. The survival for adenocarcinoma was 57.4% and for medullary carcinoma, it was 82%. The survival rate approximated 73.8% for well-differentiated, 55.6% for anaplastic, and 58% for poorly differentiated cancers. The five-year survival rate was 82.7% for stage I, 72.2% for stage II, 58.7% for stage III, and 34.6% for stage IV cancers.Conclusion: According to univariate analysis, stage, grade, age and laterality of breast cancer significantly influenced cancer survival. Cox regression analysis revealed that stage, grade and age factors correlated with prognosis, while laterality showed no significant effect on survival. Results demonstrated that overall survival was relatively poor. We hypothesized that this was due to low levels of awareness and lack of screening programs.

  5. Stages of Male Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  6. Breast development and anatomy. (United States)

    Pandya, Sonali; Moore, Richard G


    In this article, the development of the female breast, as well as the functional anatomy, blood supply, innervation and lymphatic drainage are described. A thorough understanding of the breast anatomy is an important adjunct to a meticulous clinical breast examination. Breast examination is a complex skill involving key maneuvers, including careful inspection and palpation. Clinical breast examination can provide an opportunity for the clinician to educate patients about their breast and about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, early detection, and normal breast composition, and specifically variability. Clinical breast examination can help to detect some cancers not found by mammography, and clinicians should not override their examination findings if imaging is not supportive of the physical findings.

  7. Breast development gives insights into breast disease. (United States)

    Osin, P P; Anbazhagan, R; Bartkova, J; Nathan, B; Gusterson, B A


    Studies of developing human breasts are essential for understanding the organogenesis as well as molecular pathogenesis of benign and malignant breast diseases. In this study we have examined the distribution of TGF-alpha, TGF-beta 1, tenascin-C and collagen type IV with the aim of starting to build a picture of the profile of molecules that may be involved in the development of the human breast. Ten fetal breasts (16 to 23 weeks of gestation) and 45 infant breasts, ranging in age from newborn to 2 years, were used in this study. Paraffin sections from these samples were immunostained with antibodies for these proteins and for Ki67 to elucidate the level of proliferative activity in different stages of breast development. TGF-alpha immunoreactivity was observed both in the stromal and the epithelial cells within fetal and infant breasts up to 25 days. TGF-beta 1 immunoreactivity was localized in the extracellular matrix. Tenascin-C was found around the neck of the developing breast bud and in the extracellular matrix of the infant with peaks in the newborn at 6-12 weeks. The immunoreactivity for type IV collagen was more intense in the region of the breast bud neck in the fetal breasts and reduced around the tips of lobular and terminal-end buds within the infant breasts. The distribution of the growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins within the developing human breast indicates that they play a significant role in different cellular compartments during morphogenesis and provides insights into breast disease.

  8. Screening for Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Niell, Bethany L; Freer, Phoebe E; Weinfurtner, Robert Jared; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Drukteinis, Jennifer S


    The goal of screening is to detect breast cancers when still curable to decrease breast cancer-specific mortality. Breast cancer screening in the United States is routinely performed with mammography, supplemental digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and/or MR imaging. This article aims to review the most commonly used breast imaging modalities for screening, discuss how often and when to begin screening with specific imaging modalities, and examine the pros and cons of screening. By the article's end, the reader will be better equipped to have informed discussions with patients and medical professionals regarding the benefits and disadvantages of breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  10. Optical Imaging of the Breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    As the increased prevalence of breast cancer and the advances in breast evaluation awareness have resulted in an increased number of breast examinations and benign breast biopsies, several investigations have been performed to improve the diagnostic accuracy for breast lesions. Optical imaging of the breast that uses nearinfrared light to assess the optical properties of breast tissue is a novel non-invasive imaging technique to characterize breast lesions in clinical practice. This review provides a summary of the current state of optical breast imaging and it describes the basic concepts of optical imaging, the potential clinical applications for breast cancer imaging and its potential incorporation with other imaging modalities

  11. Risks of Breast Implants (United States)

    ... Tissue Disease The FDA has not detected any association between silicone gel-filled breast implants and connective tissue disease, breast cancer, or reproductive problems. In order to rule out ...

  12. Breast ultrasound: current concepts. (United States)

    Candelaria, Rosalind P; Hwang, Lindsay; Bouchard, Richard R; Whitman, Gary J


    Breast ultrasound plays a major role in the identification, diagnosis, and staging of breast cancer. Gray-scale (brightness mode) is the most common form of ultrasound used in breast imaging (BI); newer techniques such as harmonic imaging, Doppler imaging, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound, and elasticity imaging have also been employed. Breast lesions that are initially identified on mammography and magnetic resonance imaging can be further characterized with ultrasound. Breast ultrasound can differentiate solid from cystic masses, suspicious from benign lesions, and abnormal from normal lymph nodes. Ultrasound can guide needle biopsy of suspicious breast lesions and lymph nodes. Breast ultrasound can also be valuable when staging breast cancer and can help to determine if there is multifocal or multicentric disease, and also if there is associated regional lymphadenopathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Leiomyosarcoma of the breast


    Oktay, Y; Fikret, A


    Leiomyosarcomas of the breast are rare tumors. Less than 16 such cases have been reported in the literature so far. We present a case of a 44 year female patient who was found to have primary leiomyosarcoma of the breast.

  14. Breast Reduction Surgery (United States)

    ... to achieve a breast size proportionate to your body. Breast reduction surgery might also help improve your self-image and self-confidence and your ability to participate in physical activities. ...

  15. The tuberous male breast. (United States)

    Hamilton, S; Gault, D


    Whilst tuberous female breasts are well described, the tuberous male breast is a very unusual variant of gynaecomastia. Two cases are presented, the development of the condition is considered and the surgical management is discussed.

  16. Breast cancer staging (United States)

    ... this page: // Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  17. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  18. Whole breast radiation therapy (United States)

    ... 11, 2016. . Accessed September 13, 2016. National Cancer Institute. Radiation therapy and you: support for people who have cancer. Web ...

  19. Partial breast brachytherapy (United States)

    ... 11, 2016. . Accessed September 13, 2016. National Cancer Institute. Radiation therapy and you: support for people who have cancer. Web ...

  20. Breast infection (image) (United States)

    Most breast infections occur in breastfeeding women when bacteria enters the breast through cracks in the nipple. In severe infections, abscesses may occur. Antibiotics may be indicated for treatment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bit-Sava


    Full Text Available Hereditary breast cancer occurs in 5–20 % of cases and it is associated with inherited mutations in particular genes, such as BRCA1 и BRCA2 in most cases. The CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, RAD51, BLM, PALB2, Nbs genes are associated with low and median risks ofdeveloping breast cancer. Molecular genetic studies identify germinal mutations underlying hereditary breast cancer. In most cases hereditary breast cancer refers to triple-negative phenotype, which is the most aggressive type of breast cancer, that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. The review presents the diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer. Clinical-morphological aspects allow the new diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer to be identified. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors demonstrate the potential for effective treatment of BRCA-associated breast cancer.

  2. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer (United States)


    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  3. Long-Term Responders After Brentuximab Vedotin: Single-Center Experience on Relapsed and Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma and Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Patients. (United States)

    Gandolfi, Letizia; Pellegrini, Cinzia; Casadei, Beatrice; Stefoni, Vittorio; Broccoli, Alessandro; Tonialini, Lorenzo; Morigi, Alice; Argnani, Lisa; Zinzani, Pier Luigi


    Brentuximab vedotin (BV) has shown high overall response rate in refractory/relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (sALCL) with reported long-term response duration in clinical trials, but few data are available regarding its role in long-term outcomes in real life. A single-center observational study was conducted on patients treated with BV in daily clinical practice to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of BV in HL and sALCL patients and to check whether clinical trial results are confirmed in a real-life context. The best response rate in the treated 53 patients (43 HL and 10 sALCL) was 69.8% (with 46.5% complete response [CR]) in HL and 100% (80% CR) for sALCL, respectively. With a median patient follow-up of 36.8 months, the estimated median duration of response was 31.5 months for HL and 17.8 for sALCL, respectively. At the latest available follow-up, 75% of patients were still in response, with 43% without any consolidation. Toxicity was primarily neurological and it was rarely so serious to require dose reduction or interruption. In addition, it always reversed completely after the end of treatment. Our data showed that 51% of patients treated with BV can be regarded as "long-term responders." Among these cases, for all patients who underwent stem cell transplantation immediately after BV, the procedure was consolidative. For patients who have remained in continuous CR without any consolidation after therapy, BV can induce prolonged disease control. Brentuximab vedotin (BV) has shown a high overall response rate in refractory/relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma, with reported long-term response duration in clinical trials, whereas few data are available regarding its role in long-term outcomes in real life. The data reported in this study suggest that BV can induce the same results in daily clinical practice. The data showed that 51% of patients treated with BV can be regarded as "long

  4. [Breast cancer surgery]. (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Berclaz, Gilles; Langer, Igor; Pittet-Cuenod, Brigitte; Delaloye, Jean-François


    Breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for early breast cancer. For patients who choice or need a mastectomy, breast reconstruction provides an acceptable alternative. Breast cancer surgery has been evolving through minimally invasive approaches. Sentinel node biopsy has already remplaced axillary lymph node dissection in the evaluation of the axilla. Local ablation of the tumor may be a valuable alternative to surgery in the future.

  5. Tamoxifen for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karn


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the common cancers. Hormonal therapy along with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy are vital modalities for the management of breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the most widely used hormonal therapy for more than two decades. In this article we review the benefits, dose, duration and timing of Tamoxifen therapy in patients with breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, hormonal therapy, tamoxifen.

  6. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guluzar Arzu Turan


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 317-323

  7. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer (United States)


    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  8. [Tuberous breast: Current concept]. (United States)

    Ellart, J; Chaput, B; Grolleau, J-L


    Tuberous breast deformity is a congenital breast anomaly with different clinical signs. The most consistent sign is the constricting ring at the base of the breast. There is deficiency in the horizontal and/or vertical dimensions of the breast and often herniation of breast parenchyma toward the nipple-areola complex with areola enlargement. Breast asymmetry is frequently associated. This anomaly occurs only in females, during breast development at puberty. The incidence is unknown because of minor forms more difficult to diagnose. This deformity produces psychological morbidity and encourages the patients to consult. In 1999, Grolleau publishes a classification with three types of tuberous breast deformity. The goals of the surgical treatment are the expansion of the constricted base, the redistribution of volume, the correction of areolar size and of herniated subareolar breast tissue. In type II and III, the simple use of breast implant involves the "memory" of the previous inframammary fold line. To avoid this complication, it is necessary to make a glandular rearrangement with parenchymal flaps like Puckett and Ribeiro. It is a real challenge for the plastic surgeon who must reshape the breast and obtain a symmetry of volume. It would be delusive to think all types of tuberous breast can be corrected with the same one-step technique. It is often necessary to plan several surgeries and patient must always be informed about the strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Optical breast imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, S.M.W.Y.


    Optical breast imaging uses near-infrared light to assess the optical properties of breast tissue. It can be performed relying on intrinsic breast tissue contrast alone or with the use of exogenous imaging agents that accumulate at the tumor site. Different tissue components have unique scattering

  10. Beating Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Beating Breast Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2017 Table of Contents Melanie ... Her mother had died at age 49 of breast cancer after three battles with the disease. Ovarian cancer ...

  11. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA M.Med, Galukande M M M.Med, MSc, FCS, Namuguzi D M.Med, Muyinda Z M.Med. Affiliations: breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA1 M.Med, Galukande M1 M M.Med, ...

  12. Breast Cancer (For Kids) (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  13. Breast sarcomas. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Ryabchikov


    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the literature about breast sarcomas (nonepithelial malignances. Primary sarcomas are extremely rare, with less than 1 % of all malignant tumors of the breast. Breast carcinomas cause an increased interest of the scientists due to their unique clinical and pathological features and unpredictable prognosis.

  14. Inflammatory breast cancer in accessory abdominal breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. Miles, MD, MPH


    Full Text Available Accessory breast tissue results from failure of the embryologic mammary ridge, also known as the milk line, to involute. As a result, ectopic breast tissue can develop anywhere along this ridge, which extends from the axilla—the most common location—to the groin. Primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue is uncommon but has been reported in multiple prior studies. We present a rare case of inflammatory breast cancer presenting in upper abdominal accessory breast tissue in women with a personal history of ipsilateral breast cancer, and highlight the challenges of both diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in accessory breast tissue.

  15. [Breast-conserving therapy in breast cancer]. (United States)

    Marcollet, Anne; Doridot, Virginie; Nos, Claude


    The combination of lumpectomy, axillary node treatment and radiotherapy of the breast is the base of breast-conserving therapy. This combination of surgery and radiotherapy is now accepted as a standard treatment option for unifocal, non inflammatory lesion less than 3 cm. The widespread use of mammography to detect infraclinic breast carcinoma leads to a significant increase in the proportion of breast conserving treatment. Neoadjuvant therapeutics (chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonotherapy) can extend the standard indication to breast carcinoma larger than 3 cm. The standard definition is also modified by sentinel node biopsy, oncoplastic techniques and stereotactic surgery with satisfactory cosmetic results. The risk of local recurrence, particularly the margins, must be evaluated whatever the surgical treatment optimizing oncologic management.

  16. Breast-feeding and benign breast disease. (United States)

    Bernardi, S; Londero, A P; Bertozzi, S; Driul, L; Marchesoni, D; Petri, R


    Benign breast disease (BBD) is very common among women in their fertile age, but its correlation with breast reproductive function remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the relation between BBD and breast-feeding. We collected data on 105 women with BBD and 98 controls, focusing on their reproductive history and breast-feeding. We analysed data by R (version 2.12.1) considering p feeding was not significantly different between controls and BBD types (p = NS). Selecting women with fibroadenoma breast-feeding duration directly correlated with the number of benign lesions (p feeding among BBDs types, but lactation may influence the number of fibroadenomas. Moreover, prospective studies would better define the correlation between lactation and BBDs.

  17. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors (United States)


    one or both breasts were affected. Family Member (e.g. grandmother, aunt) Paternal or Maternal Type or Location of Cancer (e.g. breast ...Local recurrences and distant metastases after breast -conserving surgery and radiation therapy for early breast cancer . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys...AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: DAMD17-03-1-0454 TITLE: Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance

  18. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer (United States)


    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  19. Intraspinal metastasis in a patient with a stage I anaplastic Wilms` tumor; Intraspinale Metastasierung eines anaplastischen Wilms-Tumors im Stadium I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegel, T. [Abt. Strahlentherapie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Grzyska, U. [Abt. Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinik Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Schwarz, R. [Abt. Strahlentherapie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Escherich, G. [Abt. fuer Paediatrische Onkologie, Universitaetskinderklinik Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany)


    We report a case of an intraspinal metastasis by a young child with anaplastic Wilms` tumor (stage I). A 9-year-old girl developed 8 months following nephrectomy and pre-operative chemotherapy strong back pain. Within 2 weeks signs of beginning of spinal cord compression were obtained. The magnetic resonance imaging showed a spinal cord compression with an intraspinal tumor mass Th 8 to 10. The child underwent immediate spinal cord decompression followed by chemotherapy and an additional radiotherapy of the metastatic region up to 30 Gy with most of neurologic recovery within 6 weeks. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Fall einer intraspinalen Metastasierung eines Wilms-Tumors im Stadium I wird vorgestellt. Bei einem neunjaehrigen Maedchen mit einem vollstaendig resezierten und praeoperativ chemotherapierten anaplastischen Wilms-Tumor (Stadium I) entwickelten sich acht Monate nach Therapie zunehmende thorakale Rueckenschmerzen ohne neurologische Ausfallszeichen. Unter konservativer Behandlung kam es zu einem beginnenden thorakalen Querschnittssyndrom. Die Magnetresonanztomographie zeigte eine intraspinale Raumforderung in Hoehe des achten bis zehnten Brustwirbelkoerpers. Der Spinalkanal wurde operativ entlastet und der Tumor teilweise reseziert. Die histologische Diagnose ergab die Metastase eines Wilms-Tumors. Anschliessend wurde die Metastasenregion grosszuegig bis zu einer Herddosis von 30 Gy nachbestrahlt. 6 Wochen nach Ende der Therapie hatte sich die neurologische Symptomatik weitgehend zurueckgebildet. (orig.)

  20. Pitfalls of conservative treatments of multiple probable cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs): clinicopathological features of CCMs coexisting with vasculogenic mimicry in an anaplastic oligodendroglioma. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Junkoh; Shimajiri, Shohei; Miyaoka, Ryo; Nishizawa, Shigeru


    Developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have dramatically increased the detection of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). Conservative treatment is often recommended for asymptomatic cases. However, CCMs occasionally harbor malignant gliomas. Here, we describe a rare case of multiple probable CCMs and an anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) showing vasculogenic mimicry (VM) and discuss the potential pitfalls of conservative treatments. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with generalized seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple parenchymal hypointensities, particularly in the right frontal lobe, with hyperintensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. The patient was diagnosed with multiple probable CCMs, and conservative treatment was administered. However, follow-up MRI showed a slightly enlarged hyperintense area in the right frontal lobe. The patient then underwent surgery; histological diagnosis was CCMs and AO with VM. The patient subsequently underwent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. No neurological deficits or tumor recurrence were evident 21 months after surgery. We present this rare case and emphasize the possibility of the coexistence of malignant gliomas with CCMs. Close observation with MRI is essential in cases of multiple probable CCMs, and a histological confirmation should be considered in cases showing any enlargement of hyperintensity on FLAIR images.

  1. Evaluation of Lentiviral-Mediated Expression of Sodium Iodide Symporter in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer and the Efficacy of In Vivo Imaging and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chih Ke


    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is one of the most deadly cancers. With intensive multimodalities of treatment, the survival remains low. ATC is not sensitive to 131I therapy due to loss of sodium iodide symporter (NIS gene expression. We have previously generated a stable human NIS-expressing ATC cell line, ARO, and the ability of iodide accumulation was restored. To make NIS-mediated gene therapy more applicable, this study aimed to establish a lentiviral system for transferring hNIS gene to cells and to evaluate the efficacy of in vitro and in vivo radioiodide accumulation for imaging and therapy. Lentivirus containing hNIS cDNA were produced to transduce ARO cells which do not concentrate iodide. Gene expression, cell function, radioiodide imaging and treatment were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that the transduced cells were restored to express hNIS and accumulated higher amount of radioiodide than parental cells. Therapeutic dose of 131I effectively inhibited the tumor growth derived from transduced cells as compared to saline-treated mice. Our results suggest that the lentiviral system efficiently transferred and expressed hNIS gene in ATC cells. The transduced cells showed a promising result of tumor imaging and therapy.

  2. Epigenetic Silencing of the Proapoptotic Gene BIM in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma through an MeCP2/SIN3a Deacetylating Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Piazza


    Full Text Available BIM is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. Here, we investigated the epigenetic status of the BIM locus in NPM/ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL cell lines and in lymph node biopsies from NPM/ALK+ ALCL patients. We show that BIM is epigenetically silenced in cell lines and lymph node specimens and that treatment with the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A restores the histone acetylation, strongly upregulates BIM expression, and induces cell death. BIM silencing occurs through recruitment of MeCP2 and the SIN3a/histone deacetylase 1/2 (HDAC1/2 corepressor complex. This event requires BIM CpG methylation/demethylation with 5-azacytidine that leads to detachment of the MeCP2 corepressor complex and reacetylation of the histone tails. Treatment with the ALK inhibitor PF2341066 or with an inducible shRNA targeting NPM/ALK does not restore BIM locus reacetylation; however, enforced expression of NPM/ALK in an NPM/ALK-negative cell line significantly increases the methylation at the BIM locus. This study demonstrates that BIM is epigenetically silenced in NPM/ALK-positive cells through recruitment of the SIN3a/HDAC1/2 corepressor complex and that NPM/ALK is dispensable to maintain BIM epigenetic silencing but is able to act as an inducer of BIM methylation.

  3. Alectinib-Induced Erythema Multiforme and Successful Rechallenge with Alectinib in a Patient with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Rearranged Lung Cancer. (United States)

    Kimura, Tatsuo; Sowa-Osako, Junko; Nakai, Toshiyuki; Ohyama, Ayako; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Ohsawa, Masahiko; Hirata, Kazuto


    Alectinib is an oral drug developed for the treatment of patients with fusion gene encoding echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( EML4-ALK )-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we present the case of a patient treated with alectinib who developed a hypersensitivity reaction with successful rechallenge treatment. A 39-year-old woman who was a passive smoker was referred to Osaka City University Hospital for the evaluation of a skin event caused by treatment for NSCLC with the fusion gene EML4-ALK . The skin reaction was observed on the anterior chest, upper arms, and ear auricles on day 11 of treatment with oral alectinib. The skin event presented as widely distributed erythematous macules that were confluent, indicating a severe and life-threatening form. The skin lesions started to resolve after the initiation of treatment with 40 mg prednisolone. After regrowth of the tumor, she received a rechallenge program for alectinib for 2 weeks; thereafter, alectinib treatment was successfully reinitiated. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case in which alectinib, which binds to the adenosine triphosphate site of EML4-ALK , induced erythema multiforme. Moreover, successful readministration of alectinib through our rechallenge program has not been reported so far.

  4. Alectinib-Induced Erythema Multiforme and Successful Rechallenge with Alectinib in a Patient with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Rearranged Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Kimura


    Full Text Available Background: Alectinib is an oral drug developed for the treatment of patients with fusion gene encoding echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Here, we present the case of a patient treated with alectinib who developed a hypersensitivity reaction with successful rechallenge treatment. Case Presentation: A 39-year-old woman who was a passive smoker was referred to Osaka City University Hospital for the evaluation of a skin event caused by treatment for NSCLC with the fusion gene EML4-ALK. The skin reaction was observed on the anterior chest, upper arms, and ear auricles on day 11 of treatment with oral alectinib. The skin event presented as widely distributed erythematous macules that were confluent, indicating a severe and life-threatening form. The skin lesions started to resolve after the initiation of treatment with 40 mg prednisolone. After regrowth of the tumor, she received a rechallenge program for alectinib for 2 weeks; thereafter, alectinib treatment was successfully reinitiated. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case in which alectinib, which binds to the adenosine triphosphate site of EML4-ALK, induced erythema multiforme. Moreover, successful readministration of alectinib through our rechallenge program has not been reported so far.

  5. Valproic Acid, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, in Combination with Paclitaxel for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Phase II/III Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graziella Catalano


    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC has a median survival less than 5 months and, to date, no effective therapy exists. Taxanes have recently been stated as the main drug treatment for ATC, and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid efficiently potentiates the effects of paclitaxel in vitro. Based on these data, this trial assessed the efficacy and safety of the combination of paclitaxel and valproic acid for the treatment of ATC. This was a randomized, controlled phase II/III trial, performed on 25 ATC patients across 5 centers in northwest Italy. The experimental arm received the combination of paclitaxel (80 mg/m2/weekly and valproic acid (1,000 mg/day; the control arm received paclitaxel alone. Overall survival and disease progression, evaluated in terms of progression-free survival, were the primary outcomes. The secondary outcome was the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel. The coadministration of valproic acid did not influence the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel. Neither median survival nor median time to progression was statistically different in the two arms. Median survival of operated-on patients was significantly better than that of patients who were not operated on. The present trial demonstrates that the addition of valproic acid to paclitaxel has no effect on overall survival and disease progression of ATC patients. This trial is registered with EudraCT 2008-005221-11.

  6. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: A ceRNA Analysis Pointed to a Crosstalk between SOX2, TP53, and microRNA Biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Arancio


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that cancer stem cells (CSC may play a central role in oncogenesis, especially in undifferentiated tumours. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC has characteristics suggestive of a tumour enriched in CSC. Previous studies suggested that the stem cell factor SOX2 has a preeminent hierarchical role in determining the characteristics of stem cells in SW1736 ATC cell line. In detail, silencing SOX2 in SW1736 is able to suppress the expression of the stem markers analysed, strongly sensitizing the line to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, in order to further investigate the role of SOX2 in ATC, a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA analysis was conducted in order to isolate new functional partners of SOX2. Among the interactors, of particular interest are genes involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs (DICER1, RNASEN, and EIF2C2, in the control cell cycle (TP53, CCND1, and in mitochondrial activity (COX8A. The data suggest that stemness, microRNA biogenesis and functions, p53 regulatory network, cyclin D1, and cell cycle control, together with mitochondrial activity, might be coregulated.

  7. The R1275Q neuroblastoma mutant and certain ATP-competitive inhibitors stabilize alternative activation loop conformations of anaplastic lymphoma kinase. (United States)

    Epstein, Linda F; Chen, Hao; Emkey, Renee; Whittington, Douglas A


    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that, when genetically altered by mutation, amplification, chromosomal translocation or inversion, has been shown to play an oncogenic role in certain cancers. Small molecule inhibitors targeting the kinase activity of ALK have proven to be effective therapies in certain ALK-driven malignancies and one such inhibitor, crizotinib, is now approved for the treatment of EML4-ALK-driven, non-small cell lung cancer. In neuroblastoma, activating point mutations in the ALK kinase domain can drive disease progression, with the two most common mutations being F1174L and R1275Q. We report here crystal structures of the ALK kinase domain containing the F1174L and R1275Q mutations. Also included are crystal structures of ALK in complex with novel small molecule ALK inhibitors, including a classic type II inhibitor, that stabilize previously unobserved conformations of the ALK activation loop. Collectively, these structures illustrate a different series of activation loop conformations than has been observed in previous ALK crystal structures and provide insight into the activating nature of the R1275Q mutation. The novel active site topologies presented here may also aid the structure-based drug design of a new generation of ALK inhibitors.

  8. Expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Patients Treated With Multimodal Therapy: Results From a Retrospective Study. (United States)

    Chintakuntlawar, Ashish V; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; Smith, Carin Y; Jenkins, Sarah M; Foote, Robert L; Kasperbauer, Jan L; Morris, John C; Ryder, Mabel; Alsidawi, Samer; Hilger, Crystal; Bible, Keith C


    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is rare and a highly fatal malignancy. The role of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) as prognostic and/or predictive markers in ATC is unknown. Multimodal therapy offers the best chance at tumor control. The objective of this study was to detect potential associations of PD-1/PD-L1 axis variables with outcome data in ATC. Retrospective study of a uniformly treated cohort. Single institution retrospective cohort study. Sixteen patients who received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (15 had preceding surgery) were studied. Patients treated with multimodal therapy were followed and assessed for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). All samples demonstrated PD-1 expression in inflammatory cells whereas tumor cells were primarily negative. PD-L1 was expressed on ATC tumor cells in most samples and showed mainly membranous staining. High PD-1 expression (>40% staining) in inflammatory cells was associated with worse overall survival (OS; hazard ratio, 3.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 12.96; P 33% staining) trended toward worse PFS and OS. PD-1/PD-L1 pathway proteins are highly expressed in ATC tumor samples and appear to represent predictive markers of PFS and OS in multimodality-treated ATC patients.

  9. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer (United States)

    Martin, Lisa J.; Bronskill, Michael; Yaffe, Martin J.; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon


    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associated with variations in breast density, and the biological plausibility of the associations with risk of breast cancer. We also discuss the potential for improved risk prediction that might be achieved by using alternative breast imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound. After adjustment for other risk factors, breast density is consistently associated with breast cancer risk, more strongly than most other risk factors for this disease, and extensive breast density may account for a substantial fraction of breast cancer. Breast density is associated with risk of all of the proliferative lesions that are thought to be precursors of breast cancer. Studies of twins have shown that breast density is a highly heritable quantitative trait. Associations between breast density and variations in breast histology, risk of proliferative breast lesions, and risk of breast cancer may be the result of exposures of breast tissue to both mitogens and mutagens. Characterization of breast density by mammography has several limitations, and the uses of breast density in risk prediction and breast cancer prevention may be improved by other methods of imaging, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound tomography. PMID:20616353

  10. [Complications of breast reduction about 715 breasts]. (United States)

    Robert, G; Duhamel, A; Alet, J-M; Pelissier, P; Pinsolle, V


    Breast reduction is one of the most frequent operations in elective plastic surgery. The main objective of this study was to describe complications due to breast reduction, and to determine the risk factors. Our comparative retrospective study reviewed the medical files of 715 operated breasts between 2004 and 2009. Statistical analyses were performed with bivariate analyses and multivariable analysis. Smoking, resected mammary gland mass and stretch marks were the three risk factors associated with complications after breast reduction. Smoking was also associated with a high risk of hypertrophics carring. Body-mass index was not associated with a risk of general complications but with a risk of wound dehiscence. The superior pedicle and free nipple graft surgical techniques presented a higher complication rate than the postero-superior and postero-inferior pedicle techniques. These results incite us to postpone and even contraindicate breast reduction surgery in obese and smoking patients. These results also incite us to prefer surgical techniques with optimum security in terms of vascular supply. Complications of breast reduction about 715 breasts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Do fatty breasts increase or decrease breast cancer risk? (United States)

    Shepherd, John A; Kerlikowske, Karla


    Few studies have investigated the association of non-dense area or fatty breasts in conjunction with breast density and breast cancer risk. Two articles in a recent issue of Breast Cancer Research investigate the role of absolute non-dense breast area measured on mammograms and find conflicting results: one article finds that non-dense breast area has a modest positive association with breast cancer risk, whereas the other finds that non-dense breast area has a strong protective effect to reduce breast cancer risk. Understanding the interplay of body mass index, menopause status, and measurement of non-dense breast area would help to clarify the contribution of non-dense breast area to breast cancer risk.

  12. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  13. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... first 3 months of pregnancy . Other Information About Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Key Points Lactation (breast milk production) and breast- ... has had breast cancer. To Learn More About Breast Cancer and Pregnancy For more information from the National Cancer Institute ...

  14. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... first 3 months of pregnancy . Other Information About Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Key Points Lactation (breast milk production) and breast- ... has had breast cancer. To Learn More About Breast Cancer and Pregnancy For more information from the National Cancer Institute ...

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  16. Breast Cancer Rates by State (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  17. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  18. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Breast cancer Breast cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  20. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnink, T. H. Oude; Nagengast, W. B.; Brouwers, A. H.; Schroder, C. P.; Hospers, G. A.; Lub-de Hooge, M. N.; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.; de Vries, E. G. E.


    Molecular imaging of breast cancer can potentially be used for breast cancer screening, staging, restaging, response evaluation and guiding therapies. Techniques for molecular breast cancer imaging include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, and radionuclide imaging with positron

  1. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer (United States)


    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  2. Breast prothesis leakage and malignant changes of the breast. (United States)

    Al-Lawati, Taha; Kutty, Rajyashree


    A breast implant is a prosthesis used to enhance the size of a woman's breasts. Silicon implants are most commonly used, but as with all surgical implants it has some complications. The question is whether it can induce breast cancer? During the last year, a case of reconstructed breast with prosthesis which leaked was presented. The aim of this report is to review current literature to evaluate whether there are reported correlations between breast cancer and breast implants. The conclusion derived from this report is that there is no available evidence directly correlating breast cancer to breast implants.

  3. The tuberous breast revisited. (United States)

    Pacifico, Marc D; Kang, Norbert V


    The tuberous breast presents a problem for which many surgical solutions have been described. Current teaching describes how the tuberous breast deformity is the result of skin shortage as well as herniation of breast tissue through the nipple-areola complex. However, through careful clinical observation we now believe that the only abnormality present is herniation of breast tissue through the nipple-areola complex. Using this principle, we have refined a one-stage surgical procedure that can be used to correct any type of tuberous breast deformity. Since 2001 we have performed our technique on a series of 13 tuberous breasts of widely varying appearances in eight patients (age 17-24 years) with a follow up varying between 3 and 56 months. Our new understanding of the tuberous breast deformity has also made it possible to develop an objective, reproducible method for defining the tuberous breast based on the degree of areola herniation. All patients reported high levels of satisfaction with the procedure. Assessment of the results by an independent panel of attending surgeons showed all results to be good/excellent. Moreover, the results have improved with time and no revisions have been needed. Our method of defining the tuberous breast (based on the ratio of areola herniation:areola diameter) enabled us to identify a cut-off to decide (objectively) when a breast was tuberous. This allowed us to anticipate when an areola reduction/tightening procedure would be necessary to avoid a 'double-bubble' deformity. We propose a one-stage surgical procedure which is applicable to all degrees of tuberous breast deformity. The results appear to confirm our theory that the only abnormality present in the tuberous breast is herniation of breast tissue through the nipple-areola complex. In patients with small breasts and a tuberous deformity, correction of the herniation changes the tuberous breast into a simple hypoplastic breast. The volume deficit can then be corrected by

  4. Oxalate induces breast cancer. (United States)

    Castellaro, Andrés M; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L; Pucci, Oscar A; Gil, German A


    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  5. Neuroendocrine breast cancer. (United States)

    Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge


    Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast lump. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasonography showed a 2.4 cm nodule, probably a benign lesion (BI-RADS 3). A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed and revealed proliferative epithelial papillary lesion. She was submitted to excisional biopsy and histology showed endocrine breast cancer well differentiated (G1). Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for synaptophysin. These breast cancers are characterised for their excellent prognosis and conservative treatment is almost always enough to obtain patient cure.

  6. Breast cancer predisposition syndromes. (United States)

    Hemel, Deborah; Domchek, Susan M


    A small, but important, percentage of breast cancer cases is caused by the inheritance of a single copy of a mutated gene. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the genes most commonly associated with inherited breast cancer; however, mutations in TP53 and PTEN cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Cowden syndrome, respectively, both of which are associated with high lifetime risks of breast cancer. Advances in the field of breast cancer genetics have led to an improved understanding of detection and prevention strategies. More recently, strategies to target the underlying genetic defects in BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast and ovarian cancers are emerging and may have implications for certain types of sporadic breast cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Breast skin and nipple changes (United States)

    Inverted nipple; Nipple discharge; Breast feeding - nipple changes; Breastfeeding - nipple changes ... treatment. WARM TO THE TOUCH, RED, OR PAINFUL BREAST This is almost always caused by an infection ...

  8. Metaplastic Breast Cancer


    T?rkan, Halil; G?kg?z, M. ?ehsuvar; Parlak, N. Serhat


    Metaplastic Breast Cancer (MBC) is a term referring to a heterogeneous group with malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tissue components. MBC is a rare disease, accounting for 0.2% of all breast cancers. Most MBC are triple negative cancers with poor prognosis and an aggressive clinical course. Herein, we aimed to present a 74-year-old patient with metaplastic breast cancer along with clinical, radiologic and pathologic properties.

  9. Breast disorders in children and adolescents. (United States)

    Greydanus, Donald E; Matytsina, Lyubov; Gains, Michelé


    Concerns about problems of the breast are often noted in adolescents and their parents. This review discusses issues and disorders of the breast in children and adolescents, starting with basic principles of embryology and adolescent breast development. Concepts that are covered include congenital breast disorders, abnormal timing of breast development, breast asymmetry, underdeveloped breasts, breast atrophy, tuberous breasts, mammary hyperplasia, fibroadenoma, giant fibroadenoma, cystosarcoma phyllodes, intra-ductal breast papilloma, adenocarcinoma, mastitis, traumatic breast disorders, benign breast disease, fibrocystic change, mastalgia, gynecomastia, and galactorrhea. A number of figures are provided illustrating breast pathologic findings. Clinicians caring for children and adolescents are encouraged to provide careful assessments of this important organ.

  10. Destaining of Diff-Quik stained cytologic smears is not necessary for the detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement in lung adenocarcinoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisheng Xu


    Full Text Available Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene rearrangement analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is one of the standard molecular tests for targeted therapy of lung adenocarcinoma. However, insufficient cell block cellularity may impede molecular testing. A recent study showed that Diff-Quik (DQ stained cytology smear is suitable for ALK by FISH. Aims: The aim of our study was to observe the impact of destaining intervals on the quality of FISH signals and determine if DQ smears without destaining would allow FISH analysis. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five DQ smears from 27 cases of lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed for ALK gene rearrangement by FISH. Twenty three DQ smears were destained for different intervals, including 30 s (13 cases, 1 min (6 cases, or 2 min (4 cases. Twelve DQ smears were not subjected to destaining. For further validation, FISH signals in 8 smears and 6 cell blocks were compared with the paired destained DQ smears. The signal quality was semi-quantified and analyzed with Chi-squared test. Results: Of the total 27 selected cases, three (11% were positive for ALK gene rearrangement, whereas 24 (89% were negative. FISH signal was satisfactory in all DQ smears. There was no significant difference in the quality of signal among smears with different destaining intervals (P = 0.55 or between smears with and without destaining (P = 0.41. DQ smears without destaining showed identical FISH results and similar or better signals as compared with paired destained smears and cell blocks in all cases. Conclusions: Duration of destaining intervals does not impact the quality of FISH signal on DQ smears. Destaining of DQ smears is not necessary for ALK by FISH.

  11. Combined treatment with troglitazone and lovastatin inhibited epidermal growth factor-induced migration through the downregulation of cysteine-rich protein 61 in human anaplastic thyroid cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Han Chin

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF can induce cell migration through the induction of cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61 in human anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC cells. The aim of the present study was to determine the inhibitory effects of combined treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ ligand troglitazone and the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin at clinically achievable concentrations on ATC cell migration. Combined treatment with 5 μM troglitazone and 1 μM lovastatin exhibited no cytotoxicity but significantly inhibited EGF-induced migration, as determined using wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. Cotreatment with troglitazone and lovastatin altered the epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT -related marker gene expression of the cells; specifically, E-cadherin expression increased and vimentin expression decreased. In addition, cotreatment reduced the number of filopodia, which are believed to be involved in migration, and significantly inhibited EGF-induced Cyr61 mRNA and protein expression as well as Cyr61 secretion. Moreover, the phosphorylation levels of 2 crucial signal molecules for EGF-induced Cyr61 expression, the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, were decreased in cells cotreated with troglitazone and lovastatin. Performing a transient transfection assay revealed that the combined treatment significantly suppressed Cyr61 promoter activity. These results suggest that combined treatment with low doses of troglitazone and lovastatin effectively inhibits ATC cell migration and may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for metastatic ATC.

  12. Good Tolerance to Full-Dose Crizotinib in a Patient with Anaplastic Lymphoma Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Rearranged Lung Adenocarcinoma and Preexisting Renal Impairment (United States)

    Rosoux, Adeline; Duplaquet, Fabrice; Ocak, Sebahat


    Background Crizotinib is an approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor in the treatment of advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer patients with anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) rearrangement. Renal dysfunction after crizotinib administration was recently reported, but the physiopathological explanation and the safety in patients with preexisting renal dysfunction are still not clear. Case Presentation A 44-year-old female and current smoker was diagnosed with a stage IV lung adenocarcinoma and treated with five lines of chemotherapy during a 4-year period of time. While she developed symptomatic tumor progression with deterioration of her performance status and renal dysfunction after these five lines of treatment, we discovered that her lung cancer was ALK-rearranged. We therefore proposed a treatment with full-dose crizotinib despite the renal impairment (creatinine clearance: 33 mL/min/1.73 m2) of unknown origin. A renal function worsening occurred after the initiation of crizotinib but we did not reduce the dose as recommended and this did not induce further deterioration. During the 15 months under crizotinib, the patient had a good general status, no clinically noticeable side effect, and a stable renal dysfunction, which even improved after the initial worsening and almost returned to the baseline (pre-crizotinib) status. Conclusion This case report suggests that full-dose crizotinib may be continued even in patients with severe renal dysfunction and deterioration at treatment initiation, in parallel to careful follow-up of renal function and particular attention to avoid the use of concomitant nephrotoxic drugs. PMID:28868009

  13. Phase III randomized study of radiation and temozolomide versus radiation and nitrosourea therapy for anaplastic astrocytoma: results of NRG Oncology RTOG 9813. (United States)

    Chang, Susan; Zhang, Peixin; Cairncross, J Gregory; Gilbert, Mark R; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Dolinskas, Carol A; Chakravarti, Arnab; Aldape, Kenneth D; Bell, Erica H; Schiff, David; Jaeckle, Kurt; Brown, Paul D; Barger, Geoffrey R; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Shih, Helen; Brachman, David; Penas-Prado, Marta; Robins, H Ian; Belanger, Karl; Schultz, Christopher; Hunter, Grant; Mehta, Minesh


    The primary objective of this study was to compare the overall survival (OS) of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) treated with radiotherapy (RT) and either temozolomide (TMZ) or a nitrosourea (NU). Secondary endpoints were time to tumor progression (TTP), toxicity, and the effect of IDH1 mutation status on clinical outcome. Eligible patients with centrally reviewed, histologically confirmed, newly diagnosed AA were randomized to receive either RT+TMZ (n = 97) or RT+NU (n = 99). The study closed early because the target accrual rate was not met. Median follow-up time for patients still alive was 10.1 years (1.9-12.6 y); 66% of the patients died. Median survival time was 3.9 years in the RT/TMZ arm (95% CI, 3.0-7.0) and 3.8 years in the RT/NU arm (95% CI, 2.2-7.0), corresponding to a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.94 (P = .36; 95% CI, 0.67-1.32). The differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and TTP between the 2 arms were not statistically significant. Patients in the RT+NU arm experienced more grade ≥3 toxicity (75.8% vs 47.9%, P < .001), mainly related to myelosuppression. Of the 196 patients, 111 were tested for IDH1-R132H status (60 RT+TMZ and 51 RT+NU). Fifty-four patients were IDH negative and 49 were IDH positive with a better OS in IDH-positive patients (median survival time 7.9 vs 2.8 y; P = .004, HR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.31-0.81). RT+TMZ did not appear to significantly improve OS or TTP for AA compared with RT+ NU. RT+TMZ was better tolerated. IDH1-R132H mutation was associated with longer survival.

  14. The Next Generation of Orthotopic Thyroid Cancer Models: Immunocompetent Orthotopic Mouse Models of BRAFV600E-Positive Papillary and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (United States)

    Vanden Borre, Pierre; McFadden, David G.; Gunda, Viswanath; Sadow, Peter M.; Varmeh, Shohreh; Bernasconi, Maria; Jacks, Tyler


    Background: While the development of new treatments for aggressive thyroid cancer has advanced in the last 10 years, progress has trailed headways made with other malignancies. A lack of reliable authenticated human cell lines and reproducible animal models is one major roadblock to preclinical testing of novel therapeutics. Existing xenograft and orthotopic mouse models of aggressive thyroid cancer rely on the implantation of highly passaged human thyroid carcinoma lines in immunodeficient mice. Genetically engineered models of papillary and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma (PTC and ATC) are immunocompetent; however, slow and stochastic tumor development hinders high-throughput testing. Novel models of PTC and ATC in which tumors arise rapidly and synchronously in immunocompetent mice would facilitate the investigation of novel therapeutics and approaches. Methods: We characterized and utilized mouse cell lines derived from PTC and ATC tumors arising in genetically engineered mice with thyroid-specific expression of endogenous BrafV600E/WT and deletion of either Trp53 (p53) or Pten. These murine thyroid cancer cells were transduced with luciferase- and GFP-expressing lentivirus and implanted into the thyroid glands of immunocompetent syngeneic B6129SF1/J mice in which the growth characteristics were assessed. Results: Large locally aggressive thyroid tumors form within one week of implantation. Tumors recapitulate their histologic subtype, including well-differentiated PTC and ATC, and exhibit CD3+, CD8+, B220+, and CD163+ immune cell infiltration. Tumor progression can be followed in vivo using luciferase and ex vivo using GFP. Metastatic spread is not detected at early time points. Conclusions: We describe the development of the next generation of murine orthotopic thyroid cancer models. The implantation of genetically defined murine BRAF-mutated PTC and ATC cell lines into syngeneic mice results in rapid and synchronous tumor formation. This

  15. Novel covalent modification of human anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and potentiation of crizotinib-mediated inhibition of ALK activity by BNP7787. (United States)

    Parker, Aulma R; Petluru, Pavankumar N; Nienaber, Vicki L; Zhao, Min; Ayala, Philippe Y; Badger, John; Chie-Leon, Barbara; Sridhar, Vandana; Logan, Cheyenne; Kochat, Harry; Hausheer, Frederick H


    BNP7787 (Tavocept, disodium 2,2'-dithio-bis-ethanesulfonate) is a novel, investigational, water-soluble disulfide that is well-tolerated and nontoxic. In separate randomized multicenter Phase II and Phase III clinical trials in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, treatment with BNP7787 in combination with standard chemotherapy resulted in substantial increases in the overall survival of patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung in the first-line treatment setting. We hypothesized that BNP7787 might interact with and modify human anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). At least seven different variants of ALK fusions with the gene encoding the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) are known to occur in NSCLC. EML4-ALK fusions are thought to account for approximately 3% of NSCLC cases. Herein, we report the covalent modification of the kinase domain of human ALK by a BNP7787-derived mesna moiety and the functional consequences of this modification in ALK assays evaluating kinase activity. The kinase domain of the ALK protein crystallizes as a monomer, and BNP7787-derived mesna-cysteine adducts were observed at Cys 1235 and Cys 1156. The BNP7787-derived mesna adduct at Cys 1156 is located in close proximity to the active site and results in substantial disorder of the P-loop and activation loop (A-loop). Comparison with the P-loop of apo-ALK suggests that the BNP7787-derived mesna adduct at Cys 1156 interferes with the positioning of Phe 1127 into a small pocket now occupied by mesna, resulting in a destabilization of the loop's binding orientation. Additionally, in vitro kinase activity assays indicate that BNP7787 inhibits ALK catalytic activity and potentiates the activity of the ALK-targeted drug crizotinib.

  16. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y. [Radiobiology/Molecular Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Hayashi, Y. [Geriatric Health Service Facility Hidamari, Hiroshima (Japan)


    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  17. Improved Correlation of the Neuropathologic Classification According to Adapted World Health Organization Classification and Outcome After Radiotherapy in Patients With Atypical and Anaplastic Meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephanie E., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Schulz-Ertner, Daniela [Radiologisches Institut, Markuskrankenhaus Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Deimling, Andreas von; Hartmann, Christian [Department of Neuropathology, Institute for Pathology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Clinical Cooperation Unit Neuropathology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)


    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between the 1993 and 2000/2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification with the outcome in patients with high-grade meningiomas. Patients and Methods: Between 1985 and 2004, 73 patients diagnosed with atypical or anaplastic meningiomas were treated with radiotherapy. Sections from the paraffin-embedded tumor material from 66 patients (90%) from 13 different pathology departments were re-evaluated according to the first revised WHO classification from 1993 and the revised classifications from 2000/2007. In 4 cases, the initial diagnosis meningioma was not reproducible (5%). Therefore, 62 patients with meningiomas were analyzed. Results: All 62 tumors were reclassified according to the 1993 and 2000/2007 WHO classification systems. Using the 1993 system, 7 patients were diagnosed with WHO grade I meningioma (11%), 23 with WHO grade II (37%), and 32 with WHO grade III meningioma (52%). After scoring using the 2000/2007 system, we found 17 WHO grade I meningiomas (27%), 32 WHO grade II meningiomas (52%), and 13 WHO grade III meningiomas (21%). According to the 1993 classification, the difference in overall survival was not statistically significant among the histologic subgroups (p = .96). Using the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, the difference in overall survival became significant (p = .02). Of the 62 reclassified patients 29 developed tumor progression (47%). No difference in progression-free survival was observed among the histologic subgroups (p = .44). After grading according to the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, significant differences in progression-free survival were observed among the three histologic groups (p = .005). Conclusion: The new 2000/2007 WHO classification for meningiomas showed an improved correlation between the histologic grade and outcome. This classification therefore provides a useful basis to determine the postoperative indication for radiotherapy. According to our results, a comparison of the

  18. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male (United States)

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez


    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  19. Breast cancer statistics, 2013. (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Ma, Jiemin; Bryan, Leah; Jemal, Ahmedin


    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,620 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2013. One in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. Breast cancer incidence rates increased slightly among African American women; decreased among Hispanic women; and were stable among whites, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives from 2006 to 2010. Historically, white women have had the highest breast cancer incidence rates among women aged 40 years and older; however, incidence rates are converging among white and African American women, particularly among women aged 50 years to 59 years. Incidence rates increased for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers in the youngest white women, Hispanic women aged 60 years to 69 years, and all but the oldest African American women. In contrast, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers declined among most age and racial/ethnic groups. These divergent trends may reflect etiologic heterogeneity and the differing effects of some factors, such as obesity and parity, on risk by tumor subtype. Since 1990, breast cancer death rates have dropped by 34% and this decrease was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. Nevertheless, survival disparities persist by race/ethnicity, with African American women having the poorest breast cancer survival of any racial/ethnic group. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  20. Girls' Attitudes toward Breast Care and Breast Self-Examination. (United States)

    Hadranyi, B. T.

    A study explored girls' emerging attitudes toward breast care and breast self-exam (BSE) and the extent to which girls had given thought to these issues. Analyses focused specifically on individual differences related to age, stage of breast development, perceived normalcy of breast development, and body image. The sample consisted of 43 white,…

  1. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.


    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  2. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy affecting women in Nigeria. Regular breast self examination reduces morbidity and mortality from this disease. Objective: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer, breast self examination and practice amongst secondary school teachers in Enugu , Nigeria.

  3. Breast edema in breast cancer patients following breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy: a systematic review. (United States)

    Verbelen, Hanne; Gebruers, Nick; Beyers, Tinne; De Monie, Anne-Caroline; Tjalma, Wiebren


    Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is commonly used in breast cancer treatment. Despite its benefits, some women will be troubled by breast edema. Breast edema may cause an unsatisfactory cosmetic result, influencing the quality of life. The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the incidence of breast edema and to identify risk factors of breast edema in breast cancer patients following BCS and radiotherapy. A systematic literature search was performed using different electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Embase) until June 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) research studies that included female breast cancer patients who were treated with BCS and radiotherapy and (2) studies that investigated the incidence of breast edema and/or risk factors of breast edema. Exclusion criteria were (1) reviews or case studies and (2) studies published before 1995. We identified in total 28 papers which represented 4,011 patients. There was a great variation in the incidence of breast edema (0-90.4 %). We identified several possible risk factors for breast edema namely increasing irradiated breast volume, increasing boost volume, the use of a photon boost, increasing breast separation, a higher density of the breast tissue, a large tumor, a higher specimen weight, postoperative infection, acute postoperative toxicity, and diabetes mellitus. However, their prognostic value remains uncertain. Breast edema is a common complaint after BCS and radiotherapy. A number of possible risk factors associated with breast edema were identified, but further research is warranted.



    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  5. Primary Breast Leiomyosarcoma


    Amaadour, L.; Benbrahim, Z.; Moumna, K.; Boudahna, L.; Amarti, A.; Arifi, S.; N. Mellas; El Mesbahi, O.


    Primary leiomyosarcoma of the breast is an extremely rare neoplasm. Only few cases have been reported in the literature. We report here a case of breast leiomyosarcoma in a 44-years-old female and we discuss the data of the existing literature.

  6. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne


    Studies of complications following reconstructive surgery with implants among women with breast cancer are needed. As the, to our knowledge, first prospective long-term study we evaluated the occurrence of complications following delayed breast reconstruction separately for one- and two-stage pro......Studies of complications following reconstructive surgery with implants among women with breast cancer are needed. As the, to our knowledge, first prospective long-term study we evaluated the occurrence of complications following delayed breast reconstruction separately for one- and two......-stage procedures. From the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast, which has prospectively registered data for women undergoing breast implantations since 1999, we identified 559 women without a history of radiation therapy undergoing 592 delayed breast reconstructions following breast cancer during...... the period 1999 to 2006; 239 one-stage procedures and 353 two-stage procedures. The postoperative course through November 2009 was evaluated by cumulative incidence adjusting for competing risks for the selected outcomes; hematoma, infection, seroma, implant rupture, severe capsular contracture (modified...

  7. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne


    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  8. Digital breast tomosynthesis. (United States)


    Digital breast tomosynthesis is an emerging technology intended to screen for and diagnose breast cancer. We believe it will begin moving into the commercial arena within the next couple of years. Find out what we predict for its clinical and business impact.

  9. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke


    Objective: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980–2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  10. Adenomyoepithelioma of the breast. (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ying; Sheen-Chen, Shyr-Ming; Eng, Hock-Liew; Ko, Sheung-Fat


    Adenomyoepithelioma of the breast is an uncommon tumor characterized by the presence of both epithelial and myoepithelial cells; its first full description was published in 1970 by Hamperl. A 45-year-old woman presented a left breast lump that had been palpable for 4 weeks. There was no family history of breast cancer. Neither axillary nor supraclavicular lymph nodes were palpable. Craniocaudal mammography showed a 1.6 cm, well-defined nodule with several punctate intranodular calcifications in the subareolar region of the left breast. Color Doppler sonogram showed an ovoid, well-defined, homogeneous hypoechoic subareolar nodule with prominent peripheral vessels in the 6 o'clock position of the left breast. Operation was arranged and intraoperative frozen section examination revealed proliferation of round, oval or tubular glandular elements with intervening islands and bands of polygonal myoepithelial cells. Adenomyoepithelioma of the breast was the impression. Wide excision with adequate removal of the tumor and preservation of the left breast contour was successfully achieved. The diagnosis of adenomyoepithelioma of the breast was confirmed by immunohistochemical studies.

  11. Breast Cancer Research Program (United States)


    treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflamma- tory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen or aspirin reduces this inflammatory response and, possibly, postpartum breast...involution with systemic ibuprofen or aspirin did not interrupt mammary epithelial cell regression that normally occurs during this period These data... children of immigrant stress, and social desirability bias. Preliminary data suggest that breast cancer survivors, notably racial/ethnic minorities

  12. Breast-feeding multiples. (United States)

    Flidel-Rimon, O; Shinwell, E S


    Human breast milk is the best nutrition for human infants. Its advantages over the milk of other species, such as cows, include both a reduced risk for infections, allergies and chronic diseases, together with the full nutritional requirements for growth and development. Breast-feeding is as important for multiples as for singletons. Despite the advantages, multiples receive less breast-feeding than singletons. Common reasons for not breast-feeding multiples include the fear of not fulfilling the infants' needs and the difficulty of coping with the demands on the mother's time. In addition, many multiples are delivered prematurely and by Caesarean section. Maternal pain and discomfort together with anxiety over the infants' condition are not conducive to successful breast-feeding. During lactation, the mother needs to add calories to her daily diet. It has been recommended to add approximately 500-600 kcal/day for each infant. Thus, between eating, nursing and sleeping, life is very busy for the mother of multiples. However, there is evidence that, with appropriate nutrition, one mother can nourish more than one infant. Also, simultaneous breast-feeding can save much time. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast-feeding of multiples possible. However, when breast-feeding is not possible, health care workers need to carefully avoid judgmental approaches that may induce feelings of guilt.

  13. Bexarotene in Preventing Breast Cancer in Patients at High Risk for Breast Cancer (United States)


    Atypical Ductal Breast Hyperplasia; Atypical Lobular Breast Hyperplasia; BRCA1 Gene Mutation; BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; No Evidence of Disease

  14. Gossypiboma after Breast Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Lundin


    Full Text Available A 39-year-old woman was referred for removal of cosmetic breast implants and related siliconoma. After an exchange of breast implants at a private clinic a year previously, she had asymmetry of the right breast, persistent pain, and a generally unacceptable cosmetic result. An MRI had shown a well-defined area with spots of silicone-like material at the upper pole of the right breast. Surgical removal of presumed silicone-imbibed breast tissue was undertaken, and surprisingly a gossypiboma was found in its place, which had not been identified on the MRI. Gossypiboma is the condition of an accidentally retained surgical sponge. This complication is also known as a textiloma, gauzoma, or muslinoma and is well described in other surgical specialties. However, it is extremely rare after plastic surgery, and this case illustrates the need for continued attention to the surgical count of sponges and instruments.

  15. Adenoid cystic breast cancer. (United States)

    McClenathan, James H; de la Roza, Gustavo


    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare type of breast cancer that is generally reported in individual case reports or as series from major referral centers. To characterize early diagnostic criteria for adenoid cystic carcinoma and to determine whether breast-preserving surgery with radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for eradicating the disease, we reviewed clinical records of a large series of patients treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast at a large health maintenance organization (HMO) that includes primary care facilities and referral centers. Using the data bank of the Northern California Cancer Registry of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Region (KPNCR), we retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. Follow-up also was done for these patients. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast was diagnosed in 22 of 27,970 patients treated for breast cancer at KPNCR from 1960 through 2000. All 22 patients were female and were available for follow-up. Mean age of patients at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 37 to 94 years). In 17 (77%) of the women, a lump in the breast led to initial suspicion of a tumor; in 4 (23%) of the 22 patients, mammography led to suspicion of a tumor. Median tumor size was 20 mm. Pain was a prominent symptom. Surgical management evolved from radical and modified radical mastectomy to simple mastectomy or lumpectomy during the study period, during which time 1 patient died of previous ordinary ductal carcinoma of the contralateral breast, and 7 died of unrelated disease. At follow-up, 12 of the 13 remaining patients were free of disease; 1 patient died of the disease; and 1 patient remained alive despite late occurrence of lymph node and pulmonary metastases. Whether breast-preserving surgery with radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for treating adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast has not been determined.

  16. ALK- anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is clinically and immunophenotypically different from both ALK+ ALCL and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified: report from the International Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Project. (United States)

    Savage, Kerry J; Harris, Nancy Lee; Vose, Julie M; Ullrich, Fred; Jaffe, Elaine S; Connors, Joseph M; Rimsza, Lisa; Pileri, Stefano A; Chhanabhai, Mukesh; Gascoyne, Randy D; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D


    The International Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Project is a collaborative effort designed to gain better understanding of peripheral T-cell and natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs). A total of 22 institutions in North America, Europe, and Asia submitted clinical and pathologic information on PTCLs diagnosed and treated at their respective centers. Of the 1314 eligible patients, 181 had anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL; 13.8%) on consensus review: One hundred fifty-nine had systemic ALCL (12.1%) and 22 had primary cutaneous ALCL (1.7%). Patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK(+)) ALCL had a superior outcome compared with those with ALK(-) ALCL (5-year failure-free survival [FFS], 60% vs 36%; P = .015; 5-year overall survival [OS], 70% vs 49%; P = .016). However, contrary to prior reports, the 5-year FFS (36% vs 20%; P = .012) and OS (49% vs 32%; P = .032) were superior for ALK(-) ALCL compared with PTCL, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Patients with primary cutaneous ALCL had a very favorable 5-year OS (90%), but with a propensity to relapse (5-year FFS, 55%). In summary, ALK(-) ALCL should continue to be separated from both ALK(+) ALCL and PTCL-NOS. Although the prognosis of ALK(-) ALCL appears to be better than that for PTCL-NOS, it is still unsatisfactory and better therapies are needed. Primary cutaneous ALCL is associated with an indolent course.

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer (United States)


    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage 0-IIB Breast Cancer (United States)


    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  19. Oncoplastic breast surgery in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Anders; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Siersen, Hans Erik


    With improved survival rates after breast cancer treatment, more attention is drawn to improve the cosmetic outcome after surgical treatment of breast cancer. In this process the oncoplastic breast surgery was conceived. It supplements the traditional surgical treatments (mastectomy and breast...... conserving surgery) with increased focus on individualized therapy. The ambition is to obtain the best possible cosmetic outcome without compromising recurrence rates and survival. This article provides an overview of the current oncoplastic breast surgery treatment offered in Denmark....

  20. Novel covalent modification of human anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK and potentiation of crizotinib-mediated inhibition of ALK activity by BNP7787

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker AR


    Full Text Available Aulma R Parker,1 Pavankumar N Petluru,1 Vicki L Nienaber,2 Min Zhao,1 Philippe Y Ayala,1 John Badger,2 Barbara Chie-Leon,2 Vandana Sridhar,2 Cheyenne Logan,2 Harry Kochat,1 Frederick H Hausheer1 1BioNumerik Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Antonio, TX, USA; 2Zenobia Therapeutics, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: BNP7787 (Tavocept, disodium 2,2’-dithio-bis-ethanesulfonate is a novel, investigational, water-soluble disulfide that is well-tolerated and nontoxic. In separate randomized multicenter Phase II and Phase III clinical trials in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients, treatment with BNP7787 in combination with standard chemotherapy resulted in substantial increases in the overall survival of patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung in the first-line treatment setting. We hypothesized that BNP7787 might interact with and modify human anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK. At least seven different variants of ALK fusions with the gene encoding the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4 are known to occur in NSCLC. EML4–ALK fusions are thought to account for approximately 3% of NSCLC cases. Herein, we report the covalent modification of the kinase domain of human ALK by a BNP7787-derived mesna moiety and the functional consequences of this modification in ALK assays evaluating kinase activity. The kinase domain of the ALK protein crystallizes as a monomer, and BNP7787-derived mesna-cysteine adducts were observed at Cys 1235 and Cys 1156. The BNP7787-derived mesna adduct at Cys 1156 is located in close proximity to the active site and results in substantial disorder of the P-loop and activation loop (A-loop. Comparison with the P-loop of apo-ALK suggests that the BNP7787-derived mesna adduct at Cys 1156 interferes with the positioning of Phe 1127 into a small pocket now occupied by mesna, resulting in a destabilization of the loop's binding orientation. Additionally, in vitro kinase activity assays indicate that BNP7787

  1. Natural Killer Cell (NK-92MI-Based Therapy for Pulmonary Metastasis of Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer in a Nude Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Zhu


    Full Text Available ObjectiveNatural killer (NK cells represent the third largest population of lymphocytes, and they play an important role in immune surveillance against tumors. The lungs are a common metastatic site for anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC, and metastasis is one of the most frequent causes of mortality in this type of cancer. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of NK cell-based immunotherapy for pulmonary metastasis of ATC and determined how it affects the effector molecules of NK cells.MethodsHuman NK cells (NK-92MI were retrovirally transduced to express the effluc gene. Human ATC cells (CAL-62 were transduced with the effluc and Rluc genes. The cytotoxicity of NK cells against CAL-62 cells was assessed using the CytoTox 96® Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay system. Pulmonary metastases of ATC were developed by i.v. injection of CAL-62, and metastasis growth was monitored using bioluminescence imaging (BLI. To treat the metastases, five million NK-92MI cells were injected twice into the caudal vein of nude mice. To assess the targetability of NK cells to ATC tumors, NK-92MI cells expressing the effluc gene (NK/F were administered through the tail vein of nude mice with a pulmonary metastasis or tumor xenograft. BLI was subsequently performed at 1, 3, 24, and 48 h.ResultsNK/F and CAL-62 cells expressing the effluc or Rluc gene (CAL-62/F, CAL-62/R were successfully established. Expression of the effluc and Rluc genes in NK/F, CAL-62/F, and CAL-62/R cells was verified by RT-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and luciferase assay. After coculture of NK-92MI and CAL-62/F cells for 24 h, the BLI signal intensity of CAL-62/F cells proportionally decreased with the number of cocultured NK cells. An ATC pulmonary metastasis mouse model was successfully generated, and NK cells significantly inhibited the growth of the metastasis (p < 0.01. The NK/F cells exhibited targetability to the pulmonary metastasis and tumor xenograft in

  2. Developmental breast asymmetry. (United States)

    Chan, WoanYi; Mathur, Bhagwat; Slade-Sharman, Diana; Ramakrishnan, Venkat


    Developmental breast asymmetry (DBA) can affect psychosocial well-being in the young female. Correction of breast asymmetry may present a reconstructive challenge, especially in tuberous breasts. Fifty-two cases of DBA treated between January 2002 and January 2006 were reviewed. Preoperative clinical assessment of the specific anatomical deformity, subsequent surgical treatment modalities, esthetic outcome, and patient's satisfaction were evaluated. Surgical modalities used in our series include augmentation mammaplasty with or without tissue expansion, parenchymal scoring, nipple areola complex reduction, glanduloplasty techniques, mastopexy and reduction mammaplasty. The mean age of DBA presentation was 21 years; 69% (36/52) patients had tuberous breasts, of which 67% (24/36) were unilateral and 33% (12/36) were bilateral deformities. Patients with tuberous breast deformity presented consistently under the age of 25 years. Esthetic outcome was rated "good" in 75% (39/52), and symmetry rated as "good" in 58% (30/52) by professional evaluation. Surgical treatment is tailored to the affected esthetic units of the individual breast. In our experience, symmetry is the hardest parameter to achieve, particularly in tuberous breasts. Operative treatment is of great value to the psychosocial well-being of the patient. A conceptual approach in the assessment and treatment of DBA is emphasized by this series. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Herpesviruses and breast milk. (United States)

    Pietrasanta, C; Ghirardi, B; Manca, M F; Uccella, S; Gualdi, C; Tota, E; Pugni, L; Mosca, F


    Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  4. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pietrasanta


    Full Text Available Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV and cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  5. [Breast reconstruction after mastectomy]. (United States)

    Ho Quoc, C; Delay, E


    The mutilating surgery for breast cancer causes deep somatic and psychological sequelae. Breast reconstruction can mitigate these effects and permit the patient to help rebuild their lives. The purpose of this paper is to focus on breast reconstruction techniques and on factors involved in breast reconstruction. The methods of breast reconstruction are presented: objectives, indications, different techniques, operative risks, and long-term monitoring. Many different techniques can now allow breast reconstruction in most patients. Clinical cases are also presented in order to understand the results we expect from a breast reconstruction. Breast reconstruction provides many benefits for patients in terms of rehabilitation, wellness, and quality of life. In our mind, breast reconstruction should be considered more as an opportunity and a positive choice (the patient can decide to do it), than as an obligation (that the patient would suffer). The consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction is an important step to give all necessary informations. It is really important that the patient could speak again with him before undergoing reconstruction, if she has any doubt. The quality of information given by medical doctors is essential to the success of psychological intervention. This article was written in a simple, and understandable way to help gynecologists giving the best information to their patients. It is maybe also possible to let them a copy of this article, which would enable them to have a written support and would facilitate future consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  7. Facts for Life: Benign Breast Changes (United States)

    ... Benign breast conditions (also known as benign breast diseases) are noncancerous disorders that affect the breast. Your doctor may use the term “fibrocystic change” to describe a range of benign breast ...

  8. Risk-based Breast Cancer Screening: Implications of Breast Density. (United States)

    Lee, Christoph I; Chen, Linda E; Elmore, Joann G


    The approach to breast cancer screening has changed over time from a general approach to a more personalized, risk-based approach. Women with dense breasts, one of the most prevalent risk factors, are now being informed that they are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and should consider supplemental screening beyond mammography. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the impact of breast density relative to other known risk factors, the evidence regarding supplemental screening for women with dense breasts, supplemental screening options, and recommendations for physicians having shared decision-making discussions with women who have dense breasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer (United States)


    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  10. Lymphatics and the breast (United States)

    ... nodes are distributed at specific locations throughout the body. There is also an extensive network of lymphatic vessels in every woman's breast tissue, which is important in regulating the local fluid balance as well as in filtering out harmful substances. ...

  11. Breast milk jaundice (United States)

    ... babies who show signs of hunger are given pacifiers. Breast milk jaundice may run in families. It ... look at blood cell shapes and sizes Blood type Complete blood count Reticulocyte count (number of slightly ...

  12. Lymphedema after breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Ziani, Fatima Zahra


    Image in medicine Lymphedema is one of the most significant survivorship issues after the surgical treatment of breast cancer and in this population it has been documented to have significant quality...

  13. Breast Lift (Mastopexy) (United States)

    ... Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2005:167. Breast lift About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  14. TMIST Breast Screening Study (United States)

    TMIST is a randomized breast screening trial that compares two Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved types of digital mammography, standard digital mammography (2-D) with a newer technology called tomosynthesis mammography (3-D).

  15. Learning about Breast Cancer (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Breast Cancer Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  16. Breast augmentation - slideshow (United States)

    ... a system of glands and ducts that produce milk. Fat makes up the majority of the breast tissue. Behind the ... in cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery, Palm Beach Gardens, FL. Review provided by ...

  17. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens


    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  18. Diseases of the breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, Jay R


    ... and Dudley Sharp Chair of Oncology Professor of Medicine and Molecular and Cellular Biology Director, Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center Director, Lester and Sue Smith Breast Center Baylor College of Me...

  19. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny


    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...

  20. Breast Diseases - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breast Diseases URL of this page: Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  1. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads


    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared......, and in women giving birth to boys. These findings, however, did not reach statistical significance. Finally, risk reduction was slightly greater following milder forms of preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: Our data is compatible with an approximately 20% reduction in risk of developing breast cancer following...

  2. Phantom breast syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Phantom breast syndrome is a type of condition in which patients have a sensation of residual breast tissue and can include both non-painful sensations as well as phantom breast pain. The incidence varies in different studies, ranging from approximately 30% to as high as 80% of patients after mastectomy. It seriously affects quality of life through the combined impact of physical disability and emotional distress. The breast cancer incidence rate in India as well as Western countries has risen in recent years while survival rates have improved; this has effectively increased the number of women for whom post-treatment quality of life is important. In this context, chronic pain following treatment for breast cancer surgery is a significantly under-recognized and under-treated problem. Various types of chronic neuropathic pain may arise following breast cancer surgery due to surgical trauma. The cause of these syndromes is damage to various nerves during surgery. There are a number of assumed factors causing or perpetuating persistent neuropathic pain after breast cancer surgery. Most well-established risk factors for developing phantom breast pain and other related neuropathic pain syndromes are severe acute postoperative pain and greater postoperative use of analgesics. Based upon current evidence, the goals of prophylactic strategies could first target optimal peri-operative pain control and minimizing damage to nerves during surgery. There is some evidence that chronic pain and sensory abnormalities do decrease over time. The main group of oral medications studied includes anti-depressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, N-methyl-D-asparate receptor antagonists, mexilitine, topical lidocaine, cannabinoids, topical capsaicin and glysine antagonists. Neuromodulation techniques such as motor cortex stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, and intrathecal drug therapies have been used to treat various neuropathic pain syndromes.

  3. Breast cancer: equal rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fátima Carvalho Fernandes


    Full Text Available There is not any statistics related to encouraging breast cancer along the past century, and there has not been any in present century. It has been published in the scientific and lay press information on the crescent number of women attacked by breast cancer. How to spare women and family members of such pain when they experience this disease? Which rights provide assistance to the women with cancer?

  4. Breast nocardiosis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Jeong Mi [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection occurring in immunocompromised patients. Worldwidely, about four cases of nocardiosis of the breast have been previously reported, but none of these were in Korea. We describe a case of breast nocardiosis associated with pulmonary infection in a patient with Cushing's disease. In our patient, multiple, well-defined, conglomerated, tubular-shaped, isodense mass was revealed at mammography, and an irregular-shaped, ill-defined, heterogeneous echoic mass with movable debris at ultrasonography.

  5. [Pregnancy and breast cancer]. (United States)

    Ramírez-Torres, Nicolás; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino


    association of breast cancer and pregnancy is not common. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the pregnancy, young age, stage, treatment, prognosis and mortality of women with breast cancer during pregnancy. retrospective analysis from March 1992 to February 2009, 16 patients were included with breast cancer and pregnancy. They were analized: histological characteristic of tumor, therapeutic response of the oncological treatment, evolution of the pregnancy. From of baby born: Apgar and weight. The woman's mortality with breast cancer during pregnancy was evaluated for age group and for interval of time between late pregnancy and diagnosis posterior of breast cancer and pregnancy. characteristic predominant clinicohistological: stage III (81.2%), T3-T4 (75%), N+ 93.7%, invasive ductal carcinoma (87.5%), histological grade 2-3 (93.7%), receptor estrogeno positive (43.7%); RPpositive (25%); HER-2/neu positive (31.2%). 27 chemotherapy cycles were applied with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide during the second or third trimester of the pregnancy, there were not severe adverse effects for the mothers and the baby born exposed to chemotherapy. The mean time to disease recurrence was 18.8 months (range, 6-62 months). The rate of mortality for specific age (breast cancer and pregnancy.

  6. Aluminium and the human breast. (United States)

    Darbre, P D


    The human population is exposed to aluminium (Al) from diet, antacids and vaccine adjuvants, but frequent application of Al-based salts to the underarm as antiperspirant adds a high additional exposure directly to the local area of the human breast. Coincidentally the upper outer quadrant of the breast is where there is also a disproportionately high incidence of breast cysts and breast cancer. Al has been measured in human breast tissues/fluids at higher levels than in blood, and experimental evidence suggests that at physiologically relevant concentrations, Al can adversely impact on human breast epithelial cell biology. Gross cystic breast disease is the most common benign disorder of the breast and evidence is presented that Al may be a causative factor in formation of breast cysts. Evidence is also reviewed that Al can enable the development of multiple hallmarks associated with cancer in breast cells, in particular that it can cause genomic instability and inappropriate proliferation in human breast epithelial cells, and can increase migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells. In addition, Al is a metalloestrogen and oestrogen is a risk factor for breast cancer known to influence multiple hallmarks. The microenvironment is established as another determinant of breast cancer development and Al has been shown to cause adverse alterations to the breast microenvironment. If current usage patterns of Al-based antiperspirant salts contribute to causation of breast cysts and breast cancer, then reduction in exposure would offer a strategy for prevention, and regulatory review is now justified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypoplastic Breast Anomalies in the Female Adolescent Breast


    Winocour, Sebastian; Lemaine, Valerie


    Hypoplastic breast anomalies remain a reconstructive challenge. In this article, the authors review the spectrum of nonsyndromic breast hypoplasia in the adolescent girl, namely idiopathic breast hypoplasia and tuberous breast deformity. Challenges specific to this population include (1) identifying the ideal timing for surgery, (2) choosing the optimal reconstructive method while taking into consideration ongoing changes in the female body (e.g., future pregnancy), and (3) considering the us...

  8. Benign Breast Disease: Toward Molecular Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk (United States)


    at the initial biopsy, the strength of the family history, meno- pausal status, and histologic findings of the biop- sy, as compared with expected...breast cancers for 646/758 (85%) of the cases. We assessed the significance of benign histology in predicting risk of future breast cancer, examining...TERMS Benign Breast Disease, Biomarkers, Histology , Breast Cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF

  9. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Johanna M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Adang, Eddy M.; Otten, Johannes D.; Verbeek, André L.; Broeders, Mireille J.


    Background: In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to

  10. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in globally and in Nigeria. In Nigeria, cases of breast cancer cases have been prevalent for three decades and more than 90% of cases can be detected by women themselves through breast self – examination. The objective of this study ...

  11. Expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneyte, Ian F.; Kristel, Petra M. P.; Maliepaard, Marc; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.


    PURPOSE: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is involved in in vitro multidrug resistance and was first identified in the breast cancer cell line MCF7/AdrVp. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BCRP in resistance of breast cancer to anthracycline treatment. EXPERIMENTAL

  12. Multiparametric Breast MRI of Breast Cancer (United States)

    Rahbar, Habib; Partridge, Savannah C.


    Synopsis Breast MRI has increased in popularity over the past two decades due to evidence for its high sensitivity for cancer detection. Current clinical MRI approaches rely on the use of a dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE-MRI) acquisition that facilitates morphologic and semi-quantitative kinetic assessments of breast lesions. The use of more functional and quantitative parameters, such as pharmacokinetic features from high temporal resolution DCE-MRI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) on diffusion weighted MRI, and choline concentrations on MR spectroscopy, hold promise to broaden the utility of MRI and improve its specificity. However, due to wide variations in approach among centers for measuring these parameters and the considerable technical challenges, robust multicenter data supporting their routine use is not yet available, limiting current applications of many of these tools to research purposes. PMID:26613883

  13. [Reconstruction of the tuberous breast]. (United States)

    Oroz, J; Pelay, M J; Escudero, F J


    The tuberous breast is a malformation that affects adolescent women uni- or bilaterally, becoming apparent at puberty with the growth of the breast. It is characterised by an alteration of the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the breast, which is translated into a lack of development of the breast and into the herniation of the glandular tissue within the areola with hypertrophy of the latter. Numerous terms have been employed to describe this deformity, besides that of tuberous breast: tubular breast, caprine breast, areolar hernia, hypoplasia of the lower pole or constricted breast. At its most developed degree it is a serious deformity, which affects the emotional stability of the patient in an important way, altering their relational life. Surgical treatment varies depending on the degree and severity of the deformity and includes procedures such as: glandular remodelling, augmentation mammoplasty, mastopexy or a combination of both.

  14. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  15. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Keoxifene (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Nolvadex (Tamoxifen ...

  16. Breast Cancer in Young Women (United States)

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah’s family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  17. PET scan for breast cancer (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  18. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk with your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  19. Progress in breast cancer: overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arteaga, Carlos L


    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer...

  20. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, D.J. van; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Westenberg, A.H.; Wilt, J.H. de; Blanken-Peeters, C.F.


    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This

  1. Crizotinib for Untreated Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal. (United States)

    Morgan, Philip; Woolacott, Nerys; Biswas, Mousumi; Mebrahtu, Teumzghi; Harden, Melissa; Hodgson, Robert


    As part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) single technology appraisal process, the manufacturer of crizotinib submitted evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of crizotinib in untreated anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK-positive) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Crizotinib has previously been assessed by NICE for patients with previously treated ALK-positive NSCLC (TA 296). It was not approved in this previous appraisal, but had been made available through the cancer drugs fund. As part of this new appraisal, the company included a price discount patient access scheme (PAS). The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and Centre for Health Economics Technology Appraisal Group at the University of York was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article provides a description of the company's submission and the ERG's review and summarises the resulting NICE guidance issued in August 2016. The main clinical-effectiveness data were derived from a multicentre randomised controlled trial-PROFILE 1014-that compared crizotinib with pemetrexed chemotherapy in combination with carboplatin or cisplatin in patients with untreated non-squamous ALK-positive NSCLC. In the trial, crizotinib demonstrated improvements in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The company's economic model was a three-state 'area under the curve' Markov model. The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated to be greater than £50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained (excluding the PAS discount). The ERG assessment of the evidence submitted by the company raised a number of concerns. In terms of the clinical evidence, the OS benefit was highly uncertain due to the cross-over permitted in the trial and the immaturity of the data; only 26% of events had occurred by the data cut-off point. In the economic modelling, the most significant concerns related to the analysis

  2. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT-Negative Recurrent High-Grade Anaplastic Astrocytoma Detected by {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karunanithi, Sellam; Singh, Harmandeep; Sharma, Punit; Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Bal, Chandrasekhar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)


    A 37-year-old woman with grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) of the left frontal lobe, underwent surgical excision, chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy in 2004. After being in remission for 5 years, recurrence was suspected clinically when she presented with seizures. The result of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was equivocal for recurrence and radiation necrosis (not available ). The patient was then referred for {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), as the initial primary tumour was high grade in nature. {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT was negative for recurrence and demonstrated only post-operative changes in the left frontal region (Fig. 1a, b, arrow). Due to strong clinical suspicion, 3,4-dihydroxy-6-{sup 18}F-fluoro-L-phenylalanine ({sup 18}F-FDOPA) PET-CT was done, 5 days after {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT. The study revealed an {sup 18}F-FDOPA-avid mass lesion in the left frontal region (Fig. 1c, d, arrow), thereby confirming the presence of recurrent disease. The patient underwent surgical resection of the mass, and it was confirmed by histopathology as grade 3 AA. However, after a short asymptomatic period of 4 months the patient became symptomatic again. Follow-up MRI after 6 months of surgery revealed presence of ipsilateral and contralateral multifocal contrast enhancing recurrent mass lesions (Fig. 1e, f, arrow), suggesting the progression of disease. The patient was started on temozolamide but she died after 8 months' follow-up. Though MRI is routinely used in assessment of brain tumours, its ability to differentiate between treatment-induced changes and residual or recurrent tumour is limited. {sup 18}F-FDG PET was the first tracer used for assessment of brain tumours; however, it has a low tumour-to-background ratio in brain, limiting its utility. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake correlates with tumour grade, with high-grade gliomas (grades III and IV) showing higher uptake

  3. Breast cancer and pregnancy. (United States)

    Knabben, Laura; Mueller, Michel D


    Background In the past decades the incidence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) increased. Possible explanations are the trend to postpone childbearing and the general increase in the incidence of breast cancer. Materials and methods A sytematic review of the literature was performed with the aim to report on incidence, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of breast cancer during pregnancy. We also cover the issue of pregnancy following a diagnosis of breast cancer including fertility preservation and prognosis. Results Ultrasound is the imaging method of choice in pregnancy, but mammography can also be performed as the fetal irradiation dose is low. To avoid a delay in diagnosis every sonographic mass in pregnant women which does not clearly correspond to a cyst needs further investigation by biopsy. Treatment should follow as close as possible the guidelines for non-pregnant patients. Administration of chemotherapy is possible after the first trimester. There is a large body of evidence for the use of anthracyclines. In contrast radiotherapy, trastuzumab and antihormonal treatment by tamoxifen are contraindicated during pregnancy. Pregnancy does not seem to influence prognosis. Most adverse obstetric outcomes are related to preterm delivery, which should therefore, whenever possible, be avoided. Young patients with breast cancer and incomplete family planning should be referred for counseling about fertility preservation options before the initiation of adjuvant treatment. A pregnancy following breast cancer does not have a negative impact on prognosis. Conclusion Multidisciplinary management of women with breast cancer in pregnancy is mandatory and data should be collected to allow further improvement in management.

  4. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?


    Peter Jennrich; Claus Schulte-Uebbing


    Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includ...

  5. Kindness Interventions in Enhancing Well-Being in Breast Cancer Survivors (United States)


    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  6. Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors (United States)


    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  7. Low-Level Laser Therapy Promoted Aggressive Proliferation and Angiogenesis Through Decreasing of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Increasing of Akt/Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer. (United States)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeong-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hyang; Ahn, Jin-Chul


    We assessed the cause of increased tumor after low-level laser therapy (LLLT) by histological analysis. LLLT is a nonthermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain, and amelioration of oral mucositis. We discovered by accident that LLLT increased tumor size while testing a photodynamic therapy (PDT) model for the treatment of thyroid cancer. Although therapeutic effects of LLLT on cancer or dysplastic cells have been studied, LLLT has been recently reported to stimulate the aggressiveness of the tumor. The anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO was injected into thyroid glands of nude mice orthotopically and then laser irradiation was performed with 0, 15, and 30 J/cm(2) (100 mW/cm(2)) on the thyroid after 10 days. The tumor volume was measured for 4 weeks and the thyroid tissues underwent histological analysis. We observed that proliferation of FRO cells and macrophage infiltration was increased with energy delivery to the thyroid glands. We also assessed overproliferated FRO cells using an immunohistochemical staining with hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), p-Akt, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). HIF-1α and p-Akt were elevated after LLLT, which suggested that the phosphorylation of Akt by LLLT led to the activation of HIF-1α. Moreover, TGF-β1 expression was decreased after LLLT, which led to loss of cell cycle regulation. In conclusion, LLLT led to a decrease in TGF-β1 and increase of p-Akt/HIF-1α which resulted to overproliferation and angiogenesis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). Therefore, we suggest that LLLT can influence cancer aggressiveness associated with TGF-β1 and Akt/HIF-1α cascades in some poorly differentiated head and neck cancers.

  8. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304810789


    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may

  9. Clinical proteomics in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gast, M.C.W.


    Breast cancer imposes a significant healthcare burden on women worldwide. Early detection is of paramount importance in reducing mortality, yet the diagnosis of breast cancer is hampered by a lack of adequate detection methods. In addition, better breast cancer prognostication may improve selection

  10. Breast cancer in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of these, 27. (25.2%) were aged 60 years ... and physician vigilance are keys to early detection and treatment of breast cancer in the elderly. INTRODUCTION ..... Law TM, Hesketli PJ, Porter KA, Lawn-Tsao L,. McAxiaw R and Lopez MJ. Breast cancer in eld ...

  11. Benign breast lesions in Kano

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breast in: Robbins pathologic basis of diseases. Saunders, Phil~ adelphia. 1994; 1093. Mann CV, Russell RCG. Williams. NS. The breast. in: Bailey and. Love's short practice of surgery. Arnold, London, 1999; 5495521. Templeton AC Tumours of the breast in Uganda; An extract of information from the cancer registry.

  12. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha


    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  13. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment (United States)

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter


    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and radiotherapy after delivery. Even though early stage breast cancers have similar prognosis, advanced stage breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation have poorer prognosis than similar stage breast cancers diagnosed in non-pregnant women. Women who desire to become pregnant after treatment of breast cancer will have many conflicts. Although the most common concern is recurrence of breast cancer due to pregnancy, the studies conducted showed that pregnancy has no negative effect on breast cancer prognosis. In this review we search for the frequency of breast cancer during pregnancy, the histopathological findings, risk factor, diagnostic and treatment modalities. We reviewed the literature for evidence based findings to help consult the patients on the outcome of breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation, and also inform the patients who desire to become pregnant after breast cancer according to current evidences. PMID:24592003

  14. Tuberous breast and predisposition to breast deformity in consanguineous. (United States)

    Dessy, Luca Andrea; De Santo, Liliana; Onesti, Maria Giuseppina; Fallico, Nefer; Mazzocchi, Marco


    Tuberous breast deformity is a pathologic condition of the breast consisting of a constricting ring at the breast base, reduction in the volume of the breast parenchyma, and herniation of breast tissue through the nipple-areola complex with areola enlargement. This pathology is generally congenital and has an unknown etiopathogenesis. We report the first observation of tuberous breast deformity in consanguineous. This report suggests the potential role of a genetic base in the development of this deformity. Between May 2008 and March 2011, we observed six female patients from two different families, aged between 18 and 55 years, affected by tuberous breast deformity. The breast deformity was characterized by breast asymmetry in all six cases. Four patients underwent surgery to correct the deformity. Standardized objective measurements of breast and chest were taken. A Visual Analog Scale was used to evaluate patients' and physicians' satisfaction. The first three patients were consanguineous; two were first cousins, and the third was second cousin with one of the above. The other three patients were also from the same family: two sisters and their mother. According to Von Heimburg's classification, the patients presented different degrees of breast deformity. In all operated cases, a good esthetic result with a high satisfaction (average visual analog scale score 9) was achieved. The results remained stable over time and no revisions were needed after the 1-year follow-up. The possibility of a parental consanguinity for breast deformities such tuberous breast has never been described in the literature. This report suggests the possible genetic role in the development of tuberous breast deformity. Further studies and genetic tests are required to prove this hypothesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Breast deformities and mastopexy. (United States)

    Nahabedian, Maurice Y


    LEARNING OBJECTIONS: After reviewing this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Appreciate the diversity of approaches for the correction of breast deformities and mastopexy. 2. Review the salient literature. 3. Understand patient selection criteria and indications. Breast deformities and mastopexy continue to challenge plastic surgeons. Deformities such as Poland syndrome, tuberous breast, gynecomastia, and other congenital conditions are uncommon; therefore, management experience is often limited. Various techniques have been described, with no general consensus regarding optimal management. Mastopexy has become more common and is performed both with and without augmentation mammaplasty. However, a variety of techniques are available, and a thorough understanding of the indications, patient selection criteria, and techniques is important to optimize outcomes. This article will review these and other conditions to provide a better understanding of the current available data and evidence for these operations.

  16. Pediatric breast deformity. (United States)

    Latham, Kerry; Fernandez, Sarah; Iteld, Larry; Panthaki, Zubin; Armstrong, Milton B; Thaller, Seth


    Congenital breast anomalies represent a relatively common set of disorders encountered by pediatric plastic surgeons with a spectrum of severity that ranges widely from the relatively benign polythelia to the very complex disorders such as Poland's syndrome and tuberous breast deformities. While the former can be treated in a single surgical setting with minimal morbidity, the more complicated disorders often require a staged reconstructive algorithm. Some disorders also require a multidisciplinary management for both workup and management. Although rarely a source of functional morbidity, these physical deformities are often a significant source of psychological stress for the adolescent male or female who feels alienated from their peers. The purpose of this article is to review the most common congenital breast disorders including the diagnosis, workup, and management especially the timing of surgical intervention as guided by normal developmental milestones.

  17. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie


    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  18. Pathology of hereditary breast cancer


    van der Groep, Petra; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.


    Background Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 accounting for about 5% of all breast cancers. Other genes that include CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, STK11/LKB1, CDH1, NBS1, RAD50, BRIP1 and PALB2 have been described to be high or moderate penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes, all contributing to the hereditary breast cancer spe...

  19. Pregnancy-associated Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Case, Ashley S


    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer refers to breast cancer that is diagnosed during pregnancy or within the first postpartum year. The incidence is increasing as more women delay childbearing. Breast cancer can be safely diagnosed, staged, and treated during pregnancy while protecting the fetus and mother with excellent outcomes for both. Avoiding diagnostic delays is vital to prognosis. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, staging, management, and prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Relevant current literature is reviewed.

  20. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk (United States)

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea


    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  1. [Phyllodes breast tumors]. (United States)

    Zedníková, I; Černá, M; Hlaváčková, M; Hes, O


    Phyllodes tumour is a breast tumour occurring very rarely. It accounts for only in 1% of all cases of breast tumour. The diagnosis of phyllodes tumours can be difficult in consideration of the small number of cases. Treatment of phyllodes tumours is always surgical. In 2004-2013, we operated on twelve female patients with phyllodes tumours out of the total number of 1564 surgeries for breast tumours (0.8%) at the Department of Surgery at Teaching Hospital in Pilsen. We evaluated the age, the biological behaviour of the tumour depending on the tumour size and duration, the distant metastases, therapy and survival. The average age at the time of surgery was fifty years (2684), the duration of disease to the surgical solution ranged from one month to ten years. Tumour size was in the range of two to twenty-nine centimetres, tumours measuring less than five centimetres were always benign. Tumour excision for benign phyllodes tumour was performed seven times. Malignant phyllodes tumour was diagnosed five times with mastectomy performed in each case, and the axilla was exenterated in three cases where nodes were benign in each of them. In one case, mastectomy was followed by radiotherapy because the tumour reached the edge of the resected part; the other patients were only monitored. In two patients, tumour spreading into the lungs was diagnosed at five to ten months after breast surgery. One patient with generalized disease died, the other ones live with no local recurrence of this disease. Median survival is fifty-two months; the disease-free interval is fifty months. The results show that if phyllodes tumour is diagnosed in time, it is almost exclusively benign. If the case history is longer and the tumour is growing, the likelihood of malignancy increases. Surgical treatment is also sufficient in the case of malignant forms. The breast surgery does not need to be supplemented with exenteration of axilla.Key words: breast - phyllodes tumour.

  2. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery (United States)


    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. Breast cancer in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, S.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Petri, M.


    Objective There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. Methods We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi......-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration. Results...... There were 86 SLE breast cancers and 4498 female SLE cancer-free controls. Patients were followed on average for 7.6 years. Versus controls, SLE breast cancer cases tended to be white and older. Breast cancer cases were similar to controls regarding anti-dsDNA positivity, disease activity, and most drug...

  4. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmich, L.R.; During, M.; Henriksen, T.F.


    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  5. Mammography: interobserver variability in breast density assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, E. A.; Zonderland, H. M.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Kriege, M.; Mahdavian Delavary, B.; Burger, C. W.; Ansink, A. C.


    Our objective was to determine the interobserver variability of breast density assessment according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) and to examine potential associations between breast density and risk factors for breast cancer. Four experienced breast radiologists received



    V.К. Kotlukov; L.G. Kuzmenko; N.V. Antipova; М.V. Polyakov


    The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6): 170–175)

  7. Alternative screening for women with dense breasts: breast-specific gamma imaging (molecular breast imaging). (United States)

    Holbrook, Anna; Newel, Mary S


    OBJECTIVE. Given mammography's limitations in evaluating dense breasts, examination with breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI)-also called molecular breast imaging (MBI)-has been proposed. We review the literature pertinent to the performance of BSGI in patients with dense breasts. CONCLUSION. Many studies have reported the sensitivity of BSGI in finding cancers even in dense breasts. However, BSGI has not yet been validated as an effective screening tool in large prospective studies. In addition, whole-body dose remains a significant concern.

  8. Affluence and Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E


    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0.624). The multivariate general linear model with income as covariate, 5-year survival by race as a dependent variable, showed a significant effect of income and White race on 5-year survival (p breast cancer

  9. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  10. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor


    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD


    Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  11. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD


    Full Text Available Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  12. Breast biopsy - stereotactic (United States)

    The provider will ask about your medical history. A breast exam may be done. If you take medicines (including aspirin, supplements, or herbs), ask your doctor whether you need to stop taking these before the biopsy. Tell your doctor if you may be ...

  13. Idiopathic benign breast calcification. (United States)

    Connors, Alissa M; Svensson, William E; Shousha, Sami


    A 56-year-old woman who came in for screening mammography was found to have extensive unilateral calcification of her left breast which had developed since her previous screening mammogram. The calcification had a ductal and lobular appearance. Possible known etiologies are discussed, but these do not explain the appearance in this case, implying that the cause is idiopathic.

  14. Benign breast disease. (United States)

    Hamed, H; Fentiman, I S


    Benign breast disorders (BBD), classified by the ANDI system (aberrations of normal development and involution), constitute the major workload in breast clinics. Breast pain (mastalgia) is classified as cyclical, and non-cyclical extramammary causes such as ribircage pain have to be identified. Most patients need reassurance alone but those with moderate/severe pain present for > 6 months may need treatment: randomised trials have shown danazol, bromocriptine and tamoxifen to be effective. Fibroadenoma is the commonest benign solid lump in women aged 15-30 years. The diagnosis must be confirmed by triple assessment. Cysts occur usually in women of middle to late reproductive life. After ultrasound has confirmed the lump as cystic, it can be aspirated. Nipple discharge should be tested for the presence of haemoglobin (Hb). Those with HB+ discharge may require microdochectomy for treatment and diagnosis, common causes being duct papilloma and duct ectasia. Breast abscesses may occur during lactation or in women with duct ectasia and are treated by incision or aspiration together with antibiotics.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: Primary papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare occurrence worldwide and few cases ever have been reported. It may be mistaken for the benign intraductal papillary lesions or papillary adnexal neoplasms. Case Report: A 66 year old woman who presented with a recurrent right ...

  16. Lymphosarcoma of the Breast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 9, 1974 ... Lymphoma of the female breast is rarely a primary lesion. It may be found without manifestations of the disease elsewhere in the body. The types include the reticular cell, the histiocytic, the mixed and the follicular type of lesion. Usually the disease disseminates to the other parts of the body, but should it be ...

  17. Family History of Breast Cancer, Breast Density, and Breast Cancer Risk in a U.S. Breast Cancer Screening Population. (United States)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Sprague, Brian L; Bissell, Michael C S; Miglioretti, Diana L; Buist, Diana S M; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kerlikowske, Karla


    Background: The utility of incorporating detailed family history into breast cancer risk prediction hinges on its independent contribution to breast cancer risk. We evaluated associations between detailed family history and breast cancer risk while accounting for breast density.Methods: We followed 222,019 participants ages 35 to 74 in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, of whom 2,456 developed invasive breast cancer. We calculated standardized breast cancer risks within joint strata of breast density and simple (1st-degree female relative) or detailed (first-degree, second-degree, or first- and second-degree female relative) breast cancer family history. We fit log-binomial models to estimate age-specific breast cancer associations for simple and detailed family history, accounting for breast density.Results: Simple first-degree family history was associated with increased breast cancer risk compared with no first-degree history [Risk ratio (RR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-2.1 at age 40; RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.7 at age 50; RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6 at age 60; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5 at age 70). Breast cancer associations with detailed family history were strongest for women with first- and second-degree family history compared with no history (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2 at age 40); this association weakened in higher age groups (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.88-1.5 at age 70). Associations did not change substantially when adjusted for breast density.Conclusions: Even with adjustment for breast density, a history of breast cancer in both first- and second-degree relatives is more strongly associated with breast cancer than simple first-degree family history.Impact: Future efforts to improve breast cancer risk prediction models should evaluate detailed family history as a risk factor. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 938-44. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Breast milk jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska


    Full Text Available Jaundice is the most common clinical symptom in the neonatal period. Free serum bilirubin levels during the first days after birth are higher than at any point later in life. Breastfeeding is associated with both increased risk and severity of jaundice. Early-onset breastfeeding jaundice is primarily a result of insufficient caloric supply and resolves gradually with the normalisation of lactation. Late-onset type, i.e. breast milk jaundice, develops after 4–7 days of life in otherwise healthy neonates and is mainly associated with the presence of an unknown factor in breast milk, which increases the enterohepatic reabsorption of bilirubin. Breast milk (late-onset jaundice is the most common cause of persistent jaundice due to increased unconjugated bilirubin. Elevated conjugated bilirubin always indicates a pathological process and requires urgent diagnosis extension. It was believed until recently that breast milk jaundice is a mild condition, which never leads to central nervous system damage. This, however, is not entirely certain in the light of currently available scientific research; therefore it is necessary to monitor bilirubin levels. Since breast milk jaundice is a diagnosis of exclusion, it is usually preceded by differential diagnosis. In the case of breast milk jaundice, serum bilirubin levels will return to normal by 12–14 weeks of life. In the case of newborns/infants in good condition, who develop properly and gain weight systematically, supporting parents in effective breastfeeding, monitoring and regular check-ups of the child are recommended. Breast milk jaundice is not a contraindication to prophylactic vaccination.

  19. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the proportion of newborn infants who were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk, as distinct from being fully breast fed. We also report a review of the breastfeeding practices of mothers of over 87,000 newborn infants in the Australian State of New South Wales. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia. Approval 05063, 29 September 2005. Results Virtually all (97 of 100 newborn infants in this centre were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk whether or not they were fully breast fed. Between 82.2% to 98.7% of 87,000 newborn infants were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk. Conclusion In some Western communities there is near universal exposure of new born infants to colostrum and breast milk. Accordingly it is possible for the transmission of human milk borne viruses. This is contrary to the widespread assumption that human milk borne viruses cannot be associated with breast cancer.

  20. Breast feeding practices in Qatar. (United States)

    Kayyali, M M; Al-tawil, K


    Medical staff at the neonatal outpatient clinic of the Women's Hospital in Doha, Qatar randomly distributed a questionnaire about breast feeding and socioeconomic characteristics to 340 women (53.5% Qataris and 46.5% other Arabic speaking women) from February-August 1988. Only 32% of the mothers exclusively breast fed at birth. This low incidence could be due to excessive advertising by formula manufacturers and the increasing purchasing power of the Qataris. 5l5% used both breast milk and formula. 13% only bottle fed their infants. 50% of the mothers from the below average income group (5000 Qatar Riyals) breast fed their infants, while only 12% of those from the high income group (10,000 Qatar Riyals) did. Further, 55% of the mothers with less than secondary school education exclusively breast fed whereas 25% of those with secondary school and above breast fed. This result confirmed the downward trend for breast feeding in Qatar as identified in the early 1980s. Even though most mothers decided themselves not to breast feed, 31% reported that their physician suggested feeding formula to their infants. The longer infants stayed in the neonatal intensive care unit the less likely their mothers would breast feed them. For example, 72% were breast fed if discharged 1 week after admission while none were breast fed if discharged 3 weeks after admission. The leading reasons for bottle feeding included that the infant was still hungry (634%), night feeding (12%), mother worked (11%), and maternal diseases (5%). Regardless of the reasons for the downward trend in breast feeding in Qatar, public health professionals and health practitioners must begin direct and specific health education efforts about the benefits of breast feeding.

  1. Nodular Fasciitis of the Breast Mimicking Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamamoto


    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis is a benign proliferative lesion that is usually found in the soft tissue of the upper extremity and trunk in young to middle-aged persons. It has rarely been described in the breast. A 35-year-old woman had noticed a mass in her left breast. It was elastic-hard, 13 mm in size, and located mainly in the upper inner quadrant of the left breast. Mammography did not detect the mass. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic lesion with an irregular margin. Neither fine-needle aspiration cytology nor core needle biopsy established a definitive diagnosis. Excisional biopsy was therefore performed. Histologically, the excised tumor tissue results were consistent with a diagnosis of nodular fasciitis of the breast. We report a case of nodular fasciitis of the breast, a rare histological type of breast tumor.

  2. Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Breast Implants Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Description: Silicone gel-filled breast implants have a silicone outer shell ...

  3. Choosing a Breast Prosthesis: A Survivor's Perspective (United States)

    ... Request Permissions Choosing a Breast Prosthesis: A Survivor’s Perspective Andrea Zinn June 16, 2015 · Amber Bauer, ASCO ... body image breast cancer coping decision making patient perspective survivorship tips Related Resources: Breast Cancer - Introduction Talking ...

  4. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  5. Scintimammography (Breast Specific Gamma Imaging-BSGI) (United States)

    ... is scintimammography? Scintimammography, also known as nuclear medicine breast imaging, is an examination that may be used to ... as Breast Specific Gamma Imaging (BSGI) or Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI). Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  6. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable (United States)

    ... breast-feed more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring an adequate milk supply to combining breast-feeding and formula-feeding. By Mayo Clinic Staff If ...

  7. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... nodes . The axillary nodes are the first place breast cancer is likely to spread. During breast surgery, some ... if cancer cells are present. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. So, it is more ...

  8. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broeks, A; Schmidt, M.K; Sherman, M.E; Couch, F.J; Hopper, J.L; Dite, G.S; Apicella, C; Smith, L.D; Hammet, F; Southey, M.C; Veer, L.J. van 't; Groot, R. de; Smit, V.T; Fasching, P.A; Beckmann, M.W; Jud, S; Ekici, A.B; Hartmann, A; Hein, A; Schulz-Wendtland, R; Burwinkel, B; Marme, F; Schneeweiss, A; Sinn, H.P; Sohn, C; Tchatchou, S; Bojesen, S.E; Nordestgaard, B.G; Flyger, H; Orsted, D.D; Kaur-Knudsen, D; Milne, R.L; Perez, J.I; Zamora, P; Roiguez, P.M; Benitez, J; Brauch, H; Justenhoven, C; Ko, Y.D; Hamann, U; Fischer, H.P; Bruning, T; Pesch, B; Chang-Claude, J; Wang-Gohrke, S; Bremer, M; Karstens, J.H; Hillemanns, P; Dork, T; Nevanlinna, H.A; Heikkinen, T; Heikkila, P; Blomqvist, C; Aittomaki, K; Aaltonen, K; Lindblom, A; Margolin, S; Mannermaa, A; Kosma, V.M; Kauppinen, J.M; Kataja, V; Auvinen, P; Eskelinen, M; Soini, Y; Chenevix-Trench, G; Spurdle, A.B; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Holland, H; Lambrechts, D; Claes, B; Vandorpe, T; Neven, P; Wildiers, H; Flesch-Janys, D; Hein, R; Loning, T; Kosel, M; Fredericksen, Z.S; Wang, X; Giles, G.G; Baglietto, L; Severi, G; McLean, C; Haiman, C.A; Henderson, B.E; Marchand, L. le; Kolonel, L.N; Alnaes, G.G; Kristensen, V; Borresen-Dale, A.L; Hunter, D.J; Hankinson, S.E; Anulis, I.L; Mulligan, A.M; O'Malley, F.P; Devilee, P; Huijts, P.E; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M; Asperen, C.J. van


    .... We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes...

  9. Concurrent breast stroma sarcoma and breast carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Teresa


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is one of the most important health problems in the world and affects a great number of women over the entire globe. This group of tumors rarely presents as bilateral disease and, when it does happen, normally occurs within the same histological type. We report a rare case of concurrent bilateral breast cancer with two different histology types, a breast carcinoma and a breast sarcoma, in a 42-year-old woman referred to our hospital. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian woman admitted to our institute in August 1999, presented with a nodule in the left breast of 3.0 × 2.5 cm, and, in the right breast, one of 1.0 cm, suspected of malignancy and with a clinically negative armpit. Biopsies had revealed invasive mammary carcinoma (right breast and sarcoma (left breast. She was submitted to bilateral modified radical mastectomy. A histological study showed an invasive mammary carcinoma degree II lobular pleomorphic type with invasion of seven of the 19 excised axillary nodes in the right breast and, in the left breast, a sarcoma of the mammary stroma, for which the immunohistochemistry study was negative for epithelial biomarkers and positive for vimentin. Later, she was submitted for chemotherapy (six cycles of 75 mg/m2 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by radiotherapy of the thoracic wall and axillary nodes on the left. Hormone receptors were positive in the tumor of the right breast, and tamoxifen, 20 mg, was prescribed on a daily basis (five years followed by letrozole, 2.5 mg, also daily (five years. She presented no sign of negative evolution in the last consultation. Conclusion The risk of development of bilateral breast cancer is about 1% each year within a similar histological type, but it is higher in tumors with lobular histology. In this case, the patient presented, simultaneously, two histologically distinct tumors, thus evidencing a rare situation.

  10. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (United States)


    500 or secretions due to pathological activity and can be precursors to breast cancers such as ductal carcinoma22, 23. Breast microcalcifications ... Breast Cancer Screening. Am J Med, in press. 650 2Gilles R, Meunier M, Lucidarme O, et al. (1996) Clustered breast microcalcifications : Evaluation... Breast Cancer , contrast-enhanced imaging, digital breast tomosynthesis, dynamic imaging, x-ray imaging 15. Number of Pages (count all pages

  11. Association between breast cancer, breast density, and body adiposity evaluated by MRI. (United States)

    Zhu, Wenlian; Huang, Peng; Macura, Katarzyna J; Artemov, Dmitri


    Despite the lack of reliable methods with which to measure breast density from 2D mammograms, numerous studies have demonstrated a positive association between breast cancer and breast density. The goal of this study was to study the association between breast cancer and body adiposity, as well as breast density quantitatively assessed from 3D MRI breast images. Breast density was calculated from 3D T1-weighted MRI images. The thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer was used as a surrogate marker for body adiposity. We evaluated the correlation between breast density, age, body adiposity, and breast cancer. Breast density was calculated for 410 patients with unilateral invasive breast cancer, 73 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 361 controls without breast cancer. Breast density was inversely related to age and the thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer. Breast cancer was only positively associated with body adiposity and age. Age and body adiposity are predictive of breast density. Breast cancer was not associated with breast density; however, it was associated with the thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer, a surrogate marker for body adiposity. Our results based on a limited number of patients warrant further investigations. • MRI breast density is negatively associated with body adiposity. • MRI breast density is negatively associated with age. • Breast cancer is positively associated with body adiposity. • Breast Cancer is not associated with MRI breast density.

  12. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors. (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann


    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  13. Hypoplastic breast anomalies in the female adolescent breast. (United States)

    Winocour, Sebastian; Lemaine, Valerie


    Hypoplastic breast anomalies remain a reconstructive challenge. In this article, the authors review the spectrum of nonsyndromic breast hypoplasia in the adolescent girl, namely idiopathic breast hypoplasia and tuberous breast deformity. Challenges specific to this population include (1) identifying the ideal timing for surgery, (2) choosing the optimal reconstructive method while taking into consideration ongoing changes in the female body (e.g., future pregnancy), and (3) considering the use of a two-stage reconstructive approach to gradually expand the skin envelope. A comprehensive review of surgical techniques that address these conditions is provided, taking into account the evolution and the most recent advances in surgical techniques.

  14. Breast Imaging after Breast Augmentation with Autologous Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyu Won; Seo, Bo Kyung; Shim, Eddeum; Song, Sung Eun; Cho, Kyu Ran [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eul Sik [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The use of autologous tissue transfer for breast augmentation is an alternative to using foreign implant materials. The benefits of this method are the removal of unwanted fat from other body parts, no risk of implant rupture, and the same feel as real breast tissue. However, sometimes there is a dilemma about whether or not to biopsy for calcifications or masses detected after the procedure is completed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the procedures of breast augmentation with autologous tissues, the imaging features of various complications, and the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of complications and hidden breast diseases.

  15. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  16. Breast Recurrent Hydatid Cyst Disease. (United States)

    Temiz, Ayetullah; Albayrak, Yavuz; Akalp, Sevilay Özmen; Yalçın, Ahmet; Albayrak, Ayşe


    Introduction: Hydatid cyst is a zoonotic disease seen in endemic areas. It is an important health problem in our country and especially in our Eastern and South-eastern Anatolia Region. Involvement of isolated breast tissue is very rare in hydatid cystdisease. As far as we know, isolated recurrent breast cyst hydatidosis has not been found in the literature. We aimed to present the case of a patient who was diagnosed with recurrent isolated cyst hydatid in the same breast, operated on because of hydatid cyst in the right breast 9 years ago. A hydatid cyst should be considered, particularly in endemic regions, in the differential diagnosis of cystic masses of the breast. If the patient has previously undergone surgery for breast cyst hydatid disease, recurrent cyst hydatid disease should be considered at the differential diagnosis. Celsius.

  17. Breast PET/MR Imaging. (United States)

    Melsaether, Amy; Moy, Linda


    Breast and whole-body PET/MR imaging is being used to detect local and metastatic disease and is being investigated for potential imaging biomarkers, which may eventually help personalize treatments and prognoses. This article provides an overview of breast and whole-body PET/MR exam techniques, summarizes PET and MR breast imaging for lesion detection, outlines investigations into multi-parametric breast PET/MR, looks at breast PET/MR in the setting of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, and reviews the pros and cons of whole-body PET/MR in the setting of metastatic or suspected metastatic breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P


    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  19. Breast Abscess: A Brief Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipta Das


    Full Text Available Breast infections commonly affect women aged between 18 and 50 years and are categorized as lactational and non-lactational infections. The infection can affect the skin overlying the breast when it can be a primary event or, it may occur secondary to mastitis and/or, secondary to a lesion in the skin. The commoner clinical findings consist of a tender, hard breast mass with erythema of the overlying skin. Needle aspiration yields pus cultures of which yield the infecting microorganisms. In practice, treatment is usually empiric consisting of bed rest, frequent nursing, fluids, Acetaminophen for pain and fever and a course of antibiotics. The other common line of treatment for breast abscess consists of incision and drainage with primary and/or, secondary closure. This brief communication on breast abscess gives an overview of the possible etiologies, clinical signs and symptoms and the treatment lines for breast abscess.

  20. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen


    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  1. Extreme oncoplastic breast surgery: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bordoni


    Conclusion: The surgical treatment for multicentric breast cancers remains controversial even though emerging evidences show good oncological and aesthetic outcomes following oncoplastic conserving breast surgery.

  2. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer (United States)


    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  3. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid (United States)


    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  4. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy (United States)


    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  5. Cytokines, Neovascularization and Breast Cancer (United States)


    Rationale Angiogenesis is important in the growth and metastases of human breast cancer . We hypothesize that this process is under the control of...staining patern seen in invasive cancer , in situ cancer , and benign breast tissue. Note that staining was graded as the most intensly staining area. The...blocked, tumors do not grow or metastasize . The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that breast cancer cells are capable of participating in this

  6. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer. (United States)

    Darbre, P D


    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  7. [Organized breast cancer screening]. (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn


    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  8. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors. (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete


    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  9. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia


    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  10. Augmented reality for breast imaging. (United States)

    Rancati, Alberto; Angrigiani, Claudio; Nava, Maurizio B; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Rocco, Nicola; Ventrice, Fernando; Dorr, Julio


    Augmented reality (AR) enables the superimposition of virtual reality reconstructions onto clinical images of a real patient, in real time. This allows visualization of internal structures through overlying tissues, thereby providing a virtual transparency vision of surgical anatomy. AR has been applied to neurosurgery, which utilizes a relatively fixed space, frames, and bony references; the application of AR facilitates the relationship between virtual and real data. Augmented Breast imaging (ABI) is described. Breast MRI studies for breast implant patients with seroma were performed using a Siemens 3T system with a body coil and a four-channel bilateral phased-array breast coil as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. The contrast agent used was (CA) gadolinium (Gd) injection (0.1 mmol/kg at 2 ml/s) by a programmable power injector. Dicom formated images data from 10 MRI cases of breast implant seroma and 10 MRI cases with T1-2 N0 M0 breast cancer, were imported and transformed into Augmented reality images. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence, 3D cursor use, and joystick fly-through. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) to the breast can improve clinical outcomes, giving an enhanced view of the structures to work on. It should be further studied to determine its utility in clinical practice.

  11. Histomorphological spetrum of breast lesions. (United States)

    Parajuli, S; Koirala, U; Khatri, R; Acharya, L; Suwal, A


    Cancer of the breast is the second most common cause of cancer in women. Mass in the breast, whether benign or malignant is a cause of anxiety to the patients and the family members. All breast lumps are considered to be carcinomas until proved otherwise and are the causes of concern both for the patient and surgeon. This is a retrospective study conducted in Kathmandu Model Hospital for a total duration of three years from August 2007 to August 2010. 114 sample of breast tissue sent for histopathology were studied. Peak incidence of benign lesion was in between 21-30 years and malignant lesions in between 31-50 years. No breast lesions were seen in the first decade of life. Cancer of the breast was seen in 12.28% of cases. Fibroadenoma and fibrocystic disease were the commonest benign lesion and infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest malignant lesion. Specimens from 10 male breasts were received. Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion encountered in males. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was seen in a 70 year old male. Breast cancer is one of the commonest causes of breast lump particularly in women and is growing public health problem in Nepal.

  12. Using mastectomy specimens to develop breast models for breast tomosynthesis and CT breast imaging (United States)

    O'Connor, J. Michael; Das, Mini; Didier, Clay; Mah'D, Mufeed; Glick, Stephen J.


    Dedicated x-ray computed tomography (CT) of the breast using a cone-beam flat-panel detector system is a modality under investigation by a number of research teams. As previously reported, we have fabricated a prototype, bench-top flat-panel CT breast imaging (CTBI) system and developed computer simulation software to model such a system. We are developing a methodology to use high resolution, low noise CT reconstructions of fresh mastectomy specimens for generating an ensemble of 3D digital breast phantoms that realistically model 3D compressed and uncompressed breast anatomy. These breast models can be used to simulate realistic projection data for both breast tomosynthesis (BT) and CT systems thereby providing a powerful evaluation and optimization mechanism.

  13. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  14. Primary breast lymphomas. (United States)

    Julen, Olivier; Dellacasa, Ilaria; Pelte, Marie-Françoise; Borish, Bettina; Bouchardy, Christine; Capanna, Federica; Vlastos, Georges; Dubuisson, Jean-Bernard; Vlastos, Anne-Thérèse


    The diagnosis, prognostic factors, and optimal management of primary breast lymphomas (PBL) is difficult. Seven patients recorded at the Geneva Cancer Registry between 1973-1998 were reviewed. Five patient had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, one a follicular lymphoma and one a MALT-lymphoma. All patients had clinical and radiological findings consistent with breast cancer and underwent mastectomy, which is not indicated in PBL. Diagnosis should be established prior to operative interventions, as fine needle aspiration missed the diagnosis for one patient and intra-operative frozen sections for 3 patients in our study. Five-year and 10-year overall survivals were 57% and 15%, respectively. Of the 3 patients who died from PBL, 2 had tumors that were Bcl-2 positive but Bcl-6 negative. All 3 surviving patients have positive Bcl-2 and Bcl-6 immunostaining, which could be important prognostic factors if confirmed by a larger study.

  15. Primary breast lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Thérèse Vlastos


    Full Text Available The diagnosis, prognostic factors, and optimal management of primary breast lymphomas (PBL is difficult. Seven patients recorded at the Geneva Cancer Registry between 1973-1998 were reviewed. Five patient had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, one a follicular lymphoma and one a MALT-lymphoma. All patients had clinical and radiological findings consistent with breast cancer and underwent mastectomy, which is not indicated in PBL. Diagnosis should be established prior to operative interventions, as fine needle aspiration missed the diagnosis for one patient and intra-operative frozen sections for 3 patients in our study. Five-year and 10-year overall survivals were 57% and 15%, respectively. Of the 3 patients who died from PBL, 2 had tumors that were Bcl-2 positive but Bcl-6 negative. All 3 surviving patients have positive Bcl-2 and Bcl-6 immunostaining, which could be important prognostic factors if confirmed by a larger study.

  16. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail:; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)


    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  17. Today in breast augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Calderón


    Full Text Available Breast augmentation is one of the most commonly performed procedures worldwide among aesthetic reconstructive surgeries. Among the indications for performing the procedure are primary and secondary alterations related to breasts shape and volume. During the initial assessment, emphasis should be placed in the anamnesis and physical examination, allowing to define target sizing and realistic expectations to prospectively determine the possible postoperative satisfaction rates. There are several methods used to select the appropriate implants that have become more accurate with time and with the use of technology. Although there are multiple materials developed, to this moment silicone implants continue to be the ones most used worldwide with low complication rates depending on each patient and on the technique used. It is considered as one of the aesthetic reconstructive surgeries with the highest degree of acceptance among the general population who undergo this type of procedures.

  18. Transaxillary Endoscopic Breast Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Bo Sim


    Full Text Available The axillary technique is the most popular approach to breast augmentation among Korean women. Transaxillary breast augmentation is now conducted with sharp electrocautery dissection under direct endoscopic vision throughout the entire process. The aims of this method are clear: both a bloodless pocket and a sharp non-traumatic dissection. Round textured or anatomical cohesive gel implants have been used to make predictable well-defined inframammary creases because textured surface implants demonstrated a better stability attributable to tissue adherence compared with smooth surface implants. The axillary endoscopic technique has greatly evolved, and now the surgical results are comparable to those with the inframammary approach. The author feels that this technique is an excellent choice for young patients with an indistinct or absent inframammary fold, who do not want a scar in the aesthetic unit of their chest.

  19. Primary breast lymphomas (United States)

    Julen, Olivier; Dellacasa, Ilaria; Pelte, Marie-Françoise; Borish, Bettina; Bouchardy, Christine; Capanna, Federica; Vlastos, Georges; Dubuisson, Jean-Bernard; Vlastos, Anne-Thérèse


    The diagnosis, prognostic factors, and optimal management of primary breast lymphomas (PBL) is difficult. Seven patients recorded at the Geneva Cancer Registry between 1973–1998 were reviewed. Five patient had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, one a follicular lymphoma and one a MALT-lymphoma. All patients had clinical and radiological findings consistent with breast cancer and underwent mastectomy, which is not indicated in PBL. Diagnosis should be established prior to operative interventions, as fine needle aspiration missed the diagnosis for one patient and intra-operative frozen sections for 3 patients in our study. Five-year and 10-year overall survivals were 57% and 15%, respectively. Of the 3 patients who died from PBL, 2 had tumors that were Bcl-2 positive but Bcl-6 negative. All 3 surviving patients have positive Bcl-2 and Bcl-6 immunostaining, which could be important prognostic factors if confirmed by a larger study. PMID:21139885

  20. The evolving breast reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur


    The aim of this editorial is to give an update on the use of the propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TAP/TDAP-flap) within the field of breast reconstruction. The TAP-flap can be dissected by a combined use of a monopolar cautery and a scalpel. Microsurgical instruments are generally...... not needed. The propeller TAP-flap can be designed in different ways, three of these have been published: (I) an oblique upwards design; (II) a horizontal design; (III) an oblique downward design. The latissimus dorsi-flap is a good and reliable option for breast reconstruction, but has been criticized...... for morbidity and complications. The TAP-flap does not seem to impair the function of the shoulder or arm and the morbidity appears to be scarce. However, an implant is often needed in combination with the TAP-flap, which results in implant related morbidity over time. The TAP-flap seems to be a promising tool...

  1. Silicone breast implants: complications. (United States)

    Iwuagwu, F C; Frame, J D


    Silicone breast implants have been used for augmentation mammoplasty for cosmetic purposes as well as for breast reconstruction following mastectomy for more than three decades. Though the use of the silicone gel filled variety has been banned in the USA except for special cases, they continue to be available elsewhere in the world including the UK. Despite the immense benefit they provide, their usage is associated with some complications. Most of these are related to the surgery and can be reduced by good surgical management. The major complications associated with their use is adverse capsular contracture, an outcome which can be very frustrating to manage. This article reviews the commonly reported complications and suggested management alternatives.

  2. Bisphosphonates for breast cancer. (United States)

    Pavlakis, N; Schmidt, Rl; Stockler, M


    Bone is the most common site of metastatic disease associated with breast cancer affecting more than half of women during the course of their disease. Bone metastases are a significant cause of morbidity due to pain, pathological fractures, hypercalcaemia and spinal cord compression, and contribute to mortality. Bisphosphonates, which inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, are standard care for tumour-associated hypercalcaemia, and have been shown to reduce bone pain, improve quality of life, and to delay skeletal events and reduce their number in patients with multiple myeloma. Several randomized controlled trials have evaluated the role of bisphosphonates in breast cancer. To assess the effect of bisphosphonates on skeletal events, bone pain, quality of life and survival in women with early and advanced breast cancer. Randomized controlled trials were identified using the specialized register maintained by the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group (the search was applied to the databases Medline, Central/CCTR, Embase, CancerLit, and included handsearches from a number of other relevant sources). See: Cochrane Collaboration Collaborative Review Group in Breast Cancer search strategy. Randomized controlled trials evaluating skeletal events in women with metastatic breast cancer and early breast cancer comparing: 1. treatment with a bisphosphonate with the same treatment without a bisphosphonate 2. treatment with one bisphosphonate with treatment with a different bisphosphonate. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers. Studies fulfilling the eligibility criteria were evaluated for quality, particularly concealment of allocation to randomized groups. Data were extracted from the published papers or abstracts independently by the two primary reviewers for each of the specified endpoints (skeletal events, bone pain, quality of life and survival). Data on skeletal events and survival were presented as numbers of events, risk ratios and ratios of event rates

  3. Breast Cancer Metastasis (United States)

    Marino, Natascia; Woditschka, Stephan; Reed, L. Tiffany; Nakayama, Joji; Mayer, Musa; Wetzel, Maria; Steeg, Patricia S.


    Despite important progress in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies, metastatic disease often develops in breast cancer patients and remains the leading cause of their deaths. For patients with established metastatic disease, therapy is palliative, with few breaks and with mounting adverse effects. Many have hypothesized that a personalized or precision approach (the terms are used interchangeably) to cancer therapy, in which treatment is based on the individual characteristics of each patient, will provide better outcomes. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of breast cancer metastasis and the challenges in personalization of treatment. The instability of metastatic tumors remains a leading obstacle to personalization, because information from a patient’s primary tumor may not accurately reflect the metastasis, and one metastasis may vary from another. Furthermore, the variable presence of tumor subpopulations, such as stem cells and dormant cells, may increase the complexity of the targeted treatments needed. Although molecular signatures and circulating biomarkers have been identified in breast cancer, there is lack of validated predictive molecular markers to optimize treatment choices for either prevention or treatment of metastatic disease. Finally, to maximize the information that can be obtained, increased attention to clinical trial design in the metastasis preventive setting is needed. PMID:23895915

  4. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  5. Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mammography is an established screening tool for breast cancer in high-income countries but may not be feasible for most resource poor nations. Alternative modalities are needed to mitigate the impact of the increasing incidence and mortality due to breast cancer. This may require the development of new ...

  6. A new look at breast density and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haars, G.


    Breast density, as visible on mammograms, comprises connective and epithelial tissue and can be seen to represent the glandular target tissue for breast cancer, whereas the non-dense tissue mainly comprises fat. High percentages of density are established to be one of the strongest risk factors of

  7. The Relationship between Breast Size and Breast Milk Volume of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of study was to determine if there is any relationship between breast size and the quantity of milk produced during sucking in 57 primiparas who practiced exclusive breast –feeding. The infants' ages range between 6 and 24 weeks with a mean age of 8.13 (5.2) weeks. There were 31 male and 26 female infants.

  8. Conservative breast management of breast cancer in the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Conservative breast management (CBM) has become the standard of care for early breast cancer especially in developed countries. However it's utilization in Nigeria, a developing country is greatly limited even in early cases despite international clinical trials confirming equivalent survivals for CBM and ...

  9. Breast self examination and breast cancer: Knowledge and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical students play an important role in creating a supportive environment within their communities for screening behaviours in health promotion. Medical students must possess the appropriate knowledge concerning breast self examination. (BSE) and breast cancer to be effective health educators.

  10. Breast self examination and breast cancer: Knowledge and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical students play an important role in creating a supportive environment within their communities for screening behaviours in health promotion. Medical students must possess the appropriate knowledge concerning breast self examination (BSE) and breast cancer to be effective health educators.

  11. Breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Jung; Shin, Sang Soo [Dept. of of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyo Soon; Baek, Jang Mi; Seon, Hyun Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Park, Min Ho [Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging and to describe the MR imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. From 2006 to 2013, MR images of 23 patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were reviewed to evaluate lesion detection and imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. MR images were analyzed by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System and an additional MR-detected lesion with no mammographic or sonographic abnormality was determined. MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients, even in marked background parenchymal enhancement. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was seen as a mass in 20 patients and as non-mass enhancement with segmental distribution in 3 patients. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (85%), non-circumscribed margin (85%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%). An additional site of cancer was detected with MR imaging in 5 patients (21.7%) and the type of surgery was changed. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was usually seen as an irregular mass with heterogeneous enhancement on MR images. Although these findings were not specific, MR imaging was useful in evaluating the disease extent of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

  12. Cutaneous Silicone Granuloma Mimicking Breast Cancer after Ruptured Breast Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi


    Full Text Available Cutaneous manifestations due to migration of silicone from ruptured implants are rare. Migrated silicone with cutaneous involvement has been found in the chest wall, abdominal wall, and lower extremities. We describe a case of cutaneous silicone granuloma in the breast exhibiting unusual growth mimicking breast cancer after a ruptured implant.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical breast examination for breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, false positive and false negative rates of clinical breast examination for palpable breast masses at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria. Methodology: This is a one-year prospective study from February 2009 to ...

  14. Correlation of centroid-based breast size, surface-based breast volume, and asymmetry-score-based breast symmetry in three-dimensional breast shape analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henseler, Helga


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate correlations among the size, volume, and symmetry of the female breast after reconstruction based on previously published data. Methods: The centroid, namely the geometric center of a three-dimensional (3D breast-landmark-based configuration, was used to calculate the size of the breast. The surface data of the 3D breast images were used to measure the volume. Breast symmetry was assessed by the Procrustes analysis method, which is based on the 3D coordinates of the breast landmarks to produce an asymmetry score. The relationship among the three measurements was investigated. For this purpose, the data of 44 patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction with an extended latissimus dorsi flap were analyzed. The breast was captured by a validated 3D imaging system using multiple cameras. Four landmarks on each breast and two landmarks marking the midline were used.Results: There was a significant positive correlation between the centroid-based breast size of the unreconstructed breast and the measured asymmetry (p=0.024; correlation coefficient, 0.34. There was also a significant relationship between the surface-based breast volume of the unaffected side and the overall asymmetry score (p<0.001; correlation coefficient, 0.556. An increase in size and especially in volume of the unreconstructed breast correlated positively with an increase in breast asymmetry in a linear relationship.Conclusions: In breast shape analysis, the use of more detailed surface-based data should be preferred to centroid-based size data. As the breast size increases, the latissimus dorsi flap for unilateral breast reconstruction increasingly falls short in terms of matching the healthy breast in a linear relationship. Other reconstructive options should be considered for larger breasts. Generally plastic surgeons should view the two breasts as a single unit when assessing breast aesthetics and not view each

  15. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Assessing Affect Reactivity and Regulation in Patients With Stage 0-III Breast Cancer (United States)


    Healthy Subject; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  16. [Breast tomosynthesis: a new tool for diagnosing breast cancer]. (United States)

    Martínez Miravete, P; Etxano, J


    Breast cancer continues to be the most common malignant tumor in women in occidental countries. Mammography is currently the technique of choice for screening programs; however, although it has been widely validated, mammography has its limitations, especially in dense breasts. Breast tomosynthesis is a revolutionary advance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It makes it possible to define lesions that are occult in the glandular tissue and therefore to detect breast tumors that are impossible to see on conventional mammograms. In considering the combined use of mammography and tomosynthesis, many factors must be taken into account apart from cancer detection; these include additional radiation, the recall rate, and the time necessary to carry out and interpret the two tests. In this article, we review the technical principles of tomosynthesis, it main uses, and the future perspective for this imaging technique. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Breast Segmentation and Density Estimation in Breast MRI: A Fully Automatic Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubern Merida, A.; Kallenberg, M.G.; Mann, R.M.; Marti, R.; Karssemeijer, N.


    Breast density measurement is an important aspect in breast cancer diagnosis as dense tissue has been related to the risk of breast cancer development. The purpose of this study is to develop a method to automatically compute breast density in breast MRI. The framework is a combination of image

  18. Breast cancer screening effect across breast density strata: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, D. van der; Ripping, T.M.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Broeders, M.J.


    Breast cancer screening is known to reduce breast cancer mortality. A high breast density may affect this reduction. We assessed the effect of screening on breast cancer mortality in women with dense and fatty breasts separately. Analyses were performed within the Nijmegen (Dutch) screening

  19. Immediate breast reconstruction with expander in pregnant breast cancer patients. (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Visnu; Peccatori, Fedro Alessandro; Martella, Stefano; Azim, Hatem A; Sarno, Maria Anna; Galimberti, Viviana; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Intra, Mattia; Sangalli, Claudia; Rotmensz, Nicole; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Renne, Giuseppe; Schorr, Mario Casales; Nevola Teixeira, Luiz Felipe; Rietjens, Mario; Giroda, Massimo; Gentilini, Oreste


    Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is currently considered an essential component in managing breast cancer patients, particularly those diagnosed at a young age. However, no studies have been published on the feasibility of immediate breast reconstruction in patients diagnosed and operated during the course of gestation. We retrospectively identified all breast cancer patients who were subjected to mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction during pregnancy at the European Institute of Oncology between 2002 and 2012. Patient demographics, gestational age at surgery, tumor stage, adjuvant treatment, details of the surgical procedures, surgical outcomes and fetal outcomes were analyzed. A total of 78 patients with breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy were subjected to a surgical procedure during the course of gestation. Twenty-two patients had mastectomy; of whom 13 were subjected to immediate breast reconstruction. Twelve out of 13 patients had a two-stage procedure with tissue expander insertion. Median gestational age at surgery was 16 weeks. No major surgical complications were encountered. Only one patient elected to have an abortion, otherwise, no spontaneous abortions or pregnancy complications were reported. Median gestational age at delivery was 35 weeks (range: 32-40 weeks). No major congenital malformations were reported. At a median follow-up of 32 months, all patients are alive with no long-term surgical complications. This is the first study of immediate breast reconstruction in pregnant breast cancer patients. Tissue expander insertion appears to ensure a short operative time, and does not seem to be associated with considerable morbidity to the patient or the fetus. Hence, it could be considered in the multidisciplinary management of women diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mammographic phenotypes of breast cancer risk driven by breast anatomy (United States)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Oustimov, Andrew; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Pantalone, Lauren; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina


    Image-derived features of breast parenchymal texture patterns have emerged as promising risk factors for breast cancer, paving the way towards personalized recommendations regarding women's cancer risk evaluation and screening. The main steps to extract texture features of the breast parenchyma are the selection of regions of interest (ROIs) where texture analysis is performed, the texture feature calculation and the texture feature summarization in case of multiple ROIs. In this study, we incorporate breast anatomy in these three key steps by (a) introducing breast anatomical sampling for the definition of ROIs, (b) texture feature calculation aligned with the structure of the breast and (c) weighted texture feature summarization considering the spatial position and the underlying tissue composition of each ROI. We systematically optimize this novel framework for parenchymal tissue characterization in a case-control study with digital mammograms from 424 women. We also compare the proposed approach with a conventional methodology, not considering breast anatomy, recently shown to enhance the case-control discriminatory capacity of parenchymal texture analysis. The case-control classification performance is assessed using elastic-net regression with 5-fold cross validation, where the evaluation measure is the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. Upon optimization, the proposed breast-anatomy-driven approach demonstrated a promising case-control classification performance (AUC=0.87). In the same dataset, the performance of conventional texture characterization was found to be significantly lower (AUC=0.80, DeLong's test p-valuebreast anatomy may further leverage the associations of parenchymal texture features with breast cancer, and may therefore be a valuable addition in pipelines aiming to elucidate quantitative mammographic phenotypes of breast cancer risk.

  1. Miscellaneous syndromes and their management: occult breast cancer, breast cancer in pregnancy, male breast cancer, surgery in stage IV disease. (United States)

    Colfry, Alfred John


    Surgical therapy for occult breast cancer has traditionally centered on mastectomy; however, breast conservation with whole breast radiotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection has shown equivalent results. Patients with breast cancer in pregnancy can be safely and effectively treated; given a patient's pregnancy trimester and stage of breast cancer, a clinician must be able to guide therapy accordingly. Male breast cancer risk factors show strong association with BRCA2 mutations, as well as Klinefelter syndrome. Several retrospective trials of surgical therapy in stage IV breast cancer have associated a survival advantage with primary site tumor extirpation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... before age 12) or reached menopause late (after age 55). Breast cancer is more common among women who • Are older • ... 40. If you are at high risk for breast cancer, you should get an annual mammogram beginning at age 40. Talk with your provider about other screening ...

  3. [The tuberous breast: a review]. (United States)

    Denoël, C; Soubirac, L; Lopez, R; Grolleau, J L; Chavoin, J P


    The tuberous breast is one of the most challenging problem in breast surgery. Pediatricians, gynaecologists and plastic surgeons are particularly concerned with the treatment of these young patients. A good assessment of the pathology and a precise knowledge of the surgical procedures are keypoints for a successful treatment. A case report will precede a literature overview of this very complex problem.

  4. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk (United States)

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  5. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer


    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  6. [Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the breast]. (United States)

    Anlauf, M; Neumann, M; Bomberg, S; Luczak, K; Heikaus, S; Gustmann, C; Antke, C; Ezziddin, S; Fottner, C; Pavel, M; Pape, U-F; Rinke, A; Lahner, H; Schott, M; Cremer, B; Hörsch, D; Baum, R P; Groh, U; Alkatout, I; Rudlowski, C; Scheler, P; Zirbes, T K; Hoffmann, J; Fehm, T; Gabbert, H E; Baldus, S E


    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the breast are specific tumor entities. According to the literature up to 5% of breast neoplasms are malignant epithelial neoplasms of the breast. They are defined by a neuroendocrine (NE) architecture and cytology combined with an expression of the neuroendocrine vesicle markers chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin. The diagnosis is supplemented by the receptor status and the proliferative activity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of 2012 the following groups of NEN are distinguished: (1) invasive breast carcinoma with NE differentiation, (2) well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and (3) poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma (NEC). This review article focuses on (1) the definition and basic principles of diagnostics, (2) the history, nomenclature and WHO classification from 2003 and 2012, (3) the frequency of breast NEN, (4) the hereditary background and functional activity, (5) the expression of receptors and (6) the possible clinical implications. In addition, the first results of a retrospective single center study (n = 465 patients with breast cancer over a time period of 4 years) on the frequency of NEN of the breast at the Breast Center of the University Hospital Düsseldorf are presented. In this study a frequency of 4.5% of NEN was found based on a diagnostic cut-off of > 50% Chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin positive tumor cells.

  7. Having children after breast cancer. (United States)

    Dow, K H


    Having children after breast cancer is an important clinical issue. Evidence from clinical studies on pregnancy subsequent to breast cancer has not shown a survival disadvantage. Clinical experience suggests that desire for children, support from family, and quality of life issues are also important factors in decisions about pregnancy. This qualitative study was done (1) to identify reasons why young women decide to become pregnant after breast cancer; (2) to describe concerns about subsequent pregnancy; (3) to describe helpful behaviors in decision making; and (4) to explore the meaning of having children after breast cancer. Twenty-three women were identified who had early-stage breast cancer and became pregnant after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Sixteen women participated in a semi-structured interview. Qualitative data were analyzed for content. Results indicate that pregnancy subsequent to breast cancer is a powerful stimulus for young women to "get well" again. Reasons for subsequent pregnancy were related to the women's developmental age. Young women expressed concerns about the potential for future disease recurrence, about breast self-examination and mammography during pregnancy, and about surviving to see their children grow up. Perceived helpful behaviors included developing a realistic perspective, living with uncertainty, love and support of spouse, and delineating differences between personal and medical decision making.

  8. Benign Breast Problems and Conditions (United States)

    ... nipple is a common benign breast symptom. During pregnancy, nipple discharge is normal as the breasts get ready to produce milk. In women who are not pregnant, it can be caused by hormonal changes. Some medications can cause nipple discharge. Nipple discharge ...

  9. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.


    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing

  10. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt


    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...

  11. Breast cancer statistics and markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Siva Donepudi


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO 2012. Here, the review is been focused on different breast cancer markers, that is, tissue markers (hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor-2, urokinase plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, p53 and cathepsin D, genetic markers (BRAC1 and 2 and gene expression microarray technique, etc., and serum markers (CA 15.3, BR 27.29, MCA, CA 549, carcinoembryonic antigen, oncoproteins, and cytokeratins used in present diagnosis, but none of the mentioned markers can diagnose breast cancer at an early stage. There is a disquieting need for the identification of best diagnosing marker, which can be able to diagnose even in early stage of breast carcinogenesis.

  12. Histopathological Types of Breast Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morin”. On the average it represents the prevalence of breast cancer in southern part of Nigeria. The mean age of diagnosis of breast cancer in females in our series was 45.7 years. This age compares favourably With the mean age in other parts of Nigeria. In Calabar, South — South. Nigeria the mean age was found to be ...

  13. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... women who • Are older • Have no children • Delayed pregnancy until after age 30 • Have used combination hormone therapy (estrogen plus progestin) for more than five years • Have a mother, sister, or daughter who has had breast cancer Did you know? Breast pain alone is not ...

  14. Post-radiation fibrosarcoma of the breast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Lemson (M.); H.J. Mud; A. Wijnmaalen (Arendjan); R.W.M. Giard (Raimond)


    markdownabstractWe report the first case of fibrosarcoma of stromal breast tissue occurring 11 years after breast-conserving therapy for breast cancer. A review of six cases of stromal malignant fibrous histiocytoma is presented, developing between 5 years and 11 years after breast radiation. Since

  15. Implementation of Whole-Breast Screening Ultrasonography. (United States)

    Durand, Melissa A; Hooley, Regina J


    Whole-breast screening ultrasonography is being increasingly implemented in breast imaging centers because numerous studies have shown the benefit of supplemental screening for women with dense breasts and breast density notification laws are becoming more widespread. This article reviews the numerous considerations involved in integrating a screening ultrasonography program into a busy practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P


    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  17. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens


    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  18. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg


    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  19. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per


    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  20. Green Tea and Breast Cancer (United States)

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M


    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855