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Sample records for bream sparus aurata

  1. Taurine supplemented plant protein based diets with alternative lipid sources for juvenile sea bream, sparus aurata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lipid sources were evaluated as fish oil replacements in fishmeal free, plant protein based diets for juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. A twelve week feeding study was undertaken to examine the performance of fish fed the diets with different sources of essential fatty acids (canola o...

  2. Season and size effects: changes in the quality of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.

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    R. RODRIGUEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of the harvesting season and fish size on the final quality of cage farmed gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata. Morphometric analysis, fat stores estimation, fillet composition analysis, fillet fatty acids profile determination and sensory analysis were carried out on a commercially-sized cage farmed gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. population in April, June, July and November. Both season and size had a significant effect in morphometric characteristics. The most pronounced size effect was the change of fish shape, becoming rounder with fish growth, the increase of filleting yield and condition index. An increase of both peritoneal and perivisceral fat was observed in summer months. In general size had little effect on muscle composition. A significant size effect was observed in the fillet lipid content, which increased with it. Fillet lipid content was unexpected lower in the warm period (June-July. This can be possibly attributed to feeding restrictions that may have occurred, due to anoxic incidents related to high temperatures.Slight seasonal differentiations occurred in the muscle fatty acids. No significant differences were found in the organoleptic characteristics of the two size groups compared.

  3. Determination of some quality properties of marinated sea bream (Sparus Aurata L., 1758 during cold storage

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    Gülderen Kurt Kaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the effect of sea bream (Sparus aurata marinated some quality properties during cold storage. The fillets of fish were immersed into brine including 3.5% acetic acid 11% salt in the ratio of 1: 1.5 (fish: marinate brine for marination process. After the process of ripening, samples were grouped into two and packed in plastic containers; one being plain (in sunflower oil and the other being sauced (sauced prepared with sunflower oil. During storage, sensory, crude protein, lipid, dry matter and crude ash, TBA, TVB-N, TMA-N and peroxide analyses were done periodically. According to results of 200 days of storage, TVB-N values of sea bream marinates packaged as plain and sauced were 15.86/14.89 mg/100g, TBA 7.06/7.99 mg MA/kg, TMA-N 2.97/3.12, mg/100g, the value of peroxide was 7.23/7.45 meq/kg respectively. According to chemical and sensory analyses results obtained in the study; it was concluded that sea bream marinates packaged as plain and sauced can be stored in +4 °C for 200 days.

  4. A Comparative BAC Map for the Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.

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    Heiner Kuhl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first comparative BAC map of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, a highly valuated marine aquaculture fish species in the Mediterranean. High-throughput end sequencing of a BAC library yielded 92,468 reads (60.6 Mbp. Comparative mapping was achieved by anchoring BAC end sequences to the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus genome. BACs that were consistently ordered along the stickleback chromosomes accounted for 14,265 clones. A fraction of 5,249 BACs constituted a minimal tiling path that covers 73.5% of the stickleback chromosomes and 70.2% of the genes that have been annotated. The N50 size of 1,485 “BACtigs” consisting of redundant BACs is 337,253 bp. The largest BACtig covers 2.15 Mbp in the stickleback genome. According to the insert size distribution of mapped BACs the sea bream genome is 1.71-fold larger than the stickleback genome. These results represent a valuable tool to researchers in the field and may support future projects to elucidate the whole sea bream genome.

  5. Fast skeletal muscle transcriptome of the Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata determined by next generation sequencing

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    Garcia de la serrana Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. occurs around the Mediterranean and along Eastern Atlantic coasts from Great Britain to Senegal. It is tolerant of a wide range of temperatures and salinities and is often found in brackish coastal lagoons and estuarine areas, particularly early in its life cycle. Gilthead sea bream are extensively cultivated in the Mediterranean with an annual production of 125,000 metric tonnes. Here we present a de novo assembly of the fast skeletal muscle transcriptome of gilthead sea bream using 454 reads and identify gene paralogues, splice variants and microsatellite repeats. An annotated transcriptome of the skeletal muscle will facilitate understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of traits linked to production in this economically important species. Results Around 2.7 million reads of mRNA sequence data were generated from the fast myotomal of adult fish (~2 kg and juvenile fish (~0.09 kg that had been either fed to satiation, fasted for 3-5d or transferred to low (11°C or high (33°C temperatures for 3-5d. Newbler v2.5 assembly resulted in 43,461 isotigs >100 bp. The number of sequences annotated by searching protein and gene ontology databases was 10,465. The average coverage of the annotated isotigs was x40 containing 5655 unique gene IDs and 785 full-length cDNAs coding for proteins containing 58–1536 amino acids. The v2.5 assembly was found to be of good quality based on validation using 200 full-length cDNAs from GenBank. Annotated isotigs from the reference transcriptome were attributable to 344 KEGG pathway maps. We identified 26 gene paralogues (20 of them teleost-specific and 43 splice variants, of which 12 had functional domains missing that were likely to affect their biological function. Many key transcription factors, signaling molecules and structural proteins necessary for myogenesis and muscle growth have been identified. Physiological status affected the

  6. Nutritional regulation of glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression in liver of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    OpenAIRE

    Caseras Surribas, Anna; Metón Teijeiro, Isidoro; Vives, C.; Egea Liria, Miriam; Fernández González, Felipe Javier; Vázquez Baanante, Ma. Isabel

    2002-01-01

    To examine the role of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in glucose homeostasis in the diabeteslike experimental model of carnivorous fish, we analysed postprandial variations and the effect of starvation, ration size and diet composition on the regulation of G6Pase expression at the enzyme activity and mRNA level in the liver of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata ). G6Pase expression increased in long-term starved or energy-restricted fish. In contrast to data reported for other fish species, sh...

  7. Characterization of the cellular damage induced by Aflatoxin B1 in sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 hepatocytes

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    Giuseppe Crescenzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. is one of the most intensively farmed fish spe- cies in the Mediterranean, greatly studied for the relevant economic value, although its sensitivity to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 has to be investigated, yet. The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro evalua- tion of cytotoxic potential of AFB1 on S. aurata hepatocytes in order to grade the range of AFB1 toxicity, and the boundary between acute and long-term toxicity. Primary monolayer cultures of hepatocytes from S. aurata juveniles were treated with a wide range of concentrations from 5x103 ng/ml to 2x10 2x10-5 ng/ml of AFB1 for a different period of exposure (24, 48, 72 hours. The cytotoxic activity was characterized by MTT reduction assay. After each exposition hepatocytes were examined for morphologic alterations and apoptosis induction. AFB1 exposure significantly reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-depend- ent manner. Dose-response curves obtained after 24, 48 and 72 hrs revealed that prolonged exposure times lead to a significant increase of the toxicpotencyofAFB toxic potency of AFB AFB1. Ourresultsdemonstratethat Our results demonstrate that S. aurata hepatocytes are highly sensitive to AFB1 exposure. Such scientific findings could provide new insights to investigate the real impact of aflatoxin on marine farmed fish.

  8. Characterization and endocrine regulation of proliferation and differentiation of primary cultured preadipocytes from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

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    Salmerón, C; Acerete, L; Gutiérrez, J; Navarro, I; Capilla, E

    2013-07-01

    A preadipocyte primary cell culture was established to gain knowledge about adipose tissue development in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), one of the most extensively produced marine aquaculture species in the Mediterranean. The preadipocytes obtained from the stromal-vascular cell fraction of adipose tissue proliferated in culture, reaching confluence around day 8. At that time, the addition of an adipogenic medium promoted differentiation of the cells into mature adipocytes, which showed an enlarged cytoplasm filled with lipid droplets. First, cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed under control and adipogenic conditions during culture development. Next, the effects of insulin, GH, and IGF-I on cell proliferation were evaluated at day 8. All peptides significantly stimulated proliferation of the cells after 48 h of incubation (P differentiation when added to growth medium were studied at day 11, after 3 d of induction with adipogenic medium. The results showed that IGF-I is more potent than insulin enhancing differentiation (P product in aquaculture.

  9. Partial replacement of fish meal by T-Iso in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata juveniles diets

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    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of microalga Isochrysis sp. T-Iso in partial substitution of fish meal and the study of the effects on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata perform- ances and chemical composition of fillets. The results show that the microalga T-Iso nutrients support growth better than control diets, and the chemical composition of sea bream fillets also meets the needs of consumers for healthy diets. T-Iso resulted highly digestible, and support the best perform- ances of fish fed on 70% alga diet probably due to its high protein efficiency in comparison to other diets. The presence of a high quantity of cyclic isoprenoid could explain this high efficiency of T-Iso. Gilthead sea bream fed on 70% T-Iso showed fillets with a low level of protein and a high level of fat; moreover, their somatic indexes were higher than those of fish fed other diets. Highest percentage T- Iso diet showed the highest amount of the sum of saturated fatty acids, mainly due to myristate and palmitate. On the contrary, the sum of polyunsaturated decreases, mainly because of the reduction of EPA and DHA amounts. If the mass production economical problems are solved, T-Iso will represent a good solution in partial substitution of fish meal.

  10. Effects of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on lipid metabolism of gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata).

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    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Peres, Helena; Rubio, Vera Cruz; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2013-06-01

    A growth trial was performed with gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata) to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on fish performance and lipid metabolism. For that purpose, four diets were formulated: a fish meal-based diet (Control) and diets identical to the control diet but supplemented with 2.9 % white tea (Tea), 0.3 % methionine (Met) or 2.9 % white tea plus 0.3 % methionine (Tea + Met). Growth performance and feed efficiency parameters, whole-body and liver composition, plasma metabolites concentration and liver glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) activities were determined. Feed intake was higher in fish fed methionine-supplemented diets, whereas this parameter and growth was decreased in fish fed white tea supplementation. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were not affected by diet composition. Plasma HDL cholesterol and total lipids concentration were higher in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Whole-body lipid, plasma glucose, liver glycogen concentration and liver G6PDH, ME and FAS activities were lower in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Results of the present study indicate that methionine seems to act as a feed attractant in diets for sea bream juveniles. Additionally, white tea is an important modulator of lipid metabolism in sea bream juveniles.

  11. Impact of Fishmeal Replacement in Diets for Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) on the Gastrointestinal Microbiota Determined by Pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA Gene

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    Estruch, Guillem; COLLADO AMORES, MARÍA CARMEN; Peñaranda, D.S.; Tomas-Vidal, A.; Jover Cerda, Miguel; Pérez-Martínez, G; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Recent studies have demonstrated the impact of diet on microbiota composition, but the essential need for the optimization of production rates and costs forces farms and aquaculture production to carry out continuous dietary tests. In order to understand the effect of total fishmeal replacement by vegetable-based feed in the sea bream (Sparus aurata), the microbial composition of the stomach, foregut, midgut and hindgut was analysed using high-throughput 16S rDNA sequ...

  12. Comparison among Different Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Farming Systems: Activity of Intestinal and Hepatic Enzymes and 13C-NMR Analysis of Lipids

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    Vincenzo Zonno; Francesco Paolo Fanizzi; Carlo Storelli; Giorgia Bressani; Pascali, Sandra A. De; Laura Del Coco; Paride Papadia

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate differences in general health and nutritional values of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), the effects of semi-intensive, land-based tanks and sea-cages intensive rearing systems were investigated, and results compared with captured wild fish. The physiological state was determined by measuring the activity of three different intestinal digestive enzymes: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and maltase; and the activity of the hepatic ALP. Also, the ...

  13. A gene-based radiation hybrid map of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata refines and exploits conserved synteny with Tetraodon nigroviridis

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    Tsalavouta Matina

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative teleost studies are of great interest since they are important in aquaculture and in evolutionary issues. Comparing genomes of fully sequenced model fish species with those of farmed fish species through comparative mapping offers shortcuts for quantitative trait loci (QTL detections and for studying genome evolution through the identification of regions of conserved synteny in teleosts. Here a comparative mapping study is presented by radiation hybrid (RH mapping genes of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata, a non-model teleost fish of commercial and evolutionary interest, as it represents the worldwide distributed species-rich family of Sparidae. Results An additional 74 microsatellite markers and 428 gene-based markers appropriate for comparative mapping studies were mapped on the existing RH map of Sparus aurata. The anchoring of the RH map to the genetic linkage map resulted in 24 groups matching the karyotype of Sparus aurata. Homologous sequences to Tetraodon were identified for 301 of the gene-based markers positioned on the RH map of Sparus aurata. Comparison between Sparus aurata RH groups and Tetraodon chromosomes (karyotype of Tetraodon consists of 21 chromosomes in this study reveals an unambiguous one-to-one relationship suggesting that three Tetraodon chromosomes correspond to six Sparus aurata radiation hybrid groups. The exploitation of this conserved synteny relationship is furthermore demonstrated by in silico mapping of gilthead sea bream expressed sequence tags (EST that give a significant similarity hit to Tetraodon. Conclusion The addition of primarily gene-based markers increased substantially the density of the existing RH map and facilitated comparative analysis. The anchoring of this gene-based radiation hybrid map to the genome maps of model species broadened the pool of candidate genes that mainly control growth, disease resistance, sex determination and reversal, reproduction as well

  14. Mast cells in the intestine and gills of the sea bream, Sparus aurata, exposed to a polychlorinated biphenyl, PCB 126.

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    Lauriano, Eugenia Rita; Calò, Margherita; Silvestri, Giuseppa; Zaccone, Daniele; Pergolizzi, Simona; Lo Cascio, Patrizia

    2012-02-01

    The presence of mast cells has been reported in all classes of vertebrates, including many teleost fish families. The mast cells of teleosts, both morphologically and functionally, show a close similarity to the mast cells of mammals. Mast cells of teleosts, localized in the vicinity of blood vessels of the intestine, gills and skin, may play an important role in the mechanisms of inflammatory response, because they express a number of functional proteins, including piscidins, which are antimicrobical peptides that act against a broad-spectrum of pathogens. An increase in the number of mast cells in various tissues and organs of teleosts seems to be linked to a wide range of stressful conditions, such as exposure to heavy metals (cadmium, copper, lead and mercury), exposure to herbicides and parasitic infections. This study analyzed the morphological localization and abundance of mast cells in the intestine and gills of sea bream, Sparus aurata, after a 12, 24 or 72 h exposure to PCB 126, a polychlorinated biphenyl, which is a potent immunotoxic agent. In the organs of fish exposed to PCB 126, it was observed that in addition to congestion of blood vessels, there was extravasation of red blood cells, infiltration of lymphocytes, and a progressive increase in numbers of mast cells. These data confirm the immunotoxic action of PCB, and the involvement of mast cells in the inflammatory response. PMID:21565388

  15. Assessment of freshness and freeze-thawing of sea bream fillets (Sparus aurata) by a cytosolic enzyme: Lactate dehydrogenase.

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    Diop, Mamadou; Watier, Denis; Masson, Pierre-Yves; Diouf, Amadou; Amara, Rachid; Grard, Thierry; Lencel, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    The evaluation of freshness and freeze-thawing of fish fillets was carried out by assessment of autolysis of cells using a cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. Autolysis plays an important role in spoilage of fish and postmortem changes in fish tissue are due to the breakdown of the cellular structures and release of cytoplasmic contents. The outflow of a cytosolic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, was studied in sea bream fillets and the Sparus aurata fibroblasts (SAF-1) cell-line during an 8day storage period at +4°C. A significant increase of lactate dehydrogenase release was observed, especially after 5days of storage. The ratio between the free and the total lactate dehydrogenase activity is a promising predictive marker to measure the quality of fresh fish fillets. The effect of freeze-thawing on cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase and lysosomal α-d-glucosidase activities was also tested. Despite the protecting effect of the tissue compared to the cell-line, a loss of lactate dehydrogenase activity, but not of α-d-glucosidase, was observed. In conclusion, lactate dehydrogenase may be used as a marker to both assess freshness of fish and distinguish between fresh and frozen-thawed fish fillets. PMID:27211667

  16. Sample size matters in dietary gene expression studies—A case study in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.

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    Fotini Kokou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns in gene expression studies is the calculation of statistical significance which in most cases remains low due to limited sample size. Increasing biological replicates translates into more effective gains in power which, especially in nutritional experiments, is of great importance as individual variation of growth performance parameters and feed conversion is high. The present study investigates in the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata, one of the most important Mediterranean aquaculture species. For 24 gilthead sea bream individuals (biological replicates the effects of gradual substitution of fish meal by plant ingredients (0% (control, 25%, 50% and 75% in the diets were studied by looking at expression levels of four immune-and stress-related genes in intestine, head kidney and liver. The present results showed that only the lowest substitution percentage is tolerated and that liver is the most sensitive tissue to detect gene expression variations in relation to fish meal substituted diets. Additionally the usage of three independent biological replicates were evaluated by calculating the averages of all possible triplets in order to assess the suitability of selected genes for stress indication as well as the impact of the experimental set up, thus in the present work the impact of FM substitution. Gene expression was altered depending of the selected biological triplicate. Only for two genes in liver (hsp70 and tgf significant differential expression was assured independently of the triplicates used. These results underlined the importance of choosing the adequate sample number especially when significant, but minor differences in gene expression levels are observed.

  17. Use of microarray technology to assess the time course of liver stress response after confinement exposure in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.

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    Cairns Michael T

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection programs for growth and stress traits in cultured fish are fundamental to the improvement of aquaculture production. The gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata is the main aquacultured species in the Mediterranean area and there is considerable interest in the genetic improvement of this species. With the aim of increasing the genomic resources in gilthead sea bream and identifying genes and mechanisms underlying the physiology of the stress response, we developed a cDNA microarray for gilthead sea bream that is enriched by suppression substractive hybridization with stress and immunorelevant genes. This microarray is used to analyze the dynamics of gilthead sea bream liver expression profile after confinement exposure. Results Groups of confined and control juvenile fish were sampled at 6, 24, 72 and 120 h post exposure. GeneSpring analyses identified 202 annotated genes that appeared differentially expressed at least at one sampling time (P Conclusions Collectively, these findings show the complex nature of the adaptive stress response with a clear indication that the ER is an important control point for homeostatic adjustments. The study also identifies metabolic pathways which could be analyzed in greater detail to provide new insights regarding the transcriptional regulation of the stress response in fish.

  18. Comparison among Different Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata Farming Systems: Activity of Intestinal and Hepatic Enzymes and 13C-NMR Analysis of Lipids

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    Vincenzo Zonno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate differences in general health and nutritional values of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, the effects of semi-intensive, land-based tanks and sea-cages intensive rearing systems were investigated, and results compared with captured wild fish. The physiological state was determined by measuring the activity of three different intestinal digestive enzymes: alkaline phosphatase (ALP, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP and maltase; and the activity of the hepatic ALP. Also, the hepatic content in protein, cholesterol, and lipid were assessed. 13C-NMR analysis for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the lipid fraction extracted from fish muscles for semiintensive and land based tanks intensive systems was performed. The lipid fraction composition showed small but significant differences in the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio, with the semi-intensive characterized by higher monounsaturated and lower saturated fatty acid content with respect to land based tanks intensive rearing system.

  19. Characterization data of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata IGF-I receptors (IGF-IRa/Rb

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    Emilio J. Vélez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this data article we describe the coding sequence of two IGF-IR paralogues (IGF-IRa and IGF-IRb obtained from gilthead sea bream embryos. The putative protein architecture (domains and other important motifs was determined and, amino acid sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis of both receptors together with IGF-IR orthologues from different vertebrates was performed. Additionally, a semi-quantitative conventional PCR was done to analyze the mRNA expression of both receptors in different tissues of gilthead sea bream. These data will assist in further physiological studies in this species. In this sense, the expression of both receptors during ontogeny in muscle as well as the differential effects of IGF-I and IGF-II on their regulation during in vitro myogenesis has been recently studied (doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.11.011; [1].

  20. Cultivation of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 in low salinity inland brackish geothermal water

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    Samuel Appelbaum

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the course of attempting to culture gilthead sea bream in inland brackish geothermal water, indoor and outdoor research studies have been ongoing from early 2006 at the "Bengis Centre for Desert Aquaculture" of the Institutes for Desert Research in Israel, some of which are described below. Gilthead sea bream fingerlings with an average weight of 19 g were acclimated to and reared for 56 days in brackish water of three salinities: 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 ppt collected from three different locations. At the salinity of 3.5 ppt the fish grew best (P Artemia nauplii plus larval dry feed and were grown in brackish water of 2.6 ppt salinity for 8 weeks reaching a weight gain of 92% at a survival rate of 83%. The control groups at sea water (39 ppt reached at the same time a weight gain of 95% at a survival rate of 98%. In a further study gilthead sea bream juveniles with an average weight of 2.24 g were reared in brackish water with a salinity of 3.6 ppt for 8 weeks and received salt added diets of 4% and 6%. Compared with the control diet with no salt added, both salt rich diets significantly improved the fingerlings growth and survival rates as well as the feed conversion ratio. The 6% salt rich diet promoted fish weight gain by 560% which was the best performance (P <0.05 followed by 448% weight gain with the 4% salt rich diet while the lowest performance with a weight gain of only 360% was obtained with the control (no salt added diet. The next study with higher levels of salt added diets showed that gilthead sea bream post larvae with an average weight of 0.58 g reared in brackish geothermal water of 2.9 ppt salinity for 10 weeks grew best (P < 0.05 obtaining a weight gain of 778% with the highest survival rate of 88% when fed a diet containing 12% salt. In the studies with the salt rich diets, the salt incorporated was obtained by the evaporation of brine produced during the process of desalination of the brackish geothermal water from the same

  1. Vegetable oils affect the composition of lipoproteins in sea bream (Sparus aurata).

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    Caballero, Maria José; Torstensen, Bente E; Robaina, Lidia; Montero, Daniel; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the dietary fatty acid profile on the lipoprotein composition in sea bream fed different vegetable oils. Six experimental diets were formulated combining fish oil with three vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed) in order to obtain 60-80 % (w/w) fish-oil replacement. VLDL, LDL and HDL in plasma samples were obtained by sequential centrifugal flotation. The lipid class, protein content and fatty acid composition of each lipoprotein fraction were analysed. HDL was the predominant lipoprotein in sea bream plasma containing the highest proportion of protein (34 %) and phosphatidylcholine. LDL presented a high content of cholesterol, whereas triacylglycerol comprised a larger proportion of VLDL. The lipid class of the lipoprotein fractions was affected by the dietary vegetable oils. Thus, a high dietary inclusion of soyabean and linseed oil (80 %) increased the cholesterol in HDL and LDL in comparison to fish oil. Similarly, the triacylglycerol concentration of VLDL was increased in fish fed 80 % soyabean and linseed oils owing to the low n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content of these diets. Lipoprotein fatty acid composition easily responded to dietary fatty acid composition. VLDL was the fraction more affected by dietary fatty acid, followed by LDL and HDL. The n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content increased in the order VLDL less than LDL and less than HDL, regardless of dietary vegetable oils.

  2. Growth-promoting effects of sustained swimming in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

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    Blasco, Josefina; Moya, A; Millán-Cubillo, A; Vélez, E J; Capilla, E; Pérez-Sánchez, J; Gutiérrez, J; Fernández-Borrás, J

    2015-12-01

    Fish growth is strongly influenced by environmental and nutritional factors and changing culture conditions can help optimize it. The importance of early-life experience on the muscle phenotype later in life is well known. Here, we study the effects of 5 weeks of moderate and sustained swimming activity (5 BL s(-1)) in gilthead sea bream during early development. We analysed growth and body indexes, plasma IGF-I and GH levels, feed conversion, composition [proximate and isotopic ((15)N/(13)C)] and metabolic key enzymes (COX, CS, LDH, HOAD, HK, ALAT, ASAT) of white muscle. Moderate and continuous exercise in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream increased plasma IGF-I, whereas it reduced plasma GH. Under these conditions, growth rate improved without any modification to feed intake through an increase in muscle mass and a reduction in mesenteric fat deposits. There were no changes in the content and turnover of muscle proteins and lipid reserves. Glycogen stores were maintained, but glycogen turnover was higher in white muscle of exercised fish. A lower LDH/CS ratio demonstrated an improvement in the aerobic capacity of white muscle, while a reduction in the COX/CS ratio possibly indicated a functional adaptation of mitochondria to adjust to the tissue-specific energy demand and metabolic fuel availability in exercised fish. We discuss the synergistic effects of dietary nutrients and sustained exercise on the different mitochondrial responses.

  3. Quantitative trait loci involved in sex determination and body growth in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. through targeted genome scan.

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    Dimitrios Loukovitis

    Full Text Available Among vertebrates, teleost fish exhibit a considerably wide range of sex determination patterns that may be influenced by extrinsic parameters. However even for model fish species like the zebrafish Danio rerio the precise mechanisms involved in primary sex determination have not been studied extensively. The zebrafish, a gonochoristic species, is lacking discernible sex chromosomes and the sex of juvenile fish is difficult to determine. Sequential protandrous hermaphrodite species provide distinct determination of the gender and allow studying the sex determination process by looking at the mechanism of sex reversal. This is the first attempt to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic variation for sex determination and body weight in a sequential protandrous hermaphrodite species, the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata. This work demonstrates a fast and efficient strategy for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL detection in the gilthead sea bream, a non-model but target hermaphrodite fish species. Therefore a comparative mapping approach was performed to query syntenies against two other Perciformes, the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, a gonochoristic species and the Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer a protandrous hermaphrodite. In this manner two significant QTLs, one QTL affecting both body weight and sex and one QTL affecting sex, were detected on the same linkage group. The co-segregation of the two QTLs provides a genomic base to the observed genetic correlation between these two traits in sea bream as well as in other teleosts. The identification of QTLs linked to sex reversal and growth, will contribute significantly to a better understanding of the complex nature of sex determination in S. aurata where most individuals reverse to the female sex at the age of two years through development and maturation of the ovarian portion of the gonad and regression of the testicular area. [Genomic sequences reported in this manuscript have been

  4. Lysine and Leucine Deficiencies Affect Myocytes Development and IGF Signaling in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata.

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    Sheida Azizi

    Full Text Available Optimizing aquaculture production requires better knowledge of growth regulation and improvement in diet formulation. A great effort has been made to replace fish meal for plant protein sources in aquafeeds, making necessary the supplementation of such diets with crystalline amino acids (AA to cover the nutritional requirements of each species. Lysine and Leucine are limiting essential AA in fish, and it has been demonstrated that supplementation with them improves growth in different species. However, the specific effects of AA deficiencies in myogenesis are completely unknown and have only been studied at the level of hepatic metabolism. It is well-known that the TOR pathway integrates the nutritional and hormonal signals to regulate protein synthesis and cell proliferation, to finally control muscle growth, a process also coordinated by the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs. This study aimed to provide new information on the impact of Lysine and Leucine deficiencies in gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes examining their development and the response of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs, MRFs, as well as key molecules involved in muscle growth regulation like TOR. Leucine deficiency did not cause significant differences in most of the molecules analyzed, whereas Lysine deficiency appeared crucial in IGFs regulation, decreasing significantly IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-IRb mRNA levels. This treatment also down-regulated the gene expression of different MRFs, including Myf5, Myogenin and MyoD2. These changes were also corroborated by a significant decrease in proliferation and differentiation markers in the Lysine-deficient treatment. Moreover, both Lysine and Leucine limitation induced a significant down-regulation in FOXO3 gene expression, which deserves further investigation. We believe that these results will be relevant for the production of a species as appreciated for human consumption as it is gilthead sea bream and demonstrates

  5. Changes in intestinal morphology and microbiota caused by dietary administration of inulin and Bacillus subtilis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezuela, Rebeca; Fumanal, Milena; Tapia-Paniagua, Silvana Teresa; Meseguer, José; Moriñigo, Miguel Ángel; Esteban, Ma Ángeles

    2013-05-01

    Changes produced in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) intestinal morphology and microbiota caused by dietary administration of inulin and Bacillus subtilis have been studied. Gilthead sea bream specimens were fed diets containing 0 (control), inulin (10 g kg(-1)), B. subtilis (10(7) cfu g(-1)), or B. subtilis + inulin (10(7) cfu g(-1) + 10 g kg(-1)) for four weeks. Curiously, fish fed the experimental diets (inulin, B. subtilis, or B. subtilis + inulin) showed the same morphological alterations when studied by light and electron microscopy, while significant differences in the signs of intestinal damage were detected by the morphometric study. All of the observed alterations were present only in the gut mucosa, and intestinal morphometric study revealed no effect of inulin or B. subtilis on the intestinal absorptive area. Furthermore, experimental diets cause important alterations in the intestinal microbiota by significantly decreasing bacterial diversity, as demonstrated by the specific richness, Shannon, and range-weighted richness indices. The observed alterations demonstrate that fish fed experimental diets had different signs of gut oedema and inflammation that could compromise their body homeostasis, which is mainly maintained by the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study regarding the implications of the use of synbiotics (conjunction of probiotics and prebiotics) on fish gut morphology and microbiota.

  6. Identification of Vibrio harveyi as a causative bacterium for a tail rot disease of sea bream Sparus aurata from research hatchery in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, S; Maharajan, A; Chatterjee, S; Hunter, S A; Chowdhury, N; Hinenoya, A; Asakura, M; Yamasaki, S

    2010-10-20

    A bacterial disease was reported from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) within a hatchery environment in Malta. Symptoms included complete erosion of tail, infection in the eye, mucous secretion and frequent mortality. A total of 540 strains were initially isolated in marine agar from different infected body parts and culture water sources. Subsequently 100 isolates were randomly selected, identified biochemically and all were found to be Vibrio harveyi-related organisms; finally from 100 isolates a total of 13 numbers were randomly selected and accurately identified as V. harveyi by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCR. Ribotyping of these strains with HindIII revealed total of six clusters. In vivo challenge study with representative isolates from each cluster proved two clusters each were highly pathogenic, moderately pathogenic and non-pathogenic. All 13 isolates were positive for hemolysin gene, a potential virulence factor. Further analysis revealed probably a single copy of this gene was encoded in all isolates, although not in the same locus in the genome. Although V. harveyi was reported to be an important pathogen for many aquatic organisms, to our knowledge this might be the first report of disease caused by V. harveyi and their systematic study in the sea bream hatchery from Malta.

  7. Impact of Fishmeal Replacement in Diets for Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata on the Gastrointestinal Microbiota Determined by Pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA Gene.

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    G Estruch

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated the impact of diet on microbiota composition, but the essential need for the optimization of production rates and costs forces farms and aquaculture production to carry out continuous dietary tests. In order to understand the effect of total fishmeal replacement by vegetable-based feed in the sea bream (Sparus aurata, the microbial composition of the stomach, foregut, midgut and hindgut was analysed using high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing, also considering parameters of growth, survival and nutrient utilisation indices.A total of 91,539 16S rRNA filtered-sequences were analysed, with an average number of 3661.56 taxonomically assigned, high-quality sequences per sample. The dominant phyla throughout the whole gastrointestinal tract were Actinobacteria, Protebacteria and Firmicutes. A lower diversity in the stomach in comparison to the other intestinal sections was observed. The microbial composition of the Recirculating Aquaculture System was totally different to that of the sea bream gastrointestinal tract. Total fishmeal replacement had an important impact on microbial profiles but not on diversity. Streptococcus (p-value: 0.043 and Photobacterium (p-value: 0.025 were highly represented in fish fed with fishmeal and vegetable-meal diets, respectively. In the stomach samples with the vegetable diet, reads of chloroplasts and mitochondria from vegetable dietary ingredients were rather abundant. Principal Coordinate Analysis showed a clear differentiation between diets in the microbiota present in the gut, supporting the presence of specific bacterial consortia associated with the diet.Although differences in growth and nutritive parameters were not observed, a negative effect of the vegetable diet on the survival rate was determined. Further studies are required to shed more light on the relationship between the immune system and sea bream gastrointestinal tract microbiota and should consider the modulation of

  8. Impact of Fishmeal Replacement in Diets for Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) on the Gastrointestinal Microbiota Determined by Pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, G; Collado, M C; Peñaranda, D S; Tomás Vidal, A; Jover Cerdá, M; Pérez Martínez, G; Martinez-Llorens, S

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the impact of diet on microbiota composition, but the essential need for the optimization of production rates and costs forces farms and aquaculture production to carry out continuous dietary tests. In order to understand the effect of total fishmeal replacement by vegetable-based feed in the sea bream (Sparus aurata), the microbial composition of the stomach, foregut, midgut and hindgut was analysed using high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing, also considering parameters of growth, survival and nutrient utilisation indices.A total of 91,539 16S rRNA filtered-sequences were analysed, with an average number of 3661.56 taxonomically assigned, high-quality sequences per sample. The dominant phyla throughout the whole gastrointestinal tract were Actinobacteria, Protebacteria and Firmicutes. A lower diversity in the stomach in comparison to the other intestinal sections was observed. The microbial composition of the Recirculating Aquaculture System was totally different to that of the sea bream gastrointestinal tract. Total fishmeal replacement had an important impact on microbial profiles but not on diversity. Streptococcus (p-value: 0.043) and Photobacterium (p-value: 0.025) were highly represented in fish fed with fishmeal and vegetable-meal diets, respectively. In the stomach samples with the vegetable diet, reads of chloroplasts and mitochondria from vegetable dietary ingredients were rather abundant. Principal Coordinate Analysis showed a clear differentiation between diets in the microbiota present in the gut, supporting the presence of specific bacterial consortia associated with the diet.Although differences in growth and nutritive parameters were not observed, a negative effect of the vegetable diet on the survival rate was determined. Further studies are required to shed more light on the relationship between the immune system and sea bream gastrointestinal tract microbiota and should consider the modulation of the microbiota to

  9. Molecular endocrine changes of Gh/Igf1 axis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) exposed to different environmental salinities during larvae to post-larvae stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed-Geba, Khaled; Yúfera, Manuel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2016-08-01

    The influence of acclimation of the euryhaline gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae/post-larvae to brackish water on growth, energetic contents, and mRNA levels of selected hormones and growth-regulating hypothalamic neurohormones was assessed. Specimens from 49 days post-hatching were acclimated during 28 days to two different environmental salinities: 38 and 20 psu (as brackish water). Both groups were then transferred to 38 psu and acclimated for an additional week. Early juveniles were sampled after 28 days of acclimation to both salinities and one week after transfer to 38 psu. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (adcyap1; pacap), somatostatin-I (sst1), growth hormone (gh1), insulin-like growth factor-I (igf1), and prolactin (prl) mRNA expression were all studied by QPCR. Post-larvae acclimated to 20 psu showed better growth performance and body energetic content than post-larvae maintained at 38 psu. prl, adcyap1, and igf1 mRNA expression levels increased in 20-psu-acclimated post-larvae but decreased upon transfer to 38 psu. GH1 expression did not show significant changes under both experimental conditions. Our results suggested an enhanced general performance for post-larvae in brackish water, supported by the actions of adcyap1, igf1, and prl. PMID:26947706

  10. Biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and stable isotope characterization of the trophic chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Roque [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA). Avda Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain)], E-mail: serrano@qfa.uji.es; Blanes, Miguel A.; Lopez, Francisco J. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA). Avda Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2008-01-25

    Organochlorine pollutants (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were analysed in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) tissues (white muscle and liver) from the Western Mediterranean (Spain) and in their diets. Determination was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after clean up of the fatty extracts by normal phase HPLC, with detection limits around 0.1 ng/g. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined in the samples. Organochlorine compounds concentration was found to be uniform throughout the year in farmed fish, in both white muscle and liver. In contrast, wild fish showed contamination profiles that reflect environmental factors and the biological cycle. Although biomagnification factors for white muscle and liver were found to be 2.4 and 3.0, respectively for farmed fish, and 0.15 and 0.54 for wild specimens, wild fish presented higher levels of organochlorine contaminants than farmed fish. Nitrogen stable isotopes determination in muscle from wild and farmed sea bream during the year gave us a profile related to the biological cycle. {delta}{sup 15}N mean values from farmed fish were 2.0 per mille higher than from wild fish throughout the year that corresponding to close to one trophic step. {delta}{sup 13}C values were stable during the year, and also more enriched in the case of farmed fish. The low levels of contaminants found in the feed supplied to farmed fish explain the organochlorine concentrations in their tissues which remain below wild fish, in spite of the intensive culture conditions and higher trophic level of cultured specimens.

  11. Biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and stable isotope characterization of the trophic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organochlorine pollutants (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were analysed in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) tissues (white muscle and liver) from the Western Mediterranean (Spain) and in their diets. Determination was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after clean up of the fatty extracts by normal phase HPLC, with detection limits around 0.1 ng/g. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined in the samples. Organochlorine compounds concentration was found to be uniform throughout the year in farmed fish, in both white muscle and liver. In contrast, wild fish showed contamination profiles that reflect environmental factors and the biological cycle. Although biomagnification factors for white muscle and liver were found to be 2.4 and 3.0, respectively for farmed fish, and 0.15 and 0.54 for wild specimens, wild fish presented higher levels of organochlorine contaminants than farmed fish. Nitrogen stable isotopes determination in muscle from wild and farmed sea bream during the year gave us a profile related to the biological cycle. δ15N mean values from farmed fish were 2.0 per mille higher than from wild fish throughout the year that corresponding to close to one trophic step. δ13C values were stable during the year, and also more enriched in the case of farmed fish. The low levels of contaminants found in the feed supplied to farmed fish explain the organochlorine concentrations in their tissues which remain below wild fish, in spite of the intensive culture conditions and higher trophic level of cultured specimens

  12. Multidisciplinary analytical investigation of phospholipids and triglycerides in offshore farmed gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fed commercial diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anedda, Roberto; Piga, Carlo; Santercole, Viviana; Spada, Simona; Bonaglini, Elia; Cappuccinelli, Roberto; Mulas, Gilberto; Roggio, Tonina; Uzzau, Sergio

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a quantitative characterisation of lipid (both triglycerides and phospholipids) rearrangements in the muscle of offshore-raised gilthead sea bream was carried out as a function of fish growth between April and September. Relative percentages of lipid classes and fatty acids/acyls composition of the commercial feeds and fish dorsal muscles were assessed by means of an interdisciplinary analytical approach. A combination of preparative chemistry and experimental results from NMR spectroscopy, GC, 3D-TLC as well as proximate analysis permitted the observed growth parameters in key metabolic events to be linked with fish fattening and lipid turnover. While defined effects of feed composition on fatty acid profiles of fillets were ascertained, the relative increase of fatty acyls in triglycerides and phospholipids were also estimated enabling detailed evaluation of TAG:PL ratio in adult offshore-farmed gilthead sea bream. NMR was also used to quantify PUFA regiospecific distribution in TAG and PL. PMID:23411224

  13. Supplementation with imuno-2865® in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758): Effects on hematological and antioxidant parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Župan, Ivan; Tkalčić, Suzana; Šarić, Tomislav; Čož-Rakovac, Rozalindra; Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Topić-Popović, Natalija; Kardum, Matko; Kanski, Danijel; Ljubić, Blanka Beer; Matijatko, Vesna; Poljičak-Milas, Nina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of IMUNO-2865(®) on hematological and antioxidative parameters in sea bream. Total of 640 sea bream were fed with diets containing 0 (Group 1), 1 (Group 2), 10 (Group 3) and 25 (Group 4) g of IMUNO-2865(®) kg(-1) feed during 90 days. Samples were taken each month and three months after the supplementation. A significant heterophils increase was observed in group 4 compared to group 1 after two months, and an increase in monocytes number was observed in group 4 compared to the other groups after one month. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) were significantly increased in groups 3 and 4 compared to the control group three months into the experiment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased in group 4 compared to the control group from day 60 until the end of the experiment, and in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control after three months. Based on the differences in the cellular immunity and oxidative stress parameters, with an overall absence of mortality, the results of this study suggest that the use of IMUNO-2865(®) in aquaculture is safe and possess a cumulative immunostimulatory effect on sea bream.

  14. UTILIZATION OF CORN GLUTEN MEAL AS A PROTEIN SOURCE IN DIETS FOR GILTHEAD SEA BREAM (Sparus aurata L. JUVENILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yiğit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of corn gluten meal (CGM was evaluated as a partial fish meal (FM substitute in practical diets for gilthead sea bream juveniles. Four test diets (isonitrogenous and isoca¬loric, 52% protein and 10% lipid, 19 kJ/g diet containing increasing levels of CGM were for¬mulated to replace anchovy meal at levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. Triplicate groups of ju¬venile sea bream (initial body weight of 1.5 g were reared in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS over 45 days at 18±2°C. Fish fed a diet containing 10% of CGM showed com¬parable growth performance similar to the control diet containing FM as the sole protein source. No mortality was observed in all treatment groups. Dietary CGM inclusion levels of 20% and 30% showed lower growth performance, feed utilization, and protein efficiency com¬pared to the control and the 10% CGM inclusion diets. However these values were not signifi¬cantly different among fish fed the CGM10 and CGM20 diets. Economical analyses also con¬firmed the growth related experimental results in terms of best profit obtained with the 10% CGM inclusion diet. Results in the present study showed that CGM alone without any amino acid supplements can substitute FM up to 10% with no adverse effects on growth performance, feed utilization, or economical inputs in gilthead sea bream juveniles.

  15. Labeling and label free shotgun proteomics approaches to characterize muscle tissue from farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesana, Susy; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; La Barbera, Giorgia; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    The proteome characterization of fish muscle tissues, together with the relative expression of each individual protein, provides knowledge on the biochemical response of the organisms and allows to assess the effect of different types of feeding, growth site and nutritional quality of the investigated species. This type of study is usually performed by gel-based proteomics approaches, however shotgun proteomics can serve as well, reducing analysis time and improving sample high-throughput. In this work, a shotgun proteomics method was thus developed and then applied to the characterization of gilthead sea bream edible muscle. The sarcoplasmic protein fraction was extracted, in-solution digested by trypsin and finally analyzed by nanoHPLC high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Two different quantification strategies were also tested. One was based on chemical dimethyl labeling and the other one on label free quantification. A comparison between these two analytical workflows was performed, to evaluate their individual performance in the analysis of fish samples and assess the differences induced by farming practice on the final commercial product with respect to wild gilthead sea bream. Quantitative differences were detected, and the most relevant one regarded the common fish allergen parvalbumin, found overexpressed in farmed fish samples.

  16. Survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila in sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets packaged under enriched CO(2) modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provincial, Laura; Guillén, Elena; Alonso, Verónica; Gil, Mario; Roncalés, Pedro; Beltrán, José A

    2013-08-16

    The ability to survive of two pathogens (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila) spread over sea bream fillets packaged under different modified atmospheres (MAPs) was studied at 0°C and 4°C under refrigerated storage. The atmospheres used were 60% CO2/40% N2, 70% CO2/30% N2 and 80% CO2/20% N2 and a control batch packaged in air. Head space gas analyses, microbial counts and confirming test of pathogenic bacteria were carried out during 16days. The results obtained showed that all the modified atmospheres studied were effective to reduce the microbial load of sea bream fillets when compared with air packaged samples although small differences were found among MAPs. Temperature storage was the main factor to reduce microbial growth. V. parahaemolyticus was unable to grow at both temperatures, 0°C and 4°C (except air batches) while A. hydrophila showed significant growth at 4°C and microbial inactivation at 0°C.

  17. Potential use of high levels of vegetal proteins in diets for market-sized gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Ortiz, Raquel; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; Márquez, Lorenzo; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Jover-Cerdá, Miguel; Tomás-Vidal, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The effect of partial or total dietary substitution of fishmeal (FM) by vegetal protein sources on growth and feed efficiency was carried out in on-growing gilthead sea bream (mean initial weight 131 g). The Control diet (FM 100) contained FM as the primary protein source, while in Diets FM 25 and FM 0 the FM protein was replaced at 75% and 100%, respectively, by a vegetable protein mixture consisting of wheat gluten, soybean meal, rapeseed meal and crystalline amino acids. Diets FM 25 and FM 0 also contained krill meal at 47 g/kg in order to improve palatability. At the end of the trial (after 158 d), fish survival was above 90%. Final weight and the specific growth rate were statistically lower in fish fed the Control diet (361 g and 0.64%/d), compared with 390-396 g and 0.69-0.70%/d after feeding vegetal diets. No significant differences were found regarding feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The digestibility of protein and amino acids (determined with chromium oxide as indicator) was similar in all diets. The blood parameters were not significantly affected by treatments. The activity of trypsin and pepsin was significantly reduced after feeding Diet FM 0. In the distal intestine, the villi length in fish fed Diet FM 25 was significantly longer and the intestine of the fish fed the FM 100 diet showed a smaller number of goblet cells. In conclusion, a total FM substitution by a vegetal mix supplemented with synthetic amino acids in on-growing sea bream is feasible.

  18. PTHrP regulates water absorption and aquaporin expression in the intestine of the marine sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edison S M; Gregório, Sílvia F; Canário, Adelino V M; Power, Deborah M; Fuentes, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Water ingestion by drinking is fundamental for ion homeostasis in marine fish. However, the fluid ingested requires processing to allow net water absorption in the intestine. The formation of luminal carbonate aggregates impacts on calcium homeostasis and requires epithelial HCO3(-) secretion to enable water absorption. In light of its endocrine importance in calcium handling and the indication of involvement in HCO3(-) secretion the present study was designed to expose the role of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in HCO3(-) secretion, water absorption and the regulation of aqp1 gene expression in the anterior intestine of the sea bream. HCO3(-) secretion rapidly decreased when PTHrP(1-34) was added to anterior intestine of the sea bream mounted in Ussing chambers. The effect achieved a maximum inhibition of 60% of basal secretion rates, showing a threshold effective dose of 0.1 ng ml(-1) compatible with reported plasma values of PTHrP. When applied in combination with the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (SQ 22.536, 100 μmol l(-1)) or the phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 10 μmol l(-1)) the effect of PTHrP(1-34) on HCO3(-) secretion was reduced by about 50% in both cases. In parallel, bulk water absorption measured in intestinal sacs was sensitive to inhibition by PTHrP. The inhibitory action conforms to a typical dose-response curve in the range of 0.1-1000 ng ml(-1), achieves a maximal effect of 60-65% inhibition from basal rates and shows threshold significant effects at hormone levels of 0.1 ng ml(-1). The action of PTHrP in water absorption was completely abolished in the presence of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (SQ 22.536, 100 μmol l(-1)) and was insensitive to the phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 10 μmol l(-1)). In vivo injections of PTHrP(1-34) or the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) evoked respectively, a significant decrease or increase of aqp1ab, but not aqp1a. Overall the present results suggest that PTHrP acts as a key

  19. Dietary Lipid and Carbohydrate Interactions: Implications on Lipid and Glucose Absorption, Transport in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Basto, Ana; Larroquet, Laurence; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-06-01

    A digestibility trial was performed with gilthead sea bream juveniles (IBW = 72 g) fed four diets differing in lipid source (fish oil, FO; or a blend of vegetable oil, VO) and starch content (0 %, CH-; or 20 %, CH+) to evaluate the potential interactive effects between carbohydrates and VO on the processes involved in digestion, absorption and transport of lipids and glucose. In fish fed VO diets a decrease in lipid digestibility and in cholesterol (C), High Density Lipoprotein(HDL)-C and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-C (only in CH+ group) were recorded. Contrarily, dietary starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia and time related alterations on serum triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipid (PL) and C concentrations. Fish fed a CH+ diet presented lower serum TAG than CH- group at 6 h post-feeding, and the reverse was observed at 12 h post-feeding for TAG and PL. Lower serum C and PL at 6 h post-feeding were recorded only in VOCH+ group. No differences between groups were observed in hepatic and intestinal transcript levels of proteins involved in lipid transport and hydrolysis (FABP, DGAT, GPAT, MTP, LPL, LCAT). Lower transcript levels of proteins related to lipid transport (ApoB, ApoA1, FABP2) were observed in the intestine of fish fed the CH+ diet, but remained unchanged in the liver. Overall, transcriptional mechanisms involved in lipid transport and absorption were not linked to changes in lipid serum and digestibility. Dietary starch affected lipid absorption and transport, probably due to a delay in lipid absorption. This study suggests that a combination of dietary VO and starch may negatively affect cholesterol absorption and transport. PMID:27023202

  20. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A; Steffensen, John F

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (U sus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in U sus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (U opt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between U crit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced U crit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between U sus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between U sus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high U sus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between U sus and U opt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming

  1. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Christian Svendsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata, both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: 1 gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e. burst-assisted swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC; 2 variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit correlates with metabolic scope (MS or anaerobic capacity (i.e. maximum EPOC; 3 there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus and minimum cost of transport (COTmin; and 4 variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e. the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance travelled. Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e. EPOC increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg-1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis, a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and optimum

  2. Neuroglial cells in long-term primary cultures from the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.: new functional in vitro model from bony fish brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Centoducati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroglia has been historically considered the “glue” of the nervous system, as the ancient Greek name suggests, being simply referred as non-neuronal cells, with supporting functions for neurons in the CNS of mammalian and lower vertebrates. All around the world, approximately 283 cell lines were obtained from fish, yet none of these was from the brain of Sparus aurata, neither in cell lines nor as primary culture. Here we describe a novel in vitro reproducible neuroglial marine model for establishing primary neuroglial cell cultures, by dissociating the whole brain of seabream juveniles. We showed that proliferating neural stem cells produced alongside three generating lineages, such as neuronal precursor cells, astroglial precursor cells and oligodendroglia precursor cells, which developed respectively neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The radial glia, finely described by morphological studies and immunochemical antigen expression, showed a peculiar spatial distribution, giving rise simultaneously both to astrocytes and neuronal precursors within a highly proliferative assemblate. Radial glia cells were assessed by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and vimentin reactivity, astrocytes by GFAP, neurons by the neuron-specific markers for ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1 and intermediate filament associated protein (NF, whereas myelinating oligodendrocytes were immunostained with anti-myelin basic protein (MBP and anti-O4. Our findings suggest that seabream neuroglial cells gain in 3-4 weeks of culturing proliferation, neuroglial differentiation, and oligodendrocyte maturation with myelination, thus disclosing on the possibility that mixed neuroglial cultures can accelerate the maturation of oligodendrocytes and the regeneration of CNS injury in fish.

  3. Dietary glutamine supplementation effects on amino acid metabolism, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity and antioxidant response of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, F; Castro, C; Rufino-Palomares, E; Ordóñez-Grande, B; Gallardo, M A; Oliva-Teles, A; Peres, H

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate dietary glutamine supplementation effects on gilthead sea bream performance, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity, hepatic and intestinal glutamine metabolism and oxidative status. For that purpose gilthead sea bream juveniles (mean weight 13.0g) were fed four isolipidic (18% lipid) and isonitrogenous (43% protein) diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% glutamine for 6weeks. Fish performance, body composition and intestinal nutrient absorption capacity were not affected by dietary glutamine levels. Hepatic and intestinal glutaminase (GlNase), glutamine synthetase (GSase), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were also unaffected by dietary glutamine supplementation. In the intestine GlNase activity was higher and GSase/GlNase ratio was two-fold lower than in the liver, suggesting a higher use of glutamine for energy production by the intestine than by the liver. The liver showed higher catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, while the intestine presented higher glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and oxidised glutathione content, which seems to reveal a higher glutathione dependency of the intestinal antioxidant response. Total and reduced glutathione contents in liver and intestine and superoxide dismutase activity in the intestine were enhanced by dietary glutamine, though lipid peroxidation values were not affected. Overall, differences between liver and intestine glutamine metabolism and antioxidant response were identified and the potential of dietary glutamine supplementation to gilthead sea bream's antioxidant response was elucidated.

  4. Effect of high-level fish meal replacement by plant proteins in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) on growth and body/fillet quality traits

    OpenAIRE

    M. de Francesco; Parisi, G.; Perez Sanchez, J.; Gomez Requeni, P; Medale, Francoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam; M. Mecatti; Poli, B

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile gilthead sea bream (initial body weight ca. 100 g) were reared in an indoor flow through marine water system for 1 year. Fish were fed two isoenergetic [19.2 kJ g−1 dry matter (DM)] and isoproteic (426 g kg−1 DM) diets either based on fish meal (diet FM) or on a mixture of plant protein sources (diet PP), replacing 75% of fish meal protein. The growth trial was conducted in duplicate, two tanks for each dietary treatment. Growth performance and feed utilization were regis...

  5. Plant oils' inclusion in high fish meal-substituted diets: Effect on digestion and nutrient absorption in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Santigosa, Ester; García-Meilán, Irene; Valentín, Juana María; Navarro, Isabel; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Gallardo, María Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    Here, we performed an 11-week trial to study the effects of four experimental diets on the digestion, nutrient absorption and intestinal histology of gilthead sea bream. The diets were formulated with a low fish meal content (25%) and were rich (75%) in plant proteins. Fish oil (FO) was replaced at 0%, 33%, 66% and 100% by graded levels of a blend of vegetable oils (VO) (diets FO, 33VO, 66VO and 100VO respectively). Protease activity increased in the pyloric caeca (PC) and decreased in the pr...

  6. IGF-I and IGF-II effects on local IGF system and signaling pathways in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) cultured myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Sheida; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Vélez, Emilio J; Salmerón, Cristina; Chan, Shu Jin; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-06-01

    The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have a fundamental role in a vast range of functions acting through a tyrosine-kinase receptor (IGF-IR). IGFs in muscle can affect the expression of components of the local IGF system, myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), proliferating (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA) or differentiating molecules (myosin heavy chain, MHC) and, lead to the activation of different signaling pathways. The response of all these genes to IGFs incubation at two different times in day 4 cultured myocytes of gilthead sea bream was analyzed. Both IGFs increased the expression of IGF-I and IGFBP-5, but showed different effects on the receptors, with IGF-I suppressing the expression of both isoforms (IGF-IRa and IGF-IRb) and IGF-II up-regulating only IGF-IRb. Moreover, the protein levels of PCNA and target of rapamycin (TOR) increased after IGF-II incubation, although a decline in Myf5 and a rise in MHC gene expression was caused by IGF-I. Taken together, these results provide evidence for the importance of IGFs on controlling muscle development and growth in gilthead sea bream and suggest that each IGF may be preferentially acting through a specific IGF-IR. Moreover, the data support the hypothesis that IGF-II has a more important role during proliferation, whereas IGF-I seems to be relevant for the differentiation phase of myogenesis. PMID:26602376

  7. The effect of sea bream (Sparus aurata) broodstock and larval vaccination on the susceptibility by Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida and on the humoral immune parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, A; Bakopoulos, V; Leonardos, I; Dimitriadis, G J

    2005-10-01

    Sea bream broodstock were immunised 1 or 2 months before spawning with a novel photobacteriosis vaccine. Sixty-seven-day-old larvae (mean weight 22.3 mg) originating from immunised and non-immunised parents were experimentally infected with the Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida (Phdp). Larvae from immunised fish showed delayed onset and lower mortality (66.67%) compared with larvae from control fish (80%). Eighty-nine-day-old larvae (mean weight 162.2 mg) from both groups were bath vaccinated with Phdp and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and larval samples were collected for measurement of humoral parameters. Larvae vaccinated with Phdp and LPS showed significantly higher anti-protease activity, lysozyme activity and total immunoglobulin compared to the controls. One-hundred-and-twenty-day-old larvae (mean weight 297.85 mg) from both parental groups were challenged with (LD70) virulent Phdp bacterial cells. Vaccinated larvae from both groups showed significantly less mortality compared to the respective controls. The RPS values of larvae from immunised parents vaccinated with Phdp and LPS was 95.83% and 72.22%, respectively. The RPS values of larvae from non-immunised parents vaccinated with Phdp and LPS was 62.5% and 70.83%, respectively. Results are discussed with respect to the beneficial effect of broodstock immunisation prior to spawning and the immunisation of larvae on their survival against photobacteriosis.

  8. Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2013-04-14

    The effect of ration size on muscle fatty acid (FA) composition and mRNA expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism have been addressed in juveniles of gilthead sea bream fed a practical diet over the course of an 11-week trial. The experimental setup included three feeding levels: (i) full ration until visual satiety, (ii) 70 % of satiation and (iii) 70 % of satiation with the last 2 weeks at the maintenance ration. Feed restriction reduced lipid content of whole body by 30 % and that of fillet by 50 %. In this scenario, the FA composition of fillet TAG was not altered by ration size, whereas that of phospholipids was largely modified with a higher retention of arachidonic acid and DHA. The mRNA transcript levels of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and FA desaturase 2 were not regulated by ration size in the present experimental model. In contrast, mRNA levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturases were markedly down-regulated by feed restriction. An opposite trend was found for a muscle-specific lipoprotein lipase, which is exclusive of fish lineage. Several upstream regulatory transcriptions were also assessed, although nutritionally mediated changes in mRNA transcripts were almost reduced to PPARα and β, which might act in a counter-regulatory way on lipolysis and lipogenic pathways. This gene expression pattern contributes to the construction of a panel of biomarkers to direct marine fish production towards muscle lean phenotypes with increased retentions of long-chain PUFA.

  9. Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2013-04-14

    The effect of ration size on muscle fatty acid (FA) composition and mRNA expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism have been addressed in juveniles of gilthead sea bream fed a practical diet over the course of an 11-week trial. The experimental setup included three feeding levels: (i) full ration until visual satiety, (ii) 70 % of satiation and (iii) 70 % of satiation with the last 2 weeks at the maintenance ration. Feed restriction reduced lipid content of whole body by 30 % and that of fillet by 50 %. In this scenario, the FA composition of fillet TAG was not altered by ration size, whereas that of phospholipids was largely modified with a higher retention of arachidonic acid and DHA. The mRNA transcript levels of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and FA desaturase 2 were not regulated by ration size in the present experimental model. In contrast, mRNA levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturases were markedly down-regulated by feed restriction. An opposite trend was found for a muscle-specific lipoprotein lipase, which is exclusive of fish lineage. Several upstream regulatory transcriptions were also assessed, although nutritionally mediated changes in mRNA transcripts were almost reduced to PPARα and β, which might act in a counter-regulatory way on lipolysis and lipogenic pathways. This gene expression pattern contributes to the construction of a panel of biomarkers to direct marine fish production towards muscle lean phenotypes with increased retentions of long-chain PUFA. PMID:22856503

  10. Trace elements in farmed and wild gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we sought to determine the concentration of several trace elements (total and organic mercury, selenium, cadmium, lead, arsenic, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium and zinc) in muscle tissue of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), an edible finfish species that is widely cultured in the Mediterranean area. The phenomenon of bioaccumulation and bioamplification (especially of mercury) was investigated by comparing farmed fish with wild specimens of the same species. Farmed specimens showed mercury and arsenic concentrations significantly lower than wild specimens, and no relationship was found between mercury concentration and body size. The lower level of methylmercury in farmed fish has important implications for consumer health.

  11. Determination of sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, and N(4) -acetyl-sulfadiazine in fish muscle plus skin by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Withdrawal-time calculation after in-feed administration in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) fed two different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonaras, V; Tyrpenou, A; Alexis, M; Koupparis, M

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a depletion study for sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in muscle plus skin of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). N(4) -acetyl-sulfadiazine, the main metabolite of sulfadiazine (SDZ), was also examined. The fish were held in seawater at a temperature of 24-26 °C. SDZ and trimethoprim (TMP) were administered orally with medicated feed for five consecutive days at daily doses of 25 mg SDZ and 5 mg TMP per kg of fish body weight per day. Two different diets, fish oil- and plant oil-based diets, were investigated. Ten fish were sampled at each of the days 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12 after the start of veterinary medicine administration. However for the calculation of the withdrawal periods, sampling day 1 was set as 24 h after the last dose of the treatment. Fish samples were analyzed for SDZ, TMP, and acetyl-sulfadiazine (AcSDZ) residues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. SDZ and TMP concentrations declined rapidly from muscle plus skin. Considering a maximum residue limit of 100 μg/kg for the total of sulfonamides and 50 μg/kg for TMP residues in fish muscle plus skin, the withdrawal periods of the premix trimethoprim-sulfadiazine 50% were calculated as 5 and 6 days, at 24-26 °C, in fish oil (FO) and plant oil (PO) groups, respectively. The investigation of this work is important to protect consumers by controlling the undesirable residues in fish. PMID:26987772

  12. Retinal development in the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón-Muñoz, T; Bejarano-Escobar, R; Blasco, M; Martín-Partido, G; Francisco-Morcillo, J

    2016-02-01

    The retinal development of the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata has been analysed from late embryonic development to juvenile stages using classical histological and immunohistological methods. Five significant phases were established. Phases 1 and 2 comprise the late embryonic and hatching stages, respectively. The results indicate that during these early stages the retina is composed of a single neuroblastic layer that consists of undifferentiated retinal progenitor cells. Phase 3 (late prolarval stage) is characterized by the emergence of the retinal layers and the appearance of neurochemical profiles in differentiating photoreceptors, amacrine and ganglion cells. Phases 4 and 5 comprise the late larval and juvenile stages. In these stages, all the retinal cell types can be detected immunohistochemically. All the maturational events described are first detected in the central retina and, as development progresses, spread to the rest of the retina following a central-to-peripheral gradient. The results of this study suggest that S. aurata is an altricial teleost species that hatches with a morphologically undifferentiated retina. The most relevant processes involved in retinogenesis occur during the late prolarval stage (phase 3). PMID:26507100

  13. Toxic Effects of Domoic Acid in the Seabream Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Vasconcelos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxicity induced in fish by domoic acid (DA was assessed with respect to occurrence of neurotoxic signs, lethality, and histopathology by light microscopy. Sparus aurata were exposed to a single dose of DA by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of 0, 0.45, 0.9, and 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw. Mortality (66.67 ± 16.67% was only observed in dose of 9.0 mg kg−1 bw. Signs of neurological toxicity were detected for the doses of 0.9 and 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw. Furthermore, the mean concentrations (±SD of DA detected by HPLC-UV in extracts of brain after exposure to 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw were 0.61 ± 0.01, 0.96 ± 0.00, and 0.36 ± 0.01 mg DA kg−1 tissue at 1, 2, and 4 hours. The lack of major permanent brain damage in S. aurata, and reversibility of neurotoxic signs, suggest that lower susceptibility to DA or neuronal recovery occurs in affected individuals.

  14. Arachidonic acid reduces the stress response of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anholt, R.D. van; Spanings, F.A.T.; Koven, W.M.; Nixon, O.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this study the influence of the dietary level of the fatty acid arachidonic acid (ArA, 20:4n-6) was determined on the acute stress response and osmoregulation of adult gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. Seabream were fed a diet containing either 0.9% or 2.4% of total fatty acids as ArA for 18 day

  15. Effects of dietary energy density and digestible protein:energy ratio on de novo lipid synthesis from dietary protein in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    was applied to quantify the 13C enrichment of whole-body lipid from dietary DP. Between 18·6 and 22·4% of the carbon derived from protein was recovered in the lipid fraction of the fish, and between 21·6 and 30·3% of the total lipid deposited could be attributed to dietary protein. DP retention...... was significantly improved by reductions in dietary DP:DE ratio, while the opposite was true for apparent digestible lipid retention. Both overall DE retention and whole-body proximate composition of whole fish were largely unaffected by dietary treatments, while feed conversion ratios were significantly improved...... with increasing dietary energy density. The present study suggests that gilthead sea bream efficiently utilises dietary nutrients over a wide range of DP:DE ratios and energy densities. In addition, they appear to endeavour a certain body energy status rather than maximising growth, which in the present trial...

  16. Ontogenia da cartilagem e do osso em dourada, Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Faustino, Manuel Almeida dos Ramos

    1996-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado, Química Celular, Unidade de Ciências Exactas e Humanas, Universidade do Algarve, 1996 A dourada (Sparus aurata L) é uma das mais importantes espécies comerciais do sul da Europa, tendo o seu cultivo em cativeiro sido grandemente incrementado, entre nós, na última década. O estudo e caracterização da ontogenia das estruturas que formam o esqueleto, fornece-nos conhecimentos essenciais, para posteriores melhoramentos na produção de larvas e, provavelmente um melho...

  17. Impact of synthetic surfactants and oil dispersants on the gills of juvenile gilthead (Sparus aurata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Masini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Histological, scanning electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies were performed on the gills of juvenile gilthead (Sparus aurata L. exposed to various concentrations of three anionic detergents: sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, safety sea cleaner 2 (SSC2, and FINASOL OSR2, in short term (96 h and chronic (28 days experiments. The mortality rate, median lethal concentration (LC50 and the no observed effect concentration (NOEC, were calculated. At concentrations above 10 mg/L, mortality was from 50 to 100% after exposure to SDS and SSC2, both in short term and chronic experiments. Gills were spongiotic and there were many lamellar fusions, membrane disruptions, hydropic degenerations and exfoliations of lamellar and interlamellar epithelium after 96 h of treatment and more markedly after chronic experiment. Microridges of the cell surface were less evident or absent. The enzymes of ion transport were down regulated. Exposure to FINASOL OSR2 (100 mg/L showed no evident branchial alteration.

  18. The effects of swimming pattern on the energy use of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Maria Faldborg; Steffensen, John Fleng; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen consumption ( ) was measured for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) during spontaneous and forced activities. During spontaneous activity, the swimming pattern was analysed for the effect on   on the average speed (U), turning rate (¿) and change in speed (¿U). All swimming characteristics...... contributed significantly to the source of spontaneous swimming costs, and the models explained up to 58% of the variation in   Prediction of   of fish in field studies can thereby be improved if changes in speed and direction are determined in addition to swimming speed. A relationship between swimming speed...... and   during forced activity was also established. During spontaneous activity, 2.5 times more energy was used than in forced swimming at a speed of 0.5 BL s-1. This indicates that spontaneous swimming costs may be considerably higher compared with those of a fixed swimming speed. However, comparing...

  19. Alkylphenolic contaminants in the diet: Sparus aurata juveniles hepatic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, I; Gioacchini, G; Scorolli, A; Mita, D G; Carnevali, O; Mandich, A

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of endocrine disrupter chemicals can mimic steroid hormones causing adverse health effects. Nonylphenol (NP) and t-octhylphenol (t-OP) are man-made alkylphenolic environmental contaminants possessing controversial endocrine disruption properties. This study has investigated the effects of NP and t-OP enriched diets on hepatic tissue and biotransformation activities in the liver. To this aim, sea bream juveniles were fed with commercial diet enriched with three different doses of NP (NP1: 5mg/kg bw, NP2: 50mg/kg bw and NP3: 100mg/kg bw) or t-OP (t-OP1: 5mg/kg bw, t-OP2: 50mg/kg bw and t-OP3: 100mg/kg bw) for 21 days. A significant increase of the hepatosomatic index was observed in NP1 and t-OP1. Alteration of liver morphology was observed in both NP and t-OP exposed juveniles although the most altered endpoints were observed in t-OP2 with 100% of tissue degeneration. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was significantly inhibited by NP and t-OP (p<0.05), while catalase activity was significantly induced, at both doses. A different pattern of protein expression of different isoforms of both vitellogenin and zona radiata protein was evidenced within the treatments. In addition, a significant increase in the abundance of the stress induced heat shock protein 70 gene in the liver of t-OP2 fish and a significant increase in the abundance of the estrogen induced cathepsin D gene in the liver of NP1 and t-OP2 fish, were observed. Finally, estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) plasma levels and E2/T showed significantly different patterns in NP and t-OP exposed against control fish.

  20. Quantitative trait loci for a neurocranium deformity, lack of operculum, in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrín-Báez, D; Navarro, A; Afonso, J M; Toro, M A; Zamorano, M J

    2016-04-01

    Lack of operculum, a neurocranial deformity, is the most common external abnormality to be found among industrially produced gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), and this entails significant financial losses. This study conducts, for the first time in this species, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of the lack of operculum. A total of 142 individuals from a paternal half-sibling family (six full-sibling families) were selected for QTL mapping. They had previously shown a highly significant association with the prevalence of lack of operculum in a segregation analysis. All the fish were genotyped for 106 microsatellite markers using a set of multiplex PCRs (ReMsa1-ReMsa13). A linear regression methodology was used for the QTL analysis. Four QTL were detected for this deformity, two of which (QTLOP1 and QTLOP2) were significant. They were located at LG (linkage group) nine and LG10 respectively. Both QTL showed a large effect (about 27%), and furthermore, the association between lack of operculum and sire allelic segregation observed was statistically significant in the QTLOP1 analysis. These results represent a significant step towards including marker-assisted selection for this deformity in genetic breeding programmes to reduce the incidence of the deformity in the species. PMID:26995565

  1. Stress and Humoral Innate Immune Response of Gilthead Seabream Sparus aurata Cultured in Sea Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salati, Fulvio; Roncarati, Alessandra; Angelucci, Giulia; Fenza, Alessandra; Meluzzi, Adele

    2016-09-01

    Innate and acquired immune responses of Gilthead Seabream Sparus aurata was studied under normal culture and short-term stressful conditions for 18 months in offshore sea cages in Alghero Bay, Italy. Every 45 d, 50 fish were sampled and divided into two groups: fish in the first group (normal culture conditions) were bled after harvesting; fish in the second group were put into a tank under stressful conditions (crowding and confinement) and bled after 2 h. Innate humoral immunity, such as complement-like, hemagglutination, and lysozyme activities, was determined in the sera of both groups. Pathogen challenge was not performed, but the specific humoral immune response was assessed against the most common pathogens affecting cultured fish in Sardinia. Stressed fish, compared with the control, showed a lower lysozyme activity against Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum, which was not clearly correlated with temperatures. Complement-like activity differed between the first and second half of the study and, at the end of the trial, a slightly higher activity was recorded in the controls than in the stressed fish. Hemagglutination activity was mainly higher in the stressed fish than in control fish. Confinement, crowding, and cold water temperature caused decreased lysozyme activity in short-term stressed Gilthead Seabream compared with those reared normally. The specific humoral immune response, against V. anguillarum, Tenacibaculum mesophilum, Enterococcus Seriolicida, and Aeromonas sobria, fluctuated during the rearing period, particularly during the first year of culture. Received October 12, 2015; accepted March 24, 2016. PMID:27485027

  2. EFFECTS OF FISH OIL, DHA OIL AND LECITHIN IN MICROPARTICULATE DIETS ON STRESS TOLERANCE OF LARVAL GILTHEAD SEABREAM (SPARUS AURATA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘镜恪; 王文琪; 李岿然; 雷霁霖

    2002-01-01

    The effects of natural fish oil, DHA oil and soybean lecithin in microparticulate diets on stress tolerance of larval gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were investigated after 15 days feeding trials. The tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stress factors such as exposure to air ( lack of dissolved oxygen), changes in water temperature (low) and salinity ( high) were determined. This study showed that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and soybean lecithin was the most effective for increasing the tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stresses, and that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and palmitic acid (16:0) was more effective than microparticulate diet with DHA oil and soybean lecithin.

  3. Patterns of primary growth increments in otoliths of Sparus aurata larvae in relation to water temperature and food consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-nin, B; Gutiérrez Merino, Emilia; Massutí, Sofia

    1995-01-01

    Sparus aurata larvae reared under controlled water-temperature conditions during the first 24 days after hatching displayed a linear relationship between age (t) and standard length (SL): SL = 2.68 + 0.19 t (r2 = 0.91l). Increments were laid down in the sagittae with daily periodicity starting on day of hatching. Standard length (SL) and sagittae radius (OR) were correlated: SL(mm) = 2.65 + 0.012 OR(mm). The series of measurements of daily growth increment widths (DWI), food density and water...

  4. Immunotoxicological effects of inorganic arsenic on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardiola, F.A.; Gónzalez-Párraga, M.P.; Cuesta, A. [Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Meseguer, J. [Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Geology and Pedology, Faculty of Chemistry, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Martínez, S.; Martínez-Sánchez, M.J.; Pérez-Sirvent, C. [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Geology and Pedology, Faculty of Chemistry, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Esteban, M.A., E-mail: aesteban@um.es [Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: •Short exposure to arsenic increases the hepato-somatic index and produces histopathological alterations in the liver. •Arsenic is bioaccumulated in the liver of gilthead seabream but no in the muscle. •Arsenic-exposure affects the innate immune system in the gilthead seabream. •Ten days of exposure to As enhances the immune parameters. -- Abstract: Arsenic (As) has been associated with multitude of animal and human health problems; however, its impact on host immune system has not been extensively investigated. In fish, there are very few works on the potential risks or problems associated to the presence of arsenic. In the present study we have evaluated the effects of exposure (30 days) to sub-lethal concentrations of arsenic (5 μM As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the teleost fish gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), with special emphasis in the innate immune response. The arsenic concentration was determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) in liver and muscle of exposed fish showing As accumulation in the liver after 30 days of exposure. The hepatosomatic index was increased at significant extent after 10 days but returned to control values after 30 days of exposure. Histological alterations in the liver were observed including hypertrophy, vacuolization and cell-death processes. Focusing on the immunological response, the humoral immune parameters (seric IgM, complement and peroxidase activities) were no affected to a statistically significant extent. Regarding the cellular innate parameters, head-kidney leucocyte peroxidase, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities were significantly increased after 10 days of exposition compared to the control fish. Overall, As-exposure in the seabream affects the immune system. How this might interfere with fish biology, aquaculture management or human consumers warrants further investigations. This paper describes, for the first time, the immunotoxicological effects of arsenic exposure in the

  5. Immunotoxicological effects of inorganic arsenic on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Short exposure to arsenic increases the hepato-somatic index and produces histopathological alterations in the liver. •Arsenic is bioaccumulated in the liver of gilthead seabream but no in the muscle. •Arsenic-exposure affects the innate immune system in the gilthead seabream. •Ten days of exposure to As enhances the immune parameters. -- Abstract: Arsenic (As) has been associated with multitude of animal and human health problems; however, its impact on host immune system has not been extensively investigated. In fish, there are very few works on the potential risks or problems associated to the presence of arsenic. In the present study we have evaluated the effects of exposure (30 days) to sub-lethal concentrations of arsenic (5 μM As2O3) in the teleost fish gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), with special emphasis in the innate immune response. The arsenic concentration was determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) in liver and muscle of exposed fish showing As accumulation in the liver after 30 days of exposure. The hepatosomatic index was increased at significant extent after 10 days but returned to control values after 30 days of exposure. Histological alterations in the liver were observed including hypertrophy, vacuolization and cell-death processes. Focusing on the immunological response, the humoral immune parameters (seric IgM, complement and peroxidase activities) were no affected to a statistically significant extent. Regarding the cellular innate parameters, head-kidney leucocyte peroxidase, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities were significantly increased after 10 days of exposition compared to the control fish. Overall, As-exposure in the seabream affects the immune system. How this might interfere with fish biology, aquaculture management or human consumers warrants further investigations. This paper describes, for the first time, the immunotoxicological effects of arsenic exposure in the gilthead seabream

  6. Mating behaviour and gamete release in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758 held in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibarra-Zatarain Zohar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe the reproductive behaviour of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata in captivity. Twenty-four mature gilthead seabream, divided in two tanks, were utilized for the present study. Reproductive behaviour was recorded using submersibles cameras. A total of 67 spawning events were analysed. The mean duration time that gilthead seabream spent spawning was 54 ± 4 min/day, during which mean number of individual spawning events was 5.6 ± 0.2. The mean volume of eggs produced by both broodstocks was 405 ± 13.4 mL with a fertilization rate of 91.6 ± 0.4%. The reproductive behaviour began with a schooling behaviour and then forming light aggregations. From an aggregation or an encounter while swimming freely a female initiated a spawning rush followed by one or more males to gametes liberation. The spawning rush was brief, 1.6 ± 0.5 sec, over an approximately 1.7 ± 0.2 m distance from the tank bottom to the water surface. Pair spawning, between a single female and male, was the most common (71.6%. Group spawning was less common and involved a single female spawning with two males (22.5% or three males (4.9%. Spawning rushes involving more than one female were not observed. Gilthead seabream in the present study presented a tendency to pair spawn and eggs collected as a “spawn” were actually the sum of many separate spawning events over a short time period. This is the first description of gilthead seabream spawning and the findings help to understand microsatellite based observations of spawning kinetics.

  7. Assessment of gold nanoparticle effects in a marine teleost (Sparus aurata) using molecular and biochemical biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, M; Fierro-Castro, C; Na-Phatthalung, P; Tvarijonaviciute, A; Trindade, T; Soares, A M V M; Tort, L; Oliveira, M

    2016-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are increasingly employed in a variety of applications and are likely to be increasing in the environment, posing a potential emerging environmental threat. Information on possible hazardous effects of engineered nanoparticles is urgently required to ensure human and environmental safety and promote the safe use of novel nanotechnologies. Nevertheless, there is a lack of comprehensive knowledge on AuNP effects in marine species. The present study aimed to assess AuNP effects in a marine teleost, Sparus aurata, by combining endpoints at different biological levels (molecular and biochemical). For that purpose, fish were exposed via water for 96h to 4, 80 and 1600μgL(-1) of AuNP (∼40nm) coated with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Results revealed a significant impact of AuNP-PVP in the hepatic expression of antioxidant, immune and apoptosis related genes. Total oxidative status was increased in plasma after exposure to the lowest concentration of AuNP-PVP, although without altering the total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, AuNP did not induce significant damage in the liver since the activity of neither hepatic indicator (aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase) increased. Overall, the present study demonstrated that AuNP, even with a biocompatible coating is able to alter oxidative status and expression of relevant target genes in marine fish. Another important finding is that effects are mainly induced by the lowest and intermediate concentrations of the PVP coated AuNP revealing the importance of different coatings. PMID:27267391

  8. Environmental conditioning of skeletal anomalies typology and frequency in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestinicola, Loredana; Boglione, Clara; Makridis, Pavlos; Spanò, Attilio; Rimatori, Valentina; Palamara, Elisa; Scardi, Michele; Cataudella, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, 981 reared juveniles of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were analysed, 721 of which were from a commercial hatchery located in Northern Italy (Venice, Italy) and 260 from the Hellenic Center for Marine Research (Crete, Greece). These individuals were from 4 different egg batches, for a total of 10 different lots. Each egg batch was split into two lots after hatching, and reared with two different methodologies: intensive and semi-intensive. All fish were subjected to processing for skeletal anomaly and meristic count analysis. The aims involved: (1) quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing whether differences in skeletal elements arise between siblings and, if so, what they are; (2) investigating if any skeletal bone tissue/ossification is specifically affected by changing environmental rearing conditions; and (3) contributing to the identification of the best practices for gilthead seabream larval rearing in order to lower the deformity rates, without selections. The results obtained in this study highlighted that: i) in all the semi-intensive lots, the bones having intramembranous ossification showed a consistently lower incidence of anomalies; ii) the same clear pattern was not observed in the skeletal elements whose ossification process requires a cartilaginous precursor. It is thus possible to ameliorate the morphological quality (by reducing the incidence of severe skeletal anomalies and the variability in meristic counts of dermal bones) of reared seabream juveniles by lowering the stocking densities (maximum 16 larvae/L) and increasing the volume of the hatchery rearing tanks (minimum 40 m(3)). Feeding larvae with a wide variety of live (wild) preys seems further to improve juvenile skeletal quality. Additionally, analysis of the morphological quality of juveniles reared under two different semi-intensive conditions, Mesocosm and Large Volumes, highlighted a somewhat greater capacity of Large Volumes to significantly augment the gap with

  9. Evaluation of gemfibrozil effects on a marine fish (Sparus aurata) combining gene expression with conventional endocrine and biochemical endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, M; Fierro-Castro, C; Na-Phatthalung, P; Tvarijonaviciute, A; Soares, A M V M; Tort, L; Oliveira, M

    2016-11-15

    The information on the potential hazardous effects of gemfibrozil (GEM) on marine fish is extremely scarce. In the current study, molecular, endocrine and biochemical parameters were assessed in Sparus aurata after 96h waterborne exposure to a GEM concentration range. Hepatic mRNA levels of target genes known to be regulated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (pparα) in mammals, such as apolipoprotein AI (apoa1) and lipoprotein (lpl) were significantly increased, without a concomitant activation of the ppar pathways. GEM (15μgL(-1)) induced an upregulation in mRNA levels of interleukin 1β (il1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (tnfα) and caspase 3 (casp3), suggesting an activation of proinflammatory processes in S. aurata liver. However, mRNA levels of genes related with the antioxidant defence system and cell-tissue repair were unaltered under the tested experimental conditions. Higher levels of GEM induced a cortisol rise, an indication that it is recognized as a stressor by S. aurata. Cortisol levels and the mRNA levels of il1β, tnfα and casp3 may be suggested as potential biomarkers of GEM effects in marine fish. PMID:27474849

  10. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation in farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) slaughtered and chilled under different icing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, Javier; Álvarez, Victoria; Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2010-01-01

    This work focuses on the slaughtering and chilled storage (up to 14 days) related to the commercialization of fresh farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). A slurry ice (SI) system was applied and evaluated in comparison to traditional flake ice (FI). Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation were analyzed and compared to sensory acceptance and trimethylamine (TMA) formation. An important quality loss could be assessed in fish during slaughtering and chilling storage, according to sensory assessment a...

  11. Skin healing and scale regeneration in fed and unfed sea bream, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canario Adelino VM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish scales are an important reservoir of calcium and phosphorus and together with the skin function as an integrated barrier against environmental changes and external aggressors. Histological studies have revealed that the skin and scales regenerate rapidly in fish when they are lost or damaged. In the present manuscript the histological and molecular changes underlying skin and scale regeneration in fed and fasted sea bream (Sparus auratus were studied using a microarray 3 and 7 days after scale removal to provide a comprehensive molecular understanding of the early stages of these processes. Results Histological analysis of skin/scales revealed 3 days after scale removal re-epithelisation and formation of the scale pocket had occurred and 53 and 109 genes showed significant up or down-regulation, respectively. Genes significantly up-regulated were involved in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation and adhesion, immune response and antioxidant activities. 7 days after scale removal a thin regenerated scale was visible and only minor changes in gene expression occurred. In animals that were fasted to deplete mineral availability the expression profiles centred on maintaining energy homeostasis. The utilisation of fasting as a treatment emphasised the competing whole animal physiological requirements with regard to barrier repair, infection control and energy homeostasis. Conclusions The identification of numerous genes involved in the mitotic checkpoint and cell proliferation indicate that the experimental procedure may be useful for understanding cell proliferation and control in vertebrates within the context of the whole animal physiology. In response to skin damage genes of immune surveillance were up-regulated along with others involved in tissue regeneration required to rapidly re-establish barrier function. Additionally, candidate fish genes were identified that may be involved in cytoskeletal re

  12. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation in farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata slaughtered and chilled under different icing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pena, Javier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the slaughtering and chilled storage (up to 14 days related to the commercialization of fresh farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata. A slurry ice (SI system was applied and evaluated in comparison to traditional flake ice (FI. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation were analyzed and compared to sensory acceptance and trimethylamine (TMA formation. An important quality loss could be assessed in fish during slaughtering and chilling storage, according to sensory assessment and TMA formation. However, lipid damage development was found relatively low, in agreement to the different lipid quality indexes checked (lipid hydrolysis; primary, secondary and tertiary lipid oxidation. No development of rancid odor and no polyunsaturated fatty acid losses were detected. The employment of SI as a slaughtering and chilling strategy was found useful to inhibit quality loss in gilthead seabream resulting in a shelf life increase and a TMA and free fatty acid formation inhibition.Este trabajo estudia el sacrificio y conservación en hielo (hasta 14 días de dorada (Sparus aurata. Para ello, se aplicó hielo líquido (SI de forma comparativa con hielo tradicional (FI en escamas. Se analizó el desarrollo de hidrólisis y oxidación lipídicas, procediéndose a su comparación con la evaluación sensorial y la formación de trimetilamina (TMA. Se observó una importante pérdida de calidad de acuerdo con la valoración sensorial y la formación de TMA. Sin embargo, la alteración lipídica fue baja, a tenor de los índices ensayados (hidrólisis lipídica; oxidación lipídica primaria, secundaria y terciaria. No se detectaron desarrollo de olor rancio ni pérdida de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados. El empleo de SI en esta especie resultó ser útil al objeto de inhibir la pérdida de calidad; así, se observó un incremento en el tiempo de vida útil y una inhibición en la formación de TMA y ácidos grasos libres.

  13. Gyrodactylus orecchiae sp. n. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from farmed populations of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladini, Giuseppe; Cable, Joanne; Fioravanti, Maria L; Faria, Patricia J; Di Cave, David; Shinn, Andrew P

    2009-03-01

    Gyrodactylus orecchiae sp. n. (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) is described from the skin, fins, eyes and gills of juvenile Sparus aurata L. (gilthead seabream) following two outbreaks of gyrodactylosis amongst stocks held in inshore floating cages on the Adriatic coast of Albania and Croatia. Fish were heavily infected (1000+ gyrodactylids/fish) with G. orecchiae which reportedly resulted in approximately 2-10% mortality amongst the infected stock. Morphologically, the haptoral hooks of G. orecchiae most closely resemble those of Gyrodactylus arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933 in the approximate shape of the ventral bar with its pronounced ventral bar processes and marginal hook sickles which possess a square line to the inner edge of the sickle blade and large rounded heels. The marginal hooks are also morphologically similar to those of Gyrodactylus quadratidigitus Longshaw, Pursglove et Shinn, 2003 and Gyrodactylus colemanensis Mizelle et Kritsky, 1967, but G. orecchiae can be readily discriminated from all three species by the characteristic infolding of the hamuli roots and the shape of the marginal hook sickle. Molecular sequencing of the ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 regions (513+157+404 bp, respectively) of G. orecchiae and alignment with other gyrodactylids for which these same genomic regions have been determined, suggests that this is a new species. No similarities were found when the ITS1 region of G. orecchiae was compared with 84 species of Gyrodactylus available on GenBank. PMID:19391328

  14. Importance of prebiotics in aquaculture as immunostimulants. Effects on immune system of Sparus aurata and Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Donatella; Faggio, Caterina

    2016-07-01

    Infectious diseases in fish represent a major problem for the aquaculture field as they produce extensive damages and loss. Over the last few years, with increased development of the aquaculture industry, different methods have been used to contrast these pathologies. Common interest has led to the use of components (as additives in diets) that could contrast diseases without causing any negative impact on the environment. These components are represented by prebiotics, probiotics, and plant extracts. In this review, the effects of prebiotics are described. Prebiotics are indigestible fibres fermented by gut enzymes and commensal bacteria, whose beneficial effects are due to the by-products generated from fermentation. The influence of pre-biotics on the immune system of fish is called immunosaccharides. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and Inulin act at different levels in the innate immune response. For example, through phagocytosis, lysozyme activity, and the complement system activity, an increase in fish growth and an amelioration of their health status is brought about. In this review, the use of prebiotics in aquaculture, such as immunostimulants, has been highlighted: particularly in two teleost fish species, Sparus aurata and Dicentrarchus labrax. The results demonstrate that the road is still long and further studies are required, but the use of prebiotics, individually or coupled together, can open the doors to pioneering a new model of alternative components to antimicrobial agents. PMID:27074444

  15. Partition of aerobic and anaerobic swimming costs and their correlation to tail-beat frequency and burst activity in Sparus aurata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    that S. aurata swam exclusively using aerobic metabolism up to 88% of their critical swimming speed (Ucrit ). Above 88% Ucrit' the contribution from the anaerobic swimming cost increased exponentially and represented 12%, 59% and 70% of the total swimming cost at 90%, Ucritand fatigue, respectively...... to the late initiation time, the contribution from the anaerobic swimming cost did not affect the optimal swimming speed or the minimum cost of transport. In contrast, the cost of swimming above 88% Ucrit increased by 334% at fatigue. Email addressforcorrespondence:btirsgaard@bio.ku.dk......Soc for experimental Biol Annual Meeting - Salzburg 2012 Bjørn Tirsgaard (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) and John Fleng Steffensen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) Aerobic and anaerobic oxygen consumption was measured for 13 Sparus aurata swimming at incremental increasing swimming speeds...

  16. Effects of dietary nutrient composition on de novo lipogenesis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn

    (using diets otherwise iso-DP and iso-DE). The apparent retention of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were positively related to dietary starch level (and negatively related to dietary lipid level), exceeding 100% in fish fed high starch diets. These findings...... supporting papers which look into the conversion of dietary starch and protein into body lipids as well as the consequences of this on fatty acid profile of the fish. Results from paper I showed that between 4.2 and 8.4% of digested starch was converted into body lipids de novo, corresponding to a synthesis.......5 MJ/kg), results from paper II showed that between 18.6 and 22.4% of the DP was converted into lipid de novo, corresponding to between 21.6 and 30.3% of the total lipid deposited in the fish during the study. The nutrient retention results combined showed that while protein was spared by a decreasing...

  17. Mercury Accumulation, Structural Damages, and Antioxidant and Immune Status Changes in the Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata L.) Exposed to Methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, F A; Chaves-Pozo, E; Espinosa, C; Romero, D; Meseguer, J; Cuesta, A; Esteban, M A

    2016-05-01

    In aquatic systems, mercury (Hg) is an environmental contaminant that causes acute and chronic damage to multiple organs. In fish, practically all of the organic Hg found is in the form of methylmercury (MeHg), which has been associated with animal and human health problems. This study evaluates the impact of waterborne-exposure to sublethal concentrations of MeHg (10 μg L(-1)) in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Hg was seen to accumulate in liver and muscle, and histopathological damage to skin and liver was detected. Fish exposed to MeHg showed a decreased biological antioxidant potential and increased levels of the reactive oxygen molecules compared with the values found in control fish (nonexposed). Increased liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) were detected in 2 day-exposed fish with respect to the values of control fish. However, fish exposed to MeHg for 10 days showed liver antioxidant enzyme levels similar to those of the control fish but had increased hepato-somatic index and histopathological alterations in liver and skin. Serum complement levels were higher in fish exposed to MeHg for 30 days than in control fish. Moreover, head-kidney leukocyte activities increased, although only phagocytosis and peroxidase activities showed a significant increase after 10 and 30 days, respectively. The data show that 30 days of exposure to waterborne MeHg provokes more significant changes in fish than a short-term exposure of 2 or 10 days. PMID:26906265

  18. Melatonin synthesis under calcium constraint in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Kulczkowska, E.; Kalamarz, H.; Guerreiro, P.M.G.; Flik, G.

    2008-01-01

    Brain or blood plasma melatonin was analysed as a measure for pineal melatonin production in sea bream. Access to calcium was limited by diluting the seawater to 2.5‰ and removing calcium from the diet or by prolonged feeding of vitamin D-deficient diet. Interactions/relations between melatonin and

  19. Xenobiotic-contaminated diets affect hepatic lipid metabolism: Implications for liver steatosis in Sparus aurata juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradonna, F; Nozzi, V; Santangeli, S; Traversi, I; Gallo, P; Fattore, E; Mita, D G; Mandich, A; Carnevali, O

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic effects induced by feed contaminated with a lower or a higher concentration of -nonylpnenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (t-OP) or bisphenol A (BPA), three environmental endocrine disruptors, were assessed in juvenile sea bream liver. Histological analysis demonstrated that all these three xenobiotics induced hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. These findings prompted analysis of the expression of the major molecules involved in lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (which is encoded by ppars), fatty acid synthase (encoded by fas), lipoprotein lipase (encoded by lpl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (encoded by hsl). The enzymes encoded by ppars and fas are in fact responsible for lipid accumulation, whereas lpl- and hsl- encoded proteins play a pivotal role in fat mobilization. The three xenobiotics modulated ppar mRNA expression: pparα mRNA expression was induced by the higher dose of each contaminant; pparβ mRNA expression was upregulated by the lower doses and in BPA2 fish ppary mRNA overexpression was induced by all pollutants. These data agreed with the lipid accumulation profiles documented by histology. Fas mRNA levels were modulated by the two NP doses and the higher BPA concentration. Lpl mRNA was significantly upregulated in all experimental groups except for BPA1 fish while hsl mRNA was significantly downregulated in all groups except for t-OP2 and BPA1 fish. The plasma concentrations of cortisol, the primary stress biomarker, were correlated with the levels of pepck mRNA level. This gene encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which is one of the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Pepck mRNA was significantly overexpressed in fish exposed to NP2 and both t-OP doses. Finally, the genes encoding cyclooxygenase 2 (cox2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5 lox), the products of which are involved in the inflammatory response, transcriptions were significantly upregulated in NP and BPA fish, whereas they were unchanged in t

  20. Acidophilic granulocytes in the gills of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata: evidence for their responses to a natural infection by a copepod ectoparasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Alice; Manera, Maurizio; Giari, Luisa; Mulero, Victoriano; Dezfuli, Bahram Sayyaf

    2013-09-01

    Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies were conducted on the gills of gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata L., naturally infected with the copepod ectoparasite Ergasilus lizae (Krøyer, 1863) in order to assess pathology and the host immune cell response. Gills of 56 gilthead seabream were screened for ectoparasites; 36 specimens (64.3%) harbored E. lizae. Intensity of infection was 32.7 ± 8.7 (mean ± SE). Pathological alterations to the gills of the host were more pronounced in close proximity to the copepod site of attachment. The parasite attached to the gills by means of its modified second antennae, occluded the arteries, provoked epithelial hyperplasia and hemorrhages and most often caused lamellar disruption. Numerous granular cells were encountered near the site of E. lizae attachment. In both infected and uninfected gills, the granular cells lay within the filaments and frequently occurred within the connective tissue inside and outside the blood vessels of the filaments. The type of granular cell was identified by immunohistochemical staining by using the monoclonal antibody G7 (mAb G7), which specifically recognizes acidophilic granulocytes (AGs) of S. aurata and with an anti-histamine antibody (as a marker for mast cells, MCs) on sections from 13 uninfected gills and 21 parasitized gills. The use of mAb G7 revealed that, in gills harboring copepods, the number of G7-positive cells (i.e., AGs; 32.9 ± 3.9, mean number of cells per 45,000 μm2 ± SE) was significantly higher than the density of the same cells in uninfected gills (15.3 ± 3.8; ANOVA, P < 0.05). Few histamine-positive granular cells (i.e., MCs) were found in the uninfected and parasitized gills. Here, we show, for the first time in S. aurata infected gills, that AGs rather than MCs are recruited and involved in the response to E. lizae infection in seabream. PMID:23644766

  1. Effect of seaweed supplementation on growth performance, immune and oxidative stress responses in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cesar dos Santos Queiroz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds have important nutraceutical properties, including antioxidant and biological response-modifying qualities. Their dietary supplementation may increase the immune and antioxidant capacity of fish necessary to cope to stressful conditions and minimizing disease outbreaks. There are essentially four major groups of seaweed that can be classified by color, namely green (Chlorophyta, brown/yellow (Phaeophyta, red (Rhodophyta, and blue-green (Cyanophyta. Some green seaweed has active radical scavenging properties. Red and brown have bioactive compounds that play a vital role as antihypertensive and antioxidant. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of seaweed supplementation on growth performance, immune and oxidative stress responses in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata. Three seaweed species, each from one of the following groups, Rhodophyta (R, Phaeophyta (P and Chlorophyta (C, were supplemented to the experimental diets at 2.5% and 7.5% and tested against a control diet (Ctrl with no supplementation. In addition to six diets with seaweed in two different levels of supplementation: R2.5%, P2.5%, C2.5%, R7.5%, P7.5% and C7.5%; a diet with a mix (M, supplemented at 7.5% (2.5% of each algae was also tested. A total of 360 seabream fingerlings, 13.07 ± 0.13cm and 31.17 ± 0.63g were allocated in 24 rectangular tanks, 115L capacity each, with a 4L/min water output connected to a recirculation seawater system. Fish were fed twice a day until satiation and water quality (temperature: 20.5 ºC; D.O.: 8.13 mg/L; Ammonia: 0.5 mg/L Nitrite: 0.5 mg/L were daily monitored. At day 40 of the trial, an intermediate sampling was carried out. Standard zootechnical parameters were measured for the growth performance determination. In addition, blood, liver and intestine samples were collected for the evaluation of the immune (lysozyme and peroxidase and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase

  2. Biochemical responses in seabream (Sparus aurata) caged in-field or exposed to benzo(a)pyrene and paraquat. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebali, Jamel; Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Banni, Mohamed; Guerbej, Hamadi; Boussetta, Hamadi; López-Barea, Juan; Alhama, José

    2013-02-01

    Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) specimens were caged in-field at the Téboulba harbour or exposed to benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] or to paraquat [PQ] plus B(a)P, and several biochemical biomarker responses were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase, significantly increased in the in-field and B(a)P+PQ exposures, but were only moderately affected by B(a)P alone. Glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases significantly diminished after in-field exposure. Different responses with biotransformation enzymes were observed: the P4501A-associated EROD activity was highly induced in response to B(a)P and B(a)P+PQ exposures, while total activity of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) was similar to control. However, after purification of the GST proteins by affinity chromatograpy and analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis, nineteen highly reproducible isoforms were resolved. In addition, some of reproducible isoforms showed different and specific expression patterns in response to contaminants. Thus, proteomic analysis of the purified GST subunits is a reliable tool for ecotoxicological research, useful in polluted marine ecosystem as an effective biomarker of contamination.

  3. Preliminary insights into the incorporation of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in fish feed: influence on performance and physiology of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, A; García García, B; Caballero, M J; Hernández, M D

    2015-08-01

    Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were fed a basal (control) diet and four experimental diets (R600, R1200, R1800 and R2400), containing 600, 1200, 1800 and 2400 mg kg(-1), respectively, of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). At 4 and 12 weeks from the beginning of the ongrowing period, the fish were sacrificed, blood was drawn to obtain plasma and the liver and intestines were dissected. Growth and feed intake were unaffected by rosemary extract addition. A histological examination of the intestine revealed no differences among the dosages, while the liver showed a sharp decrease in hepatic steatosis in diets supplemented with rosemary extract. Furthermore, plasma alanine aminotransferase was lower with these diets at the end of the ongrowing period. Rosemary extract reduced the plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides on week 4 and glucose and HDL/LDL cholesterol ratio on week 12, suggesting better transport and energy metabolism of the lipids. Overall, the most evident effect of rosemary extract was observed with the 600 mg kg(-1) dose. PMID:25968936

  4. Effects of dietary lipid level on growth and feed utilisation of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L. reared at Mediterranean summer temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Mongile

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of different dietary lipid levels on gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, reared at Mediterranean summer temperature. Sixty fish (average weight 75 g per tank were randomly distributed, in triplicate groups, in a recirculating rearing system (27±1°C and fed ad libitum five isonitrogenous (46% dietary protein diets with increasing lipid level (16, 18, 20, 22 and 24% named D16, D18, D20, D22 and D24, respectively, over 89 days. Specific growth rate and final body weight were not affected by dietary lipid levels. Feed conversion ratio was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in D16 as compared to the other treatments, most likely due to the shortage of dietary energy supply, coped with a significantly higher voluntary feed intake. Consequently, we obtained a significantly lower protein efficiency ratio and gross protein efficiency in D16. Gross lipid efficiency was significantly higher in D16 and D18 than in the other treatments. Biometric parameters and lipase activity in gut content were not influenced by dietary treatments. In conclusion, D18 seems the most suitable diet for gilthead seabream reared at Mediterranean summer temperature, providing both the lowest fish in fish out (FIFO ratio and a protein sparing effect, which makes gilthead seabream’s production economically and environmentally more sustainable.

  5. Risk assessment for parasites in cultures of Diplodus puntazzo (Sparidae) in the Western Mediterranean: prospects of cross infection with Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Neus; Raga, Juan Antonio; Montero, Francisco E

    2014-08-29

    The sharpsnout seabream Diplodus puntazzo is of interest in Mediterranean fish farming. Disease is an important problem because parasites can spread quickly in culture conditions and fish often develop high parasite burdens. Here we assess the risk that documented parasites pose to the sustainability of D. puntazzo farming. This study specifically considers metazoan and protist parasites recorded from wild and farmed D. puntazzo in scientific literature. Risk assessment studies involve the identification, characterization and qualitative quantification of the risk in question (parasitoses in this case) and the probability of establishment. We considered the parasite species which may be difficult to manage as a priority for research into potential management strategies. Those parasites which could be transmitted from cultures of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were also included in this study. Four groups of parasites represented a risk to D. puntazzo farming, ranging from moderate to high: Ciliophora, Myxozoa, Monogenea and Copepoda. Three parasite species were considered high risk to D. puntazzo cultures: Amyloodinium sp., Cryptocaryon sp. and Enteromyxum leei. These species were responsible for high mortalities in cultures of these and other fish species. In addition Sparicotyle chrysophrii, Caligus ligusticus and Gnathia vorax entail a moderate risk to D. puntazzo Mediterranean farms. No important episodes have been related to caligids and isopods in Mediterranean sparids, nevertheless they should be properly managed to prevent future problems. PMID:24893693

  6. Glycogenesis and de novo lipid synthesis from dietary starch in juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    the metabolic fate of dietary starch, 0·7% wheat starch was replaced with isotope-labelled starch (.98% 13C). Fish were fed the experimental diets for three consecutive 10 d periods, and isotope ratio MS was applied to quantify 13C enrichment of liver and whole-body glycogen and lipid pools over the three...... feeding periods. Glycogenesis originating from dietary starch accounted for up to 68·8 and 38·8% of the liver and whole-body glycogen pools, respectively, while up to 16·7% of the liver lipid could be attributed to dietary starch. Between 5 and 8% of dietary starch carbon was recovered in whole-body lipid......, and estimated deposition rates of de novo synthesised lipid originating from starch ranged from 18·7 to 123·7 mg/kg biomass per d. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect growth, feed performance or body composition of the fish, while the hepatosomatic index and glycogen content of whole fish and livers...

  7. Estudo da distribuição do transportador da hormona tiroxina - transretina - em dourada, Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Charrão, Adelaide da Conceição Dimas Henrique

    1998-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado, Aquacultura, Unidade de Ciências e Tecnologias dos Recursos Aquáticos, Universidade do Algarve, 1998 Transthyretin (TTR) is one of three thyroxine binding proteins found in the serum of higher animais. It has been shown to be synthesised and secreted in the choroid plexus of placental mammals, birds and reptiles but not in amphibians. Recently has cloned transthyretin from a sea bream liver cDNA library (Santos & Power, 1998). The objective of the prese...

  8. Utilization of desalinated b rackish water resi dues for cultivation of the m a rine fish species, Dicentrarchus labra x, Sparus aurata, and Sciaenops ocellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutaz A. Al - Qutob

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of brackish water residues from desalination units for fish mariculture inPalestine could represent an environmental friendly alternative of disposing brine water which could havean adverse effect on wild life. In this study, three juvenile marine fish species (Gilt-head bream S. aurata, European sea bass D. labrax, and red drum S. ocellatus with average weights of 0.7-4.9 g, wereacclimated and reared in brine brackish water residues collected from Jericho desalination units withsalinities of 6.5 ‰ and 11 ‰ diluted sea water as control for 3-7 months. Fish were fed 56 % richprotein diet. Brine brackish water contained high levels of CL-1 (3369 mgL-1, Na+1(3735 mgL-1, K+1(300mgL-1, SO4 -2 (716 mgL-1 with the divalent ions Mg+2 (57.3 mgL-1 and Ca+2 (276 mgL-1.Theexperimental well showed more than the maximum allowable concentration of Cr (14.49 μgL-1, Ag (5.3μgL-1 and Mn (27.88 μgL-1 for water quality of fisheries use. The sea bass with an average weight of0.76 g (at a salinity of 6.5 ‰ showed an acceptable growth performance parameters and reached apercentage weight gain (% WG of 6345.23 % and a survival rate of 77.5 % compared to control groupsat 11 ‰ that reached at the same time a % WG of 6543.78 % and a survival rate of 82 % after 30weeks. The red drum juveniles reached a % WG of 2661.6 % and 2673.92 % after 15 weeks at 6.5 ‰and 11 ‰ respectively while sea bream reached a % WG of 241.63 % and 772.44 % after 15 weeks at6.5 ‰ and 11 ‰ respectively. Survival rate was only 5 % at both salinities for the two species. In afurther study sea bass fingerlings with an average weight of 20.5 g were reared in brackish water of 6.5‰ salinity for 7 weeks and were fed superior fish meal with fish oil. They received diets of 2.1 %, 3.0%, and 4.0 % of body weight. Sea bass fingerlings which received diets of 2.1 %, had the highest FCE(0.82 and PER (1.46 with the lowest FCR (1.22. These results confirm that the most

  9. 黑鲷幼鱼赖氨酸需求量的研究%Study on Lysine Requirement of Juvenile Black Sea Bream(Sparus macrocephalus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永正; 周凡; 邵庆均; 许梓荣

    2009-01-01

    选用初体重(9.13±0.09)g的黑鲷(Sparus macrocephalus)幼鱼360尾随机分为6组,每组3个重复,每个重复20尾,分别投饲赖氨酸水平实测值为2.08%、2.52%、2.88%、3.25%、3.68%和4.05%的等氮等能日粮.试验期为8周,观察日粮赖氨酸对黑鲷生长性能,体组成以及消化能力的影响,并确定其适宜的赖氨酸需求量.结果表明,当饲料中的赖氨酸水平从2.08%上升到3.25%,黑鲷的增重率和特定生长率随着饲料赖氨酸水平升高而升高(P0.05).饲料赖氨酸水平从2.08%上升到3.25%,蛋白质沉积率有显著提高(P0.05).肝脏总必需氨基酸和赖氨酸含量随着饲料赖氨酸水平升高而增加,但是在赖氨酸添加水平最高组这两个指标均有所降低(P0.05).赖氨酸含量为3.25%时,干物质和蛋白质的表观消化率最高,而脂肪消化率的最高值出现在3.68%赖氨酸的饲料组.试验结果还表明,黑鲷幼鱼胃、前肠和中肠的蛋白酶活性变化趋势基本一致.随着饲料中赖氨酸水平的增加而升高(P0.05).使用曲线模型,根据试验黑鲷幼鱼的增重率同饲料中赖氨酸水平的相关性得出其赖氨酸需要量为3.28%,占饲料蛋白质的8.63%.%An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of lysine on growth performance, body com-position, digestive ability and determine the quantitative lysine requirement of juvenile black sea bream (Sparus macrocepha-lus). Three hundred and sixty fish with initial body weight of (9.13 ± 0.09) g were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates each and 20 fish in each replicate. Six treatments were fed with 6 iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets contai-ning 6 levels of lysine (2.08%, 2.52%, 2.88%, 3.25%, 3.68% and 4.05%). The results showed that, weight gain ratio (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with the level of dietary lysine increased to 3.25% from 2.08% (P0.05). The protein efficiency ratio (PER) increased significantly

  10. Trace elements and metals in farmed sea bass and gilthead bream from Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Jalilli, A; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hernández, F; Melón, E; Burgos, A; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of metals (Ca, K, Na, Mg) and trace metals (Ni, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd) in two fish species (gilthead bream [Sparus aurata] and sea bass [Dicentrarchus labrax]) collected from fish farms located along the coast of Tenerife Island. Ca, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas Pb, Cd, and Ni were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn contents were 3.09, 0.59, 0.18, and 8.11 mg/kg (wet weight) in S. aurata and 3.20, 0.76, 0.24, and 10.11 mg/kg (wet weight) in D. labrax, respectively. In D. labrax, Ca, K, Na, and Mg levels were 1,955, 2,787, 699.7, and 279.2 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively; in S. aurata, they were 934.7, 3,515, 532.8, and 262.8 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively. The Pb level in S. aurata was 7.28 ± 3.64 μg/kg (wet weight) and, in D. labrax, 4.42 ± 1.56 μg/kg (wet weight). Mean Cd concentrations were 3.33 ± 3.93 and 1.36 ± 1.53 μg/kg (wet weight) for D. labrax and S. aurata, respectively. All Pb and Cd levels measured were well below the accepted European Commission limits, 300 and 50 μg/kg for lead and cadmium, respectively.

  11. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) response to three music stimuli (Mozart--"Eine Kleine Nachtmusik," Anonymous--"Romanza," Bach--"Violin Concerto No. 1") and white noise under recirculating water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsoglou, Sofronios E; Karakatsouli, Nafsika; Psarrou, Anna; Apostolidou, Sofia; Papoutsoglou, Eustratios S; Batzina, Alkisti; Leondaritis, Georgios; Sakellaridis, N

    2015-02-01

    This study presents the results of the response of Sparus aurata to three different musical stimuli, derived from the transmission (4 h per day, 5 days per week) of particular music pieces by Mozart, Romanza and Bach (140 dB(rms) re 1 μPa), compared to the same transmission level of white noise, while the underwater ambient noise in all the experimental tanks was 121 dB(rms) re 1 μPa. Using recirculating sea water facilities, 10 groups, 2 for each treatment, of 20 specimens of 11.2 ± 0.02 g (S.E.), were reared for 94 days, under 150 ± 10 l× 12L-12D, and were fed an artificial diet three times per day. Fish body weight showed significant differences after 55 days, while its maximum level was observed after the 69th day until the end of the experiment, the highest value demonstrated in Mozart (M) groups, followed by those of Romanza (R), Bach (B), control (C) and white noise (WN). SGR (M = B), %WG (M = B) and FCR (all groups fed same % b.w.) were also improved for M group. Brain neurotransmitters results exhibited significant differences in DA-dopamine, (M > B), 5HIAA (C > B), 5HIAA:5HT (WN > R), DOPAC (M > B), DOPAC:DA and (DOPAC + HVA):DA, (C > M), while no significant differences were observed in 5HT, NA, HVA and HVA:DA. No differences were observed in biometric measurements, protease activity, % fatty acids of fillet, visceral fat and liver, while differences were observed regarding carbohydrase activity and the amount (mg/g w.w.) of some fatty acids in liver, fillet and visceral fat. In conclusion, present results confirm those reported for S. aurata, concerning the observed relaxing influence--due to its brain neurotransmitters action--of the transmission of Mozart music (compared to R and B), which resulted in the achievement of maximum growth rate, body weight and improved FCR. This conclusion definitely supports the musical "understanding" and sensitivity of S. aurata to music stimuli as well as suggesting a specific effect of white noise.

  12. Development and validation of an HPLC method for the determination of six penicillin and three amphenicol antibiotics in gilthead seabream (Sparus Aurata) tissue according to the European Union Decision 2002/657/EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaggelopoulou, Evaggelia N; Samanidou, Victoria F

    2013-02-15

    A confirmatory high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of six penicillin antibiotics and three amphenicol antibiotics in gilthead seabream (Sparus Aurata) tissue was developed. Ampicillin (AMP), penicillin G (PG), penicillin V (PV), oxacillin (OXA), cloxacillin (CLO), dicloxacillin (DICLO), thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FFC) and chloramphenicol (CAP) were separated on an Inertsil, C(8) (250×4 mm, 5 μm) column by gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate 0.05 M and acetonitrile at 25°C. Diode array detection with monitoring at 225 nm (for the determination of AMP, PG, PV, TAP and FFC), 240 nm (for OXA, CLO and DICLO) and 278 nm (for CAP) was applied. Examined antibiotics were isolated from gilthead seabream tissue by liquid-liquid extraction and further clean-up was performed by solid phase extraction using Oasis HLB (200 mg/6 mL) cartridges. The developed method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, stability and sensitivity according to the European Union Decision 2002/657/EC. PMID:23194530

  13. Virulence and molecular typing of Vibrio harveyi strains isolated from cultured dentex, gilthead sea bream and European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujalte, M J; Sitjà-Bobadilla, A; Macián, M C; Belloch, C; Alvarez-Pellitero, P; Pérez-Sánchez, J; Uruburu, F; Garay, E

    2003-06-01

    Vibrio harveyi was isolated from internal organs or ulcers of diseased and apparently healthy gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) cultured in several fish farms located on the Spanish Mediterranean coast. The prevalence of the bacterium was significantly higher in European sea bass than in gilthead sea bream, and was closely related to the season in both fish species, occurring almost exclusively on warm months (June to November). After phenotypic characterization, a selection of forty five isolates from gilthead sea bream, sea bass, and several isolates previously obtained from common dentex (Dentex dentex) of the same area, were molecularly typed by automated ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Cluster analysis of data established 8 RAPD types and 13 ribotypes among wild isolates, and the combination of both techniques allowed to define fourteen different groups and a clear discrimination of all outbreaks and samplings. Several strains isolated from diseased gilthead sea bream and sea bass and also from asymptomatic sea bream, were tested for virulence in both fish species by intracoelomic injection. All the isolates (11) were pathogenic for sea bass, with nine out of the eleven LD50 values ranging from 1.5 x 10(5) to 1.6 x 10(6) cfu/fish. Gilthead sea bream was unaffected by the seven tested strains, even by those more virulent for sea bass, and only one strain caused a 10% mortality at 4.2 x 10(7) cfu/fish. This is the first report on virulence of V. harveyi for sea bass. PMID:12866856

  14. Can Early Life-Stages of the Marine Fish Sparus aurata be Useful for the Evaluation of the Toxicity of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates Homologues (LAS C10-C14 and Commercial LAS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hampel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most commercial household cleaning agents and personal care products contain the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS as the active compound. After their use they are discharged, theoretically after adequate wastewater treatment, into receiving waters finally reaching estuaries and coastal waters. Laboratory toxicity tests are useful tools in determining at which concentration a certain wastewater compound becomes hazardous for an existing group of organisms. Early life-stage toxicity tests include exposure during the most sensitive development period of the organism. In fish, this type of assay has shown to predict accurately maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC values (comprised in the range defined by the NOEC and LOEC in fish early life-stage tests. For this reason, larvae of the seabream, Sparus aurata, were exposed to increasing concentrations of LAS homologues (C10-C14 and commercial LAS. Obtained LC50 values ranged between 0.1 and 3.0 mg l-1 and were compared with LC50 values of previous hatching experiments with the same species. Larvae proved to be more sensitive to LAS exposure of individual homologues than eggs, except in the case of commercial LAS. LC50 values can be directly employed to determine their potential risk in a concrete environment with known pollutant concentrations. Dividing the LC50 value with the found homologue concentration and extrapolating with certain security factors proposed by different environmental organisms, potentially hazardous pollutant concentrations may be detected. Average estuarine or coastal LAS concentrations are generally below toxicity limits for this kind of organism, considering that the average alkyl chain length of commercial LAS is 11.6 carbon atoms.

  15. Sparus aurata L. liver EROD and GST activities, plasma cortisol, lactate, glucose and erythrocytic nuclear anomalies following short-term exposure either to 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) or E{sub 2} combined with 4-nonylphenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, M.; Pacheco, M.; Santos, M.A

    2005-01-05

    Immature Sparus aurata L. (gilthead seabream) were exposed to 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) 4000 ng/l and to the same E{sub 2} concentration mixed with 50,000 ng/l 4-nonylphenol (E{sub 2}+NP) during 4, 8, 12 and 16 h. E{sub 2} availability and E{sub 2} plasma level variations were assessed. Liver biotransformation capacity was measured as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Plasma cortisol, lactate and glucose were also determined. Genotoxicity was assessed through erythrocytic nuclear anomalies (ENA) frequency. Liver EROD activity significantly decreased during the whole experiment for both treatments, with the exception of 16 h exposure to E{sub 2}. Liver GST activity was significantly increased after 8 and 12 h of exposure either to E{sub 2} or E{sub 2}+NP. An endocrine disruption expressed as plasma cortisol decrease was observed after 16 h exposure under both tested conditions, concomitantly with a plasma lactate increase. No genotoxic responses, measured as ENA frequency, were detected. Analyzing the E{sub 2} water concentration in aquaria without fish it was demonstrated an intense and fast E{sub 2} loss, considerably reducing its availability to fish. In the presence of fish, E{sub 2} water levels were drastically reduced after 4 h exposure, being this reduction more pronounced in E{sub 2} aquarium when compared to E{sub 2}+NP aquarium. In addition, it was demonstrated a rapid E{sub 2} uptake from the water since the highest E{sub 2} plasma concentrations were observed after 4 h exposure, followed by a continuous decrease, which became more pronounced between 8 and 12 h of exposure. Furthermore, during the first 8 h exposure to E{sub 2} and E{sub 2}+NP, seabream plasma E{sub 2} concentrations were higher than the initial water exposure concentration. Comparing the E{sub 2} plasma levels in both seabream-exposed groups, it was clear that its concentration is always higher in E{sub 2}+NP-treated fish. Despite

  16. PREVALENCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO SPP. ISOLATED ON AQUACULTURED GILTHEAD SEA BREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scarano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp isolated from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata farmed on sea cages and to identify and characterize the pathogen by molecular techniques. Eighty fish were collected from two hatcheries located on the North-Est Sardinian Mediterranean coast, and microbiological analysis were performed on different body parts such as skin, gills, muscle and intestinal tract. Subsequently 100 pure colonies with typical morphology and phenotypic characteristics were selected and submitted to the molecular identification. The analysis on the prevalence of Vibrio spp showed the effect of the hatchery rearing system (P<0.001, of the date of sampling (P<0.001, and of the body part (P<0.001. All the strains selected were confirmed to be members of the genus Vibrio spp by the molecular method/techinique/identification, whereas the rpoA gene sequence analyses allowed to identify 89 strains belonging to the species Vibrio harveyi, 6 to V. diabolicus, 2 to V. parahaemolyticus and 1 to V. mediterranei.

  17. Water absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine of the sea bream are regulated by transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclase stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edison S M; Gregório, Sílvia F; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M; Fuentes, Juan

    2012-12-01

    In the marine fish intestine luminal, HCO₃⁻ can remove divalent ions (calcium and magnesium) by precipitation in the form of carbonate aggregates. The process of epithelial HCO₃⁻ secretion is under endocrine control, therefore, in this study we aimed to characterize the involvement of transmembrane (tmACs) and soluble (sACs) adenylyl cyclases on the regulation of bicarbonate secretion (BCS) and water absorption in the intestine of the sea bream (Sparus aurata). We observed that all sections of sea bream intestine are able to secrete bicarbonate as measured by pH-Stat in Ussing chambers. In addition, gut sac preparations reveal net water absorption in all segments of the intestine, with significantly higher absorption rates in the anterior intestine that in the rectum. BCS and water absorption are positively correlated in all regions of the sea bream intestinal tract. Furthermore, stimulation of tmACs (10 μM FK + 500 μM IBMX) causes a significant decrease in BCS, bulk water absorption and short circuit current (Isc) in a region dependent manner. In turn, stimulation of sACs with elevated HCO₃⁻ results in a significant increase in BCS, and bulk water absorption in the anterior intestine, an action completely reversed by the sAC inhibitor KH7 (200 μM). Overall, the results reveal a functional relationship between BCS and water absorption in marine fish intestine and modulation by tmACs and sAC. In light of the present observations, it is hypothesized that the endocrine effects on intestinal BCS and water absorption mediated by tmACs are locally and reciprocally modulated by the action of sACs in the fish enterocyte, thus fine-tuning the process of carbonate aggregate production in the intestinal lumen.

  18. Adipogenic Gene Expression in Gilthead Sea Bream Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Different Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, Cristina; Riera-Heredia, Natàlia; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, adipogenesis has become an emerging field of study in aquaculture due to the relevance of the adipose tissue in many physiological processes and its connection with the endocrine system. In this sense, recent studies have translated into the establishment of preadipocyte culture models from several fish species, sometimes lacking information on the mRNA levels of adipogenic genes. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the gene expression profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) primary cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from different origin (adipose tissue and vertebra bone) during adipogenesis. Both cell types differentiated into adipocyte-like cells, accumulating lipids inside their cytoplasm. Adipocyte differentiation of MSCs from adipose tissue resulted in downregulation of several adipocyte-related genes (such as lpl, hsl, pparα, pparγ and gapdh2) at day 4, gapdh1 at day 8, and fas and pparβ at day 12. In contrast, differences in lxrα mRNA expression were not observed, while g6pdh levels increased during adipocyte maturation. Gapdh and Pparγ protein levels were also detected in preadipocyte cultures; however, only the former increased its expression during adipogenesis. Moreover, differentiation of bone-derived cells into adipocytes also resulted in the downregulation of several adipocyte gene markers, such as fas and g6pdh at day 10 and hsl, pparβ, and lxrα at day 15. On the other hand, the osteogenic genes fib1a, mgp, and op remained stable, but an increase in runx2 expression at day 20 was observed. In summary, the present study demonstrates that gilthead sea bream MSCs, from both adipose tissue and bone, differentiate into adipocyte-like cells, although revealed some kind of species- and cell lineage-specific regulation with regards to gene expression. Present data also provide novel insights into some of the potential key genes controlling adipogenesis in gilthead sea bream that can help to better

  19. Adipogenic gene expression in gilthead sea bream mesenchymal stem cells from different origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salmerón

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, adipogenesis has become an emerging field of study in aquaculture due to the relevance of the adipose tissue in many physiological processes and its connection with the endocrine system. In this sense, recent studies have translated into the establishment of preadipocyte culture models from several fish species, lacking sometimes information on the mRNA levels of adipogenic genes. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the gene expression profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata primary cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from different origin (adipose tissue and vertebra bone during adipogenesis. Both cell types differentiated into adipocyte-like cells accumulating lipids inside their cytoplasm. Adipocyte differentiation of MSCs from adipose tissue resulted in down-regulation of several adipocyte-related genes (such as lpl, hsl, pparα, pparγ and gapdh2 at day 4, gapdh1 at day 8, and fas and pparβ at day 12. In contrast, differences in lxrα mRNA expression were not observed, while g6pdh levels increased during adipocyte maturation. Gapdh and Pparγ protein levels were also detected in preadipocyte cultures; however, only the former increased its expression during adipogenesis. Moreover, differentiation of bone-derived cells into adipocytes also resulted in the down-regulation of several adipocyte gene markers such as fas and g6pdh at day 10 and hsl, pparβ and lxrα at day 15. On the other hand, the osteogenic genes fib1a, mgp and op remained stable, but an increase in runx2 expression at day 20 was observed. In summary, the present study demonstrates that gilthead sea bream MSCs from both adipose tissue and bone differentiate into adipocyte-like cells, although revealed some kind of species- and cell lineage-specific regulation with regards to gene expression. Present data also provide novel insights into some of the potential key genes controlling adipogenesis in gilthead sea bream that can help to

  20. Adipogenic Gene Expression in Gilthead Sea Bream Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Different Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, Cristina; Riera-Heredia, Natàlia; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, adipogenesis has become an emerging field of study in aquaculture due to the relevance of the adipose tissue in many physiological processes and its connection with the endocrine system. In this sense, recent studies have translated into the establishment of preadipocyte culture models from several fish species, sometimes lacking information on the mRNA levels of adipogenic genes. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the gene expression profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) primary cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from different origin (adipose tissue and vertebra bone) during adipogenesis. Both cell types differentiated into adipocyte-like cells, accumulating lipids inside their cytoplasm. Adipocyte differentiation of MSCs from adipose tissue resulted in downregulation of several adipocyte-related genes (such as lpl, hsl, pparα, pparγ and gapdh2) at day 4, gapdh1 at day 8, and fas and pparβ at day 12. In contrast, differences in lxrα mRNA expression were not observed, while g6pdh levels increased during adipocyte maturation. Gapdh and Pparγ protein levels were also detected in preadipocyte cultures; however, only the former increased its expression during adipogenesis. Moreover, differentiation of bone-derived cells into adipocytes also resulted in the downregulation of several adipocyte gene markers, such as fas and g6pdh at day 10 and hsl, pparβ, and lxrα at day 15. On the other hand, the osteogenic genes fib1a, mgp, and op remained stable, but an increase in runx2 expression at day 20 was observed. In summary, the present study demonstrates that gilthead sea bream MSCs, from both adipose tissue and bone, differentiate into adipocyte-like cells, although revealed some kind of species- and cell lineage-specific regulation with regards to gene expression. Present data also provide novel insights into some of the potential key genes controlling adipogenesis in gilthead sea bream that can help to better

  1. ANÁLISIS DE LA SITUACIÓN ECONÓMICA-FINANCIERA DEL SECTOR PRODUCTOR DE LA DORADA (Sparus aurata L.), LUBINA (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Y CORVINA (Argyrosomus regius A.), EN EL LITORAL MEDITERRANEO ESPAÑOL

    OpenAIRE

    BENITO ALAS, FERNANDO

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The state of the Spanish aquaculture Sea bream, Sea bass and Meagre produced in fish farms in the Spanish Mediterranean coast is analyzed setting as objective the analysis of the economical and financial situation of companies in the sector to characterize the successful companies. For this project a study was made during the period from 2002 to 2011, on the period before the economical crisis (2002-2007) and also during the crisis (2007-2011), to interpret the evolution of the compa...

  2. Garlic Bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:One whole bream weighing about750g,100g garlic,3g salt,15g cookingwine,2g pepper,3g MSG,5g sugar,10g soy sauce,5g sesame oil,optionalamount of clear stock,minced scallionand ginger root and 1000g cooking oil(actual consumption only 100g).Method:1.Clean the bream,slit open bothsides,then smear over the soy sauceand soak for a while.2.Heat the wok and add in cookingoil.Put in the bream when the oil is80% hot.Fry the fish until it turnsgolden yellow.Remove.leaving someoil in the wok.3.Stir-fry the scallion and ginger until

  3. 3种滤料生物滤器的挂膜与黑鲷幼鱼循环水养殖效果%Biofilm cultivation with three stuffings and their effect on the growth of young black sea bream, Sparus macrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 曲克明; 朱建新; 王海增; 崔正国; 夏斌

    2012-01-01

    young black sea bream, Sparus macrocephalus. We tested the effect of using microbial water purified agents as a strain for three different kinds of fillers (pottery ring, elastic brush, and biochemical cotton fiber) during biofilm cultivation. The bio-film maturation time for the three fillers was 25, 32, and 28 d, respectively. Our results suggested that maintaining high dissolved oxygen concentrations, changing the water, and adding nutrients and NaCOs promoted the growth and propagation of nitrifying bacteria. Conversely, NO2-N concentrations cannot be held at high levels for an extended period because ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and nitrifying bacteria require dissolved oxygen and alkalinity for survival. Young black sea bream grew well in the simple recirculating aquaculture system. After 40 d feeding, the mean body weight and feed conversion rate of black sea bream in the three experimental groups differed significantly from that in the control group (P95%. The activity of serum LSZ and liver SOD was significantly higher in the experimental groups than the control group (P<0.05). Similarly, the quantity and diversity of digestive tract flora was significantly higher in the experimental groups than the control group. We identified several different kinds of beneficial bacteria in the three experimental groups, relative to the control. Our results suggest that these beneficial bacteria are dominant, and thus inhibited the survival of pathogenic bacteria. During circulation of the water, the beneficial bacteria are able to enter the fish body during respiration and ingestion, thereby enhancing the nonspecific immunity of the fish. Our results suggest that different filter materials have different bio-film maturation times under the same operating conditions. A recirculating aquaculture system can not only improve fish growth, but also enhance their immune performance.

  4. Movements of grey mullet Liza aurata and Chelon labrosus associated with coastal fish farms in the western Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    P. ARECHAVALA-LOPEZ; Uglem, Ingebrigt; Sanchez-Jerez, P.; Fernandez-Jover, D.; Bayle-Sempere, J. T.; Nilsen, Rune

    2010-01-01

    Grey mullet occur in abundance around sea bream and sea bass farms where they forage on waste fish feed, a behaviour that could modify their natural movement pattern and distribution. In this study, we used visual census to record grey mullet aggregations at fish farms in the western Mediterranean Sea. We also mapped the movements of 2 species (Liza aurata and Chelon labrosus) between farms and adjacent coastal fishing areas, using acoustic telemetry. Grey mullet were frequently observed in t...

  5. Untersuchungen zur Qualität von Doraden auf dem deutschen Markt

    OpenAIRE

    Karl, Horst; Meyer, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    Mediterranean fish species and fish species from other southern countries are retailed increasingly on the German market. The fish is stored in ice eviscerated or as whole fish and imported by truck or by airplane. In the present investigation, the freshness, the sensory quality and the microbiological status was determined of gilthead sea breams (Sparus aurata) from farms in Italy and France and from sea breams (Sparus ehrenbergi) of wild captures from Senegal. It is shown, that farmed gilth...

  6. Aquaporin 1a expression in gill, intestine and kidney of the euryhaline silver sea bream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie E Deane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic salinity acclimation, abrupt salinity transfer and cortisol administration on aquaporin 1 (AQP1 expression in gill, intestine and kidney of silver sea bream (Sparus sarba. An AQP1a cDNA was cloned and found to share 83 – 96 % amino acid sequence identity with AQP1 genes from several fish species. Tissue distribution studies of AQP1a mRNA demonstrated that it was expressed in gill, liver, intestine, rectum, kidney, heart, urinary bladder and whole blood. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to measure AQP1a transcript abundance in sea bream that were acclimated to salinity conditions of 0, 6, 12, 33, 50 and 70ppt for 1 month. The abundance of gill AQP1a transcript was highest in sea bream acclimated to 0ppt whereas no differences were found among 0 – 50ppt groups. For intestine, the highest AQP1a transcript amounts were found in sea bream acclimated to 12 and 70ppt whereas the transcript abundance of kidney AQP1a was found to be unchanged amongst the different salinity groups. To investigate the effects of acute salinity alterations on AQP1a expression, sea bream were abruptly transferred from 33ppt to 6ppt. For intestine AQP1a levels were altered at different times, post transfer, but remained unchanged in gill and kidney. To study the effects of cortisol on AQP1a expression, sea bream were administered a single dose of cortisol followed by a 3 day acclimation to either 33ppt or 6ppt. The findings from this experiment demonstrated that cortisol administration resulted in alterations of AQP1a transcript in gill and intestine but not in kidney.

  7. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Tirsgaard, B.; Michaelsen, Thomas Y.;

    2016-01-01

    , the methodology rarely accounts for anaerobic metabolism within the MS. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), this study tested for trade-offs (i) between aerobic and anaerobic components of locomotor performance; and (ii) between the corresponding components...

  8. Influence of dietary carbohydrate level on endocrine status and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in the marine fish Sparus sarba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L Y; Woo, Norman Y S

    2012-04-01

    Silver sea bream, Sparus sarba, were fed two diets of different carbohydrate levels (2 and 20% dextrin) for 4 weeks, and the effects on organ indices, liver composition, serum metabolite and hormone levels and gene expression profile of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in the liver were investigated. By using real-time PCR, mRNA expression levels of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes including glucokinase (GK, glycolysis), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, gluconeogenesis), glycogen synthase (GS, glycogenesis), glycogen phosphorylase (GP, glycogenolysis) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, pentose phosphate pathway) in liver of sea bream have been examined, and it was found that high dietary carbohydrate level increased mRNA level of GK but decreased mRNA levels of G6Pase and GP. However, mRNA levels of GS and G6PDH were not significantly influenced by dietary carbohydrate. Silver sea bream fed high dietary carbohydrate had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), liver glycogen and protein, but there were no significant changes in gonadosomatic index (GSI), serum glucose and protein level, as well as liver lipid and moisture level. Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transcript abundance were assayed by real-time PCR, and it was found that both parameters remained unchanged in fish fed different dietary carbohydrate levels. Serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) were not significantly affected by dietary carbohydrate levels, but lower serum cortisol level was found in fish fed high dietary carbohydrate level. These results suggest that silver sea bream is able to adapt to a diet with high carbohydrate content (up to 20% dextrin), the consumption of which would lead to fundamental re-organization of carbohydrate metabolism resulting in hepatic glycogen deposition.

  9. Daily rhythms of digestive enzyme activity and gene expression in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Sotres, José Antonio; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Yúfera, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    In order to identify daily changes in digestive physiology in developing gilthead seabream larvae, the enzyme activity (trypsin, lipases and α-amylase) and gene expression (trypsinogen-try, chymotrypsinogen-ctrb, bile salt-activated lipase-cel1b, phospholipase A2-pla2 and α-amylase-amy2a) were measured during a 24h cycle in larvae reared under a 12h light/12h dark photoperiod. Larvae were sampled at 10, 18, 30 and 60days post-hatch. In each sampling day, larvae were sampled every 3h during a complete 24h cycle. The enzyme activity and gene expression exhibited a marked dependent behavior to the light/darkness cycle in all tested ages. The patterns of activity and expression of all tested enzymes were compared to the feeding pattern found in the same larvae, which showed a rhythmic feeding pattern with a strong light synchronization. In the four tested ages, the activities of trypsin, and to a lesser extent lipases and amylase, were related to feeding activity. Molecular expression of the pancreatic enzymes tended to increase during the night, probably as an anticipation of the forthcoming ingestion of food that will take place during the next light period. It follows that the enzymatic activities are being regulated at translational and/or post-translational level. The potential variability of enzyme secretion along the whole day is an important factor to take into account in future studies. A particularly striking consequence of the present results is the reliability of studies based in only one daily sample taken at the same hour of the day, as those focused to assess ontogeny of digestive enzymes.

  10. Detection of vanA-containing Enterococcus species in faecal microbiota of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Joana; Andrade, Margarida; Radhouani, Hajer; López, Maria; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patricia; Torres, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium and E. durans isolates with the genotype vanA were detected in 7 of 118 faecal samples (5.9%) of natural gilthead seabream recovered off the coast of Portugal, and one vancomycin-resistant isolate/sample was further characterized. The genes erm(B), tet(L), tet(M), aac(6')-aph(2"), aph(3')-IIIa and/or ant(6)-Ia were identified in most of the 7 vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Sequence types ST273, ST313 and ST76 were detected in three E. faecium isolates and ST6 in two E. faecalis isolates. VanA-containing enterococci are suggested to be disseminated in fish in marine ecosystems close to areas of human activity.

  11. RANCIDITY DEVELOPMENT DURING FROZEN STORAGE OF FILLETS FROM GILTHEAD SEABREAM (Sparus aurata REARED IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Gatta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipid oxidation indices (Free Fatty Acids-FFA, Peroxide Value-PV and Thiobarbituric Acid-TBA were evaluated in frozen fillets from seabream reared in Italy in: land based facilities (recirculation systems, lagoons or net-cages. Statistically significant differences emerged among seabream sources for all indices. Quality loss related to rancidity seemed to have been affected by both storage time and culturing system.

  12. Control de l'expressió del gen de la glucoquinasa en fetge de "Sparus Aurata"

    OpenAIRE

    Egea Liria, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Els peixos carnívors estan adaptats a la utilització d'elevades quantitats de proteïnes. Aquestes són el component essencial de la seva dieta natural. D'altra banda, els peixos carnívors presenten una certa intolerància a la glucosa, ja que tenen una baixa capacitat per aprofitar els carbohidrats de la dieta. Aquesta característica queda reflectida en l'elevada hiperglicèmia postprandial que s'observa en alimentar els peixos carnívors amb dietes d'elevat contingut en carbohidrats. Pel que fa ...

  13. Daily rhythms of digestive enzyme activity and gene expression in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Sotres, José Antonio; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Yúfera, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    In order to identify daily changes in digestive physiology in developing gilthead seabream larvae, the enzyme activity (trypsin, lipases and α-amylase) and gene expression (trypsinogen-try, chymotrypsinogen-ctrb, bile salt-activated lipase-cel1b, phospholipase A2-pla2 and α-amylase-amy2a) were measured during a 24h cycle in larvae reared under a 12h light/12h dark photoperiod. Larvae were sampled at 10, 18, 30 and 60days post-hatch. In each sampling day, larvae were sampled every 3h during a complete 24h cycle. The enzyme activity and gene expression exhibited a marked dependent behavior to the light/darkness cycle in all tested ages. The patterns of activity and expression of all tested enzymes were compared to the feeding pattern found in the same larvae, which showed a rhythmic feeding pattern with a strong light synchronization. In the four tested ages, the activities of trypsin, and to a lesser extent lipases and amylase, were related to feeding activity. Molecular expression of the pancreatic enzymes tended to increase during the night, probably as an anticipation of the forthcoming ingestion of food that will take place during the next light period. It follows that the enzymatic activities are being regulated at translational and/or post-translational level. The potential variability of enzyme secretion along the whole day is an important factor to take into account in future studies. A particularly striking consequence of the present results is the reliability of studies based in only one daily sample taken at the same hour of the day, as those focused to assess ontogeny of digestive enzymes. PMID:26987267

  14. PHYTOPLANKTON ASSEMBLAGES AT FISH FARM IN MASLINOVA BAY (THE ISLAND OF BRAČ)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanda Skejić; Živana Ninčević Gladan; Ivona Marasović

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish phytoplankton composition at the sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fish farm in the middle Adriatic Sea. The investigation was performed from September 2005 to September 2006 at a station located in Maslinova Bay at the island of Brač. Considering the whole research period, diatoms generally prevailed in terms of abundance while dinoflagellates were particularly abundant in June. Number of species of diatoms in comparison to d...

  15. PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION AT THE FISH AND SHELLFISH FARM IN THE KALDONTA BAY (CRES ISLAND)

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Tomec

    2004-01-01

    The Kaldonta Bay is situated at the south–western coast of the Cres island in the Lošinj channel, rather protected from larger influence of general sea water current. In the Bay there are installed 44 floating cages of 5 by 10 m dimensions. The cages are used for the culture of about 70 tons of sea water fish: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), sharp–snouted sparus (Diplodus puntazzo) and dentex (Dentex dentex). Besides some physico–chemical parameters (sea w...

  16. Persistence of duplicated PAC1 receptors in the teleost, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Melody S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Duplicated genes are common in vertebrate genomes. Their persistence is assumed to be either a consequence of gain of novel function (neofunctionalisation or partitioning of the function of the ancestral molecule (sub-functionalisation. Surprisingly few studies have evaluated the extent of such modifications despite the numerous duplicated receptor and ligand genes identified in vertebrate genomes to date. In order to study the importance of function in the maintenance of duplicated genes, sea bream (Sparus auratus PAC1 receptors, sequence homologues of the mammalian receptor specific for PACAP (Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, were studied. These receptors belong to family 2 GPCRs and most of their members are duplicated in teleosts although the reason why both persist in the genome is unknown. Results: Duplicate sea bream PACAP receptor genes (sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, members of family 2 GPCRs, were isolated and share 77% amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR with specific primers for each gene revealed that they have a differential tissue distribution which overlaps with the distribution of the single mammalian receptor. Furthermore, in common with mammals, the teleost genes undergo alternative splicing and a PAC1Ahop1 isoform has been characterised. Duplicated orthologous receptors have also been identified in other teleost genomes and their distribution profile suggests that function may be species specific. Functional analysis of the paralogue sbPAC1s in Cos7 cells revealed that they are strongly stimulated in the presence of mammalian PACAP27 and PACAP38 and far less with VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide. The sbPAC1 receptors are equally stimulated (LOGEC50 values for maximal cAMP production in the presence of PACAP27 (-8.74 ± 0.29 M and -9.15 ± 0.21 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0.05 and PACAP38 (-8.54 ± 0.18 M and -8.92 ± 0.24 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0

  17. Regulation of growth, fatty acid composition and delta 6 desaturase expression by dietary lipids in gilthead seabream larvae (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, M S; Robaina, Lidia; Juárez-Carrillo, Eduardo; Oliva, V; Hernández-Cruz, Carmen María; Afonso, Juan Manuel

    2008-06-01

    The Delta6 and Delta5 desaturases and elongases show only very limited activity in marine fish, and little is known of the possibility of enhancing Delta6 desaturase gene expression in these fish. The use of plant oils in marine fish diets is limited by their lack of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) despite an abundant content of the 18C fatty acid precursor linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids. The objective of the present study was to determine the ability of larval gilthead seabream to utilize vegetable oils and assess the nutritional regulation of Delta6 desaturase gene expression. Seventeen-day-old gilthead seabream larvae were fed during a 17-day period with one of four different microdiets formulated with either sardine fish oil (FO), soybean, rapeseed or linseed oils, respectively, or a fifth diet containing defatted squid meal and linseed oil. Good larval survival and growth, both in terms of total length and body weight, were obtained by feeding the larvae either rapeseed, soybean or linseed oils. The presence of vegetable oils in the diet increased the levels of 20:2n-9 and 20:2n-6, 18:2n-9, 18:3n-6, 20:3n-6 and 20:4n-6, in larvae fed rapeseed and soybean oils in comparison to those fed FO. In addition, a sixfold increase in the relative expression of Delta6 desaturase-like gene was found in larvae fed rapeseed and soybean oils, denoting the nutritional regulation of desaturase activity through its gene expression in this fish species. However, feeding linseed oil did not increase the expression of the Delta6 desaturase gene to such a high extent.

  18. Chemometric data analysis application to Sparus aurata samples from two offshore farming plants along the Apulian (Italy) coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniero, Roberto; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Mangiacotti, Michele; Brizzi, Giulio; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Abate, Vittorio; Cascone, Valeria; Ferri, Fabiola; Iacovella, Nicola; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    The levels of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs), non-dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (NDL-PCBs), and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish collected from two marine offshore farming plants were determined. Each sample was constituted by specimens of the same size collected at the same time in four different seasons along the farming year. The feeds given were of industrial origin and the plants were positioned in two different sites respectively exposed to different environmental characteristics. A chemometric approach was applied to interpret the subtle differences observed in fish body burdens across the three chemical groups taken into consideration. The approach consisted in a stepwise multivariate process including a hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) and a linear discriminant analysis (DA). The two main clusters determined by CA were subjected to the canonical DA, backward and forward selection procedures to select the best discriminative functions. A clear temporal and spatial discrimination was found among the samples. Across the three chemical groups, the monthly separation seemed to depend on the growth process and the main exposure was due to the feed. In addition, the two plants differed significantly from the environmental point of view and the most important discriminating group of chemicals were the NDL-PCBs. The approach resulted really effective in discriminating the subtle differences and in individuating suggestions to improve the quality of culturing conditions.

  19. Metabolic fingerprinting of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata liver to track interactions between dietary factors and seasonal temperature variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomé S. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Farmed gilthead seabream is sometimes affected by a metabolic syndrome, known as the “winter disease”, which has a significant economic impact in the Mediterranean region. It is caused, among other factors, by the thermal variations that occur during colder months and there are signs that an improved nutritional status can mitigate the effects of this thermal stress. For this reason, a trial was undertaken where we assessed the effect of two different diets on gilthead seabream physiology and nutritional state, through metabolic fingerprinting of hepatic tissue. For this trial, four groups of 25 adult gilthead seabream were reared for 8 months, being fed either with a control diet (CTRL, low-cost commercial formulation or with a diet called “Winter Feed” (WF, high-cost improved formulation. Fish were sampled at two time-points (at the end of winter and at the end of spring, with liver tissue being taken for FT-IR spectroscopy. Results have shown that seasonal temperature variations constitute a metabolic challenge for gilthead seabream, with hepatic carbohydrate stores being consumed over the course of the inter-sampling period. Regarding the WF diet, results point towards a positive effect in terms of performance and improved nutritional status. This diet seems to have a mitigating effect on the deleterious impact of thermal shifts, confirming the hypothesis that nutritional factors can affect the capacity of gilthead seabream to cope with seasonal thermal variations and possibly contribute to prevent the onset of “winter disease”.

  20. Studies on metazoan parasites of two marine fish species of interest for aquaculture: Seriola dumerili and Sparus aurata

    OpenAIRE

    Repullés Albelda, Aigües

    2013-01-01

    0.1. Introducción general La acuicultura ha experimentado un importante aumento durante los últimos 50 años, resultado del incremento global de población y la creciente demanda de proteínas de alta calidad. En los últimos 40 años, la proporción de reservas pesqueras moderadamente explotadas ha descendido progresivamente hasta estabilizarse en el 15% y en la actualidad, la mayoría de los stocks pesqueros están sobreexplotados y (FAO, 2010). Más de la mitad de los productos acuáticos provien...

  1. Flow cytometry based techniques to study testicular acidophilic granulocytes from the protandrous fish gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves-Pozo Elena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The gilthead seabream is a protandrous seasonal breeding teleost that is an excellent model for studying the testicular regression process which occurs in both seasonal testicular involution and sex reversion. Little is known about the cell types and the molecular mechanisms involved in such processes, mainly because of the lack of appropriate methods for testis dissociation, and testicular cell isolation, culture and functional characterization. We have previously reported that gilthead seabream acidophilic granulocytes infiltrate the testis at post-spawning stage, settle close to the spermatogonia and accumulate intracellular interleukin-1&bgr;. In this paper, we report several flow cytometry based assays which allow to establish the role played by gilthead seabream testicular acidophilic granulocytes and permits their quantification.

  2. Acute toxicity modeling of rainbow trout and silver sea bream exposed to waterborne metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C M; Lin, M C

    2001-01-01

    Of three proposed acute toxicity models, the uptake-depuration (UD) model, the time-integrated concentration (TIC) model, and the concentration-time (CT) model are derived and verified with acute toxicity data to estimate the internal residues of waterborne metals in fish as a function of a few constants and variables. The main factors are the exposure time, the external exposure concentration, the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the depuration rate constant (k2). The UD model is based on the concept of residue levels at the cell membrane well correlating with the whole-body concentrations, whereas the TIC and the CT models are based on the idea of irreversible inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) governing the metal acute toxicity in that metals in the entire fish or in the aqueous phase can be described by the critical area under the time-concentration curve that is associated with a critical TIC of toxicant in the target tissue. A highly significant correlation (r2 > 0.9) was found between predictions and LC50(t) data for both the TIC and the CT models, indicating successfully describe 4- to 18-d LC50(t) data of arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), and Co/Cu mixture in rainbow trout (Oncorhyuchus mykiss) and of Cu in fingerlings and subadults of silver sea bream (Sparus sarba). The time-dependent lethal internal concentration at the site of action that causes 50% mortality is also predicted for a given compound and species. It concludes that the TIC and the CT models can be applied to regulate the acute toxicity and to estimate incipient LC50 values and internal residues of waterborne metals in fish. PMID:11501285

  3. Organophosphorous residue in Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansoreh Shayeghi; Mehdi Khoobdel; Fatemeh Bagheri; Mohammad Abtahi; Hojjatollah Zeraati

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the amount of azinphos methyl and diazinon residues in two river fishes, Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio, in the north of Iran. Methods: This study was done during 2006-2007. In this survey, 152 water and fish samples from Gorgan and Qarasu rivers, north of Iran, were investigated. Sampling was done in three predetermined stations along each river. Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) were extracted from the fishes and the water of rivers. After extraction, purification and concentration processes, the amount and type of insecticides in water and fish samples were determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Results:There was a significant difference in the residue of the insecticides in the water and fish samples between summer and other seasons in the two rivers. The highest amount of insecticides residue was seen during summer. In both rivers, the amount of diazinon and azinphos methyl residues in the two fishes was more than 2 000 mg/L in summer. There was no significant difference in insecticides residue between the fishes in two rivers. The diazinon residue was higher than the standard limits in both rivers during the spring and the summer, but the residual amount of azinphos methyl was higher than the standard limits only during the summer and only in Qarasu River. Conclusions:It can be concluded that the amount of OPs in the water and the two fishes, Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio, is higher than the permitted levels.

  4. PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION IN FISH FARMS ALONG THE EASTERN ADRIATIC COAST

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Tomec

    2006-01-01

    Investigations of net phytoplankton composition were performed at three fish farms situated at the northern, middle and southern part of the eastern Adriatic Sea coast, respectively. In the northern part investigations were conducted in the Limski kanal, in the middle part at the Ugljan island and in the southern part in the place Drače on the Pelješac peninsula (Figure 1). At all three localities fish culture included mostly two species: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicen...

  5. The effect of alpha-ketoglutarate on a piscine skin model: a molecular and morphological study

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação mest., Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade do Algarve, 2009 Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a key intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle with important functions in glutamate and glutamine metabolism. Its effect after oral administration was studied in adult sea bream Sparus aurata skin and scales in order to evaluate the effect on collagen synthesis. Scales were removed from one side of the body and allowed to regenerate for 14 days; the control group received unt...

  6. Modelling the growth of white seabream (Diplodus sargus) and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in semi-intensive earth production ponds using the Dynamic Energy Budget approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Dalila; Ferreira, Pedro Pousão; Ferreira, Hugo; da Fonseca, Luís Cancela; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Duarte, Pedro

    2013-02-01

    Fish growth models may help understanding the influence of environmental, physiological and husbandry factors on fish production, providing crucial information to maximize the growth rates of cultivated species. The main objectives of this work were to: i) develop and implement an Individual Based Model using a Dynamic Energy Budget (IBM-DEB) approach to simulate the growth of two commercially important Sparidae species in semi-intensive earth ponds, the white seabream which is considered as a potential candidate for Mediterranean aquaculture and the gilthead seabream that has been cultivated since the early 80s; ii) evaluate which model parameters are more likely to affect fish performance, and iii) investigate which parameters might account for growth differences between the cultivated species. The model may be run in two modes: the "state variable" mode, in which an average fish is simulated with a particular parameter set and the "Individual Based Model" (IBM) mode that simulates a population of n fishes, each with its specific parameter set assigned randomly. The IBM mode has the advantage of allowing a quick model calibration and an evaluation of the parameter sets that produce the best fit between predicted and observed fish growth. Results revealed that the model reproduces reasonably well the growth of the two seabreams. Fish performance was mainly affected by parameters related to feed ingestion/assimilation and reserves utilization, suggesting that special attention should be taken in the estimation of these parameters when applying the model to other species. Comparing the DEB parameters set of the two sparids it seems that the white seabream's low growth rates are a result of higher maintenance costs and a lower feed assimilation efficiency. Hence, the development of new feed formulations may be crucial for the success of white seabream production in semi-intensive earth ponds.

  7. Dietary glucose stimulus at larval stage modifies the carbohydrate metabolic pathway in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) juveniles: An in vivo approach using (14)C-starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Filipa; Dias, Jorge; Geurden, Inge; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Panserat, Stephane; Engrola, Sofia

    2016-11-01

    The concept of nutritional programming was investigated in order to enhance the use of dietary carbohydrates in gilthead seabream juveniles. We assessed the long-term effects of high-glucose stimuli, exerted at the larval stage, on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and metabolic utilization and gene expression of seabream juveniles, challenged with a high-carbohydrate intake. During early development, a group of larvae (control, CTRL) were kept under a rich-protein-lipid feeding regime whereas another group (GLU) was subjected to high-glucose stimuli, delivered intermittently over time. At juvenile stage, triplicate groups (IBW: 2.5g) from each fish nutritional background were fed a high-protein (59.4%) low-carbohydrate (2.0%) diet before being subjected to a low-protein (43.0%) high-carbohydrate (33.0%) dietary challenge for 36-days. Fish from both treatments increased by 8-fold their initial body weight, but neither growth rate, feed intake, feed and protein efficiency, nutrient retention (except lipids) nor whole-body composition were affected (P˃0.05) by fish early nutritional history. Nutrient digestibility was also similar among both groups. The metabolic fate of (14)C-starch and (14)C-amino acids tracers was estimated; GLU juveniles showed higher absorption of starch-derived glucose in the gut, suggesting an enhanced digestion of carbohydrates, while amino acid use was not affected. Moreover, glucose was less used for de novo synthesis of hepatic proteins and muscle glycogen from GLU fish (Pjuveniles.

  8. Low salinity acclimation and thyroid hormone metabolizing enzymes in gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaren, P.H.M.; Guzman, J.M.; Reutelingsperger, S.J.; Mancera, J.M.; Flik, G.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of acclimation to low salinity water of gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus), a euryhaline seawater teleost, on the activities of thyroid hormone-metabolizing enzymes in gills, kidney, and liver. Following acclimation to low salinity water, the plasma free thyroxine (T(4)) c

  9. Effects of Starvation in Rock Bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus and Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    OpenAIRE

    Park, In-Seok; Gil, Hyun Woo; Yoo, Gwang Yeol; Oh, Ji Su

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of various dietary conditions on the growth, phenotypic traits, and morphometric dimensions of rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus and on the morphometric dimensions of sectioned olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Rock bream in the fed group increased in body weight, standard length, and condition factor, but these parameters decreased significantly for fish in the starved group (P < 0.05). The head connection dimensions of fish in the fed group decreased, while for...

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF FISHING ON THE AGE STRUCTURE OF BREAM (ABRAMIS BRAMA OF THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Pilipеnko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the dynamics of the age structure of the Lower Dnieper population of bream (Abramis brama under increased pressure fishing is carried out. The data on the dynamics of indicators of the middle-weighted age of bream catches in the last ten years are determined.

  11. A survey on osmoregulatory potential of Bream, Abramis brama (Berg, 1949 fry for restocking management programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Asgari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bream (Abramis brama, Berg, 1949; Family: Cyprinidae is commercially valuable fish in the Caspian Sea fishing industry. Iranian Fisheries Organization annually produces and release up to 19 million Bream fries size for recruiting of this species. Its fries are mostly released into the Anzali wetland with 4 ppt salinity. Meanwhile, they sometimes are released into Sefidrood River (0.5 ppt, Sefidrood River estuary (8 ppt and directly into the Caspian Sea (12 ppt. To determine whether these alternative locations are suitable for release, sixty fingerling size Bream (0.5±0.13 g b.w. were exposed to four salinity levels of these locations i.e. 0.5, 4, 8 and 12 ppt, for 120 hrs. The results displayed that accumulated mortality rate was significantly lower in exposed fish to 4 ppt (PPP

  12. Impact of fish species on levels of lead accumulation in the meat of common bream (Abramis brama L., white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L. and common bleak (Alburnus alburnus L. from the Vistula River (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena STANEK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the concentration of lead in the meat of common bream (Abramis brama L., white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L. and common bleak (Alburnus alburnus L.. The experimental fish were obtained in natural condition from Vistula River, located within Toru., near wastewater treatment plant. The study involved 60 individuals of freshwater fish caught in autumn. Analyses were carried out on 10 individuals of common bream, 20 white bream and 30 individuals of common bleak. The muscles samples for analyses were taken from the large side muscle of fish body above the lateral line. There were chosen for analyses individuals with similar biometric measurements. Due to a relatively low amounts of meat obtained from white bream and common bleak, the material from individuals of similar body length was combined (about 2-3 pieces. Pb concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer Solaar 939 QZ, ATI Unicam. Analyses of variance (test post hoc -Tukey test indicated that the mean value of lead was the highest in the meat of common bream (0.086 ƒĘgEg-1 wet weight and the lowest in the meat of white bream (0.075 ƒĘgEg-1 wet weight. There were no statistical significant differences in the lead content between the analyzed fish species (at p< 0.05. Analysis of correlation indicated a negative and statistical significant correlation between the fish body length and Pb concentration.

  13. Ontogeny of the immune system in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhizhong; He, Tao; Li, Jun; Gao, Tianxiang

    2013-09-01

    Histogenesis of the immune system and specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus from fertilization to 50 days after hatching (DAH). The pronephric tubule primordium developed in the embryo, 14 h 30 min post fertilization. The spleen anlage was observed between the swim bladder and the intestine at 5 DAH, and the thymus was formed as a paired structure under the pharyngeal epithelium above the gill arch at 10 DAH. The order of the immune organs becoming lymphoid was the pronephric kidney (10 DAH), thymus (15 DAH) and spleen (21 DAH). As the embryo developed, the specific activity of SOD gradually increased until hatching, but subsequently SOD activity continuously decreased to a minimum at 14 DAH. After the spleen became lymphoid, the specific activity of SOD was relatively stable. It is suggested that the immaturity of the lymphoid organs and low specific activity of SOD was the cause of the high mortality of fingerlings 12 to 16 DAH.

  14. Comparative study on milt quality features of different finfish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Ballestrazzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the main sperm characteristics of three different finfish species. Twenty-one gilt-  head sea bream (Sparus aurata, 20 brown trout (Salmo trutta, morpha fario and 15 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus  mykiss male broodstocks, farmed under optimal conditions for each species and fed standard diets for broodstocks, were  manually stripped. Brown trout yielded small amounts of sperm (4.5 vs18.13 ml that were very concentrated (≅8.5 x  109 vs 1.24 x 109 Szoa/ml with respect to the other species. The duration of spermatozoan motility for gilthead sea  bream sperm was significantly longer (almost 50 min, in comparison to the one-minute motility of Salmonids. Single  fatty acids of brown trout sperm were higher than in the other two species for almost all detected fatty acids. In partic-  ular, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA was at least three times more concentrated in brown trout than in rainbow trout or gilt-  head sea bream sperm (1238.3 µg/g vs305.6 and 333.3 µg/g, respectively; P   total unsaturated fatty acid classes were significantly higher in brown trout sperm than in the other two species - almost  double with respect to gilthead sea bream sperm and more than double in comparison to RT sperm (P  

  15. Dietary keto-acid feed-back on pituitary activity in gilthead sea bream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarz, Antoni; Costa, Rita; Harrison, Adrian Paul;

    2010-01-01

    The influence of a daily oral dose of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG, 0.1 g/kg body weight), an intermediate metabolite in the Krebs cycle and a dietary additive, on the pituitary proteome of gilthead sea bream was determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). A high-resolution map of the sea...

  16. Genomic characterization, expression analysis, and antimicrobial function of a glyrichin homologue from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Wan, Qiang; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Bathige, S D N K; Lim, Bong-Soo; Jung, Hyung-Bok; Lee, Jehee; Whang, Ilson

    2013-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are important innate effector molecules, playing a vital role in antimicrobial immunity in all species. Glyrichin is a transmembrane protein and an antibacterial peptide, exerting its functions against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, cDNA and a BAC clone harboring the glyrichin gene were identified from rock bream and characterized. Genomic characterization showed that the OfGlyrichin gene exhibited a 3 exon-2 intron structure. OfGlyrichin is a 79-amino-acid protein with a transmembrane domain at (22)GFMMGFAVGMAAGAMFGTFSCLR(44). Pairwise and multiple sequence alignments showed high identity and conservation with mammalian orthologues. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship with fish species. Higher levels of OfGlyrichin transcripts were detected in the liver from healthy rock bream which were induced by immunogens like lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C, rock bream irido virus, Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus iniae. The synthetic peptide (pOf19) showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, E. tarda, and S. iniae. Analysis of the bacterial morphological features after pOf19 peptide treatment showed breakage of the cell membrane, affirming that antibacterial function is accomplished through membrane lysis. The pOf19 peptide also showed antiviral activity against RBIV infection. The high conservation of the genomic structure and protein, together with the antimicrobial roles of OfGlyrichin, provide evidence for the evolutionary existence of this protein playing a vital role in innate immune defense in rock bream.

  17. Influence of fasting on muscle composition and antioxidant defenses of market-size Sparus macrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate fasting effects on flesh composition and antioxidant defenses of market-size Sparus macrocephalus. Two hundred fish (main initial weight 580 g) were divided into two groups (control and fasted) and reared in 6 cages. After two weeks of adaptation, group Ⅰ fasted for 28 d; group Ⅱ was fed normally as a control. In 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 d,6 fish per group were sampled for proximate flesh composition, liver antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde flesh content analyses. In fasted fish, the reduction of lipid content in muscle occurred after day 3, and, compared to controls, the content of protein decreased from day 14, the activities of liver antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) increased from day 3, and flesh malondialdehyde levels increased from day 21. Flesh fat reduction shows that fasting may be used as a technique to reduce flesh lipid content in Sparus macrocephalus. However, considering flesh protein loss and the subsequent oxidative stress, the fasting technique should be used with precautions.

  18. Prevalence of red sea bream iridovirus among organs of Japanese amberjack (Seriola quinqueradiata) exposed to cultured red sea bream iridovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi; Kamaishi, Takashi; Yoshida, Kazunori; Nakajima, Kazuhiro

    2013-09-01

    Red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) is a representative of the genus Megalocytivirus which causes severe disease to aquaculture fish, mainly in Japan and South-east Asia. However, information to assess the viral kinetics of RSIV in fish is limited since reports on experimental infection by the immersion route, which is the natural infection route, are scarce. In this study, a method to evaluate the titre of RSIV was first developed. Experimental infections were continuously performed using RSIV cell culture as the inoculum to juvenile Japanese amberjack (Seriola quinqueradiata) (initial body weight 12.2 g) by immersion at three different concentrations. In addition, to investigate the prevalence of the virus among the organs of experimentally infected fish, viral DNA was measured at selected times by the real-time PCR method following viral inoculation by immersion. The developed titration method showed a 10(2) increase in sensitivity compared with the conventional method. We demonstrated that grunt fin cells can be used for continuous passage of RSIV. In the experimental infection, fish which were intraperitoneally injected with the RSIV cell culture or immersed with RSIV cell culture at 10(-2) and 10(-3) dilutions showed cumulative mortalities of 100 %. The results of measurements of the viral DNA of several organs from infected fish strongly suggest that the spleen is the target organ of RSIV in Japanese amberjack. Since the viral genome was detected from all the tested organs of two of five surviving fish which appeared to completely recover from the disease, it is suggested that these fish may become carriers. PMID:23784444

  19. Elemental mapping inventory of the fish Liza aurata brain: a biomarker of metal pollution vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Rita M; Pereira, Patricia; Raimundo, Joana; Pacheco, Mário; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2015-02-01

    The elemental distributions in optic tectum of brains of wild Liza aurata a teleost fish captured in polluted and reference coastal areas were assessed quantitatively by nuclear microscopy providing insights into brain vulnerability to metal pollution. Elemental maps enabled us to visualize optic tectum layers and identify cellular arrangements. Whereas Cl, K and Ca contents identify meninges, the Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations distinguish the underneath grey matter, white matter and inner cellular layers. Exposed animals showed significantly decreased P concentrations and increased contents of Cu, Zn and Ni in all brain structures. These changes highlight homeostasis modification, altered permeability of the blood-brain barrier and suggest risk for neurological toxicity. Our study initiated for the first time an inventory of physiological measures containing images and elemental compositions of brain regions of fish exposed to different environmental conditions. This will help defining total and local brain vulnerability to metals and pollution levels.

  20. Toxicity of dispersant application: Biomarkers responses in gills of juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Godefroy, Joachim; Théron, Michaël; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2011-10-01

    Dispersant use in nearshore areas is likely to increase the exposure of aquatic organisms to petroleum. To measure the toxicity of this controversial response technique, golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) were exposed to mechanically dispersed oil, chemically dispersed oil, dispersant alone in seawater, water-soluble fraction of oil and to seawater as a control treatment. Several biomarkers were assessed in the gills (enzymatic antioxidant activities, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation) and in the gallbladder (polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites). The significant differences between chemically dispersed oil and water soluble fraction of oil highlight the environmental risk to disperse an oil slick when containment and recovery can be conducted. The lack of significance between chemically and mechanically dispersed oil suggests that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The results of this study are of interest in order to establish dispersant use policies in nearshore areas. PMID:21592637

  1. Induced artificial androgenesis in common tench, Tinca tinca (L., using common carp and common bream eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents artificial induction using tench eggs, Tinca tinca (L., of androgenetic origin. The oocytes taken from common bream, Abramis brama (L. and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. were genetically inactivated using UV irradiation and then inseminated using tench spermatozoa. Androgenetic origin (haploid or diploid embryos was checked using a recessive colour (blond and morphological markers. The percentage of hatched embryos in all experimental groups was much lower than in the control groups. All haploid embryos showed morphological abnormalities, which were recorded as haploid syndrome (stunted body, poorly formed retina, etc.. The optimal dose of UV irradiation of common bream and common carp eggs was 3456 J m–2. At this dose, almost 100% of haploid embryos were produced at a hatching rate of over 6%. Lower UV-ray doses affected abnormal embryo development. The highest yield of tench androgenesis (about 2% was noted when eggs were exposed to thermal shock 30 min after egg activation.

  2. Variability in growth and condition of juvenile common two-banded sea bream (Diplodus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, Patrícia Nunes, 1980-

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Ecologia Marinha). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 The objective of this study was to assess the variability in condition for juvenile common two-banded sea bream Diplodus vulgaris in nursery areas of the main Portuguese estuaries using several individual condition indices. Estuaries and coastal lagoons play an important role for juveniles of marine fish because they offer areas with high availability of food, high water temperature and lower...

  3. E.U. markets for seabass, sea bream: new marketing may help undifferentiated species regain sales.

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Sotorrío, Ladislao; Fernández Polanco, José Manuel; Llorente García, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing European consumption of seafood and the appearance of new products such as Pangasius, sea bream and seabass have become undifferentiated products with slipping sales. To reestablish their position will require processing that allows consumers to more effectively identify the products and differentiate their quality. The differentiation effort must also establish prices sufficient to offset the additional costs of this strategy and stabilize the performance of producers.

  4. FAST Real Time PCR for control of intra-species recycling in aquaculture feed, focused to the most relevant fish species farmed in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espiñeira, Montserrat; Vieites, Juan M

    2016-08-01

    Recent regulations in animal feed composition prohibit intra-species recycling, the recycling of one given animal species to the same species, in order to avoid potential safety risks to human and animal health. These regulations have generated the need of their control in aquaculture by effective and specific analytical techniques. To date, most studies of species identification and detection in feedstuffs are focused on land species, but few studies are focused on species composition in fish feed. The present work describes five methodologies based in Real Time PCR for detection of the most relevant fish species farmed in Europe: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata); sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax); turbot (Scophthalmus maximus); rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss); and salmon (Salmo salar), in order to guarantee the intra-species recycling regulation in aquaculture feedstuffs. PMID:26988512

  5. “AquaTrace” The development of tools for tracing and evaluating the genetic impact of fish from aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Bekkevold, Dorte; Svåsand, Terje;

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture represents a key solution to meet the escalating demand for fish. Accordingly, development of appropriate legislation within the European Union aquaculture sector underpinned by cutting‐edge research and technology is required. This necessitates implementation of breeding programmes...... to identify of the genetic origin of both wild and farmed fish (assignment and genetic traceability), as well as for the detection of interbreeding genetic introgression between farmed and wild stocks. This work will be carried out on three marine fish of economic significance: the European sea bass...... (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). To address quantitative effects of farm introgression, the rationale is to examine links between key fitness and life‐history traits and specific functional genetic variation between wild and farmed fish, using...

  6. Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of IGF-I from Triangular Bream(Megalobrama terminalis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Fu-dan; LIU Hong-yun

    2004-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor Ⅰ(IGF-Ⅰ)gene of triangular bream(Megalobrama terminalis)(GenBank No.AY247412)(Tb)was cloned for the first time from liver by RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequence analysis showed the Tb IGF-Ⅰ cDNA consisted of 486 nucleotides and encoded 117 amino acids including B,C,A,D and E five domains. Analysis of E-domain indicated that cloned Tb IGF-Ⅰ belonged to IGF-Ⅰ Ea-2 subtype. Identity analysis showed the IGF-Ⅰ nucleotide sequence shared 99.8% homology with bluntnose bream,88.8% with grass Carp,85.8% with common carp; the pre-IGF-Ⅰ amine acid sequence shared 99.4% with bluntnose bream,88.8% with grass carp,85.4% homology with common carp. In the Cyprinus Carpio,the higher homology of nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence in IGF-Ⅰshowed that the closer relationship the fishes have. These results could provide basic data for the research on Tb germplasm and the development and utilization of biological feed additives.

  7. Beaufort Region Environmental Assessment and Monitoring program (BREAM). Final report for 1992/1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beaufort Region Environmental Assessment and Monitoring (BREAM) program was established to identify environmental research and monitoring priorities related to future hydrocarbon development activities in the Beaufort Sea and Mackenzie Delta region. The activities occurring during the third year of BREAM focused on major oil spills. Three planning meetings were held: a Project Initiation Meeting and technical meetings of the Community-Based Concerns and Catastrophic Oil Spill Working Groups. The initiation meeting had goals that included identifying specific tasks to be completed by the two Working Groups, discussion of contents and scope of materials being prepared for an oil spill workshop, and determining project schedules. The Community-Based Concerns group focused its work on identifying ecological concerns related to oil spills and their cleanup, identifying community-based ecological issues and concerns, and incorporating local and traditional knowledge into the BREAM program. The group suggested changes to the wording of existing impact hypotheses and oil spill scenarios, and recommended changes in a list of valued ecosystem components. The oil spill group reviewed ecological concerns related to oil spills, and reviewed each oil spill scenario and impact hypothesis selected for an interdisciplinary workshop held in February 1993. The workshop evaluated four of the most important oil spill impact hypotheses (offshore platform blowout, river barge spill of diesel fuel, under-ice spill from a pipeline river crossing, and a pipeline spill affecting mammals). Further research and monitoring related to a number of impact hypotheses was recommended by workshop participants. 57 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs

  8. Status and future perspectives of vaccines for industrialised fin-fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudeseth, Bjørn Erik; Wiulsrød, Rune; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Lindmo, Karine; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Bordevik, Marianne; Steine, Nils; Klevan, Are; Gravningen, Kjersti

    2013-12-01

    Fin fish farming is developing from extensive to intensive high industrial scale production. Production of fish in high-density growth conditions requires effective vaccines in order to control persistent and emerging diseases. Vaccines can also have significant positive impact on the reduced usage of antibiotics. This was demonstrated when vaccines were introduced in Norway for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the late eighties and early nineties, resulting in a rapid decline of antibiotics consumption. The present review will focus on current vaccine applications for farmed industrialized fish species such as Atlantic salmon, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), cod (Gadus morhua), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), great amberjack (Seriola dumerili), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), japanese flounder (Paralichythys olivaceus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), red sea bream (Pagrus major), rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), seven band grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus), striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This paper will review the current use of licensed vaccines in fin fish farming and describe vaccine administration regimes including immersion, oral and injection vaccination. Future trends for inactivated-, live attenuated - and DNA - vaccines will also be discussed.

  9. Status and future perspectives of vaccines for industrialised fin-fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudeseth, Bjørn Erik; Wiulsrød, Rune; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Lindmo, Karine; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Bordevik, Marianne; Steine, Nils; Klevan, Are; Gravningen, Kjersti

    2013-12-01

    Fin fish farming is developing from extensive to intensive high industrial scale production. Production of fish in high-density growth conditions requires effective vaccines in order to control persistent and emerging diseases. Vaccines can also have significant positive impact on the reduced usage of antibiotics. This was demonstrated when vaccines were introduced in Norway for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the late eighties and early nineties, resulting in a rapid decline of antibiotics consumption. The present review will focus on current vaccine applications for farmed industrialized fish species such as Atlantic salmon, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), cod (Gadus morhua), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), great amberjack (Seriola dumerili), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), japanese flounder (Paralichythys olivaceus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), red sea bream (Pagrus major), rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), seven band grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus), striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This paper will review the current use of licensed vaccines in fin fish farming and describe vaccine administration regimes including immersion, oral and injection vaccination. Future trends for inactivated-, live attenuated - and DNA - vaccines will also be discussed. PMID:23769873

  10. Molecular and biometric characterization of natural bream × roach hybrids population in the Dobczyce Reservoir (S Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej K Konopiński

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural hybrids of leuciscine cyprinids were investigated in a medium-sized submontane reservoir (49°52'N, 20°03'E, altitude 270 m in the Carpathian part of the Vistula basin. The material included 380 hybrid specimens (TL: 24.0–39.8 cm, SL: 19.0–31.7 cm, W: 134–714 g collected in 2006–2013. To detect their ancestry, genotypes of the 327 putative hybrids were compared to reference genotypes of 85 roaches, 115 common breams, 18 rudds, and 99 silver breams. Individuals were typed in 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci (Dubut et al. 2009, while species specific amplification of a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was used to detect maternal origin of hybrids (Wyatt et al. 2006. Few individuals with traces of rudd and silver bream ancestry were excluded from the study. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA suggests bias towards bream maternal origin, with only 22 individuals (6,7% with roach mitochondrial DNA. The analyzed set of hybrids was composed mostly of first generation bream × roach hybrids. Only 7 individuals (2,1% showed a sign of backcrossing to bream, however, this finding has to be confirmed by analysis of further loci as it might result from presence of null alleles in roach. F2 generation hybrids were not detected. Biometric investigation of collected specimens comprised of selected morphometric (body height, and lengths of head, trunk, and tail and meristic characters (counts of scales in lateral line and soft rays in anal fin of individuals of different maternal origin. As all the analyzed differences between these categories of specimens appeared insignificant, the investigated population of hybrids may be regarded morphologically uniform.

  11. Efecto de la contaminación de la contaminación por nanopartículas metálicas en larvas de dorada (Sparus aurata). Estudio comparativo con otras especies

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Jesús Rosado Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Actualmente la contaminación por metales pesados y metaloides en medio acuático ha resultado ser uno de los mayores problemas ambientales, a pesar de que suelen encontrarse a niveles traza en el medio ambiente. Durante la última década, se ha investigado la presencia de muchos de estos elementos metálicos en medio acuático y sus efectos en los organismos debido a su alta toxicidad, persistencia y acumulación en los tejidos. Para los organismos vivos la acumulación de metales es tóxica, y por ...

  12. Radiometric analysis of farmed fish (sea bass, gilthead bream, and rainbow trout) from Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, A; López-Pérez, M; Karlsson, L; Hernández, F; Rubio, C; Hernández-Armas, J; Hardisson, A

    2009-09-01

    This study analyzed the content of gamma-emitting radionuclides in fish farmed on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The fish species included in this study were sea bass, gilthead bream, and rainbow trout. The first two species are produced in offshore enclosures, while the third is produced in a freshwater fish farm. All measurements were performed using two high-purity germanium gamma-ray detectors. The content of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the fodder used to feed the different species of farmed fish studied was also determined. The following nuclides were often detected in the analyzed samples: 137Cs, 40K, 235U, 228Ac, 214Bi, 208Tl, 212Pb, and 214Pb. As a complement to this analysis, 210Po concentrations in two fish samples were determined by alpha spectrometry. The nuclide presenting the highest concentration was, as expected, the naturally occurring 40K, with an average concentration of 0.13 +/- 0.01 Bq/g (wet weight) (Bq/gww) in gilthead bream and sea bass and 0.12 +/- 0.01 Bq/gww in rainbow trout. The 235U concentrations determined in the same fish species were 0.6 +/- 0.5, 0.8 +/- 0.7, and 1.6 +/- 1.0 mBq/gww, respectively. This nuclide is seldom reported in fish samples. The concentrations of 137Cs (the only artificial nuclide determined in this study) in gilthead bream and sea bass were 0.026 +/- 0.006 and 0.044 +/- 0.01 mBq/gww, respectively. In addition to the radiometric analysis, the contribution of the analyzed nuclides to the effective dose from the mean daily intake of the fish was calculated. The calculated contribution, in terms of dose per person, produced by intake of the analyzed fish was 0.8 microSv/year. This value does not represent a significant risk to the local population.

  13. Aspects on respiratory physiology of cultured Sea bream, Sparidentex hasta (Valenciennes 1830, Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Zainal

    2016-06-01

    The fish regulatory ability to withstand declining oxygen concentration in the water was limited. A typical steep straight line relationship was found between oxygen consumption rate and oxygen concentration indicating a non regulatory ability and extreme in-tolerance to hypoxia. Therefore, the fish is considered as oxy-conformer, i.e., unable to continue metabolism at anaerobic condition. Correlation between minimum (basic oxygen consumption rate and body weight was of non-linear form. The present study provides comparative data to base on for further prospective related studies on juvenile Sea bream and other fish species.

  14. Effect of dietary taurine and cystine on growth performance of juvenile red sea bream Pagrus major

    OpenAIRE

    Matsunari, Hiroyuki; Furuita, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kim, Shin-Kwon; Sakakura, Yoshitaka; Takeuchi, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary taurine and cystine on growth and body composition of juvenile red sea bream Pagrus major. In Experiment I, a casein-based semi-purified diet included a small amount of fish meal were supplemented with taurine at the levels of 0 (control) and 1.0%. The experimental diets in Experiment II were without fishmeal and supplemented with taurine at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% or cystine at 1.0 and 2.0%. These diets were fed three...

  15. Estrogenic followed by anti-estrogenic effects of PCBs exposure in juvenil fish (Spaurus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, M; Alberghina, D; Bitto, A; Lauriano, E R; Lo Cascio, P

    2010-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is a phospho-lipo-glycoprotein produced by oviparous animals in response to estrogen receptor (ER) binding. The presence of Vtg in juvenile and male fish liver and plasma has been used as biomarker to evaluate levels of environmental contaminants as dioxin and PCBs. Interaction of dioxins and PCBs with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) may affect reproduction by recruitment of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PCB-126, a co-planar PCB prototypical AhR agonist, and of PCB-153, a non-coplanar PCB lacking dioxine-like activity, on Vtg expression in young fish (Spaurus aurata) after a 12 or 24h exposure to PCBs as well as 48h following PCBs removal. Vtg expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and by Western-blot analysis. Our results showed an increased Vtg expression following PCBs administration, with a maximum level after 12h of exposure to either PCB-126, PCB-153 or a mixture of both PCBs. Following this estrogenic activity, an anti-estrogenic activity was detected after 24h of incubation with PCB-126 (alone or mixed with PCB-153), suggested by a decrease in Vtg expression likely through AhR, as a consequence of a hypothetic defence mechanism to endogenous or exogenous ligands.

  16. Toxicity of dispersant application: Biomarkers responses in gills of juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispersant use in nearshore areas is likely to increase the exposure of aquatic organisms to petroleum. To measure the toxicity of this controversial response technique, golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) were exposed to mechanically dispersed oil, chemically dispersed oil, dispersant alone in seawater, water-soluble fraction of oil and to seawater as a control treatment. Several biomarkers were assessed in the gills (enzymatic antioxidant activities, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation) and in the gallbladder (polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites). The significant differences between chemically dispersed oil and water soluble fraction of oil highlight the environmental risk to disperse an oil slick when containment and recovery can be conducted. The lack of significance between chemically and mechanically dispersed oil suggests that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The results of this study are of interest in order to establish dispersant use policies in nearshore areas. - Highlights: → This study simulates and evaluates the toxicity of dispersant use in nearshore area. → Dispersant use toxicity is assessed through biomarkers measurement in a fish species. → Chemical dispersion of an oil slick increases the petroleum toxicity. → Dispersant use does not enhance the toxicity of a mechanically dispersed oil slick. → This work leads to conclusions concerning dispersant use policies in nearshore area. - When the meteorological conditions induce the dispersion of the oil slick (e.g. wave), the application of dispersant does not increase the toxicity of petroleum.

  17. Efecto del 17a-etinilestradiol sobre el sistema inmunitario y reproductor de la dorada (Sparus aurata L.). Caracterización funcional del receptor de estrógenos asociado a proteína G = Effect of 17a-ethinylestradiol on inmune and reproductive system of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Functional characterization of the G protein-couplet estrogen receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Cabas Sánchez, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: 1. Evaluar la capacidad del EE2 de provocar una respuesta estrogénica en vivo en ejemplares macho de dorada 2. Evaluar la capacidad del EE2 de alterar la fisiología y la respuesta inmunitaria local de la gónada 3. Evaluar la habilidad del EE2 de alterar la respuesta inmunitaria sistémica, analizando actividades inmunitarias de leucocitos de riñón cefálico, el perfil de expresión de macrófagos y la capacidad en vivo de responder a un reto inmunológico. 4. Realizar una ...

  18. Effect of artificial regulations of Artemia n-3 HUFA content on growth and survival of black seabream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Ke

    1998-06-01

    The requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black seabream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was tested using Artemia with various levels of n-3 HUFA. Four treatments with Artemia differing in their n-3 HUFA were prepared by feeding them various oil emulsions. The results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influences fish n-3 HUFA levels and are necessary for good growth and survival of black seabream larvae. The proper value of n-3 HUFA level and DHA, EPA level in Artemia should be 4.273% and 0.873% (wet weight) for good growth and survival in black seabream larvae respectively.

  19. The analysis of the pharyngeal-sieve mechanism and the efficiency of food intake in the bream (Abramis brama, Cyprinidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboezem, W.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanism and the selectivity of food intake in bream ( Abramis brama ). It is a compilation of six articles which have been published (or will soon be published) in international journals.In the first chapter, diets and feeding modes in cyprinid fishes are described

  20. Variation in heavy metals concentration in the edible oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, clam Polymesoda erosa and grey mullet Liza aurata from coastline of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gawade, L.; Chari, N.V.H.; Sarma, V.V.; Ingole, B.S.

    , Fe, Ni, Co and Mn showed high accumulation in gills of Mullet Liza aurata which is 10 times higher compared to muscle tissue, where as Pb and Zn were high in Oyster. 85 percent of the metals studied showed high concentration in gills. This study...

  1. Coordinated gene expression during gilthead sea bream skeletogenesis and its disruption by nutritional hypervitaminosis A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambonino-Infante Jose

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A (VA has a key role in vertebrate morphogenesis, determining body patterning and growth through the control of cell proliferation and differentiation processes. VA regulates primary molecular pathways of those processes by the binding of its active metabolite (retinoic acid to two types of specific nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptors (RARs and retinoid X receptors (RXRs, which promote transcription of downstream target genes. This process is well known in most of higher vertebrates; however, scarce information is available regarding fishes. Therefore, in order to gain further knowledge of fish larval development and its disruption by nutritional VA imbalance, the relative expression of some RARs and RXRs, as well as several genes involved in morpho- and skeletogenesis such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARA, PPARB and PPARG; retinol-binding protein (RBP; insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF1 and IGF2, respectively; bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2; transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFB1; and genes encoding different extracellular matrix (ECM proteins such as matrix Gla protein (mgp, osteocalcin (bglap, osteopontin (SPP1, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC and type I collagen α1 chain (COL1A1 have been studied in gilthead sea bream. Results During gilthead sea bream larval development, specific expression profiles for each gene were tightly regulated during fish morphogenesis and correlated with specific morphogenetic events and tissue development. Dietary hypervitaminosis A during early larval development disrupted the normal gene expression profile for genes involved in RA signalling (RARA, VA homeostasis (RBP and several genes encoding ECM proteins that are linked to skeletogenesis, such as bglap and mgp. Conclusions Present data reflects the specific gene expression patterns of several genes involved in larval fish RA signalling and skeletogenesis; and how

  2. Age and Growth Characteristics of Crimson Sea Bream Paragyrops edita Tanaka in Beibu Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Gang; FENG Bo; LU Huosheng; ZHU Junfeng

    2008-01-01

    Age and growth characteristics of crimson sea bream Paragyrops edita Tanaka in Beibu Gulf were studied through bot-tom trawling and gillnet fleets fishing from July 2006 to December 2007.A total number of 1155 individuals,ranging from 49 to 249mmin standard length was examined.The age of the fish was determined from sagittal otoliths.One year growth was made up of onetranslucent and one opaque zone.A maximum likelihood estimation procedure was used to fit the Von Bertalanffy,Logistic andGompertz growth functions to the length-at-age data.ARSS indicated that there were no significant differences in growth betweensexes in the three growth models (P>0.05),and the Von Bertalanffy growth function L=292.8{1-exp[-0.167(t+1.116)]} was se-lected as the most appropriate growth model according to Akaike's information criterion (AIC).

  3. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON CHROMOSOMES OF INDUCED TRIPLOID IN THE RED SEA BREAM, PAGROSOMUS MAJOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Triploidy red sea bream were induced by cold-shock techniques (0-3℃) in Qingdao in April 1994, May 1995 and May 1996. Normal diploidy and triploidy chromosome metaphases were produced by chromosome spreads from the gastrula. Counts of 104 chromosome metaphases of normal diploid showed each of them consisted of 2 acrocentric (st) and 46 telocentric (t) chromosomes. Based on the relative lengths and arm ratios, the 48 chromosomes were matched into 24 pairs. Counts of 107 chromosome metaphases of induced triploid showed that each metaphase consisted of 3 acrocentric (st) and 69 telocentric (t) chromosomes. The 72 chromosomes were easily matched into three sets of chromosomes, based on the relative lengths and arm ratios.

  4. Diel activity and variability in habitat use of white sea bream in a temperate marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Manfredi; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Badalamenti, Fabio; Guidetti, Paolo; Starr, Richard M; Giacalone, Vincenzo Maximiliano; Di Franco, Antonio; D'Anna, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Fish populations are often comprised of individuals that use habitats and associated resources in different ways. We placed sonic transmitters in, and tracked movements of, white sea bream (Diplodus sargus sargus) in the no-take zone of a Mediterranean marine protected area: the Torre Guaceto marine protected area, (Adriatic Sea, Italy). Tagged fish displayed three types of diel activity patterns in three different habitats: sand, rocky reefs and "matte" of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Individuals were more active during the day than at night. Overall, white sea bream displayed a remarkable behavioural plasticity in habitat use. Our results indicate that the observed behavioural plasticity in the marine protected area could be the result of multiple ecological and environmental drivers such as size, sex and increased intra-specific competition. Our findings support the view that habitat diversity helps support high densities of fishes. PMID:26922044

  5. First record of red filament threadfin bream, Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1830) (Perciformes, Nemipteridae),from Chinese waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Ping; WU Renxie; LIU Jing

    2011-01-01

    We collected five specimens of threadfin bream from Beihai,Guangxi,China in March 2010.These were subsequently identified as red filament threadfin bream Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes,1830),being the first record of this species from Chinese waters.N.marginatus is distinguished by the following characteristics:lower border of eye lies above a line from tip of snout to upper base of pectoral fin; mouth oblique,maxillary extending to lower anterior border of pupil; teeth in jaws in several rows,pointed; upper jaw with 3 to 5 pairs of small recurved canines; suborbital with straight lower edge and rounded posterior edge; pectoral fins extending to between level of anus and origin of anal fin; pelvic fins reaching to the first or second anal rays; caudal fm forked,upper lobe tails into a short reddish filament; dorsal fin bluish with a yellow margin distally and a broad yellow median band which subdivides posteriorly into 3 small bands.

  6. Mitochondrial Genome Variation after Hybridization and Differences in the First and Second Generation Hybrids of Bream Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Zhuo; Xiong, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Xiu-Jie; Wan, Shi-Ming; Guan, Ning-Nan; Nie, Chun-Hong; Zhao, Bo-Wen; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Wang, Wei-Min; Gao, Ze-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization plays an important role in fish breeding. Bream fishes contribute a lot to aquaculture in China due to their economically valuable characteristics and the present study included five bream species, Megalobrama amblycephala, Megalobrama skolkovii, Megalobrama pellegrini, Megalobrama terminalis and Parabramis pekinensis. As maternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) involves species specific regulation, we aimed to investigate in which way the inheritance of mitogenome is affected by hybridization in these fish species. With complete mitogenomes of 7 hybrid groups of bream species being firstly reported in the present study, a comparative analysis of 17 mitogenomes was conducted, including representatives of these 5 bream species, 6 first generation hybrids and 6 second generation hybrids. The results showed that these 17 mitogenomes shared the same gene arrangement, and had similar gene size and base composition. According to the phylogenetic analyses, all mitogenomes of the hybrids were consistent with a maternal inheritance. However, a certain number of variable sites were detected in all F1 hybrid groups compared to their female parents, especially in the group of M. terminalis (♀) × M. amblycephala (♂) (MT×MA), with a total of 86 variable sites between MT×MA and its female parent. Among the mitogenomes genes, the protein-coding gene nd5 displayed the highest variability. The number of variation sites was found to be related to phylogenetic relationship of the parents: the closer they are, the lower amount of variation sites their hybrids have. The second generation hybrids showed less mitogenome variation than that of first generation hybrids. The non-synonymous and synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS) were calculated between all the hybrids with their own female parents and the results indicated that most PCGs were under negative selection. PMID:27391325

  7. The testis and ovary transcriptomes of the rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus: A bony fish with a unique neo Y chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus is considerably one of the most economically important marine fish in East Asia and has a unique neo-Y chromosome system that is a good model to study the sex determination and differentiation in fish. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the testis and ovary tissues of rock bream. A total of 40,004,378 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406649 and 53,108,992 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406648 high quality reads were obtained from testis and ovary RNA sequencing, respectively, and 60,421 contigs (with average length of 1301 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 14,036 contigs that show gender-enriched expressional profile with either testis-enriched (237 contigs or ovary-enriched (581 contigs with RPKM >100. There are 237 male- and 582 female-abundant expressed genes that show sex dimorphic expression. We hope that the gonad transcriptome and those gender-enriched transcripts of rock bream can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of teleost gonad tissue and give useful information in fish gonad development.

  8. Taurine and fish development: insights for the aquaculture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture industry is limited by incomplete knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, it is believed that dietary taurine deficiencies may be particularly critical for fish larvae. The reasons include the high taurine levels found during egg and yolk-sac stages of fish, suggesting that taurine may be of pivotal importance for larval development. Moreover, unlike aquaculture feeds, natural preys of fish larvae contain high taurine levels, and dietary taurine supplementation has been shown to increase larval growth in several fish species. This study aimed to further explore the physiological role of taurine during fish development. Firstly, the effect of dietary taurine supplementation was assessed on growth of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae and growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Secondly, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) was characterised by qPCR in sole larvae and juveniles. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not increase sea bream growth. However, dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased sole larval growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid retention. Metamorphosis was also shown to be an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in sole tissues, while evidence for an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine was found in sole at least from juvenile stage. Taken together, our studies showed that the dependence of dietary taurine supplementation differs among fish species and that taurine has a vital role during the ontogenetic development of flatfish, an extremely valuable group targeted for aquaculture production. PMID:23392894

  9. Taurine and fish development: insights for the aquaculture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture industry is limited by incomplete knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, it is believed that dietary taurine deficiencies may be particularly critical for fish larvae. The reasons include the high taurine levels found during egg and yolk-sac stages of fish, suggesting that taurine may be of pivotal importance for larval development. Moreover, unlike aquaculture feeds, natural preys of fish larvae contain high taurine levels, and dietary taurine supplementation has been shown to increase larval growth in several fish species. This study aimed to further explore the physiological role of taurine during fish development. Firstly, the effect of dietary taurine supplementation was assessed on growth of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae and growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Secondly, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) was characterised by qPCR in sole larvae and juveniles. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not increase sea bream growth. However, dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased sole larval growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid retention. Metamorphosis was also shown to be an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in sole tissues, while evidence for an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine was found in sole at least from juvenile stage. Taken together, our studies showed that the dependence of dietary taurine supplementation differs among fish species and that taurine has a vital role during the ontogenetic development of flatfish, an extremely valuable group targeted for aquaculture production.

  10. The impact of an oil spill on organs of bream Abramis brama in the Po River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giari, L; Dezfuli, B S; Lanzoni, M; Castaldelli, G

    2012-03-01

    An oil spill into the River Lambro occurred on 23 February 2010 and reached the Po River the following day. Breams captured here on 1 March 2010, along with a sample from a control site, were examined by light and electron microscopy. The main affected organs were skin and gill with slight or no damage to liver, kidney, and intestine. The gills exhibited lamellar aneurisms, fusion of secondary lamellae, edema with epithelial lifting, mucous cell hypertrophy, and mucus hypersecretion. Significantly higher mucous cell density was observed in the skin of exposed fish. Histochemical staining revealed that acid glycoconjugates were prevalent in epidermal mucous cells in the exposed Abramis brama, whereas neutral and mixed glycoconjugates were dominant in the control fish. Rodlet cells were significantly more abundant in the kidney of exposed fish and showed ultrastructural differences compared to controls. These histopathologic effects were indicators of chemical stress due to exposure to oil. The present study is one of the first which explores the acute effects of this incident and makes part of a few reports focused on freshwater oil spill. PMID:22030380

  11. The impact of an oil spill on organs of bream Abramis brama in the Po River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giari, L; Dezfuli, B S; Lanzoni, M; Castaldelli, G

    2012-03-01

    An oil spill into the River Lambro occurred on 23 February 2010 and reached the Po River the following day. Breams captured here on 1 March 2010, along with a sample from a control site, were examined by light and electron microscopy. The main affected organs were skin and gill with slight or no damage to liver, kidney, and intestine. The gills exhibited lamellar aneurisms, fusion of secondary lamellae, edema with epithelial lifting, mucous cell hypertrophy, and mucus hypersecretion. Significantly higher mucous cell density was observed in the skin of exposed fish. Histochemical staining revealed that acid glycoconjugates were prevalent in epidermal mucous cells in the exposed Abramis brama, whereas neutral and mixed glycoconjugates were dominant in the control fish. Rodlet cells were significantly more abundant in the kidney of exposed fish and showed ultrastructural differences compared to controls. These histopathologic effects were indicators of chemical stress due to exposure to oil. The present study is one of the first which explores the acute effects of this incident and makes part of a few reports focused on freshwater oil spill.

  12. Microsatellite Development for an Endangered Bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Teleostei, Cyprinidae Using 454 Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuogang Peng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Megalobrama pellegrini is an endemic fish species found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. This species has become endangered due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and overfishing. However, the available genetic data for this species is limited. Here, we developed 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the M. pellegrini genome using next-generation sequencing techniques. A total of 257,497 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on 454 GS-FLX titanium platforms and 49,811 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 404 bp; 24,522 (49.2% sequences contained microsatellite repeats. Of the 53 loci screened, 33 were amplified successfully and 26 were polymorphic. The genetic diversity in M. pellegrini was moderate, with an average of 3.08 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. In addition, we tested cross-species amplification for all 33 loci in four additional breams: M. amblycephala, M. skolkovii, M. terminalis, and Sinibrama wui. The cross-species amplification showed a significant high level of transferability (79%–97%, which might be due to their dramatically close genetic relationships. The polymorphic microsatellites developed in the current study will not only contribute to further conservation genetic studies and parentage analyses of this endangered species, but also facilitate future work on the other closely related species.

  13. Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates derived from threadfin bream surimi byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiriyaphan, Chompoonuch; Chitsomboon, Benjamart; Yongsawadigul, Jirawat

    2012-05-01

    Antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates from threadfin bream surimi wastes, including frame, bone and skin (FBS) and refiner discharge (RD), were investigated. FBS and RD were rich in Lys, Glu, Gly, Pro, Asp, Leu, His, Tyr and Phe. FBS was hydrolysed to a greater extent than RD regardless of proteinases tested (Virgibacillus sp. SK33 proteinase, Alcalase, pepsin and trypsin). Pepsin-hydrolysed FBS, at a 5% degree of hydrolysis (DH), showed the highest antioxidant activity based on 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) radical (0.455±0.054mg Trolox equivalents/mg leucine equivalents), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (0.221±0.005mM Trolox equivalents) and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching assays. FBS hydrolysates showed higher antioxidant activity based on chemical assays than their RD counterparts. However, FBS and RD hydrolysates protected HepG2 cells against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage to a similar extent. Therefore, FBS and RD hydrolysates have a potential as antioxidative neutraceutical ingredients. PMID:26434269

  14. Chemical and cellular antioxidative properties of threadfin bream (Nemipterus spp.) surimi byproduct hydrolysates fractionated by ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiriyaphan, Chompoonuch; Xiao, Hang; Decker, Eric A; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2015-01-15

    Protein hydrolysate from frame, bone and skin (FBSH) of threadfin bream was prepared using Virgibacillus sp. SK33 proteinase and fractionated using sequential ultrafiltration membranes with molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO) of 30, 5 and 1 kDa, respectively. Four fractions, namely FBSH-I (>30 kDa), FBSH-II (5-30 kDa), FBSH-III (1-5 kDa), and FBSH-IV (<1 kDa), were obtained. All fractions were rich in Lys, Glu/Gln, Gly, Pro, Ala, Asp/Asn, and Arg. FBSH-III and FBSH-IV showed the highest surface hydrophobicity measured by 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) probe (p<0.05). FBSH-III showed the highest antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effects against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced cytotoxicity of Caco-2 cells. In addition, FBSH-III inhibited lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and intracellular reactive species (ROS) production in a dose-dependent manner. FBSH-III retained antioxidant activity and cytoprotective capacity after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion. These results suggested that FBSH-III might potentially be nutraceutical peptides with antioxidative properties. PMID:25148952

  15. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on lipogenesis and lipolysis in black sea bream, Acanthopagrus schlegeli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Hong; OM Ahamd Daud; YOSHIMATSU Takao; UMINO Testuya; NAKAGAWA Heisuke; FURUHASHI Makoto; SAKAMOTO Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Hatchery-reared juvenile black sea breams are characterized by a low level of highly unsaturated fatty acids in their bodies, as compared with wild fish. To assess the effect of docosahaxaenoic acid (DHA) on lipogenic and lipolysis enzymes, one-year fish were reared on a casein-based purified diet and a DHA fortified diet (1.5% DHA ethyl ester/kg diet) for 60 d, followed with a period of 55 d for starvation. Dietary DHA was effectively incorporated into the fish body. Fortification of DHA depressed activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase as lipogenic enzymes in the hepatopancreas and intraperitoneal fat body. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase as lipolysis enzyme in the hepatopancreas was active in the DHA fortified fish. Starvation after feeding experiment induced increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity in both control and DHA fortified fish and the activity remained higher in the DHA fortified fish, while the monoenes were selectively consumed prior to highly unsaturated fatty acids. These results indicated that dietary DHA depressed lipogenesis and activated lipolysis.

  16. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Thomas Y.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Jensen, Lasse F.; Steffensen, John F.; Pertoldi, Cino; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is predicted to affect the distribution and abundance of aquatic ectotherms owing to increasing constraints on organismal physiology, in particular involving the metabolic scope (MS) available for performance and fitness. The oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis prescribes MS as an overarching benchmark for fitness-related performance and assumes that any anaerobic contribution within the MS is insignificant. The MS is typically derived from respirometry by subtracting standard metabolic rate from the maximal metabolic rate; however, the methodology rarely accounts for anaerobic metabolism within the MS. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), this study tested for trade-offs (i) between aerobic and anaerobic components of locomotor performance; and (ii) between the corresponding components of the MS. Data collection involved measuring oxygen consumption rate at increasing swimming speeds, using the gait transition from steady to unsteady (burst-assisted) swimming to detect the onset of anaerobic metabolism. Results provided evidence of the locomotor performance trade-off, but only in S. aurata. In contrast, both species revealed significant negative correlations between aerobic and anaerobic components of the MS, indicating a trade-off where both components of the MS cannot be optimized simultaneously. Importantly, the fraction of the MS influenced by anaerobic metabolism was on average 24.3 and 26.1% in S. aurata and P. reticulata, respectively. These data highlight the importance of taking anaerobic metabolism into account when assessing effects of environmental variation on the MS, because the fraction where anaerobic metabolism occurs is a poor indicator of sustainable aerobic performance. Our results suggest that without accounting for anaerobic metabolism within the MS, studies involving the OCLTT hypothesis could overestimate the metabolic scope available for

  17. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Thomas Y; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Wilson, Jonathan M; Jensen, Lasse F; Steffensen, John F; Pertoldi, Cino; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is predicted to affect the distribution and abundance of aquatic ectotherms owing to increasing constraints on organismal physiology, in particular involving the metabolic scope (MS) available for performance and fitness. The oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis prescribes MS as an overarching benchmark for fitness-related performance and assumes that any anaerobic contribution within the MS is insignificant. The MS is typically derived from respirometry by subtracting standard metabolic rate from the maximal metabolic rate; however, the methodology rarely accounts for anaerobic metabolism within the MS. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), this study tested for trade-offs (i) between aerobic and anaerobic components of locomotor performance; and (ii) between the corresponding components of the MS. Data collection involved measuring oxygen consumption rate at increasing swimming speeds, using the gait transition from steady to unsteady (burst-assisted) swimming to detect the onset of anaerobic metabolism. Results provided evidence of the locomotor performance trade-off, but only in S. aurata. In contrast, both species revealed significant negative correlations between aerobic and anaerobic components of the MS, indicating a trade-off where both components of the MS cannot be optimized simultaneously. Importantly, the fraction of the MS influenced by anaerobic metabolism was on average 24.3 and 26.1% in S. aurata and P. reticulata, respectively. These data highlight the importance of taking anaerobic metabolism into account when assessing effects of environmental variation on the MS, because the fraction where anaerobic metabolism occurs is a poor indicator of sustainable aerobic performance. Our results suggest that without accounting for anaerobic metabolism within the MS, studies involving the OCLTT hypothesis could overestimate the metabolic scope available for

  18. IGF-I and amino acids effects through TOR signaling on proliferation and differentiation of gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Emilio J; Lutfi, Esmail; Jiménez-Amilburu, Vanesa; Riera-Codina, Miquel; Capilla, Encarnación; Navarro, Isabel; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscle growth and development is controlled by nutritional (amino acids, AA) as well as hormonal factors (insulin-like growth factor, IGF-I); however, how its interaction modulates muscle mass in fish is not clearly elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development of gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes to describe the effects of AA and IGF-I on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) expression, as well as on the transduction pathways involved in its signaling (TOR/AKT). Our results showed that AA and IGF-I separately increased the number of PCNA-positive cells and, together produced a synergistic effect. Furthermore, AA and IGF-I, combined or separately, increased significantly Myogenin protein expression, whereas MyoD was not affected. These results indicate a role for these factors in myocyte proliferation and differentiation. At the mRNA level, AA significantly enhanced PCNA expression, but no effects were observed on the expression of the MRFs or AKT2 and FOXO3 upon treatment. Nonetheless, we demonstrated for the first time in gilthead sea bream that AA significantly increased the gene expression of TOR and its downstream effectors 4EBP1 and 70S6K, with IGF-I having a supporting role on 4EBP1 up-regulation. Moreover, AA and IGF-I also activated TOR and AKT by phosphorylation, respectively, being this activation decreased by specific inhibitors. In summary, the present study demonstrates the importance of TOR signaling on the stimulatory role of AA and IGF-I in gilthead sea bream myogenesis and contributes to better understand the potential regulation of muscle growth and development in fish.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-15 receptor α from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jin-Sol; Shim, Sang Hee; Hwang, Seong Don; Kim, Ju-Won; Park, Dae-Won; Park, Chan-Il

    2013-10-01

    Mammalian interleukin (IL)-15 plays an important role in the activation of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells along with its receptor α (IL-15Rα). To understand the potential roles of IL-15 and IL-15Rα in fish, we identified IL-15 and IL-15Rα cDNA from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and investigated their gene expression profiles after bacterial and viral infection. Coding regions of rock bream (Rb) IL-15 and RbIL-15Rα cDNAs were 534 and 402 bp encoding 177 and 133 amino acid residues, respectively. The sushi domain of IL-15Rα was highly conserved between rock bream and other species. Unlike other IL-15Rαs, RbIL-15Rα does not have a transmembrane region. Gene expression of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα was widely expressed in different tissues of healthy fish, especially immune-related tissues. RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα were highly induced in the kidney and spleen after infection with Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae and red seabream iridovirus. Gene expression patterns of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα were similar in the kidney and spleen after pathogen infection. However, these genes were differentially induced in the liver after pathogen infection. These results suggest that the different responses of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα to pathogen infection may be induced by different tissues or cell types. PMID:23911652

  20. Occurrence and potential transfer of mycotoxins in gilthead sea bream and Atlantic salmon by use of novel alternative feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Beltrán, Eduardo; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Silva, Joana; Karalazos, Vasileios; Hernández, Félix; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2015-06-01

    Plant ingredients and processed animal proteins (PAP) are suitable alternative feedstuffs for fish feeds in aquaculture practice, although their use can introduce contaminants that are not previously associated with marine salmon and gilthead sea bream farming. Mycotoxins are well known natural contaminants in plant feed material, although they also could be present on PAPs after fungi growth during storage. The present study surveyed commercially available plant ingredients (19) and PAP (19) for a wide range of mycotoxins (18) according to the EU regulations. PAP showed only minor levels of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1 and the mycotoxin carry-over from feeds to fillets of farmed Atlantic salmon and gilthead sea bream (two main species of European aquaculture) was performed with plant ingredient based diets. Deoxynivalenol was the most prevalent mycotoxin in wheat, wheat gluten and corn gluten cereals with levels ranging from 17 to 814 and μg kg(-1), followed by fumonisins in corn products (range 11.1-4901 μg kg(-1) for fumonisin B1+B2+B3). Overall mycotoxin levels in fish feeds reflected the feed ingredient composition and the level of contaminant in each feed ingredient. In all cases the studied ingredients and feeds showed levels of mycotoxins below maximum residue limits established by the Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC. Following these guidelines no mycotoxin carry-over was found from feeds to edible fillets of salmonids and a typically marine fish, such as gilthead sea bream. As far we know, this is the first report of mycotoxin surveillance in farmed fish species.

  1. Feeding effect of selenium enriched rotifers on larval growth and development in red sea bream Pagrus major

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee-Jin; Sakakura, Yoshitaka; Maruyama, Isao; Nakamura, Toshio; Takiyama, Kazushi; Fujiki, Haruyuki; Hagiwara, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Feeding trials were conducted to investigate the effect of selenium (Se)-enriched rotifers on growth and development of red sea bream Pagrus major larvae. Fish were reared from fertilized eggs (98% hatch rate) to 20. days post hatch (dph) at 19. °C with two different food sources; non-enriched S-type rotifers (0.0. μg. Se/g D.W., control diet) or Se-enriched rotifers (2.2. μg. Se/g D.W., Se-enriched diet) at 10. rotifers/mL, respectively. On the last day of larviculture, the Se-enriched diet ...

  2. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  3. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Liu

    Full Text Available Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These

  4. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  5. Kudoa unicapsula n. sp. (Myxosporea: Kudoidae) a parasite of the Mediterranean mullets Liza ramada and L. aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurakhno, V M; Ovcharenko, M O; Holzer, A S; Sarabeev, V L; Balbuena, J A

    2007-11-01

    A new multivalvulid myxozoan parasite, Kudoa unicapsula n. sp., is described from the intestinal mesentery, intestine and pyloric caeca of the thin-lipped grey mullet Liza ramada (Risso 1826) and the golden grey mullet L. aurata (Risso, 1810) from the Mediterranean coastal waters of Spain. It is characterized by the presence of elongated, rice corn-like white cysts of 0.47-0.56 x 0.18-0.38 mm, filled with tetracapsulate, slightly asymmetric spores, rectangular in apical view and tear-shaped in lateral view with four polar capsules of considerably different size and slightly unequal spore valves with rounded edges, overlapping each other on the apex of the spore. One large polar capsule includes a polar filament coiled in two to three turns, and the other three polar capsules, which are very small, posses only a rudimental filament. Both light and electron microscopy data showed that this species differs from all previously described Kudoa spp. with unequal polar capsules. The molecular analysis based on 18S and 28S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequence data of K. unicapsula n. sp. indicates a close relationship and thus phylogenetic clustering together with K. trifolia, a myxozoan from the same host and the same geographical location. PMID:17846792

  6. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 genes in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tao; Ji, Wei; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Wei, Kai-Jian; Feng, Ke; Wang, Wei-Min; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 are widespread in fish and extremely important components of the host innate immune system. In this study, full-length cDNAs of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 were cloned and sequenced from blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala. The open reading frames (ORF) of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 genes encode putative peptides of 94 and 92 amino acids, which possess eight and four conserved cysteine residues, respectively. The homologous identities of deduced amino acid sequences show that the LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 of blunt snout bream share considerable similarity with those of grass carp. The mRNA expressions of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 were detectable at different early developmental stages of blunt snout bream and varied with embryonic and larval growth. LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 were expressed in a wide range of adult tissues, with the highest expression levels in the liver and midgut, respectively. Bacterial challenge experiments showed that the levels of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 mRNA expression were up-regulated in the liver, spleen, gill and brain of juvenile blunt snout bream. These results indicate that the LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 may play important roles in early development of embryos and fry, and may contribute to the defense against the pathogenic bacterial invasion. This study will further our understanding of the function of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 and the molecular mechanism of innate immunity in teleosts.

  7. Molecular characterization and gene expression of ferritin in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengming; Zhu, Jian; Ge, Xianping; Zhang, Wxuxiao

    2016-10-01

    Ferritins are conserved iron storage proteins that exist in most living organisms and play an essential role in iron homeostasis. In this study, we reported the identification and analysis of a ferritin middle-chain (M) subunit, MaFerM, from blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala. The full length cDNA of MaFerM contains a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 152 bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 522 bp and a 3'-UTR of 270 bp. The ORF encodes a putative protein of 174 amino acids, which shares extensive sequence identities with the M ferritins of several fish species. In silico analysis identified both the ferroxidase center of mammalian heavy-chain (H) ferritins and the iron nucleation site of mammalian light-chain (L) ferritins in MaFerM. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that MaFerM expression was highest in the liver and lowest in the heart and responded positively to experimental challenges with Aeromonas hydrophila. The exposure of cultured M. amblycephala to treatment with stress inducers (iron and H2O2) significantly up-regulated the expression of MaFerM in a dose-dependent manner. Iron chelation analysis showed that recombinant MaFerM purified from Escherichia coli exhibited apparent iron binding activity. These results suggest that MaFerM is a functional M ferritin and is likely to play a role in iron sequestration and protection against oxidative stress and immune stimulus. PMID:27539708

  8. Induction of gynogenesis in red crucian carp using spermatozoa of blunt snout bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuandong; LIU Yun; TAO Min; LIU Shaojun; ZHANG Chun; DUAN Wei; SHEN Jiamin; WANG Jing; ZENG Chen; LONG Yu

    2007-01-01

    Gynogenetic diploid was induced in red crucian carp (RCC) ( Carassius auratus Red Variety) eggs using UV-irradiated spermatozoa from blunt snout bream (B) (Megalobrama amblycephala ) or from mirror carp (C) (Cyprinus carpio. L). Spermatozoa were genetically inactivated by an appropriate UV dosage, and then the maternal DNA was duplicated with cold shock at 0-4 ℃. When using the spermatozoa of B, the fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival at first feeding were 52.6 ± 3.0 %, 23.6 ± 4.1 % and 15.7 ± 3.4 %, respectively, and the survival at first feeding was significantly higher than that ( 11.3 ± 2.2 % ) when using the spermatozoa of C (Cyprinus carpio. L). According to the morphological characteristics, the chromosome number and the degree of gonadal development, gynogenetic RCC could be distinguished from the control hybrids of RCC♀ × B ♂ . The individuals with red body color, 100 chromosomes and normal gonadal development were successful gynogenetic RCC, while the individuals with 124 or 148 chromosomes and delayed gonadal development were hybrids of (RCC × B). The triploid hybrids (RCC × B) (2 years old) were sterile, but the tetraploid hybrids (RCC × B) were sexually mature age of two. In the present study, compared to the spermatozoa of C, the advantages of spermatozoa of B as the activation source were that could increase the survival at first feeding of gynogenetic individuals and simplify the confirmation of gynogenetic status, which suggested that the spermof B was an effective activation source for inducing gynogenesis in crucian carp.

  9. Dynamics of the content of H2O, Na, K, Ca and Mg in the eggs of bream, Abramis brama L. in natural conditions and under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Martemyanov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the dynamics of H2O, Na, K, Ca and Mg content in the oocytes of bream, Abramis brama observed in prespawning period on breeding ground and in reply to catching, transportation and subsequent remaining of spawners in a cage. Methods: For research on the dynamics of H2O and cations content in the oocytes of bream females, Abramis brama in the course of eggs transition from maturity Stage IV to Stage V, fishes were caught from breeding ground in the coastal zone of the Volga Reach of the Rybinsk reservoir at the Vereteya Station. For studying the influence of stress, the bream (76 individuals were caught from breeding ground by hauling the seine during 15 min. Capture, sorting and transportation for 3 h to the ponds were the stress factors. Samples of oocytes from 6–8 fishes were taken immediately after capturing, then two more were taken during transportation. Later fishes were removed from the cage in certain time intervals. Concentration of Na and K in the dissolved samples of oocytes was measured by the spectrometer (Flapho-4, Carl Zeiss, Iena, Germany and content of Ca and Mg was measured by atomic-absorption spectrometer-1 (the same producer. Results: In natural conditions before spawning in the course of maturation of oocytes from maturity Stage IV to V, H2O content in the ovicells of bream has increased by 3.3% and concentration of Na, K, Ca and Mg has decreased by 24.9%, 38.1%, 56.2% and 65.7%, accordingly. Stress caused by capturing, transportation and the subsequent remaining of bream spawners in a cage did not change parameters of water-salt exchange of the oocytes. Conclusions: In natural conditions before spawning, the maturation of oocytes of bream from maturity Stage IV to V take place. Stress caused by capturing, transportation and the subsequent remaining of bream spawners in a cage prevents the transition of eggs from maturity Stage IV to V. It is suggested that in order to develop optimal technique

  10. Dynamics of the content of H2O, Na, K, Ca and Mg in the eggs of bream,Abramis brama L. in natural conditions and under stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Martemyanov

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the dynamics of H2O, Na, K, Ca and Mg content in the oocytes of bream, Abramis brama observed in prespawning period on breeding ground and in reply to catching, transportation and subsequent remaining of spawners in a cage. Methods: For research on the dynamics of H2O and cations content in the oocytes of bream females,Abramis brama in the course of eggs transition from maturity Stage IV to Stage V, fishes were caught from breeding ground in the coastal zone of the Volga Reach of the Rybinsk reservoir at the Vereteya Station. For studying the influence of stress, the bream (76 individuals) were caught from breeding ground by hauling the seine during 15 min. Capture, sorting and transportation for 3 h to the ponds were the stress factors. Samples of oocytes from 6–8 fishes were taken immediately after capturing, then two more were taken during transportation. Later fishes were removed from the cage in certain time intervals. Concentration of Na and K in the dissolved samples of oocytes was measured by the spectrometer (Flapho-4, Carl Zeiss, Iena, Germany) and content of Ca and Mg was measured by atomic-absorption spectrometer-1 (the same producer). Results: In natural conditions before spawning in the course of maturation of oocytes from maturity Stage IV to V, H2O content in the ovicells of bream has increased by 3.3% and concentration of Na, K, Ca and Mg has decreased by 24.9%, 38.1%, 56.2% and 65.7%, accordingly. Stress caused by capturing, transportation and the subsequent remaining of bream spawners in a cage did not change parameters of water-salt exchange of the oocytes. Conclusions: In natural conditions before spawning, the maturation of oocytes of bream from maturity Stage IV to V take place. Stress caused by capturing, transportation and the subsequent remaining of bream spawners in a cage prevents the transition of eggs from maturity Stage IV to V. It is suggested that in order to develop optimal technique stimulating oocytes

  11. A New Chiroptera Record in Guangxi,China:Murina aurata%广西翼手目一新纪录——金管鼻蝠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李友邦; Neil M.Furey; 韦龙韬

    2010-01-01

    2009年11月,在广西西北部木论国家级自然保护区小洞丹洞穴中采到一翼手目标本,经鉴定为金管鼻蝠Murina aurata,是广西翼手目新纪录.目前,在木论自然保护区的18个洞穴调查中,只在该洞发现有分布.标本现保存于广西师范大学生物多样性标本馆.

  12. Pea protein concentrate in diets for sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo): effects on growth and health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales-Mérida, Silvia; Tomás-Vidal, Ana; Moñino-López, Andrés; Jover-Cerdá, Miguel; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Four diets for sharpsnout sea bream juveniles (14 g body weight) with four levels of air-processed pea protein concentrate (PPC) (0, 160, 320 and 487 g/kg diet) were tested in triplicate. The experimental diets were isonitrogenous (43% crude protein) and isolipidic (19% ether extract) and the fish were fed to satiation twice a day. After 125 d, fish growth was diminished by the inclusion of PPC. Feed conversion did not show significant differences in any treatment. Neither the body analyses nor the protein and individual essential amino acid retention efficiencies were affected by the inclusion of PPC in the diet. However, histological gut examinations revealed noticeable differences. Fish fed the diet with the highest inclusion level of PPC presented the longest villous length and the most goblet cells, and the width of the lamina propria increased in the anterior intestine. Although no negative changes in nutritive parameters were detected, these alterations might affect nutrient transport, with negative consequences for fish growth. It was concluded that the PPC in the amounts tested here is an inappropriate substitute for fishmeal in diets for sharpsnout sea bream juveniles. PMID:27666681

  13. Prebiotics effect on immune and hepatic oxidative status and gut morphology of white sea bream (Diplodus sargus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Inês; Couto, Ana; Machado, Marina; Castro, Carolina; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Enes, Paula

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS), xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on immune and hepatic oxidative status, and gut morphology of white sea bream juveniles. Four diets were formulated: a control diet with fish meal (FM) and plant feedstuffs (PF) (30FM:70PF) and three test diets similar to the control but supplemented with 1% of scFOS, XOS or GOS. Dietary prebiotic incorporation did not affect total blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood indices or differential white blood cell counts. Fish fed GOS had lower ACH50 and nitric oxide than fish fed control diet. XOS enhanced immune status through the increase in alternative complement pathway (ACH50), lysozyme and total immunoglobulin. The higher activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in fish fed FOS compared to the other dietary groups was the only related antioxidant enzyme affected by prebiotics in the liver. GOS ameliorated the precocious adverse effects of PF based diet on gut histomorphology, as denoted by the lower incidence of histological alterations in fish fed GOS for 15 days. In conclusion, XOS and GOS at 1% might have potential to be used as prebiotics in white sea bream juveniles. PMID:26802896

  14. Adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs in eight species of adult and developing teleosts: morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi Milano, E; Basari, F; Chimenti, C

    1997-12-01

    Morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry of the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs (adrenal glands) of the following developing and adult teleosts were examined: Salmoniformes-Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo trutta fario (brown trout), Coregonus lavaretus (white fish); Cyprinodontiformes-Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish). Perciformes-Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass), Sparus aurata (sea bream), Diplodus sargus (white bream), Oblada melanura (saddled bream). The anatomical relationships of the gland with the renal system and venous vessels were also noted. In adults of all species steroidogenic and catecholaminergic chromaffin cells were found in the head kidney, which is pronephric in origin and subsequently transformed into a hematopoietic lymphatic organ. In Perciformes, chromaffin cells are distributed around the anterior and posterior cardinal veins and ducts of Cuvier; in Salmoniformes, around the posterior cardinal veins and in the hematopoietic tissue; and in G. affinis, around the ducts of Cuvier and posterior cardinal veins, while a few are visible also around the sinus venosus. In Perciformes and Salmoniformes, numerous chromaffin cells are also present in the posterior kidney, derived from the opisthonephros, in contact with the caudal vein. Steroidogenic cells are always confined to the head kidney. During development chromaffin and steroidogenic cells appear early after hatching in the pronephric kidney, at the level of the ducts of Cuvier and of the cephalic part of the posterior cardinal veins. Later, chromaffin cells in Perciformes reach the anterior cardinal veins, and subsequently, in both Perciformes and Salmoniformes, they reach the developing posterior kidney. Their localization along the posterior kidney is still in progress about 4 months after hatching and is completed about a year after hatching. These findings support the concept that the structure of the adrenal gland in teleosts is intermediate between that of the

  15. Genetic diversity of and differentiation among five populations of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala revealed by SRAP markers: implications for conservation and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ji

    Full Text Available The blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala is an important freshwater aquaculture fish throughout China. Because of widespread introductions of this species to many regions, the genetic diversity of wild and natural populations is now threatened. In the present study, SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers were used to assess genetic diversity of blunt snout bream. Three natural populations (Liangzi Lake, Poyang Lake and Yuni Lake, one cultured population (Nanxian and one genetic strain ('Pujiang No. 1' of blunt snout bream were screened with 88 SRAP primer combinations, of which 13 primer pairs produced stable and reproducible amplification patterns. In total, 172 bands were produced, of which 132 bands were polymorphic. Nei's gene diversity (h and Shannon's information index (I values provided evidence of differences in genetic diversity among the five populations (Poyang Lake>Liangzi Lake>Nanxian>'Pujiang No. 1'>Yuni Lake. Based on cluster analysis conducted on genetic distance values, the five blunt snout bream populations were divided into three groups, Poyang Lake and Liangzi Lake (natural populations, Nanxian and 'Pujiang No. 1' (cultured population and genetically selected strain, and Yuni Lake (natural population. Significant genetic differentiation was found among the five populations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, with more genetic divergence existing among populations (55.49%, than within populations (44.51%. This molecular marker technique is a simple and efficient method to quantify genetic diversity within and among fish populations, and is employed here to help manage and conserve germplasm variability of blunt snout bream and to support the ongoing selective breeding programme for this fish.

  16. Effects of α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation in preslaughter diet on antioxidant enzyme activities and fillet quality of commercial-size Sparus macrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities and fillet quality in commercial-size Sparus macrocephalus. Three hundred fish [main initial weight (350±12) g] were divided into three groups (E250, E500 and E1000) and reared in 9 cages. The fish were fed for 8 weeks with three diets containing different levels of dietary α-tocopheryl acetate (289, 553, 1069 mg/kg). Over the experimental period, fish were fed to satiation and reached a final mean weight of (465±28) g without significant body weight difference and proximate composition difference. Fillet α-tocopherol was significantly (P<0.05) different between groups, reaching levels of 14.2, 22.1, 30.9 μg/mg fillet for groups E250,E500 and E1000, respectively. Total serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased significantly (P<0.05) in fish fed the diets high in α-tocopheryl acetate, but serum glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was unaffected. In storage on ice, fillets offish fed the diets high in α-tocopheryl acetate exhibited significantly lower (P<0.05) levels of oxidation. These results suggested that increased dietary α-tocopheryl acetate could increase its flesh deposition, increase the activity of SOD and prevent lipid peroxidation of Sparus macrocephalus fillets in retail storage on ice.

  17. The sub-cellular fate of mercury in the liver of wild mullets (Liza aurata) – Contribution to the understanding of metal-induced cellular toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study is one of the first reports of Hg sub-cellular partitioning in wild fish. • Hg partition in Liza aurata liver differed between reference and contaminated sites. • Levels of Hg in sub-cellular fractions were in line with environmental contamination. • Lysosomes plus microsomes was the main fraction bounding Hg at the contaminated site. • Sub-cellular partitioning of Hg revealed to be a promising indicator of cellular toxicity. - Abstract: Mercury is a recognized harmful pollutant in aquatic systems but still little is known about its sub-cellular partitioning in wild fish. Mercury concentrations in liver homogenate (whole organ load) and in six sub-cellular compartments were determined in wild Liza aurata from two areas – contaminated (LAR) and reference. Water and sediment contamination was also assessed. Fish from LAR displayed higher total mercury (tHg) organ load as well as in sub-cellular compartments than those from the reference area, reflecting environmental differences. However, spatial differences in percentage of tHg were only observed for mitochondria (Mit) and lysosomes plus microsomes (Lys + Mic). At LAR, Lys + Mic exhibited higher levels of tHg than the other fractions. Interestingly, tHg in Mit, granules (Gran) and heat-denaturable proteins was linearly correlated with the whole organ. Low tHg concentrations in heat stable proteins and Gran suggests that accumulated levels might be below the physiological threshold to activate those detoxification fractions

  18. Heavy metal accumulation in Diplodus annularis, Liza aurata, and Solea vulgaris relevant to their concentration in water and sediment from the southwestern Mediterranean (coast of Sfax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Zohra; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn) were measured in the liver, gills, and muscle of Solea vulgaris, Liza aurata, and Diplodus annularis, collected from the south coast of Sfax (Gabes Gulf, southwestern Mediterranean). The concentrations of heavy metals in water exhibited the following decreasing order (expressed in μg l(-1)): Fe > Ni > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd whereas the trend is somewhat different in sediments (mg kg(-1) D.W.) Fe > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd. The levels of heavy metals varied significantly among fish species and tissues. Heavy metal levels were found generally higher in the liver and gills than the muscle in all species. The liver was the target organ for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn accumulation. Nickel and lead, however, exhibited their highest concentrations in the gills. The three studied fishes showed a difference in metals accumulation decreasing in following order S. vulgaris > D. annularis > L. aurata. Solea vulgaris with the highest TFwater, TFsediment, and metal concentrations in tissues would be considered as a potential bio-indicator in the south coast of Sfax for the assessment of environmental pollution status. Comparative studies with Luza zone indicate considerable bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb and Zn) in the various tissues of fish samples of the south coast of Sfax. PMID:27040537

  19. Pronounced population genetic differentiation in the rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongshuang; Li, Jun; Ren, Guijing; Ma, Daoyuan; Wang, Yanfeng; Xiao, ZhiZhong; Xu, Shihong

    2016-05-01

    The population genetic structure of the rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) along the coastal waters of China was estimated based on three mtDNA fragments (D-loop, COI, and Cytb). A total of 112 polymorphic sites were checked, which defined 63 haplotypes. A pattern with high levels of haplotype diversity (hCOI = 0.886 ± 0.034, hCytb = 0.874 ± 0.023) and low levels of nucleotide diversity (лCOI = 0.009 ± 0.005, лCytb = 0.006 ± 0.003) was detected based on the COI and Cytb fragments, and high levels of genetic diversity (hD-loop = 0.995 ± 0.007, лD-loop = 0.021 ± 0.011) were detected from the mtDNA D-loop. The population genetic diversity of O. fasciatus in south China was significantly higher than those of north China. Three genealogical clades were checked in the O. fasciatus populations based on the NJ and MST analyses of mtDNA COI gene sequence, and the genetic distances among the clades ranged from 0.018 to 0.025. Significant population genetic differentiation was also checked based on the Fst (0.331, p = 0.000) and exact p (0.000) test analyses. No significant population differentiations were checked based on mtDNA D-loop and Cytb fragments. Using a variety of phylogenetic methods, coalescent reasoning, and molecular dating interpreted in conjunction with paleoclimatic and physiographic evidences, we inferred that the genetic make-up of extant populations of O. fasciatus was shaped by Pleistocene environmental impacts on the historical demography of this species. Coalescent analyses (neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, and Bayesian skyline analyses) showed that the species along coastline of China has experienced population expansions originated in its most recent history at about 169-175 kya before present. PMID:25427804

  20. Development temperature has persistent effects on muscle growth responses in gilthead sea bream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia de la serrana

    Full Text Available Initially we characterised growth responses to altered nutritional input at the transcriptional and tissue levels in the fast skeletal muscle of juvenile gilthead sea bream. Fish reared at 21-22°C (range were fed a commercial diet at 3% body mass d(-1 (non-satiation feeding, NSF for 4 weeks, fasted for 4d (F and then fed to satiation (SF for 21d. 13 out of 34 genes investigated showed consistent patterns of regulation between nutritional states. Fasting was associated with a 20-fold increase in MAFbx, and a 5-fold increase in Six1 and WASp expression, which returned to NSF levels within 16h of SF. Refeeding to satiation was associated with a rapid (<24 h 12 to 17-fold increase in UNC45, Hsp70 and Hsp90α transcripts coding for molecular chaperones associated with unfolded protein response pathways. The growth factors FGF6 and IGF1 increased 6.0 and 4.5-fold within 16 h and 24 h of refeeding respectively. The average growth in diameter of fast muscle fibres was checked with fasting and significant fibre hypertrophy was only observed after 13d and 21d SF. To investigate developmental plasticity in growth responses we used the same experimental protocol with fish reared at either 17.5-18.5°C (range (LT or 21-22°C (range (HT to metamorphosis and then transferred to 21-22°C. There were persistent effects of development temperature on muscle growth patterns with 20% more fibres of lower average diameter in LT than HT group of similar body size. Altering the nutritional input to the muscle to stimulate growth revealed cryptic changes in the expression of UNC45 and Hsp90α with higher transcript abundance in the LT than HT groups, whereas there were no differences in the expression of MAFbx and Six1. It was concluded that myogenesis and gene expression patterns during growth are not fixed, but can be modified by temperature during the early stages of the life cycle.

  1. Proximate Composition, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Attributes of Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and Emperor Sea Bream (Lethrinus spp. Fillets Sold on Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Nicoleta Boițeanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The variety of seafood on the European market has considerably increased in recent years. This study presents data to the main nutritional values and the sensory properties of two exotic fish species, mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and emperor sea bream (Lethrinus spp., sold on retail market in Germany. Information on the quality of frozen and glazed fillets is still missing, but is important to characterize these products. This also includes details on the substances added to increase the water-binding ability. Aims: The paper aims to assess the quality of exotic fish fillets sold on the German market, through the evaluation of physical and chemical parameters, microbiological quality and sensory attributes. Materials and methods: 10 samples of each fish species were analysed after homogenisation to determine the following parameters:  pH-value (with a pH meter; water (gravimetrically; ash (in  a muffle furnace at 550 °C; salt (NaCl; by auto-titration; fat (by a modified Smedes method; protein (with a LECO TruSpecN based on the principles of the Dumas combustion method; total phosphorus content (photometrically; total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, using the EU reference method; total viable bacteria count (TVC and specific fish spoiling bacteria (SSO (by decimal dilutions method. The sensory assessments were done with cooked and fried fillets by a panel consisting of 6 specialists, using a descriptive method. Results: Lipid, ash and salt contents of mahi-mahi were comparable to the emperor sea bream values. Due to low lipid content, both species can be classified as lean species. The protein amount of emperor sea bream was significantly higher compared to mahi-mahi and many other common fish species. In mahi-mahi samples, slightly higher values of total phosphates content were found. The pH values of emperor sea bream were in a normal range for fresh fish, whereas in mahi-mahi significantly higher values were determined which

  2. GROWTH PROMOTION OF RED SEA BREAM, PAGROSOMUS MAJOR, BY ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF RECOMBINANT EEL AND SALMON GROWTH HORMONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐迎利; 苗宏志; 刘振辉; 邓勇; 兰山; 王尧; 张培军; 徐斌; 麦康森

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant eel GH and yeast containing chinook salmon growth hormone (reGHand rcsGH) were incorporated into gelatin and sodium alginate (reGH-GS and rcsGH-GS) or polymer ma-trix (reGH-HP55) to protect the hormone from proteolytic cleavage in the stomach. The diets containin greGH-GS, rcsGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and free-reGH or uncoated-rcsGH were administered to red sea bream. Feeding of reGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and rcsGH-GS diets resulted in significant increases in body weight and fork length over those of controls. These results strongly suggest that gelatin and sodium algi-nate as well as polymer matrix protected the hormone from proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract to allow the bioactive hormone to enter the circulation and eventually stimulato fish growth.

  3. GROWTH PROMOTION OF RED SEA BREAM, PAGROSOMUS MAJOR, BY ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF RECOMBINANT EEL AND SALMON GROWTH HORMONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant eel GH and yeast containing chinook salmon growth hormone (reGH and rcsGH) were incorporated into gelatin and sodium alginate (reGH-GS and rcsGH-GS) or polymer matrix (reGH-HP55) to protect the hormone from proteolytic cleavage in the stomach. The diets containing reGH-GS, rcsGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and free-reGH or uncoated-rcsGH were administered to red sea bream. Feeding of reGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and rcsGH-GS diets resulted in significant increases in body weight and fork length over those of controls. These results strongly suggest that gelatin and sodium alginate as well as polymer matrix protected the hormone from proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract to allow the bioactive hormone to enter the circulation and eventually stimulate fish growth.

  4. Molecular identification and functional characterisation of the interferon regulatory factor 1 in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Fan-Bin; Liu, Han; Lai, Rui-Fang; Jakovlić, Ivan; Wang, Wen-Bin; Wang, Wei-Min

    2016-07-01

    Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) play a key role in mediating the host response against pathogen infection and other important biological processes. This is the first report of an IRF family member in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. The complete cDNA of M. amblycephala (Ma) IRF1 gene has 1422 nucleotides (nt.), with an open reading frame of 858 nt, encoding a polypeptide of 285 amino acids. The putative MaIRF1 polypeptide shared significant structural homology with known IRF1 homologs: a conserved IRF domain was found at the N-terminal and an IRF association domain 2 at the C-terminal. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MaIRF1 amino acid sequence clustered with other teleost IRF1s, with a grass carp ortholog exhibiting the highest similarity. MaIRF1 mRNA expression patterns were studied using quantitative real-time PCR in healthy fish tissues and after a challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila bacterium. It was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues: the highest in blood, the lowest in muscle. The expression after A. hydrophila challenge was up-regulated in liver, spleen and kidney, but down-regulated in intestine and gills. At the protein level, similar expression patterns were observed in liver and gills. Patterns differed in intestine (up-regulation), spleen (down-regulation) and kidney (expression mostly unchanged). This study indicates that MaIRF1 gene plays an important role in the blunt snout bream immune system, hence providing an important base for further studies. PMID:27150048

  5. Metabolic responses to dietary protein/carbohydrate ratios in zebra sea bream (Diplodus cervinus, Lowe, 1838) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Filipe; Peres, Helena; Castro, Carolina; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Enes, Paula

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of diets with different protein to carbohydrate ratios (P:C) on the omnivorous zebra sea bream (Diplodus cervinus) juveniles growth performance, feed efficiency, N excretion and metabolic response of intermediary metabolism enzymes. Four isoenergetic and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain increasing protein levels (25, 35, 45 and 55%) at the expense of carbohydrates (43, 32, 21 and 9%): diets P25C43, P35C32, P45C21 and P55C9. Growth performance, feed efficiency (FE), N intake [(g kg(-1) average body weight (ABW) day(-1))], N retention (g kg(-1) ABW day(-1)) and energy retention (kJ kg(-1) ABW day(-1)) increased with the increase of P:C ratio. The best growth performance and FE were achieved with diet P45C21. Ammonia excretion (mg NH4–N kg(-1) ABW day(-1)) increased as dietary protein level increased. Alanine aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities increased with the increase of dietary P:C ratio. The opposite was observed for malic enzyme activity. Aspartate aminotransferase, hexokinase, glucokinase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase and fatty acid synthetase activities were unaffected by dietary treatments. Response of key amino acid catabolic enzymes and N excretion levels to dietary P:C ratio supports the metabolic adaptability of this species to dietary protein inclusion levels. Overall, zebra sea bream seems capable of better utilize dietary protein rather than dietary carbohydrates as energy source which may be an obstacle for using more economically diets and thus for reducing environmental N loads in semi-intensive aquaculture of this species. PMID:26480835

  6. Complement factor D homolog involved in the alternative complement pathway of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Molecular and functional characterization and immune responsive mRNA expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godahewa, G I; Perera, N C N; Bathige, S D N K; Nam, Bo-Hye; Noh, Jae Koo; Lee, Jehee

    2016-08-01

    The complement system serves conventional role in the innate defense against common invading pathogens. Complement factor D (CfD) is vital to alternative complement pathway activation in cleaving complement factor B. This catalytic reaction forms the alternative C3 convertase that is crucial for complement-mediated pathogenesis. In this study, rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) CfD (OfCfD) was characterized and OfCfD mRNA expression was investigated. OfCfD encodes 277 amino acids (aa) for a 30-kDa polypeptide. A domain analysis of the deduced OfCfD aa sequence showed a single serine protease trypsin superfamily domain, a serine active region, three active sites, and three substrate-binding sites. Pairwise sequence comparisons indicated that OfCfD has the highest identity (84.5%) with Oreochromis niloticus CfD. The phylogenetic tree revealed a common ancestral origin of CfD members, with fish CfD distinct from other vertebrate orthologs. The structural arrangement of the OfCfD gene (2451 bp) contained five exons interrupted by four introns. A spatial transcriptional analysis indicated that OfCfD transcripts constitutively expressed in all of the examined rock bream tissues, and that they were highest in the spleen and liver. In addition, OfCfD transcripts were immunologically upregulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (12 h p.i.), Streptococcus iniae (12 h p.i.), rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) (6-12 h p.i.), and poly I:C (6 h p.i.) in spleen tissue. OfCfD is a trypsin protease and its recombinant protein showed strong protease activity similar to that of trypsin, indicating its catalytic function in the alternative pathway. Together, our findings suggest that OfCfD might be involved in immune responses in rock bream. PMID:27311435

  7. Bioremediation using Gracilaria chouae co-cultured with Sparus macrocephalus to manage the nitrogen and phosphorous balance in an IMTA system in Xiangshan Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hailong; Huo, Yuanzi; Han, Fang; Liu, Yuanyuan; He, Peimin

    2015-02-15

    A cage experiment using the red alga Gracilaria chouae co-cultured with the black seabream Sparus macrocephalus in Xiangshan Bay, China was conducted to measure the nutrient flux of the integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) system. Results showed that trash fish were the main nutrient input contributor and adult fish were the main nutrient output contributor in the system. Contents of N and P in adult fish accounted for 54.45% and 59.48% of N and P in trash fish and fry, which suggests that 45.55% of N and 40.52% of P generated by fish farming were released into to the water. G. chouae proved to be an efficient bioremediation species in this IMTA system. To balance the excess nutrients generated by the system, 231.09 kg of seedlings should be cultured and 5315.07 kg of adult seaweed should be harvested.

  8. Attractive effect of acoustic taming on Sparus macrocephalus in a cage%网箱中黑鲷音响驯化的诱集效果探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德慧; 刘洪生; 胡庆松; 王伟定; 章守宇

    2012-01-01

    音响驯化作为鱼类行为控制技术之一,对海洋牧场内的鱼种行为控制有明显的作用。在驯化声源中,目标鱼种栖息海域背景噪声有望具有更佳的驯化效果。为此,在天然水域的网箱中采用录制的黑鲷栖息地背景噪声对黑鲷(Sparus macrocephalus)进行了音响驯化。由现场观察及数据分析,自然海域声音配合投饵能对黑鲷产生较好的集聚效果。黑鲷幼苗音响驯化一般经历3个过程,即环境适应,对饵料的需求达到一定量,建立声音与摄食之间的条件反射;黑鲷能识别声音,并维持一定的记忆时间。实验结果表明,采用海域背景噪声的音响驯化,配合投饵是一种有效的手段,并可以使黑鲷对声音的短期记忆转化为长期记忆。研究亮点:目前国内音响驯化研究环境主要停留在室内水槽中,自然水域网箱中的音响驯化国内未见报道。并且尝试将黑鲷放流海域的水下背景噪声作为驯化声源,探究鱼群诱集效果。另外将Atkinson-Shiffrin记忆理论运用到鱼类音响驯化领域中,探讨了定时声音刺激对黑鲷的行为反馈以及记忆变化的影响。%Fish acoustic taming, as one of the technology in the control of fish behavior, have good promotion in fish control in sea ranching. Among the sound sources, habitat waters background sound of target fishbased acoustic taming intends to involve better taming effect. To verify this, habitat waters' background sound of Sparus macrocephalus is utilized to conduct the acoustic taming in a cage. The results based on the analysis of data and participant experiment observation showed excellent aggregation effect. Acoustic taming on juvenile Sparus macrocephalus needs three stages : acclimatization ; impulsion of demanding food ( outside sign is that fish reaches certain length and weight) ; building conditioned reflex between sound and bait. Sparus macrocephalus can identify different sounds and

  9. Bioremediation using Gracilaria chouae co-cultured with Sparus macrocephalus to manage the nitrogen and phosphorous balance in an IMTA system in Xiangshan Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hailong; Huo, Yuanzi; Han, Fang; Liu, Yuanyuan; He, Peimin

    2015-02-15

    A cage experiment using the red alga Gracilaria chouae co-cultured with the black seabream Sparus macrocephalus in Xiangshan Bay, China was conducted to measure the nutrient flux of the integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) system. Results showed that trash fish were the main nutrient input contributor and adult fish were the main nutrient output contributor in the system. Contents of N and P in adult fish accounted for 54.45% and 59.48% of N and P in trash fish and fry, which suggests that 45.55% of N and 40.52% of P generated by fish farming were released into to the water. G. chouae proved to be an efficient bioremediation species in this IMTA system. To balance the excess nutrients generated by the system, 231.09 kg of seedlings should be cultured and 5315.07 kg of adult seaweed should be harvested. PMID:25561001

  10. Ocean warming alters cellular metabolism and induces mortality in fish early life stages: A proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, D; Araújo, J E; Vitorino, R; Capelo, J L; Vinagre, C; Diniz, M S

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has pervasive effects on marine ecosystems, altering biodiversity patterns, abundance and distribution of species, biological interactions, phenology, and organisms' physiology, performance and fitness. Fish early life stages have narrow thermal windows and are thus more vulnerable to further changes in water temperature. The aim of this study was to address the sensitivity and underlying molecular changes of larvae of a key fisheries species, the sea bream Sparus aurata, towards ocean warming. Larvae were exposed to three temperatures: 18°C (control), 24°C (warm) and 30°C (heat wave) for seven days. At the end of the assay, i) survival curves were plotted for each temperature treatment and ii) entire larvae were collected for proteomic analysis via 2D gel electrophoresis, image analysis and mass spectrometry. Survival decreased with increasing temperature, with no larvae surviving at 30°C. Therefore, proteomic analysis was only carried out for 18°C and 24°C. Larvae up-regulated protein folding and degradation, cytoskeletal re-organization, transcriptional regulation and the growth hormone while mostly down-regulating cargo transporting and porphyrin metabolism upon exposure to heat stress. No changes were detected in proteins related to energetic metabolism suggesting that larval fish may not have the energetic plasticity needed to sustain cellular protection in the long-term. These results indicate that despite proteome modulation, S. aurata larvae do not seem able to fully acclimate to higher temperatures as shown by the low survival rates. Consequently, elevated temperatures seem to have bottleneck effects during fish early life stages, and future ocean warming can potentially compromise recruitment's success of key fisheries species. PMID:27062348

  11. Comparison of heavy metal concentration of some marine fishes from Black and Aegean Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makedonski Lubomir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Major part of healthy human diet consist of marine fish and seafood products. And it is not surprising that there are numerous studies based on metal accumulation in various fish species. Fish may also be used for heavy metal monitoring programs of marine environments due to their easy sampling, sample preparation and chemical analysis. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, manganese, zinc, iron, chromium, total mercury and total arsenic were determined in edible part of two commercially valuable fish Greek aquaculture species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata purchased from Bulgarian market during 2011. The concentration of metals was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. The concentration of the heavy metals in examined fish species ranged as follow: Pb 0.008 - 0.013; Cd 0.0017 - 0.022; Ni 0.007 - 0.012; Cu 0.054 - 0.115; Mn 0.043 - 0.09; Zn 0.14 - 0.15; Fe 0.17 - 0.19; Cr 0.05 - 0.07; Hg 0.11 - 0.13; As 1.6 - 1.8 mg kg-1 wet weight, respectively.

  12. Culture of marine sponges with potential applications in Aquaculture and Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M F Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the sponges were collected from the sea bottom in the surrounding areas of Peniche (central western coast of Portugal, by scuba diving. They were sealed in plastic zip bags during transportation to the surface and laboratory, to avoid air contact, which they are not able to endure. They were maintained in a closed water circulation system, transplanted into artificial substrates of plastic and fed every two days, with a mixed solution of microalgae Nanochloropsis salina culture and faeces of gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata. As this species is susceptible to the light, half of the tanks of the culture system were protected with a black cloth and the other half were submitted to an acclimation process to this factor, in order for them to be used in aquariophilia. The sponges dimension and weight were assessed. The establishment of an efficient culture strategy will allow to use sponges as ornamental organism, as well as a diet for other interesting commercial species (also potentially as probiotics, or even as source of extracts for different biotechnology fields.

  13. PHYTOPLANKTON ASSEMBLAGES AT FISH FARM IN MASLINOVA BAY (THE ISLAND OF BRAČ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Skejić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish phytoplankton composition at the sea bream (Sparus aurata and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax fish farm in the middle Adriatic Sea. The investigation was performed from September 2005 to September 2006 at a station located in Maslinova Bay at the island of Brač. Considering the whole research period, diatoms generally prevailed in terms of abundance while dinoflagellates were particularly abundant in June. Number of species of diatoms in comparison to dinoflagellates through the investigated period was similar. From 111 species of phytoplankton found, there were 55 species of Bacillariophyceae (diatoms, 47 species of Dinophyta (dinoflagellates, 5 species of Prymnesiophyceae, 3 Chrysophyceae and 1 Euglenophyta. Among the diatoms, the majority of species belonged to genus Chaetoceros. The most represented dinoflagellate genera were Oxytoxum and Gymnodinium. There were no considerable differences in phytoplankton composition with respect to different depths, but seasonal influence was significant. Biodiversity and abundance ranges of phytoplankton species indicated good water conditions and there were no evident alterations induced by the increased release of nutrients.

  14. Applications of self-organizing maps for ecomorphological investigations through early ontogeny of fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Russo

    Full Text Available We propose a new graphical approach to the analysis of multi-temporal morphological and ecological data concerning the life history of fish, which can typically serves models in ecomorphological investigations because they often undergo significant ontogenetic changes. These changes can be very complex and difficult to describe, so that visualization, abstraction and interpretation of the underlying relationships are often impeded. Therefore, classic ecomorphological analyses of covariation between morphology and ecology, performed by means of multivariate techniques, may result in non-exhaustive models. The Self Organizing map (SOM is a new, effective approach for pursuing this aim. In this paper, lateral outlines of larval stages of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus were recorded and broken down using by means of Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA. Gut contents of the same specimens were also collected and analyzed. Then, shape and trophic habits data were examined by SOM, which allows both a powerful visualization of shape changes and an easy comparison with trophic habit data, via their superimposition onto the trained SOM. Thus, the SOM provides a direct visual approach for matching morphological and ecological changes during fish ontogenesis. This method could be used as a tool to extract and investigate relationships between shape and other sinecological or environmental variables, which cannot be taken into account simultaneously using conventional statistical methods.

  15. Caspase-1 and IL-1β processing in a teleost fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I R Reis

    Full Text Available Interleukine-1β (IL-1β is the most studied pro-inflammatory cytokine, playing a central role in the generation of systemic and local responses to infection, injury, and immunological challenges. In mammals, IL-1β is synthesized as an inactive 31 kDa precursor that is cleaved by caspase-1 generating a 17.5 kDa secreted active mature form. The caspase-1 cleavage site strictly conserved in all mammalian IL-1β sequences is absent in IL-1β sequences reported for non-mammalian vertebrates. Recently, fish caspase-1 orthologues have been identified in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream (Sparus aurata but very little is known regarding their processing and activity. In this work it is shown that sea bass caspase-1 auto-processing is similar to that of the human enzyme, resulting in active p24/p10 and p20/p10 heterodimers. Moreover, the presence of alternatively spliced variants of caspase-1 in sea bass is reported. The existence of caspase-1 isoforms in fish and in mammals suggests that they have been evolutionarily maintained and therefore are likely to play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response, as shown for other caspases. Finally, it is shown that sea bass and avian IL-1β are specifically cleaved by caspase-1 at different but phylogenetically conserved aspartates, distinct from the cleavage site of mammalian IL-1β.

  16. Levels of 210Po in some commercial fish species consumed in the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey and the related dose assessment to the coastal population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 210Po were determined in the edible muscle tissue of five species of marine fish: Sardine (Sardine plichardus) and Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), Red mullet (Mullus barbatus), Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and Gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata) collected from five stations in the Aegean Sea Region of Turkey during the fishery season 2010. The 210Po concentrations in the fish samples were found to vary from not detected levels to 389 ± 45 Bq kg−1 dry wt. These variations in 210Po content in different species are probably due to differences in metabolism and feeding patterns. The highest levels for 210Po were observed in Anchovy (E. encrasicolus) species. -- Highlights: ► This study was determined the 210Po levels in the fish. ► Different fish species were collected in the Turkish coast of Aegean Sea. ► Higher 210Po concentrations were found in Anchovy. ► The annual dose from the consumption of the fish samples was calculated. ► The ingestion dose was found in the range 0.041–14.66 μSv y−1

  17. Transcriptional variants of Dmrt1 and expression of four Dmrt genes in the blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lina; Zhou, Fengjuan; Ding, Zhujin; Gao, Zexia; Wen, Jiufu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Qijun; Wang, Weimin; Liu, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Doublesex and Mab3 related transcription factor (DMRT), characterized by a conserved DM domain, function as sex-related transcription factors and also play critical roles in ontogenesis. In this study, 4 Dmrt genes in the blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala, were identified, characterized and their mRNA expression in different adult organs, during embryogenesis and gonadal development in larvae were determined by quantitative real time PCR. There are 4 Dmrt1 isoforms in the M. amblycephala genome, which were expressed highly in the testis and weakly in the ovary. The complete cDNAs of the M. amblycephala Dmrt2a, Dmrt2b and Dmrt3 were predicted to encode 510, 328 and 449 amino acids, respectively. The M. amblycephala Dmrt2a mRNA peaked at 11hpf (hour post fertilizing) during early embryonic stages, while Dmrt2b was highly expressed during late embryonic stages. Both the M. amblycephala Dmrt2a and Dmrt2b were expressed highly in the gill and exhibited a sexually dimorphic expression pattern. The M. amblycephala Dmrt3 was expressed highly in the gill, muscle and brain, at 40dph (day post hatching) during early development and at stage V in the testis during gonadal development. All fish Dmrts except Dmrt5 were found in the M. amblycephala genome. The observed expression patterns of these Dmrts in developing embryos and larvae, as well as different adult organs indicate conserved sexual or extragonadal functions of the Dmrts through evolution. PMID:26188158

  18. A Comprehensive Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns in Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Based on RNA-Seq Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Duan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala is an important fish species for its delicacy and high economic value in China. Codon usage analysis could be helpful to understand its codon biology, mRNA translation and vertebrate evolution. Based on RNA-Seq data for M. amblycephala, high-frequency codons (CUG, AGA, GUG, CAG and GAG, as well as low-frequency ones (NUA and NCG codons were identified. A total of 724 high-frequency codon pairs were observed. Meanwhile, 14 preferred and 199 avoided neighboring codon pairs were also identified, but bias was almost not shown with one or more intervening codons inserted between the same pairs. Codon usage bias in the regions close to start and stop codons indicated apparent heterogeneity, which even occurs in the flanking nucleotide sequence. Codon usage bias (RSCU and SCUO was related to GC3 (GC content of 3rd nucleotide in codon bias. Six GO (Gene ontology categories and the number of methylation targets were influenced by GC3. Codon usage patterns comparison among 23 vertebrates showed species specificities by using GC contents, codon usage and codon context analysis. This work provided new insights into fish biology and new information for breeding projects.

  19. [RAPD fingerprinting of common bream Abramis brama L., roach Rutilus rutilus L., and their F1 hybrids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrisanfova, G G; Ludannyĭ, R I; Slyn'ko, Iu V; Iakovlev, V N; Cemenova, S K

    2004-10-01

    The polymerase chain reaction with arbitrary primers (RAPD-PCR) was used to study and to evaluate the genetic variation in the hybrid progeny of two Cyprinidae species, common bream Abramis brama and roach Rutilus rutilus. Genetic polymorphism was studied in 20 fishes (young of the current year) obtained in four individual crosses: R. rutilus x R. rutilus (RR), A. brama x A. brama (AA), R. rutilus x A. brama (RA), and A. brama x R. rutilus (AR). Amplification spectra obtained with eight primers contained 288 fragments, 97.6% of which proved to be polymorphic. The proportion of polymorphic fragments was 75.0% in the RR progeny, 58.1% in the AA progeny, 84.9% in the AR progeny, and 77.8% in the RA progeny. Classification analysis in the space of principal components was performed with the first four components, which together accounted for 64% of the total variance of the character under study. The individual contributions of components I, II, III, and IV were 26.8, 16.8, 11.5, and 8.9%, respectively. Fishes of the two pure species and the hybrid progeny (direct and reverse hybrids together) were clearly differentiated in the space of principal components I and II. The best differentiation of the four samples (RR, AA, RA, and AR) was observed in the space of principal components II and IV. Possible causes of high genetic variation in interspecific hybrids are discussed. PMID:15575514

  20. Production and characterization of recombinantly derived peptides and antibodies for accurate determinations of somatolactin, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Celis, S Vega-Rubín; Gómez-Requeni, P; Pérez-Sánchez, J

    2004-12-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) growth hormone (GH) was developed and validated. For this purpose, a stable source of GH was produced by means of recombinant DNA technology in a bacteria system. The identity of the purified protein (ion exchange chromatography) was demonstrated by Western blot and a specific GH antiserum was raised in rabbit. In Western blot and RIA system, this antiserum recognized specifically native and recombinant GH, and it did not cross-react with fish prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL). In a similar way, a specific polyclonal antiserum against the now available recombinant European sea bass SL was raised and used in the RIA system to a sensitivity of 0.3 ng/ml (90% of binding of tracer). Further, European sea bass insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was cloned and sequenced, and its high degree of identity with IGF-I peptides of barramundi, tuna, and sparid fish allowed the use of a commercial IGF-I RIA based on barramundi IGF-I antiserum. These assay tools assisted for the first time accurate determinations of SL and GH-IGF-I axis activity in a fish species of the Moronidae family. Data values were compared to those found with gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), which is currently used as a Mediterranean fish model for growth endocrinology studies. As a characteristic feature, the average concentration year round of circulating GH in growing mature males of European sea bass was higher than in gilthead sea bream. By contrast, the average concentration of circulating SL was lower. Concerning to circulating concentration of IGF-I, the measured plasma values for a given growth rate were also lower in European sea bass. These findings are discussed on the basis of a different energy status that might allowed a reduced but more continuous growth in European sea bass. PMID:15560873

  1. Allometric growth in rock bream larvae (Oplegnathus fasciatus Temminck et Schlegel 1844)%条石鲷早期发育阶段的生长模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何滔; 肖志忠; 刘清华; 李军

    2012-01-01

    The rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, a subtropical and carnivorous species, is an economically important marine fish in East Asia. The high commercial and ornamental value makes it a promising aquaculture species in the future. However, to some extent, the lack of information on ontogenetic development has restricted the breeding industry of this species. In this study, the allometric growth in rock bream was analyzed. The results are as follows: at the general condition for fingerling-production, the total length and body weight of rock bream larvae were measured from hatching to 50 days post hatching. The increase of total length and body weight could be estimated with the Cubic function and took on the S-Curve. The curve could be divided into three phases and each phase possessed different growth rate. The head length, head height, trunk height, eye diameter, mouth width, rostrum length, abdomen length, and tail fin length of rock bream were measured and the relationship between them and the total length was analyzed. The result showed the allometric growth in rock bream larvae. By analyzing the inflexion points in growth curves, in combination with morphological development of the larvae, we found that some important organs (head, mouth, eye, digestive tract and fins) had developed prior to other ones. In rearing rock bream larvae, the best environmental condition should be established by making the important organs prior development.%为研究条石鲷在早期发育阶段的生长特性和重要功能器官的异速生长规律,测定了条石鲷仔稚幼鱼(0~50日龄)全长和体质量随日龄的生长变化. 通过统计学方法分析发现,全长、体质量随日龄的变化均符合Cubic函数关系式,其变化曲线呈S型.全长、体质量随日龄的变化可分为3个阶段,不同阶段的全长、体质量生长率具有显著性差异(P<0.05).运用SPSS 13.0和OriginPro 7.5软件分析了条石鲷仔稚幼鱼头长、头高、体高、

  2. Dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-09-01

    Our study explored the dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (AMP-0.1), 0.2% (AMP-0.2), 0.4% (AMP-0.4) and 0.8% (AMP-0.8) purified AMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The results indicated that dietary AMP supplements tended to improve growth performances. One of the best ones was found in diet group AMP-0.2, followed by diet groups AMP-0.1, AMP-0.4 and AMP-0.8. The Apparent digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein and lipid) also improved by AMP supplementation and the significantly highest dry matter digestibility was observed in diet group AMP-0.2. Fish fed diet groups AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 had significantly higher peroxidase and bactericidal activities than fish fed the control diet. Nitro-blue-tetrazolium (NBT) activity was found to be significantly (P  0.05) by dietary supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with AMP supplementation. Moreover, the fish fed AMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P stress resistances. Interestingly, the fish fed diet groups AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 showed the least oxidative stress condition. Finally it is concluded that, dietary AMP supplementation enhanced the growth, digestibility, immune response and stress resistance of red sea bream. The regression analysis revealed that a dietary AMP supplementation between 0.2 and 0.4% supported weight gain and lysozyme activity as a marker of immune functions for red sea bream, which is also inline with the most of the growth and health performance parameters of fish under present experimental conditions. PMID:27514786

  3. Immune responses and stress resistance in red sea bream, Pagrus major, after oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum and vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the interactive benefits of dietary administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) and vitamin C (VC) on the growth, oxidative status and immune response of red sea bream (Pagrus major). A diet without LP and VC supplements was employed as a control diet. Four other test diets with 0 or 1 g LP kg(-1) combined with 0.5 or 1 g VC kg(-1) (2 × 2 factorial design) were fed to red sea bream (2 ± 0.01 g) for 56 days. A significant interaction was found between LP and VC on final body weight (FNW), weight gain (WG), hematocrit (HCT), serum bactericidal (BA) and lysozyme (LZY) activities, mucus LZY and peroxidase (PA) activities, nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT), catalase, mucus secretion and tolerance against low salinity stress test (LT50) (P < 0.05). In addition, FNW, WG, specific growth rate, feed and protein efficiency ratio, serum (BA, LZY, PA and NBT), mucus (LZY and PA), superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde and mucus secretion were significantly affected by either LP or VC (P < 0.05). Furthermore, only LP was a significant factor on survival, plasma total cholesterol, mucus BA and alternative complement pathway (P < 0.05). However, VC supplementation affected on HCT and LT50. Interestingly, fish fed with both LP at 1 g kg(-1) diet with VC at 0.5 or 1 g kg(-1) diet showed higher growth, humoral and mucosal immune responses, anti-oxidative status, mucus secretion and LT50 as well as decreased plasma, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels than the fish fed control diet (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that dietary LP and VC had a significant interaction for red sea bream with the capability of improving growth performance and enhancing stress resistance by immunomodulation. PMID:27095173

  4. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  5. Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala): cDNA cloning, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes responding to fasting and refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Ping, Hai-Chao; Wei, Kai-Jian; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Shi, Ze-Chao; Yang, Rui-Bin; Zou, Gui-Wei; Wang, Wei-Min

    2015-11-01

    Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Yih, 1955) is an endemic freshwater fish in China for which the endocrine mechanism of regulation of feeding has never been examined. Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) play important roles in the regulation of fish feeding. In this study, full-length cDNAs of ghrelin, NPY and CCK were cloned and analyzed from blunt snout bream. Both the ghrelin and NPY genes of blunt snout bream had the same amino acid sequences as grass carp, and CCK also shared considerable similarity with that of grass carp. The three genes were expressed in a wide range of adult tissues, with the highest expression levels of ghrelin in the hindgut, NPY in the hypothalamus and CCK in the pituitary, respectively. Starvation challenge experiments showed that the expression levels of ghrelin and NPY mRNA increased in brain and intestine after starvation, and the expression levels of CCK decreased after starvation. Refeeding could bring the expression levels of the three genes back to the control levels. These results indicated that the feeding behavior of blunt snout bream was regulated by the potential correlative actions of ghrelin, NPY and CCK, which contributed to the defense against starvation. This study will further our understanding of the function of ghrelin, NPY and CCK and the molecular mechanism of feeding regulation in teleosts.

  6. CYTOTOXICITY AND GENOTOXICITY OF POLYETHYLENIMINE AND NICKEL CHLORIDE IN RED SEA BREAM (Pagrosomus major) FIN CELL LINE RSBF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华荣; 张士璀

    2002-01-01

    A continuous marine fish cell line RSBF (i.e. Red Sea Bream Fin) w as utilized to screen the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of polyethylenimine (PEI) and nickel chloride (NiCl2) in this study on the deleterious effects of aquatic genotoxins on fish. At the 0.01 to 1 μg/ml concentration tested, PEI had acute toxicity to the treated RSBF cells (IC50 =1.12, 0.92, 0.88 and 0.64 μg/ml PEI for time 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after treatment, respectively ) and markedly inhibited their proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. At the 0.001 to 5 μ mol/L concentration tested, NiCl2 posed no acute toxicity but significantly stimulated their growt h (107%-214% of control). Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to detect the genotoxic effects of PEI and NiCl2 by comparing the RAPD banding patterns of t he control and treated cells. RAPD analysis indicated that at the concentrations tested, PEI w as more genotoxic than NiCl2 to RSBF cells; that there was a slight dose-dep endent response in the genotoxic effect of PEI but not NiCl2; and that RAPD technique might provide a sensitive, non -specific genotoxic endpoint. And the potent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of PEI on fish cells sho wed that we should be cautious in utilizing it as gene vector in fish gene transfer and human gene therapy.

  7. Regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by dietary carbohydrate levels and lipid sources in gilthead sea bream juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Firmino-Diógenes, Alexandre; Larroquet, Laurence; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-07-01

    The long-term effects on growth performance, body composition, plasma metabolites, liver and intestine glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed in gilthead sea bream juveniles fed diets without carbohydrates (CH-) or carbohydrate-enriched (20 % gelatinised starch, CH+) combined with two lipid sources (fish oil; or vegetable oil (VO)). No differences in growth performance among treatments were observed. Carbohydrate intake was associated with increased hepatic transcripts of glucokinase but not of 6-phosphofructokinase. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was down-regulated by carbohydrate intake, whereas, unexpectedly, glucose 6-phosphatase was up-regulated. Lipogenic enzyme activities (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase) and ∆6 fatty acyl desaturase (FADS2) transcripts were increased in liver of fish fed CH+ diets, supporting an enhanced potential for lipogenesis and long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. Despite the lower hepatic cholesterol content in CH+ groups, no influence on the expression of genes related to cholesterol efflux (ATP-binding cassette G5) and biosynthesis (lanosterol 14 α-demethylase, cytochrome P450 51 cytochrome P450 51 (CYP51A1); 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase) was recorded at the hepatic level. At the intestinal level, however, induction of CYP51A1 transcripts by carbohydrate intake was recorded. Dietary VO led to decreased plasma phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations but not on the transcripts of proteins involved in phospholipid biosynthesis (glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) and cholesterol metabolism at intestinal and hepatic levels. Hepatic and muscular fatty acid profiles reflected that of diets, despite the up-regulation of FADS2 transcripts. Overall, this study demonstrated that dietary carbohydrates mainly affected carbohydrate metabolism, lipogenesis and LC-PUFA biosynthesis, whereas effects of dietary lipid source were mostly related with tissue fatty acid composition

  8. Comprehensive biometric, biochemical and histopathological assessment of nutrient deficiencies in gilthead sea bream fed semi-purified diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Estensoro, Itziar; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2015-09-14

    Seven isoproteic and isolipidic semi-purified diets were formulated to assess specific nutrient deficiencies in sulphur amino acids (SAA), n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC-PUFA), phospholipids (PL), P, minerals (Min) and vitamins (Vit). The control diet (CTRL) contained these essential nutrients in adequate amounts. Each diet was allocated to triplicate groups of juvenile gilthead sea bream fed to satiety over an 11-week feeding trial period. Weight gain of n-3 LC-PUFA, P-Vit and PL-Min-SAA groups was 50, 60-75 and 80-85 % of the CTRL group, respectively. Fat retention was decreased by all nutrient deficiencies except by the Min diet. Strong effects on N retention were found in n-3 LC-PUFA and P fish. Combined anaemia and increased blood respiratory burst were observed in n-3 LC-PUFA fish. Hypoproteinaemia was found in SAA, n-3 LC-PUFA, PL and Vit fish. Derangements of lipid metabolism were also a common disorder, but the lipodystrophic phenotype of P fish was different from that of other groups. Changes in plasma levels of electrolytes (Ca, phosphate), metabolites (creatinine, choline) and enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase) were related to specific nutrient deficiencies in PL, P, Min or Vit fish, whereas changes in circulating levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I primarily reflected the intensity of the nutritional stressor. Histopathological scoring of the liver and intestine segments showed specific nutrient-mediated changes in lipid cell vacuolisation, inflammation of intestinal submucosa, as well as the distribution and number of intestinal goblet and rodlet cells. These results contribute to define the normal range of variation for selected biometric, biochemical, haematological and histochemical markers. PMID:26220446

  9. Identification of a novel transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β6 gene in fish: regulation in skeletal muscle by nutritional state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakowlew Sonia B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β family constitutes of dimeric proteins that regulate the growth, differentiation and metabolism of many cell types, including that of skeletal muscle in mammals. The potential role of TGF-βs in fish muscle growth is not known. Results Here we report the molecular characterization, developmental and tissue expression and regulation by nutritional state of a novel TGF-β gene from a marine fish, the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. S. aurata TGF-β6 is encoded by seven exons 361, 164, 133, 111, 181, 154, and 156 bp in length and is translated into a 420-amino acid peptide. The exons are separated by six introns: >643, 415, 93, 1250, 425 and >287 bp in length. Although the gene organization is most similar to mouse and chicken TGF-β2, the deduced amino acid sequence represents a novel TGF-β that is unique to fish that we have named TGF-β6. The molecule has conserved putative functional residues, including a cleavage motif (RXXR and nine cysteine residues that are characteristic of TGF-β. Semi-quantitative analysis of TGF-β6 expression revealed differential expression in various tissues of adult fish with high levels in skin and muscle, very low levels in liver, and moderate levels in other tissues including brain, eye and pituitary. TGF-β6 is expressed in larvae on day of hatching and increases as development progresses. A fasting period of five days of juvenile fish resulted in increased levels of TGF-β6 expression in white skeletal muscle compared to that in fed fish, which was slightly attenuated by one injection of growth hormone. Conclusion Our findings provide valuable insights about genomic information and nutritional regulation of TGF-β6 which will aid the further investigation of the S. aurata TGF-β6 gene in association with muscle growth. The finding of a novel TGF-β6 molecule, unique to fish, will contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the TGF

  10. Evaluation of the fishery status for King Soldier Bream Argyrops spinifer in Pakistan using the software CEDA and ASPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Aamir Mahmood; Liu, Qun; Memon, Khadim Hussain; Baloch, Wazir Ali; Memon, Asfandyar; Baset, Abdul

    2015-07-01

    Catch and effort data were analyzed to estimate the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of King Soldier Bream, Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål, 1775, Family: Sparidae), and to evaluate the present status of the fish stocks exploited in Pakistani waters. The catch and effort data for the 25-years period 1985-2009 were analyzed using two computer software packages, CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) and ASPIC (a surplus production model incorporating covariates). The maximum catch of 3 458 t was observed in 1988 and the minimum catch of 1 324 t in 2005, while the average annual catch of A. spinifer over the 25 years was 2 500 t. The surplus production models of Fox, Schaefer, and Pella Tomlinson under three error assumptions of normal, log-normal and gamma are in the CEDA package and the two surplus models of Fox and logistic are in the ASPIC package. In CEDA, the MSY was estimated by applying the initial proportion (IP) of 0.8, because the starting catch was approximately 80% of the maximum catch. Except for gamma, because gamma showed maximization failures, the estimated results of MSY using CEDA with the Fox surplus production model and two error assumptions, were 1 692.08 t ( R 2=0.572) and 1 694.09 t ( R 2=0.606), respectively, and from the Schaefer and the Pella Tomlinson models with two error assumptions were 2 390.95 t ( R 2=0.563), and 2 380.06 t ( R 2=0.605), respectively. The MSY estimated by the Fox model was conservatively compared to the Schaefer and Pella Tomlinson models. The MSY values from Schaefer and Pella Tomlinson models were the same. The computed values of MSY using the ASPIC computer software program with the two surplus production models of Fox and logistic were 1 498 t ( R 2=0.917), and 2 488 t ( R 2=0.897) respectively. The estimated values of MSY using CEDA were about 1 700-2 400 t and the values from ASPIC were 1 500-2 500 t. The estimates output by the CEDA and the ASPIC packages indicate that the stock is overfished, and needs some

  11. Effects of light intensity on growth, immune responses, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Xu, Chao; Wang, Fei; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2015-12-01

    Light is necessary for many fish species to develop and grow normally since most fishes are visual feeders. However, too intense light may be stressful or even lethal. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of light intensity on growth, immune response, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish (18.04 ± 0.22 g) randomly divided into 5 groups were exposed to a range of light intensities (100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 lx) in cultures for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and cumulative mortality was recorded for the next 96 h. The results demonstrated that fish subjected to 400 lx showed the greatest weight gain (125.70 ± 5.29%). Plasma levels of glucose and lactate increased with light intensity rising from 100 lx to 1600 lx while the lowest plasma levels of cortisol was observed at 400 lx group. Post-challenged haemato-immunological parameters (including plasma lysozyme and alternative complement activities, as well as plasma nitric oxide level and globulin contents) improved with light intensity increasing from 100 lx to 400 lx, and then decreased with further increasing light intensity. However, antioxidant biomarkers such as liver catalase and malondialdehyde showed an opposite trend with immune response with the lowest values observed at 400 lx groups. The application of light intensity at 1600 lx significantly lowered liver glutathione activity to 76.78 ± 6.91 μmol g(-1). Within a range of light intensity from 100 to 400 lx, no differences were observed in liver total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities while they were significantly higher at 800 and 1600 lx. After challenge, the lowest mortality was observed in fish exposed to 400 lx. It was significantly lower than that of fish exposed to 100 and 1600 lx. The results of the present study indicated that high light intensities (more than 800 lx) not only produced

  12. Molecular aspects, genomic arrangement and immune responsive mRNA expression profiles of two CXC chemokine receptor homologs (CXCR1 and CXCR2) from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Wan, Qiang; Revathy, Kasthuri Saranya; Whang, Ilson; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Seokryel; Park, Myoung-Ae; Lee, Jehee

    2014-09-01

    The CXCR1 and CXCR2 are the prototypical receptors and are the only known receptors for mammalian ELR+ (Glu-Leu-Arg) CXC chemokines, including CXCL8 (interleukin 8). These receptors transduce the ELR+ chemokine signals and operate the downstream signaling pathways in inflammation and innate immunity. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of CXCR1 and CXCR2 genes from rock bream fish (OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2) at the molecular level. The cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of the OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2 were identified from a transcriptome library and a custom-constructed BAC library, respectively. Both OfCXCR genes consisted of two exons, separated by an intron. The 5'-flanking regions of OfCXCR genes possessed multiple putative transcription factor binding sites related to immune response. The coding sequences of OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2 encoded putative peptides of 355 and 360 amino acids (aa), respectively. The deduced aa sequences of OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2 comprised of a G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) family 1 profile with a GPCR signature and a DRY motif. In addition, seven conserved transmembrane regions were predicted in both OfCXCRs. While our multiple alignment study revealed the functionally significant conserved elements of the OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2, phylogeny analyses further confirmed their position in teleost sub clade, in which they manifested an evolutionary relatedness with other fish counterparts. Based on comparative analyses, teleost CXC chemokine receptors appear to be distinct from their non-fish orthologs in terms of evolution (both CXCR1 and CXCR2) and genomic organization (CXCR2). Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) detected the transcripts of OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2 in eleven examined tissues, with higher levels in head kidney, kidney and spleen highlighting their crucial importance in immunity. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) with concanavalin A (Con A) resulted in modulation of OfCXCR2 transcription, but not

  13. Are retailers' preferences for seafood attributes predictive for consumers wants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Polancoa, José; Mueller Loose, Simone; Luna, Ladislao

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture production has grown considerably in the southern countries of Europe during the last two decades. This increase in supply has not been matched by an equivalent rise in consumer demand, resulting in price decay. For farmed seabream (Sparus aurata) this paper examines which attributes ...

  14. Comparative analysis and evolutionary significance of the HMG1 gene in crucian carp,blunt snout bream,and their polyploid progeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Liu; Zhen Liu; Shaojun Liu; Liangguo Liu; Cuiping You; Lin Chen; Huan Zhong; Yun Liu

    2009-01-01

    The full-length mRNA of the high mobility group protein 1 coding gene (HMG1) was obtained by RACE-PCR from red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.),blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala),and their triploid and tetraploid progeny.The sequence contained an open reading frame of 579 nucleotides coding for 193 amino acids.The nucleotide identity of HMG1 was higher between the tetraploid hybrid and the maternal red crucian carp (99%) than between the tetraploid hybrid and the paternal blunt snout bream (97%).The nucleotide identity between the triploid hybrids and each parent (95%) was lower than that between the parents (98%).The protein identity between the tetraploid hybrid and each parent (100%) was higher than that between the triploid hybrid and each parent (97%).Our results suggest that interspecific hybridization generates a shock to the HMG1 gene in triploid hybrids,causing divergence of nucleotides.The HMG1 protein of the tetraploid hybrids was consistent with that of its parents,which reduced the barrier of cross incompatibility between alleles,providing the basis for the bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids forming a new polyploid species in nature.The secondary and tertiary structures of the HMG1 protein contain eight helices,three switches,two DNA-binding domains in the N-terminus,and a long acidic tail in the C-terminus.Together,these data suggest that the HMG1 protein plays a role of protein-DNA interactions,facilitating various DNA-dependent activities in the nucleus.We also investigated the phylogeny of fish,amphibian,reptilian,bird,and mammalian HMG1 proteins.Our results suggest that HMG1 is an ancestral protein that has been highly conserved.These data provide clues as to how interspecific hybridization may form polyploid hybrids.

  15. Effects of various LED light spectra on antioxidant and immune response in juvenile rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus exposed to bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Oh, Sung-Yong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used in plastics and plasticizers. As an environmental toxin included in industrial wastewater, it contaminates the aquatic environment and is known to cause endocrine disruption in fish. Particular wavelengths of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are known to affect the endocrine regulation of fish. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of green and red LED light on the antioxidant and immune systems in juvenile rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) exposed to BPA. We used green and red LED exposure at two intensities (0.3 and 0.5W/m(2)) for 1, 3, and 5 days. We measured liver mRNA expression and plasma levels of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and caspase-3. Furthermore, we measured plasma levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lipid peroxidation (LPO), melatonin, and immunoglobulin M (IgM). DNA damage and apoptotic activity were measured using comet and terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays, respectively. We found that SOD, H2O2, and LPO increased significantly, whereas melatonin and IgM decreased significantly, suggesting that BPA induces oxidative stress and reduces immune function. Likewise, both DNA damage and apoptotic activity increased following BPA exposure. However, we found that exposure to green LED light effectively reduced the detrimental effects induced by BPA, including decreasing DNA damage, apoptotic activity, SOD mRNA expression, and plasma levels of SOD, H2O2, and LPO. Likewise, the plasma levels of melatonin and IgM increased. Thus, our results indicate that green light conditions effectively reduces oxidative stress and promotes the immune function in juvenile rock bream. PMID:27299659

  16. Combined effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide and Bacillus licheniformis on innate immunity, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of triangular bream (Megalobrama terminalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Li, Xiang-Fei; Xu, Wei-Na; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Lu, Kang-Le; Wang, Li-Na; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) and their interaction on innate immunity, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of triangular bream Megalobrama terminalis (average initial weight 30.5 ± 0.5 g). Nine experimental diets were formulated to contain three FOS levels (0, 0.3% and 0.6%) and three B. licheniformis levels (0, 1 × 10(7), 5 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)) according to a 3 × 3 factorial design. At the end of the 8-week feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) and survival rate was recorded for the next 7 days. The results showed that leucocyte counts, alternative complement activity as well as total serum protein and globulin contents all increased significantly (P 0.05) was observed in these parameters in terms of dietary FOS levels. Both plasma alkaline phosphatase and phenoloxidase activities were significantly (P FOS levels with the highest values observed in fish fed 0.6 and 0.3% FOS, respectively. Both immunoglobulin M content and liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were significantly affected (P > 0.05) by both FOS and B. licheniformis. Liver catalase, glutathione peroxidase as well as plasma SOD activities of fish fed 1 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)B. licheniformis were all significantly (P 0.05) by either FOS levels or B. licheniformis contents, whereas a significant (P FOS and 1 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)B. licheniformis. The results of this study indicated that dietary FOS and B. licheniformis could significantly enhance the innate immunity and antioxidant capability of triangular bream, as well as improve its disease resistance. The best combination of these two prebiotics and/or probiotics was 0.3% FOS and 1 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)B. licheniformis. PMID:23932988

  17. Effects of dietary tert-butylhydroquinone on domoic acid metabolism and transcription of detoxification-related liver genes in red sea bream Pagrus major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shan; LIANG XuFang; SHEN Dan; ZHANG WenBing; MAI KangSen

    2013-01-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neuroexcitatory amino acid that is produced by Pseudo-nitzschia during harmful algal blooms (HAB).Accumulation of DA can be transferred through food chain and cause neuronal damage in marine animal and in human.Like other algal toxins,DA was suggested to increase the oxidative stress and increase the detoxification-related gene expression in fish.The widely used food antioxidant,tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ),was known to induce a wide range of antioxidative potentials such as elevation of the glutathione levels and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs),via the activation of antioxidant response elements (AREs).In this study,the influences of dietary tBHQ on domoic acid (DA) metabolism and detoxification-related gene transcription were investigated both in vivo and in vitro.Oral administration of tBHQ resulted in significant decreases of DA accumulation of liver tissues in which red sea bream were fed with a single dose of 10 mg DA and 100 mg tBHQ per kg body weight per fish.Real-time PCR further revealed that the mRNA levels of AHR/ARNT/CYP1A1/GSTA1/GSTR were up-regulated in the above liver tissues at 72 h post tBHQ treatment.In consistence,tBHQ exposure also resulted in increased mRNA transcription of GSTA1,GSTA2 and GSTR in cultured red sea bream hepatocytes.Collectively,our findings in this research suggested that the dietary intake of tBHQ accelerated DA metabolism in fish,through mechanisms involving altered transcription of detoxificationrelated liver genes.

  18. Depletion of Essential Fatty Acids in the Food Source Affects Aerobic Capacities of the Golden Grey Mullet Liza aurata in a Warming Seawater Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vagner

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of thermal acclimation and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA content of the food source on the aerobic capacities of fish in a thermal changing environment. The model used was the golden grey mullet Liza aurata, a species of high ecological importance in temperate coastal areas. For four months, fish were exposed to two food sources with contrasting n-3 HUFA contents (4.8% ecosapentaenoic acid EPA + docosahexaenoic acid DHA on the dry matter DM basis vs. 0.2% EPA+DHA on DM combined with two acclimation temperatures (12°C vs. 20°C. The four experimental conditions were LH12, LH20, HH12 and HH20. Each group was then submitted to a thermal challenge consisting of successive exposures to five temperatures (9°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C. At each temperature, the maximal and minimal metabolic rates, metabolic scope, and the maximum swimming speed were measured. Results showed that the cost of maintenance of basal metabolic activities was particularly higher when n-3 HUFA food content was low. Moreover, fish exposed to high acclimation temperature combined with a low n-3 HUFA dietary level (LH20 exhibited a higher aerobic scope, as well as a greater expenditure of energy to reach the same maximum swimming speed as other groups. This suggested a reduction of the amount of energy available to perform other physiological functions. This study is the first to show that the impact of lowering n-3 HUFA food content is exacerbated for fish previously acclimated to a warmer environment. It raises the question of the consequences of longer and warmer summers that have already been recorded and are still expected in temperate areas, as well as the pertinence of the lowering n-3 HUFA availability in the food web expected with global change, as a factor affecting marine organisms and communities.

  19. Depletion of Essential Fatty Acids in the Food Source Affects Aerobic Capacities of the Golden Grey Mullet Liza aurata in a Warming Seawater Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagner, Marie; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Zambonino Infante, José-Luis; Mazurais, David; Dubillot, Emmanuel; Le Delliou, Hervé; Quazuguel, Patrick; Lefrançois, Christel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of thermal acclimation and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) content of the food source on the aerobic capacities of fish in a thermal changing environment. The model used was the golden grey mullet Liza aurata, a species of high ecological importance in temperate coastal areas. For four months, fish were exposed to two food sources with contrasting n-3 HUFA contents (4.8% ecosapentaenoic acid EPA + docosahexaenoic acid DHA on the dry matter DM basis vs. 0.2% EPA+DHA on DM) combined with two acclimation temperatures (12°C vs. 20°C). The four experimental conditions were LH12, LH20, HH12 and HH20. Each group was then submitted to a thermal challenge consisting of successive exposures to five temperatures (9°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C). At each temperature, the maximal and minimal metabolic rates, metabolic scope, and the maximum swimming speed were measured. Results showed that the cost of maintenance of basal metabolic activities was particularly higher when n-3 HUFA food content was low. Moreover, fish exposed to high acclimation temperature combined with a low n-3 HUFA dietary level (LH20) exhibited a higher aerobic scope, as well as a greater expenditure of energy to reach the same maximum swimming speed as other groups. This suggested a reduction of the amount of energy available to perform other physiological functions. This study is the first to show that the impact of lowering n-3 HUFA food content is exacerbated for fish previously acclimated to a warmer environment. It raises the question of the consequences of longer and warmer summers that have already been recorded and are still expected in temperate areas, as well as the pertinence of the lowering n-3 HUFA availability in the food web expected with global change, as a factor affecting marine organisms and communities.

  20. Amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin stimulates the transcription of CYP1A possibly through AHR and ARNT in the liver of red sea bream Pagrus major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the role of detoxification-related liver genes in amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin metabolism, red sea bream Pagrus major were exposed to domoic acid (DA, 2 μg g-1 wet weight) for 24 h. Hepatic mRNA expression levels of AHR, ARNT, CYP1 and GSTs were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The cytosolic factors aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) mRNA levels of DA exposure group were substantially enhanced by 113.3% and 90.9%, respectively. Consistent with this result, the phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) cytochrome P-450 1A (CYP1A) was significantly induced. In contrast, the transcriptions of three major phase II XME glutathione S-transferases as well as heat shock protein 70 were not significantly affected by DA exposure. These results suggest a possible role of CYP1A after DA exposure in the toxin metabolism of marine fish, possibly through the AHR/ARNT signaling pathway.

  1. Cytochrome b gene reveals panmixia among Japanese Threadfin Bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) populations along the coasts of Peninsular Malaysia and provides evidence of a cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong-Chiun; Ahmad, Abu Talib; Nuruddin, Ahmad Adnan; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated genetic differentiation among ten presumed Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus populations along the coast of Peninsular Malaysia based on the partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (982 bp). Genetic divergences (Kimura-2 parameter) ranged from 0.5% to 0.8% among nine of the ten populations while these nine populations were 4.4% to 4.6% diverged from the Kuala Besar population located at the Northeast coast. The constructed Neighbour Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees based on haplotypes showed the Kuala Besar population forming an isolated cluster. The Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) of the ten populations a priori assigned into four regions, revealed that most of the variation occurred within population with a fairly low but significant level of regional differentiation (FST = 0.07, p 0.05 and FCT = 0.07, p Malaysia were panmictic. However, the Kuala Besar population, although morphologically identical was composed of a genetically discrete taxon from the rest. These findings are important contributions in formulating sustainable fishery management policies for this important fishery in Peninsular Malaysia.

  2. ANTILISTERIAL ACTYVITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM GILTHEAD BREAMS AND SEA BASSES FILLETS PACKAGED MAP AGAINST PRIMITIVE STRAINS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barile

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis typically caused by ready-to-eat processed food that have a refrigerated shelf-life, but lightly preserved fish products also belong to a high-risk category. Aim of the work was to evaluate antimicrobial activity linked bacteriocin-producing of LAB isolated from gilthead breams and sea basses fillets packaged in modified atmospheres. Fifty-five LAB strains were screened against 21 strains of Listeria monocytogenes, 1 Listeria innocua held in the culture collection of Department of Zootechnical Sciences and Food Ispection (SIA and submitted to antagonistic activity using the spot on lawn and the agar well diffusion assay. Lactococcus lactis sub. lactis Sa31 was able to produce bacteriocin in agar and different broth medium. The bacteriocin man31 showed sensitivity to trypsin, pronase E and papain, inactivation at temperatures ≥ 100°C, bactericidal mode of action and antilisterial act, rapidly. The bacteriocin man31 caused a reduction of L. monocytogenes ½ c growth about log10 > 3 UFC/ml, when was applied on indicator strain at 20,480 AU/ml concentration, in vitro.

  3. Parental contribution and growth hormone gene polymorphism associated with growth phenotypes of red sea bream Pagrus major in mass production: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitaro Sawayama

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Red sea bream is one of the most important aquaculture fish species in Japan. To improve the productivity of this fish during seed production, improved growth traits and reduced size variation are needed. In this study, we assessed parental contribution of fast- and slow-growing individuals observed in two different rearing phases in a mass production lot: (1 50 dph reared in a tank and (2 200 dph reared in a net cage. We also assessed GH gene (pmaGH polymorphisms based on a previously developed minisatellite DNA marker. Specific broodstock individuals were significantly associated with fast- or slow-growing individuals at 50 dph and 200 dph. Significant differences in pmaGH minisatellite allele frequencies were observed between fast- and slow-growing groups at 50 dph in the frequency of two alleles (pmaGH-740 and pmaGH-900, respectively. Combining the results of DNA parentage analysis and pmaGH minisatellite allele analysis, one dam and two sires, possessing pmaGH-740, were significantly associated with the slow-growing groups. These results suggest that the minisatellite marker of pmaGH could be a useful tool for growth selection of this fish species.

  4. Fasted and postprandial response of serum physiological response, hepatic antioxidant abilities and HSP70 expression in Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala fed different dietary carbohydrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanpeng Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary carbohydrate (CHO level on serum physiological response, hepatic antioxidant abilities and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 expression of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala was studied. Two isonitrogenous (28.56% crude protein and isolipidic (5.28% crude lipid diets were formulated to contain 30% or 53% wheat starch. Diets were fed for 90 days to fish in triplicate tanks (28 fish per tank. At the end of feeding trial, significantly higher serum triglyceride level, insulin level, cortisol level, and malondialdehyde (MDA content were observed in fish fed the 53% CHO diet, while significantly lower serum total protein content, alkaline phosphatase activity, superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidative capacity were found in fish fed the 53% CHO diet compared with those fed the 30% diet. The relative level of hepatic heat shock protein 70 mRNA was significantly higher in the 53% CHO group than that in the 30% CHO at 6, 12 and 48 h after feeding. Ingestion of 53% dietary CHO impacts the nonspecific immune ability and causes metabolic stress in Megalobrama amblycephala.

  5. Effects of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus or/and Lactococcus lactis on the growth, gut microbiota and immune responses of red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; El Basuini, Mohammed F; Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Nhu, Truong H; Dossou, Serge; Moss, Amina S

    2016-02-01

    Pagrus major fingerlings (3·29 ± 0·02 g) were fed with basal diet (control) supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactococcus lactis (LL), and L. rhamnosus + L. lactis (LR + LL) at 10(6) cell g(-1) feed for 56 days. Feeding a mixture of LR and LL significantly increased feed utilization (FER and PER), intestine lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, plasma total protein, alternative complement pathway (ACP), peroxidase, and mucus secretion compared with the other groups (P growth performance (Fn wt, WG, and SGR) and protein digestibility than the groups fed an individual LR or the control diet. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased in LR and LR + LL groups when compared with the other groups. Moreover, the fish fed LR or LL had better improvement (P growth, feed utilization, body protein and lipid contents, digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein, and lipid), protease activity, total intestine and LAB counts, hematocrit, total plasma protein, biological antioxidant potential, ACP, serum and mucus LZY and bactericidal activities, peroxidase, SOD, and mucus secretion than the control group. Interestingly, fish fed diets with LR + LL showed significantly lower total cholesterol and triglycerides when compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). These data strongly suggest that a mixture of LR and LL probiotics may serve as a healthy immunostimulating feed additive in red sea bream aquaculture.

  6. PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION IN FISH FARMS ALONG THE EASTERN ADRIATIC COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tomec

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of net phytoplankton composition were performed at three fish farms situated at the northern, middle and southern part of the eastern Adriatic Sea coast, respectively. In the northern part investigations were conducted in the Limski kanal, in the middle part at the Ugljan island and in the southern part in the place Drače on the Pelješac peninsula (Figure 1. At all three localities fish culture included mostly two species: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax. Beside some physico–chemical parameters (sea water temperature, salinity special attention was placed on the examination of qualitative net phytoplankton composition, which was conducted in the period of May and November 2004 and May and October 2005. Samples were collected at the depths of 0. 5 and 4 meters. According to the physico–chemical parameters, sea water temperature was influenced by the temperature of the environment. Qualitative net phytoplankton composition consisted of 153 microphytic species belonging to the systematic compartments of Cyanobacteria, Chrysophyta and Dinophyta (Table 1. The most numerous algal group were diatoms or Bacillarophyceae (84 species or 55% with relative frequencies of species from 1 to 7. Taxonomic composition of diatoms showed the community Chaetoceros–Rhizosolenia (Proboscia as the dominant one. The second numerically most dominant compartment were Dinophyta (62 species or 401% with dominant the species of the genera Ceratium and Protoperidinium. Relative frequencies of species was ranging from 1 to 7 (mass presence of specimens in the water column. From Cyanobacteria (4 species or 3%, only filamentous algae were determined, with individual presence in net phytoplankton composition. Qualitative net phytoplankton composition suggests the similarity of species composition in the water column at all investigated fish farms. From the obtained characteristics of net phytoplankton composition

  7. PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION AT THE FISH AND SHELLFISH FARM IN THE KALDONTA BAY (CRES ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tomec

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kaldonta Bay is situated at the south–western coast of the Cres island in the Lošinj channel, rather protected from larger influence of general sea water current. In the Bay there are installed 44 floating cages of 5 by 10 m dimensions. The cages are used for the culture of about 70 tons of sea water fish: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, sharp–snouted sparus (Diplodus puntazzo and dentex (Dentex dentex. Besides some physico–chemical parameters (sea water temperature, transparence and salinity, special attention has been paid to the qualitative composition of net phytoplankton. Investigations were performed in the period of May, September and December 2003 and February 2004 at five locations in the Kaldonta Bay (Figure 1 at the depths of 0.5 m, 5 m, 10 m and 1 m from the bottom. According to the physico–chemical parameters, sea water temperature was influenced by the temperature of the environment, and the transparence suggested to the oligotrophic situation in the investigated aquatorium. Qualitative composition of net phytoplankton comprised 161 microphytic species belonging to the systematic compartments of Cyanobacteria, Chrysophyta and Dinophyta (Table 1. The most numerous algal group were diatoms or Bacillarophyceae (98 species or 61%, with relative frequencies of species from 1 to 7. Taxonomic composition of diatoms showed Chaetoceros–Rhizosolenia (Proboscia to be the dominant community. Diatom species was the most abundant in late autumn period (beginning of December. The second most important comparatment were Dinophyta (55 species or 34.1%, with the dominant genera Ceratium and Protoperidinium. During the investigation, the representatives of Dinophyta did not show large variety of species in the water column. Relative frequency of the species was 1, rarely 2 and 3. Dinophyts were the most abundant in September. From Cyanobacteria (5 species or 3.1% only filamentous algae were determined

  8. Temporal stability of otolith elemental fingerprints discriminates among lagoon nursery habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournois, Jennifer; Ferraton, Franck; Velez, Laure; McKenzie, David J.; Aliaume, Catherine; Mercier, Lény; Darnaude, Audrey M.

    2013-10-01

    The chemical composition of fish otoliths reflects that of the water masses that they inhabit. Otolith elemental compositions can, therefore, be used as natural tags to discriminate among habitats. However, for retrospective habitat identification to be valid and reliable for any adult, irrespective of its age, significant differences in environmental conditions, and therefore otolith signatures, must be temporally stable within each habitat, otherwise connectivity studies have to be carried out by matching year-classes to the corresponding annual fingerprints. This study investigated how various different combinations of chemical elements in otoliths could distinguish, over three separate years, between four coastal lagoon habitats used annually as nurseries by gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). A series of nine elements were measured in otoliths of 301 S. aurata juveniles collected in the four lagoons in 2008, 2010 and 2011. Percentages of correct re-assignment of juveniles to their lagoon of origin were calculated with the Random Forest classification method, considering every possible combination of elements. This revealed both spatial and temporal variations in accuracy of habitat identification, with correct re-assignment to each lagoon ranging from 44 to 99% depending on the year and the lagoon. There were also annual differences in the combination of elements that provided the best discrimination among the lagoons. Despite this, when the data from the three years were pooled, a combination of eight elements (B, Ba, Cu, Li, Mg, Rb, Sr and Y) provided greater than 70% correct re-assignment to each single lagoon, with a multi-annual global accuracy of 79%. When considering the years separately, discrimination accuracy with these elemental fingerprints was above 90% for 2008 and 2010. It decreased to 61% in 2011, when unusually heavy rainfall occurred, which presumably reduced chemical differences among several of the

  9. Effects of berberine on the growth and immune performance in response to ammonia stress and high-fat dietary in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Qing; Liu, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Man; Dai, Yong-Jun; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Xu, Wei-Na

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to figure out the effects of berberine on growth performance, immunity, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fed with high-fat diet. 320 fish (80.00 ± 0.90 g) were divided randomly into four trial groups (each with four replicates) and fed with 4 diets (normal diet, normal diet with 50 mg/kg berberine, high-fat diet, high-fat diet with 50 mg/kg berberine), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, ammonia stress test was carried out for 5 days. The result showed the growth performance, immune parameters including plasm acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, lysozyme (LYZ) activities and alternative complement C3 and C4 contents were suppressed in fish fed with high-fat diets but improved in berberine diets compared with control (normal diet). Hepatopancreas oxidative status, the malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and lipid peroxide (LPO) were increased significantly (P fat diets. Berberine could slow the progression of the oxidative stress induced by high-fat through increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and total sulfydryl (T-SH) levels of fish. And the hepatocyte apoptosis in the high-fat group could also be alleviated by berberine. After the ammonia stress test, the accumulative mortality was extremely (P fat diet with berberine compared to other groups. It was concluded berberine as a functional feed additive significantly inhibited the progression of oxidative stress, reduced the apoptosis and enhanced the immunity of fish fed with high-fat diet.

  10. Effects of berberine on the growth and immune performance in response to ammonia stress and high-fat dietary in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Qing; Liu, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Man; Dai, Yong-Jun; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Xu, Wei-Na

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to figure out the effects of berberine on growth performance, immunity, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fed with high-fat diet. 320 fish (80.00 ± 0.90 g) were divided randomly into four trial groups (each with four replicates) and fed with 4 diets (normal diet, normal diet with 50 mg/kg berberine, high-fat diet, high-fat diet with 50 mg/kg berberine), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, ammonia stress test was carried out for 5 days. The result showed the growth performance, immune parameters including plasm acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, lysozyme (LYZ) activities and alternative complement C3 and C4 contents were suppressed in fish fed with high-fat diets but improved in berberine diets compared with control (normal diet). Hepatopancreas oxidative status, the malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and lipid peroxide (LPO) were increased significantly (P Berberine could slow the progression of the oxidative stress induced by high-fat through increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and total sulfydryl (T-SH) levels of fish. And the hepatocyte apoptosis in the high-fat group could also be alleviated by berberine. After the ammonia stress test, the accumulative mortality was extremely (P berberine compared to other groups. It was concluded berberine as a functional feed additive significantly inhibited the progression of oxidative stress, reduced the apoptosis and enhanced the immunity of fish fed with high-fat diet. PMID:27235371

  11. The taxonomic status of Japanese threadfin bream Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Perciformes: Nemipteridae) with a redescription of this species from the south china sea based on morphology and DNA barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ping; Sha, Zhongli; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Russell, Barry

    2015-02-01

    Because of its importance as a food source, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Nemipteridae) or Japanese threadfin bream is the best studied of these taxa, and numerous investigations have examined its fisheries, its biology and biochemistry. Despite such intensive work, the taxonomic status of N. japonicus has never been seriously questioned and it is regarded as a common species, widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific Ocean. In fact, Bloch's description of the type specimen of N. japonicus has ambiguous collection data and lacks a designation for the type locality, though it is probably Java. In this paper, DNA barcode results based on COI gene support the existence of two geographically separated lineages of the Japanese threadfin bream, both being an Indian Ocean and western Pacific lineage, with 2.7% sequence divergence, and the results indicate a possible existing of some cryptic species. The two lineages also possess a diagnostic difference in their belly color, with specimens in the South China Sea having a silver belly, while those from the Indian Ocean isolate specimen have a yellow coloration. Based upon new collections from the South China Sea, this species from the western Pacific is morphologically redescribed and its details of DNA barcode diversity are shown for the future investigations.

  12. The Taxonomic Status of Japanese Threadfin BreamNemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Perciformes:Nemipteridae) with a Redescription of this Species from the South China Sea Based on Morphology and DNA Barcodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Ping; SHA Zhongli; Paul DN HEBERT; Barry RUSSELL

    2015-01-01

    Because of its importance as a food source,Nemipterus japonicus(Bloch, 1791) (Nemipteridae) or Japanese threadfin bream is the best studied of these taxa, and numerous investigations have examined its fisheries, its biology and biochemistry. De-spite such intensive work, the taxonomic status ofN. japonicushas never been seriously questioned and itis regarded as a common species, widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific Ocean. In fact, Bloch’s description of the type specimen ofN. ja-ponicus has ambiguous collection data and lacks a designation for the type locality, though it is probably Java. In this paper, DNA barcode results based on COI gene support the existence of two geographically separated lineages of the Japanese threadfin bream, both being an Indian Ocean and western Pacific lineage, with 2.7% sequence divergence, and the results indicate a possible existing of some cryptic species. The two lineages also possess a diagnostic difference in their belly color, with specimens in the South China Sea having a silver belly, while those from the Indian Ocean isolate specimen have a yellow coloration. Based upon new collections from the South China Sea, this species from the western Pacific is morphologically redescribed and its details of DNA barcode diver-sity are shown for the future investigations.

  13. 10种人工鱼礁模型对黑鲷幼鱼的诱集效果%Attraction effect of various artificial reef models on Sparus macrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳波; 蔡文贵; 陈海刚; 陈丕茂; 吕国敏; 贾晓平

    2011-01-01

    Artificial reef was used in marine ranch to improve the marine ecological environment and enhance the fishery resources. Attractive effects of artificial reef may be attributed to creating habitat, shelter and spawning ground for the various kinds of fish, therefore positively affect the breeding and growth of the fish. In recent years, artificial reef construction programs have been rapidly developed in China. However, the knowledge of the effect of artificial reef on marine ecological environment is limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of materials, structure and combination on the attractive effects of the artificial reefs and therefore provide useful data and information for the development of artificial reef construction. In the present study, the effects of ten kinds of artificial reef models with different shapes, which have been deployed in Yangmeikeng reef area, on the behavioral responses of the fish Sparus macrocephalus and the fish attraction effects of the artificial reef models were analyzed and compared with those without the artificial reef model in the trough. The result showed that in the condition without the artificial reef model in the trough, the fish liked to stay in radius of the center trough area within 40 - 70 cm. while the fish are more dispersed in the trough. After the artificial model was put into the troughs, the fish liked to stay in radius of the center trough area within 20 - 50 cm while No. 1 reef-No. 8 reef were put into the trough, the fish liked to stay in radius of the center trough area within 10 -40 cm while No. 9 reef and No. 10 reef were put into the trough. The average occurring rate of the fish inside and near the reef areas all increased, while comparing fish occurring rates in artificial reef areas with or without artificial reef. The analysis results showed that all of the ten artificial reef models have obvious attraction effects on S. macrocephalus,especially for model NO. 10. Its attraction

  14. Effects of dietary pantothenic acid on growth, intestinal function, anti-oxidative status and fatty acids synthesis of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qian

    dietary PA requirements of juvenile blunt snout bream were estimated to be 24.08 mg kg(-1.

  15. New Tetrachromic VOF Stain (Type III-G.S) for Normal and Pathological Fish Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Sarasquete, C.; Gutiérrez, M.

    2005-01-01

    A new VOF Type III-G.S stain was applied to histological sections of different organs and tissues of healthy and pathological larvae, juvenile and adult fish species (Solea senegalensis; Sparus aurata; Diplodus sargo; Pagrus auriga; Argyrosomus regius and Halobatrachus didactylus). In comparison to the original Gutiérrez VOF stain, more acid dyes of contrasting colours and polychromatic/metachromatic properties were incorporated as essential constituents of the tetrachromic VOF stain. This fa...

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Vibrio alginolyticus Strains V1 and V2, Opportunistic Marine Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Daniel; D'Alvise, Paul; Kalatzis, Panos G.;

    2015-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequences of Vibrio alginolyticus strains V1 and V2, isolated from juvenile Sparus aurata and Dentex dentex, respectively, during outbreaks of vibriosis. The genome sequences are 5,257,950 bp with a G+C content of 44.5% for V. alginolyticus V1 and 5,068,299 bp with a G...

  17. Morphological differences between wild and farmed Mediterranean fish

    OpenAIRE

    Arechavala-Lopez, Pablo; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Bayle-Sempere, Just T.; Sfakianakis, Dimitris G.; Somarakis, Stylianos

    2012-01-01

    Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) and European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) are important commercial marine fish species both for aquaculture and fisheries in the Mediterranean. It is known that farmed individuals escape from farm facilities, but the extent of escape events is not easy to report and estimate because of the difficulty to distinguish between wild and farmed individuals. In this study, significant differences provided through morphometry evidence that the cranial and bod...

  18. 条石鲷(Oplegnathus fasciatus)心脏早期发育的组织学观察%ONTOGENY OF THE HEART OF ROCK BREAM OPLEGNATHUS FASCIATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何滔; 肖志忠; 刘清华; 李军

    2012-01-01

    Based on the histological observation under optical microscope, we studied the ontogeny of the heart of rock bream Oplegnathusfasciatus at (24 _+ 1.0)~C. At 13h 30min postfertilization, the heart primordium, an ellipsoidal tube de- rived from the mesoderm, appears in the ventral side of the midbrain. It consists of I-YSL exteriorly and a stuff of spindle cells interiorly. At 20h 30min post-fertilization, the heart is beginning to beat and the blood starts to circulate through a closed set of channels. At hatching, the heart appeared as a straight tube lying anterior to the coelom of rock bream. At 2 DAH (days after hatching), the heart was differentiated into four parts: sinous venosus, atrium, ventricle and bulbous arte-riosus. At 3 DAH, the atrioventricular and semilunar valves were formed. At 6 DAH, the sinoatial valve was developed and the trabeculae in the ventricle appeared. At 12 DAH, the blood cells in the heart increased sharply. At 27 DAH, the trabeculae were appeared in the atrium, and the heart of rock bream was developed completely.%应用石蜡切片技术和显微测量法,对条石鲷心脏的早期发生、分化和形成过程进行了连续观察。结果表明,在水温(24±1.0)℃的条件下,心脏原基在受精后13h30min出现于中部脑的腹面,其外部由卵黄多核层包围,内部则为扁平细胞所填充;受精后20h30min,心脏开始搏动,可见血细胞:初孵仔鱼心脏呈直管状,位于体腔前端;2日龄(days after hatching,DAH),心脏分化成静脉窦、心耳(心房)、心室和动脉球四个部分;3日龄,耳室瓣和半月瓣形成;6日龄,窦耳瓣和心小室形成:12日龄,心脏内血细胞的数量急剧增加,血流量显著加大;27日龄,心耳内形成小梁结构,心脏发育完善。

  19. 真鲷虹彩病毒实时定量PCR检测方法的建立与应用%Development and application of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of red-sea bream iridovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉然; 岳志芹; 谭乐义; 刘荭; 赵巍; 梁成珠; 史秀杰; 徐彪; 朱来华; 何俊强

    2011-01-01

    以真鲷虹彩病毒(Red-sea bream iridovirus,RSIV)主要衣壳蛋白(Major capsid protein,MCP)的基因保守片段为靶序列,利用Primer Express 3.0软件设计定量PCR引物,建立了RSIV的SYBR Green I实时定量PCR检测方法.将RSIV MCP基因连接pMD18-T载体,构建重组质粒,经过梯度稀释后作为标准品,根据标准品拷贝数(X)与Ct值的关系绘制了标准曲线,为Ct=-3.184 1gX+40.270,相关系数R2=0.996 9.熔解曲线分析表明,定量PCR产物的Tm值为82.5℃.该方法的检测限为2.20×102拷贝/反应,对流行性造血器官坏死病毒、淋巴囊肿病毒、蛙病毒3、甲鱼虹彩病毒都没有扩增反应,具有特异性.利用该方法对84批海水鱼类(石鲽、大菱鲆、鲈鱼)进行检测,其中5批鱼样品感染RSIV,并利用标准曲线对病毒含量进行了定量分析.%A sensitive and specific SYBR Green Ⅰ real-time PCR assay for the detection of red-sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) was established.The real-time PCR primers were designed according to the conserved region of major capsid protein (MCP) gene by using Primer Express 3.0 software.The RSIV MCP gene was inserted into pMD18-T vector to construct the recombinant plasmid.The resulted plasmid was serially diluted and used as the standards.The relationship between plasmid copy number(X)and Ct value was described as a standard curve: Ct=-3.184 lgX+40.270(with an R2 value of 0.996 9).The detection limit of the assay was 2.20×102 virus copies per reaction.The assay showed specificity and could not be amplified with RSIV and epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), frog virus 3 (FV 3) ,or soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV).The Tm of the specific product was obtained as 82.5 ℃ through the melting curve analysis.This assay was applied in detecting whether the sea fish samples (stone flounder, turbot, and weever) of 84 batches were infected by RSIV.It was found that the samples of 5 batches presented positive

  20. 条石鲷视觉器官早期发育的组织学观察%Histological observation of eye ontogeny in rock bream larvae (Oplegnathus fasciatus )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何滔; 肖志忠; 刘清华; 马道远; 徐世宏; 肖永双; 李军

    2012-01-01

    应用石蜡切片技术和显微测量法,对条石鲷(Oplegnathusfasciatus)视觉器官的早期发生、分化和形成过程进行了连续观察。结果显示:在水温24℃±1.0℃的条件下,受精后10.5h,视杯出现;受精后15.5h,晶状体形成;受精后22h,在脉络膜裂口处出现角膜;2日龄,巩膜和脉络膜形成;3日龄,虹膜出现:6日龄,视网膜分化完全,由色素层、视锥视杆层、外界膜、外核层、外网状层、内核层、内网状层、神经节细胞层、神经纤维层和内界膜组成;13日龄,角膜分化完全,由外向内依次为复层扁平上皮、前弹性膜、纤维层、后弹性膜和肉皮层;21日龄,虹膜完全分化,由内向外依次为色素层、后缘层、基质层、前缘层和内皮层。此时条石鲷眼的各个部分(巩膜、脉络膜、视网膜、晶状体、虹膜、角膜)均发育完善。%Based on the histological observation under optical microscope, we studied the ontogeny of eyes in rock bream. The results showed that at 24℃±1.0℃, the optic vesicle appeared at 10.5 h after fertilization, and the lens was visible at 15.5 h after fertilization. As the choroid fissures widened, the cornea was developed in the site at 22 h after fertilization. At 2 DAH (days after hatching), the choroid and sclera were formed, and the iris was present at 3 DAH. At 6 DAH, the retina was well developed and consisted of pigment epithelium, rods and cones layer, external limiting membrane, outer nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, inner plexiform layer, ganglion cell layer, nerve fibre layer and internal limiting membrane. At 13 DAH, the cornea was well differentiated, and consisted of stratified squamous epithelium, lamina elastica anterior, fibre layer, lamina elastica porterior and en- dothelium. At 21 DAH, the iris was well developed and consisted of pigment layer, iris posterior, stroma, iris anterior and

  1. Morphological and Histological Study on the Digestive Tract of Wild and Cultivated Yellowfin Black Porgy (Sparus latus)%野生与养殖黄鳍鲷消化道形态组织结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永翠; 李加儿; 区又君; 苏慧

    2012-01-01

    The morphology and histology of the digestive tract of wild and cultivated Yellowfin Black Porgy (Spams Lotus ) were studied using routine method of paraffin tissue section. The results showed that there were some differences between the two populations. Morphological observations showed that oesophagus was crude and short, and the V-shaped stomach was divided into three portions; cardiac stomach, fundic stomach and pyloric stomach. There were four pyloric caeca, and intestine was detoured two inflections in the body cavity. In wild fish, the teeth were harder and sharper, the fat in the body cavity was less, and the digestive tract was cruder and shorter. The average intestinal coefficients of the wild and cultivated Yellowfin Black Porgy were 0.71 ±0.03 and 0.94 ±0.12, respectively. Histological observations showed that mucous epithelium of oesophagus was composed of pinacocyte layer and goblet cell layer with rich goblet cells. Stomach had a single-layered columnar epithelium, without goblet cells. The gastric gland was developed in the cardiac stomach and fundic stomach. The histological features of pyloric caeca were similar to those of intestine, with columnar epithelium and less goblet cells. Meanwhile the distribution trend of goblet cells in the whole intestine was; foregut > midgut > hindgut and cultivated fish > wild fish. There were more goblet cells in rectum than in intestine. The major histological differences between wild and cultivated Yellowfin Black Porgy were that there were more goblet cells in the same part of digestive tract in cultivated fish than in wild fish, while the muscular coat was thicker in wild fish than in cultivated fish. It could be concluded that the differences of digestive tract between the two populations relied on their different living conditions and foods.%采用常规石蜡组织切片的方法对野生和养殖黄鳍鲷(Sparus latus)消化道的形态组织结构进行了比较观察.结果表明,野生和养殖黄

  2. 团头鲂幼鱼饲料中α-亚麻酸、亚油酸的适宜含量%Optimal Dietary α-Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid Contents of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) Fingerlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚林杰; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 许凡; 刘猛; 刘汉超; 董娇娇; 陈科全; 黄雨薇

    2015-01-01

    在半纯化饲料配方的基础上,分别设计6个α-亚麻酸含量(0.02%、0.55%、1.08%、1.60%、2.13%、2.65%)、6个亚油酸含量(0.86%、1.29%、1.73%、2.16%、2.59%、3.03%),以亚麻籽油、玉米油、棕榈油调节饲料中α-亚麻酸、亚油酸的含量,配制等氮等能(粗蛋白质含量为30.09%,粗脂肪含量为6.87%)的12种半纯化试验饲料,探讨团头鲂幼鱼[初始均重为(59.5±0.5) g]饲料中α-亚麻酸、亚油酸的适宜含量。养殖试验分为α-亚麻酸和亚油酸试验2部分,均设6组,每组4个重复,每个重复20尾,养殖周期为85 d。结果表明:在α-亚麻酸试验中,依据回归方程计算得到,在饲料α-亚麻酸含量分别为1.32%、1.33%时,团头鲂幼鱼具有最大的特定生长率和最小的饲料系数;0.02%组的脏体指数显著低于除1.08%组外的其他各组( P0.05);0.02%组血清总胆固醇、甘油三酯含量显著高于0.55%、1.08%组(P0.05);1.29%组血清总胆固醇含量显著高于1.73%组(P0.05)。以特定生长率、饲料系数作为主要评价指标,结合部分血清生化指标和形体指标,得到适合团头鲂幼鱼快速生长、维持鱼体正常健康的饲料中适宜的亚麻酸、亚油酸含量分别为1.32%~1.33%、2.02%~2.03%。%This experiment was conducted to estimate the optimal dietary α-linolenic acid ( LNA) and linoleic acid ( LA ) contents of blunt snout bream ( Megalobrama amblycephala ) fingerlings [ intial average body weight of (59.5±0.5) g]. The flax seed oil, corn oil and palm oil were used as lipid sources to regulate dieta-ry LNA and LA contents, a total of 6 gradients of LNA content such as 0. 02%, 0. 55%, 1. 08%, 1. 60%, 2.13% and 2. 65%, and 6 gradients of LA content such as 0. 86%, 1. 29%, 1. 73%, 2. 16%, 2. 59% and 3.03% were designed. Twelve isonitrogenous and isoenergetic semi-purified experimental diets ( crude protein content was 30.09%, and lipid content was 6.87%) were formulated. The feeding trial included 2

  3. Development of Real-Time PCR Assay for the Detection of Red Sea Bream Iridovirus (RSIV)%一种真鲷虹彩病毒实时荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旻; 景宏丽; 方珍珍; 高隆英; 江育林; 林祥梅

    2011-01-01

    Red sea bream iridovirus(RSIV) is a pathogen causing high mortalities of red sea bream(Pagrosomus major) and more than 30 other species of culture marine fish belongs mainly to the orders Perciformes and Pleuronectiformes.So the red sea bream iridovirus disease had been in diseases list by OIE(World Organisation for Animal Health).At genetic level,RSIV cannot been distinguished from Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus(ISKNV) which is the representative species of Megalocytivir and both of them could be detected by PCR using same primers.A number of diagnostic methods on detection of RSIV are used in Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animal diseases,such as the histopathological observation of smears or tissue sections,IFAT using a MAb,and polymerase chain reactions(PCR).In order to establish a high efficient and reliable diagnostic method,a Real-time PCR assay for detection of RSIV was developed in this paper.The primers and TaqMan probes were designed according to the conserved regions of major capsid protein(MCP) gene of ISKNV.And the MCP gene was ligated into the pGEM-T plasmid vector to prepare of recombinant plasmid pGEM-T/RSIV as positive control.The Real-time PCR was carried out with viral DNA template in a 25-μL reaction mixture under the conditions of 45 cycles of denaturation(95 ℃ for 30 s),annealing(60 ℃ for 30 s).A good linear correlation was demonstrated in the standard curve for the Real-time PCR assay at the range of 102-106 copies of recombinant plasmid pGEM-T/RSIV template.The slope of standard curve was-3.496,correlation coefficient was 0.991,and efficiency was 93.2%.The detection limit of this Real-time PCR assay was 100 copies of viral gene segment(in pGEM-T/RSIV),and there was no cross reaction with other 6 aquatic viruses such as Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis(EHNV),Softshell turtle iridovirus(STIV) and Tiger frog virus(TFV) etc.In contrast,the cell culture method for

  4. Studie van de biologie en de kweek van zeebaars Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) in intensieve aquacultuurcondities

    OpenAIRE

    Verdonck, W.

    1989-01-01

    In Europe. the interest in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) as a culture fish is fast increasing. This results in a rapid expansion of sea bass culture and of that of other marine fish species. such as seabream (Sparus aurata) and turbot (Scophtalmus maximus). In 1983 a research project was started, with the aim of culturing sea bass in the thermal effluents of the nuclear power station at Doel. In this way the possibility of producing valuable proteins is created while at the same time therma...

  5. FITOPLANKTONSKI SASTAV NA UZGAJALIŠTU RIBA U UVALI MASLINOVA (OTOK BRAČ)

    OpenAIRE

    SKEJIĆ, Sanda; Marasović, Ivona; NINČEVIĆ GLADAN, Živana

    2012-01-01

    Cilj ovog rada je utvrditi sastav fitoplanktona na uzgajalištu komarči (Sparus aurata) i lubina (Dicentrarchus labrax) u srednjem Jadranu. Istraživanje je provedeno u razdoblju od rujna 2005. do rujna 2006. godine na postaji smještenoj u uvali Maslinova na otoku Braču. Promatrajući cijelo istraživano razdoblje, dijatomeje su općenito prevladavale svojom brojnošću, dok su dinoflagelati bili brojniji u lipnju. Broj vrsta dijatomeja i dinoflagelata kroz istraživano razdoblje bio je sličan. Z...

  6. SASTAV FITOPLANKTONA NA UZGAJALIŠTU RIBA I ŠKOLJKAŠA U UVALI KALDONTA (OTOK CRES)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomec, M.

    2004-01-01

    Uvala Kaldonta nalazi se na jugozapadnoj obali otoka Cresa u Lošinjskom kanalu na području bez većeg utjecaja opće morske struje. U uvali su postavljena 44 plutajuća kaveza veličine 5x10 metara u kojima se uspješno proizvodi oko 70 tona morske ribe: komarča (Sparus aurata), lubin (Dicentrarchus labrax), pic (Diplodus puntazzo) i zubatac (Dentex dentex). Uz neke fizikalnokemijske pokazatelje (temperatura mora, prozirnost, salinitet), posebna je pozornost posvećena kvalitativnom sastavu mrežnog...

  7. Contribuição de decavanadato para os efeitos IN VIVO e IN VITRO de vanadato no músculo cardíaco

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, S. S.

    2007-01-01

    Tese dout., Biologia - Fisiologia Animal, Universidade do Algarve, 2007 No presente estudo aborda-se a contribuição da espécie decamérica de vanadato nos efeitos tóxicos in vivo e in vitro de vanadato. Após administração intravenosa de decavanadato em Sparus aurata, o vanadato decamérico induz respostas nos marcadores de stresse oxidativo do tecido cardíaco distintas das promovidas pelo monovanadato, evidenciando a importância de considerar a contribuição dos diferentes olig...

  8. 发酵豆粕替代鱼粉对黑鲷胃肠道和血清指标的影响%Effects of fermented soybean meal replacing fish meal on gastrointestinal tract and serum indexes in black sea bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭翔; 宋文新; 周凡; 肖金星; 章亭洲; 邵庆均

    2012-01-01

    采用室内流水养殖系统饲养黑鲷(Acanthopagrus schlegelii)幼鱼56d,研究了黑鲷饲粮中发酵豆柏替代鱼粉的效果.选取初始体重为(11.82±0.32)g的健康黑鲷,随机分为6组,每组3个重复,每个重复25尾.用发酵豆粕分别替代0(S0)、10% (S10)、20%(S20)30%(S30)40%(S40)和50% (S50)的鱼粉蛋白质.结果表明,S0、S10和S20组中黑鲷的胃肠组织结构没有明显损伤,替代水平高于20%则出现不同程度的胃肠结构损伤,S40组中肠结构严重损伤,S50组前肠和中肠结构严重损伤.S10、S20组蛋白酶和脂肪酶活性显著提高,各组淀粉酶活性变化不大.随着发酵豆粕替代水平的增加,血清葡萄糖(GLU)含量、过氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、溶菌酶(LZ)含量逐渐降低,而胆固醇(T-CHO)、谷草转氨酶(GOT)和谷丙转氨酶(GPT)含量逐渐升高.结果提示,饲粮中发酵豆粕替代20%鱼粉蛋白质可提高蛋白酶和脂肪酶活性,增强黑鲷抗氧化和免疫力,对消化道无不良影响.%An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of fish meal (FM) substitution with fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in the diets of black sea bream(Acanthopagrus schlegelii), in 18 indoor flow-through fiberglass tanks (25 fish per tank). The healthy black sea bream [ (11.82±0.32) g, mean initial body weight] was selected and divided randomly into six groups and each group in triplicate tanks with 25 fish. Six experimental diets were formulated according to FSBM protein replacing fish meal protein at 0(S0) , 10% (S10), 20%(S20), 30%(S30), 40% (S40) , 50% (S50) levels, respectively. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish twice daily. The results showed that there was no significant damage to the structure of gastrointestinal tract in SO, S10 and S20 groups, but damage appeared with the substitution level more than 20%. Midgut had a serious damage in S40 group as well as foregut and midgut in S50 group. There were

  9. Chemometric approach to evaluate element distribution in muscle, liver and fish bone of roach (Rutilus rutilus), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and crucian carp (Carassius carassius) from Swarzędzkie Lake (Poland) using ICP-MS and FIAS-CVAAS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzińska, Maria; Komorowicz, Izabela; Hanć, Anetta; Gołdyn, Ryszard; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2016-11-01

    The content of elements in fish tissues and organs from Swarzędzkie Lake was investigated in order to evaluate the possible risk associated with their consumption by animals as well as humans. Samples of muscle, liver and fish bone of three fish species; roach (Rutilus rutilus), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and crucian carp (Carassius carassius) were collected from seine catches undertaken as part of the biomanipulation of Swarzędzkie Lake. Element concentration (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with the exception of Hg where the flow injection analysis system cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (FIAS-CVAAS) was applied. The study indicated a large variation in the occurrence of the investigated elements in different parts of the fish body. The highest content of Al and Zn was stated in all fish organs for each fish species. The majority of the applied statistical and chemometric methods (e.g., PCA, CA) refer to roach since we had a large number of data for this species. The obtained results were assessed in terms of their accuracy and precision using certified reference material of Fish Muscle ERM BB422. PMID:27439756

  10. Effect of cysteamine hydrochloride and luteininzing hormone-releasing hormone analog on the growth and the expression of IGF-Ⅰ mRNA in the yellow-fin porgy Sparus latus%半胱胺盐酸盐和LHRH-A对黄鳍鲷IGF-Ⅰ基因表达和生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石和荣; 张勇; 张为民; 刘晓春; 柯浩; 林浩然

    2005-01-01

    This paper was focused on the effects of cysteamine (CSH) and luteininzing hormone-releasing hormone analog (LHRH-A, D-Ala6, Pro9-Net-LHRH) on the expression of IGF-Ⅰ mRNA and the growth in juvenile yellow-fin porgy Sparus latus.IGF-ⅠcDNA of yellow-fin porgy was cloned from the liver using GeneRacerIM kit (Invitrogen), The IGF-Ⅰ cDNA is 840 bp in length, and the open reading frame encodes a putative protein of 185 amino acids.The comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that yellow-fin porgy IGF-Ⅰshared 75.2% identity with zebrafish, 75.8% with goldfish, 84.7% with trout, 86.5% with turbot, 96.8% with grouper, and 100% with seabream.The analysis of the E domain showed that porgy IGF-Ⅰ belonged to type Ea-4.The experiments were conducted from August to October 2003 for 45 days and the effects of CSH and LHRH-A administered in the diet on GH, growth, IGF-Ⅰ mRNA were determined.Healthy juvenile yellow-fin porgy (body weight 8.9±2.5 g) were maintained in outdoor cages (15 m×1.5 m×1.2 m) in seawater under natural photoperiod.Water temperatures varied from 23 to 28° C.and the dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity were around 6.0 mg/L, 8.0 and 10‰, respectively.After acclimation of two weeks, the yellow-fin porgy were randomly and equally allocated to cages and fed formulated diet twice a day to satiation.The IGF-ⅠmRNA expression in the liver was examined with semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and GH concentrations in the pituitary were assayed with heterogenous RIA.The results showed that CSH (1.25 mg/g diet) and LHRH-A (10 μg/g diet) alone or in combination significantly increased the pituitary GH contents and the hepatic IGF- I mRNA levels of yellow-fin porgy as compared to that of the control group at the end of the experiment, The relative somatic growth rates (RSGR) of yellow-fin porgy fed with CSH and LHRH-A alone or in combination for 45 days were significantly higher than those of the control group.The relative linear growth rates (RLGR

  11. UTILIZATION OF CHOLINE IN DIFFERENT LEVELS AND DIETARY CHOLINE AVAILABILITY VALUES IN SEVEN COMMON FEED INGREDIENTS FOR JUVENILE BLUNT SNOUT BREAM,MEGALOBRAMA AMBLYCEPHALA%团头鲂幼鱼对不同浓度胆碱的利用率及7种常见饲料原料中胆碱生物学效价的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 蒋广震; 刘文斌; 钱妤; 朱杰

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate dietary choline availability values in juvenile blunt snout breamMegalobrama amblycephala, an 8-week feeding trial was conducted with seven common feed ingredients. Choline chloride was fortified to the basal diet that contained 310 g/kg diet from vitamin-free casein and gelatin to formulate four purified diets containing 0, 1030, 1230 and 1430 mg/kg choline, respectively. These four purified diets were used to generate a standard curve to evaluate choline availability in seven diets containing the following common feed ingredients: fish meal (FM), soybean meal (SBM), rapeseed meal (RSM), cottonseed meal (CSM), wheat middling (WM), wheat bran (WB) and rice bran (RB). The choline in seven diets was 1230 mg/kg including 1030 mg/kg choline chloride. Three groups ofMegalobrama am-blycephala with initial average weight (3.5±0.1) g were fed randomly with each diet in a flow-through system. Our re-sults indicated that weight gain and liver choline concentration were significantly increased for higher dietary choline levels (P 0.05);在同一胆碱水平(1230 mg/kg)的条件下,原料组的增长率均高于对照组;团头鲂幼鱼对鱼粉、豆粕、菜粕、棉粕、次粉、麸皮和米糠的胆碱生物学效价分别为87.42%、112.54%、76.84%、98.00%、95.91%、43.88%、91.5%。分析可知,团头鲂生产饲料中尚需要额外添加氯化胆碱方能满足其对胆碱的需要,实际添加量与饲料所使用的原料有关。

  12. 不同蛋白质和脂肪水平对1龄团头鲂生长性能和体组成的影响%EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PROTEIN AND LIPID LEVELS ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF BLUNT SNOUT BREAM (MEGALOBRAMA AMBLYCEPHALA) YEARLINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋阳阳; 李向飞; 刘文斌; 吴阳; 李贵锋; 朱浩

    2012-01-01

    试验采用3×3因子设计,探讨了饲料中不同蛋白质和脂肪水平对1龄团头鲂[均重:(50.37±1.27)g]生长性能和体组成的影响.试验设3个蛋白质水平(25%、30%和35%)和3个脂肪水平(3%、6%和9%),共配制9组饲料.试验鱼饲养于网箱(规格为2 m×1 m×1 m)中,每天投喂3次,试验期为8周.结果表明:蛋白质和脂肪之间无交互作用存在(P>0.05).蛋白质和脂肪水平对存活率无显著影响(P>0.05).增重率、特定生长率和饵料系数显著受蛋白质和脂肪水平影响(P<0.05).其中,25%蛋白组的增重率及特定生长率显著低于其他蛋白组(P<0.05),而6%脂肪组显著高于其他脂肪组(P<0.01).尽管35%蛋白6%脂肪组的饵料系数最低,但与除了25%蛋白3%脂肪和25%蛋白9%脂肪这两组外的其他组相比,差异均不显著(P>0.05).蛋白效率比和氮保留率随蛋白质水平的升高显著降低(P<0.05).此外,蛋白效率比显著受脂肪水平的影响(P<0.05),以6%组最高.能量保留率随脂肪水平的升高显著升高(P<0.05).鱼体肥满度随蛋白质和脂肪水平的升高显著升高(P<0.05).腹脂率和肝体比随脂肪水平的升高显著升高(P<0.05),而受蛋白质水平的影响较小(P>0.05).蛋白质水平对全鱼、胴体和肝脏的组成均无显著影响(P>0.05).脂肪水平对全鱼水分、脂肪和能量有极显著影响(P<0.01),其中,全鱼水分含量随脂肪水平的升高显著降低(P<0.01),而脂肪和能量含量则显著升高(P<0.01).胴体和肝脏水分、脂肪含量的变化趋势与全鱼基本一致.以上结果表明,1龄团头鲂的适宜蛋白质和脂肪水平分别为30%和6%,适宜蛋能比为18.21 g/MJ.%A 3×3 factorial design was used to determine effect of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth performance and body composition of blunt snout bream yearlings (average initial weight of 50.37±1.27 g). Nine experimental diets were

  13. 条石鲷鳃的组织发育及鳃上钠钾三磷酸腺苷酶活性的早期变化%Ontogeny of the gill and Na+, K+-ATPase activity of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何滔; 肖志忠; 刘清华; 李军

    2013-01-01

    Based on the histological observations under optical microscope, we studied the ontogeny of the gill of rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus at (24 ± 1. 0) ℃. At hatching, gill anlage was visible in the pharyngeal region. On 2 DAH(Day After Hatching) , as the branchial cavity was formed, four pairs of gill arches were evident and some muscular fibres were observed in gill arches. The blood cells were visible in the vascular structures of gills on 3 DAH, and the primordial filaments first appeared in the second and third arches, then in the first and fourth arches on 4 DAH. The primordial lamellae were first formed in the filaments of the second and third gill arches on 6 DAH,then in the first and fourth arches on 7 DAH. On 6 DAH,the pseudobranch anlage was observed as a paired structure lied by the anterior branchial cavity and the lamellae in the pseudobranch were visible on 7 DAH. The chloride cells were first arranged in the base of the lamellae on 7 DAH,then also in the base of filaments on 8 DAH. The pavement cells were visible in the branchial epithelium on 8 DAH and the pillar cells were developed to delimit the vascular structures of lamellae on 9 DAH. On 10 DAH,the mucous cells were seen in the lamellae of pseudobranch. From 14 DAH forward,the filaments and lamellae of gills increased in number and length prominently and the gill of larvae was similar to that of juvenile fish. The specific activity of Na+ ,K+ -ATPase increased from cleavage period (0.712 ±0.400)U/g to segmentation period(2. 315 ±0. 515)U/g,and then decreased progressively to a low level until 9 DAH( 1. 389 +0. 734)U/g. Subsequently,the activity increased. After 12 DAH,it decreased to the minimum at (0. 246 ±0. 126)U/g on 14 DAH. Then the activity increased rapidly and reached the maximum at(4.731 ±0. 309) U/g on 18 DAH. From 20 DAH, the specific activity of Na+ ,K + -ATPase reached a relatively stable level until 50 DAH ( 3. 667 ± 0. 633 ) U/g. The change of Na+ , K + -ATPase activity

  14. Inmunotoxicología producida por metales pesados y caracterización del moco de piel en peces= Heavy metal immunotoxicology and skin mucus in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Guardiola Abellán, Francisco Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Durante la presente Tesis Doctoral se han estudiado los efectos inmunotoxicológicos de la exposición mediante baño a arsénico, cadmio y mercurio en la dorada (Sparus aurata L.), la cual es una especie que posee la mayor tasa de producción en la acuicultura mediterránea. Por otra parte, también se han estudiado los parámetros inmunológicos y físico-químicos del moco de la piel de cinco especies de peces teleósteos marinos. En el caso de la dorada los parámetros inmunológicos en el moco se comp...

  15. A scanning electron microscopy study of Argulus vittatus (Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1814) (Crustacea: Branchiura) from Algerian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ider, Djamila; Ramdane, Zouhir; Courcot, Lucie; Amara, Rachid; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2014-06-01

    A study of the Algerian Branchiura, Argulus vittatus (Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1814) was conducted using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). New morphological features are reported for the first time (mouth con, first maxilla, second maxilla, structures and ornamentation of thoracic segments, structure of semen papillae, etc.). The morphology of small and large female specimens was compared. Two new hosts, Pagellus erythrinus L. and Sparus aurata L., are reported for this species. Until now, six host species were reported for A. vittatus, and stenoxenic specificity for Sparid fishes was observed for Algerian specimens. The biogeographical distribution of this species seems to be restricted to the eastern coast of Algeria. Additional information about the host specificity, ecology, and life cycle of this parasitic species were given. PMID:24728522

  16. Are combined AOPs effective for toxicity reduction in receiving marine environment? Suitability of battery of bioassays for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent as an ecotoxicological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Garduño, B; Rueda-Márquez, J J; Manzano, M A; Garrido-Pérez, C; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2016-03-01

    Ecotoxicological assessment of three different wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents D1, D2 and D3 was performed before and after tertiary treatment using combination of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). A multibarrier treatment (MBT) consisting of microfiltration (MF), hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) was applied for all effluents. Sparus aurata, Paracentrotus lividus, Isochrysis galbana and Vibrio fischeri, representing different trophic levels, constituted the battery of bioassays. Different acute toxicity effects were observed in each WWTP effluents tested. The percentage of sea urchin larval development and mortality fish larvae were the most sensitive endpoints. Significant reduction (p MBT process. Base on obtained results, tested battery of bioassays in pT-method framework can be recommended for acute toxicity preliminary evaluation of WWTP effluents for the marine environment. PMID:26741736

  17. Comparison of morphology parameters of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Yih) among Liangzi Lake,Poyang Lake and Yuni Lake%梁子湖、鄱阳湖和淤泥湖团头鲂的形态学比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾聪; 阎里清; 高泽霞; 曹小娟; 钱雪桥; 王卫民

    2012-01-01

    Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is a widespread and one of the main aquaculture species in China. In present study,through univariate and multivariate analysis,we compared the external morphology of M. Amblycephala from three different locations (Liangzi,Poyang and Yuni Lake). The results from one-way ANOVA and one-way analysis of covariance showed significant differences (P<0. 05) in all the morphological parameters among the three populations, except for DRC, CRC,HD, DL, AL, PRPD and ND. We observed two discriminant functions among M. Amblycephala from three lakes and these were more accurate between Yuni and Liangzi populations. In the principal component analysis (PCA), three principal components were constructed and the related contribution ratios were 39. 78%,22. 63% and 6. 53%,respectively,with the cumulative contribution ratio of 68. 95%. The multivariate analysis indicated that morphological variation between Liangzi and Yuni populations was greater, while Liangzi and Poyang populations were more similar in morphology. According to Mayr's 75% rule, the differences among these three populations were still within the population level.%对团头鲂的3个种质资源区(梁子湖、鄱阳湖和淤泥湖)群体的可量性状和可数性状进行了多元统计分析.对可数性状的方差分析结果表明,3个团头鲂群体在侧线鳞数、侧线上鳞数、侧线下鳞数、胸鳍鳍条数以及臀鳍鳍条数上存在显著性差异;以体长作为协变量对可量性状进行的协方差分析显示,3个团头鲂群体在全长、体高、头长、头宽、尾柄长、尾柄高、背前区长和腹鳍前长存在显著性差异.对可量性状建立判别函数以及对可量性状平均值进行聚类分析表明梁子湖团头鲂与鄱阳湖团头鲂在外部形态上更为相似.主成分分析构建了3个主成分,其贡献率分别为39.78%、22.63%和6.53%,累计贡献率为68.95%.多元统计分析显示梁子湖群体

  18. Cloning and Tissue Expression Analysis ofPAX7 Gene in Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%草鱼PAX7基因的克隆、序列分析及组织表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘甜; 冷向军; 郭婷; 胡静; 魏静; 李小勤

    2014-01-01

    Paired box gene 7(PAX7)is crucially important to the cellular renewal, differentiation and apoptosis, especially in neural crest development, gastrulation, and muscle self-renewal. ThePAX7 domains sequence is conserved among several species, such as zebrafish, apteronotidae, and rainbow trout, and the conserved sequence zebrafish was used to design degenerate primers for reverse-transcription PCR(RT-PCR). A partial sequence ofPAX7 from grass carp was obtained for a 645 bp segment encoding a 214 amino acid peptide, containing a paired box domain with 128 amino acids. The deduced protein showed homology to zebrafish(Danio rerio), apteronotidae(Sternopygus macrurus), Japanese Medaka(Oryzias latipes), gilthead bream(Sparus aurata), rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon(Salmo salar), Arctic charr(Salvelinus alpinus), human(Homo sapiens), wild yak(Bos grunniens mutus), brown rat(Rattus norvegicus), and mouse(Mus musculus)with 90%-97% identities. Analysis of the PAX7 phylogenetic tree revealed that the grass carp joined with zebrafish, and there was a confluence of Japanese medaka, Arctic charr, Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, apteronotidae and gilthead bream. The other branch was consisted of mouse, brown rat, wild yak and human. These results conformed to the traditional species classification evolution status. The expression in tissues was detected by Real-time quantitative PCR, which indicated that the highest level ofPAX7 gene expression was found in muscle, a lower expression level was found in foregut and skin, and the lowest detectable level was found in heart, brain, kidney and liver. The results are in agreement with the function of the gene.%配对盒基因7(Paired box 7 gene,PAX7)在神经嵴发育及原肠胚形成、肌肉自主更新与再生中扮演着重要角色,对细胞更新、分化、凋亡等起着十分重要的调控作用。参照GenBank中斑马鱼、线鳍电鳗和虹鳟等物种PAX7序列的保守区域设计简并引

  19. Toxicity of harmful cyanobacterial blooms to bream and roach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchet, Isabelle; Cadel-Six, Sabrina; Djediat, Chakib; Marie, Benjamin; Bernard, Cécile; Puiseux-Dao, Simone; Krys, Sophie; Edery, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are facing increasing environmental pressures, leading to an increasing frequency of cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (cHABs) that have emerged as a worldwide concern due to their growing frequency and their potential toxicity to the fauna that threatens the functioning of ecosystems. Cyanobacterial blooms raise concerns due to the fact that several strains produce potent bioactive or toxic secondary metabolites, such as the microcystins (MCs), which are hepatotoxic to vertebrates. These strains of cyanobacteria may be potentially toxic to fish via gastrointestinal ingestion and also by direct absorption of the toxin MC from the water. The purpose of our study was to investigate toxic effects observed in fish taken from several lakes in the Ile-de-France region, where MCs-producing blooms occur. This study comprises histological studies and the measurement of MC concentrations in various organs. The histological findings are similar to those obtained following laboratory exposure of medaka fish to MCs: hepatic lesions predominate and include cell lysis and cell detachment. MC concentrations in the organs revealed that accumulation was particularly high in the digestive tract and the liver, which are known to be classical targets of MCs. In contrast concentrations were very low in the muscles. Differences in the accumulation of MC variants produced by blooms indicate that in order to more precisely evaluate the toxic potential of a specific bloom it is necessary not only to consider the concentration of toxins, but also the variants produced.

  20. Emerging pathogens of gilthead seabream: characterisation and genomic analysis of novel intracellular β-proteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth-Smith, Helena M B; Dourala, Nancy; Fehr, Alexander; Qi, Weihong; Katharios, Pantelis; Ruetten, Maja; Mateos, José M; Nufer, Lisbeth; Weilenmann, Roseline; Ziegler, Urs; Thomson, Nicholas R; Schlapbach, Ralph; Vaughan, Lloyd

    2016-07-01

    New and emerging environmental pathogens pose some of the greatest threats to modern aquaculture, a critical source of food protein globally. As with other intensive farming practices, increasing our understanding of the biology of infections is important to improve animal welfare and husbandry. The gill infection epitheliocystis is increasingly problematic in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a major Mediterranean aquaculture species. Epitheliocystis is generally associated with chlamydial bacteria, yet we were not able to localise chlamydial targets within the major gilthead seabream lesions. Two previously unidentified species within a novel β-proteobacterial genus were instead identified. These co-infecting intracellular bacteria have been characterised using high-resolution imaging and genomics, presenting the most comprehensive study on epitheliocystis agents to date. Draft genomes of the two uncultured species, Ca. Ichthyocystis hellenicum and Ca. Ichthyocystis sparus, have been de novo sequenced and annotated from preserved material. Analysis of the genomes shows a compact core indicating a metabolic dependency on the host, and an accessory genome with an unprecedented number of tandemly arrayed gene families. This study represents a critical insight into novel, emerging fish pathogens and will be used to underpin future investigations into the bacterial origins, and to develop diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:26849311

  1. Mitochondrial DNA analysis on genetic variation of wild, domesticated, and genetically selected populations of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)%团头鲂野生、驯养、选育3类遗传生态群体遗传变异的线粒体DNA分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐首杰; 李思发; 蔡完其

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of three genetic-ecological populations ["Pujiang No.1"selected strain F7(PJ), two domesticated populations(HX, GA) as well as four wild populations(LZ, YN, SS,JL)]of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) were analyzed by using combined nucleotide sequences of control region and CO I gene of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA).The results showed that: (1) Sixty-four haplotypes were defined in analyzed seven populations, in which no haplotype was shared among populations.(2) The haplotype diversity(Hd), number of variable sites, nucleotide diversity(π) and average number of nucleotide differences(K) were 0.857-0.943, 31-40, 0.275%-0.461% and 4.043-6.800, respectively in four wild populations.The four corresponding parameters were 0.714-0.800, 18-21, 0.122%-0.175% and 1.800-2.586, respectively in two domesticated populations, which were lower than those in the four wild populations.Likewise, those parameters were 0.843, 23, 0.193% and 2.843, respectively in genetically selected strain F7, which were lower than those in the four wild populations but higher than those in two domesticated populations.The above four genetic diversity parameters showed the same trend of change among seven populations.(3) For the seven populations studied,average genetic distance between populations ranged from 0.000 6 to 0.003 5.The pairwise FST value between populations ranged from 0.010 9 to 0.133 1.For pairwise FST value between populations, P value of permutation test were significant(P<0.05) between GA, HX and PJ populations, but no significant P value(P>0.05) were detected between four wild populations.The results indicated that distinct living environments (natural waters and closed fishponds) and artificial selection( strictly and orderly scientific breeding) had a strong impact on the population genetic structure, making difference in genetic variability and genetic differentiation between different types of genetic

  2. Rapid determination of vitellogenin in fish plasma by anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography using postcolumn fluorescence derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cuiqin; Yuan, Dongxing; Liu, Baomin

    2006-12-01

    An analytical method involving anion exchange high performance liquid chromatographic determination of vitellogenin (Vtg) in fish plasma after postcolumn fluorescence derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) was developed. The retention time of Vtg was about 11 min. The reagent variables for derivatization were optimized. The fluorophore was excited at 335 nm and detected at 435 nm. A calibration curve was established ranging from 0.13 to 11.28 microg. The determination limit of Vtg was found to be as low as 0.13 microg. The spiked recovery was 93.6% and interassay variability was less than 4%. The method developed was used to determine Vtg in fish plasma obtained from red sea bream (Pagrosomus major), black porgy (Sparus macrocephalus) and skew band grunt (Hapalogenys nitens), without complicated sample pretreatment. The results confirmed that the method showed advantages of being simple, rapid, reproducible and sensitive. PMID:17159322

  3. Isolation of a novel aquaglyceroporin from a marine teleost (Sparus auratus): function and tissue distribution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, C.R.; Estevao, M.D.; Fuentes, J.; Cardoso, J.C.; Fabra, M.; Passos, A.L.; Detmers, F.J.M.; Deen, P.M.T.; Cerda, J.; Power, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aquaporins (formerly called the major intrinsic protein family) are transmembrane channel proteins. The family includes the CHIP group, which are functionally characterised as water channels and the GLP group, which are specialised for glycerol transport. The present study reports the identifica

  4. ICI 182,780 has agonistic effects and synergizes with estradiol-17 beta in fish liver, but not in testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Power Deborah M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ICI 182,780 (ICI belongs to a new class of antiestrogens developed to be pure estrogen antagonists and, in addition to its therapeutic use, it has been used to knock-out estrogen and estrogen receptor (ER actions in several mammalian species. In the present study, the effects and mechanism of action of ICI were investigated in the teleost fish, sea bream (Sparus auratus. Methods Three independent in vivo experiments were performed in which mature male tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus or sea bream received intra-peritoneal implants containing estradiol-17 beta (E2, ICI or a combination of both compounds. The effects of E2 and ICI on plasma calcium levels were measured and hepatic and testicular gene expression of the three ER subtypes, ER alpha, ER beta a and ER beta b, and the estrogen-responsive genes, vitellogenin II and choriogenin L, were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in sea bream. Results E2 treatment caused an increase in calcium levels in tilapia, while ICI alone had no noticeable effect, as expected. However, pretreatment with ICI synergistically potentiated the effect of E2 on plasma calcium in both species. ICI mimicked some E2 actions in gene expression in sea bream liver upregulating ER alpha, vitellogenin II and choriogenin L, although, unlike E2, it did not downregulate ER beta a and ER beta b. In contrast, no effects of E2 or ICI alone were detected in the expression of ERs in testis, while vitellogenin II and choriogenin L were upregulated by E2 but not ICI. Finally, pretreatment with ICI had a synergistic effect on the hepatic E2 down-regulation of ER beta b, but apparently blocked the ER alpha up-regulation by E2. Conclusion These results demonstrate that ICI has agonistic effects on several typical estrogenic responses in fish, but its actions are tissue-specific. The mechanisms for the ICI agonistic activity are still unknown; although the ICI induced up-regulation of ER alpha mRNA could be one of

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Two Lytic Bacteriophages, φSt2 and φGrn1; Phage Therapy Application for Biological Control of Vibrio alginolyticus in Aquaculture Live Feeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos G Kalatzis

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections are a serious problem in aquaculture since they can result in massive mortalities in farmed fish and invertebrates. Vibriosis is one of the most common diseases in marine aquaculture hatcheries and its causative agents are bacteria of the genus Vibrio mostly entering larval rearing water through live feeds, such as Artemia and rotifers. The pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus strain V1, isolated during a vibriosis outbreak in cultured seabream, Sparus aurata, was used as host to isolate and characterize the two novel bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1 for phage therapy application. In vitro cell lysis experiments were performed against the bacterial host V. alginolyticus strain V1 but also against 12 presumptive Vibrio strains originating from live prey Artemia salina cultures indicating the strong lytic efficacy of the 2 phages. In vivo administration of the phage cocktail, φSt2 and φGrn1, at MOI = 100 directly on live prey A. salina cultures, led to a 93% decrease of presumptive Vibrio population after 4 h of treatment. Current study suggests that administration of φSt2 and φGrn1 to live preys could selectively reduce Vibrio load in fish hatcheries. Innovative and environmental friendly solutions against bacterial diseases are more than necessary and phage therapy is one of them.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Two Lytic Bacteriophages, φSt2 and φGrn1; Phage Therapy Application for Biological Control of Vibrio alginolyticus in Aquaculture Live Feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalatzis, Panos G; Bastías, Roberto; Kokkari, Constantina; Katharios, Pantelis

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a serious problem in aquaculture since they can result in massive mortalities in farmed fish and invertebrates. Vibriosis is one of the most common diseases in marine aquaculture hatcheries and its causative agents are bacteria of the genus Vibrio mostly entering larval rearing water through live feeds, such as Artemia and rotifers. The pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus strain V1, isolated during a vibriosis outbreak in cultured seabream, Sparus aurata, was used as host to isolate and characterize the two novel bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1 for phage therapy application. In vitro cell lysis experiments were performed against the bacterial host V. alginolyticus strain V1 but also against 12 presumptive Vibrio strains originating from live prey Artemia salina cultures indicating the strong lytic efficacy of the 2 phages. In vivo administration of the phage cocktail, φSt2 and φGrn1, at MOI = 100 directly on live prey A. salina cultures, led to a 93% decrease of presumptive Vibrio population after 4 h of treatment. Current study suggests that administration of φSt2 and φGrn1 to live preys could selectively reduce Vibrio load in fish hatcheries. Innovative and environmental friendly solutions against bacterial diseases are more than necessary and phage therapy is one of them.

  7. The Effect of 17α-Ethynylestradiol on Steroidogenesis and Gonadal Cytokine Gene Expression Is Related to the Reproductive Stage in Marine Hermaphrodite Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cabas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollutants have been reported to disrupt the endocrine system of marine animals, which may be exposed through contaminated seawater or through the food chain. Although 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2, a drug used in hormone therapies, is widely present in the aquatic environment, current knowledge on the sensitivity of marine fish to estrogenic pollutants is limited. We report the effect of the dietary intake of 5 µg EE2/g food on different processes of testicular physiology, ranging from steroidogenesis to pathogen recognition, at both pre-spermatogenesis (pre-SG and spermatogenesis (SG reproductive stages, of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., a marine hermaphrodite teleost. A differential effect between pre-SG and SG specimens was detected in the sex steroid serum levels and in the expression profile of some steroidogenic-relevant molecules, vitellogenin, double sex- and mab3-related transcription factor 1 and some hormone receptors. Interestingly, EE2 modified the expression pattern of some immune molecules involved in testicular physiology. These differences probably reflect a developmental adjustment of the sensitivity to EE2 in the gilthead seabream gonad.

  8. Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of α- and β-Globin Gene of Hunphead Snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus)%红笛鲷α-珠蛋白和β-珠蛋白基因的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新中; 鲁义善; 吴灶和; 简纪常

    2011-01-01

    应用已知的标签序列通过RACE-PCR和RT-PCR方法成功克隆红笛鲷(Lutjanus sanguineus)α-珠蛋白和β-珠蛋白基因的全长cDNA序列.α-珠蛋白和β-珠蛋白基因的cDNA全长分别为560和563 bp,开放阅读框分别为429和444 bp,各编码143和148个氨基酸,理论相对分子质量分别为15690和16400,理论等电点为7.79和6.61.氨基酸序列BLAST结果表明,红笛鲷α-珠蛋白基因和β-珠蛋白基因编码的氨基酸序列与其他鱼类的相似性分别在59%~ 79%和55%~80%之间.用邻接法(Neighbor-Joining)构建的α -珠蛋白基因和β-珠蛋白基因的系统发育树表明,红笛鲷与真鲷(Pagrus major)、金头鲷(Sparus aurata)和鰤(Seriola quinqueradiata)等亲缘关系较近.

  9. Linking the genomes of nonmodel teleosts through comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarropoulou, E; Nousdili, D; Magoulas, A; Kotoulas, G

    2008-01-01

    Recently the genomes of two more teleost species have been released: the medaka (Oryzias latipes), and the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculateus). The rapid developments in genomics of fish species paved the way to new and valuable research in comparative genetics and genomics. With the accumulation of information in model species, the genetic and genomic characterization of nonmodel, but economically important species, is now feasible. Furthermore, comparison of low coverage gene maps of aquacultured fish species against fully sequenced fish species will enhance the efficiency of candidate genes identification projected for quantitative trait loci (QTL) scans for traits of commercial interest. This study shows the syntenic relationship between the genomes of six different teleost species, including three fully sequenced model species: Tetraodon nigroviridis, Oryzias latipes, Gasterosteus aculateus, and three marine species of commercial and evolutionary interest: Sparus aurata, Dicentrarchus labrax, Oreochromis spp. All three commercial fish species belong to the order Perciformes, which is the richest in number of species (approximately 10,000) but poor in terms of available genomic information and tools. Syntenic relationships were established by using 800 EST and microsatellites sequences successfully mapped on the RH map of seabream. Comparison to the stickleback genome produced most positive BLAT hits (58%) followed by medaka (32%) and Tetraodon (30%). Thus, stickleback was used as the major stepping stone to compare seabass and tilapia to seabream. In addition to the significance for the aquaculture industry, this approach can encompass important ecological and evolutionary implications. PMID:18297360

  10. Assessment of Tools for Marker-Assisted Selection in a Marine Commercial Species: Significant Association between MSTN-1 Gene Polymorphism and Growth Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Sánchez-Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection in complex traits as growth. Polymorphisms have been studied in five candidate genes influencing growth in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata: the growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, myostatin (MSTN-1, prolactin (PRL, and somatolactin (SL genes. Specimens evaluated were from a commercial broodstock comprising 131 breeders (from which 36 males and 44 females contributed to the progeny. In all samples eleven gene fragments, covering more than 13,000 bp, generated by PCR-RFLP, were analyzed; tests were made for significant associations between these markers and growth traits. ANOVA results showed a significant association between MSTN-1 gene polymorphism and growth traits. Pairwise tests revealed several RFLPs in the MSTN-1 gene with significant heterogeneity of genotypes among size groups. PRL and MSTN-1 genes presented linkage disequilibrium. The MSTN-1 gene was mapped in the centromeric region of a medium-size acrocentric chromosome pair.

  11. Immune modulatory effects of Aloe arborescens extract on the piscine SAF-1 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchietti, S; Bernini, C; Belardinelli, M C; Ovidi, E; Taddei, A R; Guerra, L; Abelli, L; Fausto, A M

    2013-05-01

    The pharmacological potential of Aloe arborescens Miller leaf components was investigated, with special attention deserved to immune modulatory effects on the Sparus aurata fibroblast cell line SAF-1. The cells were treated with Aloe extract at different concentrations (1.2-4.8 mg ml(-1)) for various times (24-72 h). The lowest concentration did not provoke any cellular damage observable by SEM and did not affect ATP amounts after 24 and 48 h, while even induced a significant increase over controls after 72 h. We next examined the transcription kinetics of different immune-related genes (IL-1β, TGF-β, TNF-α, COX-2, IFN-I, Mx and MHCI-α) in SAF-1 cells stimulated with LPS or poly I:C. The Aloe extract (1.2 mg ml(-1)) acted as a powerful immune stimulant in LPS- or poly I:C-activated SAF-1 cells, inducing a synergic effect on interconnected genes that are expected to be involved in different aspects of the immune responses. These reports provide a new perspective for the use of A. arborescens to prevent or oppose bacterial and viral fish diseases and to face, as an alternative strategy based on natural plant extracts, the growing unwillingness to rely upon standard solutions involving antibiotics or antimicrobial chemicals. PMID:23470814

  12. Development of a convenience and safety chilled sous vide fish dish: Diversification of aquacultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, M C; López, G; Díaz, P; Linares, M B; Garrido, M D

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic expansion of the ready-to-eat seabream sector in its adaptation to new lifestyles has led to the search for new presentation formats in seabream (Sparus aurata). Green sauce (olive oil, wine vinegar, garlic, fresh parsley, black pepper, basil and salt) and 60 ℃ of cooking temperature were chosen by the panellists for the sous vide cooking process. Seabream fillet and sauce were packaged in polypropylene trays, cooked, chilled and stored at 2 ℃. Microbiological (total viable counts,Enterobacteriaceae,lactic acid bacteria, anaerobic psychrotrophic, moulds and yeasts, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes), chemical (pH and TBARs) and sensory parameters were determined at 0, 7, 17, 34, 48 and 62 days. In the conditions used, the microbiological counts remained stable, and Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were absent. The acidic sauce had a positive effect on the pH of the product, and low TBARs were obtained throughout storage. The processing conditions used in the present study allowed a chilled ready-to-eat seabream product of consistently high quality up to 62 days of storage to be obtained, representing an expansion of the products offered by the aquacultural industry.

  13. State of the art of Italian aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Melotti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available According to aquaculture production statistics published by FEAP (2007, Italy is the fifth largest fish producer in the European Union having a total quantity for 2006 estimated around 60,000 t. This data is exclusively referred to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, seabream (Sparus aurata, seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax and European eel (Anguilla anguilla but even if we consider the total aquaculture production elaborated by ISMEA (2006 through year 2005 including sturgeons, carps, striped bass, catfish and ornamental fish, Italy ranks fourth with 69,100 t after Norway (655,364 t, Great Britain (141,793 t and Greece (83,600 t. Over the last 15 years, Italian finfish production has known a decrease related to all the species mainly reared (trout, eel, carps, catfish except for the eurhyaline species that have had an important expansion (Table 1. Based on these considerations, in this work we describe the main features of fish aquaculture in Italy focalizing the attention to the single sectors of the farmed species and their trend for the future.

  14. Impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism of two marine fish by in vitro mercuric chloride exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hg levels usually found in contaminated environments may compromise fish metabolism. • Hg impairs both the oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain. • The decrease of F1Fo-ATPase activity confirmed Hg inhibition of ADP phosphorylation. • The decrease of SDH activity supported Hg inhibition of the electron transport chain. • Mitochondrial respiration is a suitable biomarker of exposure to Hg. - Abstract: The goal of this work was to understand the extent of mercury toxic effects in liver metabolism under an episode of acute contamination. Hence, the effects of in vitro mercuric chloride in liver mitochondria were assessed in two commercial marine fish: Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Liver mitochondria were exposed to 0.2 mg L−1 of mercury, the average concentration found in fish inhabiting contaminated areas. Mercuric chloride depressed mitochondrial respiration state 3 and the maximal oxygen consumption in the presence of FCCP indicating inhibitory effects on the oxidative phosphorylation and on the electron transport chain, respectively. The inhibition of F1Fo-ATPase and succinate-dehydrogenase activities also corroborated the ability of mercury to inhibit ADP phosphorylation and the electron transport chain. This study brings new understanding on the mercury levels able to impair fish mitochondrial function, reinforcing the need for further assessing bioenergetics as a proxy for fish health status

  15. Development of a convenience and safety chilled sous vide fish dish: Diversification of aquacultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, M C; López, G; Díaz, P; Linares, M B; Garrido, M D

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic expansion of the ready-to-eat seabream sector in its adaptation to new lifestyles has led to the search for new presentation formats in seabream (Sparus aurata). Green sauce (olive oil, wine vinegar, garlic, fresh parsley, black pepper, basil and salt) and 60 ℃ of cooking temperature were chosen by the panellists for the sous vide cooking process. Seabream fillet and sauce were packaged in polypropylene trays, cooked, chilled and stored at 2 ℃. Microbiological (total viable counts,Enterobacteriaceae,lactic acid bacteria, anaerobic psychrotrophic, moulds and yeasts, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes), chemical (pH and TBARs) and sensory parameters were determined at 0, 7, 17, 34, 48 and 62 days. In the conditions used, the microbiological counts remained stable, and Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were absent. The acidic sauce had a positive effect on the pH of the product, and low TBARs were obtained throughout storage. The processing conditions used in the present study allowed a chilled ready-to-eat seabream product of consistently high quality up to 62 days of storage to be obtained, representing an expansion of the products offered by the aquacultural industry. PMID:25941212

  16. Identification of MicroRNA for Intermuscular Bone Development in Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ming Wan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermuscular bone (IB, which occurs only in the myosepta of the lower teleosts, is attracting more attention of researchers due to its particular development and lack of genetic information. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are emerging as important regulators for biological processes. In the present study, miRNAs from IBs and connective tissue (CT; encircled IBs from six-month-old Megalobrama amblycephala were characterized and compared. The results revealed the sequences and expression levels of 218 known miRNA genes (belonging to 97 families. Of these miRNAs, 44 known microRNA sequences exhibited significant expression differences between the two libraries, with 24 and 20 differentially-expressed miRNAs exhibiting higher expression in the CT and IBs libraries, respectively. The expressions of 11 miRNAs were selected to validate in nine tissues. Among the high-ranked predicted gene targets, differentiation, cell cycle, metabolism, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation were implicated. The pathway analysis of differentially-expressed miRNAs indicated that they were abundantly involved in regulating the development and differentiation of IBs and CT. This study characterized the miRNA for IBs of teleosts for the first time, which provides an opportunity for further understanding of miRNA function in the regulation of IB development.

  17. Molecular Identification and Phylogenetic Relationships of Threadfin Breams (Family: Nemipteridae Using mtDNA Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaithilingam RAVITCHANDIRANE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome c oxidase-1 gene sequences of mitochondrial genome were analyzed for species identification and phylogenetic relationship among the commercially important Nemipterus species. Sequence analysis of COI gene clearly indicated that all the nine fish species fell into distinct clads, which are genetically distant from each other and exhibited identical phylogenetic reservation. All the COI gene sequences provide sufficient phylogenetic information and evolutionary relationship to distinguish the nine Nemipterus species unambiguously. As per the neighbour-joining (NJ and maximum likelihood (ML trees, all the nine species are genetically distant from each other and exhibited identical phylogenetic reservation. Based on the NJ and ML phylogenetic trees N. mesoprion, N. zysron, N. hexodon, N. nematophorus, N. virgatus and N. bipunctatus were closely related with high bootstrap value (97. The overall mean Kimura two parameter (K2P distances between the nine species was 0.109. The intra species K2P distance was high in N. japonicus (0.069 followed by N. peronii (0.050 and N. mesoprion (0.002. This study proves the use of mtDNA COI gene sequence based approach is an alternative tool for identifying fish species at a faster pace.

  18. Coordinated gene expression during gilthead sea bream skeletogenesis and its disruption by nutritional hypervitaminosis A

    OpenAIRE

    Zambonino-Infante Jose; Mazurais David; Andree Karl B; Darias Maria; Fernández Ignacio; Gisbert Enric

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Vitamin A (VA) has a key role in vertebrate morphogenesis, determining body patterning and growth through the control of cell proliferation and differentiation processes. VA regulates primary molecular pathways of those processes by the binding of its active metabolite (retinoic acid) to two types of specific nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which promote transcription of downstream target genes. This process is well known ...

  19. Effects of sea bass and sea bream farming (Western Mediterranean Sea) on peracarid crustacean assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Victoria; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Benthic soft–bottom assemblages are good indicators of environmental disturbance, such as coastal aquaculture, considering their rapid response in terms of diversity and abundance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of peracarid assemblages to the release of waste from coastal farming as these organisms play an important ecological role. Abundance and species richness did not show significant differences between farm and control localities but did show a high spatial variabili...

  20. Shelf life determination of the brined golden mullet Liza aurata during vacuum refrigerated storage using some quality aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyam Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Salted fish products are popular in many countries around the world. Salting is one of the oldest techniques for fish preservation, and is essentially intended to increase the shelf-life of the product depressing water activity by means of dehydration and salt uptake by the fish muscle. However, the current demand for salted fish is driven more by the flavour of the product than for preservation purposes. Vacuum-packaging represents a static form of hypobaric storage. It is widely used in the food industry because of its effectiveness in reducing oxidative reactions in the product at relatively low cost. Low temperature storage is one of the primary methods to maintain fish quality, based on the reduction in the rates of microbiological, chemical and biochemical changes. Material  and methods. Fresh Golden mullets were rapidly beheaded, scaled, gutted and immediately washed with tap water then, samples were taken to the laboratory in ice box for chemical and microbial analysis of fresh fish, other samples were put in the brine (6 liter water and 2160 g salt was used for brine solution. After 14 days of brining, fish were taken out of brine solution and drained, then they were Vacuum Packed and labelled (each pack contained two fish about 1500 g weight. All the packs were stored in a refrigerator 4°C. Some quality aspects including Total Volatile Nitrogen (TVN, Peroxide Value (PV, Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA, Total Viable Count (TVC, Halophilic Bacteria (HB and presence of Clostridium Botulinum were determined in fresh mullets, fresh brined mullets after 14 days of brining, and in (Vacuum Packed VP samples stored at 4°C at intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days. Results.  TVN increased from ten mg/100 g in fresh brined after 14 days to 30.80 mg/100 g in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, PV increased after brining from 1.50 meq/kg in fresh brined to 28.90 meq/kg in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, TBA increased from 0.07 mg MDA/kg in fresh brined to 0.10 after 60 days and then, decreased to 0.09 mg MDA/kg in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage and  TVC decreased from 4.70 log CFU/gr in fresh brined to 4.40 log CFU/ gr after 30 days and then, increased to 5.70 log CFU/gr in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, HB increased from 4.55 log CFU/gr in fresh brined to 6.30 log CFU/gr after 90 days of storage period at 4°C and exceeded the permissible level. Clostridium botulinum toxin was not detected in any of the samples throughout the storage. Conclusions. The results from this study clearly suggested that a combination of brining, vacuum packaging and storage at refrigerated temperature prolongs the shelf-life of Golden mullet to a great extent. Our findings revealed that the longest shelf-life was for VP brined Golden mullet stored at 4°C is 30 days.

  1. Shelf life determination of the brined golden mullet Liza aurata during vacuum refrigerated storage using some quality aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Mariyam Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background. Salted fish products are popular in many countries around the world. Salting is one of the oldest techniques for fish preservation, and is essentially intended to increase the shelf-life of the product depressing water activity by means of dehydration and salt uptake by the fish muscle. However, the current demand for salted fish is driven more by the flavour of the product than for preservation purposes. Vacuum-packaging represents a static form of hypobaric storage. It is widely...

  2. Spatial variations in dietary organic matter sources modulate the size and condition of fish juveniles in temperate lagoon nursery sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalas, Arthur; Ferraton, Franck; Paillon, Christelle; Vidy, Guy; Carcaillet, Frédérique; Salen-Picard, Chantal; Le Loc'h, François; Richard, Pierre; Darnaude, Audrey Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Effective conservation of marine fish stocks involves understanding the impact, on population dynamics, of intra-specific variation in nursery habitats use at the juvenile stage. In some regions, an important part of the catching effort is concentrated on a small number of marine species that colonize coastal lagoons during their first year of life. To determine the intra-specific variation in lagoon use by these fish and their potential demographic consequences, we studied diet spatiotemporal variations in the group 0 juveniles of a highly exploited sparid, the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), during their ∼6 months stay in a NW Mediterranean lagoon (N = 331, SL = 25-198 mm) and traced the origin of the organic matter in their food webs, at two lagoon sites with contrasted continental inputs. This showed that the origin (marine, lagoonal or continental) of the organic matter (OM) available in the water column and the sediment can vary substantially within the same lagoon, in line with local variations in the intensity of marine and continental inputs. The high trophic plasticity of S. aurata allows its juveniles to adapt to resulting differences in prey abundances at each site during their lagoon residency, thereby sustaining high growth irrespective of the area inhabited within the lagoon. However, continental POM incorporation by the juveniles through their diet (of 21-37% on average depending on the site) is proportional to its availability in the environment and could be responsible for the greater fish sizes (of 28 mm SL on average) and body weights (of 40.8 g on average) observed at the site under continental influence in the autumn, when the juveniles are ready to leave the lagoon. This suggests that continental inputs in particulate OM, when present, could significantly enhance fish growth within coastal lagoons, with important consequences on the local population dynamics of the fish species that use them as nurseries. As our results indicate that

  3. Phylogenetic consistencies among chondrichthyan and teleost fishes in their bioaccumulation of multiple trace elements from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffree, Ross A., E-mail: R.Jeffree@iaea.org [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories, 4, Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco); Oberhansli, Francois; Teyssie, Jean-Louis [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories, 4, Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco)

    2010-07-15

    Multi-tracer experiments determined the accumulation from seawater of selected radioactive trace elements (Mn-54, Co-60, Zn-65, Cs-134, Am-241, Cd-109, Ag-110m, Se-75 and Cr-51) by three teleost and three chondrichthyan fish species to test the hypothesis that these phylogenetic groups have different bioaccumulation characteristics, based on previously established contrasts between the carcharhiniform chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula (dogfish) and the pleuronectiform teleost Psetta maxima (turbot). Discriminant function analysis on whole body: water concentration factors (CFs) separated dogfish and turbot in two independent experiments. Classification functions grouped the perciform teleosts, seabream (Sparus aurata) and seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), with turbot and grouped the chondrichthyans, undulate ray (Raja undulata; Rajiformes) and spotted torpedo (Torpedo marmorata; Torpediniformes), with dogfish, thus supporting our hypothesis. Hierarchical classificatory, multi-dimensional scaling and similarity analyses based on the CFs for the nine radiotracers, also separated all three teleosts (that aggregated lower in the hierarchy) from the three chondrichthyan species. The three chondrichthyans were also more diverse amongst themselves compared to the three teleosts. Particular trace elements that were more important in separating teleosts and chondrichthyans were Cs-134 that was elevated in teleosts and Zn-65 that was elevated in chondrichthyans, these differences being due to their differential rates of uptake rather than loss. Chondrichthyans were also higher in Cr-51, Co-60, Ag-110m and Am-241, whereas teleosts were higher only in Mn-54. These contrasts in bioaccumulation patterns between teleosts and chondrichthyans are interpreted in the context of both proximate causes of underlying differences in physiology and anatomy, as well as the ultimate cause of their evolutionary divergence over more than 500 million years before present (MyBP). Our results

  4. Effects of administration of probiotic strains on GALT of larval gilthead seabream: Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchietti, Simona; Mazzini, Massimo; Taddei, Anna Rita; Renna, Raffaella; Fausto, Anna Maria; Mulero, Victoriano; Carnevali, Oliana; Cresci, Alberto; Abelli, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Two bacterial strains Lactobacillus fructivorans (AS17B), isolated from adult seabream (Sparus aurata L.) gut, and Lactobacillus plantarum (906), isolated from human faeces, were administered contemporaneously during seabream development using Brachionus plicatilis and/or Artemia salina and dry feed as vectors. Experimental group A received the probiotic strains already via rotifers from day 5 post-hatch (ph), whereas treatment of group B began with Artemia feeding from day 27 ph. Fish were sampled at day 28 ph (group A and control) and day 99 ph (groups A, B and control) for electron microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry with the polyclonal antiserum ORa against homologous serum Ig and the mAb G7 specific for seabream acidophilic granulocytes. In all groups, timing and pattern of differentiation of the digestive tract did not differ. Furthermore, neither tissue damage nor manifest inflammation was provoked by probiotic administration. At day 28 ph, the developing GALT already housed mucosal leucocytes, including Ig(+) cells but no acidophilic granulocytes. No differences were seen between experimental groups. At day 99 ph, the density of Ig(+) cells (+51%) and acidophilic granulocytes (+284%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in group A than in controls. Also group B had a higher density of Ig(+) cells (+17%) and acidophilic granulocytes (+130%) compared with controls, although less pronounced. Light and electron microscopy observations detailed the occurrence of heterogeneous populations of lymphocytes and granulocytes in the developing intestinal mucosa, and highlighted the net expansion of G7(+) acidophilic granulocytes (A +536%, B +292% vs. control) due to probiotic administration. Evidence is provided that early feeding with probiotic-supplemented diet increased the number of Ig(+) cells and acidophilic granulocytes in seabream gut and that the effects were more pronounced when administration started during gut metamorphosis. These results point to a

  5. Selective estrogen receptor modulators differentially alter the immune response of gilthead seabream juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenas, M C; Cabas, I; García-Alcázar, A; Meseguer, J; Mulero, V; García-Ayala, A

    2016-05-01

    17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen used in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, tamoxifen (Tmx), a selective estrogen-receptor modulator used in hormone replacement therapy, and G1, a G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) selective agonist, differentially increased the hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) gene expression and altered the immune response in adult gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) males. However, no information exists on the effects of these compounds on the immune response of juveniles. This study aims, for the first time, to investigate the effects of the dietary intake of EE2, Tmx or G1 on the immune response of gilthead seabream juveniles and the capacity of the immune system of the specimens to recover its functionality after ceasing exposures (recovery period). The specimens were immunized with hemocyanin in the presence of aluminium adjuvant 1 (group A) or 120 (group B) days after the treatments ceased (dpt). The results indicate that EE2 and Tmx, but not G1, differentially promoted a transient alteration in hepatic vtg gene expression. Although all three compounds did not affect the production of reactive oxygen intermediates, they inhibited the induction of interleukin-1β (il1b) gene expression after priming. Interestingly, although Tmx increased the percentage of IgM-positive cells in both head kidney and spleen during the recovery period, the antibody response of vaccinated fish varied depending on the compound used and when the immunization was administered. Taken together, our results suggest that these compounds differentially alter the capacity of fish to respond to infection during ontogeny and, more interestingly, that the adaptive immune response remained altered to an extent that depends on the compound. PMID:27012396

  6. Can we predict personality in fish? Searching for consistency over time and across contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filipa Castanheira

    Full Text Available The interest in animal personality, broadly defined as consistency of individual behavioural traits over time and across contexts, has increased dramatically over the last years. Individual differences in behaviour are no longer recognised as noise around a mean but rather as adaptive variation and thus, essentially, raw material for evolution. Animal personality has been considered evolutionary conserved and has been shown to be present in all vertebrates including fish. Despite the importance of evolutionary and comparative aspects in this field, few studies have actually documented consistency across situations in fish. In addition, most studies are done with individually housed fish which may pose additional challenges when interpreting data from social species. Here, we investigate, for the first time in fish, whether individual differences in behavioural responses to a variety of challenges are consistent over time and across contexts using both individual and grouped-based tests. Twenty-four juveniles of Gilthead seabream Sparus aurata were subjected to three individual-based tests: feed intake recovery in a novel environment, novel object and restraining and to two group-based tests: risk-taking and hypoxia. Each test was repeated twice to assess consistency of behavioural responses over time. Risk taking and escape behaviours during restraining were shown to be significantly consistent over time. In addition, consistency across contexts was also observed: individuals that took longer to recover feed intake after transfer into a novel environment exhibited higher escape attempts during a restraining test and escaped faster from hypoxia conditions. These results highlight the possibility to predict behaviour in groups from individual personality traits.

  7. Using a concentrate of phenols obtained from olive vegetation water to preserve chilled food: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fasolato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are plant metabolites characterised by several interesting bioactive properties such as antioxidant and bactericidal activities. In this study the application of a phenols concentrate (PC from olive vegetation water to two different fresh products – gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata and chicken breast – was described. Products were treated in a bath of PC (22 g/L; chicken breast or sprayed with two different solutions (L1:0.75 and L2:1.5 mg/mL; seabream and then stored under refrigeration conditions. The shelf life was monitored through microbiological analyses – quality index method for seabream and a specific sensory index for raw breast. The secondary products of lipid-peroxidation of the chicken breast were determined using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs test on cooked samples. Multivariate statistical techniques were adopted to investigate the impact of phenols and microbiological data were fitted by DMfit software. In seabream, the levels of PC did not highlight any significant difference on microbiological and sensory features. DMfit models suggested an effect only on H2S producing bacteria with an increased lag phase compared to the control samples (C: 87 h vs L2: 136 h. The results on chicken breast showed that the PC bath clearly modified the growth of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae. The phenol dipping was effective in limiting lipid-peroxidation (TBARs after cooking. Treated samples disclosed an increase of shelf life of 2 days. These could be considered as preliminary findings suggesting the use of this concentrate as preservative in some fresh products.

  8. Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

    2015-03-15

    In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 μm) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3). PMID:25600300

  9. Selective estrogen receptor modulators differentially alter the immune response of gilthead seabream juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenas, M C; Cabas, I; García-Alcázar, A; Meseguer, J; Mulero, V; García-Ayala, A

    2016-05-01

    17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen used in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, tamoxifen (Tmx), a selective estrogen-receptor modulator used in hormone replacement therapy, and G1, a G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) selective agonist, differentially increased the hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) gene expression and altered the immune response in adult gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) males. However, no information exists on the effects of these compounds on the immune response of juveniles. This study aims, for the first time, to investigate the effects of the dietary intake of EE2, Tmx or G1 on the immune response of gilthead seabream juveniles and the capacity of the immune system of the specimens to recover its functionality after ceasing exposures (recovery period). The specimens were immunized with hemocyanin in the presence of aluminium adjuvant 1 (group A) or 120 (group B) days after the treatments ceased (dpt). The results indicate that EE2 and Tmx, but not G1, differentially promoted a transient alteration in hepatic vtg gene expression. Although all three compounds did not affect the production of reactive oxygen intermediates, they inhibited the induction of interleukin-1β (il1b) gene expression after priming. Interestingly, although Tmx increased the percentage of IgM-positive cells in both head kidney and spleen during the recovery period, the antibody response of vaccinated fish varied depending on the compound used and when the immunization was administered. Taken together, our results suggest that these compounds differentially alter the capacity of fish to respond to infection during ontogeny and, more interestingly, that the adaptive immune response remained altered to an extent that depends on the compound.

  10. The antimicrobial peptide hepcidin exerts an important role in the innate immunity against bacteria in the bony fish gilthead seabream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2008-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important mediators of the immune response against bacteria and hepcidin is a 20-25 residues member with known functions in iron regulation and the innate immune response. Most studies have focused on mammalian organisms but very little is known about other vertebrate groups including teleost fish. Thus, based on the sequence of an EST database, we have characterized hepcidin gene organization, gene expression, distribution and in vitro and in vivo regulation, as well as the biological activity of a synthetic peptide in the teleost fish gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). First, it was found that the seabream hep gene genomic organization is formed by 3 exons and 2 introns, while the mRNA transcript is constitutively detected in most of the fish tissues but mainly in peritoneal leucocytes, head-kidney, liver and skin. Moreover, we have identified for the first time that hep is much more highly expressed in acidophilic granulocytes than in monocyte-macrophages and lymphocytes. In vitro, hep expression is up-regulated by several mitogens, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and particulated antigens. Not surprisingly, intraperitoneal injection of bacteria or virus led to a significant gene up-regulation in the liver, head-kidney, peritoneal exudate or spleen. These observations suggest a major role for seabream hepcidin in the immune response to bacteria and viruses. Furthermore, the synthetic seabream Hep exerted an important antimicrobial activity against several bacterial strains in vitro reducing their viability. To conclude, seabream hep gene expression, up-regulation after in vitro or in vivo treatment with mitogens, PAMPs or particulated antigens and the direct in vitro biological activity against bacteria demonstrate that it is an important antimicrobial peptide and probably plays an important role in the innate immune response of fish.

  11. Sustainable Resource Use of Common Bream and Roach Catch from Reduction Fishing in Östergötland

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient inflows from anthropogenic sources into water systems are causing eutrophication, algal blooms and trophic changes in Swedish lakes and seas. The European water framework directive was implemented to regulate member countries' policies to achieve a good status in surface waters. Reduction fishing has shown to be an effective lake restoration tool involving removal of large quantities of planktivorous fish, decreasing the internal nutrient loads and recovering the lake status. The Adm...

  12. Molecular cloning, tissue expression of gene Muc2 in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala and regulation after re-feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chunyu; Xi, Bingwen; Ren, Mingchun; Dong, Jingjing; Xie, Jun; Xu, Pao

    2015-03-01

    Mucins are important components of mucus, which form a natural, physical, biochemical and semipermeable mucosal layer on the epidermis of fish gills, skin, and the gastrointestinal tract. As the first step towards characterizing the function of Muc2, we cloned a partial Megalobrama amblycephala Muc2 cDNA of 2 175 bp, and analyzed its tissue-specific expression pattern by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The obtained sequence comprised 41 bp 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), 2 134 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 711 amino acids. BLAST searching and phylogenetic analysis showed that the predicted protein contained several common secreted mucin-module domains (VWD-C8-TIL-VWD-C8) and had high homology with mucins from other vertebrates. Among four candidate reference genes ( β- Actin, RPI13α, RPII, 18S) for the qPCR, RPII was chosen as an appropriate reference gene because of its lowest variation in different tissues. M. amblycephala Muc2 was mainly expressed in the intestine, in the order (highest to lowest) middle-intestine > fore-intestine > hind-intestine. Muc2 was expressed relatively poorly in other organs (brain, liver, kidney, spleen, skin and gill). Furthermore, after 20-days of starvation, M. amblycephala Muc2 expressions after refeeding for 0 h, 3 h, 16 h, 3 d, and 10 d were significantly decreased in the three intestinal segments ( P<0.05) at 16 h, and were then upregulated to near the initial level at 10 d.

  13. Molecular cloning and expression of toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4) in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ruifang; Liu, Han; Jakovlić, Ivan; Zhan, Fanbin; Wei, Jin; Yang, Pinhong; Wang, Weimin

    2016-06-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in teleost innate immune system. In this study, Megalobrama amblycephala (ma) tlr4 gene was cloned, its putative polypeptide product characterized, and expression analysed. Matlr4 cDNA is 2862 bp long, with an open reading frame of 2364 bp encoding 787 amino acids. MaTlr4 is a typical TLR protein, including the extracellular part with nine leucine-rich repeat motifs, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain. MaTlr4 has the highest level of identity (94%) and similarity (97%) with the grass carp Tlr4.2 homolog. This was also corroborated by the phylogenetic analysis, which placed MaTlr4 in a cluster with other cyprinid homologs. Matlr4 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues and during all sampled developmental stages. The observed peak in matlr4 mRNA expression during gastrula and somite stages is in good agreement with its proposed role in the development of the neural system. Temporal expression patterns of matlr4 and maMyD88 mRNAs and proteins were analyzed in liver, spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney and intestine after Aeromonas hydrophila infection. And mRNA expression varied between different time-points. Both MaTlr4 and MaMyD88 protein expressions at 12 hpi were significantly enhanced in head kidney and intestine. These results indicate that matlr4 is involved in the immune response in M. amblycephala, and that it is indeed a functional homologue of tlr4s described in other animal species. PMID:26802439

  14. FEEDING HABITS OF THE SHARP SNOUT SEA BREAM, DIPLODUS PUNTAZZO (CETTI, 1777) (TELEOSTEI: SPARIDAE) FROM BENGHAZI COAST, EASTERN LIBYA

    OpenAIRE

    Hana M Saleh* and Mohammad El-Mor

    2015-01-01

    The feeding habits of 500 specimens of Diplodus puntazzo (family: Sparidae), inhabiting Benghazi Mediterranean coast, were studied monthly from September 2013 to August 2014. The annual diet composition, monthly variations in the diet composition, the variations of diet with length and the intensity of feeding were studied. Diplodus puntazzo feed on a wide variety of prey types: crustaceans) 40.1%), cephalopods (22.1%), green algae (17.7 %), mollusks (5.2%), polychaetes (1.1%) and sediments (...

  15. INTERSPECIFIC PHYLOGENESIS AND INTRASPECIFIC GENETIC DIFFERENCES OF GENUS MEGALOBRAMA: BLUNTNOSE BLACK BREAM (M.AMBLYCEPHALA), GUANGDONG BLACK BREAM (M.HOFFMANNI) AND BLACK BREAM (M.TERMINALIS)%鲂属团头鲂、三角鲂及广东鲂种间遗传关系及种内遗传差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思发; 朱泽闻; 邹曙明; 赵金良; 蔡完其

    2002-01-01

    采用形态判别、同工酶分析和RAPD分析相结合的方法,从3个层次研究分析了鲂属团头鲂、三角鲂和广东鲂的种间亲缘关系和种内遗传差异.结果表明: (1) 3种鲂在形态可数性状上差异不显著,而可量性状与框架分析揭示团头鲂与三角鲂亲缘关系较近,它们同广东鲂差异较大;(2) 团头鲂和三角鲂均具有MDH同工酶的s-Mdh-D位点,而广东鲂未见,引物S11 扩增的结果在3种鲂间均显示种的特异性,这些同工酶谱带和DNA扩增带可作为3种鲂的种间分子标记;(3) 3种鲂种间亲缘关系在三个研究层面上相互吻合:即广东鲂与团头鲂、三角鲂差异较大,亲缘关系较远,而三角鲂和团头鲂之间差异小,亲缘关系较近;(4) 同工酶和RAPD分析揭示,三角鲂种内遗传多样性显著地高于广东鲂和团头鲂.

  16. 黄鳍鲷肝细胞体外培养研究%Primary Culture of Liver Cell from Sparus latus hottuyn in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国平; 纪荣兴; 李丽美; 邹文政

    2003-01-01

    以黄鳍鲷肝脏细胞为材料,研究其肝细胞体外培养适宜的pH、血清浓度、谷氨酰胺等条件, 并进行传代培养试验.结果表明,培养液为:MEM含20%小牛血清、15 g/L L-谷氨酰胺及pH 6.9~7.1时,在23 ℃中静置培养,黄鳍鲷肝细胞生长良好,3~5 d长满单层,细胞主要为成纤维细胞状,并能顺利传代.细胞动力学试验表明:传代细胞1~2代为适应期,3~5代为旺盛期,6代之后表现出衰老现象.

  17. Contaminação por mercúrio e respostas de stresse oxidativo nos olhos de peixes selvagens (Liza aurata)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ricardo Jorge Silva

    2014-01-01

    Todos os animais usam os olhos para monitorizar o ambiente circundante e manter a homeostase. O Mercúrio (Hg) (incluindo o metilmercúrio - MeHg) é um contaminante pernicioso e omnipresente em águas naturais, mas a avaliação do seu potencial para interferir com olhos de peixe é um problema maioritariamente inexplorado. Esta tese irá contribuir para preencher a lacuna de conhecimento correspondente à avaliação da acumulação de mercúrio na parede do olho de tainha-garrento (Liz...

  18. Isolation and confirmation of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and leaping mullet (Liza saliens) in the Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorriehzahra, M E J; Ghasemi, M; Ghiasi, M; Karsidani, S Haghighi; Bovo, G; Nazari, A; Adel, M; Arizza, V; Dhama, K

    2016-07-15

    The present study was conducted on 428 moribund mullet fish samples to isolate and identify the causative agent of a mysterious acute mortality which recently occurred in wild mullets in Iranian waters of Caspian Sea, suspected to be due to viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease. Disease investigation was carried out employing various diagnostic procedures such as virology, bacteriology, parasitology, haematology, histopathology, IFAT, IHC and nested RT-PCR. Brain and eye samples of affected fishes were collected in sterile conditions and then kept at -80°C for cell culture isolation and nested RT-PCR detection of the causative agent. Other tissue samples were also collected and fixed for histopathology, IHC and EM examinations. CPE was observed in cell cultures at 6days after inoculation. Nine samples were found positive with virological assay. Nested RT-PCR, performed on suspected tissues and CPE positive samples, showed that about 21 tissue samples and all the CPE positive samples were positive for VNN virus (VNNV). IFAT was selected as a confirmatory method for detecting the presence of Betanodavirus antigen, cell culture isolation results and nested RT-PCR findings. Moreover, VNNV particles with 25-30nm in diameter were also visualized in the infected brain and retina. In pathogenicity studies, guppy fishes bathed in VNNV-infected tissue culture (10(-4) TCID50) showed clinical signs similar to naturally infected mullet after 15days post infection (dpi), with mortality rates reaching up to 100% at 30dpi. Affected organ samples as examined by cell culture isolation, IFAT, IHC and histopathology, revealed the presence of VNNV in the guppy fishes. In conclusion, it was confirmed that VNNV was the main causative agent for the disease outbreak in mullet fish in the Caspian Sea, and this is such first official report of VNN disease from Iran. PMID:27283853

  19. Salinity-dependent copper accumulation in the guppy Poecilia vivipara is associated with CTR1 and ATP7B transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Evelise Sampaio; Abril, Sandra Isabel Moreno; Zanette, Juliano; Bianchini, Adalto

    2014-07-01

    Copper (Cu) accumulation and regulation of key-genes involved in Cu homeostasis were evaluated in freshwater- and saltwater-acclimated guppies Poecilia vivipara. Fish were exposed (96h) to environmentally relevant concentrations of dissolved Cu (0, 5.0, 9.0 and 20.0μg/L). In freshwater guppies, gill and liver Cu accumulation was dependent on Cu concentration in the exposure medium. In saltwater guppies, this dependence was observed only in the gut. These findings indicate that Cu accumulation was salinity- and tissue-dependent. Key genes involved in Cu metabolism were sequenced for the first time in P. vivipara. Transcripts coding for the high-affinity copper transporter (CTR1) and copper-transporting ATPase (ATP7B) were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. The full-length CTR1 open reading frame (1560bp) and a partial ATP7B (690bp) were discovered. Predicted amino acid sequences shared high identities with the CTR1 of Fundulus heteroclitus (81%) and the ATP7B of Sparus aurata (87%). Basal transcriptional levels addressed by RT-qPCR in control fish indicate that CTR1 and ATP7B was highly transcribed in liver of freshwater guppies while CTR1 was highly transcribed in gut of saltwater guppies. This could explain the higher Cu accumulation observed in liver of freshwater guppies and in gut of saltwater guppies, because CTR1 is involved in Cu uptake. Reduced gill mRNA expression of CTR1 was observed in freshwater guppies exposed to 20.0μg/L Cu and in saltwater guppies exposed to 5.0μg/L Cu. In turn, reduced mRNA expression of gut ATP7B was observed in freshwater and salt water guppies exposed to 9.0 and 20.0μg/L Cu. Liver CTR1 and ATP7B transcription were not affected by Cu exposure. These findings suggest that gill CTR1 and gut ATP7B are down-regulated to limit Cu absorption after exposure to dissolved Cu, while liver CTR1 and ATP7B levels are maintained to allow Cu storage and detoxification. In conclusion, findings reported here

  20. De novo assembly of the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) gill transcriptome to identify ammonia exposure associated microRNAs and their targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengming; Ge, Xianping; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Wuxiao; Xuan, Fujun

    2016-01-01

    De novo transcriptome sequencing is a robust method for microRNA (miRNA) target gene prediction, especially for organisms without reference genomes. Following exposure of Megalobrama amblycephala to ammonia (0.1 or 20 mg L(-1) ), two cDNA libraries were constructed from the fish gills and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2000. Over 90 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 46, 615 unigenes, which were then extensively annotated by comparing to different protein databases, followed by biochemical pathway prediction. The expression of 2666 unigenes significantly differed; 1961 were up-regulated, while 975 were down-regulated. Among these, 250 unigenes were identified as the targets for 10 conserved and 4 putative novel miRNA families by miRNA target computational prediction. We examined expression of ssa-miRNA-21 and its target genes by real-time quantitative PCR and found agreement with the sequencing data. This study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying miRNA targets by transcriptome analysis. The transcriptome assembly data represent a substantial increase in the genomic resources available for Megalobrama amblycephala and will be useful for gene expression profile analysis and miRNA functional annotation. PMID:27504260

  1. Molecular cloning, immunohistochemical localization, characterization and expression analysis of caspase-8 from the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) exposed to ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengming; Ge, Xianping; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Wuxiao; Zhang, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Caspase-8 is an initiator caspase that plays a crucial role in some cases of apoptosis by extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Caspase-8 structure and function have been extensively studied in mammals, but in fish the characterization of that initiator caspase is still scarce. In this study, we isolated the caspase-8 gene from Megalobrama amblycephala, one of the most important industrial aquatic animals in China using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The 2034 bp full-length M. amblycephala caspase-8 cDNA sequence contained an ORF of 1467 bp encoding a polypeptide of 489 amino acid residues, a 5'-UTR of 102 bp and a 3'-UTR of 462 bp. The caspase-8 amino acid sequences contained two highly conservative death effector domains (DEDs) at N-terminal, the caspase family domains P20 and P10, caspase-8 active-site pentapeptide and potential aspartic acid cleavage sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that M. amblycephala caspase-8 were clustered with the caspase-8 from other vertebrate. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that caspase-8 transcripts were detected in liver after exposure to ammonia. Meanwhile using Western blot analysis, caspase-8 cleaved fragment was detected and significant alteration of procaspase-8 level was found with the same ammonia treatment condition. Furthermore, the result of immunohistochemical detection showed that remarkable changes of immunopositive staining were observed after ammonia treatment. Accordingly, the results signify that caspase-8 of fish may play an essential role in ammonia induced apoptosis.

  2. De novo assembly of the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) gill transcriptome to identify ammonia exposure associated microRNAs and their targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengming; Ge, Xianping; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Wuxiao; Xuan, Fujun

    2016-01-01

    De novo transcriptome sequencing is a robust method for microRNA (miRNA) target gene prediction, especially for organisms without reference genomes. Following exposure of Megalobrama amblycephala to ammonia (0.1 or 20 mg L(-1) ), two cDNA libraries were constructed from the fish gills and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2000. Over 90 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 46, 615 unigenes, which were then extensively annotated by comparing to different protein databases, followed by biochemical pathway prediction. The expression of 2666 unigenes significantly differed; 1961 were up-regulated, while 975 were down-regulated. Among these, 250 unigenes were identified as the targets for 10 conserved and 4 putative novel miRNA families by miRNA target computational prediction. We examined expression of ssa-miRNA-21 and its target genes by real-time quantitative PCR and found agreement with the sequencing data. This study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying miRNA targets by transcriptome analysis. The transcriptome assembly data represent a substantial increase in the genomic resources available for Megalobrama amblycephala and will be useful for gene expression profile analysis and miRNA functional annotation.

  3. The use of multivariate analysis to link sediment contamination and toxicity data to establish sediment quality guidelines: an example in the Gulf of Cadiz (Spain); El uso del analisis multivariante en la union de datos de toxicidad y contaminacion para establecer guias de calidad de sedimento: Un ejemplo en la Bahia de Cadiz (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Valls, T. Angel; Forja, Jesus M [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz, (Spain); Gomez-Parra, Abelardo [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, CSIC, Puerto Real, Cadiz, (Spain)

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate marine sediment quality in the Gulf of Cadiz, chemical concentration and toxicity test endpoints from sediments were linked using multivariate analysis. Sediment samples were collected synoptically at seven stations in two littoral ecosystems of the Gulf of Cadiz (five in the Bay of Cadiz and two in the salt marsh of the Barbate River), and subjected to six separate, replicated sediment toxicity tests and comprehensive sediment chemistry analyses. The toxic effects of sediments were tested using three operational sediment phases: whole sediment, using the estuarine amphipod Microdeutopus gryllotalpa (10 d static: survival) and the estuarine clam Ruditapes philippinaru (48 h static: survival) and of the marine fish Sparus aurata (48 h static. Survival); and interstitial water, using populations of the estuarine rotifer Brachionus Plicatilis (7 d static: Population decline) and of the marine bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox ). To evaluate the levels of contamination, the concentrations in the sediments of organic carbon, 14 trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ag, Hg, As, Sn, V, Ni, Co and Cr) and the surfactant linear alkylbenzenesulphonate (LAS) were measured. The results of the toxicity tests were compared in a dose-response relationship between sites, demonstrating a general agreement between the toxicity values determined by all the tests, except in the case of interstitial water toxicity (principally due to toxic mixtures of trace metals). Data derived from sediment chemistry and bioassays were assembled by multivariate statistical techniques (PCA and factor analysis), showing that the two data types could be represented by only five factors corresponding to five overlapping chemical-biological effect relations. Positive prevalence of these factors in the cases studied was used to establish those ranges in chemical concentrations associated with adverse effects. The sediment quality guidelines, in terms of concentrations at or below

  4. Sea urchins, their predators and prey in SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mamede

    2014-06-01

    Alentejo coast: (1 P. lividus appears to have a “sit-and-wait” behavior remaining in crevices or burrows for prolonged times, feeding on drift algae trapped there and, therefore, does not seem to have the ability to significantly influence the structure of the benthic macroalgae community; (2 the studied marine protected area does not appear, to date, to have had significant effects on the abundance and/or on the size of the various studied organisms; and (3 the fish species Diplodus vulgaris and Coris julis may be important predators of P. lividus. Lastly (4, results obtained in the surveys indicate that in this coast: the vast majority of fishermen found traces of sea urchins in the stomach contents of certain fish species (e.g. Diplodus sargus, D. vulgaris, Sparus aurata; the occurrence of urchin barrens is not known by most respondents; the recreational harvesting of sea urchins is a frequent activity on intertidal and shallow subtidal rocky habitats, during winter and spring, and mostly in Easter.

  5. Strategies to enhance the competitiveness of semi-intensive aquaculture systems in costal earth ponds: the organic aquaculture approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sardinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthen ponds are the main production system for European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata in Portugal and in Southern Spain. Production costs in this low productivity farming system are higher compared to intensive cage farms, and its economic sustainability depends on product differentiation and optimization of production. The development of new farming protocols, to enhance productivity of ponds and lagoons, or the implementation of certification processes to add value to products from extensive and semi-intensive systems, could render these activities more economics benefits and be attractive for a new generation of farmers. One clear strategy to differentiate and add value to seabream produced in semi-intensive systems is its production under organic standards. Feeds often represent 40-60% of the operational costs of fish farming. In relation to the traditional feeds, the organic certified feeds currently present a price-differential of about +30%. To assess it economic feasibility, it is therefore essential to validate if such higher feeding costs will represent an increase on productivity (fish growth and feed conversion or can be fully integrated in the final sale price. Throughout a full production cycle of gilthead seabream (from 9 grams until >350 grams, a series of trials allowed us to assess the effects of: a an organic certified feed; b variable feeding levels (100 and 80% of recommendations; and c culture density (0.5 and 1.0 kg/m3 on the overall growth performance, body composition and environmental impact at the fish farm level. Results show that growth performance (weight gain and feed conversion ratio of seabream fed the organic feed was similar to that found in fish fed a traditional diet. With the organic feed, a reduction of the feeding level by 20% of the manufacturer recommendations led to a lower growth, while a similar reduction on the feeding level of the traditional feed had no impact

  6. 温度对鳊鱼静止代谢和耐低氧能力的影响%Temperature Effect on Rest Metabolic Rate and Hypoxia Tolerance in Chinese Bream Parabramis pekinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波见; 曹振东; 付世建; 王宇翔

    2010-01-01

    以鳊鱼(Parabramis pekinensis)幼鱼[体重(8.13±0.15)g,n=31]为研究对象,以密闭式代谢测定法分别在15、20、25、30℃条件下测定其静止代谢率(Rest Metabolic Rate,RMR),并以双线法推算临界氧浓度Pcrit等相关参数.结果显示,鳊鱼幼鱼的静止代谢水平呈随温度上升而升高的变化趋势[(132.22±4.97)mg O2/(h·kg)(15℃),(182.67±12.49)mg O2/(h·kg)(20℃),(218.44±9.20)mgO2:/(h·kg)(25℃),(298.32±9.96)mg O2/(h·kg)(30℃)],除20-25℃间,其他各温度组差异显著(P<0.05);Q10值均低于2(15~20℃ 1.91,20-25℃ 1.43,25-30℃ 1.87);本研究还发现,随着温度的升高,鳊鱼幼鱼的Pcrit逐渐下降,而临界氧饱和度Scrit则相对保守[15、20、25、30℃的P.分别为(1.35±0.09)、(1.16±0.19)、(0.97±0.12)和(0.86±0.09)mg O2/L,Scrit分别为13.87%±0.74%、13.32%±1.72%、12.15%±1.35%和11.34%±0.65%.这表明,采用不同指标考察鱼类耐低氧能力可能会得到相异的结论.这种结论的不一致提示,在鱼类应对环境溶氧降低的适应中,相对溶氧水平而不是绝对溶氧水平影响并决定着鱼类的适应性进化,因此采用相对饱和度作为指标研究鱼类耐低氧能力可能更具理论价值.

  7. 腌制和干燥工艺对咸金线鱼中生物胺的影响%Effect of picking and drying process on biogenic amines formation in salted threadfin bream (Nemipterus hexodon)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉峰; 吴燕燕; 邓建朝; 黄卉; 李来好; 杨贤庆; 戚勃; 周婉君

    2015-01-01

    为探明腌制和干燥工艺对咸鱼产品中生物胺的影响,本文以金线鱼(Nemipterus hexodon)为原料,通过柱前衍生HPLC技术分析金线鱼在不同腌制条件和不同干燥方式下,鱼体中8种生物胺及其相关指标的变化.结果表明:食盐对鱼体中生物胺生成有明显抑制作用(p<0.05),25%食盐腌制的金线鱼总胺量为(50.82±7.18) mg/kg,分别比食盐添加量为0%、8%和15%的总胺量降低了89.7%、45.9%和40.1%;生物胺及其相关指标的含量均随腌制温度的升高、腌制时间的延长而明显增加,0℃腌制时的总胺量为(76.72±0.69) mg/kg比15℃和25℃的总胺量分别降低9.5%、26.1%,15℃腌制时,腌制第4d比第1d总胺量增加58.9%;组胺是金线鱼腌制过程最优势的生物胺;干燥方式显著影响咸金线鱼生物胺含量变化,其中日晒方式产品的总胺量为(430.13±3.48) mg/kg,与真空干燥(60 ℃,-0.1~0.09 MPa)(404.61±9.23) mg/kg相近,30℃冷风干燥较热风干燥有利于抑制咸鱼生物胺的产生,总胺量、生物胺指数(BAI)和质量指数(QI)均最低,最能保证产品的品质和安全性.

  8. Full length cDNA cloning and tissue expression of PRLR in Cyprinus carpio var. jian%建鲤催乳素受体基因全长cDNA的克隆、序列分析与组织表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    , kidney, and intestine suggesting that the primary function of PRLR in C. carpio var. jian is in osmotic regulation. The PRLR transcript was detected in the gonads, liver, and spleen, suggesting that prolactin has a range of physiological functions in fish. Our results have provided valuable insight into the mechanisms of osmotic regulation in C. carpio var. jian.%  为了解催乳素受体(Prolactin Receptor, PRLR)的基因序列及其在建鲤(Cyprinus carpio var. jian)渗透调节组织中的表达情况,采用同源克隆和末端快速扩增(rapid amplication of cDNA ends, RACE)的方法分离克隆了建鲤PRLR基因全长cDNA,得到2440 bp的全长cDNA,包括1821 bp的开放阅读框(ORF),213 bp的5′末端非编码区(UTR)以及406 bp 的3′末端非编码区(UTR)。对该基因序列和推测的氨基酸序列进行同源性比对和系统分析显示:建鲤与其他硬骨鱼类该基因的氨基酸序列相似度在37.46%~87.25%,与鲤(Cyprinus carpio)的氨基酸相似度最高(87.25%),鲫(Carassius auratus)次之(86.86%),和金头鲷(Sparus aurata)的相似度较低(41.87%),和人(Homo sapiens)最低(37.46%),表明不同物种间的PRLR的氨基酸序列具有较高的保守性。用实时定量PCR (RT-PCR)检测该基因在建鲤脑、肠、鳃、性腺、肝、脾、肾、皮肤中催乳素受体的相对表达量,其中鳃、肾、肠3个主要渗透调节组织的表达量较高,这表明建鲤的渗透调节组织是PRLR的主要表达场所,从定量角度提示了催乳素(prolactin, PRL)通过 PRLR 的表达,作用于渗透调节组织从而行使其渗透压调节功能。本研究旨在为进一步探索建鲤的渗透调控机制提供基础依据。

  9. Severe fish mortality associated with 'red tide' observed in the sea off Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A; George, M; Narvekar, P.V.; Jayakumar, D.A; Shailaja, M; Sardessai, S.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Shenoy, D.M; Naik, H.; Maheswaran, P.A.; KrishnaKumari, L.; Rajesh, G.; Sudhir, A.K.; Binu, M.S.

    Severe fish mortality associated with the "red tide" phenomenon caused by Noctiluca blooms was observed in the sea off Cochin, Kerala, India at depths less than 40 m. The dead fish, almost entirely comprised of the threadfin bream (Nemipterus...

  10. Inter- and size-specific patterns of fish seasonal migration between a shallow lake and its streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Brodersen, J.; Nilsson, P.A.;

    2008-01-01

    This study used passive telemetry (passive integrated transponders) to evaluate winter migration in three species of cyprinids (roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), white bream (Blicca bjoerkna (L.)) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L.))) and their potential predators (pike (Esox lucius (L...

  11. Parasites of South African freshwater fish. VI. Nematode parasites of some fish species in the Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomker, J

    1994-03-01

    The nematode parasites of 30 spot-tailed robbers, Brycinus imberi, five tiger-fish, Hydrocynus vittatus, 77 large-scaled yellowfish. Barbus marequensis, two mudsuckers, Labeo molybdinus, 114 catfish, Clarias gariepinus, 46 silver barbel, Schilbe intermedius, 66 squeakers, Synodontis zambezensis, three eels, Anguilla spp., 83 Mozambique bream, Oreochromis mossambicus, 81 red-breasted bream, Tilapia rendalli swierstrae and 32 large-mouthed bream, Serranochromis meridianus, caught in the Sabie, Crocodile and Olifants Rivers in the southern and central regions of the Kruger National Park, were collected, identified and counted. A single Camallanus sp. male was recovered from one of the mudsuckers; Capillaria spp. from three catfish and one squeaker; philometrid nematodes from two silver barbel, 15 squeakers and a large-mouthed bream; Paracamallanus cyathopharynx from one tiger-fish, 80 catfish, 28 silver barbel and one squeaker; Procamallanus laeviconchus from a single catfish; Rhabdochona esseniae from six large-scaled yellowfish; Rhabdochona versterae from 14 spot-tailed robbers; Rhabdochona spp. from 20 catfish, 17 silver barbel, eight squeakers, two eels, one large-mouthed bream and two red-breasted bream; Raillietnema synodontisi from 33 squeakers; Spinitectus petterae from 37 catfish; Spinitectus zambezensis from 55 squeakers; Spinitectus spp. from one tiger-fish and four silver barbel, and Spirocamallanus daleneae and Synodontisia thelastomoides from 33 and 35 squeakers, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7898896

  12. Morphological recognition of artificial F1 hybrids between three common European cyprinid species:Rutilus rutilus,Blicca bjoerkna and Abramis brama%三种普通欧洲鲤科鱼类(拟鲤、粗鳞鳊和欧鳊)人工杂交F1代形态学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. NZAU MATONDO; M. OVIDIO; P. PONCIN; P. VANDEWALLE; J.C. PHILIPPART

    2008-01-01

    对反交试验获得的18个月的拟鲤、粗鳞鳊和欧鳊F1代进行了鉴定.对不同于拟鲤、粗鳞鳊和欧鳊三种鱼的可量和可数形态特征分析表明,拟鲤×欧鳊和拟鲤×粗鳞鳊杂交种比粗鳞鳊×欧鳊杂交种与它们的双亲更容易区分.拟鲤杂交种间具有很多形态上的相似性,例如,上侧虹膜在拟鲤为红色,杂交种则介于双亲之间.在粗鳞鳊×欧鳊杂交种中也可以观察到居间类型.拟鲤×粗鳞鳊和拟鲤×欧鳊各自的杂交种可以通过眼睛的大小、较少的侧线鳞数和2行咽喉齿等特征相区分.粗鳞鳊×欧鳊杂交种与另外两个杂交种相比,具有更多的臀鳍分支鳍条数和一个中央具一黑线的虹斑.三个种进行杂交再获得的互交种通常不易区分.%The F1 hybrids of roach Rutilus rutilus, silver bream Blicca bjoerkna, and common bream Abramis brama from experimental reciprocal cross-breedings were identified at 18 months of age in relation to the parental species. The morphological analysis, including quantitative (plastic and meristic) and nonmetric features differing in the roach, the silver bream and the common bream, revealed that roach×common bream and roach×silver bream hybrids were easier to distinguish from their parents than silver bream×common bream hybrids. These roach hybrids had many morphological similarities such as the upper iris coloured in red as in the roach, and they were morphologically intermediate to the two parents. This contrasted with the silver bream×common bream hybrids, in which intermediate characteristics were also observed, but with some parental variants. Roach×silver bream hybrids were distinguishable from roach×common bream hybrids by its large eye, its lower scale numbers along the lateral line and its two rows of pharyngeal teeth. Silver bream×common bream hybrids, compared to the two other types of hybrids studied, had higher anal fin soft ray numbers and a clear eye iris with a median

  13. Is humane slaughter of fish possible for industry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, van de J.W.; Kestin, S.; Robb, D.; Oehlenschlaeger, J.; Lambooij, E.; Kuhlmann, H.; Kloosterboer, K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate industrial and research slaughter methods for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), gilt-head seabream (Sparus auratus) and eel (Anguilla anguilla) with respect to welfare and quality. As a general term of reference, an optimal slaughter method should render fish unconscious u

  14. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Lateolabrax japonicus Glucose-6-phosphatase Catalytic Subunit (G6PC) cDNA and Its 5'-flanking Region%鲈鱼6-磷酸葡萄糖酶催化亚基(G6PC)cDNA和5’侧翼序列的克隆及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱云霞; 郑伟贤; 宋娟娟

    2011-01-01

    6-磷酸葡萄糖酶(glucose-6-phosphatase,G6Pase,EC 3.1.3.9)催化6-磷酸葡萄糖水解产生磷酸和葡萄糖,即糖异生途径和糖原分解途径的最后一个限速反应.我们用SMART RACE技术从鲈鱼(Lateolabraxjaponicus)肝脏中克隆了6-磷酸葡萄糖酶催化亚基(glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit,G6PG)基因cDNA序列.该序列全长1651 bp,5’端非翻译区75 bp,3’端非翻译区496 bp,开放阅读框1080bp,可编码一个由359个氨基酸组成的蛋白,该蛋白理论分子量40.45kD、等电点9.30(GenBank登录号:HQ317736.1).氨基酸序列分析表明,鲈鱼G6PC与胡瓜鱼(Osmerus mordax)、翘嘴红鲌(Erythroculter ilishaeformis)、慈鲷(Haplochromis nub ilus)、斑马鱼(Danio rerio)、黑青斑河鲀(Tetraodon nigroviridis)、金头鲷(Sparus aurata)、非洲爪蟾(Xenopus laevis、牛(Bos taurus)、人(Homo sapiens)、小鼠(Mus musculus)及大鼠(Rattus norvegicus)11个物种的同源性达58%以上,其中与胡瓜鱼同源性最高,为85%.RT-PCR分析G6PC基因在鲈鱼肌、心、眼、脑、鳃、肝、肠、肾、脂和脾10个组织中的表达,在肝、肠和肾中有较高的表达,在脑和鳃只有微弱的表达.用基因组步移技术克隆了G6PC基因的5’侧翼区的序列1 243bp,表明该序列含有2个TATA box位点,2个胰岛素作用序列(insulin response sequence,IRS)及C/EBPb、CRE-BP、HNF-3b等潜在的转录因子结合位点.本研究结果表明,鲈鱼G6PC基因在肝、肠和肾中有高表达,其5’侧翼区存在多个转录因子结合位点,该结果为研究G6PC基因的表达调控机制提供了基础资料.%Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, EC3.1.3.9) catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate into glucose, the final step in the gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic pathways. A full-length cDNA of glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6PC) from Lateolabrax japordcus was amplified by SMART RACE method. The cDNA was 1 651 bp in size, with a 75 bp 5'-UTR, 496 bp 3'-UTR and

  15. Gökova Körfezi'nde küçük ölçekli balıkçılıkta birim çabaya düşen av miktarı (CPUE ve av kompozisyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı Dereli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gökova Körfezi’nde avcılık yapan küçük ölçekli balıkçı gemilerinin uzatma ağı ve parakete av kompozisyonları ve birim çabaya düşen av miktarları (CPUE, Temmuz 2009 – Mayıs 2011 tarihleri arasında yürütülen çalışmalarla tespit edilmiştir. Toplam 16 deniz çalışması (uzatma ağı ile 5, parakete ile 11 ticari balıkçıların tekne ve av araçlarıyla yürütülmüştür. Balıkçılık çabası (f, CPUE ve günlük av miktarını hesaplamak için ise karaya çıkış noktalarında rasgele seçimle 131 örnekleme (72 kez uzatma ağı, 59 kez paraketeyle gerçekleştirilmiştir. Her iki av aracı birlikte değerlendirildiğinde, Teleostei grubundan 27, Crustacea grubundan 1, Cephalapoda grubundan 2 ve Chondrichthyes grubundan 1 olmak üzere toplam 31 tür tespit edilmiştir. Uzatma ağı ile 19 tür, parakete ile 16 tür yakalanmıştır. Karaya çıkarılan ürün içerisinde, uzatma ağlarında ağırlıklı olarak Pagellus erythrinus, Trachurus mediterraneus ve Scomber japonicus, parakete balıkçığında ise Sparus aurata, Dicentrarchus labrax ve Pagellus erythrinus türleri tespit edilmiştir. Uzatma ağları av kompozisyonu içinde ticari olmayan türlerin oranı (% 50, paraketeninkinden daha yüksektir (% 12. Ortalama CPUE, uzatma ağı için 15,5 ± 19,8 kg/30 posta ağ/gün ve parakete için 1,7 ± 2,8 kg/100 iğne/gün, tekne başına günlük av (kg ortalaması ise uzatma ağı için 10,8 ± 11,0 kg/tekne/gün ve parakete için 5,2 ± 4,3 kg/tekne/gün olarak hesaplanmıştır. Ortalama CPUE değerleri açısından iki av aracı arasında (t:-11,065; p:0,000 ve kooperatifler arasında (uzatma ağı, t:4,382; p:0,000; parakete, t:3,973; p:0,000 istatistiki olarak anlamlı farklılık tespit edilmiştir. Gökova Körfezi’nde uzatma ağı balıkçılığında yakalanan tür sayısının yıllar içerisinde düşüş gösterdiği ve ortalama CPUE değerinin arttığı belirlenmiştir. Parakete bal

  16. 建鲤催乳素基因全长cDNA的克隆及序列分析和组织表达%Full-length cDNA cloning and tissue expression of PRL from Cyprinus carpio var. Jian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰; 李冰; 张成锋; 朱健

    2012-01-01

    To reveal the gene sequences of prolactin and its expression in osmotic regulation tissue of Cyprinus carpio var.Jian,the full-length cDNA encoding prolactin was cloned from Cyprinus carpio var.Jian using homology cloning and RACE PCR approach.The prolactin was 1 028 bp in length,including 51 bp 5'terminal UTR,633 bp encoding region and 344 bp 3'terminal UTR.Phylogenetic analysis using MEGA 4 software showed that the putative prolactin amino acid sequence and other teleosts have the high similarity of 55.02%-94.76%.The prolactin amino acid sequence of Cyprinus carpio var.Jian and that of Ctenopharyngodon idella were close to each other in similarity of 94.76%.For other fishes,the similarity was 94.26%,90.00%,70.53%,70.53%,65.70%,63.90%,63.29%,62.93%,62.38%,62.32%,55.02% with Schizothorax prenanti,Danio rerio,Salmo salar,Oncorhynchus mykiss,Anguilla japonica,Oreochromis Niloticus,Epinephelus coioides,Acanthopagrus schlegelii,Paralichthys olivaceus,Sparus aurata,Takifugu rubripes,respectively.Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that prolactin genes were expressed in the pituitary,brain,liver,kidney,intestines,gonad,spleen and gills.The prolactin transcript was detected at a high level in pituitary,moderate in brain,gills,spleen,liver,kidney and intestines,and low in gonad.This suggests that the pituitary gland is the main expression site of prolactin in Cyprinus carpio var.Jian.The prolactin transcript was detected in the gonads,liver,and spleen suggests that there may exist many physiological functions about prolactin in fish.%为了解催乳素(prolactin,PRL)的基因序列以及在建鲤渗透调节组织中的表达情况,采用同源克隆和末端快速扩增(rapidamplication of cDNA ends,RACE)的方法分离克隆了建鲤(Cyprinuscarpio var.Jian)PRL基因全长cDNA,得到1 028bp的全长cDNA,包括633bp的开放阅读框(ORF),51bp的5′末端非编码区(UTR)以及344bp的3′末端非编码区(UTR)。对该基因序列和

  17. Hybridisation between two cyprinid fishes in a novel habitat: genetics, morphology and life-history traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffrey Joe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential role hybridisation in adaptive radiation and the evolution of new lineages has received much recent attention. Hybridisation between roach (Rutilus rutilus L. and bream (Abramis brama L. is well documented throughout Europe, however hybrids in Ireland occur at an unprecedented frequency, often exceeding that of both parental species. Utilising an integrated approach, which incorporates geometric morphometrics, life history and molecular genetic analyses we identify the levels and processes of hybridisation present, while also determining the direction of hybridisation, through the analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Results The presence of F2 hybrids was found to be unlikely from the studied populations, although significant levels of backcrossing, involving both parental taxa was observed in some lakes. Hybridisation represents a viable conduit for introgression of genes between roach and bream. The vast majority of hybrids in all populations studied exhibited bream mitochondrial DNA, indicating that bream are maternal in the majority of crosses. Conclusions The success of roach × bream hybrids in Ireland is not due to a successful self reproducing lineage. The potential causes of widespread hybridisation between both species, along with the considerations regarding the role of hybridisation in evolution and conservation, are also discussed.

  18. 不同孔径筛片粉碎团头鲂饲料对其加工性状、鱼体生长和消化酶活性的影响%Effects of Different Mill Screen Mesh Sizes on Feed Processing Characteristics, Growth and Digestive Enzyme Activity of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温超; 吴萍; 刘文斌; 周岩民

    2011-01-01

    The test aimed to compare the effects of four plant protein raw materials - general cottonseed meal (CCM) ,high - protein cottonseed meal ( HCM), degossypolled cottonseed meal (DCM) and sunflower seed meal (SSM) ,as well as two different feed processing methods on the growth rate,feed efficiency,shape,internal organs index and body compositions of grass carp quantitatively under the same condition. With basically consistent levels of protein 29% and fat 3. 5% ,every material was designed with low and high dose levels,each feed formula had two feed processing methods and there were 16 experimental groups in all. The experiment lasted for 56 d in a net cage of cement pool. The average body weight of grass carps was (39.4 ± 1.8) g. The results showed that: (1) the effects of four plant protein raw materials on the specific growth rate (SGR) , viscera/body ratio ( VBR) ,body composition and spleen/body ratio (SBR) of grass carp showed significant difference (P 0.05 ) ; (2) two dose levels of the same protein material had no significant differences on the SGR,FCR,PER and physical indicators (P >0.05) of grass carps,but crude protein content and crude lipid content of the whole fish and muscle had significant differences (P 0.05). The results also showed that adding GCM,HCM,DCM and SSM in the diets of grass carp could improve feed efficiency and got good breeding effect; the amounts of GCM, HCM,DCM and SSM should be controlled between 22% ~ 32% , 20% ~ 28% , 18. 5% ~ 26. 5% and 15. 5% ~ 22.5% respectively, and there was no obvious difference on the growth of grass carp used four plant protein materials (P >0.05) in this range; hard pellet feed was superior to the extruded pellet feed on growth and feed efficiency.%将团头鲂饲料原料用锤片式粉碎机在3种不同孔径(0.8、1.0、1.2 mm)的筛片下进行粉碎然后制成颗粒料,并选用450尾团头鲂随机分为3组,每组5个重复,分别饲喂上述3种饲料,研究不同孔径筛片粉碎团头鲂饲料对其加工性状、鱼体生长和消化酶活性的影响.结果表明,筛片孔径与粉碎机产量呈正相关,与单位产量电耗呈负相关,1.2mm孔径组的饲料硬度显著或极显著低于另两组,0.8mm孔径组饲料溶失率显著低于1.0mm孔径组(P<0.05),0.8mm孔径组饲料淀粉糊化度极显著高于另两组(P<0.01);1.0mm孔径组的团头鲂增重和增重率均高于另两组,但差异不显著(P>0.05),其特定生长率显著高于0.8mm孔径组(P<0.05),0.8mm孔径组的肥满度显著高于1.2mm孔径组(P<0.05);各组肝体比、肠道相对长度和消化酶活性无显著差异.综合比较,团头鲂饲料采用1.0mm孔径的筛片粉碎较好.

  19. NUTRITIONAL REGULATION OF LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE GENE EXPRESSION AND VISCERAL FAT DEPOSITION IN RED SEA BREAM (PAGRUS MAJOR)%真鲷(Pagrus major)脂蛋白脂肪酶基因表达与内脏脂肪蓄积营养调控定量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁旭方; 白俊杰; 劳海华; 李贵生; 周天鸿; Hiroshi Y. Ogata

    2003-01-01

    采用竞争性PCR方法,进行4种营养状况对真鲷脂蛋白脂肪酶(LPL)基因mRNA表达水平与内脏脂肪蓄积影响的定量研究.结果表明,真鲷LPL基因在肝脏存在营养诱导性表达,饥饿、高脂食物均是其表达诱导因子;在腹腔肠系膜脂肪组织存在组成性表达,其表达水平受摄食状态的影响,但饲料脂肪水平却不起作用.当真鲷喂食高脂食物时,诱导产生的大量肝脏LPL将为肝脏提供更多的来源于食物的游离脂肪酸,使肝脏有可能出现营养诱导性脂肪蓄积,但真鲷腹腔肠系膜脂肪组织LPL基因表达水平未出现适应性变化,其腹腔肠系膜脂肪组织将不可能作为营养诱导性蓄脂器官.由于上述营养状况对真鲷体重、腹脂指数、肝指数均没有产生显著性影响,说明真鲷具有在不同营养状况下与哺乳类相似的维持其内脏脂肪蓄积稳定的代谢机制,推测真鲷应存在某种在功能上与哺乳类相似的肥胖基因.

  20. Parasites of South African freshwater fish. VII. Nematodes of some scaled fishes from the Hartbeespoort Dam, Transvaal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomker, J

    1994-06-01

    The nematode parasites of 16 large-scaled yellowfish, Barbus marequensis, six silverfish, Barbus mattozi, six small-scaled yellowfish, Barbus polylepis, 52 canary kurper, Chetia flaviventris, 11 carp, Cyprinus carpio, 45 Mozambique bream, Oreochromis mossambicus and a single-banded bream, Tilapia sparrmani, caught in the Hartbeespoort Dam, Transvaal, were collected, identified and counted. Contracaecum spp. larvae were recovered from one O. mossambicus, 40 Chetia flaviventris, three Cyprinus carpio, one B. marequensis and five B. mattozi, Rhabdochona esseniae from five B. marequensis, Rhabdochona spp. from one O. mossambicus and four Cyprinus carpio, and unidentified nematode larvae from two O. mossambicus, three Chetia flaviventris, two Cyprinus carpio and from the single T. sparrmani. Burdens in the infected fishes were generally small, and small-scaled yellowfish did not harbour any worms. Only Mozambique bream and canary kurper were caught at regular intervals, but even in these species no pattern of seasonal prevalence of the nematodes was evident. PMID:7596571

  1. A dot immunobinding assay (DIA) to detect the exotoxin produced by the pathogenic bacteria of the vibriosis in marine cage-cultured Pagrus major%海水养殖真鲷弧菌病病原菌外毒素的点酶法检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴后波; 潘金培

    2003-01-01

    Vibriosis, caused by Vibrio mimicus, became a major cause of serious economic losses in the farming of red sea bream along the coast of southern China. It has been demonstrated that the pathogenicity of V. mimicus for red sea bream is due to the production of a heat-labile exotoxin. In the present paper, a dot immunobinding assay (DIA) to detect the toxin produced by V. mimicus was developed. The lowest concentration of the toxin the DIA could detect was 0. 025/μg·mL-1 The DIA could detect the toxin in the supernatant of liver and spleen of the diseased red sea bream Pagrus major, even if the supernatant was diluted by 1000 times. It was concluded that the DIA would be useful for rapid and effective detection of the toxin in large samples.

  2. 温度对平鲷胚胎发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李加儿; 丁彦文; 周宏团; 马荣和

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of temperature on the embryonic developments of flat-bream (Rhabdosargus sarba) is reported.The parent fish of the flatbream cultured in the pond were induced by using HCG and LRH-A and the fertilized eggs produced through artificial propagation were reared under five different water temperatures. The result of the experiment showed that the embryos of flat-bream were relatively sensitive to the change of the temperature, and its optimal temperature for the development was 21-4℃.

  3. Humane killing of fishes for scientific research: a comparison of two methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, J J; Marshall, J C; Balcombe, S R

    2010-06-01

    Two killing methods were compared on the clupeid, bony bream Nematolosa erebi and it was found that ice-slurry immersion was more humane than benzocaine overdose. The use of ice-slurry for killing N. erebi should be accepted as a standard humane method and considered similarly for other warm-water species. PMID:20557609

  4. Short-term and long-term effects of zooplanktivorous fish removal in a shallow lake: a synthesis of 15 years of data from Lake Zwemlust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Bund, W.J.; Van Donk, E.

    2002-01-01

    1. Removal of zooplanktivorous fish (mainly bream) in 1987 from a shallow eutrophic lake in the Netherlands, Lake Zwemlust, resulted in a quick switch from a turbid state with cyanobacteria blooms to a clear state dominated by macrophytes. 2. The clear state was not stable in the long term, however,

  5. Equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls in River Elbe sediments – Linking bioaccumulation in fish to sediment contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Antoni, Catherine; Möhlenkamp, Christel;

    2015-01-01

    the River Elbe to measure Cfree of PCBs and their Clip⇔sed. For three sites, we then related Clip⇔sed to lipid-normalized PCB concentrations (Cbio,lip) that were determined independently by the German Environmental Specimen Bank in common bream, a fish species living in close contact with the sediment: (1...

  6. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jepsen, Niels; Baktoft, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tags to explore species-and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm) in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama) and perch...

  7. Ectoparasites increase swimming costs in a coral reef fish

    OpenAIRE

    Binning, Sandra A.; Roche, Dominique G.; Layton, Cayne

    2013-01-01

    Ectoparasites can reduce individual fitness by negatively affecting behavioural, morphological and physiological traits. In fishes, there are potential costs if ectoparasites decrease streamlining, thereby directly compromising swimming performance. Few studies have examined the effects of ectoparasites on fish swimming performance and none distinguish between energetic costs imposed by changes in streamlining and effects on host physiology. The bridled monocle bream (Scolopsis bilineatus) is...

  8. Lake restoration by fish removal: Short and Long-term effects in 36 Danish lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Liboriussen, Lone; Pedersen, Asger Roer;

    2008-01-01

    and persistent reduction of the bream stock which reduced resuspension and SS, while the biomass of roach returned to former levels, decreasing the zooplankton grazing with less control on Chla. Total algal biomass also declined after fish removal, particularly that of cyanobacteria, whereas the biomass......During the past 10-15 years removal of plankti- and benthivorous fish (mainly roach, Rutilus rutilus, and bream, Abramis brama) has commonly been used as a method to improve the ecological quality of Danish lakes. Here, we examine the general and long-term effects obtained after the removal of 41......-1360 kg fish ha-1 in 36 mainly shallow and eutrophic lakes. In lakes in which less than 200 kg fish ha-1 were removed within a 3-year period only minor effects were observed, but at higher removal rates both chemical and biological variables were markedly affected. The concentrations of chlorophyll...

  9. Studies on fish scale collagen of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideki; Tone, Yurie; Shimizu, Kouske; Zikihara, Kazunori; Tokutomi, Satoru; Ida, Tomoaki; Ihara, Hideshi; Hara, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We purified and characterized Type I collagen from the scales of the Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and compared it with collagen from other organisms. Subunit composition of C. saira collagen (2α1+α2) was similar to that of red sea bream (Pagrus major) and porcine collagen. C. saira collagen did not form a firm gel after neutralization of pH in solution. The temperature of denaturation (24-25 °C) of C. saira collagen was slightly lower than that of P. major collagen (26-27 °C). The contents of proline and hydroxyproline were lower in red sea bream and Pacific saury collagen than in porcine collagen. Circular dichroism spectra and Fourier-transformed infrared spectra showed that heat denaturation caused unfolding of the triple helices in all three collagens. PMID:25428059

  10. Antibacterial and immunity enhancement properties of anaesthetic doses of thyme (Thymus vulgaris oil and three other anaesthetics in Sparidentax hasta and Acanthopagrus latus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Azad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An effective alternative was discovered in the form of thyme oil for use as a fish anaesthetic (patent pending approval. The thyme oil along with a common aquaculture-grade commercial anaesthetic (AQUI-S, clove oil and quinaldine were investigated for their antimicrobial properties and its effect on the immune parameters of two important maricultured fish species, bluefin bream (Sparidentax hasta and yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus latus. In vivo studies indicated that both the fish species had highly reduced bacterial load after the treatments and the in vitro antibacterial activity of the of the thyme oil was superior to that of the other treatments. The effects of anaesthetic dose of thyme oil, clove oil, quinaldine and AQUI-S were evaluated and compared. The reduction in the total viable vibrio counts in the anesthetized fish indicated that the vibrio were sensitive to the thyme oil. Also thyme oil produced higher non-specific immune enhancements.

  11. Interactive Drivers of Activity in a Free-Ranging Estuarine Predator

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Matthew D.; McPhan, Luke; van der Meulen, Dylan E.; Gray, Charles A.; Payne, Nicholas L.

    2013-01-01

    Animal activity patterns evolve as an optimal balance between energy use, energy acquisition, and predation risk, so understanding how animals partition activity relative to extrinsic environmental fluctuations is central to understanding their ecology, biology and physiology. Here we use accelerometry to examine the degree to which activity patterns of an estuarine teleost predator are driven by a series of rhythmic and arrhythmic environmental fluctuations. We implanted free-ranging bream A...

  12. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE EVIDENCE OF VIRUS INFECTION IN CULTURED MARINE FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Electron microscope investigation on the red sea bream (Pagrosomus major), bastard halibut (Paralichthys olivaceus) and stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus) in North China revealed virus infection in the bodies of the dead and diseased fish. These viruses included the lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), parvovirus, globular virus, and a kind of baculavirus which was not discovered and reported before and is now tentatively named baculavirus of stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus).

  13. 続・魚類養殖業--ブリ類およびマダイの経営分析

    OpenAIRE

    小野, 征一郎

    2013-01-01

    The Report of the Statistical Survey on Fishery Management, published by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, was used to analyze the business performance of the fish aquaculture industry, specifically the yellowtail and red sea bream aquaculture industries, from 2005 to 2011. Focusing on corporate businesses, the core economic entities of the industry, profitability analysis, break-even point analysis (the ultimate index), and solvency analysis were performed. In addition, pr...

  14. A notable Ichthyological find in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U de V. Pienaar

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available A notable ichthyological find has been made in the Kruger National Park with the recording, during April 1970, of a specimen of the marine fish, Acanthopagrus berda Forskal near the confluence of the Crocodile and Komati Rivers. This is the first record of the River or Mud Bream within the fresh water river system of the Transvaal and also the furthest point inland that this fish has been collected.

  15. Diminished Metal Accumulation in Riverine Fishes Exposed to Acid Mine Drainage over Five Decades

    OpenAIRE

    Ross A Jeffree; Markich, Scott J.; Twining, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Bony bream (Nematalosa erebi) and black catfish (Neosilurus ater) were sampled from the fresh surface waters of the Finniss River in tropical northern Australia, along a metal pollution gradient draining the Rum Jungle copper/uranium mine, a contaminant source for over five decades. Paradoxically, populations of both fish species exposed to the highest concentrations of mine-related metals (cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, uranium and zinc) in surface water and sediment had the lowest...

  16. Possible applications of modern fish larviculture technology to ornamental fish production

    OpenAIRE

    Dhert, P.; Lim, L C; Candreva, P.; Van Duffel, H; Sorgeloos, P.

    1997-01-01

    There has been rapid development in the marine foodfish larviculture technology in Europe since the early eighties, especially in the flat fish, turbot and halibut, and the bass and bream species. The most significant improvements in the eighties were the introduction of light control, artificial reproduction techniques, appropriate water treatment and the use of rotifers and Artemia nauplii of specific sizes and in the late eighties and early nineties the quality enhancement of live food org...

  17. Commercial and game fish from the Dąbie lake (Poland and their infection of Paracoenogonimus ovatus (Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Anna Linowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Paracoenogonimus ovatus is the parasite that infest wide definitive host range (predator birds and at least two intermediate hosts: molluscs (Viviparus viviparus, V. fasciatus and freshwater fish from eastern and central Europe. The larvae of the parasite (metacercariae go to the muscle and connective tissue, and at high intensity of infection to the internal organs and brain of fish. A total of 128 fishes were caught in autumn 2009 and 2014, by fishing boats operating in Lake Dąbie, which is one of the largest lakes in Poland. The species selected reflect the species structure of commercial and recreational catches. They were roach, bream, silver bream, crucian carp (Cyprinidae, ruffe, perch, zander (Percidae and pike (Esocidae. The fish were filleted, and the skinned muscle was compressed under a trichinoscope, what allowed to see and count metacercariae in the tissues. To facilitate parasite isolation from the cysts, the muscle tissues were subjected to a 0.1 % solution of activated pepsin and 5 % citric acid at a temperature of 20ºC. The free larvae were measured and identified under an Olympus BX 50 microscope coupled with a camera running AxioVs40 V 4.8.2.0 software. Metacercariae are grouped primarily at depths ranging from just beneath the skin to about 50% of fillet thickness. The infection prevalence of P. ovatus metacercariae in the fish analyzed was 78,5%. The density of infection per gram of muscle tissue mass in the fish infected was 8.85 (from 1 to 84 metacercariae. The highest density was noted in roach, bream and white bream (17.09, 11.14 and 9.58, respectively. Metacercariae occurred singly in pike, parasites were not found in the muscles of crucian carp, ruffe, and perch examined. The reason for such differences in infection is the availability and composition of food, as well as the behavior of the fish examined.

  18. The Distribution of Posthodiplostomum Cuticola and Rossicotrema Donicum in Scardinius Erythrophthalmus and Hypophtalmichthys Molitrix Stemming from the Danube Delta

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiana Diaconescu; Laura Urdeş; Ştefan Diaconescu; Marius Hangan

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the pathogenicity of Posthodiplostomum cuticola and Rossicotrema donicum digenean infestations within freshwater fish populations, in the Gorgova – Uzlina, Dunavat – Dranov and Razim – Sinoie natural complexes. The so-called “Black spot disease” caused by the metacercarial infestation was diagnosed in 5 out of 11 studied freshwater fish species: rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus), silver carp (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix), zarte (Vimba vimba), bream (Abramis brama) and European...

  19. CHARACTERISTICS AND NEW DATA OF RIVER ILOVA ICHTHYOFAUNA (CENTRAL CROATIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Jelić; Petar Žutinić; Mišel Jelić

    2009-01-01

    During the research 28 species of freshwater fish were found, belonging to 10 families. Most numerous family was Cyprinidae (18 species), followed by Percidae (3 species) and Cobitidae (2 species). Results showed that the most abundant in species were spirlin (Alburnoides bipunctatus) (17.4%), common roach (Rutilus rutilus) (15.7%) and prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) (12.8%). And in the terms of total fish weight, highest represented were asp (Aspius aspius) (28.9%), bream (Abramis brama) (...

  20. Aprovechamiento de recursos pesqueros infrautilizados para la obtención de alimentos mejorados para el cultivo de peces

    OpenAIRE

    Aurrekoetxea, G.; Perera, M.N.

    2002-01-01

    Several underutilised fishery resources were analysed, including low market value species and fish processing byproducts, and then one was selected due to its composition, amount and availability for high quality protein production for juvenile gilthead sea bream and turbot diets. Among the available extraction technologies, enzymatic hydrolysis was selected, since the resulting final product has high nutritional value. Four commercial enzymes were tested to determine their activity, and the ...

  1. Contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in fish roe of commercial fish of the Zaporizhya reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive radiation-toxicological studies of fish roe of some commercial fish of the Zaporizhya Reservoir were conducted. It was found that the greatest number of 137Cs (4,5 Bq/kg) and 90Sr (3,2 Bq/kg) was accumulated by fish roe of perch. Heavy metals (cadmium, copper, zinc and lead), and natural radionuclides 226Ra and 232Th were accumulated to a greater amount of bream fish roe

  2. Trophic interaction between topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva and the co-occurring species during summer in the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didenko A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topmouth gudgeon, Pseudorasbora parva is the most common invasive fish in Europe, which can compete with the juveniles of valuable commercial fishes. The goal of this work is to study the diet of topmouth gudgeon and trophic relationships with some native fishes inhabiting the littoral zone of the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir. The obtained relatively low values of diet overlaps between topmouth gudgeon and other co-occurring cyprinids such as juvenile roach, Rutilus rutilus; silver bream, Blicca bjoerkna; rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus; Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and bleak, Abramis brama, indicate that it is not a serious food competitor for them, especially commercially valuable ones. On the contrary, high diet overlaps were observed among some native cyprinids such as juvenile roach, silver bream, rudd, and bleak. The major prey items of topmouth gudgeon were Chydorus sphaericus and chironomids, whereas other cyprinids selected Bosmina spp. This peculiarity may be due to different vertical distributions of these fish in the littoral zone of the reservoir, where topmouth gudgeon inhabit near-bottom water layers, where they preyed on near-bottom and benthic zooplankters and chironomids, while juvenile roach, silver bream, rudd, and juvenile and adult bleak live in higher water layers, where they preyed on pelagic zooplankton.

  3. First detection of circovirus-like sequences in amphibians and novel putative circoviruses in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarján, Zoltán László; Pénzes, Judit J; Tóth, Róza P; Benkő, Mária

    2014-03-01

    The negative samples of a collection, established originally for seeking new adeno- and herpesviruses in lower vertebrates, were screened for the pres-ence of circoviruses by a consensus nested PCR targeting the gene coding for the replication-associated protein. Six fish samples representing five species, namely asp (Aspius aspius), roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and monkey goby (Neogobius fluviatilis), as well as three frog samples were found positive for circoviral DNA. Sequence analysis of the amplicons indicated the presence of three novel putative circo-like viruses and a circovirus in Hungarian fishes and one novel circovirus in a common toad (Bufo bufo), and another one in a dead and an alive specimen of green tree frog (Litoria caerulea), respectively. In phylogeny reconstruction, the putative bream circovirus clustered together with circoviruses discovered in other cyprinid fishes recently. Three other piscine circoviral sequences appeared closest to sequences derived from different environmental samples. Surprisingly, the nucleotide sequence derived from two fish samples (a bream and a monkey goby) proved to be from porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), almost identical to a sequence detected in Sweden previously. This is the first report on the detection of PCV2 in fish and circoviral DNA in amphibian hosts. PMID:24334078

  4. Aerobic capacity influences the spatial position of individuals within fish schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Killen, Shaun S.; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John Fleng;

    2012-01-01

    of juvenile mullet Liza aurata were filmed at three swim speeds in a swim tunnel, with one focal fish from each school then also measured for standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and maximum aerobic swim speed. At faster speeds, fish with lower MMR and AS swam near...... the rear of schools. These trailing fish required fewer tail beats to swim at the same speed as individuals at the front of schools, indicating that posterior positions provide hydrodynamic benefits that reduce swimming costs. Conversely, fish with high aerobic capacity can withstand increased drag...

  5. Biosynthetic Gene Cluster of Cetoniacytone A, an Unusual Aminocyclitol from the Endosymbiotic Bacterium Actinomyces sp. Lu 9419

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiumei; Flatt, Patricia M.; Xu, Hui; Mahmud, Taifo

    2009-01-01

    A gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of the antitumor agent cetoniacytone A was identified in Actinomyces sp. strain Lu 9419, an endosymbiotic bacteria isolated from the intestines of the rose chafer beetle (Cetonia aurata). The nucleotide sequence analysis of the 46 kb DNA region revealed the presence of 31 complete ORFs, including genes predicted to encode a 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthase (CetA), a glyoxalase/bleomycin resistance protein (CetB), an acyltransferase (CetD), an FAD-...

  6. Toxic elements and speciation in seafood samples from different contaminated sites in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Barbosa, Vera;

    2015-01-01

    pressure, i.e. hotspot areas. Different species (Mytilus galloprovincialis, n=50; Chamelea gallina, n=50; Liza aurata, n=25; Platichthys flesus, n=25; Laminaria digitata, n=15; and Saccharina latissima, n=15) sampled in Tagus estuary, Po delta, Ebro delta, western Scheldt, and in the vicinities of a fish......)) and Fe (283-930mgkg(-1)) were detected in bivalve species, particularly in M. galloprovincialis from Ebro and Po deltas, whereas the highest content of Hg was found in P. flesus (0.86mgkg(-1)). In fish species, most Hg was organic (MeHg; from 69 to 79%), whereas lower proportions of MeHg were encountered...

  7. The Prevalence and Pathogenicity of the “Anchor Worm” (Lernea spp, Phylum Arthropoda) within the Finfish Inhabiting the Danube Delta Area

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Hangan; Laura Daniela Urdes; Daniela Ianitchi

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted as a series of cross-sectional epidemiological studies. It started in the 2003 and ended in 2008, having as sample sites the Sontea-Fortuna, Gorgova-Uzlina, Dunavat-Dranov and Razim-Sinoie lakes. The aim of the research was to assess the distribution and the pathogenicity of the Lernaea copepod among the inhabiting finfish populations, in various seasons of the time period. Lernaea spp was found in ctenopharyngodon idella, cyprinus carpio, liza aurata and liza haem...

  8. 超声波辅助提取榛子油的工艺条件优化%Optimizing Condition of Ultrasonic-Assistied Extraction of Hazelnut Seed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青珍; 王锋; 李康

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effects of different hammer mill screen sizes on feed processing characteristics, growth and digestive enzyme activity of blunt snout bream(Megalobrama amblycephala) ,450 breams were randomly allocated to 3 treatments with 5 replicates and fed with the diets ground through three screen mesh sizes (0. 8,1. 0 and 1.2 mm) respectively before pelleting. Results showed that;Screen mesh size was positively correlated with mill production, and negatively correlated with electricity consumption. The hardness of the diets through 1. 2 mm mesh size was the lowest or much lower than the other two groups. The diet through 0. 8 mm mesh size had a higher leaching rate than that through 1. 0 mm mesh size and its starch gelatinization was much higher than that of the other two groups. The breams fed with the diet through 1.0 mm mesh size had numerically the highest weight gain and growth rate, and its specific growth rate was higher than those fed with the diet through 0. 8 mm mesh size. The diet through 0. 8 mm mesh size resulted in a higher condition factor of breams than that through 1.2 mm mesh size. There was no effect of hammer mill screen size on hepatopancreas index, relative length of intestine or digestive enzyme activity. In conclusion, it might be better to grind the feed of blunt snout bream through 1.0 mm mesh size.%以榛子为原料,利用超声波辅助提取榛子油.在单因素试验的基础上,通过正交试验确定了超声波辅助提取榛子油的最佳工艺条件.结果表明:在试验范围内,各因素对榛子油得率的影响大小顺序为提取温度>提取时间>超声波功率>液料比.以石油醚为溶剂提取榛子油的最佳工艺条件为:液料比为8 mL/g、提取温度为60℃、超生波功率为500 W、提取时间为60 min,榛子油得率为74.89%.

  9. Assessment of heavy metal contamination levels and toxicity in sediments and fishes from the Mediterranean Sea (southern coast of Sfax, Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohra, Ben Salem; Habib, Ayadi

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of heavy metals in sediment is regarded as a global crisis with a large share in industrializing cities like Sfax (Tunisia). Seven heavy metals such as Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn), and one metalloid such as Arsenic (As) in sediments and fish (D. annularis, L. aurata, and S. vulgaris) were investigated from the Southern coast of Sfax in Tunisia. The range of metals in sediments were 13.11-36; 4.42-7.92; 8.23-28.56; 50,564-11,956; 2.9-6.8; 9.13-30.51; 65.06-151.50, and 47-546 kg(-1) DW for As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The level of studied metals in sediment samples exceeded the limits of the quality assessment guidelines (SQGs). The potential ecological risk index (PERI) proved that the investigated region could pose moderate risk for the aquatic biota. Metal bioaccumulation in the fish muscles varied significantly among species. Indeed, S. vulgaris and D. annularis accumulated higher amount of metal than L. aurata. The target hazard quotients (THQ) of individual heavy metals in fish, except for As and Hg, revealed safe levels for human consumption. Nevertheless, the total THQ indexes exceeded 1 suggesting the combined effects on muscles fish, which may constitute a risk to population's health.

  10. Phylogeny of Trachylepis sp. (Reptilia) from Turkey inferred from mtDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Ozgür; Candan, Kamil; Kankiliç, Tolga; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Durmuş, Salih Hakan; Poulakakis, Nikos; Ilgaz, Cetin

    2014-12-01

    The taxonomic status of the species included into the genus Trachylepis in Turkey are doubtful. So far, three morphological species have been attributed to this genus in Turkey; Trachylepis aurata. T. vittata, and T. septemtaeniata. Here, we investigated the taxonomy of the Turkish Trachylepis species by employing phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches and using mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b and 12 S rRNA). In total, 45 Trachylepis and 6 Mabuya specimens were used analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out using Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) methods. The phylogenetic relationships and the genetic distances retrieved, revealed that the Turkish species, which currently recognized as Trachylepis, are highly diversified, forming a distinct clade that shows closer phylogenetic affinity with the species of the genus Mabuya rather than the other Trachylepis species. In this clade, the three Turkish species are monophyletic with T. vittata to branch off first in late Miocene (10.54 Mya). The other two species (T. septemtaeniata and T. aurata) seem to have sister group relationship that diverged at the end of Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.27 Mya). As a whole, the examination of mtDNA lineages in the Turkish lizards of the genus Trachylepis may contribute substantially to the refining of their taxonomic status, since the three species of Turkey, although monophyletic, represent a distinct radiation that would could probably recognized as a different genus in Mabuya sensu lato. PMID:24004307

  11. Assessment of heavy metal contamination levels and toxicity in sediments and fishes from the Mediterranean Sea (southern coast of Sfax, Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohra, Ben Salem; Habib, Ayadi

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of heavy metals in sediment is regarded as a global crisis with a large share in industrializing cities like Sfax (Tunisia). Seven heavy metals such as Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn), and one metalloid such as Arsenic (As) in sediments and fish (D. annularis, L. aurata, and S. vulgaris) were investigated from the Southern coast of Sfax in Tunisia. The range of metals in sediments were 13.11-36; 4.42-7.92; 8.23-28.56; 50,564-11,956; 2.9-6.8; 9.13-30.51; 65.06-151.50, and 47-546 kg(-1) DW for As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The level of studied metals in sediment samples exceeded the limits of the quality assessment guidelines (SQGs). The potential ecological risk index (PERI) proved that the investigated region could pose moderate risk for the aquatic biota. Metal bioaccumulation in the fish muscles varied significantly among species. Indeed, S. vulgaris and D. annularis accumulated higher amount of metal than L. aurata. The target hazard quotients (THQ) of individual heavy metals in fish, except for As and Hg, revealed safe levels for human consumption. Nevertheless, the total THQ indexes exceeded 1 suggesting the combined effects on muscles fish, which may constitute a risk to population's health. PMID:27040542

  12. NPY and sbGnRH gene expression in juvenile and adult male Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus Expressão gênica do NPY e do sbGnRH em machos juvenis e adultos de linguado Paralichthys orbignyanus

    OpenAIRE

    Vinicius Farias Campos; Tiago Veiras Collares; Fabiana Kömmling Seixas; João Carlos Deschamps; Luis Fernando Fernandes Marins; Marcelo Hideo Okamoto; Luís André Nassr Sampaio; Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate neuropeptide Y (NPY) and sea bream gonadotropin-release hormone (sbGnRH) gene expression in juvenile and adult males of Brazilian flounder. Hypothalamuses from fish were sampled for total RNA extraction. After cDNA synthesis, real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression. NPY showed approximately 2-fold increases in their mRNA levels while sbGnRH showed 3-fold increases in adult fish. These results suggest that these peptides could be involved o...

  13. Megalocytiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Nakajima

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Megalocytivirus, represented by red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV, the first identified and one of the best characterized megalocytiviruses, Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, the type species of the genus, and numerous other isolates, is the newest genus within the family Iridoviridae. Viruses within this genus are causative agents of severe disease accompanied by high mortality in multiple species of marine and freshwater fish. To date outbreaks of megalocytivirus-induced disease have occurred primarily in south-east Asia and Japan, but infections have been detected in Australia and North America following the importation of infected ornamental fish. The first outbreak of megalocytiviral disease was recorded in cultured red sea bream (Pagrus major in Japan in 1990 and was designated red sea bream iridovirus disease (RSIVD. Following infection fish became lethargic and exhibited severe anemia, petechiae of the gills, and enlargement of the spleen. Although RSIV was identified as an iridovirus, sequence analyses of RSIV genes revealed that the virus did not belong to any of the four known genera within the family Iridoviridae. Thus a new, fifth genus was established and designated Megalocytivirus to reflect the characteristic presence of enlarged basophilic cells within infected organs. Indirect immunofluorescence tests employing recently generated monoclonal antibodies and PCR assays are currently used in the rapid diagnosis of RSIVD. For disease control, a formalin-killed vaccine was developed and is now commercially available in Japan for several fish species. Following the identification of RSIV, markedly similar viruses such as infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, dwarf gourami iridovirus (DGIV, turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV, Taiwan grouper iridovirus (TGIV, and rock bream iridovirus (RBIV were isolated in East and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analyses of the major capsid protein (MCP and

  14. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-07-26

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  15. ONE NEW SPECIES THE GENUS EURYHALIOTREMA (MONOGENEA, ANCYROCEPHALIDAE)%宽海盘虫属(单殖亚纲,锚首虫科)一新种记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕

    2006-01-01

    记述了寄生于广东海洋鱼类紫红笛鲷Lutjanus argentimaculatus(Forskal)和黑鲷Sparus macrocephalus(Basilewsky)鳃上的宽海盘虫属Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeer,2002一新种,新种笛鲷宽海盘虫Eruyhaliotrema lutjanisp.nov.的中央大钩与联结片的形状相似于Euryhaliotrema carbunculus(Hargis,1955)Kritsky&Boeger,2002和广东宽海盘虫Euryhaliotrema guangdongensis Li et al.,2005,但交接管形状及量度不同,同时支持器的形状与已知种差别较大.

  16. 两种宽海盘虫(包括一新种)的描述%Description of two species (including a new one) in Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕

    2005-01-01

    记述了寄生于海洋鱼类黑鲷Sparus macrocephalus(Basilewsky)鳃上的宽海盘虫属Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger,2002一新种和寄生于金带笛鲷Lutjanus vaigiensis(Cuoy & Gaimard)鳃上的约氏宽海盘虫Euryhaliotrema johnii Kritsky & Boeger,2002.广州宽海盘虫,新种Euryhaliotrema guang-zhouensis sp.nov.的腹联结片和交接管的形状与Eruyhaliotrema potamocetema Kritsky & Boeger,2002,E.paralonchuvi Kritsky & Boeger,2002和E. atlantica Kritsky & Boeger,2002相似,交接管呈螺旋形,均环绕两圈半,但它们的支持器形状差异较大,且背中央大钩和联结片的形状和量度都不同.

  17. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario. PMID:27472337

  18. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV. To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  19. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario. PMID:27472337

  20. Anchoring novel molecular biomarker responses to traditional responses in fish exposed to environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Patricia [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Pacheco, Mario [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Lourdes Pereira, M. [CICECO and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Mendo, Sonia [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rotchell, Jeanette M., E-mail: J.Rotchell@sussex.ac.u [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    The responses of Dicentrarchus labrax and Liza aurata to aquatic pollution were assessed in a contaminated coastal lagoon, using both traditional and novel biomarkers combined. DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, was higher in both fish species from the contaminated sites, whereas levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression were not significantly altered. The liver histopathological analysis also revealed significant lesions in fish from contaminated sites. Alterations in ras and xpf genes were analysed and additional pollutant-responsive genes were identified. While no alterations were found in ras gene, a downregulation of xpf gene was observed in D. labrax from a contaminated site. Suppression subtractive hybridization applied to D. labrax collected at a contaminated site, revealed altered expression in genes involved in energy metabolism, immune system activity and antioxidant response. The approach and results reported herein demonstrate the utility of anchoring traditional biomarker responses alongside novel biomarker responses. - Novel molecular biomarkers of aquatic environmental contamination in fish.

  1. “Sacred scarab” in jewelry of Ancient Egypt: the symbol interpretation problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada V. Prokopovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The image of the Sacred scarab, like any other fact of culture, should be considered only in the context of certain circumstances, which involve the approach choice: viewing as either a sign or a symbol. In those cases where the scarab image stands as a symbol, while interpreting this one it should be taken into account the cultural context, which, as relevant studies show, can never be reduced to a simple interpretation scheme “Scarab — Dorbeetle — Sun symbol”. In that connection suggested is a hypothesis, according to which the image of the Sacred scarab as a symbol is divided into two, at least, concepts: a “Sunny Beetle”, to mean the beetle species Cetonia aurata (or any other similar, and a “Beetle-Demiurge”, to mean the dorbeetle.

  2. Mueller-matrix ellipsometry studies of optically active structures in scarab beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwin H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of multilayers, photonic crystals, metamaterials and other artificial materials has promoted the use of spectroscopic, variable angle, generalized and Mueller-matrix ellipsometry. Naturally occurring structures may show even higher complexity than artificial structures but with a more narrow range of constituent materials. Fascinating reflection properties result from intricate photonic structures in, for instance, the wing scales and cuticles of insects. Currently there is a large interest to explore such functional supramolecular architectures for exploitation in nanotechnology. In this study, Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied in the spectral range of 250 to 1000 nm to investigate optical response and structures of the cuticle of Scarab beetles of the Cetoniinae subfamily. The cuticle of Cetonia aurata (the rose chafer, la cétoine dorée is green with a metallic appearance and reflects left-handed circular/elliptically polarized light. It has been suggested that the polarization of this metallic gloss is caused by a helical structure in the chitinous cuticle. We find that the polarization effect is limited to the narrow spectral range 470-550 nm whereas for shorter or longer wavelengths the reflection properties are similar to those from a near-dielectric material. Model calculations and parameterization of the nanostructure employing a heliocoidal structure are discussed. As a comparison the polarization effects from light reflected from two other beetles will be presented. Coptomia laevis has a similar appearance as Cetonia aurata but has very different polarization properties. The golden Plusiotis argentiola has very interesting properties showing both left and right-handed polarization depending on incidence angle and wavelength.

  3. Genetic analysis of a novel nidovirus from fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A bacilliform virus was isolated from diseased fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Analysis of the complete genome coding for the polyprotein (pp1ab), spike (S), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins revealed that the virus was most like white bream virus (WBV), another bacilliform virus isolated from white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L.) and the type species of the genus Bafinivirus within the order Nidovirales. In addition to similar gene order and size, alignment of deduced amino acid sequences of the pp1ab, M, N and S proteins of the fathead minnow nidovirus (FHMNV) with those of WBV showed 46, 44, 39 and 15 % identities, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using the conserved helicase domain of the replicase showed FHMNV was distinct from WBV, yet the closest relative identified to date. Thus, FHMNV appears to represent a second species in the genus Bafinivirus. A PCR assay was developed for the identification of future FHMNV-like isolates.

  4. Molecular characterization of carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA in Megalobrama amblycephala and effects on its expression of feeding status and dietary lipid and berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kang-Le; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Wang, Li-Na; Xu, Wei-Na; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I, EC 2.3.1.21) controls the main regulatory step of fatty acid oxidation, and hence studies of its molecular characterization are useful to understand lipid metabolism in cultured fish. Here, a full-length cDNA coding CPT I was cloned from liver of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. This cDNA obtained covered 2499bp with an open reading frame of 2181bp encoding 726 amino acids. This CPT I mRNA predominantly expressed in heart and white muscle, while little in eye and spleen. The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of sequence alignments among several vertebrate species suggests that this blunt snout bream CPT I sequence belongs to the CPT IA family. In order to investigate the characterization of CPT IA mRNA expression, post-prandial experiment and feeding trial were conducted. The results showed that CPT IA mRNA expression was unchanged from 2 to 12h, and then significantly increased at 24h post-feeding in liver and heart. Berberine, an alkaloid, was identified as a promising lipid-lowering drug. In order to elucidate the effect of berberine on CPT I expression, fish were fed for 8 weeks with three diets (low-fat diet (LFD, 5% fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 15% fat), and berberine-supplemented diet (BSD, 15% fat). The results showed that HFD could decrease the expression of CPT IA and PPARα, while BSD increased those expressions.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOZYME PATTERN AND MORPHOLOGY OF THREE MARINE FISH CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华荣; 张士璀; 李红岩; 童裳亮; 相建海

    2002-01-01

    Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i.e. , Flounder Gill) from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i.e., Sea Perch Heart) fro m sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red se a bream (Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is ozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these three cell lines and their corresponding tissues of origin were investigated and compared. The results sho wed: (1) No difference was found in the LDH isozyme patterns of FG and flounder gill tissue. However, the LDH isozyme patterns of SPH and RSBF were significantly different from their cor responding tissues of origin; (2) LDH isozyme patterns of FG, SPH and RSBF were markedly di fferent from each other and could serve as genetic markers for species identification and de tection of cross contamination. Morphological change analysis of these three cell lines in compa rison to their original tissues indicated that FG cells still appeared epithelioid without mor phological transformation. However, morphological changes were found in SPH and RSBF compa red to their original tissues. Therefore, the cellular morphology was still plastic in the relatively stable culture conditions, and it was possible that change of LDH patterns was related to morphological changes of fish cells in vitro.

  6. Effect of acid and alkaline solubilization on the properties of surimi based film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thummanoon Prodpran

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of acid and alkaline solubilizing processes on the properties of the protein based film from threadfin bream surimi was investigated. Surimi films prepared from both processes had the similar light transmission, tensile strength (TS and elongation at break (EAB (P<0.05. However, film with alkaline process had slightly lower water vapor permeability (WVP, compared to that prepared by acid solubilizing process. The protein concentration in the film-forming solution directly affected the properties of the film. Increase in protein concentration resulted in an increase in TS, EAB as well as WVP. The film prepared by acid solubilizing process had an increase in yellowish color as evidenced by the continuous increase in b* and E* values during the storage at r oom temperature. The acid and alkali solubilizing processes caused the degradation of muscle protein in surimi, especially with increasing exposure time. Therefore, solubilizing process had the influence on the properties of the protein film from threadfin bream surimi.

  7. Hepcidin gene expression induced in the developmental stages of fish upon exposure to Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Jian; Bo, Jun; Yang, Ming; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Wang, Xin-Hong; Chen, Fang-Yi; Yuan, Jian-Jun

    2009-04-01

    Hepcidin is known to be expressed in fish with bacterial challenge and iron overload. Here we first report the hepcidin expression induced in the developmental stages from embryo to fry of red sea bream (Pagarus major) and in juvenile black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegelii B.) upon continuous waterborne exposure to BaP. The gene expression of CYP1A1 and IgL (immunoglobulin light chain) were both measured. Expression of the Pagarus major hepcidin gene (PM-hepc) was increased in post hatch fry at 24 h and 120 h exposure to BaP at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 microg/l, respectively. The gene expression pattern was comparable to that of CYP1A1 but different from that of IgL. In addition, a high number of AS-hepc2 transcripts (Acanthopagrus schlegelii B. hepcidin gene) were detected in the liver upon exposure to 1.0 microg/l BaP. This study demonstrates that hepcidin gene expression is significantly induced in BaP-exposed red sea bream and black porgy.

  8. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in five species of fish from three sites in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Doush, Inaam

    2002-06-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrmetroic (GC-MS) method was developed to measure six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 54 fish samples. Five fish species highly consumed by the local population (shrimps, Emperors, Rabbitfish, Doublebar Bream and Greasy Grouper) were selected from three different sites on the Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia where agricultural, municipal and petroleum industry activities take place. Variations in PAH levels among the three sites were not significant. Total concentrations of PAHs benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene ranged from non-detectable to 44.9 microg kg(-1). In this study, concentrations of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and total PAHs greater than the acceptable tolerance limit (1 microg kg(-1)) were found in 68.5, 40.7, 51.9 and 83.3% of the fish samples, respectively. PAH contents in fish vary considerably with species; Doublebar bream contain the highest while shrimps contain the lowest. This pilot study clearly shows that the consumption of fish could be a source of exposure of the local population to PAHs. Since there is a consensus on the substantial contribution of PAHs to cancer in humans, it would be interesting to conduct further research in order to determine the magnitude of the problem along other coastal regions of Saudi Arabia.

  9. Marine genetic swamping: hybrids replace an obligately estuarine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David G; Gray, Charles A; West, Ronald J; Ayre, David J

    2010-02-01

    Populations of obligately estuarine taxa are potentially small and isolated and may lack genetic variation and display regional differentiation as a result of drift and inbreeding. Hybridization with a wide-ranging marine congener should introduce genetic variation and reduce the effects of inbreeding depression and genetic drift. However, high levels of hybridization can cause demographic and genetic swamping. In southeastern Australia hybridization occurs between obligately estuarine Black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri) and migratory marine Yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus australis). Here, we surveyed genetic variation at eight microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region of juvenile fish from five coastal lagoons (including temporal replication in two lagoons) (total n = 970) to determine the frequency and persistence of hybridization, and its likely consequence for the estuarine restricted A. butcheri. Of 688 juvenile fish genotyped 95% were either A. australis (347) or hybrids (309); only 5% (32) were A. butcheri. Most hybrids were later generation hybrids or A. butcheri backcrosses, which are likely multi-generational residents within lagoons. Far greater proportions of hybrid juveniles were found within two lagoons that are generally closed to the ocean (>90% hybrid fish within generally closed lagoons vs. 12-27% in permanently or intermittently open lagoons). In both lagoons, this was consistent across multiple cohorts of fish [79-97% hybrid fish (n = 282)]. Hybridization and introgression represent a major threat to the persistence of A. butcheri and have yet to be investigated for large numbers of estuarine taxa.

  10. Sex change and effective population size: implications for population genetic studies in marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, I; Chopelet, J; Waples, R S; Mann, B Q; Mariani, S

    2016-10-01

    Large variance in reproductive success is the primary factor that reduces effective population size (Ne) in natural populations. In sequentially hermaphroditic (sex-changing) fish, the sex ratio is typically skewed and biased towards the 'first' sex, while reproductive success increases considerably after sex change. Therefore, sex-changing fish populations are theoretically expected to have lower Ne than gonochorists (separate sexes), assuming all other parameters are essentially equal. In this study, we estimate Ne from genetic data collected from two ecologically similar species living along the eastern coast of South Africa: one gonochoristic, the 'santer' sea bream Cheimerius nufar, and one protogynous (female-first) sex changer, the 'slinger' sea bream Chrysoblephus puniceus. For both species, no evidence of genetic structuring, nor significant variation in genetic diversity, was found in the study area. Estimates of contemporary Ne were significantly lower in the protogynous species, but the same pattern was not apparent over historical timescales. Overall, our results show that sequential hermaphroditism may affect Ne differently over varying time frames, and that demographic signatures inferred from genetic markers with different inheritance modes also need to be interpreted cautiously, in relation to sex-changing life histories.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOZYME PATTERN AND MORPHOLOGY OF THREE MARINE FISH CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华荣; 张士璀; 李红岩; 童裳亮; 相建海

    2002-01-01

    Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i. e., Hounder Gill) from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i. e. , Sea Perch Heart) from sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these three cell lines and their corresponding tissues of origin were investigated and compared. The results showed: (1) No difference was found in the LDH isozyme patterns of FG and flounder gill tissue. However, the LDH isozyme patterns of SPH and RSBF were significantly different from their corresponding tissues of origin; (2) LDH isozyme patterns of FG, SPH and RSBF were markedly different from each other and could serve as genetic markers for species identification and detection of cross contamination. Morphological change analysis of these three cell lines in comparison to their original tissues indicated that FG cells still appeared epithelioid without morphological transformation. However, morphological changes were found in SPH and RSBF compared to their original tissues. Therefore, the cellular morphology was still plastic in the relatively stable culture conditions, and it was possible that change of LDH patterns wasrelated to morphological changes of fish cells in vitro.

  12. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Skov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder tags to explore species- and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus, common bream (Abramis brama and perch (Perca fluviatilis. In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging of fish in lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear to be the most vulnerable of the three species and based on a comparison with mortality estimates from lakes without significant avian predation, this study suggest that predation from cormorants can induce age/size truncation in lake Viborg, leaving very few larger perch in the lake. This truncation reduces the likelihood of anglers catching a large perch and may also influence lower trophic levels in the lake and thus turbidity as large piscivorous perch often play an important structuring role in lake ecosystem functioning.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabonomic profiling using tO2PLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Transposition of O2PLS input matrix (tO2PLS) to analyze metabonomics data. •tO2PLS specific components describe features that separate and define sample groups. •Application of tO2PLS to a 1H NMR metabonomics study of black bream fish. -- Abstract: Blood plasma collected from adult fish (black bream, Sparidae) exposed to a dose of 5 mg kg−1 17β-estradiol underwent metabonomic profiling using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). An extension of the orthogonal 2 projection to latent structure (O2PLS) analysis, tO2PLS, was proposed and utilized to classify changes between the control and experimental metabolic profiles. As a bidirectional modeling tool, O2PLS examines the (variable) commonality between two different data blocks, and extracts the joint correlations as well as the unique variations present within each data block. tO2PLS is a proposed matrix transposition of O2PLS to allow for commonality between experiments (spectral profiles) to be observed, rather than between sample variables. tO2PLS analysis highlighted two potential biomarkers, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and choline, that distinguish between control and 17β-estradiol exposed fish. This study presents an alternative way of examining spectroscopic (metabolite) data, providing a method for the visual assessment of similarities and differences between control and experimental spectral features in large data sets

  14. PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in farmed fish produced in Greece: Levels and human population exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios

    2016-03-01

    Fish is among the essential components of Mediterranean diet and has beneficial effects on human health. Farmed fish is an affordable alternative to wild fish and a significant food export product for Greece. Published studies worldwide have reported significant levels of environmental pollutants in fish tissues. Especially for PCDDs/Fs and PCBs, the studies suggest that the most important contribution to human dietary intake is from fish and seafood. In the present study, we investigate the levels of PCDDs/Fs, dioxin-like and non dioxin-like PCBs in the most common farmed fish species produced in Greece i.e. sea bass, sea bream and rainbow trout. These species are widely consumed in Greece and are also exported to many countries worldwide. The mean levels found were WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ: 0.22 pg g(-1) wet weight (w.w.), WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ: 0.88 pg g(-1) w.w. for sea bream, WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ: 0.13 pg g(-1) w.w., WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ: 0.68 pg g(-1) w.w. for sea bass and WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ: 0.10 pg g(-1) w.w., WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ: 0.43 pg g(-1) w.w. for rainbow trout. For non dioxin-like PCBs, mean sum values found were 8.02 ng g(-1) w.w. for sea bream, 5.24 ng g(-1) w.w. for sea bass and 2.90 ng g(-1) w.w. for rainbow trout. All concentrations found were far below maximum levels set by the European Union and in the same range as wild-caught fish also presented for comparison. Daily intake from the consumption of farmed fish species examined is calculated at 1.3 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) b.w., which is at the lowest end of TDI values proposed by the WHO. PMID:26745380

  15. Novel brain lesions caused by Edwardsiella tarda in a red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iregui, Carlos A; Guarín, Marlly; Tibatá, Victor M; Ferguson, Hugh W

    2012-03-01

    The histological lesions caused by Edwardsiella tarda in a variety of fish species, including tilapia, have been well characterized. There are apparent differences in the type of inflammatory response manifested by these different species, which may be due to the fish species itself, the phase of infection, or the virulence factors produced by different strains of E. tarda. In catfish, systemic abscesses involving muscles of the flank or caudal peduncle are the most common lesions. By contrast, infection in tilapia and red sea bream is more likely to be associated with granulomatous inflammation. Necrotic meningitis, encephalitis, and vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis of the blood vessels walls, as well as the formation of a plaque-like structure in the brain, are described in the current study. The presence of E. tarda was confirmed by microbiological isolation and a positive nested polymerase chain reaction in paraffin wax-embedded tilapia tissues. PMID:22379061

  16. Measurement of single-fish target strength in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guobao; LI Yongzhen; CHEN Pimao; ZHANG Jun; FANG Lichen; LI Nana

    2012-01-01

    We measured the target strength (TS) of three commercial fish species:whitespotted spinefoot (Siganus canaliculatus),black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegelii),and creek red bream (Lutjanus argentimaculatus),in the South China Sea.The TS of caged or tethered fish (n=76 total) was measured using a Simrad EY60 portable scientific echosounder at 120 kHz.We evaluated the relationship between TS and total length (TL,cm) for the three species.This is the first attempt to use split-beam acoustics to measure single-fish TS in the South China Sea by Chinese researchers.Our results will improve the accuracy and precision of acoustic abundance estimates of commercially important species and further the development of underwater acoustic survey techniques in fisheries in the South China Sea.

  17. Protein removal from fish mince washwater using ohmic heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobsak Kanjanapongkul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A static ohmic heating system was developed to remove protein from fish mince (threadfin bream washwatercollected from a surimi production plant in order to improve water quality. The samples were heated under different electricfield strengths (EFS, 20, 25, and 30 V/cm until reaching the desired temperature (50, 60, and 70oC, and further held at thattemperature for a certain time (0, 15, and 30 minutes. Heating the samples to 70oC resulted in a better protein removal whencompared to 50 and 60oC. After heating to 70oC, the samples were centrifuged. The analysis of the supernatant obtained showsthe reduction of protein, COD, BOD, TS, and TDS to 42%, 25%, 23%, 44%, and 61%, respectively. The electrical conductivityof the samples showed a linear relationship with temperature and the temperature demonstrated a parabolic relationshipwith heating time. EFS and holding time have no significant effect on protein removal.

  18. A review of fish lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Fai Cheung, Randy Chi; Wing Ng, Charlene Cheuk; Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-01-01

    Lectins have been reported from various tissues of a diversity of fish species including Japanese eel, conger eel, electric eel, bighead carp, gibel carp, grass carp, Arabian Gulf catfish, channel catfish, blue catfish, catfish, pike perch, perch, powan, zebrafish, toxic moray, cobia fish, steelhead trout, Japanese trout, Atlantic salmon, chinook salmon, olive rainbow smelt, rainbow smelt, white-spotted charr, tilapia, blue gourami, ayu, Potca fish, Spanish mackerel, gilt head bream, tench, roach, rudd, common skate, and sea lamprey. The tissues from which the lectins were isolated comprise gills, eggs, electric organ, stomach, intestine, and liver. Lectins have also been isolated from skin, mucus serum, and plasma. The lectins differ in molecular weight, number of subunits, glycosylation, sugar binding specificity and amino acid sequence. Their activities include antimicrobial, antitumor, immunoregulatory and a role in development. PMID:25929869

  19. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sausage formulated with surimi powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Palestina; Huda, Nurul; Yang, Tajul Aris

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P Malaysian commercial fish sausages. The water holding capacity, and emulsion stability of SP100 were significantly lower (P Malaysian commercial fish sausages. PMID:25745219

  20. CHARACTERISTICS AND NEW DATA OF RIVER ILOVA ICHTHYOFAUNA (CENTRAL CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Jelić

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available During the research 28 species of freshwater fish were found, belonging to 10 families. Most numerous family was Cyprinidae (18 species, followed by Percidae (3 species and Cobitidae (2 species. Results showed that the most abundant in species were spirlin (Alburnoides bipunctatus (17.4%, common roach (Rutilus rutilus (15.7% and prussian carp (Carassius gibelio (12.8%. And in the terms of total fish weight, highest represented were asp (Aspius aspius (28.9%, bream (Abramis brama (18.7% and pike (Esox lucius (11.4%. Presence of four new fish species has been confirmed in Ilova River: bullhead (Cottus gobio, trout (Salmo trutta, danube whitefinned gudgeon (Romanogobio vladykovi and tench (Tinca tinca.

  1. Fish remnants from the excavations of the Bronze Age barrow near Maryanskoe village (Dnepropetrovsk region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Kovalchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bronze Age mound (2.5–2.3 kya BC is located near the Maryanskoe village (Apostolovskyi district, Dnepropetrovsk region and was excavated in 1953. The results of determination of the fish remnants, which were found during the excavation, are presented in the paper. Eleven species belonging to 9 genera, 5 families and 5 orders (Acipenseriformes, Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, Esociformes, Perciformes were identified: russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt et Ratzeburg, 1833, stellate sturgeon A. stellatus Pallas, 1771, common ide Idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758, common roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758, pontic roach R. frisii (Nordmann, 1840, common bream Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758, common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758, european catfish Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758, northern pike Esox lucius (Linnaeus, 1758, and zander Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758. Most of them are quite common in the Dnieper river basin. It was found that carp fishes predominate in the number of species. Most of the bone remnants in the collection belong to zander, catfish and pike, while common roach, pontic roach and common bream are identified by the few bones. This may indicate a different role of these species in the diet of the local population. The ratio of skeletal elements in the collection is the evidence of the fish cutting on the site. Body length and weight was reconstructed for 64 fish specimens. It was found that they were mature and small-sized, except for catfish, pike and perch. Taking into account the characteristics of the funeral rituals of the Yamna culture population, fish bones from the mound near Maryanskoe can be remnants of the parting meal.

  2. Maternal inheritance in polyploid fish inferred from mitochondrial ATPase genes analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinpeng Yan; Xinhong Guo; Shaojun Liu; Jun Xiao; Zhen Liu; Yubao Chen; Yun Liu

    2009-01-01

    The sequences of the ATPase8/6 genes for the triploid, tetraploid and pentaploid hybrids as well as for their male parent blunt snout bream were determined. In order to examine mitochondrial maternal inheritance, the sequences were subjected to a comparative sequence analysis with the homologous sequences of red crucian carp, their female parent, and zebrafish as the outgroup. Base compo-sition and variation as well as the divergences based on nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid sequences were calculated. Phy-logenetic trees were also constructed with maximum parsimony (MP), minimum evolution (ME), neighbor joining (NJ) and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) algorithms in MEGA 3.1. The results showed that most nucleotide sub-stitutions occurred at the third codon position of the two genes and thus represented synonymous mutations. The nucleotide sequence divergences of the ATPase8/6 genes ranged from 0.0% to 21.6% among ingroup samples (three types of polyploids and their parents), and 27.0-28.2% between their ingroup and the outgroup samples. All the polyploids were considerably closer in sequence relationship to the female parent red crucian carp (0.0-3.3%) compared to their male parent blunt snout bream (21.0-21.6%). The phylogenetic trees also showed a similar result. In conclusion, the mitochondrial ATPase8/6 genes of artificial polyploid fish stringently indicated maternal inheritance. Our results also suggested that the ATPase8/6 genes are valuable genetic markers to track genealogies and variations in the progenies of the hybrids.

  3. Assessment of Heavy-Metal Pollution in Sediments and Tilapia Fish Species in Kafue River of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbewe, Gezile; Mutondo, Moola; Maseka, Kenneth; Sichilongo, Kwenga

    2016-10-01

    We report results from an evaluation of the levels of heavy metals, i.e., copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), and iron (Fe) in sediment and tilapia fish samples from a wide stretch of the Kafue river of Zambia. In sediment samples, the highest Pb and Fe concentrations were recorded at Hippo Dam, i.e., 36.2 ± 0.1 mg/kg dw and 733 ± 37 mg/kg dw at Kafue Town, respectively. Other notably high metal concentrations in sediment were Cr at Kafue Bridge (42.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg dw [dw]), Cu at Mpongwe (233 ± 5 mg/kg dw), and Mn at Kafue Town (133 ± 1 mg/kg dw); it was highest at Ithezi Tezhi Dam at 166 ± 1 mg/kg d. Three fish species, i.e., three-spot bream Tilapia andersonii, red-breasted bream T. rendalli, and nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated for levels of the seven metals. The concentrations of the metals in these fish species afforded estimation of the biota sediment-accumulation factor, which is the ratio of the concentration of the metal in liver to that in the sediment. The coefficients of condition (K) values, which give an indication of the health of the fish, were also estimated. The K values ranged from 2.5 ± 0.5 to 5.1 ± 0.6 in all of the three fish species. Partial least squares analysis showed that heavy metals are generally sequestered evenly in all of the parts of all of the three fish species except for elevated levels of Mn, Cd, and Pb in the liver samples. PMID:27401599

  4. Spatial variation in elemental composition of otoliths of three species of fish (family Sparidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillanders, B. M.; Kingsford, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Determining the nursery habitat of fishes that have moved from estuarine nursery habitats is difficult. The elemental fingerprints of otoliths of three species of sparids were determined to investigate their utility as a natural tag of the nursery habitat. Juvenile Pagrus auratus (snapper), Rhabdosargus sarba (tarwhine) and Acanthopagrus australis (bream) were collected from two sites in each of 15, six and three estuaries, respectively, and their otoliths analysed by solution-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Significant differences in otolith chemistry were found for all three species of juveniles collected from different estuaries. The same patterns among estuaries were not seen for all species, although it was not possible to sample the same sites within an estuary for all species. For bream, significant differences in otolith chemistry were found among all three estuaries, whereas for tarwhine the six estuaries were separated into three groups. For snapper, a number of estuaries could be separated, but there was some overlap for other estuaries. All three species were collected from the same site within one estuary and their otoliths analysed. Significant differences were found among species, but the implication of this finding remains unclear as the three species show differences in microhabitat use and may also differ in age. Because the elemental fingerprints of juveniles vary among estuaries or groups of estuaries, the nursery or recruitment estuary of adult fish could now be determined by analysing the juvenile region of adult otoliths. Thus, connectivity between estuaries and open coastal populations could be determined. Such information will have major implications for fisheries management because it will provide information on the distance that fish have moved from their recruitment estuary and the number of estuaries that contribute to each adult population.

  5. Toxicity of degradation products of the antifouling biocide pyridine triphenylborane to marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onduka, Toshimitsu; Ojima, Daisuke; Ito, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Mochida, Kazuhiko; Fujii, Kazunori

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated the acute toxicities of the main degradation products of pyridine triphenylborane (PTPB), namely, diphenylborane hydroxide (DPB), phenylborane dihydroxide (MPB), phenol, and biphenyl, to the alga Skeletonema costatum, the crustacean Tigriopus japonicus, and two teleosts, the red sea bream Pagrus major and the mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus. DPB was the most toxic of the degradation products to all four organisms. The acute toxicity values of DPB for S. costatum, T. japonicus, red sea bream, and mummichog were 55, 70, 100, and 200-310 μg/L, respectively. The degradation products were less toxic than PTPB to S. costatum and T. japonicus; however, the toxicities of DPB and PTPB to the fish species were similar. We also examined changes in the inhibition of growth rate of S. costatum as well as the percentage of immobilization of T. japonicus as end points of toxicity of PTPB after irradiation of PTPB with 432 ± 45 W/m(2) of 290-700 nm wavelength light. After 7 days of irradiation with this light, the concentration of PTPB in the test solutions decreased markedly. A decrease in toxic effects closely coincided with the decrease in the concentration of PTPB caused by the irradiation. PTPB probably accounted for most of the toxicity in the irradiation test solutions. Because the concentrations of PTPB that were acutely toxic to S. costatum and T. japonicus were <10 % of the corresponding concentrations of its degradation products, PTPB probably accounted for most of the toxicity in the irradiation test solutions. PMID:23929384

  6. NPY and sbGnRH gene expression in juvenile and adult male Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus Expressão gênica do NPY e do sbGnRH em machos juvenis e adultos de linguado Paralichthys orbignyanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Farias Campos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate neuropeptide Y (NPY and sea bream gonadotropin-release hormone (sbGnRH gene expression in juvenile and adult males of Brazilian flounder. Hypothalamuses from fish were sampled for total RNA extraction. After cDNA synthesis, real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression. NPY showed approximately 2-fold increases in their mRNA levels while sbGnRH showed 3-fold increases in adult fish. These results suggest that these peptides could be involved on hypothalamic regulation of Brazilian flounder sexual maturation.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a expressão gênica do neuropeptídeo Y (NPY e da variante sea bream do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofinas (sbGnRH em linguados machos juvenis e adultos. O hipotálamo foi isolado para a extração de RNA total. Após a síntese de cDNA, a PCR em tempo real foi usada para avaliar a expressão gênica. Foi observado um aumento de aproximadamente duas vezes nos níveis de NPY e de aproximadamente três vezes nos níveis de sbGnRH nos peixes adultos. Esses resultados demonstram que estes peptídeos podem estar envolvidos na regulação, via hipotálamo, da maturação sexual no linguado.

  7. Ship-based MAX-DOAS measurements of tropospheric NO2 and SO2 in the South China and Sulu Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, S. F.; Peters, E.; Richter, A.; Lampel, J.; Wittrock, F.; Burrows, J. P.

    2015-02-01

    In November 2011, ship-based Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements were performed within the SHIVA campaign on board RV Sonne in the South China and Sulu Sea. Spectral measurements for a total of eleven days could be used to retrieve tropospheric slant column densities (SCDs) of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the marine environment. The NO2 fit was performed following recommendations developed during the CINDI campaign and adapted for the ship-based measurements. We found that the inclusion of a cross section for liquid water and an empirical correction spectrum accounting for the effects of liquid water and vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) slightly improved the NO2 fit quality, especially at lower elevation angles and for lower NO2 levels. The conversion of SCDs into tropospheric NO2 vertical columns (TVC NO2) has been achieved using both a simple geometric approach and the Bremian advanced MAX-DOAS Retrieval Algorithm (BREAM), which is based on the optimal estimation method and accounts for atmospheric radiative transfer. We found good agreement between the geometric approach using the 15° measurements and BREAM, revealing that measurements at 15° elevation angle can be used for retrieving TVC NO2 in tropical marine environments when SZA is smaller than 75°. As expected, the values of TVC NO2 were generally low (2 × 1015 molec cm-2) in the morning when the RV Sonne was heading along the coast of Borneo. This is in good agreement with satellite measurements. The results of the profile retrieval show that the boundary layer values of NO2 are environment. Interestingly, we also found elevated tropospheric SO2 amounts for measurements taken in a busy shipping lane, consistent with the time series of tropospheric NO2.

  8. Isolation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus from Brain Tissues of Bat in Yunnan Province%从云南省蝙蝠脑组织中分离出乙型脑炎病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海林; 张云智; 黄文丽; 米竹青; 龚鹤琴; 王静林

    2001-01-01

    In July 1997, a strain (GB30) of virus was isolated from 60 samples of brain tissues of Murina aurata (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) co llec ted in Gengma county, Yunnan province, China. Isolation of virus was negative fr om 4 samples of brain tissues of Rousettus leschenaulti (Chiroptera: Pteropo did ae) collected in Gengma. GB30 virus strain could regularly cause illness and dea th in suckling mice, produced evident CPE in BHK21 cells. It agglutinated red b lood cells of dove at pH5.75~7.4. This virus has been identified serologically by hemagglutination inhibition and immunofluorescent tests using Japanese enceph alitis (JE), dengue (DEN) type 1,2,3,4, and chikungunya (CHIK) viruses monoclona l antibodies, and JE and sindbis (SIN) viruses immune sera. It showed specific r eaction to JE virus only and no reaction with DEN 1~4, CHIK and SIN viruses. Th erefore it can be identified as JE virus. This is the first report on the isolat ion of JE virus from Murina aurata. The results showed that bats are conside red as the reservoir and amplifier host of JE virus transmission in nature.%为进一步阐明蝙蝠在保存乙脑病毒中的作用,于1997年7月,在云南省耿马 县捕捉蝙蝠64只,取脑组织作病毒分离,从一只金管鼻蝠脑组织中分离出1株病毒。该毒株 能引起BHK21细胞病变和乳鼠发病死亡,在pH5.75~7.4时能凝集鸽红血球,经用单克隆抗 体血凝抑制和免疫荧光试验鉴定,证实为乙型脑炎病毒。进一步证明蝙蝠在乙型脑炎病毒保 存和扩散中具有重要作用。从金管鼻蝠体内分离出乙型脑炎病毒属国内外首次报道。

  9. THE EFFECTS OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN LEVEL ON THE SWIMMING PERFORMANCES OF JUVENILE PARABRAMIS PEKINENSIS AND SPINIBARBUS SINENSIS%溶氧水平对鳊鱼、中华倒刺鲃幼鱼游泳能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文文; 曹振东; 付世建

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) level on swimming performance of juvenile Chinese bream (Parabramis pekinensis) [n=32, body mass: 4.70±0.11 g] and Qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis) [n=32, body mass: 3.26±0.06 g], we measured the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) and swimming metabolic rate (MO 2) and calculated the resting metabolic rate (AfO2rest), maximum metabolic rate (MO2max), metabolic scope (MS), and cost of transport (COT) during swimming at 25℃ and DO 8 (100% saturation), 4, 2, and 1 mgO2/L. Ucrit values of Chinese bream and Qingbo were 8.47 ± 0.19 vs 9.49 ± 0.14, 7.40 ± 0.17 vs 9.40 ± 0.28, 5.64 ± 0.16 vs 7.51 ± 0.21 and 4.02 ±0.23 vs 4.75 ± 0.13 BL/s at above different DO levels, respectively. Ucrit decreased significantly with DO in both fish species (P<0.05) except that of Qingbo between 4 and 8 mgO2/L. Ucrit of Qingbo was significantly higher than those of Chinese bream under all DO levels (P<0.05). Both MO2max and MS decreased significantly with DO from 8 to 1 (P<0.05) while MO2rest showed a significantly decrease till DO was below 1 mgO2/L. In comparison, MO2 increased significantly with Ucrit (P<0.05). COT of both fish species decreased with Ucrit within lower swimming speed range but remained unchanged at high Ucrit range. COT of Qingbo was lower than that of Chinese bream (P<0.05). In addition, COT decreased with DO, suggesting that down-regulation of the physiological processes under hypoxic conditions. When DO decreased from 100% to 50%, Chinese bream showed a 13% decrease in Ucrit due to the decreased respiratory capacities (as suggested by a 32% decrease inMO2max) while Qingbo showed no significant decrease in Ucrit despite a 20% decrease inMO2max due to the decrease in maintaining metabolism and COT. However, when DO decreased to 12.5%, both Qingbo and Chinese bream showed similar decreases in Ucrit compared to those under 100% DO (53% vs 50%). This observation suggested that the swimming performance varied

  10. Effects of an artificial reef system on demersal nekton assemblages in Xiangshan Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yazhou; Lin, Nan; Yuan, Xingwei; Jiao, Haifeng; Shentu, Jikang; Li, Shengfa

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, an artificial reef system was deployed in Xiangshan Bay, China, to enhance its fishery resources. To determine the effect of the artificial reef system on the demersal nekton assemblages, a beforeafter- control-impact study design was applied. Comparisons of assemblages from impact and control habitats revealed that the assemblage in the impact area had a gradual response to reef deployment. The assemblages in the impact and control areas changed in different ways after reef deployment. During the study period, total biomass, species richness and average body weight in the control area remained relatively stable, whereas there were significant increases in these indicators in the impact area. Responses to the reefs differed among nekton species, inducing assemblage succession in the reefs post-deployment. Sparus macrocephalus and Cynoglossus abbreviatus benefited most from reef deployment. Conversely, smallsized shrimp Palaemon gravieri showed a progressive decrease in biomass following reef deployment. Overall, the artificial reef system diversified the demersal nekton assemblage, enhanced the total biomass, and increased the proportion of large-sized species.

  11. ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION AND BREEDING OF MARINE FISH IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪万树; 张其永

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1990s, artificial propagation and breeding technique of marine fish in China have developed by way of increasing species and fry numbers, with special stress laid on valuable species. Large quantities of artificial fry can meet the needs of both marine cage culture and pond culture for most species. Experimental results obtained by scientists have been put into use in actual production. Fish fry production has entered a period of sustainable development. So far, at least 44 species (21 families) of marine fish have been successfully bred in China. The artificial fry number of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) exceeded 300 million in 1999. The species whose artificial fry numbers have each surpassed 10 million annually are red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus), cuneate drum (Nibea miichthioides), spring spawning red seabream (Pagrosomus major) and threebanded sweetlip (Plectorhynchus cinctus). Millions of artificial fry are bred annually in the species of black porgy (Sparus macrocephalus), Russell's snapper (Lutjanus russelli), javelin grunt (Pomadasys hasta), miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) and skewband grunt (Hapalogenys nitens). The fish in the family Sciaenidae are the main species in artificial propagation and breeding. Some problems and prospects on marine fish culture and stock enhancement are also discussed and some proposals for sustainable development are put forward in this article.

  12. Description of Two Species (Including One New Species)of Genus Haliotrema and One Species of Genus Euryhaliotrema%两种海盘虫(包括一新种)及一种宽海盘虫的记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕; 颜心茂

    2007-01-01

    记述了寄生于黑鲷Sparus macrocephalus(Basilewsky)与紫红笛鲷Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forskai)鳃上的海盘虫属-新种及寄生于勒氏笛鲷Lutjanus russelli(Bleek,1849)鳃上的螺管海盘虫Haliotrema spirotubiforum Zhang,2001,长阴宽海盘虫Euryhaliotrema chrysotaeniae(Young,1968)Kritsky&.Boeger,2002.瘤钩海盘虫,新种Haliotrema tukerhamatus sp.nov.的两对中央大钩钩尖基部有一瘤状突起;背中央大钩和背联结片的形状均相似于Haliotrema longihamus Zhukov,1976,但新种背腹中央大钩形状相同,均没有内外突的分化;腹联结片前缘凹入,中部后缘有一显著的向后凸起,而已知种背腹中央大钩形状相异,腹中央大钩内外突分化明显,腹联结片平直;新种交接管近端多次弯曲,远端环绕一圈,而已知种交接管仅在中部环绕一圈.

  13. Profitability of Small-Scale Fisheries in Elmina, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Okyere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve sustainable fishing livelihoods in coastal communities, data on profitability of small-scale fisheries relative to fish species caught and gear types used by fishermen is required as part of a broader fisheries management strategy. This study was undertaken with this in mind. Interviews were conducted among 60 fishermen between February and March 2010. Economic assessment of small-scale fishing activities were done using questionnaires based on direct market pricing and contingent valuation methods. The results indicate that highly profitable fish species include Epinephelus aeneus, Sparus caeruleostictus, Dentex angolensis and Lutjanus goreensis valued at US$2.97, US$2.87, US$2.85 and US$2.63 per kilogram respectively. The less profitable species include Dasyatis margarita, Caranx crysos and Sardinella aurita valued at US$0.34, US$0.66 and US$ 0.85 per kilogram respectively. Although Sardinella aurita was among the less valuable fish species, it was the main species driving profits for the fishermen due to its high share volume among the fish catches. Findings from this study suggest high rates of exploitation, in that stocks generally cannot provide for increased economic return in the face of increased investment. This is a clear indicator that the open-access nature of Ghanaian fisheries is not sustainable, and management reform is well overdue.

  14. The relationships between heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) levels and the size of six Mediterranean fish species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant relationships between metal concentrations and fish size were negative. - Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) concentrations in the muscle, gill and liver of six fish species (Sparus auratus, Atherina hepsetus, Mugil cephalus, Trigla cuculus, Sardina pilchardus and Scomberesox saurus) from the northeast Mediterranean Sea were measured and the relationships between fish size (length and weight) and metal concentrations in the tissues were investigated by linear regression analysis. Metal concentrations (as μg/g d.w.) were highest in the liver, except for iron in the gill of Scomberesox saurus and lowest in the muscle of all the fish species. Highest concentrations of Cd (4.50), Cr (17.1) and Pb (41.2) were measured in liver tissues of T. cuculus, Sardina pilchardus and A. hepsetus, respectively. The liver of M. cephalus showed strikingly high Cu concentrations (202.8). The gill of Scomberesox saurus was the only tissue that showed highest (885.5) iron concentrations. Results of linear regression analysis showed that, except in a few cases, significant relationships between metal concentrations and fish size were negative. Highly significant (P<0.001) negative relationships were found between fish length and Cr concentrations in the liver of A. hepsetus and M. cephalus, and Cr concentrations in the gill of T. cuculus. Cr and Pb concentrations in the liver and Cu concentrations in all the tissues of Scomberesox saurus also showed very significant (P<0.001) negative relationships. Negative relationships found here were discussed

  15. [Frost-resistance of subtropical evergreen woody plants: an evaluation based on plant functional traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi-Lu; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Yue; Xie, Yi-Ming; Wang, Liang-Yan; Yan, En-Rong

    2012-12-01

    Evaluating the frost-resistance of evergreen woody plants is of significance in guiding the species selection in forest management in subtropical region. In this paper, an investigation was made on the functional traits (including specific leaf area, stem wood density, leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf relative electrical conductance, and twig wood density) of 64 common evergreen broad-leaved and coniferous woody plant species in the Ningbo region of Zhejiang Province, East China, after a severe snowstorm in early 2008, aimed to select the evergreen woody plants with high ability of freeze-tolerance, and to establish a related evaluation system. By using a hierarchy analysis approach, the weight values of the functional traits of each species were determined, and an index system for evaluating the plants tolerance ability against freeze and mechanical damage was established. Based on this system, 23 evergreen plant species with high tolerance ability against freeze and mechanical damage, such as Cyclobalanopsis gilva, Cyclobalanopsis nubium, Neolitsea aurata, and Vacciniuim mandarinorum, were selected. In the meantime, on the basis of the ordering with each of the functional traits, the ordering of the tolerance ability of the 64 plant species against freeze and mechanical damage was made, and a list for the frost-resistance ability of the subtropical evergreen woody plant species in Ningbo region was constituted. PMID:23479868

  16. Helminth parasites of fish and shellfish from the Santa Gilla Lagoon in southern Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culurgioni, J; Sabatini, A; De Murtas, R; Mattiucci, S; Figus, V

    2014-12-01

    An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species (n= 515) and seven bivalve species (n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host-parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax.

  17. Molecular Evolution of Multiple Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase (AANAT in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Zilberman-Peled

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA to arylalkylamines, including indolethylamines and phenylethylamines. Multiple aanats are present in teleost fish as a result of whole genome and gene duplications. Fish aanat1a and aanat2 paralogs display different patterns of tissue expression and encode proteins with different substrate preference: AANAT1a is expressed in the retina, and acetylates both indolethylamines and phenylethylamines; while AANAT2 is expressed in the pineal gland, and preferentially acetylates indolethylamines. The two enzymes are therefore thought to serve different roles. Here, the molecular changes that led to their specialization were studied by investigating the structure-function relationships of AANATs in the gilthead seabream (sb, Sperus aurata. Acetylation activity of reciprocal mutated enzymes pointed to specific residues that contribute to substrate specificity of the enzymes. Inhibition tests followed by complementary analyses of the predicted three-dimensional models of the enzymes, suggested that both phenylethylamines and indolethylamines bind to the catalytic pocket of both enzymes. These results suggest that substrate selectivity of AANAT1a and AANAT2 is determined by the positioning of the substrate within the catalytic pocket, and its accessibility to catalysis. This illustrates the evolutionary process by which enzymes encoded by duplicated genes acquire different activities and play different biological roles.

  18. Studies on Leaf Venation in Selected Taxa of the Genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badron, Ummu Hani; Talip, Noraini; Mohamad, Abdul Latiff; Affenddi, Affina Eliya Aznal; Juhari, Amirul Aiman Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    A study on the variation of leaf venation patterns was conducted on 21 taxa of the genus Ficus in Peninsular Malaysia. The results showed the existence of eight leaf venation patterns based on veinlets, the ultimate marginal and areolar venation. The majority of species, such as F. annulata, F. benghalensis, F. benjamina, F. deltoidea var. angustifolia, F. deltoidea var. kunstleri, F. depressa, F. elastica, F. hispida, F. microcarpa, F. religiosa, F. tinctoria, F. ucinata and F. vasculosa, show tri-veinlets. The others exhibit the following: bi-veinlets in F. aurata and F. heteropleura; uni-veinlets in F. lepicarpa, F. schwarzii and F. superba; and simple veinlets in F. aurantiacea and F. fulva. F. sagittata presents no veinlets for areolar venation. The presence of tracheid or swollen veins at the centre of the lamina and the presence of cystolith cells and trichomes are common anatomical characteristics that could assist in group classification of the studied species. Variations in leaf venation patterns are not only valuable in identifying a taxon group, but can also be used to differentiate between species in the genus Ficus.

  19. Aerobic capacity influences the spatial position of individuals within fish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Shaun S; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John F; McKenzie, David J

    2012-01-22

    The schooling behaviour of fish is of great biological importance, playing a crucial role in the foraging and predator avoidance of numerous species. The extent to which physiological performance traits affect the spatial positioning of individual fish within schools is completely unknown. Schools of juvenile mullet Liza aurata were filmed at three swim speeds in a swim tunnel, with one focal fish from each school then also measured for standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and maximum aerobic swim speed. At faster speeds, fish with lower MMR and AS swam near the rear of schools. These trailing fish required fewer tail beats to swim at the same speed as individuals at the front of schools, indicating that posterior positions provide hydrodynamic benefits that reduce swimming costs. Conversely, fish with high aerobic capacity can withstand increased drag at the leading edge of schools, where they could maximize food intake while possibly retaining sufficient AS for other physiological functions. SMR was never related to position, suggesting that high maintenance costs do not necessarily motivate individuals to occupy frontal positions. In the wild, shifting of individuals to optimal spatial positions during changing conditions could influence structure or movement of entire schools.

  20. The Prevalence and Pathogenicity of the “Anchor Worm” (Lernea spp, Phylum Arthropoda within the Finfish Inhabiting the Danube Delta Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Hangan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted as a series of cross-sectional epidemiological studies. It started in the 2003 and ended in 2008, having as sample sites the Sontea-Fortuna, Gorgova-Uzlina, Dunavat-Dranov and Razim-Sinoie lakes. The aim of the research was to assess the distribution and the pathogenicity of the Lernaea copepod among the inhabiting finfish populations, in various seasons of the time period. Lernaea spp was found in ctenopharyngodon idella, cyprinus carpio, liza aurata and liza haematocheila, only in two out of the four sampled complex of lakes, Razim-Sinoie and Dunavat-Dranov. The highest prevalence of the parasite was recorded in the autumns and at the beginning of the springs. The frequency of the parasitism was highest in the C. idella captured in the Dunavat-Dranov complex lakes (86.29%. The lesions caused by the copepod were mainly localized on the eye balls, the tegmentum and on the fins, where hemorrhagic and proliferative processes, as well as an overall increase in tegmentum mucus secretion, were noticed.

  1. Oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats induced by poisonous pufferfish (Lagocephalus lagocephalus meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saoudi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of pufferfish (Lagocephalus lagocephalus meat poisoning on hepatic functions of Wistar rats. For this purpose, groups of rats (Lcr, Lcu+b and Lcu-b received diet supplemented with 10% of raw or cooked meat, respectively, with or without cooking water of L. lagocephalus while groups Mcr and Mcu+b received diet supplemented with 10% of raw or cooked meat of Liza aurata, which were used as a negative control. In Lcu+b group, ALT, AST and ALP rates (hepatic enzyme markers decreased after two months of treatment, indicating liver damage. We also observed an increase of 54 and 65% of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in their livers respectively 48 hours and two months after treatment compared to controls. The catalase (CAT activity in group Lcu+b decreased (p < 0.05 after two periods of treatment, whereas metallothionein (MT level significantly increased and decreased, respectively after 48 hours and two months. In fact, in the histological analysis of the livers from Lcu+b treated group, we observed an increase in vacuolisation, necrosis, hepatocytes ballooning and sinusoids dilation. These results indicate that L. lagocephalus meat cooked with water produces hepatotoxicity and oxidative damage.

  2. The occurrence of acanthocephalans in teleost fish from the Bizerte lagoon, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, L; Antar, R; Zarrouk, F; Maamouri, F

    2016-01-01

    Seven species of acanthocephalans were identified for the first time in teleost fish from the Bizerte lagoon, Tunisia, including Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) agilis (Rudolphi, 1819) Van Cleave, 1916; N. (Neoechinorhynchus) rutili Müller, 1780 (Neoechinorhynchidae); Acanthocephaloide propinquus (Dujardin, 1845) Meyer, 1932; A. incrassatus (Molin, 1858) Meyer, 1932 (Arhythmacanthidae); Longicollum pagrosomi Yamaguti, 1935 (Pomphorhynchidae); Rhadinorhynchus cadenati (Golvan et Houin, 1964) Golvan, 1969 (Rhadinorhynchidae); and Telosentis exiguus (von Linstow, 1901) Van Cleave, 1923 (Illiosentidae). Acanthocephaloide propinquus, N. (N.) rutili, L. pagrosomi and R. cadenati were restricted to the rectum and the posterior intestine, whereas the other species (A. incrassatus, T. exiguus and N. (H.) agilis) colonized two or three parts of the intestine. The most diverse acanthocephalan fauna was recorded in Lithognathus mormyrus, with three species; two species were reported from Trachurus trachurus; and a single species was recorded in Liza aurata and in Atherina boyeri. Neoechinorhynchus (N.) rutili, L. pagrosomi and R. cadenati attained the lowest prevalences of less than 6% and were considered as to be rare species. Acanthocephaloide incrassatus, A. propinquus, T. exiguus and N. (H.) agilis were satellite species. The diversity of the acanthocephalan fauna in the fish from the Bizerte lagoon is compared with previous studies from other localities. The report of A. incrassatus, A. propinquus and N. (N.) rutili in L. mormyrus presents new host records in Mediterranean waters. PMID:25726842

  3. BACTERIAL COMPOSITION IN THE INTESTINE OF FRESHWATER PEARL MUSSEL AND CO-CULTURED FISHES IN AN INTEGRATED CULTURE POND%综合养殖池塘中三角帆蚌和鱼类肠道细菌的组成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涵; 周涛; 王岩

    2013-01-01

    采用 PCR-DGGE (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis)方法研究了综合养殖池塘中三角帆蚌(Hyriopsis cumingii)、草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)、鳊(Parabramis pekinensis)、银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)、青鱼(Mylopharyngodon piceus)和鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)的肠道细菌组成,并分析了水体中的浮游细菌对鱼、蚌肠道细菌的影响。研究结果表明,三角帆蚌和混养鱼类肠道细菌属于厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)、变形菌门(Proteobacteria)、放线菌门(Actinobacteria)、疣微菌门(Verrucomicrobia)、蓝细菌(Cyanobacteria)、梭杆菌门(Fusobacteria)。其中,三角帆蚌肠道优势菌群为不动杆菌属(Acinetobacter)、志贺氏菌属(Shigella)和分枝杆菌属(Mycobacterium),草鱼肠道优势菌群为梭菌属(Clostridium),鳊肠道优势菌群为梭菌属和假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas),银鲫肠道优势菌群为不动杆菌属和志贺氏菌属,青鱼肠道优势菌群为梭菌属和不动杆菌属,鳙肠道优势菌群为不动杆菌属和弧菌属(Vibrio)。三角帆蚌与银鲫肠道细菌谱带相似性较高,草鱼与鳊肠道细菌谱带相似性较高,表明鱼类肠道细菌组成特点与食性存在一定的关系。水体浮游细菌优势菌群为类芽孢杆菌属(Paenibacillus)。三角帆蚌及鱼类肠道细菌群落与水体浮游细菌群落组成相似性较低,表明水体浮游细菌对三角帆蚌和鱼类肠道细菌优势菌群的影响有限。%The bacterial compositions in the intestine of freshwater pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii and co-cultured fishes (grass carp, Chinese bream, giebel carp, black carp, and bighead carp) in an integrated culture pond were inves-tigated using the method PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The effects of bacteria in water column on intestinal bacteria of the mussel and fishes were analyzed. The results indicated that intestinal bacteria of the mussel and fishes were identified as Firmicutes

  4. Comparison of Material Characteristics among Conventional Freshwater Fish Species%大宗淡水鱼类原料特性比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨京梅; 夏文水

    2012-01-01

    The material characteristics of such conventional freshwater fish species as snail carp, grass carp, silver carp, bighead carp, carp, crucian carp and bream were studied. The weight percentage of each part, meat-producing rate, basic components, pH, protein composition and texture profile analysis (TPA) of back muscle were investigated. The results indicated that the weight percentages of viscera and head in seven species of freshwater fish were significantly different. The meat-producing rate of black carp was the highest, 54.33%, while bighead carp was the lowest, 32.80%. Little difference in basic components was observed except for higher crude fat content in bream (4.08%) compared with other fish species. The highest percentages of non- protein nitrogen, water-soluble protein, salt-soluble protein, alkali-soluble protein and alkali-insoluble protein were found in silver carp (1.67%), carp (4.68%), grass carp (9.91%), carp (2.45%) and bream (0.83%), respectively. Based on the TPA parameters, better textural characteristics were observed in black carp and crap.%对7种大宗淡水鱼的原料特性进行比较分析,测定7种大宗淡水鱼鱼体各部分比例、采肉率、基本成分、pH值及蛋白质组成,并对鱼背肉进行质地多面剖析(TPA)测试。结果表明:7种大宗淡水鱼之间内脏和鱼头所占比例差异较明显;青鱼的采肉率最高为54.33%,鳙鱼的最低为32.80%;水分、灰分和粗蛋白含量差异较小;粗脂肪含量鳊鱼最高为4.08%;非蛋白氮、水溶性蛋白、盐溶性蛋白、碱溶性蛋白和碱不溶性蛋白在7种鱼肉中所占比例最高的分别为鲢鱼(1.67%)、鲤鱼(4.68%)、草鱼(9.91%)、鲤鱼(2.45%)和鳊鱼(0.83%);综合考虑TPA测试的相关参数,青鱼和鲤鱼肉的质构特性较好。

  5. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN FISH OF THE KILIYA DELTA OF THE DANUBE (2003–2005

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    Yu. Sytnik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Identification and analysis of the content of organochlorine pesticides (OCP in organs and tissues of benthivorous and predatory fish species of the Kiliya delta of the Danube (Eastern mouth and their comparison with previous years. Methodology. The analysis of the samples of aquatic organisms for the content of residual organochlorine pesticides was carried out by gas-liquid chromatography (GLH based on a unified methodology. The chromatographic analysis was carried out on the gas chromatograph "Color 5" with electron capture detector at the Institute of Hydrobiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Findings. The effect of stable organochlorine pesticides on aquatic organisms is characterized by marked persistence in the environment and by high ability for migration and accumulation on different levels of food chains in aquatic ecosystems. The continuous presence of OCP in all investigated organs and tissues of selected species with the presence of a certain amount of fat and consequently, the fixation of residual organochlorine pesticides. Among benthivorous fishes, the content of OCP in organs and tissues (total is as follows: vimba → roach → wild carp → bream → gibel carp. Among the predators: asp → perch → European catfish → pikeperch. Originality. Recently, a significant number of scientists all around the world returns to the problem of the accumulation and distribution (redistribution of OCP in the components of aquatic ecosystems. This is associated with certain threats to the environment and human health, that could lead to negative consequences as a result of the consumption of fish as the highest trophic level in fresh waters of Ukraine. Practical value. The obtained data indicate that the major commercial fish species of the Kiliya delta of the Danube river contains residual quantities of pesticides. This indicates to the need for continuous hygienic and toxicological monitoring of fish caught

  6. 北京市售冷冻水产品中磷酸盐残留情况调查与分析%Investigation and analysis on phosphate residues of frozen seafood in Beijing market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊雯; 程喜明; 马长伟

    2011-01-01

    In order to realize the condition of phosphate residue of the frozen seafood,and to provide the basis for phosphate residue limits standard,an ion chromatography method was applied for the separation and determination of sodium phosphate,sodium pyrophosphate,sodium trimetaphosphate,sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium hexametaphosphate.The phosphate residues of frozen seafood in Beijing supermarket were measured.The results were as follows,the average content of phosphate total residues,shrimp was the highest,6.7746 g/kg,red bream fillet and scallops column were 3.4593 g/kg and 2.2339 g/kg respectively,squid ring was the lowest,1.3756 g/kg.In the species number of phosphate,shrimp included 4 which was the most,scallops column and red bream fillet included 3 and 2 respectively,squid ring was detected only sodium phosphate.%为了解冷冻水产品中磷酸盐的残留情况,给制定磷酸盐残留限量标准提供依据,采用离子色谱法分离并测定了水产品中磷酸钠、焦磷酸钠、三偏磷酸钠、三聚磷酸钠及六偏磷酸钠的含量,并对北京市场上冷冻水产品中磷酸盐的残留量进行调研。结果表明:冷冻水产品中磷酸盐残留总量的平均值青虾仁最高,达6.7746g/kg,其次为红鲷鱼片含3.4593g/kg,贝柱含2.2339g/kg,鱿鱼圈中含量最低为1.3756g/kg。检测到的磷酸盐种类青虾仁1~4种,其次为贝柱含1~3种,红鲷鱼片含1~2种,鱿鱼圈中仅检测出磷酸钠。

  7. (90)Sr in fish from the southern Baltic Sea, coastal lagoons and freshwater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Tamara; Saniewski, Michał; Suplińska, Maria; Rubel, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Activity concentrations of radioactive (90)Sr were studied in four fish species: herring, flounder, sprat and cod caught in the southern Baltic Sea in two periods: 2005-2009 and 2013-2014. The study included also perch from the coastal lagoons - Vistula Lagoon and Szczcin Lagoon and a freshwater lake - Żarnowieckie Lake as well as additional lake species: pike and bream. (90)Sr activity concentrations were compared in relation to species and to particular tissue: muscle, whole fish (eviscerated) and bones. In 2014, in the Baltic, the maximal (90)Sr concentrations were found in fishbones: herring - 0.39 Bq kg(-1) w.w., cod - 0.48 Bq kg(-1) w.w., and flounder - 0.54 Bq kg(-1) w.w. In the whole fish the maximal concentrations were found in flounder - 0.16 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and cod - 0.15 Bq kg(-1) w.w., while in herring - 0.022 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and sprat - 0.026 Bq kg(-1) w.w. they stayed at lower level. Relatively high (90)Sr concentrations were detected in whole fish from freshwater Lake Żarnowieckie: perch - 0.054 Bq kg(-1) w.w., pike - 0.062 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and bream - 0.140 Bq kg(-1) w.w. Concentration ratio (CR) determined for particular fish tissues and for whole eviscerated fish in relation to (90)Sr concentrations in seawater and lake water were showing significant variability unlike the corresponding (137)Cs concentration ratios which are stable and specific for fish species. The study corroborates with the conviction of the growing role of (90)Sr in the overall radioactivity in the southern Baltic Sea as compared to (137)Cs. PMID:27061778

  8. Composition of Fish Communities in a European Macrotidal Salt Marsh (the Mont Saint-Michel Bay, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffaille, P.; Feunteun, E.; Lefeuvre, J.-C.

    2000-10-01

    At least 100 fish species are known to be present in the intertidal areas (estuaries, mudflats and salt marshes) of Mont Saint-Michel Bay. These and other comparable shallow marine coastal waters, such as estuaries and lagoons, play a nursery role for many fish species. However, in Europe little attention has been paid to the value of tidal salt marshes for fishes. Between March 1996 and April 1999, 120 tides were sampled in a tidal creek. A total of 31 species were caught. This community was largely dominated by mullets ( Liza ramada represent 87% of the total biomass) and sand gobies ( Pomatoschistus minutus and P. lozanoi represent 82% of the total numbers). These species and also Gasterosteus aculeatus , Syngnathus rostellatus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Mugil spp., Liza aurata and Sprattus sprattus were the most frequent species (>50% of monthly frequency of occurrence). In Europe, salt marshes and their creeks are flooded only during high spring tides. So, fishes only invade this environment during short immersion periods, and no species can be considered as marsh resident. But, the salt marsh was colonized by fish every time the tide reached the creek, and during the short time of flood, dominant fishes fed actively and exploited the high productivity. Nevertheless, this study shows that there is little interannual variation in the fish community and there are three ' seasons ' in the fish fauna of the marsh. Marine straggler and marine estuarine dependent species colonize marshes between spring (recruitment period in the bay) and autumn before returning into deeper adjacent waters. Estuarine fishes are present all year round with maximum abundances in the end of summer. The presence of fishes confirms that this kind of wetland plays an important trophic and nursery role for these species. Differences in densities and stages distribution of these species into Mont Saint-Michel systems (tidal mudflats, estuaries and tidal salt marshes) can reduce the trophic

  9. Accounting for variation of substitution rates through time in Bayesian phylogeny reconstruction of Sapotoideae (Sapotaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedmark, Jenny E E; Swenson, Ulf; Anderberg, Arne A

    2006-06-01

    We used Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 5 kb of chloroplast DNA data from 68 Sapotaceae species to clarify phylogenetic relationships within Sapotoideae, one of the two major clades within Sapotaceae. Variation in substitution rates through time was shown to be a very important aspect of molecular evolution for this data set. Relative rates tests indicated that changes in overall rate have taken place in several lineages during the history of the group and Bayes factors strongly supported a covarion model, which allows the rate of a site to vary over time, over commonly used models that only allow rates to vary across sites. Rate variation over time was actually found to be a more important model component than rate variation across sites. The covarion model was originally developed for coding gene sequences and has so far only been tested for this type of data. The fact that it performed so well with the present data set, consisting mainly of data from noncoding spacer regions, suggests that it deserves a wider consideration in model based phylogenetic inference. Repeatability of phylogenetic results was very difficult to obtain with the more parameter rich models, and analyses with identical settings often supported different topologies. Overparameterization may be the reason why the MCMC did not sample from the posterior distribution in these cases. The problem could, however, be overcome by using less parameter rich evolutionary models, and adjusting the MCMC settings. The phylogenetic results showed that two taxa, previously thought to belong in Sapotoideae, are not part of this group. Eberhardtia aurata is the sister of the two major Sapotaceae clades, Chrysophylloideae and Sapotoideae, and Neohemsleya usambarensis belongs in Chrysophylloideae. Within Sapotoideae two clades, Sideroxyleae and Sapoteae, were strongly supported. Bayesian analysis of the character history of some floral morphological traits showed that the ancestral type of flower in

  10. Integrating indigenous ecological and scientific hydro-geological knowledge using a Bayesian Network in the context of water resource development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedloff, A. C.; Woodward, E. L.; Harrington, G. A.; Jackson, S.

    2013-08-01

    The contributions indigenous ecological knowledge can make to better inform water management decisions are currently undervalued leading to an underrepresentation of indigenous values in water planning and policy. This paper outlines a novel approach in which indigenous ecological knowledge informs cause and effect relationships between species and aquatic habitats to promote broader ecosystem understanding. A Bayesian Network was developed to synthesise the seasonal aquatic knowledge of a group of Gooniyandi Aboriginal language speakers, including fish species’ availability, condition and required habitat, and integrate it with hydrogeological understanding obtained from research undertaken in a stretch of the Fitzroy River, Western Australia. This river system, like most in northern Australia, is highly seasonal and entirely dependent upon groundwater for maintaining flow during prolonged dry seasons. We found that potential changes in river flow rates caused by future water resource development, such as groundwater extraction and surface water diversion, may have detrimental effects on the ability to catch the high value aquatic food species such as Barramundi and Sawfish, but also that species such as Black Bream may benefit. These findings result from changes in availability of habitats at times when Gooniyandi understanding shows they are important for providing aquatic resources in good condition. This study raises awareness of the potential outcomes of future water management and stimulates communication between indigenous people, the scientific community and water managers by developing a model of indigenous understanding from which to predict eco-hydrological change.

  11. Smart chemical sensors using ZnO semiconducting thin films for freshness detection of foods and beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanto, Hidehito; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Dougami, Naganori; Habara, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kusano, Eiji; Kinbara, Akira; Douguchi, Yoshiteru

    1998-07-01

    The sensitivity of the chemical sensor, based on the resistance change of Al2O3-doped and SnO2-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al and ZnO:SnO2) thin film, is studied for exposure to various gases. It is found that the ZnO:Al and ZnO:Sn thin film chemical sensor has a high sensitivity and excellent selectivity for amine (TMA and DMA) gas and ethanol gas, respectively. The ZnO:Al (5.0 wt%) thin film chemical sensor which exhibit a high sensitivity for exposure to odors from rotten sea foods, such as salmon, sea bream, oyster, squid and sardine, responds to the freshness change of these sea foods. The ZnO:SnO2 (78 wt%) thin film chemical sensor which exhibit a high sensitivity for exposure to aroma from alcohols, such as wine, Japanese sake, and whisky, responds to the freshness change of these alcohols.

  12. Mortality of discards from southeastern Australian beach seines and gillnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Matt K; Millar, Russell B; Brand, Craig P; Uhlmann, Sebastian S

    2008-06-19

    Two experiments were done in an Australian estuary to quantify the mortalities and contributing factors for key species discarded during 8 and 9 deployments of commercial beach (or shore) seines and gillnets, respectively. In both experiments, bycatches (2347 individuals comprising 16 species) were handled according to conventional practices and assessed for immediate mortalities before live samples of selected species were discarded into replicate cages along with appropriate controls, and monitored for short-term mortalities (surf bream Acanthopagrus australis (n = 290) were dead after 5 d, with most mortalities occurring between the second and fifth day. In the gillnet experiment, 42 and 11% of gilled-and-discarded A. australis (n = 161) and lesser salmon catfish Neoarius graeffei (n = 67), respectively, died during a 10 d monitoring period, mostly within the first 5 d. There were no deaths in any controls for these fish. Mixed-effects logistic models revealed that the mortality of A. australis discarded from both gears was significantly (p < 0.01) and negatively correlated with their total length, while N. graeffei had a significantly (p < 0.05) greater (5-fold) probability of dying when jellyfish Catostylus sp. were present in the gillnet. Simple modifications to the operations of beach seines and gillnets and/or post-capture handling procedures, such as close regulation of size selectivity for the target species, careful removal of fish from meshes, and abstention from setting during high abundances of jellyfish will maximise the survival of discarded bycatch. PMID:18714684

  13. Development of Intermediate Foodstuff Derived from Freshwater Fish in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xichang; Yutaka Fukuda; CHEN Shunsheng; Masahito Yokoyama; CHENG Yudong; YUAN Chunhong; QU Yinghong; Morihiko Sakaguchi

    2005-01-01

    According to the three-dimensional contour maps showing the gel-forming properties of surimi derived from freshwater fish, 8 species of surimi were classified into two types. The V-valley type surimi (silver carp, big-head carp, Chinese snake head and blunt snout bream) shows easy setting, low resistance to gel collapse, high enhancement ability with two-step heating, and narrow optimum heating temperature and time area, which are of the same characteristics as the walleye pollack surimi. In contrast, the Plateau type surimi (tilapia, grass carp, mud carp and common carp) exhibits difficult setting, high resistance to gel collapse, no enhancement ability with two-step heating, and wide optimum heating temperature and time area. There are seasonal changes of gelling properties of silver carp surimi, and the setting ability of surimi gel is higher in winter and lower in summer. The marine fish meat gels and the freshwater fish meat gels have the same acceptability for inland Chinese according to the sensory evaluation results. A slight increase in sensory scorings of kamaboko gels occurred when the extract from walleye pollack muscle was added, especially in the odor scoring of silver carp kamaboko gels.

  14. Genetic diversity of three geographical populations of Pagrosomus major revealed by RAPD analysis%3个不同地理群体真鲷遗传变异的RAPD分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江世贵; 杨慧荣; 苏天凤; 龚世园

    2004-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD) technique was applied to assess the genetic variations among inter- and intra-population of three wild stocks (24 individuals) in Red Sea Bream from Jiaozhou Gulf (Qingdao), Taiwan Strait (Xiamen)and Beibu Gulf( Hainan). Under predetermined optimal reaction conditions,amplifications with 31 random primers selected from 60 gave 216 reproducible and stable fragments ranging from 200 to 2500bp. There were 176 polymorphic fragments. Based on the RAPD data, the genetic distances of intrapopulation for Jiaozhou Gulf, Taiwan Strait and Beibu Gulf wild stocks were 0.1350, 0.1056, and 0.1151,and similarities were 0.8650, 0.8944, and 0.8849. The genetic distances of interpopulation were 0.1645, 0.1413,and 0.1073. The maximum occurred between Jiaozhou Gulf and Beibu Gulf, the minimum did between Talwan Strait and Beibu Gulf. This showed there were high genetic diversity among inter- and intrapopulation. With the methods of UPGMA and NJ in MEGA2.1 on the basis of genetic distances, the results showed the populations of Talwan Strait and Beibu Gulf assembled one branch first, then did Jiaozhou Gulf. Both results were accordant.

  15. STATE POLICY FUNDAMENTALS IN FORMATION OF A NATIONAL STANDARD OF "GREEN CONSTRUCTION" FOR ASSESSMENT OF ITEMS OF REAL PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolchigin Mikhail Aleksandrovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the problem of implementation of principles of "green construction" in the Russian Federation. Despite the availability of the appropriate legislation in the field of environmental safety of construction, there are no legal, social, or economic incentives that may boost development of "green" technologies. Until recently, fundamentals of the state policy in the field of environmental protection of real estate development have not succeeded in motivating market players to implement advanced green technologies. However, recently, the government has begun motivating the construction industry towards the use of "green" technologies. The first activity is aimed at improving the legislation and updating the international voluntary certification according to BREAM and LEED standards. The result is the acceptance of the National Green Building Standard for real estate valuation that will open up new opportunities and prospects to the participants of the construction market. However, at the initial phase of implementation of "Fundamentals of the State Policy in the Field of Environmental Development of the Russian Federation", government authorities should provide their support to proponents of green buildings, including financial inflows.

  16. Complete genome sequence of a Megalocytivirus (family Iridoviridae associated with turbot mortality in China

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    Yang Bing

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV causes serious systemic diseases with high mortality in the cultured turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. We here sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of TRBIV, which was identified in Shandong province, China. Results The genome of TRBIV is a linear double-stranded DNA of 110,104 base pairs, comprising 55% G + C. Total 115 open reading frames were identified, encoding polypeptides ranging from 40 to 1168 amino acids. Amino acid sequences analysis revealed that 39 of the 115 potential gene products of TRBIV show significant homology to other iridovirus proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes indicated that TRBIV is closely related to infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, rock bream iridovirus (RBIV, orange-spotted grouper iridovirus (OSGIV, and large yellow croaker iridovirus (LYCIV. The results indicated that TRBIV belongs to the genus Megalocytivirus (family Iridoviridae. Conclusions The determination of the genome of TRBIV will provide useful information for comparative study of Megalocytivirus and developing strategies to control outbreaks of TRBIV-induced disease.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the hybrid of Megalobrama skolkovii (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Boxiang; Wan, Shiming; Gao, Zexia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the hybrid of Megalobrama skolkovii (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (♂) for the first time. The complete mitochondrial genome of the hybrid bream was found to be 16 621 bp in size with a mostly conserved structural organization when compared with that of other Megalobrama species. It contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and two main non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication). Sequence alignment of mitochondrial genomes between the hybrid and its female parent showed that a total of 38 mutation sites in 13 genes or regions, in particular, three sense mutations in three protein-coding genes (COX1, ND4L, and ND5) with 27 mutation sites in nine protein-coding genes. This mitogenome sequence data would contribute to a better understanding of genetic mechanisms of mitochondrial DNA and phylogenetic analysis in hybrids. PMID:26332664

  18. Competition between static gear of the small-scale fisheries in Algarve waters (southern Portugal

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    K. ERZINI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parallel fishing trials with 0.30 mm diameter monofilament gill nets and longlines using small hooks were carried out in the Algarve (southern Portugal over a one-year period, 1997-1998, with the objective of comparing species composition, catch rates, discards and size ranges. Four hook sizes of 'Mustad' brand, round bent, flatted sea hooks (numbers 15, 13, 12 and 11 and four mesh sizes of 25, 30, 35 and 40 mm (nominal bar length of gill nets were used in the trials. Overall, 84 species were caught, with gill nets taking 71 species and longlines 54 species and with 41 species caught by both gears. The amount of discarding was higher for gill nets than for longlines. The catch species composition differed between the two gears, with the commercially valuable sea breams dominating the longline catches whereas small pelagics were relatively more important in the gill nets. Multivariate analysis showed a clear separation between the different sizes of the two gears both in terms of numbers and weights per species. Algarve gill netters and longliners fish the same species assemblage on the same fishing grounds, but have clearly different impacts in terms of catch species composition, catch rates and sizes. This information will be useful for the improved management of these small-scale, multi-species, multi-gear fisheries, where different gears compete for scarce resources. In particular this study provides a basis for a more rational allocation of licenses and control of fishing effort.

  19. Bioaccumulation of metals in sediments, fish and plant from Tisza river (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrbac, Snežana; Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Vasić, Nebojša; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2014-05-01

    In the aquatic environments metals originate from various natural and anthropogenic sources. The purpose of the study was to assess the bioaccumulation level of metals in sediments fish and common reed at four different localities of the Tisza River stretch in Serbia. For purpose of this study concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were determined in sediment, common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. 1841) and four ecologically different fish species (piscivorous northern pike (Esox lucius L.), benthivorous sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) silver bream (Brama brama L.), omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)). Analysis of metals was carried out for liver, gills, brain, testicles and ovaries in fish and in the rhizome, stem and leaves of the common reed and sediment fraction leaves>stems. Obtained results indicate that the location does not have impact to the level of bioaccumulation. On the basis of this research the under-ground organ (rhizome) of common reed, liver and gills and omnivorous fish species could be recommended as environmental indicators for the presence of metals during environmental monitoring.

  20. Development of intermediate foodstuff derived from freshwater fish in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xichang; Fukuda, Yutaka; Chen, Shunsheng; Yokoyama, Masahito; Cheng, Yudong; Yuan, Chunhong; Qu, Yinghong; Sakaguchi, Morihiko

    2005-07-01

    According to the three-dimensional contour maps showing the gel-forming properties of surimi derived from freshwater fish, 8 species of surimi were classified into two types. The V-valley type surimi (silver carp, big-head carp, Chinese snake head and blunt snout bream) shows easy setting, low resistance to gel collapse, high enhancement ability with two-step heating, and narrow optimum heating temperature and time area, which are of the same characteristics as the wall-eye pollack surimi. In contrast, the Plateau type surimi (tilapia, grass carp, mud carp and common carp) exhibits difficult setting, high resistance to gel collapse, no enhancement ability with two-step heating, and wide optimum heating temperature and time area. There are seasonal changes of gelling properties of silver carp surimi, and the setting ability of surimi gel is higher in winter and lower in summer. The marine fish meat gels and the freshwater fish meat gels have the same acceptability for inland Chinese according to the sensory evaluation results. A slight increase in sensory scorings of kamaboko gels occurred when the extract from walleye pollack muscle was added, especially in the odor scoring of silver carp kamaboko gels.

  1. Diagnosis of iridovirus in large yellow croaker by PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xinhua; Wang Xiaowen; Wu Wenzhong

    2003-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive PCR-based method for the detection of the large yellow croaker iridovirus (LYCIV) is described, which involves the amplification of a 295 bp fragment of the LYCIV ATPase gene from DNA isolated from naturally infected fish spleen. Sequencing of LYCIV ATPase gene fragment showed it shared 100% nucleotide sequence homology with the corresponding region of the ATPase gene of red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) and sea bass iridovirus (SBIV), suggesting that LYCIV was homologous with RSIV and SBIV at least in part of the gemone. The specificity and sensitivity of the PCR procedure were tested on the iridovirus-infected fishes, the expected fragment was detected from spleen DNA samples of infected fishes, whereas no fragments were amplified from healthy fish spleen DNA, white spot syndrome baculoviruses (WSBV) DNA and pseudorabies virus (PRV) DNA.Detection limit of this method was 10-7 ng positive plasmid DNA containing target sequence, equal to about 100 virions. In the infected experiment, first positive detection (1/4) appeared at Day 3 post-infection, all fish (4/4) tested positive at Day 7, however obvious symptoms were observed at Day 8, so LYCIV infection could be detected prior to the appearance of obvious symptoms. These results indicate that this PCR method could be used for early, rapid and specific detection of LYCIV infection.

  2. Ruffe (Gymnocephalus Cernuus L. Growth and Diet in Lake Dusia (Southern Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilinkovskij Andrej

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus (L., is considered to be a food competitor with many commercially valuable fishes such as bream, Abramis brama (L., roach, Rutilus rutilus (L., pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (L., and perch, Perca fluviatilis L. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the fish community structure of Lake Dusia and the population parameters (morphometry, age, growth, diet of ruffe as one of the prevailing fish species in the lake. The fish community of Lake Dusia was dominated by ruffe, perch, and roach. The ruffe population constituted 64.1% of the fish community of the lake in relative abundance and 36.8% in biomass. An analysis of the ruffe diet revealed that Gammaridae and Chironomidae were the principal components in all age-classes. The ruffe population was comprised mainly of individuals 3+ and 4+ years of age. The mean total length (TL of ruffe was 13.39 ± 1.79 cm (minimum-maximum: 6.12-19.93 cm. The growth in length calculated using the von Bertalanffy equation was Lt = 21.3[1-e-a161(t-0,335]. Ruffe growth rates were found to slow as the fish aged. Ruffe growth variations were linked to population density, fish community structure in the water body, abundance of invertebrates (zooplankton and zoobenthos, and type of water body.

  3. Stable isotopes as tracers of residency for fish on inshore coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jean P.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Fry, Brian; Connolly, Rod M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the migratory movements of fish between habitats is an important priority for fisheries management. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotopes were used to evaluate the degree of movement and residency for five fish species collected from coral reefs in Queensland, Australia. Isotope values of fish were measured and compared between slow-turnover muscle tissue and fast-turnover liver tissue, with isotopic agreement between liver and muscle generally indicating resident animals, and relatively low C isotope values in muscle indicating migrants. Three fish species, rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), painted sweetlips (Diagramma labiosum) and Guenther's wrasse (Pseudolabrus guentheri) showed relatively consistent carbon isotope values between muscle and liver tissue as expected for resident populations. One quarter of bream (Acanthopagrus australis) individuals showed much lower δ13C values in muscle than liver. These low values diverged from the -10 to -15‰ values of residents and were more similar to the -20‰ values of fish collected from coastal riverine habitats, the presumed migration source. Moses perch (Lutjanus russelli) also showed substantial differences between muscle and liver C isotopes for about a quarter of individuals, but the overall higher C values of these individuals indicated they may have switched diets within island habitats rather than migrating. Our results were consistent with previous studies of fish residency and indicate that measuring stable isotopes in multiple tissues provides a useful methodology for characterizing fish residency in inshore areas.

  4. Preliminary report on the levels of elements in four fish species from the Arabian Gulf of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Saleh, Iman; Shinwari, Neptune

    2002-08-01

    This manuscript presents preliminary information on the concentrations of heavy metals: cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium and arsenic in 66 fish samples of four different species collected from three different sites on the Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia where there are agricultural, municipality and petroleum industrial activities. Fish species; highly consumed by the local population were selected: Emperors, Rabbitfish, Doublebar-bream and Greasy-grouper to ascertain the fish quality for human consumption. The concentration of metals was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA). The average mean concentrations (ng/g wet wt.) of cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium and arsenic in fish tissues were as follows: 4.6 +/- 7.2, 20.0 +/- 20.8, 60.6 +/- 63.2, 73.6 +/- 27.1 and 42.7 +/- 17.4 ng/g wet wt. respectively. The concentration of metals was significantly affected by the sampling site and fish species. In Maniefa site, the concentrations of all tested metals were higher than in Al-Dammam and Dareen sites with the exception of nickel where no significant differences were found. Levels of cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium and arsenic varied depending on the fish species. The concentration of metals was below the maximum allowed limit by the Saudi and international legislations for fish human consumption permissible limit.

  5. Isolation and cDNA cloning of somatolactin in rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayson, F G; de Jesus, E G; Amemiya, Y; Moriyama, S; Hirano, T; Kawauchi, H

    1999-08-01

    We report the isolation and cDNA cloning of somatolactin (SL) from rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus. Rabbitfish SL was isolated from an alkaline extract of the pituitary glands by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. SL was monitored by immunoblotting with flounder SL antiserum. The preparation (yield: 0.86 mg/g wet tissues) contained two immunoreactive bands of 24 and 28 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Overlapping partial cDNA clones corresponding to teleost SLs were amplified by PCR from single-strand cDNA from pituitary glands. Excluding the poly(A) tail, rabbitfish SL cDNA is 1605 bp long. It contains a 693-bp open reading frame encoding a signal peptide of 24 amino acids (aa) and a mature protein of 207 aa. Rabbitfish SL has two possible N-glycosylation sites at positions 11 and 121 and seven half Cys residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shows over 80% identity with those of advanced teleosts like sea bream, red drum, and flounder, 76% with the salmonids, 57% with the eel, and 46% with the goldfish SL.

  6. Characterizing the transcriptome of yellow-cheek carp (Elopichthys bambusa) enables evolutionary analyses within endemic East Asian Cyprinidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ming; Guo, Baocheng; Ma, Xufa

    2014-09-01

    The identification of genes that may be responsible for the divergence of closely related species is one of the central goals of evolutionary biology. The species of endemic East Asian Cyprinidae diverged less than 8millionyears ago, and the morphological differences among these species are great. However, the genetic basis of their divergence remains unknown. In this report, we investigated the transcriptome of one endemic East Asian cyprinid - the yellow-cheek carp Elopichthys bambusa. A comparison with the publicly available transcriptomes of other endemic East Asian cyprinids, including the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and blunt-nose black bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), revealed a number of candidate adaptive genes in each species, such as zona pellucida glycoprotein 2 in E. bambusa and zebrafish vitelline envelope protein in M. amblycephala. An enrichment test showed the enrichment of some specific gene ontology (GO) terms for these putatively adaptive genes. Taken together, our work is the first step toward elucidating the genes that may be related to the divergence of endemic East Asian Cyprinidae, and these genes identified as being probably under positive selection should be good candidates for subsequent evolutionary and functional studies.

  7. Direct identification of Photobacterium damselae subspecies piscicida by PCR-RFLP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappulli, V; Patarnello, T; Patarnello, P; Frassineti, F; Franch, R; Manfrin, A; Castagnaro, M; Bargelloni, L

    2005-06-14

    Fish pasteurellosis is an infectious disease that affects several teleost species living in temperate marine waters. The pathogen responsible, Photobacterium damselae subspecies piscicida, shows high genetic similarity with P. damselae subsp. damselae, making subspecies discrimination extremely laborious. Here we report for the first time a PCR-RFLP method for the identification of P. damselae subsp. piscicida without prior isolation in pure culture. Genomic sequence information was obtained through cloning and sequencing of RAPD products. Two P. damselae-specific primer pairs were developed and tested on 17 strains of P. damselae subsp. piscicida, 10 strains of P. damselae subsp. damselae, and 6 closely related control species. High sensitivity was achieved in PCR amplification on serially diluted samples (analysis of PCR products showed a unique digestion profile for all P. damselae subsp. piscicida strains. The same PCR-RFLP method was implemented on total DNA samples extracted from experimentally infected sea bream and sea bass. Positive results were obtained on fish with clear signs of the disease as well as on challenged, but asymptomatic, fish. The method presented here might provide a useful tool for both prevention and rapid diagnosis of fish pasteurellosis. PMID:16042043

  8. Strategies for obtaining obsidian in pre-European contact era New Zealand.

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    Mark D McCoy

    Full Text Available Archaeological evidence of people's choices regarding how they supply themselves with obsidian through direct access and different types of exchanges gives us insight in to mobility, social networks, and property rights in the distant past. Here we use collections of obsidian artefacts that date to a period of endemic warfare among Maori during New Zealand's Late Period (1500-1769 A.D. to determine what strategies people engaged in to obtain obsidian, namely (1 collecting raw material directly from a natural source, (2 informal trade and exchange, and (3 formal trade and exchange. These deposits represent a good cross-section of Late Period archaeology, including primary working of raw material at a natural source (Helena Bay, undefended sites where people discarded rubbish and worked obsidian (Bream Head, and a heavily fortified site (Mt. Wellington. We find that most of the obsidian described here was likely obtained directly from natural sources, especially those located on off-shore islands within about 60-70 km of sites. A smaller amount comes from blocks of material transported from an off-shore island a greater distance away, called Mayor Island, in a formal trade and exchange network. This study demonstrates the value of conducting tandem lithic technology and geochemical sourcing studies to understand how people create and maintain social networks during periods of warfare.

  9. Induction of Gynogenesis in Japanese Crucian Carp (Carassius cuvieri)%人工诱导雌核发育日本白鲫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙远东; 张纯; 刘少军; 陶敏; 曾琛; 刘筠

    2006-01-01

    Diploid gynogenesis was induced in Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri) eggs using UV-irradiated genetically inactive spermatozoa from mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) or blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), with or without cold shock. The optimal radiation dosage was 4 200 mJ/cm2 and 3 600 mJ/cm2 for mirror carp and blunt snout bream sperm, respectively.At this dosage and without cold shock, the yields were (32.4±3.3)% vs. (33.8±1.4)% gynogenetic haploids and (0.7±0.3)% vs.(0.5±0.3)% hybrid diploids, respectively. At the optimal UV dosage but with cold shock (2 min after fertilization, 0-4℃ for 40 min), the hatching rates were (27.8±2.1)% and (29.4 ±3.3)%, respectively. From hatching to feeding, (15.7±3.4)% and (23.6±4.1)% normal gynogenetic diploids were recorded, respectively. Survival of normal gynogenetic diploids was 56% out of the hatched fry when using irradiated spermatozoa of mirror carp, which was lower than that (up to 80%) when using irradiated spermatozoa of blunt snout bream. This indicated that the sperm of blunt snout bream, with distant genetic relation to the maternal Japanese crucian carp, was more effective than that of mirror carp to induce diploid gynogenesis. The nature of the gynogenetic progeny was identified with external appearance, chromosome number and gonad structure. The presence of only females in gynogenetic progeny probably suggested XX genotype in the female Japanese crucian carp. The gynogenetic diploids have potential values such as faster growth and stronger disease resistance than the normal Japanese crucian carp. All gynogenetic progeny possessed 100 chromosomes whereas all J × B crosses were triploid with 124 chromosomes. The formation of the new triploid hybrids in J × B crosses may be usefulin aquaculture.%分别用遗传失活的散鳞镜鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)、团头鲂(Megalobrama amblycephala)精子诱导日本白鲫(Carassiuscuvieri)进行雌核发育.未经冷休克处理,用UV照射过

  10. ASTAXANTHIN: A POTENTIAL CAROTENOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotika Dhankhar et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin, a member of the carotenoid family, is a dark-red pigment which is the main carotenoid found in the marine world of algae and aquatic animals. Astaxanthin, is present in many types of seafood, including salmon, trout, red sea bream, shrimp and lobster, as well as in birds such as flamingo and quail. Synthetic Astaxanthin dominates the world market but recent interest in natural sources of the pigment has increased substantially. Common sources of natural Astaxanthin, are the green algae haematococcus pluvialis, the red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, as well as crustacean byproducts. Astaxanthin possesses unusual antioxidant property which has caused a surge in the nutraceutical market of the encapsulated products. Numerous studies have shown that astaxanthin has potential health-promoting effects in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as cancers, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, eye diseases, skin diseases, exercise-induced fatigue, male infertility, and renal failure. In this article, the currently available scientific literature regarding the most significant activities of astaxanthin is reviewed.

  11. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (December, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BILECENOGLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.

  12. Identification and Characterization of GH Receptor and Serum GH-binding Protein in Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong LIAO; Shang-Quan ZHU

    2004-01-01

    Chinese sturgeon, a kind of cartilage ganoid, has a history of over one billion years and it is called the living fossil of aquatic biology since it keeps some evolutionary trace. Here, we characterized the growth hormone receptor (GHR) and serum growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) of Chinese sturgeon. It was shown that GHR was expressed in various tissues, mainly in hepatic, kidney and intestine tissues. GHR on the hepatic membrane has high and specific affinity for bream GH (brGH) and Scatchard analysis of the binding data showed a single class of high affinity binding site with an association constant Ka of 3.1×109 M-1. A specific band around 94 kD was detected by SDS-PAGE in cross-linking studies of membrane receptors. After incubation of Chinese sturgeon serum with 125I-brGH, a 125I-brGH-GHBP complex was identified by Sephadex G-75, indicating that in the serum exists GHBP specially binding to brGH.

  13. Interactive drivers of activity in a free-ranging estuarine predator.

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    Matthew D Taylor

    Full Text Available Animal activity patterns evolve as an optimal balance between energy use, energy acquisition, and predation risk, so understanding how animals partition activity relative to extrinsic environmental fluctuations is central to understanding their ecology, biology and physiology. Here we use accelerometry to examine the degree to which activity patterns of an estuarine teleost predator are driven by a series of rhythmic and arrhythmic environmental fluctuations. We implanted free-ranging bream Acanthopagrus australis with acoustic transmitters that measured bi-axial acceleration and pressure (depth, and simultaneously monitored a series of environmental variables (photosynthetically active radiation, tidal height, temperature, turbidity, and lunar phase for a period of approximately four months. Linear modeling showed an interaction between fish activity, light level and tidal height; with activity rates also negatively correlated with fish depth. These patterns highlight the relatively-complex trade-offs that are required to persist in highly variable environments. This study demonstrates how novel acoustic sensor tags can reveal interactive links between environmental cycles and animal behavior.

  14. Sea Cucumber: New source of Protein for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vaz Pratas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture, probably the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 percent of the world's food fish consumed by humans, and this share is expected to increase further to meet future demand. Sea cucumbers are considered highly marketable product and this has resulted in an increasing overfishing of natural sea cucumber stocks. Nevertheless, these resources are almost unexploited in the Mediterranean region. Many species of holothurians have been recognized as an alternative source of first quality protein and considered a putative functional food, like hypocholesterolemic proprieties and contain many other bioactive compounds. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine and compare the protein content of two sea cucumber species, Holothuria forskali and Stichopus regalis. The Kjeldahl method was used to determine the crude protein through the measurement of nitrogen amount in each sample. The obtained results demonstrated that both species contain high protein levels, with higher results for S. regalis, which revealed values between 19,1% and 20,4%. H. forskali showed a protein level among 12,1% and 15,4%. Holothurian protein levels reveal great potential for human consumption. Those resources can be used as a partial substitute of fish meal (eg. sea bream nutrition, either to intern market as well as for exportation to Asian countries. Sea cucumber farming could have lucrative potential in the Mediterranean, converting sea cucumbers into aquaculture value-added products bringing to this region profitable economic benefits.

  15. Effects of mesh size and escape gaps on discarding in an Australian giant mud crab (Scylla serrata trap fishery.

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    Matt K Broadhurst

    Full Text Available In response to concerns over excessive discarding from Australian recreational round traps (with four funnel entrances used to target giant mud crabs, Scylla serrata, an experiment was done to assess the independent and cumulative utility of paired, bottom-located horizontal escape gaps (46×120 mm and increasing mesh size (from 51 to 101 mm. Compared to conventional traps comprising 51-mm mesh throughout, those with the same mesh size and escape gaps caught significantly fewer (by 95% undersize (<85 mm carapace length--CL crabs while maintaining legal catches. Traps made from 101-mm mesh (but with the same funnel entrances as conventional designs and with and without escape gaps similarly retained fewer undersize crabs and also yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis (the key bycatch species by up to 94%, but there were concomitant reductions in fishing power for legal sizes of S. serrata. Although there were no immediate mortalities among any discarded crabs, there was a greater bias towards wounding among post molts than late inter-molts and less damage to individuals in the 101-mm conventional than 51-mm conventional traps (without escape gaps. The results support retrospectively fitting escape gaps in conventional S. serrata traps as a means for reducing discarding, but additional work is required to determine appropriate mesh sizes/configurations that maximize species and size selectivity.

  16. THE RESPONSE OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE AND FISH ASSEMBLAGES TO HUMAN IMPACT ALONG THE LOWER STRETCH OF THE RIVERS MORAVA AND DYJE (DANUBE RIVER BASIN, CZECH REPUBLIC

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    Zdeněk Adámek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The lower Morava and Dyje rivers belong among the large lowland rivers on the southeast of the Czech Republic flowing into the Danube 69 km downstream of their confluence. Despite their high nature value and environment protection, both rivers suffered from heavy pollution from the sixties to the eighties of the last century. Significant improvement of their water quality during the last two decades resulted in the partial recovery of former assemblages of both benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. Recently, altogether 262 and 137 taxa of macrozoobenthos were recorded at the Dyje and Morava rivers, respectively. In the River Dyje, 3 and 21 non-native and threatened (according to IUCN categories invertebrate species, respectively, were ascertained, whilst in the River Morava their numbers were 2 and 10, respectively. The fish assemblage consisted of 23 and 24 species, respectively, plus one hybrid in each of the rivers, bleak being by far the most abundant fish. In the sections under study, several rare and/or protected species were also recorded. Two of them, ide (Leuciscus idus and burbot (Lota lota belong among vulnerable fish species and four others, white-eye bream (Abramis sapa, striped ruffe (Gymnocephalus schraetser, streber (Zingel streber and zingel (Zingel zingel, are considered as critically endangered species. Currently, both lower stretches of the rivers Morava and Dyje have been heavily invaded by round goby, Neogobius melanostomus.

  17. Cloning and expression analysis of nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor 1 (Ls-NCCRP1) from red snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia; Wei, Shina; Wang, Bei; Huang, Yucong; Tang, Jufen; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2013-09-01

    It is well known that nonspecific cytotoxic cells (NCCs) are kinds of natural killer cell mediated innate immune responses in teleosts. The nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor protein 1 (NCCRP-1) is an important cell surface protein on NCC, which serves crucial functions in target cell recognition and cytotoxicity activation. In the present study, a nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor protein NCCRP-1 (Ls-NCCRP1) was cloned from red snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus. The Ls-NCCRP1 cDNA is composed of 986bp with a 43bp of 5'-UTR, 702bp open reading frame (ORF) and 241bp 3'-UTR, encoding a polypeptide of 233 amino acids (GenBank accession no: ADK32635). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Ls-NCCRP1 showed highest similarity to sea bream NCCRP-1. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that Ls-NCCRP1 had relatively high expression level in the head kidney, spleen and liver. After Vibrio alginolyticus infection, transcripts of Ls-NCCRP1 increased and reached its peak at 4h p.i. These results indicated that Ls-NCCRP1 may play an important role in innate immune response to bacteria.

  18. Host species as a strong determinant of the intestinal microbiota of fish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei; Yu, Yuhe; Feng, Weisong; Yan, Qingyun; Gong, Yingchun

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the influence of host species on intestinal microbiota by comparing the gut bacterial community structure of four cohabitating freshwater fish larvae, silver carp, grass carp, bighead carp, and blunt snout bream, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the amplified 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Similarity clustering indicated that the intestinal microbiota derived from these four fish species could be divided into four groups based on 16S rRNA gene similarity, whereas the eukaryotic 18S rRNA genes showed no distinct groups. The water sample from the shared environment contained microbiota of an independent group as indicated by both 16S and 18S rRNA genes segments. The bacterial community structures were visualized using rank-abundance plots fitted with linear regression models. Results showed that the intestinal bacterial evenness was significantly different between species (P<0.05) and between species and the water sample (P<0.01). Thirty-five relatively dominant bands in DGGE patterns were sequenced and grouped into five major taxa: Proteobacteria (26), Actinobacteria (5), Bacteroidetes (1), Firmicutes (2), and Cyanobacterial (1). Six eukaryotes were detected by sequencing 18S rRNA genes segments. The present study suggests that the intestines of the four fish larvae, although reared in the same environment, contained distinct bacterial populations, while intestinal eukaryotic microorganisms were almost identical. PMID:22367934

  19. Metal concentrations in various fish organs of different fish species from Poyang Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, YiHua; Zhang, JinYan; Zhang, DaWen; Tu, TianHua; Luo, LinGuang

    2014-06-01

    Concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the muscle of eleven fish species (bighead carp, bream, catfish, carp, crucian, Culter alburnus, grass carp, mandarin fish, white semiknife carp, silver carp, and yellow catfish) from Poyang Lake were analysed using inductive coupling plasma mass spectrometry. Metal levels in other organs (e.g., bladder, gill, kidney, liver, and spleen) of bighead carp, carp, grass carp, and silver carp were also determined. The results showed that metal concentrations in the muscle of all fish species were significantly lower than the proposed limits. Heavy metal concentrations were found to be substantially higher in benthic fish than in pelagic fish. Higher Hg contents were observed in predatory fish. In addition, various metals showed different affinity to fish organs. Hg was the most abundant in muscle, while Ni and Pb concentrations were highest in gills, Cd and Zn concentrations were highest in kidneys, and Cu was most commonly found in livers. Estimations of health risks revealed no evidence of potential threats to consumers. PMID:24681447

  20. The scope and structure of the production and catch of fish in Serbia in the period from 2006. to 2012.

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    Ivanović Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish represents a significant source of animal proteins in the diet of people in a large part of the world. The market in Serbia is supplied from its own production (carp and trout fish ponds and catch from open waters. However, the largest part of the fish on the market is imported. Average area under carp fish ponds from 2006. to 2012. was 8,417 hektars, and under trout fish ponds was 49,900 square meters. Average annual production of carp fish species in this period was 7,228 tons, and of trout was 923 tons. In open waters of Serbia, the catch (from both professional and sport fishing is averagely 3,745 tons of fish. The biggest catch of fish in open waters refers to goldfish, then carp and bream, while lower catch refers to white bighead. The objective of this investigation was to determine the scope and structure of fish catch and production in Serbia from 2006. to 2012. The data on fish catch and production were taken from Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31011

  1. Correlation Among the Contents in Five Kinds of Freshwater Fish, Fish Intake, Mercury in Cord Blood and in Fetal Hair in Wujiang%吴江地区5种淡水鱼含汞量测定及食鱼与脐血汞、胎发汞的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永琴; 吕弘道; 郭俊良; 陈梅竹; 苏海兰

    2011-01-01

    目的 测定吴江地区经常食用的5种淡水鱼含汞量,分析孕期食鱼频率与脐血汞和胎发汞的相关性,从而对孕期控制鱼类摄入量提出相应建议.方法 一年中分四个季度对鳊鱼、鲫鱼、鲢鱼、鲈鱼和黑鱼这5种淡水鱼的背部肌肉和近腹鳍脂肪组织进行含汞量测定,对同期入院分娩的产妇进行食鱼频率问卷调查,所分娩新生儿进行脐血汞和胎发汞测定.结果 5种淡水鱼背部肌肉含汞量(ng/g)依次为8.71±1.92、17.83±1.73、26.14±1.49、31.83 +2.03、35.18±1.75,鳊鱼<鲫鱼<鲢鱼<鲈鱼<黑鱼,差异有高度统计学意义(均P<0.01);腹脂肪含汞量由小到大依次为18.21±1.61(鲫鱼)、19.09±3.14(鳊鱼)、30.67±1.70(黑鱼)、30.83±1.48(鲈鱼)、48.86±2.06(鲢鱼),差异有高度统计学意义(均P<0.01).鳊鱼、鲢鱼腹脂肪含汞量明显高于背肌肉(均P<0.05).孕期每周食淡水鱼或海鱼3次以上者脐血汞、胎发汞含量明显高于每周食鱼1~2次者(P<0.05).结论 吴江地区5种淡水鱼组织含汞量低于中国国家食品鱼类卫生标准,但因甲基汞影响胎儿神经系统发育,对于特殊敏感人群的孕期妇女,建议每周食鱼频率不宜超过2次,且应选择食用组织含汞量少的鱼类,避免食用腹部富含脂肪的组织.%Objective To research the mercury contents of five kinds of freshwater fish in Wujiang and to analyze the correlation among the frequency of fish intake during pregnancy and mercury in cord blood and mercury in fetal hair, and to make appropriate recommendations for controlling fish intake during pregnancy. Methods The mercury contents were determined in the muscles of back and fatty tissue near ventral fin from five kinds of freshwater fish in Wujiang I. E. Bream, crucian carp, silver carp, perch and blackfish in every quarter. At the same time, puerperants in hospital were investigated on the intake frequency of fish by using questionaries, and

  2. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sausage formulated with surimi powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Palestina; Huda, Nurul; Yang, Tajul Aris

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P sausages. The water holding capacity, and emulsion stability of SP100 were significantly lower (P sausage did not differ with that of control in the term of color, odor, or oiliness scored by panelists. The drying process impacted the texture properties of surimi when it was used in fish sausage. However, the use of surimi powder in fish sausage formulation is still accepted since the TPA values of SP100 and SP50 were still within the textural range of Malaysian commercial fish sausages.

  3. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Franco

    Full Text Available Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment. Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

  4. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

  5. Assessing proteinase K resistance of fish prion proteins in a scrapie-infected mouse neuroblastoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salta, Evgenia; Kanata, Eirini; Ouzounis, Christos A; Gilch, Sabine; Schätzl, Hermann; Sklaviadis, Theodoros

    2014-11-13

    The key event in prion pathogenesis is the structural conversion of the normal cellular protein, PrP(C), into an aberrant and partially proteinase K resistant isoform, PrP(Sc). Since the minimum requirement for a prion disease phenotype is the expression of endogenous PrP in the host, species carrying orthologue prion genes, such as fish, could in theory support prion pathogenesis. Our previous work has demonstrated the development of abnormal protein deposition in sea bream brain, following oral challenge of the fish with natural prion infectious material. In this study, we used a prion-infected mouse neuroblastoma cell line for the expression of three different mature fish PrP proteins and the evaluation of the resistance of the exogenously expressed proteins to proteinase K treatment (PK), as an indicator of a possible prion conversion. No evidence of resistance to PK was detected for any of the studied recombinant proteins. Although not indicative of an absolute inability of the fish PrPs to structurally convert to pathogenic isoforms, the absence of PK-resistance may be due to supramolecular and conformational differences between the mammalian and piscine PrPs.

  6. sIgZ exhibited maternal transmission in embryonic development and played a prominent role in mucosal immune response of Megalabrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hu; Liu, Wanjing; Wu, Kang; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2016-07-01

    IgZ is considered to be the last immunoglobulin discovered in vertebrate species. In this study, the structure of secreted form of blunt snout bream (Megalabrama amblycephala) IgZ (sIgZ) heavy chain gene is VH-Cζ1-Cζ2-Cζ3-Cζ4, in which Cζ4 provides the specificity to the IgZ isotype. The deduced amino acid sequence of sIgZ shows highest similarity with that of Ctenopharyngodon idella (79%). The ontogeny of sIgZ gene expression showed a V-shape change pattern: decreased initially from unfertilized egg stage to 16-cell embryos and increased significantly from blastula stage, which exhibited maternal transmission effects. Compared with the juvenile fish, sIgZ mRNA level was higher in head kidney, spleen, trunk kidney, liver, intestine and gill of adult fish. In both juvenile and adult fish, sIgZ mRNA was detected in intestine and gill. Aeromonas hydrophila challenge experiment showed that sIgZ transcription significantly increased in skin, gill and intestine, indicating a prominent mucosal immune response. The results of Western blot also verified the protein alterations of sIgZ in mucosal organs in M. amblycephal. Our studies indicate a prominent role of IgZ in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue immunity and further support the specialized role of IgZ in teleost mucosal immune responses. PMID:27044330

  7. Transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA in cyprinid fish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Peng, Liangyue; Hu, Xinjiang; Zhao, Yuling; Liu, Shaojun; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy signifies the existence of identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and is essential for normal development, as heteroplasmy causes abnormal development and diseases in human. Homoplasmy in many organisms is ensured by maternal mtDNA inheritance through either absence of paternal mtDNA delivery or early elimination of paternal mtDNA. However, whether paternal mtDNA is transcribed has remained unknown. Here we report that paternal mtDNA shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence in cyprinid fishes. Paternal mtDNA was present in zygotes but absent in larvae and adult organs of goldfish and blunt-snout bream, demonstrating paternal mtDNA delivery and elimination for maternal mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, paternal mtDNA remained detectable up to the heartbeat stage, suggesting its late elimination leading to embryonic heteroplasmy up to advanced embryogenesis. Most importantly, we never detected the cytb RNA of paternal mtDNA at all stages when paternal mtDNA was easily detectable, which reveals that paternal mtDNA is transcriptionally quiescent and thus excludes its effect on the development of heteroplasmic embryos. Therefore, paternal mtDNA in cyprinids shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence. Clearly, transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA represents a new mechanism for maternal mtDNA inheritance and provides implications for treating mitochondrion-associated diseases by mitochondrial transfer or replacement. PMID:27334806

  8. Vol. 4 in the series: Site profiles of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons - cause-oriented monitoring in aquatic media; Pestizide aus der Reihe der persistenten chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffe in Gewaessern der Rhein-Region - Ergebnisse nachhaltiger Steuerungen von Wirtschaft und Politik. Bd. 4 der Reihe: Standortprofile persistenter chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe - ursachenorientiertes Monitoring in aquatischen Medien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, E.; Kettrup, A.; Bergheim, W.; Wenzel, S.

    2003-07-01

    Evaluating the analytical data of DDT and its metabolites, the isomers of HCH as well as (sometimes) of aldrin and dieldrin in surface water, suspended matter, eels, breams and roaches from the rivers Rhine, Neckar, Kocher, Enz, Main (upto km 360), Weschnitz, Modau, Schwarzbach, Hengstbach, Grundbach, Nidda, Rodau, Kinzig, Werra, Diemel, Lahn, Nahe, Mosel, Sauer, Saar, Ahr, Kyll, Sieg and Laacher See distance profiles (partly from Konstanz till Markermeer) and time series (partly from 1984-2001) were elaborated. The primary data come from about 15 mainly regional investigation departments, the IKSR and the Environmental Specimen Bank. The chemical enterprises in Rheinfelden, Grenzach, Ludwigshafen, Lampertheim, Gernsheim, Darmstadt, Hoechst, Kelsterbach, Offenbach, Ingelheim, Loelsdorf, Leverkusen, Elberfeld, Krefeld-Uerdingen and Huels could partly be made transparent by the course of the sDDT and sHCH values and the profiles of the constituents and isomers, resp., in the distance profiles (especially from the river Rhine) mainly from 1990/92. The corresponding graph for the year 2000 shows that there is no longer a human and ecotoxicological relevance of the compounds to be expected. (orig.)

  9. Role of peptidases of the intestinal microflora and prey in temperature adaptations of the digestive system in planktivorous and benthivorous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'mina, V V; Skvortsova, E G; Shalygin, M V; Kovalenko, K E

    2015-12-01

    Many fish enzymatic systems possess limited adaptations to low temperature; however, little data are available to judge whether enzymes of fish prey and intestinal microbiota can mitigate this deficiency. In this study, the activity of serine peptidases (casein-lytic, mainly trypsin and hemoglobin-lytic, mainly chymotrypsin) of intestinal mucosa, chyme and intestinal microflora in four species of planktivorous (blue bream) and benthivorous (roach, crucian carp, perch) was investigated across a wide temperature range (0-70 °C) to identify adaptations to low temperature. At 0 °C, the relative activity of peptidases of intestinal mucosa (microflora (5-12.6%) is considerably less than that of chyme peptidases (up to 40% of maximal activity). The level of peptidase relative activity in crucian carp intestinal microflora was 45% of maximal activity. The shape of t°-function curves of chyme peptidase also differs in fish from different biotopes. Fish from the littoral group are characterized by a higher degree of adaptation of chyme casein-lytic peptidases to functioning at low temperatures as compared to fish from the pelagic group. The role of intestinal microbiota and prey peptidases in digestive system adaptations of planktivorous and benthivorous fish to low temperatures is discussed.

  10. Copper uptake kinetics and regulation in a marine fish after waterborne copper acclimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake kinetics and regulation of copper in a marine predatory fish, the black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli after acclimation to waterborne Cu were examined, using radiotracer techniques. The dissolved Cu uptake followed a linear pattern during the time of exposure, and the calculated uptake rate constant was 6.24 L kg-1 day-1. The efflux rate constant was 0.091 day-1 following dietary uptake of Cu, and the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cu varied between 1.7% and 10.9% after the fish were fed with three types of prey (oysters, clams and brine shrimp). After the fish were acclimated at a nominal concentration of 50 μg Cu L-1 for 14 days, the Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constant did not change significantly, but the Cu body concentrations and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in fish tissues increased significantly. Subcellular Cu distributions were also modified. Significant MT induction was observed in response to increased Cu tissue concentrations, indicating that MT rather than the uptake kinetics may play a primary role in Cu regulation during waterborne Cu acclimation in this marine fish. Moreover, the high Cu efflux may also be important in Cu regulation during long-term exposure. Our modeling calculations indicated that dietary uptake was likely to be the main route for Cu bioaccumulation in the fish, and the relative contribution of waterborne and dietary uptake depended on the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and ingestion rate of fish.

  11. Spatial monitoring of heavy metals in the inland waters of Serbia: a multispecies approach based on commercial fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošković, Aleksandra; Dojčinović, Biljana; Kovačević, Simona; Radojković, Nataša; Radenković, Milena; Milošević, Djuradj; Simić, Vladica

    2016-05-01

    The study monitored the contamination of fish muscle tissue by elements Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn at 17 sampling sites, in order to assess the pollution status of the main rivers in Serbia. Of the six commercially important fish species included in the study (pikeperch Sander lucioperca, catfish Silurus glanis, bream Abramis brama, barbel Barbus barbus, chub Squalius cephalus, nase Chondrostoma nasus), the bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that benthivore bream and barbel and predatory catfish have the highest tendency toward the accumulation of elements. This study achieved its primary objective and produced a contamination map of Serbia as a basis for further research. The estimated metal pollution index (MPI) showed the Tisa River to be unaffected by direct pollution (with an MPI value of 0.31) and the West Morava and Pek rivers to be affected (with MPI values of 1.92 and 0.73 for the WM1 and WM2 sampling sites and 0.65 for the Pek sampling site). Over the past two decades, Serbia has not expanded its industrial activity, which has resulted in the barely noticeable anthropogenic input of heavy metals in the rivers close to industry, and the main rivers are mostly unaffected and slightly affected. We assumed that pollution by heavy metals in the 1990s was trapped in the sediment, thus showing an increased concentration of elements in the species that live and feed on the bottom. Hg concentrations exceeded the maximum permitted concentrations (MPCs) only in catfish samples (0.62 mg kg(-1)) from the Danube (D3 sampling site) and barbel (0.78 mg kg(-1)) from the West Morava (WM1 sampling site), while Cd concentrations exceeded the MPC in catfish samples (0.09 mg kg(-1)) from the Danube (D1 sampling site) and chub samples (0.1 mg kg(-1)) from the South Morava (SM2 sampling site). The average concentrations of Pb exceeded the MPC in chub and barbel samples (0.32 and 0.82 mg kg(-1), respectively) from the West Morava (WM1

  12. Immunocytochemical identification and localization of APUD cells in the gut of seven stomachless teleost fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Sheng Pan; Zhi Ping Fang; Ya Xin Zhao

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the cell types, localization,distribution density and morphology of APUD cells in the intestinal mucosa of stomachless teleost fishes.METHOD By using the peroxidaseantiperoxidase complex ( PAP )immunocytochemical staining technique the identification, localization and morphology of immunoreactive (IR) endocrine cells seattered in the intestinal mucosa of grass carp ( Cyenopharyngodon idellus ), black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus ) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio ) were investigated with 20 kinds of antisera prepared against mammalian peptide hormones of APUD cells, and likewise by using avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC)method those of silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ), bighead (Aristichthys nobilis ), silver crucian carp (Carassius gibelio ) and bluntnose black bream ( Megalobrama amblyocephala ) were also studied with 5 different antisera. The replacement of the first antiserum by phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was employed as a control. IR endocrine cells were counted with a square-mesh ocular micrometer from 10 fields selected randomly in every section of each part of the intestine specimen. The average number of IR endocrine cells per mm2 was counted to quantify their distribution density.RESULT Gastrin (GAS)-, Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)-, glucagon (GLU)-, glucagon-like immunoreactants ( GLI )-, bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP)-, leucine-enkephalin (ENK)-and substance P (SP)-IR endocrine cells were found in the gut of grass carp, black carp and common carp, and somatostatin ( SOM )-IR endocrine cells were only seen in common carp.GAS-, GIP- and GLU-IR endocrine cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of silver carp,bighead, silver crucian carp and bluntnose black bream. Most of IR endocrine cells had the higher distribution density in the foregut and midgut,and were longer in shape. They had a long apical cytoplasmic process extended to the gut lumen and a basal process extended to adjacent cells or basement membrane and

  13. [Prognosis of dynamics and risk of exceeding permissible levels of 137Cs and 90Sr contents in fish in the Kiev Reservoir at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the radionuclide specific activity measurements made on 832 samples of fish in 2009-2011 and taking into account literature data, the parameters of the stochastic model have been derived to describe the 137Cs and 90Sr contents in typical commercial fish species in the Kiev Reservoir at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident, including: statistical variability, seasonal changes and monotonous long-term trends. At any fixed moment of the year the standard deviations of logarithms of the 137Cs and 90Sr specific activities in carnivorous and benthophage fish species do not reliably differ, making up at average 0.4. The maximum vari- ation of the 137Cs specific activity (a four-fold decrease from April to November) was observed in pike. The obtained values of the ecological half-life periods for 137Cs and 90Sr (1.3-14 years) in fish of the Kiev reservoir in 2002-2012 were significantly lower than both the radioactive decay periods and the estimates of the IAEA Chernobyl Forum. Based on the obtained model parameters, the dynamics of the 137Cs and 90Sr specific ac- tivities in main commercial fish of the Kiev reservoir has been described and the risk of exceeding the permis- sible levels of these radionuclides in fish at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident has been estimated. Now the risk of catching fish with the specific activities of 137Cs and 90Sr above the permissible levels (150 Bq/kg and 35 Bq/kg, respectively) does not exceed 10% (except perch in the spring spawning period that is banned for fishing in Ukraine). Corresponding risks for roach, white bream and rudd are less than 0.1%.

  14. Quantitative Determination of Fatty Acids in Marine Fish and Shellfish from Warm Water of Straits of Malacca for Nutraceutical Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurnadia Abd Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3. Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P<0.05 amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2–944.1 mg/100g wet sample of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S=0.58, a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω-3/ω-6=6.4, P/S=1.7, moonfish (highest ALA, ω-3/ω-6=1.9, P/S=1.0, and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω-3/ω-6=0.8, P/S=0.4 were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future.

  15. DEVELOPMENTAL STABILITY AND CYTOGENETIC HOMEOSTASIS OF FISH FAUNA OF THE SLUCH RIVER IN CURRENT CONDITIONS OF ANTHROPOGENIC STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bedunkova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the developmental stability and cytogenetic homeostasis of fish populations in the Sluch River in the watercourse areas subjected to anthropogenic stress of different intensities. Methodology. Studies of fish populations in the Sluch River were carried out within Berezne district of Rivne region. The condition of individual fish in the populations were evaluated integrally using morphological (evaluation of the stability of development based on the level of fluctuating asymmetry (FA and cytogenetic (micronucleus (MN test of peripheral blood erythrocytes of fish methods. The methods used allowed identifying the destabilization level of organism development, even in the cases when there is no direct disturbance of population homeostasis. Findings. The found FA levels reflect minor (initial deviations from the normal developmental processes of fish populations in in the studied watercourse areas. Especially significantly this is reflected in a high proportion of individuals with FA in the samples of roach (Rutilus rutilus, bleak (Alburnus alburnus, bream (Abramis brama and perch (Perca fluviatilis. An excess in the frequency of MN erythrocyte cells in roach and pike (Esox lucius blood relatively the level of spontaneous mutagenesis was observed in the cross section №2, which is exposed to sewage waters. The observed manifestation of degenerative processes in fish organisms at this stage can be evaluated as an increased reactivity of sensitive species to the presence of mutagenic agents in the composition of river pollution. The functioning of spawning populations gives reason to believe that the current level of human impact is not critical for the hydroecosystem. Originality. For the first time we obtained data on the stability of development and cytogenetic homeostasis of fish populations in the hydroecosystem of Rivne region in current conditions of anthropogenic stress. Practical value. The obtained results can be used for

  16. Preparation of primary myogenic precursor cell/myoblast cultures from basal vertebrate lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Jacob Michael; Seiliez, Iban; Gabillard, Jean-Charles; Biga, Peggy R

    2014-01-01

    Due to the inherent difficulty and time involved with studying the myogenic program in vivo, primary culture systems derived from the resident adult stem cells of skeletal muscle, the myogenic precursor cells (MPCs), have proven indispensible to our understanding of mammalian skeletal muscle development and growth. Particularly among the basal taxa of Vertebrata, however, data are limited describing the molecular mechanisms controlling the self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation of MPCs. Of particular interest are potential mechanisms that underlie the ability of basal vertebrates to undergo considerable postlarval skeletal myofiber hyperplasia (i.e. teleost fish) and full regeneration following appendage loss (i.e. urodele amphibians). Additionally, the use of cultured myoblasts could aid in the understanding of regeneration and the recapitulation of the myogenic program and the differences between them. To this end, we describe in detail a robust and efficient protocol (and variations therein) for isolating and maintaining MPCs and their progeny, myoblasts and immature myotubes, in cell culture as a platform for understanding the evolution of the myogenic program, beginning with the more basal vertebrates. Capitalizing on the model organism status of the zebrafish (Danio rerio), we report on the application of this protocol to small fishes of the cyprinid clade Danioninae. In tandem, this protocol can be utilized to realize a broader comparative approach by isolating MPCs from the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and even laboratory rodents. This protocol is now widely used in studying myogenesis in several fish species, including rainbow trout, salmon, and sea bream(1-4). PMID:24835774

  17. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lajus

    Full Text Available The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  18. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajus, Julia; Kraikovski, Alexei; Lajus, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th) centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th) century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th) century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th) century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  19. Three new records of copepods (Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on marine fishes of Iraq, including the relegation of two species of Lernanthropinus to Lernanthropinus temminckii (von Nordmann, 1864).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Moon, Seong Yong; Adday, Thamir Katea; Khamees, Najim Rijab; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2014-03-01

    Three parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) belonging to three different genera were recovered from marine fishes of Iraq, and are listed here as new records. The sea lice Caligus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1936 (Caligidae) was collected from the Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch). It had been frequently reported from teleost fishes around the world. The second record, comprising male and female, was another caligid, rarely caught from fishes - Hermilius longicornis Bassett-Smith, 1898, collected from the giant catfish, Netuma thalassina (Rüppell). This paper features the first description of the male of the latter species. The third record was the lernanthropid, Lernanthropinus temminckii (von Nordmann, 1864) (Lernanthropidae), redescribed based on the specimens collected from the greater lizard fish, Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Synodontidae). In order to clarify its taxonomic status, our specimen was compared with the holotype of L. gibbosus (Pillai, 1964) from the collections of Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, and the syntypes of L. sauridae Do in Ho and Do, 1985 and L. temminckii from the collections of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. We found similarities in the morphology of the body, mouthparts, and legs 1-4 in three above-mentioned species. The prominent feature, the setation pattern of legs 1 and 2 was similar in all the female specimens examined. In the light of this, we formally relegate L. gibbosus and L. sauridae to synonymy with L. temminckii. Another important similarity is that Lernanthropinus gibbosus, L. sauridae, and L. temminckii have exclusively been parasitic on lizardfishes (Synodontidae). The attachment site of all three copepods reported form Iraq were the gill filaments. PMID:24570061

  20. Diminished metal accumulation in riverine fishes exposed to acid mine drainage over five decades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A Jeffree

    Full Text Available Bony bream (Nematalosa erebi and black catfish (Neosilurus ater were sampled from the fresh surface waters of the Finniss River in tropical northern Australia, along a metal pollution gradient draining the Rum Jungle copper/uranium mine, a contaminant source for over five decades. Paradoxically, populations of both fish species exposed to the highest concentrations of mine-related metals (cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, uranium and zinc in surface water and sediment had the lowest tissue (bone, liver and muscle concentrations of these metals. The degree of reduction in tissue concentrations of exposed populations was also specific to each metal and inversely related to its degree of environmental increase above background. Several explanations for diminished metal bioaccumulation in fishes from the contaminated region were evaluated. Geochemical speciation modeling of metal bioavailability in surface water showed no differences between the contaminated region and the control sites. Also, the macro-nutrient (calcium, magnesium and sodium water concentrations, that may competitively inhibit metal uptake, were not elevated with trace metal contamination. Reduced exposure to contaminants due to avoidance behavior was unlikely due to the absence of refugial water bodies with the requisite metal concentrations lower than the control sites and very reduced connectivity at time of sampling. The most plausible interpretation of these results is that populations of both fish species have modified kinetics within their metal bioaccumulation physiology, via adaptation or tolerance responses, to reduce their body burdens of metals. This hypothesis is consistent with (i reduced tissue concentrations of calcium, magnesium and sodium (macro-nutrients, in exposed populations of both species, (ii experimental findings for other fish species from the Finniss River and other contaminated regions, and (iii the number of generations exposed to likely

  1. Brain morphology and immunohistochemical localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Palmieri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the morphology of the diencephalic nuclei (likely involved in reproductive functions as well as on the distribution of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon and the diencephalon of the brain of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus by means of immunohistochemistry. Bluefin tuna has an encephalization quotient (QE similar to that of other large pelagic fish. Its brain exhibits well-developed optic tecta and corpus cerebelli. The diencephalic neuron cell bodies involved in reproductive functions are grouped in two main nuclei: the nucleus preopticus-periventricularis and the nucleus lateralis tuberis. The nucleus preopticus-periventricularis consists of the nucleus periventricularis and the nucleus preopticus consisting of a few sparse multipolar neurons in the rostral part and numerous cells closely packed and arranged in several layers in its aboral part. The nucleus lateralis tuberis is located in the ventral-lateral area of the diencephalon and is made up of a number of large multipolar neurones. Four different polyclonal primary antibodies against salmon (sGnRH, chicken (cGnRH-II (cGnRH-II 675, cGnRH-II 6 and sea bream (sbGnRH were employed in the immunohistochemical experiments. No immunoreactive structures were found with anti sbGnRH serum. sGnRH and cGnRH-II antisera revealed immunoreactivity in the perikarya of the olfactory bulbs, preopticus-periventricular nucleus, oculomotor nucleus and midbrain tegmentum. The nucleus lateralis tuberis showed immunostaining only with anti-sGnRH serum. Nerve fibres immunoreactive to cGnRH and sGnRH sera were found in the olfactory bulbs, olfactory nerve and neurohypophysis. The significance of the distribution of the GnRHimmunoreactive neuronal structures is discussed.

  2. Comparative genomic analysis of the family Iridoviridae: re-annotating and defining the core set of iridovirus genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upton Chris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the family Iridoviridae can cause severe diseases resulting in significant economic and environmental losses. Very little is known about how iridoviruses cause disease in their host. In the present study, we describe the re-analysis of the Iridoviridae family of complex DNA viruses using a variety of comparative genomic tools to yield a greater consensus among the annotated sequences of its members. Results A series of genomic sequence comparisons were made among, and between the Ranavirus and Megalocytivirus genera in order to identify novel conserved ORFs. Of these two genera, the Megalocytivirus genomes required the greatest number of altered annotations. Prior to our re-analysis, the Megalocytivirus species orange-spotted grouper iridovirus and rock bream iridovirus shared 99% sequence identity, but only 82 out of 118 potential ORFs were annotated; in contrast, we predict that these species share an identical complement of genes. These annotation changes allowed the redefinition of the group of core genes shared by all iridoviruses. Seven new core genes were identified, bringing the total number to 26. Conclusion Our re-analysis of genomes within the Iridoviridae family provides a unifying framework to understand the biology of these viruses. Further re-defining the core set of iridovirus genes will continue to lead us to a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships between individual iridoviruses as well as giving us a much deeper understanding of iridovirus replication. In addition, this analysis will provide a better framework for characterizing and annotating currently unclassified iridoviruses.

  3. Copper uptake kinetics and regulation in a marine fish after waterborne copper acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang Fei; Zhong Huan [AMCE and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [AMCE and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-09-14

    The uptake kinetics and regulation of copper in a marine predatory fish, the black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli after acclimation to waterborne Cu were examined, using radiotracer techniques. The dissolved Cu uptake followed a linear pattern during the time of exposure, and the calculated uptake rate constant was 6.24 L kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The efflux rate constant was 0.091 day{sup -1} following dietary uptake of Cu, and the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cu varied between 1.7% and 10.9% after the fish were fed with three types of prey (oysters, clams and brine shrimp). After the fish were acclimated at a nominal concentration of 50 {mu}g Cu L{sup -1} for 14 days, the Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constant did not change significantly, but the Cu body concentrations and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in fish tissues increased significantly. Subcellular Cu distributions were also modified. Significant MT induction was observed in response to increased Cu tissue concentrations, indicating that MT rather than the uptake kinetics may play a primary role in Cu regulation during waterborne Cu acclimation in this marine fish. Moreover, the high Cu efflux may also be important in Cu regulation during long-term exposure. Our modeling calculations indicated that dietary uptake was likely to be the main route for Cu bioaccumulation in the fish, and the relative contribution of waterborne and dietary uptake depended on the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and ingestion rate of fish.

  4. THE POSSIBILITIES OF MARICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

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    Ivan Katavić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A stronger development of national mariculture that would be compatible with natural potentialities has not been acheived yet, primarily because of uncertain political and global macroeconomic environment in which mariculture is being developed. Such a characterization can be applied for finfish production in the floating cages and hanging shellfish culture on longline systems while breeding of tuna fish in cages is expanding. An intensive development of tuna culture is a consequence of increased demands of Japan market, eventhough one can expect slow down of such a production because of limited catch of subadult fish on which tuna production is based. The mariculture development is looked upon as controlled breeding of existing and newly introduced autochthonous fish and shellfish species with constant efforts made to make these products competitive on national and interantional market. Thus the reduction of costs, better product quality and constant advancement of ecological and health standards are the main tasks of further mariculture development in Croatia. It is also indispensable to create the necessary preconditions for further development of tuna culture in floating cages particularly paying attention to ecological aspects of such a production. There are also needs to medernise the production of sea bass and gilthead sea bream, to reinforce mariculture infrastructure and logistic, in addition to sistematic support to research and development of new mariculture projects. That will be a way how mariculture can provide market with high valued marine products, to contribute improvement of trade and economic growth, and finaly to advance the living standards in rural and island communities in particular.

  5. Non-dioxin-like PCBs in ten different fish species from the Danube river in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Saša; Curčić, Marijana; Radičević, Tatjana; Stefanović, Srđan; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Durgo, Ksenija; Antonijević, Biljana

    2011-10-01

    This work has been developed to examine the level of non-dioxin-like (ndl) PCBs (28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in (a) ten different freshwater fish species from the Danube river, (b) two sampling points: up and downstream of the industrial zone of the city of Pancevo (ecological hot spot in Serbia) and (c) two time points i.e., in 2001 and 2006. Obtained results would serve to analyse spatial, temporal and congener profile characteristics of ndl PCBs cumulated in fish tissues due to environmental pollution. Sixty-four samples of the following species were collected: wels (Silirus glanus), pike (Esox lucius), bream (Abramis brama), crucian carp (Carassius carassius), pike pearch (Stizostedion lucioperca), barbel (Barbus barbus), tench (Tinca tinca), sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). Gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector was used for analysis of ndl PCBs. Total ndl PCBs content in upstream samples ranged from 2.7 to 98.1 ng/g and from 4.9 to 68.3 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. During the 5 years, ndl PCBs content increased significantly in downstream samples i.e., ndl PCBs varied from 13.7 to 46.1 ng/g and from 14.4 to 107.2 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. PCBs 138 and 180 were predominant congeners in 2001, while in 2006 the most abundant PCB congeners were 138 and 153. In 2006, the presence of PCB 28 and PCB 52 has indicated a recent contamination event. Data on continual monitoring of PCBs in all relevant environmental compartments together with appropriate biomonitoring data are expected to give comprehensive insight into the fate and behaviour profile of these contaminants. PMID:21161586

  6. Identification method of freshwater fish species using multi-kernel support vector machine with bee colony optimization%基于蜂群优化多核支持向量机的淡水鱼种类识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴一全; 殷骏; 戴一冕; 袁永明

    2014-01-01

    for the manual work. Thus, in order to identify freshwater fish species automatically and accurately, computer vision techniques are adopted and an identification method based on Krawtchouk moments, a gray level co-occurrence matrix, and a multi-kernel least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) with bee colony optimization is proposed. Firstly, gray level images of freshwater fish samples are obtained by camera, image acquisition card, and PC. Secondly, shape features such as the length to width ratio of freshwater fish and Krawtchouk moment invariants are calculated. The length to width ratio can be obtained by looking for the minimum circumscribed rectangle of fish. The fish head, fish body, and fish tail are obtained based on the minimum circumscribed rectangle. Then the Krawtchouk moment invariants of the fish head and those of the fish tail can be obtained. Thirdly, four characteristic parameters such as angular second moment, entropy, deficit moment, and variance based on a gray level co-occurrence matrix of the fish body are calculated, which are used as texture features. Finally, the above shape features and texture features are combined into a high dimensional feature vector. The feature vector is input into multi-kernel LS-SVM. In a multi-kernel LS-SVM, a polynomial kernel function and radial basis function kernel are used, which can make up for limitations of a single kernel function. The artificial bee colony algorithm is used to optimize the undetermined parameters in a multi-kernel LS-SVM. The identification accuracy of the test sample serves as a fitness function. The optimum parameters are output once the identification accuracy attains its maximum. Five freshwater fish species such as bream, bighead, crucian carp, grass carp, and black carp are identified by using the proposed method. A total of 190 fish were used as the research object. Among them, 70 fish were used as training samples, and the remaining 120 fish were used as testing samples. The

  7. Mucins as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in a fish-parasite model: transcriptional and functional analysis.

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    Jaume Pérez-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Mucins are O-glycosylated glycoproteins present on the apex of all wet-surfaced epithelia with a well-defined expression pattern, which is disrupted in response to a wide range of injuries or challenges. The aim of this study was to identify mucin gene sequences of gilthead sea bream (GSB, to determine its pattern of distribution in fish tissues and to analyse their transcriptional regulation by dietary and pathogenic factors. Exhaustive search of fish mucins was done in GSB after de novo assembly of next-generation sequencing data hosted in the IATS transcriptome database (www.nutrigroup-iats.org/seabreamdb. Six sequences, three categorized as putative membrane-bound mucins and three putative secreted-gel forming mucins, were identified. The transcriptional tissue screening revealed that Muc18 was the predominant mucin in skin, gills and stomach of GSB. In contrast, Muc19 was mostly found in the oesophagus and Muc13 was along the entire intestinal tract, although the posterior intestine exhibited a differential pattern with a high expression of an isoform that does not share a clear orthologous in mammals. This mucin was annotated as intestinal mucin (I-Muc. Its RNA expression was highly regulated by the nutritional background, whereas the other mucins, including Muc2 and Muc2-like, were expressed more constitutively and did not respond to high replacement of fish oil (FO by vegetable oils (VO in plant protein-based diets. After challenge with the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei, the expression of a number of mucins was decreased mainly in the posterior intestine of infected fish. But, interestingly, the highest down-regulation was observed for the I-Muc. Overall, the magnitude of the changes reflected the intensity and progression of the infection, making mucins and I-Muc, in particular, reliable markers of prognostic and diagnostic value of fish intestinal health.

  8. Site profiles of low-volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons - cause-oriented monitoring in aquatic media. Vol.2. Low-volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in surface water, sediments, suspended matter and fish of the Elbe river and its tributaries; Standortprofile schwerfluechtiger chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe (SCKW) - ursachenorientiertes Monitoring in aquatischen Medien. Bd. 2. SCKW in Oberflaechenwasser, Sediment, Schwebstoffen und Fischen aus der Elbe und Nebenfluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, E.; Kettrup, A.; Gebefuegi, I.; Martens, D.; Bergheim, W.; Wenzel, S.

    2001-07-01

    Evaluating the primary data from ARGE ELBE, LAU Halle/Saale and the Environmental Specimen Banking (Umweltprobenbank) as well from publications from the Czech Republic (CHMU) the concentrations of the following low volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons were established for surface water, sediment, breams and eels from the rivers Elbe, Schwarze Elster, Mulde and Saale partly from 1989 till 1999: DDT and its metabolites DDE and DDD, partly as 2,4'- and 4,4' isomers; HCH ({alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and {delta} isomers); chlorinated benzenes with 1-6 Cl atoms and octachlorostyrene. The data evaluated were drawn up into tables - comprehensive in a separate supplement, in short versions within the text - and consolidated into graphs. Aim of the paper was a cause-oriented monitoring. The by far most important emission sources, found from the distance and time profiles as well as from special assessments of the substance patterns, were chemical plants. (orig.) [German] Durch Auswertung von Primaerdaten der ARGE ELBE, des LAU Halle/Saale und der Umweltprobenbank sowie von Publikationen aus Tschechien (CHMU) wurden fuer Oberflaechenwasser, Sediment, Brassen/Bleien und Aale aus der Elbe, Schwarzen Elster, Mulde und Saale fuer die Jahre von z.T. 1989 bis 1999 die Konzentrationen der folgenden schwerfluechtigen Kohlenwasserstoffe (SCKW) ermittelt: DDT und seine Metabolite DDE und DDD, z.T. als 2,4'- und 4,4'-Isomere; HCH ({alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- und {delta}-Isomere); chlorierte Benzole mit 1-6 Cl-Atomen und Octachlorstyrol. Die ausgewerteten Daten wurden zu Tabellen - ausfuehrlich in einem gesonderten Tabellenanhang und verkuerzt im Textteil - zusammengestellt sowie zu Grafiken verdichtet. Ziel der Arbeit war ein ursachenorientiertes Monitoring. Als mit Abstand wesentlichste Emissionsquellen konnten anhand von Streckenprofilen und Zeitrastern sowie durch spezielle Auswertungen der Stoffmusterverteilungen Chemibetriebe ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  9. Unraveling the molecular signatures of oxidative phosphorylation to cope with the nutritionally changing metabolic capabilities of liver and muscle tissues in farmed fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Bermejo-Nogales

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation provides over 90% of the energy produced by aerobic organisms, therefore the regulation of mitochondrial activity is a major issue for coping with the changing environment and energy needs. In fish, there is a large body of evidence of adaptive changes in enzymatic activities of the OXPHOS pathway, but less is known at the transcriptional level and the first aim of the present study was to define the molecular identity of the actively transcribed subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain of a livestock animal, using gilthead sea bream as a model of farmed fish with a high added value for European aquaculture. Extensive BLAST searches in our transcriptomic database (www.nutrigroup-iats.org/seabreamdb yielded 97 new sequences with a high coverage of catalytic, regulatory and assembly factors of Complex I to V. This was the basis for the development of a PCR array for the simultaneous profiling of 88 selected genes. This new genomic resource allowed the differential gene expression of liver and muscle tissues in a model of 10 fasting days. A consistent down-regulated response involving 72 genes was made by the liver, whereas an up-regulated response with 29 and 10 differentially expressed genes was found in white skeletal muscle and heart, respectively. This differential regulation was mostly mediated by nuclear-encoded genes (skeletal muscle or both mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded genes (liver, heart, which is indicative of a complex and differential regulation of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, according to the changes in the lipogenic activity of liver and the oxidative capacity of glycolytic and highly oxidative muscle tissues. These insights contribute to the identification of the most responsive elements of OXPHOS in each tissue, which is of relevance for the appropriate gene targeting of nutritional and/or environmental metabolic disturbances in livestock animals.