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Sample records for bream sparus aurata

  1. Taurine supplemented plant protein based diets with alternative lipid sources for juvenile sea bream, sparus aurata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lipid sources were evaluated as fish oil replacements in fishmeal free, plant protein based diets for juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. A twelve week feeding study was undertaken to examine the performance of fish fed the diets with different sources of essential fatty acids (canola o...

  2. Determination of some quality properties of marinated sea bream (Sparus Aurata L., 1758 during cold storage

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    Gülderen Kurt Kaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the effect of sea bream (Sparus aurata marinated some quality properties during cold storage. The fillets of fish were immersed into brine including 3.5% acetic acid 11% salt in the ratio of 1: 1.5 (fish: marinate brine for marination process. After the process of ripening, samples were grouped into two and packed in plastic containers; one being plain (in sunflower oil and the other being sauced (sauced prepared with sunflower oil. During storage, sensory, crude protein, lipid, dry matter and crude ash, TBA, TVB-N, TMA-N and peroxide analyses were done periodically. According to results of 200 days of storage, TVB-N values of sea bream marinates packaged as plain and sauced were 15.86/14.89 mg/100g, TBA 7.06/7.99 mg MA/kg, TMA-N 2.97/3.12, mg/100g, the value of peroxide was 7.23/7.45 meq/kg respectively. According to chemical and sensory analyses results obtained in the study; it was concluded that sea bream marinates packaged as plain and sauced can be stored in +4 °C for 200 days.

  3. Effect of ivermectin on the liver of gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata: a proteomic approach.

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    Varó, I; Rigos, G; Navarro, J C; del Ramo, J; Calduch-Giner, J; Hernández, A; Pertusa, J; Torreblanca, A

    2010-07-01

    Gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata is the most commercialized Mediterranean aquacultured fish species. Ivermectin has recently (experimentally) started to be used to control ectoparasitic infestations in Mediterranean cultured marine fish. The potential hepatotoxicity of ivermectin was investigated in gilthead sea bream juveniles (35g) following oral administration at the recommended dose of 0.2 mgkg(-1) fish for 10d. Difference Gel Electrophoresis Technology (DIGE) was used to study the effect of this treatment in gilthead sea bream liver protein profile under routine culture conditions. The 2D-DIGE protein maps obtained were analyzed using the DeCyder 6.5 software. The results obtained showed significant changes in the expression of 36 proteins respect to the control group. Among these proteins, six increased in abundance, and 30 decreased. Spot showing differential expression respect to the control were analyzed by mass spectrometry and database search, which resulted in three positive identifications corresponding to hepatic proteins involved in lipid metabolism (apoA-I), oxidative stress responses and energy generation (beta-globin, ATP synthase subunit beta). These proteins have not been previously associated to invermectin effect.

  4. A Comparative BAC map for the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

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    Kuhl, Heiner; Sarropoulou, Elena; Tine, Mbaye; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Reinhardt, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the first comparative BAC map of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), a highly valuated marine aquaculture fish species in the Mediterranean. High-throughput end sequencing of a BAC library yielded 92,468 reads (60.6  Mbp). Comparative mapping was achieved by anchoring BAC end sequences to the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) genome. BACs that were consistently ordered along the stickleback chromosomes accounted for 14,265 clones. A fraction of 5,249 BACs constituted a minimal tiling path that covers 73.5% of the stickleback chromosomes and 70.2% of the genes that have been annotated. The N50 size of 1,485 "BACtigs" consisting of redundant BACs is 337,253 bp. The largest BACtig covers 2.15 Mbp in the stickleback genome. According to the insert size distribution of mapped BACs the sea bream genome is 1.71-fold larger than the stickleback genome. These results represent a valuable tool to researchers in the field and may support future projects to elucidate the whole sea bream genome.

  5. A Comparative BAC Map for the Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.

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    Heiner Kuhl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first comparative BAC map of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, a highly valuated marine aquaculture fish species in the Mediterranean. High-throughput end sequencing of a BAC library yielded 92,468 reads (60.6 Mbp. Comparative mapping was achieved by anchoring BAC end sequences to the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus genome. BACs that were consistently ordered along the stickleback chromosomes accounted for 14,265 clones. A fraction of 5,249 BACs constituted a minimal tiling path that covers 73.5% of the stickleback chromosomes and 70.2% of the genes that have been annotated. The N50 size of 1,485 “BACtigs” consisting of redundant BACs is 337,253 bp. The largest BACtig covers 2.15 Mbp in the stickleback genome. According to the insert size distribution of mapped BACs the sea bream genome is 1.71-fold larger than the stickleback genome. These results represent a valuable tool to researchers in the field and may support future projects to elucidate the whole sea bream genome.

  6. Metallothionein (MT: a good biomarker in marine sentinel species like sea bream (Sparus aurata

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    Rigers Bakiu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review presents an overview of the significance of the use of molecular biomarkers as diagnostic and prognostic tools for marine pollution monitoring. In order to assess the impact of highly persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB, polychlorinated dibenzo–dioxins (PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzo–furans (PCDF, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, tributyltin (TBT and other toxic metals on the marine ecosystem a suite of biomarkers are being extensively used worldwide. Among the various types of biomarkers, like cytochrome P4501A induction, DNA integrity, and acetylcholinesterase activity, metallothionein induction represents an excellent biomarker. MTs are induced by toxic metals such as Cd, Hg, and Cu by chelation through cysteine residues and are used in both vertebrates and invertebrates as a biomarker of metal exposure. Sea bream is sentinel fish of its native sandy costal habitat as it is widely distributed throughout the entire Mediterranean Sea. Many studies, which results are further shown in this paper, has proposed metallothionein as a biomarker of heavy metal exposure in Sparus aurata. Recently MT expression profiles have been used as perfect diagnostic instruments to determine the physiological impact of aquaculture systems in S. aurata. All these knowledge could be very helpful to improve fish productivity and the aquaculture production system quality

  7. Second generation genetic linkage map for the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata L.

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    Tsigenopoulos, Costas S; Louro, Bruno; Chatziplis, Dimitrios; Lagnel, Jacques; Vogiatzi, Emmanouella; Loukovitis, Dimitrios; Franch, Rafaella; Sarropoulou, Elena; Power, Deborah M; Patarnello, Tomaso; Mylonas, Constantinos C; Magoulas, Antonios; Bargelloni, Luca; Canario, Adelino; Kotoulas, Georgios

    2014-12-01

    An updated second linkage map was constructed for the gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L., a fish species of great economic importance for the Mediterranean aquaculture industry. In contrast to the first linkage map which mainly consisted of genomic microsatellites (SSRs), the new linkage map is highly enriched with SSRs found in Expressed Sequence Tags (EST-SSRs), which greatly facilitates comparative mapping with other teleosts. The new map consists of 321 genetic markers in 27 linkage groups (LGs): 232 genomic microsatellites, 85 EST-SSRs and 4 SNPs; of those, 13 markers were linked to LGs but were not ordered. Eleven markers (5 SSRs, 5 EST-SSRs and 1 SNP) are not assigned to any LG. The total length of the sex-averaged map is 1769.7cM, 42% longer than the previously published one, and the number of markers in each LG ranges from 2 to 30. The inter-marker distance varies from 0 to 75.6cM, with an average of 5.75cM. The male and female maps have a length of 1349.2 and 2172.1cM, respectively, and the average distance between markers is 4.38 and 7.05cM, respectively. Comparative mapping with the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus acuulatus) chromosomes and scaffolds showed conserved synteny with 132 S. aurata markers (42.9% of those mapped) having a hit on the stickleback genome.

  8. The changes of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in sea bream (Sparus aurata) during irradiation process

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    Erkan, Nuray [Faculty of Fisheries, Department of the Seafood Processing and Quality Control, Istanbul University, Ordu, Cad. No. 200, 34470 Laleli/Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: nurerkan@istanbul.edu.tr; Ozden, Ozkan [Faculty of Fisheries, Department of the Seafood Processing and Quality Control, Istanbul University, Ordu, Cad. No. 200, 34470 Laleli/Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozden@istanbul.edu.tr

    2007-10-15

    Aqua cultured fish (sea bream) were irradiated by Cobalt-60 at commercial irradiation facility at dose of 2.5 and 5 kGy at 2-4 deg. C. The proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid composition changes of irradiated aqua cultured sea bream (Sparus aurata) of Aegean Sea were investigated. Total saturated (28.01%) and total monounsaturated (28.42%) fatty acid contents of non-irradiated decreased content of 27.69-27.97% for 2.5 kGy irradiated groups and increased content of 28.33-28.56% for 5 kGy irradiated groups after irradiation process. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid content for irradiated samples was lower than that of non-irradiated samples. Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, arginine, alanine, tyrosine, cystine, tryptophan, lysine and proline contents for 2.5 and 5 kGy irradiated sea bream are significantly different (p<0.05)

  9. Evaluation of the possible transmission of BSE and scrapie to gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata.

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    Evgenia Salta

    Full Text Available In transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting many species, the key event in disease pathogenesis is the accumulation of an abnormal conformational isoform (PrP(Sc of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP(C. While the precise mechanism of the PrP(C to PrP(Sc conversion is not understood, it is clear that host PrP(C expression is a prerequisite for effective infectious prion propagation. Although there have been many studies on TSEs in mammalian species, little is known about TSE pathogenesis in fish. Here we show that while gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata orally challenged with brain homogenates prepared either from a BSE infected cow or from scrapie infected sheep developed no clinical prion disease, the brains of TSE-fed fish sampled two years after challenge did show signs of neurodegeneration and accumulation of deposits that reacted positively with antibodies raised against sea bream PrP. The control groups, fed with brains from uninfected animals, showed no such signs. Remarkably, the deposits developed much more rapidly and extensively in fish inoculated with BSE-infected material than in the ones challenged with the scrapie-infected brain homogenate, with numerous deposits being proteinase K-resistant. These plaque-like aggregates exhibited congophilia and birefringence in polarized light, consistent with an amyloid-like component. The neurodegeneration and abnormal deposition in the brains of fish challenged with prion, especially BSE, raises concerns about the potential risk to public health. As fish aquaculture is an economically important industry providing high protein nutrition for humans and other mammalian species, the prospect of farmed fish being contaminated with infectious mammalian PrP(Sc, or of a prion disease developing in farmed fish is alarming and requires further evaluation.

  10. Evaluation of the possible transmission of BSE and scrapie to gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

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    Salta, Evgenia; Panagiotidis, Cynthia; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Petrakis, Spyros; Eleftheriadis, Eleftherios; Arapoglou, Fotis; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Nicolaou, Anna; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Krey, Grigorios; Sklaviadis, Theodoros

    2009-07-28

    In transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting many species, the key event in disease pathogenesis is the accumulation of an abnormal conformational isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). While the precise mechanism of the PrP(C) to PrP(Sc) conversion is not understood, it is clear that host PrP(C) expression is a prerequisite for effective infectious prion propagation. Although there have been many studies on TSEs in mammalian species, little is known about TSE pathogenesis in fish. Here we show that while gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) orally challenged with brain homogenates prepared either from a BSE infected cow or from scrapie infected sheep developed no clinical prion disease, the brains of TSE-fed fish sampled two years after challenge did show signs of neurodegeneration and accumulation of deposits that reacted positively with antibodies raised against sea bream PrP. The control groups, fed with brains from uninfected animals, showed no such signs. Remarkably, the deposits developed much more rapidly and extensively in fish inoculated with BSE-infected material than in the ones challenged with the scrapie-infected brain homogenate, with numerous deposits being proteinase K-resistant. These plaque-like aggregates exhibited congophilia and birefringence in polarized light, consistent with an amyloid-like component. The neurodegeneration and abnormal deposition in the brains of fish challenged with prion, especially BSE, raises concerns about the potential risk to public health. As fish aquaculture is an economically important industry providing high protein nutrition for humans and other mammalian species, the prospect of farmed fish being contaminated with infectious mammalian PrP(Sc), or of a prion disease developing in farmed fish is alarming and requires further evaluation.

  11. Fast skeletal muscle transcriptome of the Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata determined by next generation sequencing

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    Garcia de la serrana Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. occurs around the Mediterranean and along Eastern Atlantic coasts from Great Britain to Senegal. It is tolerant of a wide range of temperatures and salinities and is often found in brackish coastal lagoons and estuarine areas, particularly early in its life cycle. Gilthead sea bream are extensively cultivated in the Mediterranean with an annual production of 125,000 metric tonnes. Here we present a de novo assembly of the fast skeletal muscle transcriptome of gilthead sea bream using 454 reads and identify gene paralogues, splice variants and microsatellite repeats. An annotated transcriptome of the skeletal muscle will facilitate understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of traits linked to production in this economically important species. Results Around 2.7 million reads of mRNA sequence data were generated from the fast myotomal of adult fish (~2 kg and juvenile fish (~0.09 kg that had been either fed to satiation, fasted for 3-5d or transferred to low (11°C or high (33°C temperatures for 3-5d. Newbler v2.5 assembly resulted in 43,461 isotigs >100 bp. The number of sequences annotated by searching protein and gene ontology databases was 10,465. The average coverage of the annotated isotigs was x40 containing 5655 unique gene IDs and 785 full-length cDNAs coding for proteins containing 58–1536 amino acids. The v2.5 assembly was found to be of good quality based on validation using 200 full-length cDNAs from GenBank. Annotated isotigs from the reference transcriptome were attributable to 344 KEGG pathway maps. We identified 26 gene paralogues (20 of them teleost-specific and 43 splice variants, of which 12 had functional domains missing that were likely to affect their biological function. Many key transcription factors, signaling molecules and structural proteins necessary for myogenesis and muscle growth have been identified. Physiological status affected the

  12. Characterization of the cellular damage induced by Aflatoxin B1 in sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 hepatocytes

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    Giuseppe Crescenzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. is one of the most intensively farmed fish spe- cies in the Mediterranean, greatly studied for the relevant economic value, although its sensitivity to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 has to be investigated, yet. The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro evalua- tion of cytotoxic potential of AFB1 on S. aurata hepatocytes in order to grade the range of AFB1 toxicity, and the boundary between acute and long-term toxicity. Primary monolayer cultures of hepatocytes from S. aurata juveniles were treated with a wide range of concentrations from 5x103 ng/ml to 2x10 2x10-5 ng/ml of AFB1 for a different period of exposure (24, 48, 72 hours. The cytotoxic activity was characterized by MTT reduction assay. After each exposition hepatocytes were examined for morphologic alterations and apoptosis induction. AFB1 exposure significantly reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-depend- ent manner. Dose-response curves obtained after 24, 48 and 72 hrs revealed that prolonged exposure times lead to a significant increase of the toxicpotencyofAFB toxic potency of AFB AFB1. Ourresultsdemonstratethat Our results demonstrate that S. aurata hepatocytes are highly sensitive to AFB1 exposure. Such scientific findings could provide new insights to investigate the real impact of aflatoxin on marine farmed fish.

  13. Characterization and endocrine regulation of proliferation and differentiation of primary cultured preadipocytes from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

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    Salmerón, C; Acerete, L; Gutiérrez, J; Navarro, I; Capilla, E

    2013-07-01

    A preadipocyte primary cell culture was established to gain knowledge about adipose tissue development in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), one of the most extensively produced marine aquaculture species in the Mediterranean. The preadipocytes obtained from the stromal-vascular cell fraction of adipose tissue proliferated in culture, reaching confluence around day 8. At that time, the addition of an adipogenic medium promoted differentiation of the cells into mature adipocytes, which showed an enlarged cytoplasm filled with lipid droplets. First, cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed under control and adipogenic conditions during culture development. Next, the effects of insulin, GH, and IGF-I on cell proliferation were evaluated at day 8. All peptides significantly stimulated proliferation of the cells after 48 h of incubation (P differentiation when added to growth medium were studied at day 11, after 3 d of induction with adipogenic medium. The results showed that IGF-I is more potent than insulin enhancing differentiation (P product in aquaculture.

  14. Dietary differences are reflected on the gut prokaryotic community structure of wild and commercially reared sea bream (Sparus aurata).

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    Kormas, Konstantinos A; Meziti, Alexandra; Mente, Eleni; Frentzos, Athanasios

    2014-10-01

    We compared the gut prokaryotic communities in wild, organically-, and conventionally reared sea bream (Sparus aurata) individuals. Gut microbial communities were identified using tag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. There were distinct prokaryotic communities in the three different fish nutritional treatments, with the bacteria dominating over the Archaea. Most of the Bacteria belonged to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The number of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was reduced from the wild to the conventionally reared fish, implying a response of the gut microorganisms to the supplied food and possibly alterations in food assimilation. The dominant bacterial OTU in all examined fish was closely related to the genus Diaphorobacter. This is the first time that a member of the β-Proteobacteria, which dominate in freshwaters, are so important in a marine fish gut. In total the majority of the few Archaea OTUs found, were related to methane metabolism. The inferred physiological roles of the dominant prokaryotes are related to the metabolism of carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds. This study showed the responsive feature of the sea bream gut prokaryotic communities to their diets and also the differences of the conventional in comparison to the organic and wild sea bream gut microbiota.

  15. Effects of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on lipid metabolism of gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata).

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    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Peres, Helena; Rubio, Vera Cruz; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2013-06-01

    A growth trial was performed with gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata) to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on fish performance and lipid metabolism. For that purpose, four diets were formulated: a fish meal-based diet (Control) and diets identical to the control diet but supplemented with 2.9 % white tea (Tea), 0.3 % methionine (Met) or 2.9 % white tea plus 0.3 % methionine (Tea + Met). Growth performance and feed efficiency parameters, whole-body and liver composition, plasma metabolites concentration and liver glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) activities were determined. Feed intake was higher in fish fed methionine-supplemented diets, whereas this parameter and growth was decreased in fish fed white tea supplementation. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were not affected by diet composition. Plasma HDL cholesterol and total lipids concentration were higher in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Whole-body lipid, plasma glucose, liver glycogen concentration and liver G6PDH, ME and FAS activities were lower in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Results of the present study indicate that methionine seems to act as a feed attractant in diets for sea bream juveniles. Additionally, white tea is an important modulator of lipid metabolism in sea bream juveniles.

  16. Partial replacement of fish meal by T-Iso in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata juveniles diets

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    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of microalga Isochrysis sp. T-Iso in partial substitution of fish meal and the study of the effects on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata perform- ances and chemical composition of fillets. The results show that the microalga T-Iso nutrients support growth better than control diets, and the chemical composition of sea bream fillets also meets the needs of consumers for healthy diets. T-Iso resulted highly digestible, and support the best perform- ances of fish fed on 70% alga diet probably due to its high protein efficiency in comparison to other diets. The presence of a high quantity of cyclic isoprenoid could explain this high efficiency of T-Iso. Gilthead sea bream fed on 70% T-Iso showed fillets with a low level of protein and a high level of fat; moreover, their somatic indexes were higher than those of fish fed other diets. Highest percentage T- Iso diet showed the highest amount of the sum of saturated fatty acids, mainly due to myristate and palmitate. On the contrary, the sum of polyunsaturated decreases, mainly because of the reduction of EPA and DHA amounts. If the mass production economical problems are solved, T-Iso will represent a good solution in partial substitution of fish meal.

  17. A gene-based radiation hybrid map of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata refines and exploits conserved synteny with Tetraodon nigroviridis

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    Tsalavouta Matina

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative teleost studies are of great interest since they are important in aquaculture and in evolutionary issues. Comparing genomes of fully sequenced model fish species with those of farmed fish species through comparative mapping offers shortcuts for quantitative trait loci (QTL detections and for studying genome evolution through the identification of regions of conserved synteny in teleosts. Here a comparative mapping study is presented by radiation hybrid (RH mapping genes of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata, a non-model teleost fish of commercial and evolutionary interest, as it represents the worldwide distributed species-rich family of Sparidae. Results An additional 74 microsatellite markers and 428 gene-based markers appropriate for comparative mapping studies were mapped on the existing RH map of Sparus aurata. The anchoring of the RH map to the genetic linkage map resulted in 24 groups matching the karyotype of Sparus aurata. Homologous sequences to Tetraodon were identified for 301 of the gene-based markers positioned on the RH map of Sparus aurata. Comparison between Sparus aurata RH groups and Tetraodon chromosomes (karyotype of Tetraodon consists of 21 chromosomes in this study reveals an unambiguous one-to-one relationship suggesting that three Tetraodon chromosomes correspond to six Sparus aurata radiation hybrid groups. The exploitation of this conserved synteny relationship is furthermore demonstrated by in silico mapping of gilthead sea bream expressed sequence tags (EST that give a significant similarity hit to Tetraodon. Conclusion The addition of primarily gene-based markers increased substantially the density of the existing RH map and facilitated comparative analysis. The anchoring of this gene-based radiation hybrid map to the genome maps of model species broadened the pool of candidate genes that mainly control growth, disease resistance, sex determination and reversal, reproduction as well

  18. Modulation of leukocytic populations of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) by the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa: Myxosporea).

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    Estensoro, Itziar; Mulero, Iván; Redondo, María J; Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar; Mulero, Victoriano; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna

    2014-03-01

    SUMMARY The cellular mucosal and systemic effectors of gilthead sea bream (GSB) (Sparus aurata) involved in the acute immune response to the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei were studied in fish experimentally infected by the anal route. In the intestinal inflammatory infiltrates and in lymphohaematopoietic organs (head kidney and spleen) of parasitized fish, the number of plasma cells, B cells (IgM immunoreactive) and mast cells (histamine immunoreactive) were significantly higher, whereas the number of acidophilic granulocytes (G7 immunoreactive) decreased, compared with non-parasitized and unexposed fish. These differences were stronger at the posterior intestine, the main target of the parasite, and no differences were found in the thymus. In non-parasitized GSB, the percentage of splenic surface occupied by melanomacrophage centres was significantly higher. These results suggest that the cellular response of GSB to E. leei includes proliferation of leukocytes in lymphohaematopoietic organs and recruitment into intestines via blood circulation involving elements of innate and adaptive immunity. Acidophilic granulocytes and mast cells presented opposite patterns of response to the parasite infection, with an overall depletion of the former and an increased amount of the latter. Some differences between both cell types were also detected in regard to their granule density and cell morphology.

  19. Untargeted metabolomics approach for unraveling robust biomarkers of nutritional status in fasted gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata

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    Ruben Gil-Solsona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A metabolomic study has been performed to identify sensitive and robust biomarkers of malnutrition in farmed fish, using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata as a model. The metabolomic fingerprinting of serum from fasted fish was assessed by means of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. More than 15,000 different m/z ions were detected and Partial Least Squares–Discriminant analysis allowed a clear differentiation between the two experimental groups (fed and 10-day fasted fish with more than 90% of total variance explained by the two first components. The most significant metabolites (up to 45 were elucidated on the basis of their tandem mass spectra with a broad representation of amino acids, oligopeptides, urea cycle metabolites, L-carnitine-related metabolites, glutathione-related metabolites, fatty acids, lysophosphatidic acids, phosphatidylcholines as well as biotin- and noradrenaline-related metabolites. This untargeted approach highlighted important adaptive responses in energy and oxidative metabolism, contributing to identify robust and nutritionally-regulated biomarkers of health and metabolic condition that will serve to assess the welfare status of farmed fish.

  20. Preliminary Investigation on the Use of Allyi Isothiocyanate to Increase the Shelf-Life of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus Aurata) Fillets.

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    Giarratana, Filippo; Crinò, Chiara; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against fish spoilage bacteria (specific spoilage organisms; SSOs) as well as its possible use in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets to extend their shelf-life. In this regard, in vitro tests are carried out in order to evaluate the inhibitory activity of AITC and its vapours on several strains of SSOs. The AITC effect on the shelf-life of sea bream fillets was made by putting them in plastic trays hermetically closed with the addition AITC. Microbiological and sensorial evaluations were made on fish fillets during storage. Treated fillets maintained microbial populations at a significantly lower level compared with the control samples during storage, showing better sensorial characteristics. Therefore, the use of AITC's vapours seems to be a new and interesting alternative way to increase fish product shelf-life.

  1. FRESHNESS QUALITY OF GILTHEAD SEA BREAM (Sparus aurata REARED UNDER DIFFERENT FARMING CONDITIONS

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    P. Fagioli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensory and physico-chemical freshness indices (QI score, Torrymeter readings, pH and WHC were evaluated in gilthead sea bream of commercial size reared in Italy in: land based facilities (recirculation systems, lagoons and net-cages. Fish were stored under ice for 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 16 days: at each sampling time analyses were performed to determine the evolution of each freshness index within sea bream sources. Significant differences emerged among farming conditions following the application of the Quality Index Method. Torrymeter readings gradually decreased with the number of days of ice storage. pH values remained practically constant over the 16 days of storage. For WHC the effect of both time of storage and farming conditions was statistically significant.

  2. Characterization data of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) IGF-I receptors (IGF-IRa/Rb).

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    Vélez, Emilio J; Azizi, Sheida; Salmerón, Cristina; Chan, Shu Jin; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-03-01

    In this data article we describe the coding sequence of two IGF-IR paralogues (IGF-IRa and IGF-IRb) obtained from gilthead sea bream embryos. The putative protein architecture (domains and other important motifs) was determined and, amino acid sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis of both receptors together with IGF-IR orthologues from different vertebrates was performed. Additionally, a semi-quantitative conventional PCR was done to analyze the mRNA expression of both receptors in different tissues of gilthead sea bream. These data will assist in further physiological studies in this species. In this sense, the expression of both receptors during ontogeny in muscle as well as the differential effects of IGF-I and IGF-II on their regulation during in vitro myogenesis has been recently studied (doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.11.011; [1]).

  3. Characterization data of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata IGF-I receptors (IGF-IRa/Rb

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    Emilio J. Vélez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this data article we describe the coding sequence of two IGF-IR paralogues (IGF-IRa and IGF-IRb obtained from gilthead sea bream embryos. The putative protein architecture (domains and other important motifs was determined and, amino acid sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis of both receptors together with IGF-IR orthologues from different vertebrates was performed. Additionally, a semi-quantitative conventional PCR was done to analyze the mRNA expression of both receptors in different tissues of gilthead sea bream. These data will assist in further physiological studies in this species. In this sense, the expression of both receptors during ontogeny in muscle as well as the differential effects of IGF-I and IGF-II on their regulation during in vitro myogenesis has been recently studied (doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.11.011; [1].

  4. Comparison among Different Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata Farming Systems: Activity of Intestinal and Hepatic Enzymes and 13C-NMR Analysis of Lipids

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    Vincenzo Zonno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate differences in general health and nutritional values of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, the effects of semi-intensive, land-based tanks and sea-cages intensive rearing systems were investigated, and results compared with captured wild fish. The physiological state was determined by measuring the activity of three different intestinal digestive enzymes: alkaline phosphatase (ALP, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP and maltase; and the activity of the hepatic ALP. Also, the hepatic content in protein, cholesterol, and lipid were assessed. 13C-NMR analysis for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the lipid fraction extracted from fish muscles for semiintensive and land based tanks intensive systems was performed. The lipid fraction composition showed small but significant differences in the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio, with the semi-intensive characterized by higher monounsaturated and lower saturated fatty acid content with respect to land based tanks intensive rearing system.

  5. Cultivation of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 in low salinity inland brackish geothermal water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Appelbaum

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the course of attempting to culture gilthead sea bream in inland brackish geothermal water, indoor and outdoor research studies have been ongoing from early 2006 at the "Bengis Centre for Desert Aquaculture" of the Institutes for Desert Research in Israel, some of which are described below. Gilthead sea bream fingerlings with an average weight of 19 g were acclimated to and reared for 56 days in brackish water of three salinities: 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 ppt collected from three different locations. At the salinity of 3.5 ppt the fish grew best (P Artemia nauplii plus larval dry feed and were grown in brackish water of 2.6 ppt salinity for 8 weeks reaching a weight gain of 92% at a survival rate of 83%. The control groups at sea water (39 ppt reached at the same time a weight gain of 95% at a survival rate of 98%. In a further study gilthead sea bream juveniles with an average weight of 2.24 g were reared in brackish water with a salinity of 3.6 ppt for 8 weeks and received salt added diets of 4% and 6%. Compared with the control diet with no salt added, both salt rich diets significantly improved the fingerlings growth and survival rates as well as the feed conversion ratio. The 6% salt rich diet promoted fish weight gain by 560% which was the best performance (P <0.05 followed by 448% weight gain with the 4% salt rich diet while the lowest performance with a weight gain of only 360% was obtained with the control (no salt added diet. The next study with higher levels of salt added diets showed that gilthead sea bream post larvae with an average weight of 0.58 g reared in brackish geothermal water of 2.9 ppt salinity for 10 weeks grew best (P < 0.05 obtaining a weight gain of 778% with the highest survival rate of 88% when fed a diet containing 12% salt. In the studies with the salt rich diets, the salt incorporated was obtained by the evaporation of brine produced during the process of desalination of the brackish geothermal water from the same

  6. Evaluation of sea bream (Sparus aurata) shelf life using an optoelectronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragozá, Patricia; Fuentes, Ana; Fernández-Segovia, Isabel; Vivancos, José-Luis; Rizo, Arantxa; Ros-Lis, José V; Barat, José M; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2013-06-01

    A new optoelectronic nose for the shelf-life assessment of fresh sea bream in cold storage has been developed. The chromogenic array used eight sensing materials (based on aluminium oxide and silica gel) containing pH indicators, Lewis acids and an oxidation-reduction indicator. The colour changes of the sensor array were characteristic of sea bream spoilage. Colour modulations were measured on day 0 and for the samples held in cold storage for 2, 4, 7, 9 and 11 days. Determination of moisture content, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), drip loss, ATP-related compounds and K(1)-value and microbial (mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae) analyses were carried out on the same days. The changes in the chromogenic arrays data were processed by statistical analysis (PCA). Moreover, PLS statistical studies allowed the creation of models to correlate the chromogenic data with concentrations of mesophilic and Enterobacteriaceae. The results suggest the feasibility of this system to help develop optoelectronic noses for fish freshness monitoring.

  7. Vegetable oils affect the composition of lipoproteins in sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Maria José; Torstensen, Bente E; Robaina, Lidia; Montero, Daniel; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the dietary fatty acid profile on the lipoprotein composition in sea bream fed different vegetable oils. Six experimental diets were formulated combining fish oil with three vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed) in order to obtain 60-80 % (w/w) fish-oil replacement. VLDL, LDL and HDL in plasma samples were obtained by sequential centrifugal flotation. The lipid class, protein content and fatty acid composition of each lipoprotein fraction were analysed. HDL was the predominant lipoprotein in sea bream plasma containing the highest proportion of protein (34 %) and phosphatidylcholine. LDL presented a high content of cholesterol, whereas triacylglycerol comprised a larger proportion of VLDL. The lipid class of the lipoprotein fractions was affected by the dietary vegetable oils. Thus, a high dietary inclusion of soyabean and linseed oil (80 %) increased the cholesterol in HDL and LDL in comparison to fish oil. Similarly, the triacylglycerol concentration of VLDL was increased in fish fed 80 % soyabean and linseed oils owing to the low n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content of these diets. Lipoprotein fatty acid composition easily responded to dietary fatty acid composition. VLDL was the fraction more affected by dietary fatty acid, followed by LDL and HDL. The n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content increased in the order VLDL less than LDL and less than HDL, regardless of dietary vegetable oils.

  8. Growth-promoting effects of sustained swimming in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Josefina; Moya, A; Millán-Cubillo, A; Vélez, E J; Capilla, E; Pérez-Sánchez, J; Gutiérrez, J; Fernández-Borrás, J

    2015-12-01

    Fish growth is strongly influenced by environmental and nutritional factors and changing culture conditions can help optimize it. The importance of early-life experience on the muscle phenotype later in life is well known. Here, we study the effects of 5 weeks of moderate and sustained swimming activity (5 BL s(-1)) in gilthead sea bream during early development. We analysed growth and body indexes, plasma IGF-I and GH levels, feed conversion, composition [proximate and isotopic ((15)N/(13)C)] and metabolic key enzymes (COX, CS, LDH, HOAD, HK, ALAT, ASAT) of white muscle. Moderate and continuous exercise in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream increased plasma IGF-I, whereas it reduced plasma GH. Under these conditions, growth rate improved without any modification to feed intake through an increase in muscle mass and a reduction in mesenteric fat deposits. There were no changes in the content and turnover of muscle proteins and lipid reserves. Glycogen stores were maintained, but glycogen turnover was higher in white muscle of exercised fish. A lower LDH/CS ratio demonstrated an improvement in the aerobic capacity of white muscle, while a reduction in the COX/CS ratio possibly indicated a functional adaptation of mitochondria to adjust to the tissue-specific energy demand and metabolic fuel availability in exercised fish. We discuss the synergistic effects of dietary nutrients and sustained exercise on the different mitochondrial responses.

  9. Effects of sustained exercise on GH-IGFs axis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

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    Vélez, Emilio J; Azizi, Sheida; Millán-Cubillo, Antonio; Fernández-Borràs, Jaume; Blasco, Josefina; Chan, Shu Jin; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-02-15

    The endocrine system regulates growth mainly through the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) axis and, although exercise promotes growth, little is known about its modulation of these factors. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 wk of moderate sustained swimming on the GH-IGFs axis in gilthead sea bream fingerlings. Plasma IGF-I/GH ratio and tissue gene expression of total IGF-I and three splice variants, IGF-II, three IGF binding proteins, two GH receptors, two IGF-I receptors, and the downstream molecules were analyzed. Fish under exercise (EX) grew more than control fish (CT), had a higher plasma IGF-I/GH ratio, and showed increased hepatic IGF-I expression (mainly IGF-Ia). Total IGF-I expression levels were similar in the anterior and caudal muscles; however, IGF-Ic expression increased with exercise, suggesting that this splice variant may be the most sensitive to mechanical action. Moreover, IGFBP-5b and IGF-II increased in the anterior and caudal muscles, respectively, supporting enhanced muscle growth. Furthermore, in EX fish, hepatic IGF-IRb was reduced together with both GHRs; GHR-II was also reduced in anterior muscle, while GHR-I showed higher expression in the two muscle regions, indicating tissue-dependent differences and responses to exercise. Exercise also increased gene and protein expression of target of rapamycin (TOR), suggesting enhanced muscle protein synthesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that moderate sustained activity may be used to increase the plasma IGF-I/GH ratio and to potentiate growth in farmed gilthead sea bream, modulating the gene expression of different members of the GH-IGFs axis (i.e., IGF-Ic, IGF-II, IGFBP-5b, GHR-I, and TOR).

  10. Sedative effect of 2-phenoxyethanol and essential oil of Lippia alba on stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Cândida; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; de Lima Silva, Lenise; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2015-12-01

    The anesthetic efficacy of the essential oil of Lippia alba (EOLA) in Sparus aurata was evaluated by induction and recovery times of anesthesia. After, specimens were exposed to anesthetics low concentrations for 4h, under nonstress or stress conditions. Range 100-300 μL L(-1) EOLA induced anesthesia. Plasmatic cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality enhanced after EOLA exposure in the undisturbed (UF) and stressed fish (SF). Lower corticotropin-releasing hormone binding-protein expression occurred in SF/EOLA compared with 2-PHE/stress combination or to EOLA/undisturbed conditions. Stress processes reduced prolactin (PRL) expression in the control fish, while UF exhibited reduced PRL levels after exposure to both anesthetics. Proopiomelanocortin (POMCa) mRNA was higher after 2-PHE exposure in SF compared to control; POMCb expression was higher in SF/EOLA in contrast to control and UF/EOLA conditions. Thus, EOLA was an effective anesthetic, but it was unable to prevent a stress response in S. aurata; while 2-PHE is advisable to sedate S. aurata without causing stress, but it was not effective at preventing a stress response in the present work.

  11. Identification of Vibrio harveyi as a causative bacterium for a tail rot disease of sea bream Sparus aurata from research hatchery in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, S; Maharajan, A; Chatterjee, S; Hunter, S A; Chowdhury, N; Hinenoya, A; Asakura, M; Yamasaki, S

    2010-10-20

    A bacterial disease was reported from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) within a hatchery environment in Malta. Symptoms included complete erosion of tail, infection in the eye, mucous secretion and frequent mortality. A total of 540 strains were initially isolated in marine agar from different infected body parts and culture water sources. Subsequently 100 isolates were randomly selected, identified biochemically and all were found to be Vibrio harveyi-related organisms; finally from 100 isolates a total of 13 numbers were randomly selected and accurately identified as V. harveyi by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCR. Ribotyping of these strains with HindIII revealed total of six clusters. In vivo challenge study with representative isolates from each cluster proved two clusters each were highly pathogenic, moderately pathogenic and non-pathogenic. All 13 isolates were positive for hemolysin gene, a potential virulence factor. Further analysis revealed probably a single copy of this gene was encoded in all isolates, although not in the same locus in the genome. Although V. harveyi was reported to be an important pathogen for many aquatic organisms, to our knowledge this might be the first report of disease caused by V. harveyi and their systematic study in the sea bream hatchery from Malta.

  12. Changes in intestinal morphology and microbiota caused by dietary administration of inulin and Bacillus subtilis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezuela, Rebeca; Fumanal, Milena; Tapia-Paniagua, Silvana Teresa; Meseguer, José; Moriñigo, Miguel Ángel; Esteban, Ma Ángeles

    2013-05-01

    Changes produced in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) intestinal morphology and microbiota caused by dietary administration of inulin and Bacillus subtilis have been studied. Gilthead sea bream specimens were fed diets containing 0 (control), inulin (10 g kg(-1)), B. subtilis (10(7) cfu g(-1)), or B. subtilis + inulin (10(7) cfu g(-1) + 10 g kg(-1)) for four weeks. Curiously, fish fed the experimental diets (inulin, B. subtilis, or B. subtilis + inulin) showed the same morphological alterations when studied by light and electron microscopy, while significant differences in the signs of intestinal damage were detected by the morphometric study. All of the observed alterations were present only in the gut mucosa, and intestinal morphometric study revealed no effect of inulin or B. subtilis on the intestinal absorptive area. Furthermore, experimental diets cause important alterations in the intestinal microbiota by significantly decreasing bacterial diversity, as demonstrated by the specific richness, Shannon, and range-weighted richness indices. The observed alterations demonstrate that fish fed experimental diets had different signs of gut oedema and inflammation that could compromise their body homeostasis, which is mainly maintained by the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study regarding the implications of the use of synbiotics (conjunction of probiotics and prebiotics) on fish gut morphology and microbiota.

  13. Extending Immunological Profiling in the Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata, by Enriched cDNA Library Analysis, Microarray Design and Initial Studies upon the Inflammatory Response to PAMPs

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    Sebastian Boltaña

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the development and validation of an enriched oligonucleotide-microarray platform for Sparus aurata (SAQ to provide a platform for transcriptomic studies in this species. A transcriptome database was constructed by assembly of gilthead sea bream sequences derived from public repositories of mRNA together with reads from a large collection of expressed sequence tags (EST from two extensive targeted cDNA libraries characterizing mRNA transcripts regulated by both bacterial and viral challenge. The developed microarray was further validated by analysing monocyte/macrophage activation profiles after challenge with two Gram-negative bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs; lipopolysaccharide (LPS and peptidoglycan (PGN. Of the approximately 10,000 EST sequenced, we obtained a total of 6837 EST longer than 100 nt, with 3778 and 3059 EST obtained from the bacterial-primed and from the viral-primed cDNA libraries, respectively. Functional classification of contigs from the bacterial- and viral-primed cDNA libraries by Gene Ontology (GO showed that the top five represented categories were equally represented in the two libraries: metabolism (approximately 24% of the total number of contigs, carrier proteins/membrane transport (approximately 15%, effectors/modulators and cell communication (approximately 11%, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism (approximately 7.5% and intracellular transducers/signal transduction (approximately 5%. Transcriptome analyses using this enriched oligonucleotide platform identified differential shifts in the response to PGN and LPS in macrophage-like cells, highlighting responsive gene-cassettes tightly related to PAMP host recognition. As observed in other fish species, PGN is a powerful activator of the inflammatory response in S. aurata macrophage-like cells. We have developed and validated an oligonucleotide microarray (SAQ that provides a platform enriched for the study

  14. Extending Immunological Profiling in the Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata, by Enriched cDNA Library Analysis, Microarray Design and Initial Studies upon the Inflammatory Response to PAMPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Castellana, Barbara; Goetz, Giles; Tort, Lluis; Teles, Mariana; Mulero, Victor; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Goetz, Frederick W.; Gallardo-Escarate, Cristian; Planas, Josep V.; Mackenzie, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of an enriched oligonucleotide-microarray platform for Sparus aurata (SAQ) to provide a platform for transcriptomic studies in this species. A transcriptome database was constructed by assembly of gilthead sea bream sequences derived from public repositories of mRNA together with reads from a large collection of expressed sequence tags (EST) from two extensive targeted cDNA libraries characterizing mRNA transcripts regulated by both bacterial and viral challenge. The developed microarray was further validated by analysing monocyte/macrophage activation profiles after challenge with two Gram-negative bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs; lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PGN)). Of the approximately 10,000 EST sequenced, we obtained a total of 6837 EST longer than 100 nt, with 3778 and 3059 EST obtained from the bacterial-primed and from the viral-primed cDNA libraries, respectively. Functional classification of contigs from the bacterial- and viral-primed cDNA libraries by Gene Ontology (GO) showed that the top five represented categories were equally represented in the two libraries: metabolism (approximately 24% of the total number of contigs), carrier proteins/membrane transport (approximately 15%), effectors/modulators and cell communication (approximately 11%), nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism (approximately 7.5%) and intracellular transducers/signal transduction (approximately 5%). Transcriptome analyses using this enriched oligonucleotide platform identified differential shifts in the response to PGN and LPS in macrophage-like cells, highlighting responsive gene-cassettes tightly related to PAMP host recognition. As observed in other fish species, PGN is a powerful activator of the inflammatory response in S. aurata macrophage-like cells. We have developed and validated an oligonucleotide microarray (SAQ) that provides a platform enriched for the study of gene

  15. Vessel noise pollution as a human threat to fish: assessment of the stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Monica; Filiciotto, Francesco; Maricchiolo, Giulia; Genovese, Lucrezia; Quinci, Enza Maria; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Vazzana, Mirella; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the effects of boat noise pollution on the stress indices of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758). To assess the stress response in these fish, biometric values and plasma parameters such as ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity were analysed. After acclimatization of the animals, the experiment was carried out in a tank fitted with underwater speakers where the fish were exposed to sound treatments (in duplicate) consisting of: 10 days of no sound (control treatment; the animals were only exposed to the experimental tank's background noise) and 10 days of noise derived from original recordings of motor boats, including recreational boats, hydrofoil, fishing boat and ferry boat (vessel noise treatment). The exposure to noise produced significant variations in almost all the plasma parameters assessed, but no differences were observed in weights and fork lengths. A PERMANOVA analysis highlighted significantly increased values (p pollutant. Finally, these experimental studies could represent part of the science that is able to improve the quality of the policies related to management plans for maritime spaces (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 56/2008 CE) that are aimed at stemming this pollutant phenomenon.

  16. Supplementation with imuno-2865® in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758): Effects on hematological and antioxidant parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Župan, Ivan; Tkalčić, Suzana; Šarić, Tomislav; Čož-Rakovac, Rozalindra; Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Topić-Popović, Natalija; Kardum, Matko; Kanski, Danijel; Ljubić, Blanka Beer; Matijatko, Vesna; Poljičak-Milas, Nina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of IMUNO-2865(®) on hematological and antioxidative parameters in sea bream. Total of 640 sea bream were fed with diets containing 0 (Group 1), 1 (Group 2), 10 (Group 3) and 25 (Group 4) g of IMUNO-2865(®) kg(-1) feed during 90 days. Samples were taken each month and three months after the supplementation. A significant heterophils increase was observed in group 4 compared to group 1 after two months, and an increase in monocytes number was observed in group 4 compared to the other groups after one month. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) were significantly increased in groups 3 and 4 compared to the control group three months into the experiment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased in group 4 compared to the control group from day 60 until the end of the experiment, and in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control after three months. Based on the differences in the cellular immunity and oxidative stress parameters, with an overall absence of mortality, the results of this study suggest that the use of IMUNO-2865(®) in aquaculture is safe and possess a cumulative immunostimulatory effect on sea bream.

  17. UTILIZATION OF CORN GLUTEN MEAL AS A PROTEIN SOURCE IN DIETS FOR GILTHEAD SEA BREAM (Sparus aurata L. JUVENILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yiğit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of corn gluten meal (CGM was evaluated as a partial fish meal (FM substitute in practical diets for gilthead sea bream juveniles. Four test diets (isonitrogenous and isoca¬loric, 52% protein and 10% lipid, 19 kJ/g diet containing increasing levels of CGM were for¬mulated to replace anchovy meal at levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. Triplicate groups of ju¬venile sea bream (initial body weight of 1.5 g were reared in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS over 45 days at 18±2°C. Fish fed a diet containing 10% of CGM showed com¬parable growth performance similar to the control diet containing FM as the sole protein source. No mortality was observed in all treatment groups. Dietary CGM inclusion levels of 20% and 30% showed lower growth performance, feed utilization, and protein efficiency com¬pared to the control and the 10% CGM inclusion diets. However these values were not signifi¬cantly different among fish fed the CGM10 and CGM20 diets. Economical analyses also con¬firmed the growth related experimental results in terms of best profit obtained with the 10% CGM inclusion diet. Results in the present study showed that CGM alone without any amino acid supplements can substitute FM up to 10% with no adverse effects on growth performance, feed utilization, or economical inputs in gilthead sea bream juveniles.

  18. Labeling and label free shotgun proteomics approaches to characterize muscle tissue from farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesana, Susy; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; La Barbera, Giorgia; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    The proteome characterization of fish muscle tissues, together with the relative expression of each individual protein, provides knowledge on the biochemical response of the organisms and allows to assess the effect of different types of feeding, growth site and nutritional quality of the investigated species. This type of study is usually performed by gel-based proteomics approaches, however shotgun proteomics can serve as well, reducing analysis time and improving sample high-throughput. In this work, a shotgun proteomics method was thus developed and then applied to the characterization of gilthead sea bream edible muscle. The sarcoplasmic protein fraction was extracted, in-solution digested by trypsin and finally analyzed by nanoHPLC high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Two different quantification strategies were also tested. One was based on chemical dimethyl labeling and the other one on label free quantification. A comparison between these two analytical workflows was performed, to evaluate their individual performance in the analysis of fish samples and assess the differences induced by farming practice on the final commercial product with respect to wild gilthead sea bream. Quantitative differences were detected, and the most relevant one regarded the common fish allergen parvalbumin, found overexpressed in farmed fish samples.

  19. Survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila in sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets packaged under enriched CO(2) modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provincial, Laura; Guillén, Elena; Alonso, Verónica; Gil, Mario; Roncalés, Pedro; Beltrán, José A

    2013-08-16

    The ability to survive of two pathogens (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila) spread over sea bream fillets packaged under different modified atmospheres (MAPs) was studied at 0°C and 4°C under refrigerated storage. The atmospheres used were 60% CO2/40% N2, 70% CO2/30% N2 and 80% CO2/20% N2 and a control batch packaged in air. Head space gas analyses, microbial counts and confirming test of pathogenic bacteria were carried out during 16days. The results obtained showed that all the modified atmospheres studied were effective to reduce the microbial load of sea bream fillets when compared with air packaged samples although small differences were found among MAPs. Temperature storage was the main factor to reduce microbial growth. V. parahaemolyticus was unable to grow at both temperatures, 0°C and 4°C (except air batches) while A. hydrophila showed significant growth at 4°C and microbial inactivation at 0°C.

  20. Potential use of high levels of vegetal proteins in diets for market-sized gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Ortiz, Raquel; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; Márquez, Lorenzo; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Jover-Cerdá, Miguel; Tomás-Vidal, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The effect of partial or total dietary substitution of fishmeal (FM) by vegetal protein sources on growth and feed efficiency was carried out in on-growing gilthead sea bream (mean initial weight 131 g). The Control diet (FM 100) contained FM as the primary protein source, while in Diets FM 25 and FM 0 the FM protein was replaced at 75% and 100%, respectively, by a vegetable protein mixture consisting of wheat gluten, soybean meal, rapeseed meal and crystalline amino acids. Diets FM 25 and FM 0 also contained krill meal at 47 g/kg in order to improve palatability. At the end of the trial (after 158 d), fish survival was above 90%. Final weight and the specific growth rate were statistically lower in fish fed the Control diet (361 g and 0.64%/d), compared with 390-396 g and 0.69-0.70%/d after feeding vegetal diets. No significant differences were found regarding feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The digestibility of protein and amino acids (determined with chromium oxide as indicator) was similar in all diets. The blood parameters were not significantly affected by treatments. The activity of trypsin and pepsin was significantly reduced after feeding Diet FM 0. In the distal intestine, the villi length in fish fed Diet FM 25 was significantly longer and the intestine of the fish fed the FM 100 diet showed a smaller number of goblet cells. In conclusion, a total FM substitution by a vegetal mix supplemented with synthetic amino acids in on-growing sea bream is feasible.

  1. PTHrP regulates water absorption and aquaporin expression in the intestine of the marine sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edison S M; Gregório, Sílvia F; Canário, Adelino V M; Power, Deborah M; Fuentes, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Water ingestion by drinking is fundamental for ion homeostasis in marine fish. However, the fluid ingested requires processing to allow net water absorption in the intestine. The formation of luminal carbonate aggregates impacts on calcium homeostasis and requires epithelial HCO3(-) secretion to enable water absorption. In light of its endocrine importance in calcium handling and the indication of involvement in HCO3(-) secretion the present study was designed to expose the role of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in HCO3(-) secretion, water absorption and the regulation of aqp1 gene expression in the anterior intestine of the sea bream. HCO3(-) secretion rapidly decreased when PTHrP(1-34) was added to anterior intestine of the sea bream mounted in Ussing chambers. The effect achieved a maximum inhibition of 60% of basal secretion rates, showing a threshold effective dose of 0.1 ng ml(-1) compatible with reported plasma values of PTHrP. When applied in combination with the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (SQ 22.536, 100 μmol l(-1)) or the phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 10 μmol l(-1)) the effect of PTHrP(1-34) on HCO3(-) secretion was reduced by about 50% in both cases. In parallel, bulk water absorption measured in intestinal sacs was sensitive to inhibition by PTHrP. The inhibitory action conforms to a typical dose-response curve in the range of 0.1-1000 ng ml(-1), achieves a maximal effect of 60-65% inhibition from basal rates and shows threshold significant effects at hormone levels of 0.1 ng ml(-1). The action of PTHrP in water absorption was completely abolished in the presence of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (SQ 22.536, 100 μmol l(-1)) and was insensitive to the phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 10 μmol l(-1)). In vivo injections of PTHrP(1-34) or the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) evoked respectively, a significant decrease or increase of aqp1ab, but not aqp1a. Overall the present results suggest that PTHrP acts as a key

  2. Skin Mucus of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.). Protein Mapping and Regulation in Chronically Stressed Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Terova, Genciana; Simó-Mirabet, Paula; Rimoldi, Simona; Folkedal, Ole; Calduch-Giner, Josep A.; Olsen, Rolf E.; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna

    2017-01-01

    The skin mucus of gilthead sea bream was mapped by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry using a quadrupole time-of-flight mass analyzer. More than 2,000 proteins were identified with a protein score filter of 30. The identified proteins were represented in 418 canonical pathways of the Ingenuity Pathway software. After filtering by canonical pathway overlapping, the retained proteins were clustered in three groups. The mitochondrial cluster contained 59 proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction. The second cluster contained 79 proteins related to antigen presentation and protein ubiquitination pathways. The third cluster contained 257 proteins where proteins related to protein synthesis, cellular assembly, and epithelial integrity were over-represented. The latter group also included acute phase response signaling. In parallel, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis methodology identified six proteins spots of different protein abundance when comparing unstressed fish with chronically stressed fish in an experimental model that mimicked daily farming activities. The major changes were associated with a higher abundance of cytokeratin 8 in the skin mucus proteome of stressed fish, which was confirmed by immunoblotting. Thus, the increased abundance of markers of skin epithelial turnover results in a promising indicator of chronic stress in fish. PMID:28210224

  3. Skin Mucus of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.). Protein Mapping and Regulation in Chronically Stressed Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Terova, Genciana; Simó-Mirabet, Paula; Rimoldi, Simona; Folkedal, Ole; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Olsen, Rolf E; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna

    2017-01-01

    The skin mucus of gilthead sea bream was mapped by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry using a quadrupole time-of-flight mass analyzer. More than 2,000 proteins were identified with a protein score filter of 30. The identified proteins were represented in 418 canonical pathways of the Ingenuity Pathway software. After filtering by canonical pathway overlapping, the retained proteins were clustered in three groups. The mitochondrial cluster contained 59 proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction. The second cluster contained 79 proteins related to antigen presentation and protein ubiquitination pathways. The third cluster contained 257 proteins where proteins related to protein synthesis, cellular assembly, and epithelial integrity were over-represented. The latter group also included acute phase response signaling. In parallel, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis methodology identified six proteins spots of different protein abundance when comparing unstressed fish with chronically stressed fish in an experimental model that mimicked daily farming activities. The major changes were associated with a higher abundance of cytokeratin 8 in the skin mucus proteome of stressed fish, which was confirmed by immunoblotting. Thus, the increased abundance of markers of skin epithelial turnover results in a promising indicator of chronic stress in fish.

  4. Dietary Lipid and Carbohydrate Interactions: Implications on Lipid and Glucose Absorption, Transport in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Basto, Ana; Larroquet, Laurence; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-06-01

    A digestibility trial was performed with gilthead sea bream juveniles (IBW = 72 g) fed four diets differing in lipid source (fish oil, FO; or a blend of vegetable oil, VO) and starch content (0 %, CH-; or 20 %, CH+) to evaluate the potential interactive effects between carbohydrates and VO on the processes involved in digestion, absorption and transport of lipids and glucose. In fish fed VO diets a decrease in lipid digestibility and in cholesterol (C), High Density Lipoprotein(HDL)-C and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-C (only in CH+ group) were recorded. Contrarily, dietary starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia and time related alterations on serum triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipid (PL) and C concentrations. Fish fed a CH+ diet presented lower serum TAG than CH- group at 6 h post-feeding, and the reverse was observed at 12 h post-feeding for TAG and PL. Lower serum C and PL at 6 h post-feeding were recorded only in VOCH+ group. No differences between groups were observed in hepatic and intestinal transcript levels of proteins involved in lipid transport and hydrolysis (FABP, DGAT, GPAT, MTP, LPL, LCAT). Lower transcript levels of proteins related to lipid transport (ApoB, ApoA1, FABP2) were observed in the intestine of fish fed the CH+ diet, but remained unchanged in the liver. Overall, transcriptional mechanisms involved in lipid transport and absorption were not linked to changes in lipid serum and digestibility. Dietary starch affected lipid absorption and transport, probably due to a delay in lipid absorption. This study suggests that a combination of dietary VO and starch may negatively affect cholesterol absorption and transport.

  5. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A; Steffensen, John F

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (U sus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in U sus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (U opt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between U crit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced U crit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between U sus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between U sus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high U sus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between U sus and U opt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming

  6. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Christian Svendsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata, both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: 1 gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e. burst-assisted swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC; 2 variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit correlates with metabolic scope (MS or anaerobic capacity (i.e. maximum EPOC; 3 there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus and minimum cost of transport (COTmin; and 4 variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e. the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance travelled. Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e. EPOC increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg-1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis, a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and optimum

  7. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) regulates prolactin, growth hormone, and IGF-1 receptor expression in the pituitary gland of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed-Geba, Khaled; Martos-Sitcha, J A; Galal-Khallaf, A; Mancera, J M; Martínez-Rodríguez, G

    2016-02-01

    The role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on regulation of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) as well as the possible involvement of IGF-1 receptor subtype a (IGF-1Ra) mRNA was assessed in juvenile specimens of Sparus aurata. IGF-1Ra was successfully cloned, and active receptor domains were localized in its mRNA precursor. Also, phylogenetic analysis of the protein sequence indicated a closer proximity to IGF-1Ra isoform found in zebrafish and other teleosts, than to the isoform IGF-1Rb. The most abundant presence of IGF-1Ra mRNA was detected in white muscle, whereas head kidney showed the lowest gene expression among 24 different studied tissues. Pituitaries of juvenile specimens of S. aurata were incubated in vitro with different doses of IGF-1 (0, 1, 100, and 1000 ng mL(-1)) during a period of 10 h. Total RNA with a high quality could be obtained from these pituitaries. PRL mRNA expression significantly increased with increasing IGF-1 doses. Similarly, IGF-1Ra mRNA increased its expression in response to IGF-1. However, GH mRNA levels decreased in a dose-dependent manner after IGF-1 treatment. The contradictory responses of GH and PRL expressions to IGF-1 in our experiment are possibly mediated by IGF-1Ra presence on the somatotrophs and prolactotrophs. The increase in IGF-1Ra mRNA levels may be related to the proper activation of the PI3-K/Akt signal transduction pathways which are normally involved in GH and PRL regulation.

  8. Transient up- and down-regulation of expression of myosin light chain 2 and myostatin mRNA mark the changes from stratified hyperplasia to muscle fiber hypertrophy in larvae of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Stella; Alami-Durante, Hélène; Power, Deborah M; Sarropoulou, Elena; Mamuris, Zissis; Moutou, Katerina A

    2016-02-01

    Hyperplasia and hypertrophy are the two mechanisms by which muscle develops and grows. We study these two mechanisms, during the early development of white muscle in Sparus aurata, by means of histology and the expression of structural and regulatory genes. A clear stage of stratified hyperplasia was identified early in the development of gilthead sea bream but ceased by 35 dph when hypertrophy took over. Mosaic recruitment of new white fibers began as soon as 60 dph. The genes mlc2a and mlc2b were expressed at various levels during the main phases of hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The genes myog and mlc2a were significantly up-regulated during the intensive stratified formation of new fibers and their expression was significantly correlated. Expression of mstn1 and igf1 increased at 35 dph, appeared to regulate the hyperplasia-to-hypertrophy transition, and may have stimulated the expression of mlc2a, mlc2b and col1a1 at the onset of mosaic hyperplasia. The up-regulation of mstn1 at transitional phases in muscle development indicates a dual regulatory role of myostatin in fish larval muscle growth.

  9. Neuroglial cells in long-term primary cultures from the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.: new functional in vitro model from bony fish brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Centoducati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroglia has been historically considered the “glue” of the nervous system, as the ancient Greek name suggests, being simply referred as non-neuronal cells, with supporting functions for neurons in the CNS of mammalian and lower vertebrates. All around the world, approximately 283 cell lines were obtained from fish, yet none of these was from the brain of Sparus aurata, neither in cell lines nor as primary culture. Here we describe a novel in vitro reproducible neuroglial marine model for establishing primary neuroglial cell cultures, by dissociating the whole brain of seabream juveniles. We showed that proliferating neural stem cells produced alongside three generating lineages, such as neuronal precursor cells, astroglial precursor cells and oligodendroglia precursor cells, which developed respectively neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The radial glia, finely described by morphological studies and immunochemical antigen expression, showed a peculiar spatial distribution, giving rise simultaneously both to astrocytes and neuronal precursors within a highly proliferative assemblate. Radial glia cells were assessed by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and vimentin reactivity, astrocytes by GFAP, neurons by the neuron-specific markers for ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1 and intermediate filament associated protein (NF, whereas myelinating oligodendrocytes were immunostained with anti-myelin basic protein (MBP and anti-O4. Our findings suggest that seabream neuroglial cells gain in 3-4 weeks of culturing proliferation, neuroglial differentiation, and oligodendrocyte maturation with myelination, thus disclosing on the possibility that mixed neuroglial cultures can accelerate the maturation of oligodendrocytes and the regeneration of CNS injury in fish.

  10. Comparison of volatiles of cultured and wild sea bream (Sparus aurata) during storage in ice by dynamic headspace analysis/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Taylor, K D Anthony; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2005-04-06

    Cultured and wild sea bream were compared for differences in their volatile components over a 23 day storage period in ice. A total of 60 compounds in cultured and 78 compounds in wild sea bream were tentatively identified (in addition to this, there were 23 unknowns in cultured and 29 unknowns in wild sea bream volatiles). These included aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, aromatics, terpenes, furans, sulfur-containing compounds, an acid, and miscellaneous compounds. Although selection of best fish is a subjective matter, more aldehydes, ketones, aromatics, and terpenes were found in wild sea bream as compared to that of its cultured counterpart. Both sea bream samples exhibited complex volatile profiles over the entire storage period. The combination of several classes of volatile compounds, dependent upon their concentrations and odor thresholds, is responsible for the distinctive and unique flavor of fresh cultured and wild sea bream. Relative concentrations of several compounds (trimethylamine, piperidine, methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-penten-3-ol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and acetic acid) increased continually throughout the storage period, and these may have the potential to be used as indicators of sea bream quality.

  11. Dietary glutamine supplementation effects on amino acid metabolism, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity and antioxidant response of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, F; Castro, C; Rufino-Palomares, E; Ordóñez-Grande, B; Gallardo, M A; Oliva-Teles, A; Peres, H

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate dietary glutamine supplementation effects on gilthead sea bream performance, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity, hepatic and intestinal glutamine metabolism and oxidative status. For that purpose gilthead sea bream juveniles (mean weight 13.0g) were fed four isolipidic (18% lipid) and isonitrogenous (43% protein) diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% glutamine for 6weeks. Fish performance, body composition and intestinal nutrient absorption capacity were not affected by dietary glutamine levels. Hepatic and intestinal glutaminase (GlNase), glutamine synthetase (GSase), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were also unaffected by dietary glutamine supplementation. In the intestine GlNase activity was higher and GSase/GlNase ratio was two-fold lower than in the liver, suggesting a higher use of glutamine for energy production by the intestine than by the liver. The liver showed higher catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, while the intestine presented higher glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and oxidised glutathione content, which seems to reveal a higher glutathione dependency of the intestinal antioxidant response. Total and reduced glutathione contents in liver and intestine and superoxide dismutase activity in the intestine were enhanced by dietary glutamine, though lipid peroxidation values were not affected. Overall, differences between liver and intestine glutamine metabolism and antioxidant response were identified and the potential of dietary glutamine supplementation to gilthead sea bream's antioxidant response was elucidated.

  12. Characterisation and expression of calpain family members in relation to nutritional status, diet composition and flesh texture in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salmerón

    Full Text Available Calpains are non-lysosomal calcium-activated neutral proteases involved in a wide range of cellular processes including muscle proteolysis linked to post-mortem flesh softening. The aims of this study were (a to characterise several members of the calpain system in gilthead sea bream and (b to examine their expression in relation to nutritional status and muscle tenderisation. We identified the complete open reading frame of gilthead sea bream calpains1-3, sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapn3, and two paralogs of the calpain small subunit1, sacapns1a and sacapns1b. Proteins showed 63-90% sequence identity compared with sequences from mammals and other teleost fishes, and the characteristic domain structure of vertebrate calpains. Transcripts of sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapns1a and sacapns1b had a wide tissue distribution, whereas sacapn3 was almost exclusively detected in skeletal muscle. Next, we assessed transcript expression in skeletal muscle following alteration of nutritional status by (a fasting and re-feeding or (b feeding four experimental diets with different carbohydrate-to-protein ratios. Fasting significantly reduced plasma glucose and increased free fatty acids and triglycerides, together with a significant increase in sacapns1b expression. Following 7 days of re-feeding, plasma parameters returned to fed values and sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapns1a and sacapns1b expression was significantly reduced. Furthermore, an increase in dietary carbohydrate content (11 to 39% diminished growth but increased muscle texture, which showed a significant correlation with decreased sacapn1 and sacapns1a expression, whilst the other calpains remained unaffected. This study has demonstrated that calpain expression is modulated by nutritional status and diet composition in gilthead sea bream, and that the expression of several calpain members is correlated with muscle texture, indicating their potential use as molecular markers for flesh quality in aquaculture production.

  13. Changes in adipocyte cell size, gene expression of lipid metabolism markers, and lipolytic responses induced by dietary fish oil replacement in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Garcia, Lourdes; Sánchez-Gurmaches, Joan; Bouraoui, Lamia; Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Navarro, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) substitution by 66% vegetable oils in a diet with already 75% vegetable protein (66VO) on adipose tissue lipid metabolism of gilthead sea bream were analysed after a 14-month feeding trial. In the last 3 months of the experiment, a FO diet was administrated to a 66VO group (group 66VO/FO) as a finishing diet. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity was measured in adipose tissue and adipocyte size, and HSL, lipoprotein lipase and liver X receptor gene expression in isolated adipocytes, on which lipolysis and glucose uptake experiments were also performed. Lipolysis was measured after incubation with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), linoleic acid, and two conjugated linoleic acid isomers. Glucose uptake was analysed after TNFα or insulin administration. Our results show that FO replacement increased lipolytic activity and adipocyte cell size. The higher proportion of large cells observed in the 66VO group could be involved in their observed lower response to fatty acid treatments and lower insulin sensitivity. The 66VO/FO group showed a moderate return to the FO conditions. Therefore, FO replacement can affect the morphology and metabolism of gilthead sea bream adipocytes which could potentially affect other organs such as the liver.

  14. Predicting Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata Freshness by a Novel Combined Technique of 3D Imaging and SW-NIR Spectral Analysis

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    Eugenio Ivorra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A technique that combines the spatial resolution of a 3D structured-light (SL imaging system with the spectral analysis of a hyperspectral short-wave near infrared system was developed for freshness predictions of gilthead sea bream on the first storage days (Days 0–6. This novel approach allows the hyperspectral analysis of very specific fish areas, which provides more information for freshness estimations. The SL system obtains a 3D reconstruction of fish, and an automatic method locates gilthead’s pupils and irises. Once these regions are positioned, the hyperspectral camera acquires spectral information and a multivariate statistical study is done. The best region is the pupil with an R2 of 0.92 and an RMSE of 0.651 for predictions. We conclude that the combination of 3D technology with the hyperspectral analysis offers plenty of potential and is a very promising technique to non destructively predict gilthead freshness.

  15. The effect of sea bream (Sparus aurata) broodstock and larval vaccination on the susceptibility by Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida and on the humoral immune parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, A; Bakopoulos, V; Leonardos, I; Dimitriadis, G J

    2005-10-01

    Sea bream broodstock were immunised 1 or 2 months before spawning with a novel photobacteriosis vaccine. Sixty-seven-day-old larvae (mean weight 22.3 mg) originating from immunised and non-immunised parents were experimentally infected with the Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida (Phdp). Larvae from immunised fish showed delayed onset and lower mortality (66.67%) compared with larvae from control fish (80%). Eighty-nine-day-old larvae (mean weight 162.2 mg) from both groups were bath vaccinated with Phdp and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and larval samples were collected for measurement of humoral parameters. Larvae vaccinated with Phdp and LPS showed significantly higher anti-protease activity, lysozyme activity and total immunoglobulin compared to the controls. One-hundred-and-twenty-day-old larvae (mean weight 297.85 mg) from both parental groups were challenged with (LD70) virulent Phdp bacterial cells. Vaccinated larvae from both groups showed significantly less mortality compared to the respective controls. The RPS values of larvae from immunised parents vaccinated with Phdp and LPS was 95.83% and 72.22%, respectively. The RPS values of larvae from non-immunised parents vaccinated with Phdp and LPS was 62.5% and 70.83%, respectively. Results are discussed with respect to the beneficial effect of broodstock immunisation prior to spawning and the immunisation of larvae on their survival against photobacteriosis.

  16. Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2013-04-14

    The effect of ration size on muscle fatty acid (FA) composition and mRNA expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism have been addressed in juveniles of gilthead sea bream fed a practical diet over the course of an 11-week trial. The experimental setup included three feeding levels: (i) full ration until visual satiety, (ii) 70 % of satiation and (iii) 70 % of satiation with the last 2 weeks at the maintenance ration. Feed restriction reduced lipid content of whole body by 30 % and that of fillet by 50 %. In this scenario, the FA composition of fillet TAG was not altered by ration size, whereas that of phospholipids was largely modified with a higher retention of arachidonic acid and DHA. The mRNA transcript levels of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and FA desaturase 2 were not regulated by ration size in the present experimental model. In contrast, mRNA levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturases were markedly down-regulated by feed restriction. An opposite trend was found for a muscle-specific lipoprotein lipase, which is exclusive of fish lineage. Several upstream regulatory transcriptions were also assessed, although nutritionally mediated changes in mRNA transcripts were almost reduced to PPARα and β, which might act in a counter-regulatory way on lipolysis and lipogenic pathways. This gene expression pattern contributes to the construction of a panel of biomarkers to direct marine fish production towards muscle lean phenotypes with increased retentions of long-chain PUFA.

  17. Toxic Effects of Domoic Acid in the Seabream Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Vasconcelos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxicity induced in fish by domoic acid (DA was assessed with respect to occurrence of neurotoxic signs, lethality, and histopathology by light microscopy. Sparus aurata were exposed to a single dose of DA by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of 0, 0.45, 0.9, and 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw. Mortality (66.67 ± 16.67% was only observed in dose of 9.0 mg kg−1 bw. Signs of neurological toxicity were detected for the doses of 0.9 and 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw. Furthermore, the mean concentrations (±SD of DA detected by HPLC-UV in extracts of brain after exposure to 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw were 0.61 ± 0.01, 0.96 ± 0.00, and 0.36 ± 0.01 mg DA kg−1 tissue at 1, 2, and 4 hours. The lack of major permanent brain damage in S. aurata, and reversibility of neurotoxic signs, suggest that lower susceptibility to DA or neuronal recovery occurs in affected individuals.

  18. Arachidonic acid reduces the stress response of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anholt, R.D. van; Spanings, F.A.T.; Koven, W.M.; Nixon, O.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this study the influence of the dietary level of the fatty acid arachidonic acid (ArA, 20:4n-6) was determined on the acute stress response and osmoregulation of adult gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. Seabream were fed a diet containing either 0.9% or 2.4% of total fatty acids as ArA for 18 day

  19. The effects of swimming pattern on the energy use of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Maria Faldborg; Steffensen, John Fleng; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen consumption ( ) was measured for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) during spontaneous and forced activities. During spontaneous activity, the swimming pattern was analysed for the effect on   on the average speed (U), turning rate (¿) and change in speed (¿U). All swimming characteristics...

  20. A Novel Approach to Limit Chemical Deterioration of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fillets: Coating with Electrospun Nanofibers as Characterized by Molecular, Thermal, and Microstructural Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Zafer; Sengor, Gulgun F Unal; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2017-03-27

    Coating of sea bream fillets with thymol loaded chitosan based electrospun nanofibers (TLCN) and chitosan based nanafibers (CN) has been presented a novel approach to delay chemical deterioration. We assessed CN and TLCN with respect of scanting of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), trimethylamine (TMA), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) deterioration during cold storage condition. Electrospinning process was applied to obtain TLCN and CN. Both of nanofibers obtained from biopolymer and bioactive material were cylindrical, smooth, beadless. Thermal, molecular, zeta potential (ZP), and surface properties of the groups were investigated, revealing that CN indicated molecular interactions with thymol in nanofibers, reduce in physical properties of these structures, thermal decomposition (an alteration in mass of CN and TLCN at temperatures below 190 °C, corresponding to 20.53% and 19.97%, respectively) and also dispersion stabilities (ζ potential) of CN and TLCN were determined 33.68 ± 3.35 and 21.85 ± 1.96 mV, respectively. TVBN and TMA stability analyses demonstrated that CN and TLCN were both effective in delaying chemical deterioration of fish fillets, furthermore TLCN was more effective against chemical deterioration. TBA analyses results of fish fillets indicated that CN and TLCN delayed rancidity in fish meat as compared to control group samples. The presented study results suggested that coating of the sea bream fillets with CN and TLCN would be a promising approach to delay the chemical deterioration of fish fillets.

  1. Effects of dietary energy density and digestible protein:energy ratio on de novo lipid synthesis from dietary protein in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    was applied to quantify the 13C enrichment of whole-body lipid from dietary DP. Between 18·6 and 22·4% of the carbon derived from protein was recovered in the lipid fraction of the fish, and between 21·6 and 30·3% of the total lipid deposited could be attributed to dietary protein. DP retention...... was significantly improved by reductions in dietary DP:DE ratio, while the opposite was true for apparent digestible lipid retention. Both overall DE retention and whole-body proximate composition of whole fish were largely unaffected by dietary treatments, while feed conversion ratios were significantly improved...... with increasing dietary energy density. The present study suggests that gilthead sea bream efficiently utilises dietary nutrients over a wide range of DP:DE ratios and energy densities. In addition, they appear to endeavour a certain body energy status rather than maximising growth, which in the present trial...

  2. Molecular Taxonomic Profiling of Bacterial Communities in a Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) Hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, Gianmaria; Castanho, Sara; Soares, Florbela; Ribeiro, Laura; Cox, Cymon J.; Mata, Leonardo; Costa, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    As wild fish stocks decline worldwide, land-based fish rearing is likely to be of increasing relevance to feeding future human generations. Little is known about the structure and role of microbial communities in fish aquaculture, particularly at larval developmental stages where the fish microbiome develops and host animals are most susceptible to disease. We employed next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S rRNA gene reads amplified from total community DNA to reveal the structure of bacterial communities in a gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) larviculture system. Early- (2 days after hatching) and late-stage (34 days after hatching) fish larvae presented remarkably divergent bacterial consortia, with the genera Pseudoalteromonas, Marinomonas, Acinetobacter, and Acidocella (besides several unclassified Alphaproteobacteria) dominating the former, and Actinobacillus, Streptococcus, Massilia, Paracoccus, and Pseudomonas being prevalent in the latter. A significant reduction in rearing-water bacterial diversity was observed during the larviculture trial, characterized by higher abundance of the Cryomorphaceae family (Bacteroidetes), known to populate microniches with high organic load, in late-stage rearing water in comparison with early-stage rearing-water. Furthermore, we observed the recruitment, into host tissues, of several bacterial phylotypes—including putative pathogens as well as mutualists—that were detected at negligible densities in rearing-water or in the live feed (i.e., rotifers and artemia). These results suggest that, besides host-driven selective forces, both the live feed and the surrounding rearing environment contribute to shaping the microbiome of farmed gilthead sea-bream larvae, and that a differential establishment of host-associated bacteria takes place during larval development. PMID:28261166

  3. Effects of chronic cortisol administration on global expression of GR and the liver transcriptome in Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Mariana; Boltaña, Sebastian; Reyes-López, Felipe; Santos, Maria Ana; Mackenzie, Simon; Tort, Lluis

    2013-02-01

    The present work was designed to assess the effects of artificially increased high plasma cortisol levels induced by slow-release cortisol implants on the mRNA abundance of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in different organs of Sparus aurata (Gilthead sea bream), as well as to evaluate global transcriptional changes in the liver, using the Aquagenomics S. aurata oligo-nucleotide microarray technology. For that purpose, groups of fish were intraperitoneally injected with implants containing two different concentrations of cortisol (50 or 200 μg/g body weight). Blood and organs were sampled after 7 and 14 days of cortisol implantation. Only fish with 200 μg/g implants exhibited a significant rise in plasma cortisol. Thus, we evaluated the expression of the GR in different organs in these fish 7 and 14 days post-implantation. GR mRNA abundance was upregulated in head kidney and heart of fish at both sampling times. In liver and muscle, GR mRNA abundance was upregulated after 14 days, whereas in gills, the GR mRNA transcript was upregulated earlier, at day 7. These results suggest that increased plasma cortisol induced by a slow-release implant of cortisol mimics the overall effects of stress and affects the expression of GR mRNA in a time- and organ-specific manner. Data obtained with the Aquagenomics S. aurata oligo-nucleotide microarray allowed the identification of a total of 491 cortisol-responsive transcripts and highlight the strong intensity of transcriptional modulation in liver of fish implanted with cortisol after 7 days, in contrast to that observed at day 14. Transcriptional remodeling highlighted a significant activity in carbohydrate metabolism mainly in the gluconeogenic pathway linked to downregulation of inflammatory and immune response processes in implanted fish.

  4. Partial characterization of pyloric-duodenal lipase of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, Héctor; Moyano-López, Francisco; Vega-Villasante, Fernando

    2011-03-01

    In the present study, we report the isolation and characterization of seabream Sparus aurata pyloric caeca-duodenal lipase. Optimum activity was found at pH 8.5 and salinity of 50 mM NaCl. Lipase activity was sensitive to divalent ions, and extreme pH values (4, 5, and 12), being more stable at alkaline than acid pH. Optimum temperature was found at 50°C, but lipase was stable at temperatures below 40°C. Lipase has a bile salt sodium taurocholate requirement for increased activity. Gradient PAGE electrophoresis revealed the presence of four isoforms with apparent molecular masses of 34, 50, 68, and 84 KDa, respectively. Pyloric-duodenal lipase was able to hydrolyze emulsified alimentary oils. Results confirm the presence of true lipases in Sparus aurata digestive tract.

  5. Ultrastructural and biochemical analysis of epidermal xanthophores and dermal chromatophores of the teleost Sparus aurata

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, C.; Solano, F.; Zuasti, A

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the pigmentary system of the teleost Sparus aurata skin by electron microscopy and chromatographic analysis. Under electron microscopy, we found the dermis to contain the three major types of recognized chromatophores: melanophores, xanthophores and iridophores. Melanophores were more abundant in the dorsal region, whereas the iridophores were more abundant in the ventral region. The most important discovery was that of epidermal xanthophore...

  6. Ultrastructural and biochemical analysis of epidermal xanthophores and dermal chromatophores of the teleost Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, C; Solano, F; Zuasti, A

    1999-04-01

    We have studied the pigmentary system of the teleost Sparus aurata skin by electron microscopy and chromatographic analysis. Under electron microscopy, we found the dermis to contain the three major types of recognized chromatophores: melanophores, xanthophores and iridophores. Melanophores were more abundant in the dorsal region, whereas the iridophores were more abundant in the ventral region. The most important discovery was that of epidermal xanthophores. Epidermal xanthophores were the only chromatophores in the epidermis, something only found in S aurata and in a teleost species living in the Antartic sea. In contrast, the biochemical analysis did not establish any special characteristics: we found pteridine and flavin pigments located mostly in the pigmented dorsal region. Riboflavin and pterin were two of the most abundant coloured pigment types, but other colourless pigments such as xanthopterin and isoxanthopterin were also detected.

  7. Alkylphenolic contaminants in the diet: Sparus aurata juveniles hepatic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, I; Gioacchini, G; Scorolli, A; Mita, D G; Carnevali, O; Mandich, A

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of endocrine disrupter chemicals can mimic steroid hormones causing adverse health effects. Nonylphenol (NP) and t-octhylphenol (t-OP) are man-made alkylphenolic environmental contaminants possessing controversial endocrine disruption properties. This study has investigated the effects of NP and t-OP enriched diets on hepatic tissue and biotransformation activities in the liver. To this aim, sea bream juveniles were fed with commercial diet enriched with three different doses of NP (NP1: 5mg/kg bw, NP2: 50mg/kg bw and NP3: 100mg/kg bw) or t-OP (t-OP1: 5mg/kg bw, t-OP2: 50mg/kg bw and t-OP3: 100mg/kg bw) for 21 days. A significant increase of the hepatosomatic index was observed in NP1 and t-OP1. Alteration of liver morphology was observed in both NP and t-OP exposed juveniles although the most altered endpoints were observed in t-OP2 with 100% of tissue degeneration. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was significantly inhibited by NP and t-OP (p<0.05), while catalase activity was significantly induced, at both doses. A different pattern of protein expression of different isoforms of both vitellogenin and zona radiata protein was evidenced within the treatments. In addition, a significant increase in the abundance of the stress induced heat shock protein 70 gene in the liver of t-OP2 fish and a significant increase in the abundance of the estrogen induced cathepsin D gene in the liver of NP1 and t-OP2 fish, were observed. Finally, estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) plasma levels and E2/T showed significantly different patterns in NP and t-OP exposed against control fish.

  8. Mitochondria as a target for decavanadate toxicity in Sparus aurata heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sandra S; Gutiérrez-Merino, Carlos; Aureliano, Manuel

    2007-06-05

    In a previous in vivo study we have reported that vanadium distribution, antioxidant enzymes activity and lipid peroxidation in Sparus aurata heart are strongly dependent on the oligomeric vanadate species being administered. Moreover, it was suggested that vanadium is accumulated in mitochondria, in particular when V10 was intravenously injected. In this work we have done a comparative study of the effects of V10 and monomeric vanadate (V1) on cardiac mitochondria from S. aurata. V10 inhibits mitochondrial oxygen consumption with an IC(50) of 400 nM, while the IC(50) for V1 is 23 microM. V10 also induced mitochondrial depolarization at very low concentrations, with an IC(50) of 196 nM, and 55 microM of V1 was required to induce the same effect. Additionally, up to 5 microM V10 did inhibit neither F(0)F(1)-ATPase activity nor NADH levels and it did not affect respiratory complexes I and II, but it induced changes in the redox steady-state of complex III. It is concluded that V10 inhibits mitochondrial oxygen consumption and induces membrane depolarization more strongly than V1, pointing out that mitochondria is a toxicological target for V10 and the importance to take into account the contribution of V10 to the vanadate toxic effects.

  9. Assessment of gold nanoparticle effects in a marine teleost (Sparus aurata) using molecular and biochemical biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, M., E-mail: mteles0@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Fierro-Castro, C. [Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Na-Phatthalung, P. [Department of Microbiology and Excellent Research Laboratory on Natural Products, Faculty of Science and Natural Product Research Center of Excellence, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Tvarijonaviciute, A. [Department of Medicine and Animal Surgery, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Trindade, T. [Department of Chemistry & CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Soares, A.M.V.M. [Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Tort, L. [Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Oliveira, M. [Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • AuNP effects were investigated at molecular and biochemical levels in Sparus aurata. • AuNP coated with PVP exerts more effects than AuNP coated with citrate. • AuNP-PVP induced changes in antioxidant, immune and apoptosis related-genes mRNA levels. • The increase in plasma TOS indicates that AuNP-PVP generates oxidative stress. • AuNP-PVP induced in S. aurata a non-monotonic response pattern. - Abstract: Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are increasingly employed in a variety of applications and are likely to be increasing in the environment, posing a potential emerging environmental threat. Information on possible hazardous effects of engineered nanoparticles is urgently required to ensure human and environmental safety and promote the safe use of novel nanotechnologies. Nevertheless, there is a lack of comprehensive knowledge on AuNP effects in marine species. The present study aimed to assess AuNP effects in a marine teleost, Sparus aurata, by combining endpoints at different biological levels (molecular and biochemical). For that purpose, fish were exposed via water for 96 h to 4, 80 and 1600 μg L{sup −1} of AuNP (∼40 nm) coated with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Results revealed a significant impact of AuNP-PVP in the hepatic expression of antioxidant, immune and apoptosis related genes. Total oxidative status was increased in plasma after exposure to the lowest concentration of AuNP-PVP, although without altering the total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, AuNP did not induce significant damage in the liver since the activity of neither hepatic indicator (aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase) increased. Overall, the present study demonstrated that AuNP, even with a biocompatible coating is able to alter oxidative status and expression of relevant target genes in marine fish. Another important finding is that effects are mainly induced by the lowest and intermediate concentrations of the PVP coated AuNP revealing

  10. Cholinesterase activity in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) larvae: Characterization and sensitivity to the organophosphate azinphosmethyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arufe, M Isabel; Arellano, Juana M; García, Leticia; Albendín, Gemma; Sarasquete, Carmen

    2007-10-15

    Assessment of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition is widely used as a specific biomarker for evaluating the exposure and effects of non-target organisms to anticholinesterase agents. Cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities have been measured in larvae of gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, during the endogenous feeding stage, and ChE was characterized with the aid of diagnostic substrates and inhibitors. The results of the present study showed that whole-body ChE of yolk-sac seabream larvae possesses typical properties of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with a apparent affinity constant (K(m)) of 0.163+/-0.008 mM and a maximum velocity (V(max)) of 332.7+/-2.8 nmol/min/mg protein. Moreover, sensibility of this enzyme was investigated using the organophosphorus insecticide azinphosmethyl. Static-renewal toxicity tests were conducted over 72 h and larval survival and AChE inhibition were recorded. Mean mortality of seabream larvae increased with increasing concentrations of azinphosmethyl and exposure duration. The estimated 72-h LC50 value to azinphosmethyl was 4.59 microg/l (95% CI=0.46-8.71 microg/l) and inhibition of ChE activity gave an IC50 of 3.04 microg/l (95% CI=2.73-3.31 microg/l). Larvae exposed to azinphosmethyl for 72h showed a 70% inhibition of the whole-body acetylcholinesterase activity at approximately the LC50. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that monitoring ChE activity is a valuable tool indicating OP exposure in S. aurata larvae and that acetylthiocholine is the most appropriate substrate for assessing ChE inhibition in this early-life stage of the fish.

  11. Comparative toxic effects of formulated simazine on Vibrio fischeri and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arufe, M I; Arellano, J; Moreno, M J; Sarasquete, C

    2004-12-01

    The use of Early Life Stage (ELS) tests is a useful tool in risk assessment. The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of the seabream (Sparus aurata) larvae with the extensively used Microtox test on a commercial formulation containing simazine, an s-triazine herbicide. To this end, survival, growth and histopathological changes displayed by seabream yolk sac larvae exposed during 72 h post-hatching to nominal concentrations of the commercial preparation up to its saturating concentration in water, and bioluminescence of the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri (Microtox) were studied. Survival of larvae after three days of exposure was significantly reduced in the highest (4.5 mg/l) concentration, but no effects on growth were found in any of the simazine treatments. The 72 h LC50 value for yolk sac larvae was estimated as 4.19 mg/l. Commercial grade simazine did not exert any significant toxicity to the marine bacterium V. fischeri at the concentrations tested.

  12. Enrichment of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) diet with microalgae: effects on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezuela, Rebeca; Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Meseguer, José; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2012-12-01

    The present study assessed the effects of three orally administered microalgae (Nannochloropsis gaditana, Tetraselmis chuii and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) on different immune parameters and immune-related gene expression of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Fish were fed a control or one of six experimental diets and sampled at 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. At the end of the trial, growth performance and different systemic and local immune activities were measured (natural haemolytic complement activity, IgM levels, phagocytosis and respiratory burst). The expression levels of different immune-associated genes (EF-1α, IgM(H), TCR-β, MHCIα, MHCIIα, CSF-1R and β-defensin) were analysed in head-kidney and gut. Administration of N. gaditana and T. chuii resulted in a significant increase in haemolytic complement activity, phagocytic capacity, as well expression level of β-defensin, as well as MHCIIα and CSF-1R, respectively. The P. tricornutum-supplemented diet provoked immunostimulation, and very little effect on gene expression was observed. These results suggest that dietary microalgae enhance gilthead seabream defence activity, which could be very important in order to consider such microalgae as a possible additive in fish diets.

  13. Transmission of lymphocystis disease virus to cultured gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata L., larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, I; Valverde, E J; Garcia-Rosado, E; Alonso, M C; Lopez-Jimena, B; Ortiz-Delgado, J B; Borrego, J J; Sarasquete, C; Castro, D

    2013-06-01

    The transmission of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) to gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata L., larvae was investigated using fertilized eggs from a farm with previous reports of lymphocystis disease. LCDV genome was detected by PCR-hybridization in blood samples from 17.5% of the asymptomatic gilthead seabream broodstock analysed. Using the same methodology, eggs spawned from these animals were LCDV positive, as well as larvae hatched from them. The presence of infective viral particles was confirmed by cytopathic effects development on SAF-1 cells. Whole-mount in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed the presence of LCDV in the epidermis of larvae hatched from LCDV-positive eggs. When fertilized eggs were disinfected with iodine, no viral DNA was detected either in eggs (analysed by PCR-hybridization) or in larvae (PCR-hybridization and ISH). These results suggest the vertical transmission of LCDV, the virus being transmitted on the egg surface. Larvae hatched from disinfected eggs remain LCDV negative during the endotrophic phase, as showed by PCR-hybridization, ISH and IHC. After feeding on LCDV-positive rotifers, viral antigens were observed in the digestive tract, which suggests that viral entry could be achieved via the alimentary canal, and that rotifers can act as a vector in LCDV transmission to gilthead seabream larvae.

  14. Nutritional and hormonal control of lipolysis in isolated gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalat, A; Gómez-Requeni, P; Rojas, P; Médale, F; Kaushik, S; Vianen, G J; Van den Thillart, G; Gutiérrez, J; Pérez-Sánchez, J; Navarro, I

    2005-07-01

    We examined the effects of diet composition and fasting on lipolysis of freshly isolated adipocytes from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). We also analyzed the effects of insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone (GH) in adipocytes isolated from fish fed with different diets. Basal lipolysis, measured as glycerol release, increased proportionally with cell concentration and time of incubation, which validates the suitability of these cell preparations for the study of hormonal regulation of this metabolic process. Gilthead seabream were fed two different diets, FM (100% of fish meal) and PP (100% of plant protein supplied by plant sources) for 6 wk. After this period, each diet group was divided into two groups: fed and fasted (for 11 days). Lipolysis was significantly higher in adipocytes from PP-fed fish than in adipocytes from FM-fed fish. Fasting provoked a significant increase in the lipolytic rate, about threefold in isolated adipocytes regardless of nutritional history. Hormone effects were similar in the different groups: glucagon increased the lipolytic rate, whereas insulin had almost no effect. GH was clearly lipolytic, although the relative increase in glycerol over control was lower in isolated adipocytes from fasted fish compared with fed fish. Together, we demonstrate for the first time that lipolysis, measured in isolated seabream adipocytes, is affected by the nutritional state of the fish. Furthermore, our data suggest that glucagon and especially GH play a major role in the control of adipocyte lipolysis.

  15. Optimització de l'ús de la proteïna en dietes per a orada (Sparus aurata)

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Solares, Albert

    2015-01-01

    [cat] Si vol consolidar-se com a explotació econòmicament i ecològicament sostenible, la piscicultura ha de deslligar-se de la pesca mitjançant la reducció del contingut de farina de peix als pinsos. Aquesta fita pot ser assolida ajustant la proporció de proteïna de la dieta als requeriments nutricionals dels peixos, o bé emprant fonts de proteïna vegetal. Per a optimitzar l'ús de la proteïna en dietes per a orada (Sparus aurata) es varen usar tres suplements alimentaris: el glutamat, la glu...

  16. Optimització de l'ús de la proteïna en dietes per a orada (Sparus aurata)

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Solares, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Si vol consolidar-se com a explotació econòmicament i ecològicament sostenible, la piscicultura ha de deslligar-se de la pesca mitjançant la reducció del contingut de farina de peix als pinsos. Aquesta fita pot ser assolida ajustant la proporció de proteïna de la dieta als requeriments nutricionals dels peixos, o bé emprant fonts de proteïna vegetal. Per a optimitzar l'ús de la proteïna en dietes per a orada (Sparus aurata) es varen usar tres suplements alimentaris: el glutamat, la glutamina ...

  17. EFFECTS OF FISH OIL, DHA OIL AND LECITHIN IN MICROPARTICULATE DIETS ON STRESS TOLERANCE OF LARVAL GILTHEAD SEABREAM (SPARUS AURATA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘镜恪; 王文琪; 李岿然; 雷霁霖

    2002-01-01

    The effects of natural fish oil, DHA oil and soybean lecithin in microparticulate diets on stress tolerance of larval gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were investigated after 15 days feeding trials. The tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stress factors such as exposure to air ( lack of dissolved oxygen), changes in water temperature (low) and salinity ( high) were determined. This study showed that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and soybean lecithin was the most effective for increasing the tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stresses, and that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and palmitic acid (16:0) was more effective than microparticulate diet with DHA oil and soybean lecithin.

  18. Environmental conditioning of skeletal anomalies typology and frequency in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestinicola, Loredana; Boglione, Clara; Makridis, Pavlos; Spanò, Attilio; Rimatori, Valentina; Palamara, Elisa; Scardi, Michele; Cataudella, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, 981 reared juveniles of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were analysed, 721 of which were from a commercial hatchery located in Northern Italy (Venice, Italy) and 260 from the Hellenic Center for Marine Research (Crete, Greece). These individuals were from 4 different egg batches, for a total of 10 different lots. Each egg batch was split into two lots after hatching, and reared with two different methodologies: intensive and semi-intensive. All fish were subjected to processing for skeletal anomaly and meristic count analysis. The aims involved: (1) quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing whether differences in skeletal elements arise between siblings and, if so, what they are; (2) investigating if any skeletal bone tissue/ossification is specifically affected by changing environmental rearing conditions; and (3) contributing to the identification of the best practices for gilthead seabream larval rearing in order to lower the deformity rates, without selections. The results obtained in this study highlighted that: i) in all the semi-intensive lots, the bones having intramembranous ossification showed a consistently lower incidence of anomalies; ii) the same clear pattern was not observed in the skeletal elements whose ossification process requires a cartilaginous precursor. It is thus possible to ameliorate the morphological quality (by reducing the incidence of severe skeletal anomalies and the variability in meristic counts of dermal bones) of reared seabream juveniles by lowering the stocking densities (maximum 16 larvae/L) and increasing the volume of the hatchery rearing tanks (minimum 40 m(3)). Feeding larvae with a wide variety of live (wild) preys seems further to improve juvenile skeletal quality. Additionally, analysis of the morphological quality of juveniles reared under two different semi-intensive conditions, Mesocosm and Large Volumes, highlighted a somewhat greater capacity of Large Volumes to significantly augment the gap with

  19. Immunotoxicological effects of inorganic arsenic on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardiola, F.A.; Gónzalez-Párraga, M.P.; Cuesta, A. [Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Meseguer, J. [Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Geology and Pedology, Faculty of Chemistry, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Martínez, S.; Martínez-Sánchez, M.J.; Pérez-Sirvent, C. [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Geology and Pedology, Faculty of Chemistry, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Esteban, M.A., E-mail: aesteban@um.es [Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: •Short exposure to arsenic increases the hepato-somatic index and produces histopathological alterations in the liver. •Arsenic is bioaccumulated in the liver of gilthead seabream but no in the muscle. •Arsenic-exposure affects the innate immune system in the gilthead seabream. •Ten days of exposure to As enhances the immune parameters. -- Abstract: Arsenic (As) has been associated with multitude of animal and human health problems; however, its impact on host immune system has not been extensively investigated. In fish, there are very few works on the potential risks or problems associated to the presence of arsenic. In the present study we have evaluated the effects of exposure (30 days) to sub-lethal concentrations of arsenic (5 μM As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the teleost fish gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), with special emphasis in the innate immune response. The arsenic concentration was determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) in liver and muscle of exposed fish showing As accumulation in the liver after 30 days of exposure. The hepatosomatic index was increased at significant extent after 10 days but returned to control values after 30 days of exposure. Histological alterations in the liver were observed including hypertrophy, vacuolization and cell-death processes. Focusing on the immunological response, the humoral immune parameters (seric IgM, complement and peroxidase activities) were no affected to a statistically significant extent. Regarding the cellular innate parameters, head-kidney leucocyte peroxidase, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities were significantly increased after 10 days of exposition compared to the control fish. Overall, As-exposure in the seabream affects the immune system. How this might interfere with fish biology, aquaculture management or human consumers warrants further investigations. This paper describes, for the first time, the immunotoxicological effects of arsenic exposure in the

  20. Mating behaviour and gamete release in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758) held in captivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra-Zatarain, Z.; Duncan, N.

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to describe the reproductive behaviour of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in captivity. Twenty-four mature gilthead seabream, divided in two tanks, were utilized for the present study. Reproductive behaviour was recorded using submersibles cameras. A total of 67 spawning events were analysed. The mean duration time that gilthead seabream spent spawning was 54 ± 4 min/day, during which mean number of individual spawning events was 5.6 ± 0.2. The mean volume of eggs produced by both broodstocks was 405 ± 13.4 mL with a fertilization rate of 91.6 ± 0.4%. The reproductive behaviour began with a schooling behaviour and then forming light aggregations. From an aggregation or an encounter while swimming freely a female initiated a spawning rush followed by one or more males to gametes liberation. The spawning rush was brief, 1.6 ± 0.5 sec, over an approximately 1.7 ± 0.2 m distance from the tank bottom to the water surface. Pair spawning, between a single female and male, was the most common (71.6%). Group spawning was less common and involved a single female spawning with two males (22.5%) or three males (4.9%). Spawning rushes involving more than one female were not observed. Gilthead seabream in the present study presented a tendency to pair spawn and eggs collected as a “spawn” were actually the sum of many separate spawning events over a short time period. This is the first description of gilthead seabream spawning and the findings help to understand microsatellite based observations of spawning kinetics. (Author)

  1. Stabilitá microbiologica di Sparus aurata in rapporto al sistema di allevamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Donno

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    I pesci, al momento della pesca, risultano più o meno inquinati in relazione alla qualità delle acque in cui vivono e al tipo di manipolazione che subiscono; tale contaminazione batterica oscilla tra 103ufc/cm2 di superficie corporea e tra 102-109 ufc/gr di intestino. Successivamente, si assiste ad una modificazione quali-quantitativa della microflora iniziale e molti batteri (spoilage flora partecipano attivamente al processo di deterioramento.

    Essenzialmente, la contaminazione microbica del pesce, determina processi proteolitici, sebbene, soprattutto nella fase iniziale, siano i composti azotati non proteici ad essere metabolizzati dai microrganismi. Si formano così composti volatili come trimetilammina, dimetilammina, ammoniaca, che impartiscono odori anomali e associati al deterioramento. Scopo del nostro lavoro è stato quello di quantificare, in campioni di orate (Sparus aurata provenienti da un allevamento di tipo intensivo (impianto a vasche e in quelle provenienti da un allevamento di tipo semintensivo, alcune specie batteriche coinvolte nei processi di deterioramento in condizioni di refrigerazione. Su campioni di pesce appena pescati (conservati e trasportati in ghiaccio, è stata eseguita una cinetica di crescita microbica (tempo 0, 3 e 6 giorni alla temperatura di 4°C su sezioni di pelle e muscolo, visceri e branchie. Sono stati valutati i seguenti parametri microbiologici: conta microbica totale, Pseudomonadaceae, Shewanella putrefaciens ed Enterobacteriaceae totali. Pur partendo da concentrazioni iniziali non significativamente diverse le orate provenienti da allevamento di tipo intensivo hanno evidenziato cariche microbiche più alte (superiori a 107ufc/g a partire dal 3° giorno di conservazione per tutti i parametri considerati.

    Le orate provenienti da allevamento semintensivo sono risultate quindi microbiologicamente più stabili rispetto a quelle provenienti da allevamento intensivo. Pseudomonas fluorescens

  2. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation in farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata slaughtered and chilled under different icing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pena, Javier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the slaughtering and chilled storage (up to 14 days related to the commercialization of fresh farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata. A slurry ice (SI system was applied and evaluated in comparison to traditional flake ice (FI. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation were analyzed and compared to sensory acceptance and trimethylamine (TMA formation. An important quality loss could be assessed in fish during slaughtering and chilling storage, according to sensory assessment and TMA formation. However, lipid damage development was found relatively low, in agreement to the different lipid quality indexes checked (lipid hydrolysis; primary, secondary and tertiary lipid oxidation. No development of rancid odor and no polyunsaturated fatty acid losses were detected. The employment of SI as a slaughtering and chilling strategy was found useful to inhibit quality loss in gilthead seabream resulting in a shelf life increase and a TMA and free fatty acid formation inhibition.Este trabajo estudia el sacrificio y conservación en hielo (hasta 14 días de dorada (Sparus aurata. Para ello, se aplicó hielo líquido (SI de forma comparativa con hielo tradicional (FI en escamas. Se analizó el desarrollo de hidrólisis y oxidación lipídicas, procediéndose a su comparación con la evaluación sensorial y la formación de trimetilamina (TMA. Se observó una importante pérdida de calidad de acuerdo con la valoración sensorial y la formación de TMA. Sin embargo, la alteración lipídica fue baja, a tenor de los índices ensayados (hidrólisis lipídica; oxidación lipídica primaria, secundaria y terciaria. No se detectaron desarrollo de olor rancio ni pérdida de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados. El empleo de SI en esta especie resultó ser útil al objeto de inhibir la pérdida de calidad; así, se observó un incremento en el tiempo de vida útil y una inhibición en la formación de TMA y ácidos grasos libres.

  3. Effect of n-3 HUFA levels in rotifers and Artemia on growth and survival of larval black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Li, Kuiran; Huang, Bingxin; Chen, Xiaolin

    2004-12-01

    Requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was studied using rotifers and Artemia at various levels of n-3 HUFA. Five treatments with rotifers and Artemia differing in n-3 HUFA were prepared by enriching them with various oil emulsions. Results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influence fish n-3 HUFA levels and are essential for growth and survival of black sea bream larvae. The results also indicated that the incorporation of n-3HUFA TG (triacylglycerols) into tissues of larval black sea bream was more effective from natural fish oil in comparison with n-3 HUFA fatty acid ethyl esters from ethyl-esterified oil.

  4. Effect of n-3 HUFA levels in rotifers and Artemia on growth and survival of larval black sea bream (Sparus macrocephalus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingke; LI Kuiran; HUANG Bingxin; CHEN Xiaolin

    2004-01-01

    Requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black sea bream (Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was studied using rotifers and Artemia at various levels of n-3 HUFA. Five treatments with rotifers and Artemia differing in n-3 HUFA were prepared by enriching them with various oil emulsions. Results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influence fish n-3 HUFA levels and are essential for growth and survival of black sea bream larvae. The results also indicated that the incorporation of n-3HUFA TG (triacylglycerols) into tissues of larval black sea bream was more effective from natural fish oil in comparison with n-3 HUFA fatty acid ethyl esters from ethyl-esterified oil.

  5. Mercury Accumulation, Structural Damages, and Antioxidant and Immune Status Changes in the Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata L.) Exposed to Methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, F A; Chaves-Pozo, E; Espinosa, C; Romero, D; Meseguer, J; Cuesta, A; Esteban, M A

    2016-05-01

    In aquatic systems, mercury (Hg) is an environmental contaminant that causes acute and chronic damage to multiple organs. In fish, practically all of the organic Hg found is in the form of methylmercury (MeHg), which has been associated with animal and human health problems. This study evaluates the impact of waterborne-exposure to sublethal concentrations of MeHg (10 μg L(-1)) in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Hg was seen to accumulate in liver and muscle, and histopathological damage to skin and liver was detected. Fish exposed to MeHg showed a decreased biological antioxidant potential and increased levels of the reactive oxygen molecules compared with the values found in control fish (nonexposed). Increased liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) were detected in 2 day-exposed fish with respect to the values of control fish. However, fish exposed to MeHg for 10 days showed liver antioxidant enzyme levels similar to those of the control fish but had increased hepato-somatic index and histopathological alterations in liver and skin. Serum complement levels were higher in fish exposed to MeHg for 30 days than in control fish. Moreover, head-kidney leukocyte activities increased, although only phagocytosis and peroxidase activities showed a significant increase after 10 and 30 days, respectively. The data show that 30 days of exposure to waterborne MeHg provokes more significant changes in fish than a short-term exposure of 2 or 10 days.

  6. Importance of prebiotics in aquaculture as immunostimulants. Effects on immune system of Sparus aurata and Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Donatella; Faggio, Caterina

    2016-07-01

    Infectious diseases in fish represent a major problem for the aquaculture field as they produce extensive damages and loss. Over the last few years, with increased development of the aquaculture industry, different methods have been used to contrast these pathologies. Common interest has led to the use of components (as additives in diets) that could contrast diseases without causing any negative impact on the environment. These components are represented by prebiotics, probiotics, and plant extracts. In this review, the effects of prebiotics are described. Prebiotics are indigestible fibres fermented by gut enzymes and commensal bacteria, whose beneficial effects are due to the by-products generated from fermentation. The influence of pre-biotics on the immune system of fish is called immunosaccharides. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and Inulin act at different levels in the innate immune response. For example, through phagocytosis, lysozyme activity, and the complement system activity, an increase in fish growth and an amelioration of their health status is brought about. In this review, the use of prebiotics in aquaculture, such as immunostimulants, has been highlighted: particularly in two teleost fish species, Sparus aurata and Dicentrarchus labrax. The results demonstrate that the road is still long and further studies are required, but the use of prebiotics, individually or coupled together, can open the doors to pioneering a new model of alternative components to antimicrobial agents.

  7. Effects of dietary nutrient composition on de novo lipogenesis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn

    (using diets otherwise iso-DP and iso-DE). The apparent retention of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were positively related to dietary starch level (and negatively related to dietary lipid level), exceeding 100% in fish fed high starch diets. These findings...

  8. Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infection in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): Immune-related studies

    OpenAIRE

    Estensoro Atienza, Itziar

    2013-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral estudia diversos aspectos de la enteromixosis de la dorada, relacionados principalmente con la transmisión y la caracterización del parásito, con los factores que afectan a su establecimiento en el hospedador y a la interacción parásito-hospedador, y con la respuesta inmunitaria inducida por el parásito. En primer lugar, se desarrolló un nuevo método de transmisión de E. leei, que mejora los resultados obtenidos por los hasta ahora disponibles. El parásito se tr...

  9. Melatonin synthesis under calcium constraint in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Kulczkowska, E.; Kalamarz, H.; Guerreiro, P.M.G.; Flik, G.

    2008-01-01

    Brain or blood plasma melatonin was analysed as a measure for pineal melatonin production in sea bream. Access to calcium was limited by diluting the seawater to 2.5‰ and removing calcium from the diet or by prolonged feeding of vitamin D-deficient diet. Interactions/relations between melatonin and

  10. Cloning and characterization of the Mx1, Mx2 and Mx3 promoters from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mariscal, J A; Gallardo-Gálvez, J B; Méndez, T; Álvarez, M C; Béjar, J

    2014-06-01

    Mx proteins are main effectors of the antiviral innate immune response mediated by type I interferon (IFN I). Actually, diverse Mx proteins from fish proved highly active against fish viruses, standing out among them the Mx1, Mx2 and Mx3 from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a species exhibiting a natural resistance to viral diseases. In this study, the structure and functional activity of their corresponding promoters (pMx1, pMx2 and pMx3) have been assessed. The three promoters present an identical 3' region of 157 bp, exhibiting a single canonical interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE), which is indispensible for the poli:IC induction of pMx1 and pMx3, while not for that of pMx2. In the remaining part of the three promoters other regulatory motifs were identified, as gamma IFN activated sites in variable number (1, 4 and 2 in pMx1, pMx2 and pMx3, respectively), as well as several independent GAAA elements or ISRE core sequences (13, 15 and 12 in pMx1, pMx2 and pMx3, respectively). The structural dissimilarities shown by the three promoters parallels with the differences observed in their response profiles, in terms of the time course of the induction, and basal and induced expression levels of each promoter. Altogether, these findings indicate that the expression of Mx1, Mx2 and Mx3 genes from the gilthead seabream might be specifically regulated, in accordance with the functional role of each Mx protein in the successful antiviral response shown by this species.

  11. Toxicity of a commercial herbicide containing terbutryn and triasulfuron to seabream (Sparus aurata L.) larvae: a comparison with the Microtox test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arufe, Maria I; Arellano, J; Moreno, M J; Sarasquete, C

    2004-10-01

    The present study aimed to compare the sensitivity of larvae of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a valuable fish species of the Spanish South Atlantic littoral, with the extensively used Microtox test on a commercial herbicide formulation containing terbutryn (59.4%) and triasulfuron (0.6%). To this purpose, mortality displayed by endogenous feeding S. aurata larvae exposed during 72 h post-hatching to nominal concentrations of the commercial formulation and bioluminescence of the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri were compared. Histomorphological changes were also studied. Clearly, the S. aurata assay was the more sensitive indicator of toxicity for this herbicide. The 72-h concentration lethal to 50% of the individuals (LC(50)) found for yolk sac larvae was 1.41 mg/L. This value was more than one order of magnitude below the 15-min EC(50) found for V. fischeri (15.94 mg/L). Growth of the larvae was not significantly affected by a terbutryn-triasulfuron mixture at concentrations up to 1.56 mg/L, the maximum at which there was some proportion of survival.

  12. Toxicity of parathion on embryo and yolk-sac larvae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata l.): effects on survival, cholinesterase, and carboxylesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arufe, M Isabel; Arellano, Juana M; Albendín, Gemma; Sarasquete, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the acute toxicity of the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) parathion on embryos and yolk-sac larvae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), and to investigate the effects of this compound on cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activity of seabream larvae in the phase of endogenous feeding. The 72-h LC50 for yolk-sac larvae (0.523 mg L⁻¹) was about two-fold lower than the 48-h LC50 for embryos (1.005 mg L⁻¹). Parathion significantly inhibited the activity of ChE and CaE activity in yolk sac larvae but there were not significant differences in the sensitivity of both esterases to parathion as inferred by their 72-h IC50 values. Larvae exposed to parathion for 72 h showed a 70% inhibition of the whole body acetylcholinesterase at approximately the LC50.

  13. Toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate and one long-chain degradation intermediate, sulfophenyl carboxylic acid on early life-stages of seabream (sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, M; Blasco, J

    2002-01-01

    Seabream embryos (Sparus aurata) were exposed to various concentrations (0.05 to 10.0 mg L-1) of different homologues (C10 to C14) and a commercial mixture of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), as well as one long-chain degradation intermediate, sulfophenyl carboxylic acid (SPC C11), to study the acute toxicity of these compounds. LAS homologues of higher chain length (C13 and C14) were proved to be more toxic than shorter species (C10, C11, and C12). LAS C13 and C14 provoked 100% lethality at concentrations of 0.1-0.25 mg L-1. On the other hand, shorter LAS homologues (chain length) did not produce any lethal effect at concentrations up to 5 mg L-1. In this work, results on the toxicity of a long-chain degradation intermediate of LAS, SPC C11, are presented. This compound did not produce any mortality at all the concentration ranges chosen.

  14. Partition of aerobic and anaerobic swimming costs and their correlation to tail-beat frequency and burst activity in Sparus aurata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    until fatigue at 10°C. The anaerobic swimming cost was measured as the excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) following each swimming speed. To determine tail-beat frequency, amplitude and burst and coast behaviour, the peduncle position was determined at 25 s·' by video tracking. The data showed......, and resulted in a total anaerobic capacity of 170 mg O2 kg·'. Normalized tail-beat amplitude and frequency both predicted the swimming speed but only tail-beat frequency was able to predict the aerobic swimming cost. The change to burst and coast swimming was correlated to the first measurements of EPOC......Soc for experimental Biol Annual Meeting - Salzburg 2012 Bjørn Tirsgaard (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) and John Fleng Steffensen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) Aerobic and anaerobic oxygen consumption was measured for 13 Sparus aurata swimming at incremental increasing swimming speeds...

  15. Xenobiotic-contaminated diets affect hepatic lipid metabolism: Implications for liver steatosis in Sparus aurata juveniles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maradonna, F.; Nozzi, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Santangeli, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Traversi, I. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell’Ambiente e della Vita, Università di Genova, 16132 Genova (Italy); Gallo, P. [INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, 80055 Portici, Napoli (Italy); Fattore, E. [Dipartimento Ambiente e Salute, IRCCS–Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, 20156 Milano (Italy); Mita, D.G. [INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Mandich, A. [INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell’Ambiente e della Vita, Università di Genova, 16132 Genova (Italy); Carnevali, O., E-mail: o.carnevali@univpm.it [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Diets contaminated with NP, BPA, or t-OP affect lipid metabolism. • Xenobiotic-contaminated diets induce metabolic disorders. • Hepatic metabolic disorders may be related to environmental pollution. - Abstract: The metabolic effects induced by feed contaminated with a lower or a higher concentration of -nonylpnenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (t-OP) or bisphenol A (BPA), three environmental endocrine disruptors, were assessed in juvenile sea bream liver. Histological analysis demonstrated that all these three xenobiotics induced hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. These findings prompted analysis of the expression of the major molecules involved in lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (which is encoded by ppars), fatty acid synthase (encoded by fas), lipoprotein lipase (encoded by lpl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (encoded by hsl). The enzymes encoded by ppars and fas are in fact responsible for lipid accumulation, whereas lpl- and hsl- encoded proteins play a pivotal role in fat mobilization. The three xenobiotics modulated ppar mRNA expression: pparα mRNA expression was induced by the higher dose of each contaminant; pparβ mRNA expression was upregulated by the lower doses and in BPA2 fish ppary mRNA overexpression was induced by all pollutants. These data agreed with the lipid accumulation profiles documented by histology. Fas mRNA levels were modulated by the two NP doses and the higher BPA concentration. Lpl mRNA was significantly upregulated in all experimental groups except for BPA1 fish while hsl mRNA was significantly downregulated in all groups except for t-OP2 and BPA1 fish. The plasma concentrations of cortisol, the primary stress biomarker, were correlated with the levels of pepck mRNA level. This gene encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which is one of the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Pepck mRNA was significantly overexpressed in fish exposed to NP2 and both t-OP doses. Finally, the genes

  16. Xenobiotic-contaminated diets affect hepatic lipid metabolism: Implications for liver steatosis in Sparus aurata juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradonna, F; Nozzi, V; Santangeli, S; Traversi, I; Gallo, P; Fattore, E; Mita, D G; Mandich, A; Carnevali, O

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic effects induced by feed contaminated with a lower or a higher concentration of -nonylpnenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (t-OP) or bisphenol A (BPA), three environmental endocrine disruptors, were assessed in juvenile sea bream liver. Histological analysis demonstrated that all these three xenobiotics induced hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. These findings prompted analysis of the expression of the major molecules involved in lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (which is encoded by ppars), fatty acid synthase (encoded by fas), lipoprotein lipase (encoded by lpl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (encoded by hsl). The enzymes encoded by ppars and fas are in fact responsible for lipid accumulation, whereas lpl- and hsl- encoded proteins play a pivotal role in fat mobilization. The three xenobiotics modulated ppar mRNA expression: pparα mRNA expression was induced by the higher dose of each contaminant; pparβ mRNA expression was upregulated by the lower doses and in BPA2 fish ppary mRNA overexpression was induced by all pollutants. These data agreed with the lipid accumulation profiles documented by histology. Fas mRNA levels were modulated by the two NP doses and the higher BPA concentration. Lpl mRNA was significantly upregulated in all experimental groups except for BPA1 fish while hsl mRNA was significantly downregulated in all groups except for t-OP2 and BPA1 fish. The plasma concentrations of cortisol, the primary stress biomarker, were correlated with the levels of pepck mRNA level. This gene encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which is one of the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Pepck mRNA was significantly overexpressed in fish exposed to NP2 and both t-OP doses. Finally, the genes encoding cyclooxygenase 2 (cox2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5 lox), the products of which are involved in the inflammatory response, transcriptions were significantly upregulated in NP and BPA fish, whereas they were unchanged in t

  17. Effect of seaweed supplementation on growth performance, immune and oxidative stress responses in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cesar dos Santos Queiroz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds have important nutraceutical properties, including antioxidant and biological response-modifying qualities. Their dietary supplementation may increase the immune and antioxidant capacity of fish necessary to cope to stressful conditions and minimizing disease outbreaks. There are essentially four major groups of seaweed that can be classified by color, namely green (Chlorophyta, brown/yellow (Phaeophyta, red (Rhodophyta, and blue-green (Cyanophyta. Some green seaweed has active radical scavenging properties. Red and brown have bioactive compounds that play a vital role as antihypertensive and antioxidant. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of seaweed supplementation on growth performance, immune and oxidative stress responses in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata. Three seaweed species, each from one of the following groups, Rhodophyta (R, Phaeophyta (P and Chlorophyta (C, were supplemented to the experimental diets at 2.5% and 7.5% and tested against a control diet (Ctrl with no supplementation. In addition to six diets with seaweed in two different levels of supplementation: R2.5%, P2.5%, C2.5%, R7.5%, P7.5% and C7.5%; a diet with a mix (M, supplemented at 7.5% (2.5% of each algae was also tested. A total of 360 seabream fingerlings, 13.07 ± 0.13cm and 31.17 ± 0.63g were allocated in 24 rectangular tanks, 115L capacity each, with a 4L/min water output connected to a recirculation seawater system. Fish were fed twice a day until satiation and water quality (temperature: 20.5 ºC; D.O.: 8.13 mg/L; Ammonia: 0.5 mg/L Nitrite: 0.5 mg/L were daily monitored. At day 40 of the trial, an intermediate sampling was carried out. Standard zootechnical parameters were measured for the growth performance determination. In addition, blood, liver and intestine samples were collected for the evaluation of the immune (lysozyme and peroxidase and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase

  18. Differential antiviral activity of Mx1, Mx2 and Mx3 proteins from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) against Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Trujillo, M A; García-Rosado, E; Alonso, M C; Borrego, J J; Alvarez, M C; Béjar, J

    2011-10-01

    Mx proteins are crucial effectors of the innate antiviral response mediated by the interferon type I signalling pathway. Recently, three Mx proteins, named SauMx1, SauMx2 and SauMx3, corresponding to three different genes, have been identified in the cultured marine species gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). In this study, the three SauMx cDNAs were cloned into expression vectors and used for transfection of CHSE-214 cells. Monoclonal cell populations stably expressing each recombinant protein have been obtained and characterized. The protection conferred by each recombinant SauMx against Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) infection has been in vitro evaluated, having found clear differences among them. According to the cytopathic effects and the virus yield reduction assays, only cells expressing SauMx2 and SauMx3 showed significant resistance to IPNV infection. Otherwise, quantitative RT real-time PCR assays suggested that each SauMx protein has a different target during the viral inhibition process. The differences observed among the three SauMx proteins are discussed in terms of their differential mechanism of action and antiviral specificity, suggesting, as a whole, to play a synergistic activity in the protection of gilthead seabream against IPNV.

  19. Exposure of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata to sediments contaminated with heavy metals down-regulates the gene expression of stress biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Benhamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals incidence in the aquatic environment and its accumulation in fish are under constant review. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata specimens were exposed for two weeks to sediments highly concentrated in metals, collected at the Portman Bay (Murcia, Spain. The metals bioaccumulation was tested in liver, muscle and skin. The potential of the sediment exposure to induce variation of the stress biomarkers genes was conducted in liver and skin. Results revealed that sediments were highly contaminated with metals. However, following 2 weeks exposure to the sediments, Cd accumulates only in liver. Interestingly, the expression of the genes mta, hsp 70 and hsp 90 were significantly down-regulated in skin. Nevertheless, cyp1a1 gene was up-regulated only in liver. Results uphold that the stress response magnitude was organ-dependent and the skin was the most responsive tissue to metal stress conditions. These results suggest that skin should be considered as target organ for biomarkers analysis in fishes.

  20. Preliminary insights into the incorporation of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in fish feed: influence on performance and physiology of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, A; García García, B; Caballero, M J; Hernández, M D

    2015-08-01

    Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were fed a basal (control) diet and four experimental diets (R600, R1200, R1800 and R2400), containing 600, 1200, 1800 and 2400 mg kg(-1), respectively, of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). At 4 and 12 weeks from the beginning of the ongrowing period, the fish were sacrificed, blood was drawn to obtain plasma and the liver and intestines were dissected. Growth and feed intake were unaffected by rosemary extract addition. A histological examination of the intestine revealed no differences among the dosages, while the liver showed a sharp decrease in hepatic steatosis in diets supplemented with rosemary extract. Furthermore, plasma alanine aminotransferase was lower with these diets at the end of the ongrowing period. Rosemary extract reduced the plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides on week 4 and glucose and HDL/LDL cholesterol ratio on week 12, suggesting better transport and energy metabolism of the lipids. Overall, the most evident effect of rosemary extract was observed with the 600 mg kg(-1) dose.

  1. Biochemical responses in seabream (Sparus aurata) caged in-field or exposed to benzo(a)pyrene and paraquat. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebali, Jamel; Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Banni, Mohamed; Guerbej, Hamadi; Boussetta, Hamadi; López-Barea, Juan; Alhama, José

    2013-02-01

    Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) specimens were caged in-field at the Téboulba harbour or exposed to benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] or to paraquat [PQ] plus B(a)P, and several biochemical biomarker responses were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase, significantly increased in the in-field and B(a)P+PQ exposures, but were only moderately affected by B(a)P alone. Glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases significantly diminished after in-field exposure. Different responses with biotransformation enzymes were observed: the P4501A-associated EROD activity was highly induced in response to B(a)P and B(a)P+PQ exposures, while total activity of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) was similar to control. However, after purification of the GST proteins by affinity chromatograpy and analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis, nineteen highly reproducible isoforms were resolved. In addition, some of reproducible isoforms showed different and specific expression patterns in response to contaminants. Thus, proteomic analysis of the purified GST subunits is a reliable tool for ecotoxicological research, useful in polluted marine ecosystem as an effective biomarker of contamination.

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and palm fruits extracts on the antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the mucosae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, M A; Cordero, H; Martínez-Tomé, M; Jiménez-Monreal, A M; Bakhrouf, A; Mahdhi, A

    2014-08-01

    Antioxidant activity is particularly important, since oxidation is an unavoidable reaction in all living bodies. At present, natural antioxidants to be used on food as an alternative to synthetic ones are being sought. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens were fed for 4 weeks with diets enriched with bacterial probiotics (Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 and Bacillus sp), single or in combination with Tunisian dates palm fruit extracts. The expression of the main antioxidant enzyme genes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the mucosae (gut, skin and gill) was evaluated after 2 and 4 weeks. Previously, free radical scavenging and several antioxidant assays were developed to know the antioxidant properties present on the palm fruits extracts. The results demonstrated that experimental diets alter the expression of the studied antioxidant genes, primarily in the gill and skin. Furthermore, the tested probiotics and mainly, the aqueous date palm fruits extracts had significant antioxidant properties based on their protective effect against the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, especially when administering during 4 weeks. For this reason, probiotics and date palm fruit extracts may serve as good natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food ingredient for fish in farms.

  3. Glycogenesis and de novo lipid synthesis from dietary starch in juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    the metabolic fate of dietary starch, 0·7% wheat starch was replaced with isotope-labelled starch (.98% 13C). Fish were fed the experimental diets for three consecutive 10 d periods, and isotope ratio MS was applied to quantify 13C enrichment of liver and whole-body glycogen and lipid pools over the three...... feeding periods. Glycogenesis originating from dietary starch accounted for up to 68·8 and 38·8% of the liver and whole-body glycogen pools, respectively, while up to 16·7% of the liver lipid could be attributed to dietary starch. Between 5 and 8% of dietary starch carbon was recovered in whole-body lipid......, and estimated deposition rates of de novo synthesised lipid originating from starch ranged from 18·7 to 123·7 mg/kg biomass per d. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect growth, feed performance or body composition of the fish, while the hepatosomatic index and glycogen content of whole fish and livers...

  4. Mx1, Mx2 and Mx3 proteins from the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) show in vitro antiviral activity against RNA and DNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Trujillo, M A; García-Rosado, E; Alonso, M C; Castro, D; Álvarez, M C; Béjar, J

    2013-12-01

    Mx proteins are important components of the antiviral innate immune response mediated by type I interferon. Classically, these proteins have been considered to be triggered by viral RNA, thus showing activity against RNA viruses. Actually, three Mx proteins (SauMx1, SauMx2 and SauMx3) from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) have previously shown antiviral activity against a dsRNA virus: the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in vitro. For further characterizing their antiviral spectrum, the activity of SauMx proteins were tested against three different viral pathogens of fish: the lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV, a dsDNA virus), a pathogen of gilthead seabream; the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV, a ssRNA virus), to which gilthead seabream is considered a reservoir species; and the European sheatfish virus (ESV, a dsDNA virus), that has not been detected in gilthead seabream to date. Three clonal populations of CHSE-214 cells developed in a previous study, stably expressing SauMx1, SauMx2 and SauMx3, respectively, were challenged with the three viruses. Results combining cytopathic effects and virus yield reduction assays showed that SauMx1 protected the cells against VHSV and LCDV, SauMx2 protected against ESV and LCDV, and SauMx3 showed activity only against VHSV. This study, besides confirming the antiviral activity of the three gilthead seabream Mx proteins, is the first report of the protective effect of a fish Mx against DNA viruses. Additionally, it discloses a clear specificity between Mx proteins and virus targets, supporting the idea that the relationship between virus and Mx proteins is finely tuned.

  5. In vitro effects of metals on isolated head-kidney and blood leucocytes of the teleost fish Sparus aurata L. and Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, Patricia; Meseguer, José; Esteban, M Ángeles; Cuesta, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    The in vitro use of fish leucocytes to test the toxicity of aquatic pollutants, and particularly the immutoxicological effects, could be a valuable alternative to fish bioassays but has received little attention. In this study, head-kidney and peripheral blood leucocytes (HKLs and PBLs, respectively) from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) specimens were exposed to Cd, MeHg (methylmercury), Pb or As for 24 h being evaluated the resulting cytotoxicity. Exposure to metals produced a dose-dependent reduction in the viability, and MeHg showed the highest toxicity followed by Cd, As and Pb. Interestingly, leucocytes from European sea bass are more resistant to metal exposure than those from gilthead seabream. Similarly, HKLs are always more sensitive than those isolated from blood from the same fish species. Moreover, fish leucocytes incubated with metals exhibited alterations in gene expression profiles that were more pronounced in the HKLs in general, being Pb the metal provoking less effects. Concretely, genes related to cellular protection (metallothionein), stress (heat shock protein 70) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) were, in general, down-regulated in seabream HKLs but up-regulated in seabream PBLs and sea bass HKLs and PBLs. In addition, this profile leads to the increase of expression in genes related to apoptosis (Bcl2 associated X protein and caspase 3). Finally, transcription of genes involved in immunity (interleukin-1β and immunoglobulin M) was down-regulated, mainly in seabream leucocytes. This study points to the benefits for evaluating the toxicological mechanisms of marine pollution using fish leucocytes in vitro and insight into the mechanisms at gene level.

  6. Effects of recombinant flagellin B and its ND1 domain from Vibrio anguillarum on macrophages from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, W.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Stegmaier, Roxana; Romero, Alex; Estepa, Amparo; Montero, Jana; Mulero, Victoriano; Mercado, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Flagellin is the principal component of flagellum in Gram negative and positive bacteria, and it is also the ligand that activates the Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in mammals and fish. In higher vertebrates, flagellin induces the activation of the membrane-bound TLR5 (TLR5M), which promotes the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the co-stimulatory molecules present in antigen-presenting cells needed for the activation of T cells. In the present study, we report the production of two recombinant proteins of Vibrio anguillarum: i) a full length flagellin B (FlaB) (rFla) and ii) the amino-terminus of the D1 domain (rND1) of the same protein, the region mainly responsible for binding to TLR5 and for the immunostimulatory activity of flagellin. The effects of these recombinant proteins were assessed in vitro using head kidney macrophages of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., Perciformes, Sparidae) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., Salmoniformes, Salmonidae). In both species, 3 h of stimulation with rFla and rND1 induced expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and of the chemokine IL-8. In gilthead seabream macrophages stimulated with rFla and rND1, a 900- and 6-fold increase were observed for IL-1β transcription, while a 900- and 3-fold increase were recorded for IL-8 transcription, respectively, as compared to non-stimulated macrophages. In rainbow trout, rFla increased expression of IL-8 40-fold in macrophages, whereas rND1 increased expression of the chemokine 3-fold, as compared to non-stimulated cells. The results obtained for rFla and rND1 demonstrate their modulatory capabilities in vitro, suggesting that rFla and rND1 could be evaluated as immunostimulatory candidates for use in farmed fish. However, further in vivo studies are needed to confirm and expand on the present results.

  7. 17α-Ethynylestradiol alters the immune response of the teleost gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) both in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabas, Isabel; Liarte, Sergio; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Meseguer, José; Mulero, Victoriano; García-Ayala, Alfonsa

    2012-03-01

    There is increasing public attention concerning the effect of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) on the immune system. One important group belonging to EDCs are the environmental estrogens. Commonly found in the effluents in wastewater treatment plants, 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE(2)) which is used in contraceptive pills, is an endocrine disruptor with strong estrogenic effects. This study aims to investigate the capacity of EE(2) to modulate in vivo and in vitro the innate immune response of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), a teleost species of great commercial value. For this purpose, adult specimens were bath-exposed to EE(2) (0, 5 and 50 ng/L) and then immunized with hemocyanin in the presence of the adjuvant aluminum. The results indicate that, after 15 days of EE(2)-exposure, the disruptor was able to inhibit in a dose-dependent manner the induction of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) gene expression, but did not significantly alter the specific antibody titer. To shed light on the role played by EE(2) into seabream immune response, leukocytes were exposed in vitro to several concentrations of EE(2) (0, 0.5, 5, 50 and 500 ng/ml) for 3, 16 and 48 h and the production of reactive oxygen intermediates, the phagocytic activity and the gene expression profile of these cells were analyzed. EE(2) was seen to inhibit both cellular activities and to alter the immune gene expression profile in primary macrophages. Thus, low concentrations of EE(2) increase the mRNA levels of IL-1 β, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor α and tumour growth factor β in non-activated macrophages. In contrast, EE(2) treatment of activated macrophages resulted in the decreased expression of pro-inflammatory genes and the increased expression of genes encoding anti-inflammatory and tissue remodeling/repair enzymes. Taken together, our results suggest that EE(2) might alter the capacity of fish to appropriately respond to infection although it does not behave as an immunosuppressor.

  8. Utilization of desalinated b rackish water resi dues for cultivation of the m a rine fish species, Dicentrarchus labra x, Sparus aurata, and Sciaenops ocellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutaz A. Al - Qutob

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of brackish water residues from desalination units for fish mariculture inPalestine could represent an environmental friendly alternative of disposing brine water which could havean adverse effect on wild life. In this study, three juvenile marine fish species (Gilt-head bream S. aurata, European sea bass D. labrax, and red drum S. ocellatus with average weights of 0.7-4.9 g, wereacclimated and reared in brine brackish water residues collected from Jericho desalination units withsalinities of 6.5 ‰ and 11 ‰ diluted sea water as control for 3-7 months. Fish were fed 56 % richprotein diet. Brine brackish water contained high levels of CL-1 (3369 mgL-1, Na+1(3735 mgL-1, K+1(300mgL-1, SO4 -2 (716 mgL-1 with the divalent ions Mg+2 (57.3 mgL-1 and Ca+2 (276 mgL-1.Theexperimental well showed more than the maximum allowable concentration of Cr (14.49 μgL-1, Ag (5.3μgL-1 and Mn (27.88 μgL-1 for water quality of fisheries use. The sea bass with an average weight of0.76 g (at a salinity of 6.5 ‰ showed an acceptable growth performance parameters and reached apercentage weight gain (% WG of 6345.23 % and a survival rate of 77.5 % compared to control groupsat 11 ‰ that reached at the same time a % WG of 6543.78 % and a survival rate of 82 % after 30weeks. The red drum juveniles reached a % WG of 2661.6 % and 2673.92 % after 15 weeks at 6.5 ‰and 11 ‰ respectively while sea bream reached a % WG of 241.63 % and 772.44 % after 15 weeks at6.5 ‰ and 11 ‰ respectively. Survival rate was only 5 % at both salinities for the two species. In afurther study sea bass fingerlings with an average weight of 20.5 g were reared in brackish water of 6.5‰ salinity for 7 weeks and were fed superior fish meal with fish oil. They received diets of 2.1 %, 3.0%, and 4.0 % of body weight. Sea bass fingerlings which received diets of 2.1 %, had the highest FCE(0.82 and PER (1.46 with the lowest FCR (1.22. These results confirm that the most

  9. 黑鲷幼鱼赖氨酸需求量的研究%Study on Lysine Requirement of Juvenile Black Sea Bream(Sparus macrocephalus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永正; 周凡; 邵庆均; 许梓荣

    2009-01-01

    选用初体重(9.13±0.09)g的黑鲷(Sparus macrocephalus)幼鱼360尾随机分为6组,每组3个重复,每个重复20尾,分别投饲赖氨酸水平实测值为2.08%、2.52%、2.88%、3.25%、3.68%和4.05%的等氮等能日粮.试验期为8周,观察日粮赖氨酸对黑鲷生长性能,体组成以及消化能力的影响,并确定其适宜的赖氨酸需求量.结果表明,当饲料中的赖氨酸水平从2.08%上升到3.25%,黑鲷的增重率和特定生长率随着饲料赖氨酸水平升高而升高(P0.05).饲料赖氨酸水平从2.08%上升到3.25%,蛋白质沉积率有显著提高(P0.05).肝脏总必需氨基酸和赖氨酸含量随着饲料赖氨酸水平升高而增加,但是在赖氨酸添加水平最高组这两个指标均有所降低(P0.05).赖氨酸含量为3.25%时,干物质和蛋白质的表观消化率最高,而脂肪消化率的最高值出现在3.68%赖氨酸的饲料组.试验结果还表明,黑鲷幼鱼胃、前肠和中肠的蛋白酶活性变化趋势基本一致.随着饲料中赖氨酸水平的增加而升高(P0.05).使用曲线模型,根据试验黑鲷幼鱼的增重率同饲料中赖氨酸水平的相关性得出其赖氨酸需要量为3.28%,占饲料蛋白质的8.63%.%An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of lysine on growth performance, body com-position, digestive ability and determine the quantitative lysine requirement of juvenile black sea bream (Sparus macrocepha-lus). Three hundred and sixty fish with initial body weight of (9.13 ± 0.09) g were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates each and 20 fish in each replicate. Six treatments were fed with 6 iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets contai-ning 6 levels of lysine (2.08%, 2.52%, 2.88%, 3.25%, 3.68% and 4.05%). The results showed that, weight gain ratio (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with the level of dietary lysine increased to 3.25% from 2.08% (P0.05). The protein efficiency ratio (PER) increased significantly

  10. Trace elements and metals in farmed sea bass and gilthead bream from Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Jalilli, A; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hernández, F; Melón, E; Burgos, A; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of metals (Ca, K, Na, Mg) and trace metals (Ni, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd) in two fish species (gilthead bream [Sparus aurata] and sea bass [Dicentrarchus labrax]) collected from fish farms located along the coast of Tenerife Island. Ca, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas Pb, Cd, and Ni were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn contents were 3.09, 0.59, 0.18, and 8.11 mg/kg (wet weight) in S. aurata and 3.20, 0.76, 0.24, and 10.11 mg/kg (wet weight) in D. labrax, respectively. In D. labrax, Ca, K, Na, and Mg levels were 1,955, 2,787, 699.7, and 279.2 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively; in S. aurata, they were 934.7, 3,515, 532.8, and 262.8 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively. The Pb level in S. aurata was 7.28 ± 3.64 μg/kg (wet weight) and, in D. labrax, 4.42 ± 1.56 μg/kg (wet weight). Mean Cd concentrations were 3.33 ± 3.93 and 1.36 ± 1.53 μg/kg (wet weight) for D. labrax and S. aurata, respectively. All Pb and Cd levels measured were well below the accepted European Commission limits, 300 and 50 μg/kg for lead and cadmium, respectively.

  11. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) response to three music stimuli (Mozart--"Eine Kleine Nachtmusik," Anonymous--"Romanza," Bach--"Violin Concerto No. 1") and white noise under recirculating water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsoglou, Sofronios E; Karakatsouli, Nafsika; Psarrou, Anna; Apostolidou, Sofia; Papoutsoglou, Eustratios S; Batzina, Alkisti; Leondaritis, Georgios; Sakellaridis, N

    2015-02-01

    This study presents the results of the response of Sparus aurata to three different musical stimuli, derived from the transmission (4 h per day, 5 days per week) of particular music pieces by Mozart, Romanza and Bach (140 dB(rms) re 1 μPa), compared to the same transmission level of white noise, while the underwater ambient noise in all the experimental tanks was 121 dB(rms) re 1 μPa. Using recirculating sea water facilities, 10 groups, 2 for each treatment, of 20 specimens of 11.2 ± 0.02 g (S.E.), were reared for 94 days, under 150 ± 10 l× 12L-12D, and were fed an artificial diet three times per day. Fish body weight showed significant differences after 55 days, while its maximum level was observed after the 69th day until the end of the experiment, the highest value demonstrated in Mozart (M) groups, followed by those of Romanza (R), Bach (B), control (C) and white noise (WN). SGR (M = B), %WG (M = B) and FCR (all groups fed same % b.w.) were also improved for M group. Brain neurotransmitters results exhibited significant differences in DA-dopamine, (M > B), 5HIAA (C > B), 5HIAA:5HT (WN > R), DOPAC (M > B), DOPAC:DA and (DOPAC + HVA):DA, (C > M), while no significant differences were observed in 5HT, NA, HVA and HVA:DA. No differences were observed in biometric measurements, protease activity, % fatty acids of fillet, visceral fat and liver, while differences were observed regarding carbohydrase activity and the amount (mg/g w.w.) of some fatty acids in liver, fillet and visceral fat. In conclusion, present results confirm those reported for S. aurata, concerning the observed relaxing influence--due to its brain neurotransmitters action--of the transmission of Mozart music (compared to R and B), which resulted in the achievement of maximum growth rate, body weight and improved FCR. This conclusion definitely supports the musical "understanding" and sensitivity of S. aurata to music stimuli as well as suggesting a specific effect of white noise.

  12. Studies on the phosphorus requirement and proper calcium/phosphorus ratio in the diet of the black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Li, Maotang; Wang, Keling; Wang, Xincheng; Liu, Jianking

    1993-06-01

    An expriment on the phosphorus requirement and the proper Ca/P ratio in the diet of the black sea bream using the phosphorus gradient method (with casein as basic diet, sodium dihydrogen phosphate as source of phosphorus, and calcium lactate as source of calcium) showed that growth was greatly affected by the diet's phosphorus content and Ca/P ratio. Inadequate phosphorus in the diet resulted in slow growth and poor food conversion ratio (FCR). Analyses of the fish body showed it contained a high level of lipid but a low level of moisture, ash, calcium and phosphorus. The optimal values of phosphorus and Ca/P ratio in the black sea bream diet are 0.68% and 1∶2 respectively. Phosphorus in excess of this optimum value resulted in slow growth or even death. The results of this experiment clearly indicated that phosphorus is the principal mineral additive affecting black sea bream growth.

  13. Can Early Life-Stages of the Marine Fish Sparus aurata be Useful for the Evaluation of the Toxicity of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates Homologues (LAS C10-C14 and Commercial LAS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hampel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most commercial household cleaning agents and personal care products contain the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS as the active compound. After their use they are discharged, theoretically after adequate wastewater treatment, into receiving waters finally reaching estuaries and coastal waters. Laboratory toxicity tests are useful tools in determining at which concentration a certain wastewater compound becomes hazardous for an existing group of organisms. Early life-stage toxicity tests include exposure during the most sensitive development period of the organism. In fish, this type of assay has shown to predict accurately maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC values (comprised in the range defined by the NOEC and LOEC in fish early life-stage tests. For this reason, larvae of the seabream, Sparus aurata, were exposed to increasing concentrations of LAS homologues (C10-C14 and commercial LAS. Obtained LC50 values ranged between 0.1 and 3.0 mg l-1 and were compared with LC50 values of previous hatching experiments with the same species. Larvae proved to be more sensitive to LAS exposure of individual homologues than eggs, except in the case of commercial LAS. LC50 values can be directly employed to determine their potential risk in a concrete environment with known pollutant concentrations. Dividing the LC50 value with the found homologue concentration and extrapolating with certain security factors proposed by different environmental organisms, potentially hazardous pollutant concentrations may be detected. Average estuarine or coastal LAS concentrations are generally below toxicity limits for this kind of organism, considering that the average alkyl chain length of commercial LAS is 11.6 carbon atoms.

  14. Influence of time, storage temperature and freeze/thaw cycles on the activity of digestive enzymes from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyev, Mikhail; Gisbert, Enric

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we tested the effects of long-term storage (2 years) at -20 °C and short-term storage (several hours) in ice and freeze/thaw cycles on the activities of pancreatic, gastric and intestinal (brush border and cytosolic) digestive enzymes in a teleost fish species. The results revealed a significant lose in activity of pancreatic (trypsin, chymotrypsin, total alkaline proteases and α-amylase) and intestinal cytosolic (leucine-alanine peptidase) enzymes between 140 and 270 days of storage at -20 °C, whereas in contrast, the activity of all the assayed brush border enzymes remained constant during the first 2 years of storage at -20 °C. During short-term storage conditions, the most stable enzymes assayed were those of the enterocytes of the brush border, which did not show any change in activity after being held for 5 h in ice. Five freezing and thawing cycles did not affect the activity of the intestinal brush border enzymes and the cytosolic ones, whereas the activity of trypsin, α-amylase and bile-salt-activated lipase was significantly affected by the number of freezing and thawing cycles. No changes in pepsin activity were found in samples exposed to 1 and 2 freezing and thawing cycles.

  15. Estimates of heritability and genetic correlation for body length and resistance to fish pasteurellosis in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonello, J.; Massault, C.; Francha, R.; Haley, C.S.; Pellizzari, C.; Bovo, G.; Atarnello, Th.; Koning, de D.J.; Bargelloni, L.

    2009-01-01

    Fish pasteurellosis is an infectious disease that affects several fish species living in marine temperate waters. Its causative agent is the Gram-negative bacterium Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp). Fish pasteurellosis represents a serious health problem for the majority of intensive

  16. PRL and GH synthesis and release from the sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) pituitary gland in vitro in response to osmotic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Juan; Brinca, Lilia; Guerreiro, Pedro M; Power, Deborah M

    2010-08-01

    The endocrine factors prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) are believed to have counteracting effects in the adaption of fish to changes in environmental salinity. In order to further investigate this interaction sea bream were challenged with full seawater (SW) or freshwater (FW) for 7 days and the response of pituitary glands cultured in vitro to an osmotic challenge (230, 275 and 320 mOsm/kg) was assessed. In vitro PRL secretion from pituitaries of SW-adapted fish was unaltered in response to an osmotic challenge, while GH secretion increased in the lowest osmolality (230 mOsm/kg). In contrast, both GH and PRL secretion by pituitaries from FW challenged fish was significantly increased (pPRL content and de novo synthesised and released PRL were significantly increased (pPRL secretion was not different from SW animals. GH pituitary content decreased in FW animals while total secretion and secretion of de novo synthesised protein were significantly increased (pPRL and GH increased 3- and 2-fold, respectively. Despite the increase in PRL expression, no increase in total PRL secretion occurred and although in gills a 2-fold increase in the osmoregulatory marker, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was detected, profound haemodilution and a cumulative mortality of 40% occurred in sea bream placed in FW. Taken together the results suggest that the sea bream pituitary gland fails to respond appropriately to the osmotic challenge caused by low salinity and the physiological response evoked in vivo is not enough to allow this species to withstand and adapt to FW.

  17. Activity of R(+) limonene on the maximum growth rate of fish spoilage organisms and related effects on shelf-life prolongation of fresh gilthead sea bream fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2016-11-21

    R(+)limonene (LMN) is the major aromatic compound in essential oils obtained from oranges, grapefruits, and lemons. The improvement of preservation techniques to reduce the growth and activity of spoilage microorganisms in foods is crucial to increase their shelf life and to reduce the losses due to spoilage. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of LMN on the shelf life of fish fillets. Its effectiveness was preliminarily investigated in vitro against 60 strains of Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs) and then on gilt-head sea bream fillets stored at 2±0.5°C for 15days under vacuum. LMN showed a good inhibitory effect against tested SSOs strains. On gilt-head sea bream fillets, LMN inhibited the growth SSOs effectively, and its use resulted in a shelf-life extension of ca. 6-9days of treated fillets, compared to the control samples. The LMN addition in Sparus aurata fillets giving a distinctive smell and like-lemon taste to fish fillets that resulted pleasant to panellists. Its use contributed to a considerable reduction of fish spoilage given that the fillets treated with LMN were still sensory acceptable after 15days of storage. LMN may be used as an effective antimicrobial system to reduce the microbial growth and to improve the shelf life of fresh gilt-head sea bream fillets.

  18. Sparus aurata L. liver EROD and GST activities, plasma cortisol, lactate, glucose and erythrocytic nuclear anomalies following short-term exposure either to 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) or E{sub 2} combined with 4-nonylphenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, M.; Pacheco, M.; Santos, M.A

    2005-01-05

    Immature Sparus aurata L. (gilthead seabream) were exposed to 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) 4000 ng/l and to the same E{sub 2} concentration mixed with 50,000 ng/l 4-nonylphenol (E{sub 2}+NP) during 4, 8, 12 and 16 h. E{sub 2} availability and E{sub 2} plasma level variations were assessed. Liver biotransformation capacity was measured as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Plasma cortisol, lactate and glucose were also determined. Genotoxicity was assessed through erythrocytic nuclear anomalies (ENA) frequency. Liver EROD activity significantly decreased during the whole experiment for both treatments, with the exception of 16 h exposure to E{sub 2}. Liver GST activity was significantly increased after 8 and 12 h of exposure either to E{sub 2} or E{sub 2}+NP. An endocrine disruption expressed as plasma cortisol decrease was observed after 16 h exposure under both tested conditions, concomitantly with a plasma lactate increase. No genotoxic responses, measured as ENA frequency, were detected. Analyzing the E{sub 2} water concentration in aquaria without fish it was demonstrated an intense and fast E{sub 2} loss, considerably reducing its availability to fish. In the presence of fish, E{sub 2} water levels were drastically reduced after 4 h exposure, being this reduction more pronounced in E{sub 2} aquarium when compared to E{sub 2}+NP aquarium. In addition, it was demonstrated a rapid E{sub 2} uptake from the water since the highest E{sub 2} plasma concentrations were observed after 4 h exposure, followed by a continuous decrease, which became more pronounced between 8 and 12 h of exposure. Furthermore, during the first 8 h exposure to E{sub 2} and E{sub 2}+NP, seabream plasma E{sub 2} concentrations were higher than the initial water exposure concentration. Comparing the E{sub 2} plasma levels in both seabream-exposed groups, it was clear that its concentration is always higher in E{sub 2}+NP-treated fish. Despite

  19. PREVALENCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO SPP. ISOLATED ON AQUACULTURED GILTHEAD SEA BREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scarano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp isolated from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata farmed on sea cages and to identify and characterize the pathogen by molecular techniques. Eighty fish were collected from two hatcheries located on the North-Est Sardinian Mediterranean coast, and microbiological analysis were performed on different body parts such as skin, gills, muscle and intestinal tract. Subsequently 100 pure colonies with typical morphology and phenotypic characteristics were selected and submitted to the molecular identification. The analysis on the prevalence of Vibrio spp showed the effect of the hatchery rearing system (P<0.001, of the date of sampling (P<0.001, and of the body part (P<0.001. All the strains selected were confirmed to be members of the genus Vibrio spp by the molecular method/techinique/identification, whereas the rpoA gene sequence analyses allowed to identify 89 strains belonging to the species Vibrio harveyi, 6 to V. diabolicus, 2 to V. parahaemolyticus and 1 to V. mediterranei.

  20. Water absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine of the sea bream are regulated by transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclase stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edison S M; Gregório, Sílvia F; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M; Fuentes, Juan

    2012-12-01

    In the marine fish intestine luminal, HCO₃⁻ can remove divalent ions (calcium and magnesium) by precipitation in the form of carbonate aggregates. The process of epithelial HCO₃⁻ secretion is under endocrine control, therefore, in this study we aimed to characterize the involvement of transmembrane (tmACs) and soluble (sACs) adenylyl cyclases on the regulation of bicarbonate secretion (BCS) and water absorption in the intestine of the sea bream (Sparus aurata). We observed that all sections of sea bream intestine are able to secrete bicarbonate as measured by pH-Stat in Ussing chambers. In addition, gut sac preparations reveal net water absorption in all segments of the intestine, with significantly higher absorption rates in the anterior intestine that in the rectum. BCS and water absorption are positively correlated in all regions of the sea bream intestinal tract. Furthermore, stimulation of tmACs (10 μM FK + 500 μM IBMX) causes a significant decrease in BCS, bulk water absorption and short circuit current (Isc) in a region dependent manner. In turn, stimulation of sACs with elevated HCO₃⁻ results in a significant increase in BCS, and bulk water absorption in the anterior intestine, an action completely reversed by the sAC inhibitor KH7 (200 μM). Overall, the results reveal a functional relationship between BCS and water absorption in marine fish intestine and modulation by tmACs and sAC. In light of the present observations, it is hypothesized that the endocrine effects on intestinal BCS and water absorption mediated by tmACs are locally and reciprocally modulated by the action of sACs in the fish enterocyte, thus fine-tuning the process of carbonate aggregate production in the intestinal lumen.

  1. Skin mucus proteome of gilthead sea bream: A non-invasive method to screen for welfare indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanahuja, Ignasi; Ibarz, Antoni

    2015-10-01

    In teleosts, the skin mucus is the first physical barrier against physical and chemical attacks. It contains components related to metabolism, environmental influences and nutritional status. Here, we study mucus and composition based on a proteome map of soluble epidermal mucus proteins obtained by 2D-electrophoresis in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. Over 1300 spots were recorded and the 100 most abundant were further analysed by LC-MS/MS and identified by database retrieval; we also established the related specific biological processes by Gene Ontology enrichment. Sixty-two different proteins were identified and classified in 12 GO-groups and into three main functions: structural, metabolic and protection-related. Several of the proteins can be used as targets to determine fish physiological status: actins and keratins, and especially their catabolic products, in the structural functional group; glycolytic enzymes and ubiquitin/proteasome-related proteins in the metabolic functional group; and heat shock proteins, transferrin and hemopexins, in the protection-related group. This study analyses fish mucus, a potential non-invasive tool for characterising fish status, beyond defence capacities, and we postulate some putative candidates for future studies along similar lines.

  2. Suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) and macroarray techniques reveal differential gene expression profiles in brain of sea bream infected with nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dios, S; Poisa-Beiro, L; Figueras, A; Novoa, B

    2007-03-01

    Despite of the impact that viruses have on aquatic organisms, relatively little is known on how fish fight against these infections. In this work, the brain gene expression pattern of sea bream (Sparus aurata) in response to nodavirus infection was investigated. We used the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method to generate a subtracted cDNA library enriched with gene transcripts differentially expressed after 1 day post-infection. Some of the ESTs from the infected tissues fell in gene categories related to stress and immune responses. For the reverse library (ESTs expressed in controls compared with infected tissues) the most abundant transcripts were of ribosomal and mitochondrial nature. Several ESTs potentially induced by virus exposure were selected for in vivo expression studies. We observed a clear difference in expression between infected and control samples for two candidate genes, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 7 interacting protein, which seems to play an important role in apoptosis and the interferon induced protein with helicase C domain 1 (mda-5) that contributes to apoptosis and regulates the type I IFN production, a key molecule of the antiviral innate response in most organisms.

  3. Adipogenic Gene Expression in Gilthead Sea Bream Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Different Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, Cristina; Riera-Heredia, Natàlia; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, adipogenesis has become an emerging field of study in aquaculture due to the relevance of the adipose tissue in many physiological processes and its connection with the endocrine system. In this sense, recent studies have translated into the establishment of preadipocyte culture models from several fish species, sometimes lacking information on the mRNA levels of adipogenic genes. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the gene expression profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) primary cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from different origin (adipose tissue and vertebra bone) during adipogenesis. Both cell types differentiated into adipocyte-like cells, accumulating lipids inside their cytoplasm. Adipocyte differentiation of MSCs from adipose tissue resulted in downregulation of several adipocyte-related genes (such as lpl, hsl, pparα, pparγ and gapdh2) at day 4, gapdh1 at day 8, and fas and pparβ at day 12. In contrast, differences in lxrα mRNA expression were not observed, while g6pdh levels increased during adipocyte maturation. Gapdh and Pparγ protein levels were also detected in preadipocyte cultures; however, only the former increased its expression during adipogenesis. Moreover, differentiation of bone-derived cells into adipocytes also resulted in the downregulation of several adipocyte gene markers, such as fas and g6pdh at day 10 and hsl, pparβ, and lxrα at day 15. On the other hand, the osteogenic genes fib1a, mgp, and op remained stable, but an increase in runx2 expression at day 20 was observed. In summary, the present study demonstrates that gilthead sea bream MSCs, from both adipose tissue and bone, differentiate into adipocyte-like cells, although revealed some kind of species- and cell lineage-specific regulation with regards to gene expression. Present data also provide novel insights into some of the potential key genes controlling adipogenesis in gilthead sea bream that can help to better

  4. Adipogenic gene expression in gilthead sea bream mesenchymal stem cells from different origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salmerón

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, adipogenesis has become an emerging field of study in aquaculture due to the relevance of the adipose tissue in many physiological processes and its connection with the endocrine system. In this sense, recent studies have translated into the establishment of preadipocyte culture models from several fish species, lacking sometimes information on the mRNA levels of adipogenic genes. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the gene expression profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata primary cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from different origin (adipose tissue and vertebra bone during adipogenesis. Both cell types differentiated into adipocyte-like cells accumulating lipids inside their cytoplasm. Adipocyte differentiation of MSCs from adipose tissue resulted in down-regulation of several adipocyte-related genes (such as lpl, hsl, pparα, pparγ and gapdh2 at day 4, gapdh1 at day 8, and fas and pparβ at day 12. In contrast, differences in lxrα mRNA expression were not observed, while g6pdh levels increased during adipocyte maturation. Gapdh and Pparγ protein levels were also detected in preadipocyte cultures; however, only the former increased its expression during adipogenesis. Moreover, differentiation of bone-derived cells into adipocytes also resulted in the down-regulation of several adipocyte gene markers such as fas and g6pdh at day 10 and hsl, pparβ and lxrα at day 15. On the other hand, the osteogenic genes fib1a, mgp and op remained stable, but an increase in runx2 expression at day 20 was observed. In summary, the present study demonstrates that gilthead sea bream MSCs from both adipose tissue and bone differentiate into adipocyte-like cells, although revealed some kind of species- and cell lineage-specific regulation with regards to gene expression. Present data also provide novel insights into some of the potential key genes controlling adipogenesis in gilthead sea bream that can help to

  5. Garlic Bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:One whole bream weighing about750g,100g garlic,3g salt,15g cookingwine,2g pepper,3g MSG,5g sugar,10g soy sauce,5g sesame oil,optionalamount of clear stock,minced scallionand ginger root and 1000g cooking oil(actual consumption only 100g).Method:1.Clean the bream,slit open bothsides,then smear over the soy sauceand soak for a while.2.Heat the wok and add in cookingoil.Put in the bream when the oil is80% hot.Fry the fish until it turnsgolden yellow.Remove.leaving someoil in the wok.3.Stir-fry the scallion and ginger until

  6. The life cycle of Ortholinea auratae (Myxozoa: Ortholineidae) involves an actinospore of the triactinomyxon morphotype infecting a marine oligochaete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Luis F; Rocha, Sónia; Castro, Ricardo; Severino, Ricardo; Casal, Graça; Azevedo, Carlos; Cavaleiro, Francisca; Santos, Maria J

    2015-07-01

    Actinospores released from the marine oligochaete Limnodriloides agnes inhabiting a Southern Portuguese fish farm are molecularly recognized as developmental stages of the life cycle of Ortholinea auratae, a myxosporean parasite that infects the urinary bladder of Sparus aurata. The molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA gene reveals a similarity of 99.9 to 100 % of the actinospores analyzed to the myxospores of O. auratae. The actinospores belong to the triactinomyxon morphotype and occur in groups of eight within pansporocysts that develop in the intestinal epithelium of the oligochaete host. This is the first record of a myxosporean using an oligochaete as its invertebrate host in the marine environment.

  7. 3种滤料生物滤器的挂膜与黑鲷幼鱼循环水养殖效果%Biofilm cultivation with three stuffings and their effect on the growth of young black sea bream, Sparus macrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 曲克明; 朱建新; 王海增; 崔正国; 夏斌

    2012-01-01

    young black sea bream, Sparus macrocephalus. We tested the effect of using microbial water purified agents as a strain for three different kinds of fillers (pottery ring, elastic brush, and biochemical cotton fiber) during biofilm cultivation. The bio-film maturation time for the three fillers was 25, 32, and 28 d, respectively. Our results suggested that maintaining high dissolved oxygen concentrations, changing the water, and adding nutrients and NaCOs promoted the growth and propagation of nitrifying bacteria. Conversely, NO2-N concentrations cannot be held at high levels for an extended period because ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and nitrifying bacteria require dissolved oxygen and alkalinity for survival. Young black sea bream grew well in the simple recirculating aquaculture system. After 40 d feeding, the mean body weight and feed conversion rate of black sea bream in the three experimental groups differed significantly from that in the control group (P95%. The activity of serum LSZ and liver SOD was significantly higher in the experimental groups than the control group (P<0.05). Similarly, the quantity and diversity of digestive tract flora was significantly higher in the experimental groups than the control group. We identified several different kinds of beneficial bacteria in the three experimental groups, relative to the control. Our results suggest that these beneficial bacteria are dominant, and thus inhibited the survival of pathogenic bacteria. During circulation of the water, the beneficial bacteria are able to enter the fish body during respiration and ingestion, thereby enhancing the nonspecific immunity of the fish. Our results suggest that different filter materials have different bio-film maturation times under the same operating conditions. A recirculating aquaculture system can not only improve fish growth, but also enhance their immune performance.

  8. Aquaporin 1a expression in gill, intestine and kidney of the euryhaline silver sea bream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie E Deane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic salinity acclimation, abrupt salinity transfer and cortisol administration on aquaporin 1 (AQP1 expression in gill, intestine and kidney of silver sea bream (Sparus sarba. An AQP1a cDNA was cloned and found to share 83 – 96 % amino acid sequence identity with AQP1 genes from several fish species. Tissue distribution studies of AQP1a mRNA demonstrated that it was expressed in gill, liver, intestine, rectum, kidney, heart, urinary bladder and whole blood. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to measure AQP1a transcript abundance in sea bream that were acclimated to salinity conditions of 0, 6, 12, 33, 50 and 70ppt for 1 month. The abundance of gill AQP1a transcript was highest in sea bream acclimated to 0ppt whereas no differences were found among 0 – 50ppt groups. For intestine, the highest AQP1a transcript amounts were found in sea bream acclimated to 12 and 70ppt whereas the transcript abundance of kidney AQP1a was found to be unchanged amongst the different salinity groups. To investigate the effects of acute salinity alterations on AQP1a expression, sea bream were abruptly transferred from 33ppt to 6ppt. For intestine AQP1a levels were altered at different times, post transfer, but remained unchanged in gill and kidney. To study the effects of cortisol on AQP1a expression, sea bream were administered a single dose of cortisol followed by a 3 day acclimation to either 33ppt or 6ppt. The findings from this experiment demonstrated that cortisol administration resulted in alterations of AQP1a transcript in gill and intestine but not in kidney.

  9. Update on Fish Disease Situation in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation we provide a general overview of the aquatic animal health issues related to the aquaculture sector and wild environment in Italy in 2011. Considering saltwater species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) are still the most widely...

  10. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Tirsgaard, B.; Michaelsen, Thomas Y.;

    2016-01-01

    , the methodology rarely accounts for anaerobic metabolism within the MS. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), this study tested for trade-offs (i) between aerobic and anaerobic components of locomotor performance; and (ii) between the corresponding components...

  11. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.;

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady...

  12. Influence of dietary carbohydrate level on endocrine status and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in the marine fish Sparus sarba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L Y; Woo, Norman Y S

    2012-04-01

    Silver sea bream, Sparus sarba, were fed two diets of different carbohydrate levels (2 and 20% dextrin) for 4 weeks, and the effects on organ indices, liver composition, serum metabolite and hormone levels and gene expression profile of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in the liver were investigated. By using real-time PCR, mRNA expression levels of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes including glucokinase (GK, glycolysis), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, gluconeogenesis), glycogen synthase (GS, glycogenesis), glycogen phosphorylase (GP, glycogenolysis) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, pentose phosphate pathway) in liver of sea bream have been examined, and it was found that high dietary carbohydrate level increased mRNA level of GK but decreased mRNA levels of G6Pase and GP. However, mRNA levels of GS and G6PDH were not significantly influenced by dietary carbohydrate. Silver sea bream fed high dietary carbohydrate had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), liver glycogen and protein, but there were no significant changes in gonadosomatic index (GSI), serum glucose and protein level, as well as liver lipid and moisture level. Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transcript abundance were assayed by real-time PCR, and it was found that both parameters remained unchanged in fish fed different dietary carbohydrate levels. Serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) were not significantly affected by dietary carbohydrate levels, but lower serum cortisol level was found in fish fed high dietary carbohydrate level. These results suggest that silver sea bream is able to adapt to a diet with high carbohydrate content (up to 20% dextrin), the consumption of which would lead to fundamental re-organization of carbohydrate metabolism resulting in hepatic glycogen deposition.

  13. Acidic composition of gilthead seabream fillets (Sparus aurata L. fed with different lipid sources: preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balestri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary lipids play an important role in fish nutrition as a source provision of body energy and essential fatty acids (EFA (Sargent et al., 1999. The low availability and the high exspense of fish oil could suggest the use of an alternative lipid source in aquaculture (Turchini et al., 2000. Alternative sources of PUFA are represented by vegetable oils, but their composition is not satisfactory for the requirements of the different species of rearing fishes...

  14. Characterization and in vitro sensitivity of cholinesterases of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albendín, G; Arellano, J M; Mánuel-Vez, M P; Sarasquete, C; Arufe, M I

    2016-10-06

    The characterization of cholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of gilthead seabream was carried out using four specific substrates and three selective inhibitors. In addition, K m and V max were calculated from the Michaelis-Menten equation for ASCh and BSCh substrates. Finally, the in vitro sensitivity of brain and muscle cholinesterases to three organophosphates (OPs) was also investigated by estimating inhibition kinetics. The results indicate that AChE is the enzyme present in the brain, whereas in muscle, a typical AChE form is present along with an atypical form of BChE. Very low ChE activity was found in plasma with all substrates used. The inhibitory potency of the studied OPs on brain and muscle AChEs based on bimolecular inhibition constants (k i ) was: omethoate < dichlorvos < azinphosmethyl-oxon. Furthermore, muscle BChE was found to be several orders of magnitude (from 2 to 4) more sensitive than brain and muscle AChE inhibition by dichlorvos and omethoate.

  15. RANCIDITY DEVELOPMENT DURING FROZEN STORAGE OF FILLETS FROM GILTHEAD SEABREAM (Sparus aurata REARED IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Gatta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipid oxidation indices (Free Fatty Acids-FFA, Peroxide Value-PV and Thiobarbituric Acid-TBA were evaluated in frozen fillets from seabream reared in Italy in: land based facilities (recirculation systems, lagoons or net-cages. Statistically significant differences emerged among seabream sources for all indices. Quality loss related to rancidity seemed to have been affected by both storage time and culturing system.

  16. Detection of vanA-containing Enterococcus species in faecal microbiota of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Joana; Andrade, Margarida; Radhouani, Hajer; López, Maria; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patricia; Torres, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium and E. durans isolates with the genotype vanA were detected in 7 of 118 faecal samples (5.9%) of natural gilthead seabream recovered off the coast of Portugal, and one vancomycin-resistant isolate/sample was further characterized. The genes erm(B), tet(L), tet(M), aac(6')-aph(2"), aph(3')-IIIa and/or ant(6)-Ia were identified in most of the 7 vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Sequence types ST273, ST313 and ST76 were detected in three E. faecium isolates and ST6 in two E. faecalis isolates. VanA-containing enterococci are suggested to be disseminated in fish in marine ecosystems close to areas of human activity.

  17. Daily rhythms of digestive enzyme activity and gene expression in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Sotres, José Antonio; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Yúfera, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    In order to identify daily changes in digestive physiology in developing gilthead seabream larvae, the enzyme activity (trypsin, lipases and α-amylase) and gene expression (trypsinogen-try, chymotrypsinogen-ctrb, bile salt-activated lipase-cel1b, phospholipase A2-pla2 and α-amylase-amy2a) were measured during a 24h cycle in larvae reared under a 12h light/12h dark photoperiod. Larvae were sampled at 10, 18, 30 and 60days post-hatch. In each sampling day, larvae were sampled every 3h during a complete 24h cycle. The enzyme activity and gene expression exhibited a marked dependent behavior to the light/darkness cycle in all tested ages. The patterns of activity and expression of all tested enzymes were compared to the feeding pattern found in the same larvae, which showed a rhythmic feeding pattern with a strong light synchronization. In the four tested ages, the activities of trypsin, and to a lesser extent lipases and amylase, were related to feeding activity. Molecular expression of the pancreatic enzymes tended to increase during the night, probably as an anticipation of the forthcoming ingestion of food that will take place during the next light period. It follows that the enzymatic activities are being regulated at translational and/or post-translational level. The potential variability of enzyme secretion along the whole day is an important factor to take into account in future studies. A particularly striking consequence of the present results is the reliability of studies based in only one daily sample taken at the same hour of the day, as those focused to assess ontogeny of digestive enzymes.

  18. Use of compositional analysis to distinguish farmed and wild gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Valfré

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent food scares have emphasized the need for traceability in the food chain. This is particularly true in the fish sector, where a large difference in the final price between wild and farmed fish and even between farmed fish reared in different countries exists. So for these commercial and hygienic reasons it is very important to find useful tools for the characterization of quality of fish and for the differentiation of fish from different production methods and from different countries, in accordance with EC Regulation No. 2065/2001 and Italian Ministry of Agriculture Decree No. 27.03.02, that allow retail trade of fishery and aquaculture products only against the indication of the official commercial name, the method of production and the geographical origin of fish (Moretti et al., 2003.

  19. Update on Fish Disease Situation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation we provide a general overview of the aquatic animal health issues related to the aquaculture sector and wild environment in Italy in 2011.Considering saltwater species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) are still the most widely farmed species, nevertheless some “new” candidates are employed often.The first two species represents more than 95% of the total production while the remaining is obtained by different promising candid...

  20. Eimeria auratae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting the lizard Mabuya aurata in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousif, M S; AL-Rasheid, K A

    2001-03-01

    Eimeria auratae n. sp. was described from the gall bladder of the lizard Mabuya aurata collected at Al-Hofuf village, eastern region, Saudi Arabia. Morphology of sporulated as well as non-sporulated oocysts were studied. Sporulated oocysts were ellipsoidal 22-31.5x13.5-21.8 (27.7x18.5) microm with smooth brownish-yellow bilayered wall, 1.1 (0.9-1.3) microm. Micropyle, polar granule and oocyst residuum were absent. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal 10.5-12.8x7.5-9 (11.8x8.5) microm. Sporocyst residuum was present but Stieda body was absent. Sporozoites were crescent-shaped, blunt at one end and slightly tapered at the other. Eimeria species from Scincidae were compared.

  1. Persistence of duplicated PAC1 receptors in the teleost, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Melody S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Duplicated genes are common in vertebrate genomes. Their persistence is assumed to be either a consequence of gain of novel function (neofunctionalisation or partitioning of the function of the ancestral molecule (sub-functionalisation. Surprisingly few studies have evaluated the extent of such modifications despite the numerous duplicated receptor and ligand genes identified in vertebrate genomes to date. In order to study the importance of function in the maintenance of duplicated genes, sea bream (Sparus auratus PAC1 receptors, sequence homologues of the mammalian receptor specific for PACAP (Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, were studied. These receptors belong to family 2 GPCRs and most of their members are duplicated in teleosts although the reason why both persist in the genome is unknown. Results: Duplicate sea bream PACAP receptor genes (sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, members of family 2 GPCRs, were isolated and share 77% amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR with specific primers for each gene revealed that they have a differential tissue distribution which overlaps with the distribution of the single mammalian receptor. Furthermore, in common with mammals, the teleost genes undergo alternative splicing and a PAC1Ahop1 isoform has been characterised. Duplicated orthologous receptors have also been identified in other teleost genomes and their distribution profile suggests that function may be species specific. Functional analysis of the paralogue sbPAC1s in Cos7 cells revealed that they are strongly stimulated in the presence of mammalian PACAP27 and PACAP38 and far less with VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide. The sbPAC1 receptors are equally stimulated (LOGEC50 values for maximal cAMP production in the presence of PACAP27 (-8.74 ± 0.29 M and -9.15 ± 0.21 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0.05 and PACAP38 (-8.54 ± 0.18 M and -8.92 ± 0.24 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0

  2. Filter-feeding in common bream (Abramis brama), white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and roach (Rutilus rutilus); structures, functions and ecological significance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den C.

    1993-01-01

    bream
    In this thesis the retention mechanism of the branchial sieve of three sympatric cyprinid fish species, the common bream (Abramis brama), the white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and the roach (Rutilus rutilus) , is studied. In eutrophic lakes zooplankton is an im

  3. Metabolic fingerprinting of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata liver to track interactions between dietary factors and seasonal temperature variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomé S. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Farmed gilthead seabream is sometimes affected by a metabolic syndrome, known as the “winter disease”, which has a significant economic impact in the Mediterranean region. It is caused, among other factors, by the thermal variations that occur during colder months and there are signs that an improved nutritional status can mitigate the effects of this thermal stress. For this reason, a trial was undertaken where we assessed the effect of two different diets on gilthead seabream physiology and nutritional state, through metabolic fingerprinting of hepatic tissue. For this trial, four groups of 25 adult gilthead seabream were reared for 8 months, being fed either with a control diet (CTRL, low-cost commercial formulation or with a diet called “Winter Feed” (WF, high-cost improved formulation. Fish were sampled at two time-points (at the end of winter and at the end of spring, with liver tissue being taken for FT-IR spectroscopy. Results have shown that seasonal temperature variations constitute a metabolic challenge for gilthead seabream, with hepatic carbohydrate stores being consumed over the course of the inter-sampling period. Regarding the WF diet, results point towards a positive effect in terms of performance and improved nutritional status. This diet seems to have a mitigating effect on the deleterious impact of thermal shifts, confirming the hypothesis that nutritional factors can affect the capacity of gilthead seabream to cope with seasonal thermal variations and possibly contribute to prevent the onset of “winter disease”.

  4. Regulation of growth, fatty acid composition and delta 6 desaturase expression by dietary lipids in gilthead seabream larvae (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, M S; Robaina, Lidia; Juárez-Carrillo, Eduardo; Oliva, V; Hernández-Cruz, Carmen María; Afonso, Juan Manuel

    2008-06-01

    The Delta6 and Delta5 desaturases and elongases show only very limited activity in marine fish, and little is known of the possibility of enhancing Delta6 desaturase gene expression in these fish. The use of plant oils in marine fish diets is limited by their lack of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) despite an abundant content of the 18C fatty acid precursor linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids. The objective of the present study was to determine the ability of larval gilthead seabream to utilize vegetable oils and assess the nutritional regulation of Delta6 desaturase gene expression. Seventeen-day-old gilthead seabream larvae were fed during a 17-day period with one of four different microdiets formulated with either sardine fish oil (FO), soybean, rapeseed or linseed oils, respectively, or a fifth diet containing defatted squid meal and linseed oil. Good larval survival and growth, both in terms of total length and body weight, were obtained by feeding the larvae either rapeseed, soybean or linseed oils. The presence of vegetable oils in the diet increased the levels of 20:2n-9 and 20:2n-6, 18:2n-9, 18:3n-6, 20:3n-6 and 20:4n-6, in larvae fed rapeseed and soybean oils in comparison to those fed FO. In addition, a sixfold increase in the relative expression of Delta6 desaturase-like gene was found in larvae fed rapeseed and soybean oils, denoting the nutritional regulation of desaturase activity through its gene expression in this fish species. However, feeding linseed oil did not increase the expression of the Delta6 desaturase gene to such a high extent.

  5. Chemometric data analysis application to Sparus aurata samples from two offshore farming plants along the Apulian (Italy) coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniero, Roberto; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Mangiacotti, Michele; Brizzi, Giulio; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Abate, Vittorio; Cascone, Valeria; Ferri, Fabiola; Iacovella, Nicola; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    The levels of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs), non-dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (NDL-PCBs), and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish collected from two marine offshore farming plants were determined. Each sample was constituted by specimens of the same size collected at the same time in four different seasons along the farming year. The feeds given were of industrial origin and the plants were positioned in two different sites respectively exposed to different environmental characteristics. A chemometric approach was applied to interpret the subtle differences observed in fish body burdens across the three chemical groups taken into consideration. The approach consisted in a stepwise multivariate process including a hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) and a linear discriminant analysis (DA). The two main clusters determined by CA were subjected to the canonical DA, backward and forward selection procedures to select the best discriminative functions. A clear temporal and spatial discrimination was found among the samples. Across the three chemical groups, the monthly separation seemed to depend on the growth process and the main exposure was due to the feed. In addition, the two plants differed significantly from the environmental point of view and the most important discriminating group of chemicals were the NDL-PCBs. The approach resulted really effective in discriminating the subtle differences and in individuating suggestions to improve the quality of culturing conditions.

  6. Enrichment of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) diet with palm fruit extracts and probiotics: Effects on skin mucosal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezuela, Rebeca; Guardiola, Francisco A; Cuesta, Alberto; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2016-02-01

    Fish skin mucus contains numerous immune substances still poorly studied. To date, there are no studies regarding the possible influence of dietary supplements on such important substances. In the present work, a commercial diet used as control diet was enriched with: 1) probiotic Shewanella putrefaciens (Pdp11 diet, 10(9) cfu g(-1)); 2) probiotic Bacillus sp. (Bacillus diet, 10(9) ufc g(-1)); 3) aqueous date palm fruits extracts (DPE diet, 4%), and 4) a combination of Pdp11 + Bacillus sp + aqueous DPE (Mix diet). After 2 and 4 weeks of the feeding trial, enzymatic activities (proteases, antiproteases and peroxidases), IgM levels and terminal carbohydrates abundance were determined in skin mucus. In addition, the expression of certain immune related genes was evaluated in the skin. Our results demonstrated the significant alteration of the terminal carbohydrate abundance in skin mucus. Carbohydrates more affected by experimental diets were N-acetyl-galactosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine, galactose, mannose, glucose and fucose. IgM, peroxidase activity and protease were also significantly higher in fish fed enriched diets. For last, an important up-regulation on the immune related gene studied on the skin was also detected. Present findings provide robust evidence that fish skin mucosal immunity can be improved by the diet.

  7. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) Mx gene promoters respond differentially to IPNV and VHSV infections in RTG-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mariscal, J A; Fernández-Trujillo, M A; Alonso, M C; García-Rosado, E; Álvarez, M C; Béjar, J

    2016-03-01

    The understanding of virus-host interactions relies on the knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of the type I interferon (IFN I)-stimulated genes (ISGs). Among ISGs, those coding Mx proteins play a main role due to their direct antiviral activity. The study of these genes in gilthead seabream is interesting, since this species displays high natural resistance to viral diseases, being asymptomatic carrier of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Gilthead seabream has three Mx genes (Mx1, Mx2, and Mx3), encoding proteins with a wide spectrum of antiviral activity. The structure of the three promoters (pMx1, pMx2 and pMx3) has been previously disclosed, and their response to poly I:C in RTG-2 cells characterized. To further analyze these promoters, their response to two viral infections has been evaluated in the present study. For that purpose, RTG-2 cells transiently transfected with the luciferase gene under the control of each promoter were inoculated with either IPNV or VHSV at two different doses. The highest and lowest fold induction values were recorded for pMx2 and pMx3, respectively. The promoter induction was always stronger after VHSV inoculation than in IPNV-inoculated cells. In addition, the higher dose of VHSV tested induced higher response of the three promoters, whereas in IPNV-infected cells the highest induction was recorded after inoculation with the lower viral dose. To further study the response of the Mx2 promoter, RTG-2 cells stably transfected with the luciferase gene under the control of pMx2 were stimulated with poly I:C and subsequently infected with IPNV or VHSV. Interestingly, IPNV infection inhibited the induction caused by poly I:C, suggesting an antagonistic activity of IPNV on Mx2 transcription. In contrast, VHSV infection did not alter the response triggered by poly I:C. These results highlight the specific regulation that controls the activity of each promoter, and support the existence of complex interactions between host cells, specific Mx promoters, and viruses, which are responsible for the final outcome of a viral infection.

  8. Studies on metazoan parasites of two marine fish species of interest for aquaculture: Seriola dumerili and Sparus aurata

    OpenAIRE

    Repullés Albelda, Aigües

    2013-01-01

    0.1. Introducción general La acuicultura ha experimentado un importante aumento durante los últimos 50 años, resultado del incremento global de población y la creciente demanda de proteínas de alta calidad. En los últimos 40 años, la proporción de reservas pesqueras moderadamente explotadas ha descendido progresivamente hasta estabilizarse en el 15% y en la actualidad, la mayoría de los stocks pesqueros están sobreexplotados y (FAO, 2010). Más de la mitad de los productos acuáticos provien...

  9. Flow cytometry based techniques to study testicular acidophilic granulocytes from the protandrous fish gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves-Pozo Elena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The gilthead seabream is a protandrous seasonal breeding teleost that is an excellent model for studying the testicular regression process which occurs in both seasonal testicular involution and sex reversion. Little is known about the cell types and the molecular mechanisms involved in such processes, mainly because of the lack of appropriate methods for testis dissociation, and testicular cell isolation, culture and functional characterization. We have previously reported that gilthead seabream acidophilic granulocytes infiltrate the testis at post-spawning stage, settle close to the spermatogonia and accumulate intracellular interleukin-1&bgr;. In this paper, we report several flow cytometry based assays which allow to establish the role played by gilthead seabream testicular acidophilic granulocytes and permits their quantification.

  10. State of bream populations in reconstructed water bodies of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian USATYI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Bream, Abramis brama L., is a key species in fish communities of Moldovian Rivers and a main component of bottom food chains of river and lake ecosystems. With the reconstruction of water bodies, mainly for hydroelectric power stations needs, the ecological conditions changed substantially, which results in modifications in population state of biota. The negative effects of water bodies’ reconstruction upon population status of bream in several Moldovian Rivers and reservoirs were studied. These effects manifest in detrimental changes in bream growth, age composition and reproductive success. The conclusion is made that the economical gain after the regulation of large and middle-size rivers is opposed by the negative impact upon fish community as a whole, as well as upon the ecology of individual species as applied to the indicator species Abramis brama.

  11. Organophosphorous residue in Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansoreh Shayeghi; Mehdi Khoobdel; Fatemeh Bagheri; Mohammad Abtahi; Hojjatollah Zeraati

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the amount of azinphos methyl and diazinon residues in two river fishes, Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio, in the north of Iran. Methods: This study was done during 2006-2007. In this survey, 152 water and fish samples from Gorgan and Qarasu rivers, north of Iran, were investigated. Sampling was done in three predetermined stations along each river. Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) were extracted from the fishes and the water of rivers. After extraction, purification and concentration processes, the amount and type of insecticides in water and fish samples were determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Results:There was a significant difference in the residue of the insecticides in the water and fish samples between summer and other seasons in the two rivers. The highest amount of insecticides residue was seen during summer. In both rivers, the amount of diazinon and azinphos methyl residues in the two fishes was more than 2 000 mg/L in summer. There was no significant difference in insecticides residue between the fishes in two rivers. The diazinon residue was higher than the standard limits in both rivers during the spring and the summer, but the residual amount of azinphos methyl was higher than the standard limits only during the summer and only in Qarasu River. Conclusions:It can be concluded that the amount of OPs in the water and the two fishes, Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio, is higher than the permitted levels.

  12. On the feeding of the biology of the bream (Abramis brama)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboezem, W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes some studies on feeding mechanisms in common bream, Abramis brama (L., 1758), living in eutrophic waters of the Netherlands. Different feeding modes and the present ideas on the particle retention mechanism in bream are discussed. Particles, mainly zooplankton, retained in the

  13. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.;

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady...... to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3...

  14. Dietary glucose stimulus at larval stage modifies the carbohydrate metabolic pathway in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) juveniles: An in vivo approach using (14)C-starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Filipa; Dias, Jorge; Geurden, Inge; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Panserat, Stephane; Engrola, Sofia

    2016-11-01

    The concept of nutritional programming was investigated in order to enhance the use of dietary carbohydrates in gilthead seabream juveniles. We assessed the long-term effects of high-glucose stimuli, exerted at the larval stage, on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and metabolic utilization and gene expression of seabream juveniles, challenged with a high-carbohydrate intake. During early development, a group of larvae (control, CTRL) were kept under a rich-protein-lipid feeding regime whereas another group (GLU) was subjected to high-glucose stimuli, delivered intermittently over time. At juvenile stage, triplicate groups (IBW: 2.5g) from each fish nutritional background were fed a high-protein (59.4%) low-carbohydrate (2.0%) diet before being subjected to a low-protein (43.0%) high-carbohydrate (33.0%) dietary challenge for 36-days. Fish from both treatments increased by 8-fold their initial body weight, but neither growth rate, feed intake, feed and protein efficiency, nutrient retention (except lipids) nor whole-body composition were affected (P˃0.05) by fish early nutritional history. Nutrient digestibility was also similar among both groups. The metabolic fate of (14)C-starch and (14)C-amino acids tracers was estimated; GLU juveniles showed higher absorption of starch-derived glucose in the gut, suggesting an enhanced digestion of carbohydrates, while amino acid use was not affected. Moreover, glucose was less used for de novo synthesis of hepatic proteins and muscle glycogen from GLU fish (Pjuveniles.

  15. Alanina aminotransferasa en Sparus aurata: control de la expresión génica mediante RNAi y de la actividad enzimática por aminooxiacetato

    OpenAIRE

    González García, Juan Diego

    2012-01-01

    [spa] Los peces carnívoros presentan baja capacidad para utilizar carbohidratos provenientes de la dieta y controlar los niveles de glucosa en sangre. En comparación con los mamíferos, estos animales tras la ingesta de glucosa o de dietas con alto contenido en carbohidratos, muestran una hiperglucemia mas prolongada. La alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) constituye un nexo de interacción entre el metabolismo de aminoácidos y el de carbohidratos al catalizar la reacción de la transaminación rever...

  16. Modelling the growth of white seabream (Diplodus sargus) and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in semi-intensive earth production ponds using the Dynamic Energy Budget approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Dalila; Ferreira, Pedro Pousão; Ferreira, Hugo; da Fonseca, Luís Cancela; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Duarte, Pedro

    2013-02-01

    Fish growth models may help understanding the influence of environmental, physiological and husbandry factors on fish production, providing crucial information to maximize the growth rates of cultivated species. The main objectives of this work were to: i) develop and implement an Individual Based Model using a Dynamic Energy Budget (IBM-DEB) approach to simulate the growth of two commercially important Sparidae species in semi-intensive earth ponds, the white seabream which is considered as a potential candidate for Mediterranean aquaculture and the gilthead seabream that has been cultivated since the early 80s; ii) evaluate which model parameters are more likely to affect fish performance, and iii) investigate which parameters might account for growth differences between the cultivated species. The model may be run in two modes: the "state variable" mode, in which an average fish is simulated with a particular parameter set and the "Individual Based Model" (IBM) mode that simulates a population of n fishes, each with its specific parameter set assigned randomly. The IBM mode has the advantage of allowing a quick model calibration and an evaluation of the parameter sets that produce the best fit between predicted and observed fish growth. Results revealed that the model reproduces reasonably well the growth of the two seabreams. Fish performance was mainly affected by parameters related to feed ingestion/assimilation and reserves utilization, suggesting that special attention should be taken in the estimation of these parameters when applying the model to other species. Comparing the DEB parameters set of the two sparids it seems that the white seabream's low growth rates are a result of higher maintenance costs and a lower feed assimilation efficiency. Hence, the development of new feed formulations may be crucial for the success of white seabream production in semi-intensive earth ponds.

  17. Low salinity acclimation and thyroid hormone metabolizing enzymes in gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaren, P.H.M.; Guzman, J.M.; Reutelingsperger, S.J.; Mancera, J.M.; Flik, G.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of acclimation to low salinity water of gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus), a euryhaline seawater teleost, on the activities of thyroid hormone-metabolizing enzymes in gills, kidney, and liver. Following acclimation to low salinity water, the plasma free thyroxine (T(4)) c

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF FISHING ON THE AGE STRUCTURE OF BREAM (ABRAMIS BRAMA OF THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Pilipеnko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the dynamics of the age structure of the Lower Dnieper population of bream (Abramis brama under increased pressure fishing is carried out. The data on the dynamics of indicators of the middle-weighted age of bream catches in the last ten years are determined.

  19. THE CONTENT OF SOME COMPONENTS OF METABOLISM IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF BREAM ABRAMIS BRAMA (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Flerova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Physiological condition is one of the most important characteristic used for evaluating single individuals, populations and fish stocks in general. The data on a number of physiological indicators of bream the Gorky water reservoir were presented. Amount of moisture, dry matter in the muscular tissue was determined of using two-stage determination of total moisture. Simple lipids were determined by extraction with petroleum-ether. The analysis of the results suggests that the indices of water, dry matter and simple lipids content in muscular tissue of mature males, females and juvenile individuals of bream were close. Decrease of water amount in the muscle tissue, increase of dry matter end lipids takes place along with bream ageing.

  20. A survey on osmoregulatory potential of Bream, Abramis brama (Berg, 1949 fry for restocking management programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Asgari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bream (Abramis brama, Berg, 1949; Family: Cyprinidae is commercially valuable fish in the Caspian Sea fishing industry. Iranian Fisheries Organization annually produces and release up to 19 million Bream fries size for recruiting of this species. Its fries are mostly released into the Anzali wetland with 4 ppt salinity. Meanwhile, they sometimes are released into Sefidrood River (0.5 ppt, Sefidrood River estuary (8 ppt and directly into the Caspian Sea (12 ppt. To determine whether these alternative locations are suitable for release, sixty fingerling size Bream (0.5±0.13 g b.w. were exposed to four salinity levels of these locations i.e. 0.5, 4, 8 and 12 ppt, for 120 hrs. The results displayed that accumulated mortality rate was significantly lower in exposed fish to 4 ppt (PPP

  1. Impact of fish species on levels of lead accumulation in the meat of common bream (Abramis brama L., white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L. and common bleak (Alburnus alburnus L. from the Vistula River (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena STANEK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the concentration of lead in the meat of common bream (Abramis brama L., white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L. and common bleak (Alburnus alburnus L.. The experimental fish were obtained in natural condition from Vistula River, located within Toru., near wastewater treatment plant. The study involved 60 individuals of freshwater fish caught in autumn. Analyses were carried out on 10 individuals of common bream, 20 white bream and 30 individuals of common bleak. The muscles samples for analyses were taken from the large side muscle of fish body above the lateral line. There were chosen for analyses individuals with similar biometric measurements. Due to a relatively low amounts of meat obtained from white bream and common bleak, the material from individuals of similar body length was combined (about 2-3 pieces. Pb concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer Solaar 939 QZ, ATI Unicam. Analyses of variance (test post hoc -Tukey test indicated that the mean value of lead was the highest in the meat of common bream (0.086 ƒĘgEg-1 wet weight and the lowest in the meat of white bream (0.075 ƒĘgEg-1 wet weight. There were no statistical significant differences in the lead content between the analyzed fish species (at p< 0.05. Analysis of correlation indicated a negative and statistical significant correlation between the fish body length and Pb concentration.

  2. Ontogeny of the immune system in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhizhong; He, Tao; Li, Jun; Gao, Tianxiang

    2013-09-01

    Histogenesis of the immune system and specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus from fertilization to 50 days after hatching (DAH). The pronephric tubule primordium developed in the embryo, 14 h 30 min post fertilization. The spleen anlage was observed between the swim bladder and the intestine at 5 DAH, and the thymus was formed as a paired structure under the pharyngeal epithelium above the gill arch at 10 DAH. The order of the immune organs becoming lymphoid was the pronephric kidney (10 DAH), thymus (15 DAH) and spleen (21 DAH). As the embryo developed, the specific activity of SOD gradually increased until hatching, but subsequently SOD activity continuously decreased to a minimum at 14 DAH. After the spleen became lymphoid, the specific activity of SOD was relatively stable. It is suggested that the immaturity of the lymphoid organs and low specific activity of SOD was the cause of the high mortality of fingerlings 12 to 16 DAH.

  3. Characterization of eight microsatellite markers in the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, L; Infante, C; Ponce, M; Crespo, A; Zuasti, E; Funes, V; Catanese, G; Manchado, M

    2008-11-01

    The white sea bream, Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae), is a species with a high commercial importance in Mediterranean aquaculture. There is currently little information available about the genetic characteristics of cultured populations. In this survey, we have developed eight polymorphic microsatellites for the white sea bream using an enriched genome library protocol. All of them were polymorphic in the 67 individuals tested, 32 of which were wild specimens, and 35 were individuals from a captive F(1) broodstock. These markers can potentially be useful tools for use in population genetic studies.

  4. Biological characteristics of silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna in commercial fishery in the Kyiv reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zakharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The determination and analysis of main biological characteristics of silver bream from the point of view of the formation and exploitation of its commercial stock in the Kyiv reservoir. Methodology. The work is based the results of monitoring field studies carried out on the Kyiv reservoir during 2012–2014. Ichthyological materials were collected from standard commercial gill nets with mesh sizes of 30–80 mm, which were set in different habitats and depths of the reservoir. Collection and processing of samples was carried out using conventional ichthyological methods adapted for the Dnieper reservoirs. Findings. According to the data of monitoring gill nets, silver bream population in 2014 was composed of 10 age groups. The majority of their population (70.8% in catches was composed of age-5 to age-7 fish, i.e. the number of modal classes increased due to the right wing of the older age groups. The frequency distribution of silver bream had a shape of a curve with wide, however broken (due to the reduction in age-5 fish peak and gradual decrease. Age-length properties, fatness parameters and condition factor of silver bream in the Kiev reservoir during last years remained on the stable high level indicating on favorable fattening conditions and forming the ichthyomass of this species. At the present time, silver bream of the Kyiv reservoir formed a commercial stock with such qualitative and quantitative characteristics, which allow exploiting it in the mode of traditional commercial harvest and specialized harvest of silver bream concentrations with the use of gill nets with mesh sizes of 50, 60 mm. Originality. We obtained and analyzed the new data on the current state of silver bream (Blіcca bjoerkna in Kyiv reservoir as an important element of commercial fish production. Practical Value. The results of the work allows increasing qualitative and quantitative characteristics of silver bream catches and will be used for the

  5. Morphometric indices of the bream (Abramis brama in the Kremenchuk reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Khrystenko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the long-term resultant action of complex of existing factors on the morphometric indices of the bream (Abramis brama L. in the Kremenchuk reservoir. The breams with the best exterior indices were fished by traditional fishing net during more than 40 years. This fact resulted in the survival of individuals with certain direction of variability and conduces to the change of an average index to particular value. As a result of the research, functional accordance of the morphometric indices with the environmental conditions was ascertained.

  6. Dietary keto-acid feed-back on pituitary activity in gilthead sea bream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarz, Antoni; Costa, Rita; Harrison, Adrian Paul;

    2010-01-01

    The influence of a daily oral dose of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG, 0.1 g/kg body weight), an intermediate metabolite in the Krebs cycle and a dietary additive, on the pituitary proteome of gilthead sea bream was determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). A high-resolution map of the sea...

  7. Variability of morphological characteristics of bream Abramis brama in water basins of upper Volga region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on variability of morphological readings of bream in the Rybinsk reservoir, and also in the system of reservoirs and water-currents (lake Galichskoe – river Kostroma – river Sot’ – the Kostroma expansion – Gorki reservoir were generalized.

  8. Genomic characterization, expression analysis, and antimicrobial function of a glyrichin homologue from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Wan, Qiang; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Bathige, S D N K; Lim, Bong-Soo; Jung, Hyung-Bok; Lee, Jehee; Whang, Ilson

    2013-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are important innate effector molecules, playing a vital role in antimicrobial immunity in all species. Glyrichin is a transmembrane protein and an antibacterial peptide, exerting its functions against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, cDNA and a BAC clone harboring the glyrichin gene were identified from rock bream and characterized. Genomic characterization showed that the OfGlyrichin gene exhibited a 3 exon-2 intron structure. OfGlyrichin is a 79-amino-acid protein with a transmembrane domain at (22)GFMMGFAVGMAAGAMFGTFSCLR(44). Pairwise and multiple sequence alignments showed high identity and conservation with mammalian orthologues. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship with fish species. Higher levels of OfGlyrichin transcripts were detected in the liver from healthy rock bream which were induced by immunogens like lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C, rock bream irido virus, Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus iniae. The synthetic peptide (pOf19) showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, E. tarda, and S. iniae. Analysis of the bacterial morphological features after pOf19 peptide treatment showed breakage of the cell membrane, affirming that antibacterial function is accomplished through membrane lysis. The pOf19 peptide also showed antiviral activity against RBIV infection. The high conservation of the genomic structure and protein, together with the antimicrobial roles of OfGlyrichin, provide evidence for the evolutionary existence of this protein playing a vital role in innate immune defense in rock bream.

  9. Influence of fasting on muscle composition and antioxidant defenses of market-size Sparus macrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate fasting effects on flesh composition and antioxidant defenses of market-size Sparus macrocephalus. Two hundred fish (main initial weight 580 g) were divided into two groups (control and fasted) and reared in 6 cages. After two weeks of adaptation, group Ⅰ fasted for 28 d; group Ⅱ was fed normally as a control. In 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 d,6 fish per group were sampled for proximate flesh composition, liver antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde flesh content analyses. In fasted fish, the reduction of lipid content in muscle occurred after day 3, and, compared to controls, the content of protein decreased from day 14, the activities of liver antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) increased from day 3, and flesh malondialdehyde levels increased from day 21. Flesh fat reduction shows that fasting may be used as a technique to reduce flesh lipid content in Sparus macrocephalus. However, considering flesh protein loss and the subsequent oxidative stress, the fasting technique should be used with precautions.

  10. Induced artificial androgenesis in common tench, Tinca tinca (L., using common carp and common bream eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents artificial induction using tench eggs, Tinca tinca (L., of androgenetic origin. The oocytes taken from common bream, Abramis brama (L. and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. were genetically inactivated using UV irradiation and then inseminated using tench spermatozoa. Androgenetic origin (haploid or diploid embryos was checked using a recessive colour (blond and morphological markers. The percentage of hatched embryos in all experimental groups was much lower than in the control groups. All haploid embryos showed morphological abnormalities, which were recorded as haploid syndrome (stunted body, poorly formed retina, etc.. The optimal dose of UV irradiation of common bream and common carp eggs was 3456 J m–2. At this dose, almost 100% of haploid embryos were produced at a hatching rate of over 6%. Lower UV-ray doses affected abnormal embryo development. The highest yield of tench androgenesis (about 2% was noted when eggs were exposed to thermal shock 30 min after egg activation.

  11. Variability in growth and condition of juvenile common two-banded sea bream (Diplodus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, Patrícia Nunes, 1980-

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Ecologia Marinha). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 The objective of this study was to assess the variability in condition for juvenile common two-banded sea bream Diplodus vulgaris in nursery areas of the main Portuguese estuaries using several individual condition indices. Estuaries and coastal lagoons play an important role for juveniles of marine fish because they offer areas with high availability of food, high water temperature and lower...

  12. Influence of periphyton substrates and rearing density on Liza aurata growth and production in marine nursery ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, M.; Maurice, J.T.; Anginot, A.; Paticat, F.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Hussenot, J.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The main objectives of this investigation were to test the effects of (i) the presence of periphyton substrates, (ii) rearing density and (iii) supplemental feeding with dry feed on the growth and production of golden mullet (Liza aurata) juveniles. Twenty-six 1 m2-cages were installed in a French m

  13. Biomonitoring of estrogenic exposure and identification of responsible compounds in bream from Dutch surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Corine J; Booij, Petra; van der Valk, Karin M; van Bodegom, Peter M; van den Ende, Frank; Gerritsen, Anton A M; Lamoree, Marja H; Legler, Juliette; Brouwer, Abraham

    2007-05-01

    The exposure to and effects of estrogenic compounds in male breams from Dutch freshwater locations were investigated. Ovotestis was observed infrequently (maximum frequency 16%). However, plasma vitellogenin (VTG) concentration was elevated highly at some locations. Estrogenic activities in male bream plasma, liver, and in gastrointestinal content were measured in the estrogen-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (ER-CALUX) assay. Plasma concentrations of vitellogenin correlated very well with the estrogenic activities in gastrointestinal content. The ER-CALUX activity in gastrointestinal content thus could provide a biomarker for recent exposure to estrogenic compounds, and the gastrointestinal content was chosen as investigative matrix for the toxicity identification and evaluation ([TIE]; bioassay-directed fractionation) of estrogenic compounds in bream. The approach consisted of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of gastrointestinal content extract, directed by ER-CALUX and followed by gas chromatography analysis. The estrogenic hormones 17beta-estradiol and its metabolite estrone were identified as major contributors to the activity at all locations (except the reference location), independent of the presence or absence of a known source of estrogenic activity, such as a sewage treatment plant. Chemical screening showed the presence of other pollutants, such as a lower chlorinated dioxin and the disinfectants clorophene and triclosan. However, these compounds did not have high estrogenic potencies and their concentrations were not high enough to contribute significantly to the observed estrogenic activity.

  14. Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of IGF-I from Triangular Bream(Megalobrama terminalis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Fu-dan; LIU Hong-yun

    2004-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor Ⅰ(IGF-Ⅰ)gene of triangular bream(Megalobrama terminalis)(GenBank No.AY247412)(Tb)was cloned for the first time from liver by RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequence analysis showed the Tb IGF-Ⅰ cDNA consisted of 486 nucleotides and encoded 117 amino acids including B,C,A,D and E five domains. Analysis of E-domain indicated that cloned Tb IGF-Ⅰ belonged to IGF-Ⅰ Ea-2 subtype. Identity analysis showed the IGF-Ⅰ nucleotide sequence shared 99.8% homology with bluntnose bream,88.8% with grass Carp,85.8% with common carp; the pre-IGF-Ⅰ amine acid sequence shared 99.4% with bluntnose bream,88.8% with grass carp,85.4% homology with common carp. In the Cyprinus Carpio,the higher homology of nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence in IGF-Ⅰshowed that the closer relationship the fishes have. These results could provide basic data for the research on Tb germplasm and the development and utilization of biological feed additives.

  15. 226Ra activity in the mullet species Liza aurata and South Adriatic Sea marine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antovic, N M; Antovic, I; Svrkota, N

    2010-08-01

    (226)Ra activity in the South Adriatic Sea-water, surface sediment, mud with detritus, seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) samples and the mullet (Mugilidae) species Liza aurata, as well as soil and sand from the Montenegrin Coast-was measured using the six-crystal gamma-coincidence spectrometer PRIPYAT-2M. The results are used for calculation of the absorbed (and annual effective) dose rates in air due to the (226)Ra gamma radiation. The absorbed dose rates ranged from 5.94 to 97.16 nGy h(-1) (soil) and from 0.65 to 7.65 nGy h(-1) (sand). In seawater (226)Ra activity is found to be from 0.08 to 0.15 Bq l(-1), while in whole L. aurata individuals from 0.58 to 1.97 Bq kg(-1). Annual intake of (226)Ra by human consumers of this fish species has been estimated to provide an effective dose of 0.006 mSv y(-1).

  16. Recombinant thioredoxin 1 protein: the immune-adjuvant effect of Streptococcus iniae and its safety in rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Won; Shim, Sang Hee; Lee, Jung-Ho; Jeong, Ji-Min; Park, Chan-Il

    2014-08-01

    Adjuvant is an immune enhancer commonly used during vaccination to enhance the host immune response. In the present study, we analysed the recombinant protein produced from rock bream thioredoxin 1 cDNA (rRbTRx1). To verify the immune-stimulatory effect of this recombinant protein, changes in the expression level of several genes were investigated using the cDNA microarray chips in rock bream peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with rRbTRx1. Furthermore, the immune responses of rock bream to Streptococcus iniae FKC (formalin-killed cell) vaccination alone or in combination with recombinant proteins were analysed after an experimental challenge with living S. iniae. Microarray analysis showed that 237 unique genes were upregulated more than two-fold after rRbTRx1 stimulation. Serum agglutination titres were relatively low; however, the FKC vaccine still conferred protection against S. iniae. Moreover, the adverse effects showed no statistically significant difference between fish injected with a concentration and non-injected fish. After experimental challenge to the rock bream by injection with living bacteria (S. iniae), the relative percent survival in the vaccinated groups with FKC + rRbTRx1 was significantly higher than that of the vaccinated groups with FKC alone, which were 85.9% and 68.2%, respectively. This indicated that the recombinant protein as an adjuvant showed synergism with the injected vaccine in rock bream.

  17. Molecular and biometric characterization of natural bream × roach hybrids population in the Dobczyce Reservoir (S Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej K Konopiński

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural hybrids of leuciscine cyprinids were investigated in a medium-sized submontane reservoir (49°52'N, 20°03'E, altitude 270 m in the Carpathian part of the Vistula basin. The material included 380 hybrid specimens (TL: 24.0–39.8 cm, SL: 19.0–31.7 cm, W: 134–714 g collected in 2006–2013. To detect their ancestry, genotypes of the 327 putative hybrids were compared to reference genotypes of 85 roaches, 115 common breams, 18 rudds, and 99 silver breams. Individuals were typed in 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci (Dubut et al. 2009, while species specific amplification of a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was used to detect maternal origin of hybrids (Wyatt et al. 2006. Few individuals with traces of rudd and silver bream ancestry were excluded from the study. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA suggests bias towards bream maternal origin, with only 22 individuals (6,7% with roach mitochondrial DNA. The analyzed set of hybrids was composed mostly of first generation bream × roach hybrids. Only 7 individuals (2,1% showed a sign of backcrossing to bream, however, this finding has to be confirmed by analysis of further loci as it might result from presence of null alleles in roach. F2 generation hybrids were not detected. Biometric investigation of collected specimens comprised of selected morphometric (body height, and lengths of head, trunk, and tail and meristic characters (counts of scales in lateral line and soft rays in anal fin of individuals of different maternal origin. As all the analyzed differences between these categories of specimens appeared insignificant, the investigated population of hybrids may be regarded morphologically uniform.

  18. Classification accuracy of algorithms for blood chemistry data for three aquaculture-affected marine fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coz-Rakovac, R; Topic Popovic, N; Smuc, T; Strunjak-Perovic, I; Jadan, M

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was determination and discrimination of biochemical data among three aquaculture-affected marine fish species (sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax; sea bream, Sparus aurata L., and mullet, Mugil spp.) based on machine-learning methods. The approach relying on machine-learning methods gives more usable classification solutions and provides better insight into the collected data. So far, these new methods have been applied to the problem of discrimination of blood chemistry data with respect to season and feed of a single species. This is the first time these classification algorithms have been used as a framework for rapid differentiation among three fish species. Among the machine-learning methods used, decision trees provided the clearest model, which correctly classified 210 samples or 85.71%, and incorrectly classified 35 samples or 14.29% and clearly identified three investigated species from their biochemical traits.

  19. FAST Real Time PCR for control of intra-species recycling in aquaculture feed, focused to the most relevant fish species farmed in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espiñeira, Montserrat; Vieites, Juan M

    2016-08-01

    Recent regulations in animal feed composition prohibit intra-species recycling, the recycling of one given animal species to the same species, in order to avoid potential safety risks to human and animal health. These regulations have generated the need of their control in aquaculture by effective and specific analytical techniques. To date, most studies of species identification and detection in feedstuffs are focused on land species, but few studies are focused on species composition in fish feed. The present work describes five methodologies based in Real Time PCR for detection of the most relevant fish species farmed in Europe: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata); sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax); turbot (Scophthalmus maximus); rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss); and salmon (Salmo salar), in order to guarantee the intra-species recycling regulation in aquaculture feedstuffs.

  20. Effects of temperature on energy budget of Sparus macrocephalus%温度对黑鲷(Sparus macrocephalus)能量收支的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙耀; 张波; 郭学武; 王俊; 唐启升

    2001-01-01

    The energy budget of Sparus macrocephalus was determined by continous-flow-through test method in the laboratory under deferent temperature condition.Results showed that,within the range of experiment temperature,all of food consumption energy(C),excretion energy(U),total metabolism energy(R)and growth energy(G)tended to deceleration increment with temperature's rise.The energy assigning models was expressed with 4 budget formulas.   The assigning models changed remarkably with temperature.In the models,assiging rates of metabolism and excretion energy changed as “U” shape with temperature's rise,but that of growth energy turned out contrary to it.Because metabolism and growth energy of Sparus macrocephalus takes 83.25%~91.70% and 8.30%~16.75% of assimilation energy respectively,it should belong to the fish of lower growth efficency and higher metabolism consumption.%在以玉筋鱼为饵料生物和最大摄食水平条件下,采用室内流水式实验,研究了黑鲷能量收支及温度对能量分配模式的影响。结果表明,黑鲷的摄食率、生长率、总代谢率和排泄率均随温度上升而呈减速增长趋势。不同温度条件下黑鲷的能量收支式为: 11.2±1.98℃ 100C=6.09F+9.38U+77.56R+7.02G 14.7±0.45℃ 100C=6.76F+8.75U+72.77R+11.82G 19.8±0.47℃ 100C=2.75F+8.94U+73.52R+14.79G 25.0±0.50℃ 100C=1.16F+9.18U+77.30R+12.81G 黑鲷的能量收支分配模式随温度而显著变化;其中能量代谢分配率和排泄分配率随温度升高呈U形变化趋势,而生长能分配率则恰恰相反。不同温度下黑鲷的代谢能占了同化能的83.25%~91.70%,生长能仅占8.30%~16.75%,可见黑鲷基本上属于低生长效率、高代谢消耗型鱼类。

  1. Radiometric analysis of farmed fish (sea bass, gilthead bream, and rainbow trout) from Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, A; López-Pérez, M; Karlsson, L; Hernández, F; Rubio, C; Hernández-Armas, J; Hardisson, A

    2009-09-01

    This study analyzed the content of gamma-emitting radionuclides in fish farmed on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The fish species included in this study were sea bass, gilthead bream, and rainbow trout. The first two species are produced in offshore enclosures, while the third is produced in a freshwater fish farm. All measurements were performed using two high-purity germanium gamma-ray detectors. The content of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the fodder used to feed the different species of farmed fish studied was also determined. The following nuclides were often detected in the analyzed samples: 137Cs, 40K, 235U, 228Ac, 214Bi, 208Tl, 212Pb, and 214Pb. As a complement to this analysis, 210Po concentrations in two fish samples were determined by alpha spectrometry. The nuclide presenting the highest concentration was, as expected, the naturally occurring 40K, with an average concentration of 0.13 +/- 0.01 Bq/g (wet weight) (Bq/gww) in gilthead bream and sea bass and 0.12 +/- 0.01 Bq/gww in rainbow trout. The 235U concentrations determined in the same fish species were 0.6 +/- 0.5, 0.8 +/- 0.7, and 1.6 +/- 1.0 mBq/gww, respectively. This nuclide is seldom reported in fish samples. The concentrations of 137Cs (the only artificial nuclide determined in this study) in gilthead bream and sea bass were 0.026 +/- 0.006 and 0.044 +/- 0.01 mBq/gww, respectively. In addition to the radiometric analysis, the contribution of the analyzed nuclides to the effective dose from the mean daily intake of the fish was calculated. The calculated contribution, in terms of dose per person, produced by intake of the analyzed fish was 0.8 microSv/year. This value does not represent a significant risk to the local population.

  2. Glycemic and insulin responses in white sea bream Diplodus sargus, after intraperitoneal administration of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, P; Peres, H; Pousão-Ferreira, P; Sanchez-Gurmaches, J; Navarro, I; Gutiérrez, J; Oliva-Teles, A

    2012-06-01

    A glucose tolerance test was performed in white sea bream Diplodus sargus, juveniles to evaluate the effect of a glucose load on plasma glucose, insulin, triacylglyceride levels, and on liver glycogen storage in order to study the capability of glucose utilization by this species. After being fasted for 48 h, fish were intraperitoneally injected with either 1 g of glucose per kg body weight or a saline solution. Plasma glucose rose from a basal level of 4 to a peak of 18-19 mmol l(-1), 2-4 h after glucose injection and fish exhibited hyperglycemia for 9 h. An insulin peak (from 0.5 to 0.8 ng ml(-1)) was observed 2-6 h after glucose injection, and basal value was attained within 9 h. Liver glycogen peaked 6-12 h after the glucose load and thereafter decreased to the basal value which was attained 24 h after injection. Plasma triacylglycerides in glucose-injected fish were only significantly higher than the basal value 12 h after injection. Glucose-injected fish generally showed lower plasma triacylglyceride levels than control fish. Our results indicate that under these experimental conditions, glucose acts as an insulin secretagogue in white sea bream juveniles. Moreover, insulin may have contributed to restoring basal plasma glucose levels by enhancing glucose uptake in the liver. Further studies are needed to corroborate the lipolytic action of glucose. Clearance of glucose from the blood stream was fast, comparatively to other species, indicating that white sea bream has a good capability of glucose utilization.

  3. Toxicity of dispersant application: Biomarkers responses in gills of juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Godefroy, Joachim; Théron, Michaël; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2011-10-01

    Dispersant use in nearshore areas is likely to increase the exposure of aquatic organisms to petroleum. To measure the toxicity of this controversial response technique, golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) were exposed to mechanically dispersed oil, chemically dispersed oil, dispersant alone in seawater, water-soluble fraction of oil and to seawater as a control treatment. Several biomarkers were assessed in the gills (enzymatic antioxidant activities, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation) and in the gallbladder (polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites). The significant differences between chemically dispersed oil and water soluble fraction of oil highlight the environmental risk to disperse an oil slick when containment and recovery can be conducted. The lack of significance between chemically and mechanically dispersed oil suggests that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The results of this study are of interest in order to establish dispersant use policies in nearshore areas.

  4. Elemental mapping inventory of the fish Liza aurata brain: a biomarker of metal pollution vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Rita M; Pereira, Patricia; Raimundo, Joana; Pacheco, Mário; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2015-02-01

    The elemental distributions in optic tectum of brains of wild Liza aurata a teleost fish captured in polluted and reference coastal areas were assessed quantitatively by nuclear microscopy providing insights into brain vulnerability to metal pollution. Elemental maps enabled us to visualize optic tectum layers and identify cellular arrangements. Whereas Cl, K and Ca contents identify meninges, the Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations distinguish the underneath grey matter, white matter and inner cellular layers. Exposed animals showed significantly decreased P concentrations and increased contents of Cu, Zn and Ni in all brain structures. These changes highlight homeostasis modification, altered permeability of the blood-brain barrier and suggest risk for neurological toxicity. Our study initiated for the first time an inventory of physiological measures containing images and elemental compositions of brain regions of fish exposed to different environmental conditions. This will help defining total and local brain vulnerability to metals and pollution levels.

  5. Aspects on respiratory physiology of cultured Sea bream, Sparidentex hasta (Valenciennes 1830, Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Zainal

    2016-06-01

    The fish regulatory ability to withstand declining oxygen concentration in the water was limited. A typical steep straight line relationship was found between oxygen consumption rate and oxygen concentration indicating a non regulatory ability and extreme in-tolerance to hypoxia. Therefore, the fish is considered as oxy-conformer, i.e., unable to continue metabolism at anaerobic condition. Correlation between minimum (basic oxygen consumption rate and body weight was of non-linear form. The present study provides comparative data to base on for further prospective related studies on juvenile Sea bream and other fish species.

  6. Parasites of juvenile golden grey mullet Liza aurata Risso, 1810 in Sarıkum Lagoon Lake at Sinop, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Türkay

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile golden grey mullet, Liza aurata were collected from Sarıkum Lagoon Lake which connected to the Black Sea at Sinop, Turkey and examined for parasitic fauna. A total of 219 fish were investigated throughout a 1-year period. Parasite species recovered were Trichodina lepsii, T. puytoraci, Gyrodactylus sp., Ligophorus cephali, Ligophorus mediterraneus, Solostamenides mugilis, Ascocotyle sp. (metacercaria) and Ergasilus lizae. Overall infection prevalence (%) and mean intensity values were 95.9% and 412.65 ± 85.31 parasites per infected fish, respectively. Infection prevalence and mean intensity values for each parasite species in relation to season and fish size were also determined and discussed. While Ligophorus cephali and L. mediterraneus are new records for Turkish parasite fauna, the juvenile Liza aurata is a new host record for Ligophorus cephali and L. mediterraneus.

  7. Status and future perspectives of vaccines for industrialised fin-fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudeseth, Bjørn Erik; Wiulsrød, Rune; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Lindmo, Karine; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Bordevik, Marianne; Steine, Nils; Klevan, Are; Gravningen, Kjersti

    2013-12-01

    Fin fish farming is developing from extensive to intensive high industrial scale production. Production of fish in high-density growth conditions requires effective vaccines in order to control persistent and emerging diseases. Vaccines can also have significant positive impact on the reduced usage of antibiotics. This was demonstrated when vaccines were introduced in Norway for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the late eighties and early nineties, resulting in a rapid decline of antibiotics consumption. The present review will focus on current vaccine applications for farmed industrialized fish species such as Atlantic salmon, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), cod (Gadus morhua), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), great amberjack (Seriola dumerili), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), japanese flounder (Paralichythys olivaceus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), red sea bream (Pagrus major), rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), seven band grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus), striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This paper will review the current use of licensed vaccines in fin fish farming and describe vaccine administration regimes including immersion, oral and injection vaccination. Future trends for inactivated-, live attenuated - and DNA - vaccines will also be discussed.

  8. Differences in the exploitation of bream in three shallow lake systems and their relation to water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, E.H.R.R.; Van Nes, E.H.; Mooij, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY1. The development of bream populations, water transparency, chlorophyll-a concentration, extent of submerged vegetation and densities of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, were analysed in three shallow eutrophic lake systems subject to different fish management. 2. In Lake Veluwemeer,

  9. Differences in the exploitation of bream in three shallow lake systems and their relation to water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, E.H.R.R.; Nes, van E.H.; Mooij, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    1. The development of bream populations, water transparency, chlorophyll-a concentration, extent of submerged vegetation and densities of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, were analysed in three shallow eutrophic lake systems subject to different fish management. 2. In Lake Veluwemeer, the bre

  10. Relationship between liver PCB content and biochemical and morphometric measures in bream (Abramis brama) from Rybinsk Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillitt, D.E.; Zajicek, J.L. [NBS, Columbia, MO (United States); Chuiko, G.M.; Flerov, B.A.; Stepanova, V.M.; Zhelnin, Y.Y.; Pod`gornaya, V.A. [IBIW, Borok (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    PCBs are widely distributed in aquatic environments throughout the world, due to local contamination and global transport. However, little is known of the local distribution of PCBs in Rybinsk Reservoir, Russia. The Rybinsk Reservoir, constructed in the 1940`s, is the largest artificial waterbody in Europe (4,550 km{sup 2}) and provides drinking water for cities in the surrounding area. Industrialization in Cherepovetz, a city at the northeastern portion of the reservoir including the largest metallurgical facility in Europe, has resulted in chemical contamination of the reservoir. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of PCB contamination in Bream taken from six locations in the reservoir and to compare the chemical analyses with biochemical and morphometric indicators of fish health. Concentrations of PCBs ranged from non-detected to 3.4 ug/g of liver, with the greatest concentrations found in fish taken near the industrialized area. The pattern of the PCB congeners in the livers of Bream taken near Cherepovetz closely resembled that of the standard Aroclor 1254. PCB content was negatively correlated with protein content and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in Bream liver. Other morphometric factors and biochemical measures varied among locations, but were unrelated to concentrations of PCBs in the livers of Bream.

  11. The analysis of the pharyngeal-sieve mechanism and the efficiency of food intake in the bream (Abramis brama, Cyprinidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboezem, W.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanism and the selectivity of food intake in bream ( Abramis brama ). It is a compilation of six articles which have been published (or will soon be published) in international journals.In the first chapter, diets and feeding modes in cyprinid fishes are described

  12. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of hyaluronan binding protein 2 (HABP2) in red sea bream Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Asami; Wang, Yajun; Bae, Inwoo; Cao, Min-Jie; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Hara, Kenji

    2013-08-01

    Previously we have isolated a novel gelatinolytic serine proteinase, named G1, from the muscle and the plasma of red sea bream. In order to clarify the structure and function of G1, we cloned the full-length cDNA of G1 from the hepatopancreas of red sea bream. G1 cDNA encoded 633 amino acids with a secretory signal sequence at N-terminus, three epidermal growth factor-like domains, a kringle domain, and a trypsin-like serine protease domain. The active site residues of a serine proteinase were conserved in the serine protease domain of G1. The tissue distributions of the mRNA and gelatinolytic activity of G1 were investigated using RT-PCR and gelatin zymography, respectively. Its activity was detected in various tissues while the mRNA of it was strongly expressed in the hepatopancreas. These results suggest that G1 is synthesized in hepatopancreas and carried to the muscle, kidney, heart and ovary via the bloodstream in the red sea bream. The enzyme has a similar domain structure and tissue distribution to those of human hyaluronan binding protein 2 (HABP2) engaged in the extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. Thus, it is suggested that G1 is identified as HABP2 and is possibly involved in ECM proteolysis of red sea bream.

  13. Heavy metal concentrations inLiza aurata(Risso, 1810) captured from the Kerkennah Islands (Gulf of Gabes) and associated health risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zohra Ben Salem; Ayadi Habib

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the liver, gills and muscle ofLiza aurata (L. aurata) collected from the Kerkennah Islands. The target hazard quotient was also used as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption. Methods:The sample was collected from Kerkennah Islands (Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia). Heavy metals inL. aurata tissues (gills, liver and muscle) were analysed with an atomic absorption spectrometer (PerkinElmer). Results:As expected, muscle always possessed the lowest concentrations of all metals. The maximum concentrations of Cd (0.52 mg/kgwet weight), Cu (5.43 mg/kgwet weight), Fe (115.27mg/kgwet weight) and Zn (112.20 mg/kgwet weight) were measured in the liver, while the highest Ni (1.54 mg/kgwet weight) and Pb (1.43 mg/kgwet weight) were recorded in gills. The target hazard quotientthrough consumption of fish and calculated by adding the inividual target hazard quotient was below 1, indicating that there was no significant potential health risk associated with consumption ofL. aurata. Conclusions:L. aurata from the Kerkennah Islands may be suitable for human consumption.

  14. Development of PCR method for detecting Kudoa iwatai (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Chan-Hyeok; Do, Jeung-Wan; Nam, U-Hwa; Kim, Wi-Sik; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2017-02-01

    We developed a PCR assay targeting the 28S rDNA of Kudoa iwatai (Multivalvulida: Myxozoa) and investigated the prevalence of infection in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus, which is commercially an important aquaculture species in Korea, with this assay. Detection limit of the PCR assay was 2.5 fg/μl with plasmid DNA and 8.6 × 10(3) spores/ml with purified spores, respectively. This PCR assay did not amplify DNA of other Kudoa species (Kudoa septempunctata, Kudoa lateolabracis, Kudoa thyrsites) tested. Sliced muscles of whole body from 318 rock bream (wild and cultured) were examined by this PCR assay and also with the naked eyes. All of the wild fish did not produce amplicons nor did harbor visible Kudoa cysts (0/70). Three of the cultured fish were PCR-positive and also harbored visible Kudoa cysts (3/248, 1.2%). The sequences of amplicons (574 bp) were 100% identical with those of the K. iwatai already registered in Genbank. When the visceral organs of these three fish were examined, visible cysts were not found, but one stomach sample was found to be PCR-positive. There was no difference in the prevalence of infection estimated by PCR assay and the presence of visible Kudoa cysts in our samples. This is thought to be because the development of K. iwatai is already completed and only mature Kudoa cysts existed in our samples.

  15. Ontogeny expression of ghrelin, neuropeptide Y and cholecystokinin in blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, H-C; Feng, K; Zhang, G-R; Wei, K-J; Zou, G-W; Wang, W-M

    2014-04-01

    Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) all have important roles in the regulation of feeding in fish and mammals. To better understand the role of the three peptides in appetite regulation in the early developmental stages of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), partial cDNA sequences of ghrelin, NPY and CCK genes were cloned. And then, real-time quantitative PCR and RT-PCR were used to detect and quantify the mRNA expressions of these genes from zygotes to larvae of 50 days after hatching (DAH). Ghrelin, NPY and CCK were all expressed throughout the embryonic and larval development stages, and the expression levels were higher in larval stages than in embryonic stages. Ghrelin and NPY mRNA expressions were upregulated at 1, 3, 5 DAH, while CCK mRNA expression was reduced significantly at 3 DAH. The mRNA expression levels of three genes in larvae varied significantly until 30 DAH. In adult fish, all three peptides were detected to be expressed in brain and several peripheral tissues. Ghrelin mRNA was mainly expressed in the intestine, whereas NPY and CCK mRNAs were mainly expressed in the brain. Taken together, these results indicate that ghrelin, NPY and CCK may have roles in early development and participate in the regulation of feeding of larvae in blunt snout bream and will be helpful for further investigation into feed intake regulation in adults of this species.

  16. Effect of guar gum on glucose and lipid metabolism in white sea bream Diplodus sargus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, P; Pousão-Ferreira, P; Salmerón, C; Capilla, E; Navarro, I; Gutiérrez, J; Oliva-Teles, A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of soluble non-starch polysaccharide (guar gum) on white sea bream Diplodus sargus, glucose and lipid metabolism. A control diet was formulated to contain 40 % crude protein, 14 % crude lipids and 35 % pregelatinized maize starch, and three other diets were formulated similar to the control diet except for guar gum, which was included at 4 % (diet GG4), 8 % (diet GG8) or 12 % (diet GG12). Diets were fed to the fish for 9 weeks on a pair-feeding scheme. Guar gum had no effect on growth performance, feed efficiency, glycaemia, cholesterolaemia and plasma triacylglyceride levels. Hepatic glucokinase and pyruvate kinase activities, liver glycogen content and liver insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression were not affected by dietary guar gum, while fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity was lower in fish fed guar gum-supplemented diets. Hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was higher in fish fed diets GG4 and GG8 than in the control group. Overall, data suggest that in contrast to mammals guar gum had no effect on white sea bream glucose utilization and in lowering plasma cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels. However, it seems to contribute to lower endogenous glucose production.

  17. Effect of artificial regulations of Artemia n-3 HUFA content on growth and survival of black seabream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Ke

    1998-06-01

    The requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black seabream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was tested using Artemia with various levels of n-3 HUFA. Four treatments with Artemia differing in their n-3 HUFA were prepared by feeding them various oil emulsions. The results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influences fish n-3 HUFA levels and are necessary for good growth and survival of black seabream larvae. The proper value of n-3 HUFA level and DHA, EPA level in Artemia should be 4.273% and 0.873% (wet weight) for good growth and survival in black seabream larvae respectively.

  18. Usporedba kemijskog sastava i količine teških metala u mesu lubina (Dicentrarchus labrax) i komarče (Sparus aurata) iz uzgoja i slobodnog ulova

    OpenAIRE

    Vulić, dipl. ing., dr. sc. Ana; Pleadin, dipl. ing., doc. dr. sc. Jelka; Perši, dipl. ing., dr. sc. Nina; Bogdanović, dipl. ing., dr. sc. Tanja; Zrnčić, dr. med. vet., dr. sc. Snježana; Oraić, dr. med. vet., dr. sc. Dražen

    2012-01-01

    Sažetak Svrha ovog istraživanja bila je usporediti kemijski sastav i količinu teških metala u mesu lubina i komarče iz uzgoja i slobodnog ulova. Ukupno je analizirano 30 uzoraka komarče i 30 uzoraka lubina, konzumne veličine, od čega je polovica uzoraka bila iz uzgoja, a polovica iz slobodnog ulova. Analize kemijskog sastava pokazale su da kod obje vrste ribe postoji statističku značajna razlika u količini vode, bjelančevina, masti i kolagena između jedinki iz ulova i uzgoja. Utvr...

  19. First description of programmed cell death10 (PDCD10) in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Potential relations to the regulation of apoptosis by several pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Won; Jeong, Ji-Min; Bae, Jin-Sol; Cho, Dong-Hee; Jung, Sung Hee; Hwang, Jee-Youn; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong; Seo, Jung Soo; Baeck, Gun-Wook; Park, Chan-Il

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized programmed cell death10 (PDCD10), which is known to be related to apoptosis, from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). The full-length rock bream PDCD10 (RbPDCD10) cDNA (1459 bp) contains an open reading frame of 633 bp that encodes 210 amino acids. Furthermore, multiple alignments revealed that the six of the α-helix bundles were well conserved among the other PDCD10 sequences tested. RbPDCD10 was significantly expressed in the liver, RBC (red blood cell), gill, intestine, trunk kidney and spleen. RbPDCD10 gene expression was also examined in several tissues, including the kidney, spleen, liver, and gill, under bacterial and viral challenges. Generally, all of the examined tissues from the fish that were infected with Edwardsiella tarda and the red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) exhibited significant up-regulations of RbPDCD10 expression compared to the controls. However, RbPDCD10 expression exhibited dramatic down-regulations in all of the examined tissues following injections of Streptococcus iniae, which is major bacterial pathogen that is responsible for mass mortality in rock bream. Our results revealed that rock bream PDCD10 may be involved in the apoptotic regulation of rock bream immune responses.

  20. Effects of water temperature on mortality in Megalocytivirus-infected rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck et Schlegel) and development of protective immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M H; Jung, S J; Vinay, T N; Nikapitiya, C; Kim, J O; Lee, J H; Lee, J; Oh, M J

    2015-08-01

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) causes huge losses, especially in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus. Rock bream injected with RBIV and held at 29, 26, 23 or 20 °C had 100% mortality. Conversely, all infected fish held at 17 °C survived even after the temperature was progressively increased to 26 °C at 100 dpi. Rock bream exposed to virus and held for 2, 4 and 7 days at 23/26 °C before the temperature was reduced to 17 °C had mortality rates of 26.6/73.2%, 66.6/100% and 93.4/100%, respectively, through 100 dpi. When surviving fish had the water temperature increased from 17 to 26 °C at 100 dpi, they did not exhibit signs of disease and had low virus copy numbers (below 10(3)). To investigate the development of a protective immune, rock bream were infected with RBIV and held at 23 °C before shifting the water temperature to 17 °C at 4 dpi. All injected fish survived until 120 dpi. While 100% of the previously unexposed fish died, 80.2% of the previously infected fish survived. When the survivors were rechallenged again at 160 dpi, no further mortality occurred. The high survival rate of fish following rechallenge with RBIV indicates that protective immunity was established in the surviving rock bream.

  1. Investigation of heavy metal pollution in eastern Aegean Sea coastal waters by using Cystoseira barbata, Patella caerulea, and Liza aurata as biological indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın-Önen, S; Öztürk, M

    2017-01-19

    In order to have an extensive contamination profile of heavy metal levels (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), seawater, sediment, Patella caerulea, Cystoseira barbata, and Liza aurata were investigated by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Samples were collected from five coastal stations along the eastern Aegean Sea coast (Turkey) on a monthly basis from July 2002 through May 2003. According to the results of this study, heavy metal levels were arranged in the following sequence: Fe > Pb > Zn > Mn > Ni > Cu > Cd for water, Fe > Cu > Mn > Ni > Zn > Pb > Cd for sediment, Fe > Zn > Mn > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cu for C. barbata, Fe > Zn > Mn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cd for P. caerulea, and Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd for L. aurata. Moreover, positive relationships between Fe in water and Mn in water, Fe in sediment and Mn in sediment, Fe in C. barbata and Mn in C. barbata, Fe in P. caerulea and Mn in P. caerulea, and Fe in L. aurata and Mn in L. aurata may suggest that these metals could be originated from the same anthropogenic source. C. barbata represented with higher bioconcentration factor (BCF) values, especially for Fe, Mn, and Zn values. This observation may support that C. barbata can be used as an indicator species for the determinations of Fe, Mn, and Zn levels. Regarding Turkish Food Codex Regulation's residue limits, metal values in L. aurata were found to be lower than the maximum permissible levels issued by Turkish legislation and also the recommended limits set by FAO/WHO guidelines. The results of the investigation indicated that P. caerulea, L. aurata, and especially C. barbata are quantitative water-quality bioindicators and biomonitoring subjects for biologically available metal accumulation for Aegean Sea coastal waters.

  2. Age and Growth Characteristics of Crimson Sea Bream Paragyrops edita Tanaka in Beibu Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Gang; FENG Bo; LU Huosheng; ZHU Junfeng

    2008-01-01

    Age and growth characteristics of crimson sea bream Paragyrops edita Tanaka in Beibu Gulf were studied through bot-tom trawling and gillnet fleets fishing from July 2006 to December 2007.A total number of 1155 individuals,ranging from 49 to 249mmin standard length was examined.The age of the fish was determined from sagittal otoliths.One year growth was made up of onetranslucent and one opaque zone.A maximum likelihood estimation procedure was used to fit the Von Bertalanffy,Logistic andGompertz growth functions to the length-at-age data.ARSS indicated that there were no significant differences in growth betweensexes in the three growth models (P>0.05),and the Von Bertalanffy growth function L=292.8{1-exp[-0.167(t+1.116)]} was se-lected as the most appropriate growth model according to Akaike's information criterion (AIC).

  3. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON CHROMOSOMES OF INDUCED TRIPLOID IN THE RED SEA BREAM, PAGROSOMUS MAJOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Triploidy red sea bream were induced by cold-shock techniques (0-3℃) in Qingdao in April 1994, May 1995 and May 1996. Normal diploidy and triploidy chromosome metaphases were produced by chromosome spreads from the gastrula. Counts of 104 chromosome metaphases of normal diploid showed each of them consisted of 2 acrocentric (st) and 46 telocentric (t) chromosomes. Based on the relative lengths and arm ratios, the 48 chromosomes were matched into 24 pairs. Counts of 107 chromosome metaphases of induced triploid showed that each metaphase consisted of 3 acrocentric (st) and 69 telocentric (t) chromosomes. The 72 chromosomes were easily matched into three sets of chromosomes, based on the relative lengths and arm ratios.

  4. Suppression of aromatase activity in populations of bream (Abramis brama) from the river Elbe, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Markus; Sanderson, J Thomas; Karbe, Ludwig

    2007-01-01

    Aromatase activity was determined in brain and gonads of wild bream collected along the river Elbe, Germany, and correlated with other endocrine and reproductive endpoints such as plasma sex steroid concentrations, secondary sex characteristics (STI), plasma vitellogenin, gonad size (GSI), and maturation stages of germ cells (MS) that were reported for the same fish in a previous study. Furthermore, regional patterns of aromatase activity were correlated to a number of environmental factors such as exposure to environmental contaminants and parasitism. While aromatase activity was not detectable in the gonads of male and female fish with the assay used, fish of both genders revealed relatively great brain enzyme activities. As for most of the endocrine and reproductive parameters, with the exception of plasma testosterone (T), aromatase activities were significantly less in fish from a river stretch characterized by elevated exposures to organic contaminants and metals. Brain aromatase activity was positively and significantly correlated with plasma estradiol (E2) and MS in females, and showed a similar trend with plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and STI in males. No comparable trend occurred for T. This decrease of the reproductively relevant hormones 11KT and E2 may be indicative of a disruption of the last step in sex hormone synthesis, a hypothesis that was supported for E2 by the strong (R2=0.78, p<0.05) linear regression between aromatase activity and E2 in female bream. It is also hypothesized that the effects on brain aromatase activity were likely to be related to the disruption of other reproductive parameters including sexual maturity and expression of secondary sex characteristics. Although a number of factors such as exposure to pollutants and prevalence of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis correlated with the suppression of aromatase activity, the exact causes for the regional decrease in brain aromatase activity remain unclear due to inconsistencies

  5. Estrogenic followed by anti-estrogenic effects of PCBs exposure in juvenil fish (Spaurus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, M; Alberghina, D; Bitto, A; Lauriano, E R; Lo Cascio, P

    2010-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is a phospho-lipo-glycoprotein produced by oviparous animals in response to estrogen receptor (ER) binding. The presence of Vtg in juvenile and male fish liver and plasma has been used as biomarker to evaluate levels of environmental contaminants as dioxin and PCBs. Interaction of dioxins and PCBs with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) may affect reproduction by recruitment of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PCB-126, a co-planar PCB prototypical AhR agonist, and of PCB-153, a non-coplanar PCB lacking dioxine-like activity, on Vtg expression in young fish (Spaurus aurata) after a 12 or 24h exposure to PCBs as well as 48h following PCBs removal. Vtg expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and by Western-blot analysis. Our results showed an increased Vtg expression following PCBs administration, with a maximum level after 12h of exposure to either PCB-126, PCB-153 or a mixture of both PCBs. Following this estrogenic activity, an anti-estrogenic activity was detected after 24h of incubation with PCB-126 (alone or mixed with PCB-153), suggested by a decrease in Vtg expression likely through AhR, as a consequence of a hypothetic defence mechanism to endogenous or exogenous ligands.

  6. [Hemoglobin system of golden mullet (Liza aurata, Risso) at adaptation to conditions of outer hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A A; Parfenova, I A

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of experiment, effect of outer hypoxia on the hemoglobin heterogeneous system and respiratory blood characteristics were studied in the golden mullet (Liza aurata R). The control fish groups was maintained at oxygen pressure of 158-162 gPa, the experimental group at 54-55 gPa. Exposure--15 days, water temperature--15 degrees C. Under conditions of oxygen deficit in the mullet body there is noted development of complex of compensatory reactions directed to maintenance of the oxygen blood capacity. Initially (the 1st-2nd day), the release of erythrocytes from spleen is noted, which increases the number of red blood cells and the hemoglobin concentration in blood (emergency adaptation). Then (the 10th-15th day), quantitative readjustments occur at the level of the hemoglobin system, which lead to an increase of blood affinity to oxygen and to a decrease of its sensitivity to pH (long-term adaptation). The revealed changes take place on the background of a decrease of volume of circulating erythrocytes, which reflects the character of change of erythrocytic (MCV, MCHC) and seem to be a consequence of partial dehydration of blood plasma.

  7. Erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities in wild and caged fish (Liza aurata) along an environmental mercury contamination gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, S; Válega, M; Pereira, M E; Santos, M A; Pacheco, M

    2008-07-01

    Laranjo basin (Aveiro, Portugal) has been subjected to mercury contamination from a chlor-alkali plant, presenting a well-described mercury gradient. This study aims the assessment of mercury genotoxicity in this area by measuring erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) frequency in the mullet Liza aurata, and its relation with total mercury concentration (Hg(t)) in blood. Wild fish were seasonally analysed, and, complementarily, fish were caged for 3 days at three locations differing on their distances to the mercury source. The results from Laranjo were compared with those from a reference area (S. Jacinto). Wild fish from Laranjo showed elevated ENA frequency in summer and autumn in concomitance with increased blood Hg(t). Surprisingly, no ENA induction was found in winter, despite the highest blood Hg(t), which may be explained by haematological dynamics alterations, as supported by a decreased immature erythrocytes frequency. Caged fish displayed ENA induction only at the closest site to the contamination source, also showing a correlation with blood Hg(t).

  8. Toxicity of dispersant application: Biomarkers responses in gills of juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.milinkovitch01@univ-lr.fr [Littoral Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Godefroy, Joachim [Littoral Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Theron, Michael, E-mail: michael.theron@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire ORPHY EA4324, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 Avenue le Gorgeu, CS 93837, 29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France); Thomas-Guyon, Helene, E-mail: helene.thomas@univ-lr.fr [Littoral Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Dispersant use in nearshore areas is likely to increase the exposure of aquatic organisms to petroleum. To measure the toxicity of this controversial response technique, golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) were exposed to mechanically dispersed oil, chemically dispersed oil, dispersant alone in seawater, water-soluble fraction of oil and to seawater as a control treatment. Several biomarkers were assessed in the gills (enzymatic antioxidant activities, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation) and in the gallbladder (polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites). The significant differences between chemically dispersed oil and water soluble fraction of oil highlight the environmental risk to disperse an oil slick when containment and recovery can be conducted. The lack of significance between chemically and mechanically dispersed oil suggests that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The results of this study are of interest in order to establish dispersant use policies in nearshore areas. - Highlights: > This study simulates and evaluates the toxicity of dispersant use in nearshore area. > Dispersant use toxicity is assessed through biomarkers measurement in a fish species. > Chemical dispersion of an oil slick increases the petroleum toxicity. > Dispersant use does not enhance the toxicity of a mechanically dispersed oil slick. > This work leads to conclusions concerning dispersant use policies in nearshore area. - When the meteorological conditions induce the dispersion of the oil slick (e.g. wave), the application of dispersant does not increase the toxicity of petroleum.

  9. Demographic and genetic structures of white sea bream populations (Diplodus sargus, Linnaeus, 1758) inside and outside a Mediterranean marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenfant, Philippe

    2003-08-01

    We studied the white sea bream (Diplodus sargus), a protandrous hermaphroditic fish, in two protected and unprotected areas in southwestern France. We observed a significant difference in the demographic structure between the two areas. Females were present in two different age distributions inside and outside the marine reserve with younger females outside. This suggests plasticity in the age of sexual inversion in the case of an exploited population. Genetic differentiation was weak and apparent at only one locus of 26 surveyed (FST = 0.007, p = 0.04). Our data suggest that gene flow between the two areas is important, or the separation between the two sites is recent. Our data on the white sea bream show that fishes inside and outside the marine reserve are very similar genetically, which means that the 'reserve effect' is truly a demographic one, not the result of genetic differences.

  10. Diel activity and variability in habitat use of white sea bream in a temperate marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Manfredi; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Badalamenti, Fabio; Guidetti, Paolo; Starr, Richard M; Giacalone, Vincenzo Maximiliano; Di Franco, Antonio; D'Anna, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Fish populations are often comprised of individuals that use habitats and associated resources in different ways. We placed sonic transmitters in, and tracked movements of, white sea bream (Diplodus sargus sargus) in the no-take zone of a Mediterranean marine protected area: the Torre Guaceto marine protected area, (Adriatic Sea, Italy). Tagged fish displayed three types of diel activity patterns in three different habitats: sand, rocky reefs and "matte" of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Individuals were more active during the day than at night. Overall, white sea bream displayed a remarkable behavioural plasticity in habitat use. Our results indicate that the observed behavioural plasticity in the marine protected area could be the result of multiple ecological and environmental drivers such as size, sex and increased intra-specific competition. Our findings support the view that habitat diversity helps support high densities of fishes.

  11. First record of red filament threadfin bream, Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1830) (Perciformes, Nemipteridae),from Chinese waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Ping; WU Renxie; LIU Jing

    2011-01-01

    We collected five specimens of threadfin bream from Beihai,Guangxi,China in March 2010.These were subsequently identified as red filament threadfin bream Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes,1830),being the first record of this species from Chinese waters.N.marginatus is distinguished by the following characteristics:lower border of eye lies above a line from tip of snout to upper base of pectoral fin; mouth oblique,maxillary extending to lower anterior border of pupil; teeth in jaws in several rows,pointed; upper jaw with 3 to 5 pairs of small recurved canines; suborbital with straight lower edge and rounded posterior edge; pectoral fins extending to between level of anus and origin of anal fin; pelvic fins reaching to the first or second anal rays; caudal fm forked,upper lobe tails into a short reddish filament; dorsal fin bluish with a yellow margin distally and a broad yellow median band which subdivides posteriorly into 3 small bands.

  12. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Cathepsin B and L cysteine proteases from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Ilson; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Youngdeuk; Kim, Yucheol; Lee, Sukkyoung; Oh, Chulhong; Jung, Sung-Ju; Oh, Myung-Joo; Choi, Cheol Young; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Se-Jae; Lee, Jehee

    2011-03-01

    Cathepsins are lysosomal cysteine proteases of the papain family that play an important role in intracellular protein degradation and turn over within the lysosomal system. In the present study, full-length sequences of cathepsin B (RbCathepsin B) and L (RbCathepsin L) were identified after transcriptome sequencing of rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus mixed tissue cDNA. Cathepsin B was composed of 330 amino acid residues with 36 kDa predicted molecular mass. RbCathepsin L contained 336 amino acid residues encoding for a 38 kDa predicted molecular mass protein. The sequencing analysis results showed that both cathepsin B and L contain the characteristic papain family cysteine protease signature and active sites for the eukaryotic thiol proteases of cysteine, asparagine and histidine. In addition, RbCathepsin L contained EF hand Ca(2+) binding and cathepsin propeptide inhibitor domains. The rock bream cathepsin B and L showed the highest amino acid identity of 90 and 95% to Lutjanus argentimaculatus cathepsin B and Lates calcarifer cathepsin L, respectively. By phylogenetic analysis, cathepsin B and L exhibited a high degree of evolutionary relationship to respective cathepsin family members of the papain superfamily. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis results confirmed that the expression of cathepsin B and L genes was constitutive in all examined tissues isolated from un-induced rock bream. Moreover, activation of RbCathepsin B and L mRNA was observed in both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Edwardsiella tarda challenged liver and blood cells, indicating a role of immune response in rock bream.

  13. Mitochondrial Genome Variation after Hybridization and Differences in the First and Second Generation Hybrids of Bream Fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Zhuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Hybridization plays an important role in fish breeding. Bream fishes contribute a lot to aquaculture in China due to their economically valuable characteristics and the present study included five bream species, Megalobrama amblycephala, Megalobrama skolkovii, Megalobrama pellegrini, Megalobrama terminalis and Parabramis pekinensis. As maternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome (mitogenome involves species specific regulation, we aimed to investigate in which way the inheritance of mitogenome is affected by hybridization in these fish species. With complete mitogenomes of 7 hybrid groups of bream species being firstly reported in the present study, a comparative analysis of 17 mitogenomes was conducted, including representatives of these 5 bream species, 6 first generation hybrids and 6 second generation hybrids. The results showed that these 17 mitogenomes shared the same gene arrangement, and had similar gene size and base composition. According to the phylogenetic analyses, all mitogenomes of the hybrids were consistent with a maternal inheritance. However, a certain number of variable sites were detected in all F1 hybrid groups compared to their female parents, especially in the group of M. terminalis (♀ × M. amblycephala (♂ (MT×MA, with a total of 86 variable sites between MT×MA and its female parent. Among the mitogenomes genes, the protein-coding gene nd5 displayed the highest variability. The number of variation sites was found to be related to phylogenetic relationship of the parents: the closer they are, the lower amount of variation sites their hybrids have. The second generation hybrids showed less mitogenome variation than that of first generation hybrids. The non-synonymous and synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS were calculated between all the hybrids with their own female parents and the results indicated that most PCGs were under negative selection.

  14. Comparison of genetic variation of wild and farmed Bream (Abramis brama orientalis; berg, 1905 using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Hosseinnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bream (Abramis brama orientalis is one of the most commercially valuable fish in the Caspian Sea. The aim of this study was to compare levels of genetic polymorphism between wild and farmed Bream populations using seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was investigated by studying samples collected from two regions; Chaboksar and the Artificial Propagation Center of Guilan province. Allele frequency was found to have declined in wild and cultured fish due to inbreeding and genetic drift. Significant population differentiation (Fst was observed between wild and farmed populations, which could be explained by the low number of alleles in two populations. Significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were found at more loci. Beyond the null alleles' hypothesis, heterozygote deficiency may have arisen due to inbreeding. Both populations showed lowest genetic diversity according to the number of alleles and genotypes per each locus. This approach was carried out for the first time and could provide information regarding the genetic variability of farmed and wild abramis brama fish using microsatellite markers. Results could be used for the management and conservation of artificial Bream propagation programs.

  15. The testis and ovary transcriptomes of the rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus: A bony fish with a unique neo Y chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus is considerably one of the most economically important marine fish in East Asia and has a unique neo-Y chromosome system that is a good model to study the sex determination and differentiation in fish. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the testis and ovary tissues of rock bream. A total of 40,004,378 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406649 and 53,108,992 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406648 high quality reads were obtained from testis and ovary RNA sequencing, respectively, and 60,421 contigs (with average length of 1301 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 14,036 contigs that show gender-enriched expressional profile with either testis-enriched (237 contigs or ovary-enriched (581 contigs with RPKM >100. There are 237 male- and 582 female-abundant expressed genes that show sex dimorphic expression. We hope that the gonad transcriptome and those gender-enriched transcripts of rock bream can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of teleost gonad tissue and give useful information in fish gonad development.

  16. The effect of progressive hypoxia on spontaneous activity in single and shoaling golden grey mullet Liza aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, C; Ferrari, R S; Moreira da Silva, J; Domenici, P

    2009-11-01

    The hypothesis of a differential effect of hypoxia on activity in shoaling v. solitary fish was tested in golden grey mullet Liza aurata. In both solitary and shoaling fish, (1) swimming activity increased significantly at aurata, probably related to increased safety while in numbers. In addition, shoaling fish spent a higher proportion of time performing aquatic surface respiration at 15% air saturation (i.e. the highest oxygen level at which aquatic surface respiration was observed) than solitary fish, possibly because of (1) synchronization of aquatic surface respiration in shoaling fish and (2) lower risk of predation perceived by shoaling fish.

  17. Evaluation of DNA damage induced by environmental exposure to mercury in Liza aurata using the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla Sofia Alves; Guilherme, Sofia Isabel Antunes Gomes; Barroso, Carlos Miguel Miguez; Verschaeve, Luc; Pacheco, Mário Guilherme Garcês; Mendo, Sónia Alexandra Leite Velho

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the major aquatic contaminants even though emissions have been reduced over the years. Despite the relative abundance of investigations carried out on Hg toxicity, there is a scarcity of studies on its DNA damaging effects in fish under realistic exposure conditions. This study assessed the Hg genotoxicity in Golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) at Laranjo basin, a particularly contaminated area of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) well known for its Hg contamination gradient. (1) Fish were seasonally caught at Laranjo basin and at a reference site (S. Jacinto), and (2) animals from the reference site were transplanted and caged (at bottom and surface), for 3 days, in two different locations within Laranjo basin. Using the comet assay, blood was analyzed for genetic damage and apoptotic cell frequency. The seasonal survey showed greater DNA damage in the Hg-contaminated area for all sampling seasons excluding winter. The temporal variation pattern of DNA lesions was: summer approximately autumn > winter > spring. Fish caged at Laranjo also exhibited greater DNA damage than those caged at the reference site, highlighting the importance of gill uptake on the toxicity of this metal. No increased susceptibility to apoptosis was detected in either wild or caged fish, indicating that mercury damages DNA of blood cells by a nonapoptotic mechanism. Both L. aurata and the comet assay proved to be sensitive and suitable for genotoxicity biomonitoring in mercury-contaminated coastal systems.

  18. Mercury accumulation patterns and biochemical endpoints in wild fish (Liza aurata): a multi-organ approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieiro, C L; Duarte, A C; Pereira, M E; Pacheco, M

    2011-11-01

    The integration of bioaccumulation and effect biomarkers in fish has been proposed for risk evaluation of aquatic contaminants. However, this approach is still uncommon, namely in the context of mercury contamination. Furthermore, a multi-organ evaluation allows an overall account of the organisms' condition. Having in mind the organs' role on metal toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, gills, liver and kidney of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) were selected and mercury accumulation, antioxidant responses and peroxidative damage were assessed. Two critical locations in terms of mercury occurrence were selected from an impacted area of the Ria de Aveiro, Portugal (L1, L2), and compared with a reference area. Although kidney was the organ with the highest mercury load, only gills and liver were able to distinguish mercury accumulation between reference (R) and contaminated stations. Each organ demonstrated different mercury burdens, whereas antioxidant responses followed similar patterns. Liver and kidney showed an adaptive capacity to the intermediate degree of contamination/accumulation (L1) depicted in a catalase activity increase. In contrast, none of the antioxidants was induced under higher contamination/accumulation (L2) in any organ, with the exception of renal GST. The lack of lipid peroxidation increase observed in the three organs denunciates the existence of an efficient antioxidant system. However, the evidences of limitations on antioxidants performance at L2 cannot be overlooked as an indication of mercury-induced toxicity. Having in mind the responses of the three organs, CAT revealed to be the most suitable parameter for identifying mercury exposure in the field. Overall, organ-specific mercury burdens were unable to distinguish the intermediate degree of contamination, while antioxidant responses revealed limitations on signalizing the worst scenario, reinforcing the need to their combined use.

  19. Effects of nonylphenol on juveniles and adults in the grey mullet, Liza aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cionna, Cristina; Maradonna, Francesca; Olivotto, Ike; Pizzonia, Gianluca; Carnevali, Oliana

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nonylphenol (NP), an environmental pollutant known to have estrogenic activity, on grey mullets. Juvenile and adult physiology was monitored by the expression of vitellogenin (VTG), which is commonly induced by estrogenic pollutants, and cytochrome P4501A1(CYP1A1) as a first signal of detoxification. The dose-response estrogenic effects of NP (25, 100, 1000 microg/l) on hepatic VTG transcript and plasma protein levels, as well as on CYP1A1 transcription and its associated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, were assessed in juvenile Liza aurata; 17beta-estradiol (E2; 2 microg/l) treatment for 1 week served as positive control. In addition, we investigated VTG and CYP1A1 expression in adult males injected with two NP at 0.25 or 250 mg/kg body weight relative to 0.07 mg/kg of E2 as a positive control. Juvenile exposure to NP failed to induce a measurable VTG response. In the adult fish, NP exerted estrogenic effects only at the highest dose injected. E2 treatment elicited VTG induction only in adults in a time-related manner. In contrast, NP treatment induced a dose-dependent decrease in CYP1A1 response in both juveniles and adults. An inhibitory effect of E2 on CYP1A1 was evident in all treatment groups as well. These data suggest that, in biomonitoring studies, testing the expression of different biomarkers may provide a more realistic picture of the environmental conditions.

  20. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on lipogenesis and lipolysis in black sea bream, Acanthopagrus schlegeli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Hong; OM Ahamd Daud; YOSHIMATSU Takao; UMINO Testuya; NAKAGAWA Heisuke; FURUHASHI Makoto; SAKAMOTO Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Hatchery-reared juvenile black sea breams are characterized by a low level of highly unsaturated fatty acids in their bodies, as compared with wild fish. To assess the effect of docosahaxaenoic acid (DHA) on lipogenic and lipolysis enzymes, one-year fish were reared on a casein-based purified diet and a DHA fortified diet (1.5% DHA ethyl ester/kg diet) for 60 d, followed with a period of 55 d for starvation. Dietary DHA was effectively incorporated into the fish body. Fortification of DHA depressed activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase as lipogenic enzymes in the hepatopancreas and intraperitoneal fat body. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase as lipolysis enzyme in the hepatopancreas was active in the DHA fortified fish. Starvation after feeding experiment induced increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity in both control and DHA fortified fish and the activity remained higher in the DHA fortified fish, while the monoenes were selectively consumed prior to highly unsaturated fatty acids. These results indicated that dietary DHA depressed lipogenesis and activated lipolysis.

  1. The impact of an oil spill on organs of bream Abramis brama in the Po River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giari, L; Dezfuli, B S; Lanzoni, M; Castaldelli, G

    2012-03-01

    An oil spill into the River Lambro occurred on 23 February 2010 and reached the Po River the following day. Breams captured here on 1 March 2010, along with a sample from a control site, were examined by light and electron microscopy. The main affected organs were skin and gill with slight or no damage to liver, kidney, and intestine. The gills exhibited lamellar aneurisms, fusion of secondary lamellae, edema with epithelial lifting, mucous cell hypertrophy, and mucus hypersecretion. Significantly higher mucous cell density was observed in the skin of exposed fish. Histochemical staining revealed that acid glycoconjugates were prevalent in epidermal mucous cells in the exposed Abramis brama, whereas neutral and mixed glycoconjugates were dominant in the control fish. Rodlet cells were significantly more abundant in the kidney of exposed fish and showed ultrastructural differences compared to controls. These histopathologic effects were indicators of chemical stress due to exposure to oil. The present study is one of the first which explores the acute effects of this incident and makes part of a few reports focused on freshwater oil spill.

  2. Moon phase influences the diet of southern Ray's bream Brama australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, P L; Forman, J S; Dunn, M R

    2013-04-01

    Diet composition of the southern Ray's bream Brama australis was examined from stomach contents of 399 specimens sampled by bottom trawl on Chatham Rise to the east of South Island, New Zealand, over 3 years. Prey items were predominantly mesopelagic fishes and crustaceans. Multivariate analysis indicated that moon phase explained more of the diet variability than any other predictor examined. It appears likely that diet composition is influenced by a combination of changes in both tidal flows and illumination. Different combinations of prey were consumed by B. australis at different times of the lunar cycle. An influence of moon phase on feeding by fishes has rarely been reported, but it is likely that moon phase influences the diets of other species that specialize in mesopelagic prey. The most important prey group by mass for B. australis was Myctophidae (primarily Lampanyctodes hectoris), followed by Stomiiformes (primarily Maurolicus australis) and shrimps (Sergestes spp). An ontogenetic shift in diet was observed, from numerical dominance by small crustaceans including amphipods and euphausiids (with some fishes) in smaller (mass 1440 g) B. australis.

  3. Microsatellite Development for an Endangered Bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Teleostei, Cyprinidae Using 454 Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuogang Peng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Megalobrama pellegrini is an endemic fish species found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. This species has become endangered due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and overfishing. However, the available genetic data for this species is limited. Here, we developed 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the M. pellegrini genome using next-generation sequencing techniques. A total of 257,497 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on 454 GS-FLX titanium platforms and 49,811 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 404 bp; 24,522 (49.2% sequences contained microsatellite repeats. Of the 53 loci screened, 33 were amplified successfully and 26 were polymorphic. The genetic diversity in M. pellegrini was moderate, with an average of 3.08 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. In addition, we tested cross-species amplification for all 33 loci in four additional breams: M. amblycephala, M. skolkovii, M. terminalis, and Sinibrama wui. The cross-species amplification showed a significant high level of transferability (79%–97%, which might be due to their dramatically close genetic relationships. The polymorphic microsatellites developed in the current study will not only contribute to further conservation genetic studies and parentage analyses of this endangered species, but also facilitate future work on the other closely related species.

  4. Insulin, IGF-I, and muscle MAPK pathway responses after sustained exercise and their contribution to growth and lipid metabolism regulation in gilthead sea bream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gurmaches, J; Cruz-Garcia, L; Ibarz, A; Fernández-Borrás, J; Blasco, J; Gutiérrez, J; Navarro, I

    2013-10-01

    Herein, we studied whether sustained exercise positively affects growth of gilthead sea bream by alterations in a) plasma concentrations of insulin and IGF-I, b) signaling pathways in muscle, or c) regulation of lipid metabolism. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of moderated swimming (1.5 body lengths per second; BL/s) on the circulating concentrations of insulin and IGF-I, morphometric parameters, and expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in gilthead sea bream (80-90 g BW). Exercise increased the specific growth rate (P exercised fish (P = 0.037), suggesting a role for this endocrine factor in the control of muscular growth and metabolic homeostasis during swimming. The observed decrease in plasma insulin concentrations (P = 0.016) could favor the mobilization of tissue reserves in exercised fish. In this sense, the increase in liver fatty acid content (P = 0.041) and the changes in expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors PPARα (P = 0.017) and PPARγ (P = 0.033) indicated a hepatic lipid mobilization. Concentration of glycogen in both white and red muscles was decreased (P = 0.021 and P = 0.017, respectively) in exercised (n = 12) relative to control (n = 12) gilthead sea bream, whereas concentrations of glucose (P = 0.016) and lactate (P = 0.0007) were decreased only in red muscle, indicating the use of these substrates. No changes in the glucose transporter and in lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression were found in any of the tissues studied. Exercised sea bream had decreased content of PPARβ mRNA in white and red muscle relative to control sea bream expression (P = 0.001 and P = 0.049, respectively). Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was significantly down-regulated in both white and red muscles of exercised sea bream (P = 0.0374 and P = 0.0371, respectively). Tumor necrosis factor-α expression of white muscle was down-regulated in exercised gilthead sea bream (P = 0.045). Collectively, these results contribute

  5. Taurine and fish development: insights for the aquaculture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture industry is limited by incomplete knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, it is believed that dietary taurine deficiencies may be particularly critical for fish larvae. The reasons include the high taurine levels found during egg and yolk-sac stages of fish, suggesting that taurine may be of pivotal importance for larval development. Moreover, unlike aquaculture feeds, natural preys of fish larvae contain high taurine levels, and dietary taurine supplementation has been shown to increase larval growth in several fish species. This study aimed to further explore the physiological role of taurine during fish development. Firstly, the effect of dietary taurine supplementation was assessed on growth of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae and growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Secondly, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) was characterised by qPCR in sole larvae and juveniles. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not increase sea bream growth. However, dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased sole larval growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid retention. Metamorphosis was also shown to be an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in sole tissues, while evidence for an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine was found in sole at least from juvenile stage. Taken together, our studies showed that the dependence of dietary taurine supplementation differs among fish species and that taurine has a vital role during the ontogenetic development of flatfish, an extremely valuable group targeted for aquaculture production.

  6. Absence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and infectious hemorrhagic necrosis virus (INHV) in a Tunisian fish farm: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, N; Hammami, S

    2012-01-01

    Beyond the obvious problems related to the sustainable management of wild stocks, current fish farming practices in the Mediterranean area entail important environmental risks and potential outbreaks of fish diseases linked to massive translocations across regional boundaries. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) are well-known fish diseases caused by the VHSV and IHNV viruses, and positive cases are subject to obligatory reporting to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). In August 2004, the OIE published the first record of a VHS outbreak in a sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) aquaculture facility on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. However, D. labrax is not considered as a susceptible host species for viral hemorrhagic septicaemia according to OIE's International Aquatic Animal Health Code (2009) and VHSV was not previously reported in the Mediterranean. In this sense and given the high risk of disease translocation associated with farmed fish in marine aquaculture, the present study was aimed at investigating the presence of VHSV and IHNV in stocks of sea bass and sea bream (Sparus aurata) reared inside a Tunisian coastal fish farm. Cell culture, IFAT and RT-PCR were applied to screen for both VHSV and IHNV in 69 pooled samples of sea bass and 24 pooled samples of sea bream. All three techniques showed the absence of both viruses within fish at the selected site.

  7. IGF-I and amino acids effects through TOR signaling on proliferation and differentiation of gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Emilio J; Lutfi, Esmail; Jiménez-Amilburu, Vanesa; Riera-Codina, Miquel; Capilla, Encarnación; Navarro, Isabel; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscle growth and development is controlled by nutritional (amino acids, AA) as well as hormonal factors (insulin-like growth factor, IGF-I); however, how its interaction modulates muscle mass in fish is not clearly elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development of gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes to describe the effects of AA and IGF-I on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) expression, as well as on the transduction pathways involved in its signaling (TOR/AKT). Our results showed that AA and IGF-I separately increased the number of PCNA-positive cells and, together produced a synergistic effect. Furthermore, AA and IGF-I, combined or separately, increased significantly Myogenin protein expression, whereas MyoD was not affected. These results indicate a role for these factors in myocyte proliferation and differentiation. At the mRNA level, AA significantly enhanced PCNA expression, but no effects were observed on the expression of the MRFs or AKT2 and FOXO3 upon treatment. Nonetheless, we demonstrated for the first time in gilthead sea bream that AA significantly increased the gene expression of TOR and its downstream effectors 4EBP1 and 70S6K, with IGF-I having a supporting role on 4EBP1 up-regulation. Moreover, AA and IGF-I also activated TOR and AKT by phosphorylation, respectively, being this activation decreased by specific inhibitors. In summary, the present study demonstrates the importance of TOR signaling on the stimulatory role of AA and IGF-I in gilthead sea bream myogenesis and contributes to better understand the potential regulation of muscle growth and development in fish.

  8. Toxicity of short-term copper exposure to early life stages of red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liang; Huang, Wei; Liu, Jinhu; Ye, Zhenjiang; Dou, Shuozeng

    2010-09-01

    Acute (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 mg Cu/L) and chronic (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12 mg Cu/L) toxicity tests of Cu with embryonic and larval red sea bream, Pagrus major, were carried out to investigate their biological responses to Cu exposure in static water at 18 +/- 1 degrees C (dissolved organic carbon, 1.8 +/- 0.65 mg C/L; hardness, 6,183 +/- 360 mg CaCO3/L; salinity, 33 +/- 1 per thousand). The 24- and 48-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) values of Cu for embryos were 0.23 and 0.15 mg/L, whereas the 48-, 72-, and 96-h LC50 values for larvae were 0.52, 0.19, and 0.13 mg/L, respectively, suggesting that embryos were more sensitive to Cu toxicity than larvae. Copper exposures at > or =0.06 mg concentrations caused low hatching success, a delay in the time to hatching of embryos, and reductions in the growth and yolk absorption of the larvae, whereas high mortality and morphological malformations occurred in the embryos and larvae at > or =0.08 mg/L concentrations. Copper concentration did not significantly affect the heart rate of the embryos, but it significantly decreased the heart rate of the newly hatched larvae when the Cu concentration was > or =0.08 mg/L, suggesting that Cu at high concentrations could induce heartbeat disturbances in red sea bream more easily at the larval stage than at the embryonic stage. Hatching success, time to hatching, growth rate, morphological abnormality, yolk absorption, and heart rate were Cu concentration-dependent and could be effective endpoints for evaluating Cu toxicity to the early life stages of red sea bream in nature.

  9. Occurrence and potential transfer of mycotoxins in gilthead sea bream and Atlantic salmon by use of novel alternative feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Beltrán, Eduardo; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Silva, Joana; Karalazos, Vasileios; Hernández, Félix; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2015-06-01

    Plant ingredients and processed animal proteins (PAP) are suitable alternative feedstuffs for fish feeds in aquaculture practice, although their use can introduce contaminants that are not previously associated with marine salmon and gilthead sea bream farming. Mycotoxins are well known natural contaminants in plant feed material, although they also could be present on PAPs after fungi growth during storage. The present study surveyed commercially available plant ingredients (19) and PAP (19) for a wide range of mycotoxins (18) according to the EU regulations. PAP showed only minor levels of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1 and the mycotoxin carry-over from feeds to fillets of farmed Atlantic salmon and gilthead sea bream (two main species of European aquaculture) was performed with plant ingredient based diets. Deoxynivalenol was the most prevalent mycotoxin in wheat, wheat gluten and corn gluten cereals with levels ranging from 17 to 814 and μg kg(-1), followed by fumonisins in corn products (range 11.1-4901 μg kg(-1) for fumonisin B1+B2+B3). Overall mycotoxin levels in fish feeds reflected the feed ingredient composition and the level of contaminant in each feed ingredient. In all cases the studied ingredients and feeds showed levels of mycotoxins below maximum residue limits established by the Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC. Following these guidelines no mycotoxin carry-over was found from feeds to edible fillets of salmonids and a typically marine fish, such as gilthead sea bream. As far we know, this is the first report of mycotoxin surveillance in farmed fish species.

  10. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Liu

    Full Text Available Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These

  11. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  12. Effect of dispersed crude oil exposure upon the aerobic metabolic scope in juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Lucas, Julie; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Lefrançois, Christel

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of dispersant application which is, in nearshore area, a controversial response technique to oil spill. Through an experimental approach with juveniles of Liza aurata, the toxicity of five exposure conditions was evaluated: (i) a chemically dispersed oil simulating dispersant application; (ii) a single dispersant as an internal control of chemically dispersed oil; (iii) a mechanically dispersed oil simulating natural dispersion of oil; (iv) a water soluble fraction of oil simulating an undispersed and untreated oil slick and (v) uncontaminated seawater as a control exposure condition. The relative concentration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) biliary metabolites showed that the incorporation of these toxic compounds was increased if the oil was dispersed, whether mechanically or chemically. However, toxicity was not observed at the organism level since the aerobic metabolic scope and the critical swimming speed of exposed fish were not impaired.

  13. [Effect of hypoxia on the content and stoichiometry of cytochromes in muscle of the gray mullet Liza aurata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A A; Savina, M V

    2008-01-01

    The maintenance of the gray mullet Liza aurata under conditions of hypoxia (P(O2) 55-82 GPa) for 1-2 days led to a decrease of oxygen pressure in arterial blood by 47%, while in venous blood--by 28%. The mean muscle oxygen pressure decreased by 19.2%. The number of hypoxic and anoxic zones in muscle tissue decreased significantly, in particular in red muscle. The maintenance of the fish in hypoxic waters for 15 days led to a rise of the content of cytochromes in muscle and a qualitative readjustment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain manifested in an increase of the content of cytochromes a and a3 and a decrease of cytochrome b. In discussion, literature data are presented which support the described regularity.

  14. Assessment of safety, nutritional, and spoilage characteristics of different lagoon grey mullets (Liza ramada, Liza aurata, and Liza saliens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Sylvain Sado; Vernocchi, Pamela; Maffei, Mirko; Belletti, Nicoletta; Gardini, Fausto; Guerzoni, M Elisabetta; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2008-12-01

    Different lagoon grey mullets such as Liza ramada (thinlip mullet), Liza aurata (golden grey mullet), and Liza saliens (leaping grey mullet) were analyzed for their nutritional, microbiological, and safety parameters. The microbiological values never exceeded the lower limits stipulated by the Italian Higher Institute of Health. The pathogenic species frequently associated with seafood (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Aeromonas hydrophila) were never detected. The absence of coliforms and of Escherichia coli was noted in all fish species after 4 days of storage in ice. Heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury were always below the detection limits (0.01 mg/kg). All three fish species had low levels of total biogenic amines (80 to 100 mg/kg), and the presence of histamine was sporadic. All Liza species, particularly L. ramada and L. saliens, are a good source of omega3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  15. Seasonal Liza aurata tissue-specific DNA integrity in a multi-contaminated coastal lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Maria, V L; Ahmad, I; Pacheco, M; Santos, M A

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the DNA integrity of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected in differently contaminated sites of a coastal lagoon, Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), was assessed, over the period of 1 year, using the DNA alkaline unwinding assay, in four different tissues (gill, kidney, liver and blood) and compared to a reference site. The four tissues displayed different DNA integrity basal levels, clearly affected by seasonal factors. Gill and kidney were, respectively, the most and least sensitive tissues. All sites demonstrated the capacity to interfere with DNA integrity. The sites displaying the highest and lowest DNA damage capability were, respectively, Barra (subject to naval traffic) and Vagos (contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). In terms of seasonal variability, autumn seems to be the more critical season (more DNA damage) unlike summer when no DNA damage was found in any tissue. Data recommend the continued monitoring of this aquatic system.

  16. PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs in breams (Abraims brama) from German rivers. Results from the German Environmental Specimen Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeter-Kermani, C. [Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin (Germany); Herrmann, T.; Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany); Stachel, B. [Wasserguetestelle Elbe der Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    In July 2002 a new regulation of the European Commission came into force setting maximum permitted values for PCDD/Fs in food. Until the end of 2004 these limit values have to be verified with current monitoring data, especially in regard to the integration of dioxin-like PCBs in this regulation. It is well known that fish accumulate lypophilic substances to a high degree from their aquatic surroundings so that fish and fish products are an important source of human intake of dioxins. Several studies have been published recently regarding the contamination of marine fish species with PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs, but less is known about the contamination of fresh water fish with these substances. To bridge this gap, the German environmental specimen bank (ESB) analyzed archived bream muscle samples for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs. Breams are widely distributed in Europe and often used as a monitoring organism for fresh water and sediment contamination because of their small migration radius. As adult breams feed mainly on benthic invertebrates they are permanently in direct contact with the sediments. Although bream is less consumed at least in Germany the here presented results might facilitate general statements regarding the contamination of other fresh water fish species with PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs.

  17. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 genes in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tao; Ji, Wei; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Wei, Kai-Jian; Feng, Ke; Wang, Wei-Min; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 are widespread in fish and extremely important components of the host innate immune system. In this study, full-length cDNAs of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 were cloned and sequenced from blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala. The open reading frames (ORF) of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 genes encode putative peptides of 94 and 92 amino acids, which possess eight and four conserved cysteine residues, respectively. The homologous identities of deduced amino acid sequences show that the LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 of blunt snout bream share considerable similarity with those of grass carp. The mRNA expressions of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 were detectable at different early developmental stages of blunt snout bream and varied with embryonic and larval growth. LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 were expressed in a wide range of adult tissues, with the highest expression levels in the liver and midgut, respectively. Bacterial challenge experiments showed that the levels of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 mRNA expression were up-regulated in the liver, spleen, gill and brain of juvenile blunt snout bream. These results indicate that the LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 may play important roles in early development of embryos and fry, and may contribute to the defense against the pathogenic bacterial invasion. This study will further our understanding of the function of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 and the molecular mechanism of innate immunity in teleosts.

  18. Induction of gynogenesis in red crucian carp using spermatozoa of blunt snout bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuandong; LIU Yun; TAO Min; LIU Shaojun; ZHANG Chun; DUAN Wei; SHEN Jiamin; WANG Jing; ZENG Chen; LONG Yu

    2007-01-01

    Gynogenetic diploid was induced in red crucian carp (RCC) ( Carassius auratus Red Variety) eggs using UV-irradiated spermatozoa from blunt snout bream (B) (Megalobrama amblycephala ) or from mirror carp (C) (Cyprinus carpio. L). Spermatozoa were genetically inactivated by an appropriate UV dosage, and then the maternal DNA was duplicated with cold shock at 0-4 ℃. When using the spermatozoa of B, the fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival at first feeding were 52.6 ± 3.0 %, 23.6 ± 4.1 % and 15.7 ± 3.4 %, respectively, and the survival at first feeding was significantly higher than that ( 11.3 ± 2.2 % ) when using the spermatozoa of C (Cyprinus carpio. L). According to the morphological characteristics, the chromosome number and the degree of gonadal development, gynogenetic RCC could be distinguished from the control hybrids of RCC♀ × B ♂ . The individuals with red body color, 100 chromosomes and normal gonadal development were successful gynogenetic RCC, while the individuals with 124 or 148 chromosomes and delayed gonadal development were hybrids of (RCC × B). The triploid hybrids (RCC × B) (2 years old) were sterile, but the tetraploid hybrids (RCC × B) were sexually mature age of two. In the present study, compared to the spermatozoa of C, the advantages of spermatozoa of B as the activation source were that could increase the survival at first feeding of gynogenetic individuals and simplify the confirmation of gynogenetic status, which suggested that the spermof B was an effective activation source for inducing gynogenesis in crucian carp.

  19. Mercury levels and trends (1993-2009) in bream (Abramis brama L.) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from German surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepom, Peter; Irmer, Ulrich; Wellmitz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Mercury concentrations have been analysed in bream (Abramis brama L.) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) collected at 17 freshwater sites in Germany from 1993-2009 and 1994-2009, respectively, within the German Environmental Specimen programme. Mercury concentrations in bream ranged from 21 to 881 ng g(-1) wet weight with lowest concentrations found at the reference site Lake Belau and highest in fish from the river Elbe and its tributaries. Statistical analysis revealed site-specific differences and significant decreasing temporal trends in mercury concentrations at most of the sampling sites. The decrease in mercury levels in bream was most pronounced in fish from the river Elbe and its tributary Mulde, while in fish from the river Saale mercury levels increased. Temporal trends seem to level off in recent years. Mercury concentrations in zebra mussels were much lower than those in bream according to their lower trophic position and varied by one order of magnitude from 4.1 to 42 ng g(-1) wet weight (33-336 ng g(-1) dry weight). For zebra mussels, trend analyses were performed for seven sampling sites at the rivers Saar and Elbe of which three showed significant downward trends. There was a significant correlation of the geometric mean concentrations in bream and zebra mussel over the entire study period at each sampling site (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.892, p=0.00002). A comparison of the concentrations in bream with the environmental quality standard (EQS) of 20 ng g(-1) wet weight set for mercury in biota by the EU showed that not a single result was in compliance with this limit value, not even those from the reference site. Current mercury levels in bream from German rivers exceed the EQS by a factor 4.5-20. Thus, piscivorous top predators are still at risk of secondary poisoning by mercury exposure via the food chain. It was suggested focusing monitoring of mercury in forage fish (trophic level 3 or 4) for compliance checking with the EQS for

  20. Dynamics of the content of H2O, Na, K, Ca and Mg in the eggs of bream,Abramis brama L. in natural conditions and under stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Martemyanov

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the dynamics of H2O, Na, K, Ca and Mg content in the oocytes of bream, Abramis brama observed in prespawning period on breeding ground and in reply to catching, transportation and subsequent remaining of spawners in a cage. Methods: For research on the dynamics of H2O and cations content in the oocytes of bream females,Abramis brama in the course of eggs transition from maturity Stage IV to Stage V, fishes were caught from breeding ground in the coastal zone of the Volga Reach of the Rybinsk reservoir at the Vereteya Station. For studying the influence of stress, the bream (76 individuals) were caught from breeding ground by hauling the seine during 15 min. Capture, sorting and transportation for 3 h to the ponds were the stress factors. Samples of oocytes from 6–8 fishes were taken immediately after capturing, then two more were taken during transportation. Later fishes were removed from the cage in certain time intervals. Concentration of Na and K in the dissolved samples of oocytes was measured by the spectrometer (Flapho-4, Carl Zeiss, Iena, Germany) and content of Ca and Mg was measured by atomic-absorption spectrometer-1 (the same producer). Results: In natural conditions before spawning in the course of maturation of oocytes from maturity Stage IV to V, H2O content in the ovicells of bream has increased by 3.3% and concentration of Na, K, Ca and Mg has decreased by 24.9%, 38.1%, 56.2% and 65.7%, accordingly. Stress caused by capturing, transportation and the subsequent remaining of bream spawners in a cage did not change parameters of water-salt exchange of the oocytes. Conclusions: In natural conditions before spawning, the maturation of oocytes of bream from maturity Stage IV to V take place. Stress caused by capturing, transportation and the subsequent remaining of bream spawners in a cage prevents the transition of eggs from maturity Stage IV to V. It is suggested that in order to develop optimal technique stimulating oocytes

  1. Dynamics of the content of H2O, Na, K, Ca and Mg in the eggs of bream, Abramis brama L. in natural conditions and under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Martemyanov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the dynamics of H2O, Na, K, Ca and Mg content in the oocytes of bream, Abramis brama observed in prespawning period on breeding ground and in reply to catching, transportation and subsequent remaining of spawners in a cage. Methods: For research on the dynamics of H2O and cations content in the oocytes of bream females, Abramis brama in the course of eggs transition from maturity Stage IV to Stage V, fishes were caught from breeding ground in the coastal zone of the Volga Reach of the Rybinsk reservoir at the Vereteya Station. For studying the influence of stress, the bream (76 individuals were caught from breeding ground by hauling the seine during 15 min. Capture, sorting and transportation for 3 h to the ponds were the stress factors. Samples of oocytes from 6–8 fishes were taken immediately after capturing, then two more were taken during transportation. Later fishes were removed from the cage in certain time intervals. Concentration of Na and K in the dissolved samples of oocytes was measured by the spectrometer (Flapho-4, Carl Zeiss, Iena, Germany and content of Ca and Mg was measured by atomic-absorption spectrometer-1 (the same producer. Results: In natural conditions before spawning in the course of maturation of oocytes from maturity Stage IV to V, H2O content in the ovicells of bream has increased by 3.3% and concentration of Na, K, Ca and Mg has decreased by 24.9%, 38.1%, 56.2% and 65.7%, accordingly. Stress caused by capturing, transportation and the subsequent remaining of bream spawners in a cage did not change parameters of water-salt exchange of the oocytes. Conclusions: In natural conditions before spawning, the maturation of oocytes of bream from maturity Stage IV to V take place. Stress caused by capturing, transportation and the subsequent remaining of bream spawners in a cage prevents the transition of eggs from maturity Stage IV to V. It is suggested that in order to develop optimal technique

  2. Prebiotics effect on immune and hepatic oxidative status and gut morphology of white sea bream (Diplodus sargus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Inês; Couto, Ana; Machado, Marina; Castro, Carolina; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Enes, Paula

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS), xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on immune and hepatic oxidative status, and gut morphology of white sea bream juveniles. Four diets were formulated: a control diet with fish meal (FM) and plant feedstuffs (PF) (30FM:70PF) and three test diets similar to the control but supplemented with 1% of scFOS, XOS or GOS. Dietary prebiotic incorporation did not affect total blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood indices or differential white blood cell counts. Fish fed GOS had lower ACH50 and nitric oxide than fish fed control diet. XOS enhanced immune status through the increase in alternative complement pathway (ACH50), lysozyme and total immunoglobulin. The higher activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in fish fed FOS compared to the other dietary groups was the only related antioxidant enzyme affected by prebiotics in the liver. GOS ameliorated the precocious adverse effects of PF based diet on gut histomorphology, as denoted by the lower incidence of histological alterations in fish fed GOS for 15 days. In conclusion, XOS and GOS at 1% might have potential to be used as prebiotics in white sea bream juveniles.

  3. Establishment of rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus embryo (RoBE-4) cells with cytolytic infection of red seabream iridovirus (RSIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, So-Young; Nishizawa, Toyohiko

    2016-12-01

    Red seabream iridovirus (RSIV) is a member of genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae. RSIV infection causes significant economic losses of marine-fishes in East Asian countries. Grunt fin (GF) cell line has been commonly used for culturing RSIV. However, it is not suitable for definite evaluation of infectivity titer of RSIV because cells infected with RSIV are not completely cytolysed. Thus, we established a new cell line, RoBE-4, from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) eyed-egg embryos in this study. Morphologically, RoBE-4 cells were fibroblastic-like. They have been stably grown over two-years with 60 passages using Leibovitz's L-15 medium containing 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum. RoBE-4 cells infected with RSIV exhibited cytopathic effects (CPE) with cell rounding. They were cytolysed completely after ≥2 weeks of culture. Numerous RSIV particles with icosahedral morphology of approximately 122nm in diameter were observed in cytoplasmic area of infected RoBE-4 cells. The RSIV-suceptibility and amount of extracellular RSIV released by RoBE-4 cells were 100-fold higher than those by GF cells. RSIV cultured with RoBE-4 cells was highly virulent to rock bream in infection experiments. Therefore, using RoBE-4 cells instead of GF cells will enable accurate and sensitive measurement of RSIV infectivity. In addition, RoBE-4 cells might be used to produce RSIV vaccine in the future with significant reduction in cost.

  4. Probiotics as an environment-friendly approach to enhance red sea bream, Pagrus major growth, immune response and oxidative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; El-Sabagh, Mabrouk; Esteban, M Angeles; Zaineldin, Amr I

    2016-10-01

    A usual strategy in modern aquaculture to combat production bottlenecks associated with intensification is preventive health care through the use of consumer and environment-friendly alternatives including probiotics. The current study evaluates the influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), a lyophilized probiotic bacterium, on health status and performance of red sea bream (Pagrus major). Probiotics were incorporated in the diets at four different concentrations: 0 (control diet, LR0), 10(2) (LR1), 10(4) (LR2) and 10(6) (LR3) cells g(-1) and diets were administered to the fish for a period of 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, final body weight, body weight gain, specific growth rate, protease activity, protein digestibility, Lactobacillus sp. intestinal count, and superoxide dismutase were significantly higher in all probiotic-fed groups (P probiotic supplementations being the effects dose-dependent. All growth, feed utilization, immune and oxidative parameters were significantly improved following probiotic administration. Present results revealed that L. rhamnosus is a promising probiotic candidate employed to help red sea bream protect themselves, thus promoting safe farming that would be less dependent on chemotherapy against infectious diseases.

  5. Effects of natural and synthetic estrogens and various environmental contaminants on vitellogenesis in fish primary hepatocytes: comparison of bream (Abramis brama) and carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankouhi, T Rouhani; Sanderson, J T; van Holsteijn, I; van Leeuwen, C; Vethaak, A D; van den Berg, M

    2004-09-01

    Interaction of environmental estrogens with the estrogen receptor (ER) has been shown in various fish species. Our objective was to compare the sensitivity of bream (Abramis brama) to (xeno-)estrogens with that of the carp (Cyprinus carpio), by measuring the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), ethynylestradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), methoxychlor (MXCL), and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB126, PCB118), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin (TCDD), and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PCDF) on vitellogenesis in primary hepatocytes. Comparing the EC50 values in bream hepatocytes: EE2 (0.1-0.2 microM) estrogenic potency of E2 and E1, indicating interspecies differences. Exposure to BPA, NP, MXCL, and HAHs did not or only weakly induce vitellogenesis. Bream hepatocytes coexposed to E2 and TCDD, PCB126 or PCDF showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of E2-induced vitellogenesis. IC50 (concentration of a compound that elicits 50% inhibition of E2-induced vitellogenesis) values determined in bream were: TCDD (0.02-0.09 nM) estrogenic response. IC50 values and benchmark-concentration for TCDD and PCB126 in bream and carp hepatocytes were in the same range, indicating similar sensitivity to these compounds. Due to their anti-estrogenic capacity with benchmark-concentrations in the pM range TCDD, PCDF, and PCB126 may form a potential hazard for the reproductive success of fish species by inhibition of vitellogenesis.

  6. Genetic diversity of and differentiation among five populations of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala revealed by SRAP markers: implications for conservation and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ji

    Full Text Available The blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala is an important freshwater aquaculture fish throughout China. Because of widespread introductions of this species to many regions, the genetic diversity of wild and natural populations is now threatened. In the present study, SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers were used to assess genetic diversity of blunt snout bream. Three natural populations (Liangzi Lake, Poyang Lake and Yuni Lake, one cultured population (Nanxian and one genetic strain ('Pujiang No. 1' of blunt snout bream were screened with 88 SRAP primer combinations, of which 13 primer pairs produced stable and reproducible amplification patterns. In total, 172 bands were produced, of which 132 bands were polymorphic. Nei's gene diversity (h and Shannon's information index (I values provided evidence of differences in genetic diversity among the five populations (Poyang Lake>Liangzi Lake>Nanxian>'Pujiang No. 1'>Yuni Lake. Based on cluster analysis conducted on genetic distance values, the five blunt snout bream populations were divided into three groups, Poyang Lake and Liangzi Lake (natural populations, Nanxian and 'Pujiang No. 1' (cultured population and genetically selected strain, and Yuni Lake (natural population. Significant genetic differentiation was found among the five populations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, with more genetic divergence existing among populations (55.49%, than within populations (44.51%. This molecular marker technique is a simple and efficient method to quantify genetic diversity within and among fish populations, and is employed here to help manage and conserve germplasm variability of blunt snout bream and to support the ongoing selective breeding programme for this fish.

  7. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Thomas Y; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Wilson, Jonathan M; Jensen, Lasse F; Steffensen, John F; Pertoldi, Cino; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is predicted to affect the distribution and abundance of aquatic ectotherms owing to increasing constraints on organismal physiology, in particular involving the metabolic scope (MS) available for performance and fitness. The oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis prescribes MS as an overarching benchmark for fitness-related performance and assumes that any anaerobic contribution within the MS is insignificant. The MS is typically derived from respirometry by subtracting standard metabolic rate from the maximal metabolic rate; however, the methodology rarely accounts for anaerobic metabolism within the MS. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), this study tested for trade-offs (i) between aerobic and anaerobic components of locomotor performance; and (ii) between the corresponding components of the MS. Data collection involved measuring oxygen consumption rate at increasing swimming speeds, using the gait transition from steady to unsteady (burst-assisted) swimming to detect the onset of anaerobic metabolism. Results provided evidence of the locomotor performance trade-off, but only in S. aurata. In contrast, both species revealed significant negative correlations between aerobic and anaerobic components of the MS, indicating a trade-off where both components of the MS cannot be optimized simultaneously. Importantly, the fraction of the MS influenced by anaerobic metabolism was on average 24.3 and 26.1% in S. aurata and P. reticulata, respectively. These data highlight the importance of taking anaerobic metabolism into account when assessing effects of environmental variation on the MS, because the fraction where anaerobic metabolism occurs is a poor indicator of sustainable aerobic performance. Our results suggest that without accounting for anaerobic metabolism within the MS, studies involving the OCLTT hypothesis could overestimate the metabolic scope available for

  8. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Thomas Y.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Jensen, Lasse F.; Steffensen, John F.; Pertoldi, Cino; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is predicted to affect the distribution and abundance of aquatic ectotherms owing to increasing constraints on organismal physiology, in particular involving the metabolic scope (MS) available for performance and fitness. The oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis prescribes MS as an overarching benchmark for fitness-related performance and assumes that any anaerobic contribution within the MS is insignificant. The MS is typically derived from respirometry by subtracting standard metabolic rate from the maximal metabolic rate; however, the methodology rarely accounts for anaerobic metabolism within the MS. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), this study tested for trade-offs (i) between aerobic and anaerobic components of locomotor performance; and (ii) between the corresponding components of the MS. Data collection involved measuring oxygen consumption rate at increasing swimming speeds, using the gait transition from steady to unsteady (burst-assisted) swimming to detect the onset of anaerobic metabolism. Results provided evidence of the locomotor performance trade-off, but only in S. aurata. In contrast, both species revealed significant negative correlations between aerobic and anaerobic components of the MS, indicating a trade-off where both components of the MS cannot be optimized simultaneously. Importantly, the fraction of the MS influenced by anaerobic metabolism was on average 24.3 and 26.1% in S. aurata and P. reticulata, respectively. These data highlight the importance of taking anaerobic metabolism into account when assessing effects of environmental variation on the MS, because the fraction where anaerobic metabolism occurs is a poor indicator of sustainable aerobic performance. Our results suggest that without accounting for anaerobic metabolism within the MS, studies involving the OCLTT hypothesis could overestimate the metabolic scope available for

  9. Development temperature has persistent effects on muscle growth responses in gilthead sea bream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia de la serrana

    Full Text Available Initially we characterised growth responses to altered nutritional input at the transcriptional and tissue levels in the fast skeletal muscle of juvenile gilthead sea bream. Fish reared at 21-22°C (range were fed a commercial diet at 3% body mass d(-1 (non-satiation feeding, NSF for 4 weeks, fasted for 4d (F and then fed to satiation (SF for 21d. 13 out of 34 genes investigated showed consistent patterns of regulation between nutritional states. Fasting was associated with a 20-fold increase in MAFbx, and a 5-fold increase in Six1 and WASp expression, which returned to NSF levels within 16h of SF. Refeeding to satiation was associated with a rapid (<24 h 12 to 17-fold increase in UNC45, Hsp70 and Hsp90α transcripts coding for molecular chaperones associated with unfolded protein response pathways. The growth factors FGF6 and IGF1 increased 6.0 and 4.5-fold within 16 h and 24 h of refeeding respectively. The average growth in diameter of fast muscle fibres was checked with fasting and significant fibre hypertrophy was only observed after 13d and 21d SF. To investigate developmental plasticity in growth responses we used the same experimental protocol with fish reared at either 17.5-18.5°C (range (LT or 21-22°C (range (HT to metamorphosis and then transferred to 21-22°C. There were persistent effects of development temperature on muscle growth patterns with 20% more fibres of lower average diameter in LT than HT group of similar body size. Altering the nutritional input to the muscle to stimulate growth revealed cryptic changes in the expression of UNC45 and Hsp90α with higher transcript abundance in the LT than HT groups, whereas there were no differences in the expression of MAFbx and Six1. It was concluded that myogenesis and gene expression patterns during growth are not fixed, but can be modified by temperature during the early stages of the life cycle.

  10. Population dynamics of Japanese threadfin bream Nemipterus japonicus from Pakistani waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KALHORO Muhsan Ali; LIU Qun; MEMON Khadim Hussain; CHANG Mohammad Saleem; ZHANG Kui

    2014-01-01

    Japanese threadfin bream Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) is among the most abundant and commer-cially important species in Pakistan. From the coast of Pakistan, four demersal trawl surveys in October-November 2009 and May-June, August, October and November in 2010 were carried out. The purpose of this study is to estimate the population dynamics and status of the stock of the N. japonicus from Pakistani waters based on the research trawl surveys from the research area. The data consist of n=784 length-weight pairs and n=7 530 length frequency with the maximum length and weight of 29 cm and 358 g respectively. The length frequency data were analyzed using ELEFAN method in FiSAT computer package. The param-eters of length and weight relationship were b=2.778, a=0.032 and R2=0.973. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth function parameters were L∞=30.45 cm, K=0.270 year-1. Based on length-converted catch curve anal-ysis the total mortality (Z) during this study was estimated at 0.960 year-1. The natural mortality coefficient (M) was 0.74 year-1 using Pauly’s equation (the annual average sea surface temperature was 27°C), therefore, the fishing mortality coefficients (F) were 0.22 year-1. The yield per recruit analysis indicated that when tc was 2, Fmax was estimated at 1.2 and F0.1 at 1.1. When tc was 1, Fmax was estimated at 0.95 and F0.1 at 0.8. Because current age at first capture is about 1 year and Fcurrent was 0.22, Fcurrent is smaller than F0.1 and Fmax, which indicated that the fishery is about in a safe condition. When using Gulland (1971) biological reference point, Fopt was equals to M (0.74). The current fishing mortality rate of 0.22 was smaller than the target bio-logical reference point.

  11. 团头鲂饲料磷需要量%Phosphorus Requirement of Bluntnose Black Bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉超; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 姚林杰; 陈科全; 黄雨薇; 龚志

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲料中不同磷水平对团头鲂生长性能及体组成不同部位中磷含量的影响,以确定团头鲂饲料中磷的需要量。选取480尾平均初始体重为35 g的团头鲂为试验对象,随机分为6个试验组,每组4个重复,每个重复20尾,试验期为85 d。采用半纯化饲料,以磷酸二氢钙为磷源,设置磷水平为3.8、6.9、10.1、13.2、16.4、19.5 g/kg共6个梯度的试验饲料。结果表明:1)团头鲂试验中饲料磷水平为13.2 g/kg的试验组增重率显著高于其他各组( P 0.05),且磷水平为3.8 g/kg试验组全鱼粗灰分含量显著低于其他组(P0 . 05 ) , and the ash content in experimental group with 3 . 8 g/kg phosphorus was significantly lower than that in other groups ( P<0 . 05 );3 ) with dietary phosphor-us level increasing, phosphorus content in whole body, vertebra, opercle and scale was significantly increased (P<0. 05). Dietary phosphorus level had significant effects on phosphorus content in whole body, muscle, vertebra, opercle and scale (P <0. 05). In conclusion, under the conditions of this experiment, not only growth performance, but also contents of phosphorus in whole body and tissues are affected by dietary phos-phorus level. Quadratic model analysis results show that the optimum dietary phosphorus requirements for max-imum growth of bluntnose black bream is 12. 98~13. 18 g/kg.

  12. Proximate Composition, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Attributes of Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and Emperor Sea Bream (Lethrinus spp. Fillets Sold on Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Nicoleta Boițeanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The variety of seafood on the European market has considerably increased in recent years. This study presents data to the main nutritional values and the sensory properties of two exotic fish species, mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and emperor sea bream (Lethrinus spp., sold on retail market in Germany. Information on the quality of frozen and glazed fillets is still missing, but is important to characterize these products. This also includes details on the substances added to increase the water-binding ability. Aims: The paper aims to assess the quality of exotic fish fillets sold on the German market, through the evaluation of physical and chemical parameters, microbiological quality and sensory attributes. Materials and methods: 10 samples of each fish species were analysed after homogenisation to determine the following parameters:  pH-value (with a pH meter; water (gravimetrically; ash (in  a muffle furnace at 550 °C; salt (NaCl; by auto-titration; fat (by a modified Smedes method; protein (with a LECO TruSpecN based on the principles of the Dumas combustion method; total phosphorus content (photometrically; total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, using the EU reference method; total viable bacteria count (TVC and specific fish spoiling bacteria (SSO (by decimal dilutions method. The sensory assessments were done with cooked and fried fillets by a panel consisting of 6 specialists, using a descriptive method. Results: Lipid, ash and salt contents of mahi-mahi were comparable to the emperor sea bream values. Due to low lipid content, both species can be classified as lean species. The protein amount of emperor sea bream was significantly higher compared to mahi-mahi and many other common fish species. In mahi-mahi samples, slightly higher values of total phosphates content were found. The pH values of emperor sea bream were in a normal range for fresh fish, whereas in mahi-mahi significantly higher values were determined which

  13. Adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs in eight species of adult and developing teleosts: morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi Milano, E; Basari, F; Chimenti, C

    1997-12-01

    Morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry of the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs (adrenal glands) of the following developing and adult teleosts were examined: Salmoniformes-Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo trutta fario (brown trout), Coregonus lavaretus (white fish); Cyprinodontiformes-Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish). Perciformes-Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass), Sparus aurata (sea bream), Diplodus sargus (white bream), Oblada melanura (saddled bream). The anatomical relationships of the gland with the renal system and venous vessels were also noted. In adults of all species steroidogenic and catecholaminergic chromaffin cells were found in the head kidney, which is pronephric in origin and subsequently transformed into a hematopoietic lymphatic organ. In Perciformes, chromaffin cells are distributed around the anterior and posterior cardinal veins and ducts of Cuvier; in Salmoniformes, around the posterior cardinal veins and in the hematopoietic tissue; and in G. affinis, around the ducts of Cuvier and posterior cardinal veins, while a few are visible also around the sinus venosus. In Perciformes and Salmoniformes, numerous chromaffin cells are also present in the posterior kidney, derived from the opisthonephros, in contact with the caudal vein. Steroidogenic cells are always confined to the head kidney. During development chromaffin and steroidogenic cells appear early after hatching in the pronephric kidney, at the level of the ducts of Cuvier and of the cephalic part of the posterior cardinal veins. Later, chromaffin cells in Perciformes reach the anterior cardinal veins, and subsequently, in both Perciformes and Salmoniformes, they reach the developing posterior kidney. Their localization along the posterior kidney is still in progress about 4 months after hatching and is completed about a year after hatching. These findings support the concept that the structure of the adrenal gland in teleosts is intermediate between that of the

  14. GROWTH PROMOTION OF RED SEA BREAM, PAGROSOMUS MAJOR, BY ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF RECOMBINANT EEL AND SALMON GROWTH HORMONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant eel GH and yeast containing chinook salmon growth hormone (reGH and rcsGH) were incorporated into gelatin and sodium alginate (reGH-GS and rcsGH-GS) or polymer matrix (reGH-HP55) to protect the hormone from proteolytic cleavage in the stomach. The diets containing reGH-GS, rcsGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and free-reGH or uncoated-rcsGH were administered to red sea bream. Feeding of reGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and rcsGH-GS diets resulted in significant increases in body weight and fork length over those of controls. These results strongly suggest that gelatin and sodium alginate as well as polymer matrix protected the hormone from proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract to allow the bioactive hormone to enter the circulation and eventually stimulate fish growth.

  15. GROWTH PROMOTION OF RED SEA BREAM, PAGROSOMUS MAJOR, BY ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF RECOMBINANT EEL AND SALMON GROWTH HORMONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐迎利; 苗宏志; 刘振辉; 邓勇; 兰山; 王尧; 张培军; 徐斌; 麦康森

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant eel GH and yeast containing chinook salmon growth hormone (reGHand rcsGH) were incorporated into gelatin and sodium alginate (reGH-GS and rcsGH-GS) or polymer ma-trix (reGH-HP55) to protect the hormone from proteolytic cleavage in the stomach. The diets containin greGH-GS, rcsGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and free-reGH or uncoated-rcsGH were administered to red sea bream. Feeding of reGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and rcsGH-GS diets resulted in significant increases in body weight and fork length over those of controls. These results strongly suggest that gelatin and sodium algi-nate as well as polymer matrix protected the hormone from proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract to allow the bioactive hormone to enter the circulation and eventually stimulato fish growth.

  16. Effects of α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation in preslaughter diet on antioxidant enzyme activities and fillet quality of commercial-size Sparus macrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities and fillet quality in commercial-size Sparus macrocephalus. Three hundred fish [main initial weight (350±12) g] were divided into three groups (E250, E500 and E1000) and reared in 9 cages. The fish were fed for 8 weeks with three diets containing different levels of dietary α-tocopheryl acetate (289, 553, 1069 mg/kg). Over the experimental period, fish were fed to satiation and reached a final mean weight of (465±28) g without significant body weight difference and proximate composition difference. Fillet α-tocopherol was significantly (P<0.05) different between groups, reaching levels of 14.2, 22.1, 30.9 μg/mg fillet for groups E250,E500 and E1000, respectively. Total serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased significantly (P<0.05) in fish fed the diets high in α-tocopheryl acetate, but serum glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was unaffected. In storage on ice, fillets offish fed the diets high in α-tocopheryl acetate exhibited significantly lower (P<0.05) levels of oxidation. These results suggested that increased dietary α-tocopheryl acetate could increase its flesh deposition, increase the activity of SOD and prevent lipid peroxidation of Sparus macrocephalus fillets in retail storage on ice.

  17. 黑鲷不同组织的9种同工酶谱%Distribution of nine enzymes in various organs of Sparus Macrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨从戎; 苗亮; 李明云

    2014-01-01

    Vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to detect the expression of 9 isozymes in 9 tissues of Sparus macrocepha-lus.The results showed that the enzymes of the lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH) , alcohol dehydrogenase ( ADH) , malate dehydrogenase ( MDH) , malic enzyme ( ME ) , superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) , peroxidase ( POD ) , esterase ( EST ) , galactose dehydrogenase ( GAD) , and formate dehydrogenase ( FDH) showed high degree of tissue specificity in their phenotype , distribution and activity .This research also discussed the physiological significance of the isoenzymes character in eye and intestine .%对黑鲷( Sparus macrocephalus)9种组织的9种同工酶采用垂直聚丙烯酰胺平板电泳技术进行研究。结果表明,乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)、醇脱氢酶(ADH)、苹果酸脱氢酶(MDH)、苹果酸酶(ME)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、酯酶(EST)、半乳糖脱氢酶(GAD)、甲酸脱氢酶(FDH)等酶在表型、分布和活性上组织特异性明显。还对眼和肠组织同工酶表达特性的生理意义进行了讨论。

  18. Identification of a myeloperoxidase-like ortholog from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), deciphering its transcriptional responses to induced pathogen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Whang, Ilson; Nam, Bo-Hye; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2015-08-01

    Myeloperoxidases (MPOs) are heme-linked oxidative stress-generating enzymes found abundantly in azurophilic granules of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Mature MPOs act as potent antimicrobial agents by producing hypohalous acids using hydrogen peroxide and halide ions as substrates. These acids can readily oxidize reactive groups of biomolecules on invading microbes. In this study, we identified and characterized a homolog of MPO from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), designated as RbMPO. We analyzed the RbMPO gene for its basal expression level in physiologically important tissues and for transcriptional changes under different pathogenic stress conditions. The complete coding sequence of RbMPO consisted of 2652 nucleotides encoding an 884 amino acid sequence with a predicted molecular mass of 99.7 kDa. Our in silico analysis confirmed the typical MPO domain arrangement in RbMPO, including the propeptide, large chain and heavy chain, along with the heme peroxidase signature. Intriguingly, a C1q domain was also identified in the C-terminal region of the derived amino acid sequence. Most of the known functionally important residues of MPOs are found to be well conserved in RbMPO, showing a close evolutionary relationship with other teleostan MPOs, particularly with that of mandarin fish. RbMPO exhibited a ubiquitous basal expression in physiologically relevant tissues, with particularly high expression levels in blood cells. Basal transcript levels of RbMPO in gill and spleen tissues were found to change upon different pathogen or pathogen-derived mitogen stimulation, with detectable inductive responses. Together, these data suggest the potential involvement of RbMPO in the innate immune response in rock bream.

  19. Kudoa unicapsula n. sp. (Myxosporea: Kudoidae) a parasite of the Mediterranean mullets Liza ramada and L. aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurakhno, V M; Ovcharenko, M O; Holzer, A S; Sarabeev, V L; Balbuena, J A

    2007-11-01

    A new multivalvulid myxozoan parasite, Kudoa unicapsula n. sp., is described from the intestinal mesentery, intestine and pyloric caeca of the thin-lipped grey mullet Liza ramada (Risso 1826) and the golden grey mullet L. aurata (Risso, 1810) from the Mediterranean coastal waters of Spain. It is characterized by the presence of elongated, rice corn-like white cysts of 0.47-0.56 x 0.18-0.38 mm, filled with tetracapsulate, slightly asymmetric spores, rectangular in apical view and tear-shaped in lateral view with four polar capsules of considerably different size and slightly unequal spore valves with rounded edges, overlapping each other on the apex of the spore. One large polar capsule includes a polar filament coiled in two to three turns, and the other three polar capsules, which are very small, posses only a rudimental filament. Both light and electron microscopy data showed that this species differs from all previously described Kudoa spp. with unequal polar capsules. The molecular analysis based on 18S and 28S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequence data of K. unicapsula n. sp. indicates a close relationship and thus phylogenetic clustering together with K. trifolia, a myxozoan from the same host and the same geographical location.

  20. Antioxidant system breakdown in brain of feral golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) as an effect of mercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieiro, C L; Ahmad, I; Pereira, M E; Duarte, A C; Pacheco, M

    2010-08-01

    Although brain has been recognized as a primary target for mercury toxicity in mammals, the effects of this metal in fish brain are scarcely described. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the mercury threat to feral fish (Liza aurata) by estimating the antioxidant defenses and peroxidative damage in brain, keeping in mind the association with mercury accumulation. Sampling was carried out in an estuarine area historically affected by discharges from a chlor-alkali industry-Laranjo Basin (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Total mercury (T-Hg) in brain increased towards the contamination source, clearly indicating mercury exposure. An overall antioxidant depletion was verified in brain of fish collected at the mercury-contaminated stations, since total glutathione content and the studied antioxidant enzymes (catalase-CAT, glutathione peroxidase-GPx, glutathione-S-transferase-GST and glutathione reductase-GR) significantly decreased. In addition, this breakdown of the redox-defense system was significantly correlated with the accumulated T-Hg levels. Unexpectedly, fish exhibited unaltered lipid peroxidation levels, pointing out a higher propensity of mercury to inhibit enzymes than to oxidatively damage lipids in the brain. Nevertheless, an increased susceptibility of the fish's brain was identified, leaving the organ more vulnerable to oxidative stress-related challenges. Overall, the current findings provide information to better understand mechanisms of mercury neurotoxicity in fish.

  1. Toxicological effects of crude oil and oil dispersant: biomarkers in the heart of the juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Imbert, Nathalie; Sanchez, Wilfried; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2013-02-01

    Dispersant use is a controversial oil spill response technique in coastal areas. Using an experimental approach, this study evaluated the toxicity of dispersant use upon juveniles of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata). Fish were exposed for 48 h to either dispersant only, chemically dispersed oil, mechanically dispersed oil, the water soluble fraction of oil or to control conditions. Following exposure and a depuration period, biomarkers were assessed in fish hearts, namely the total glutathione content and the activity of four enzymes (glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides). Comparing biomarker responses between the different treatments, this study revealed that 48 h exposure to dispersed oil (whether mechanically or chemically dispersed) resulted in a toxicity that was still detectable after a 14 days depuration period. Comparing biomarkers responses after an exposure to chemically and mechanically dispersed oil, this study suggests that chemical dispersion of the oil slick would not be more toxic than its natural dispersion under certain turbulent meteorological conditions (e.g. waves). Furthermore, the results indicated that the heart could be a target organ of interest in further studies investigating the toxicity of hydrocarbons. This study, which has been integrated into the DISCOBIOL project (Dispersant et techniques de lutte en milieu côtier: effets biologiques et apport à la réglementation), presents information of interest when attempting to provide a framework for dispersant applications in coastal areas.

  2. Chlorinated hydrocarbons- (CHC) and PCDD/F-levels in sediments and breams (Abramis brama) from the river Elbe (contribution to the German Environmental Specimen Banking)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxynos, K. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Institut fuer Oekologische Chemie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Schramm, K.W. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Institut fuer Oekologische Chemie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Marth, P. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Institut fuer Oekologische Chemie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Schmitzer, J. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Institut fuer Oekologische Chemie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Kettrup, A. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Institut fuer Oekologische Chemie, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons have been determined in sediments and breams (Abramis brama) from different locations along the river Elbe, starting from the border to the Czech Republic down-stream up to Cumlosen (river km 470), near the frontier of the former German Democratic Republic. High levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) have been found in sediments. HCB, DDT-metabolites and octachlorostyrene (OCS) have been the most dominant compounds in bream, especially fish from eastern sampling sites have been heavily contaminated. Furthermore, sediments from 1991-1993 have been analysed to determine polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F). The CHC-burden of the river Elbe declines downstream, whereas the PCDD/F-content increases in that direction. (orig.)

  3. ANTILISTERIAL ACTYVITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM GILTHEAD BREAMS AND SEA BASSES FILLETS PACKAGED MAP AGAINST PRIMITIVE STRAINS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    OpenAIRE

    M. Barile; A. Mormile; R Mercogliano; N. Murru

    2011-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis typically caused by ready-to-eat processed food that have a refrigerated shelf-life, but lightly preserved fish products also belong to a high-risk category. Aim of the work was to evaluate antimicrobial activity linked bacteriocin-producing of LAB isolated from gilthead breams and sea basses fillets packaged in modified atmospheres. Fifty-five LAB strains were screened against 21 strains of Listeria monocytogenes, 1 Listeria innocu...

  4. The effect of exposure to a high-fat diet on microRNA expression in the liver of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingdong Zhang

    Full Text Available Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala are susceptible to hepatic steatosis when maintained in modern intensive culture systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs in diet-induced hepatic steatosis in this species. MiRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, are involved in diverse biological processes, including lipid metabolism. Deep sequencing of hepatic small RNA libraries from blunt snout bream fed normal-fat and high-fat diets identified 202 (193 known and 9 novel miRNAs, of which 12 were differentially expressed between the normal-fat and high-fat diet groups. Quantitative stem-loop reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed the upregulation of miR-30c and miR-30e-3p and the downregulation of miR-145 and miR-15a-5p in high-fat diet-fed fish. Bioinformatics tools were used to predict the targets of these verified miRNAs and to explore potential downstream gene ontology biological process categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Six putative lipid metabolism-related target genes (fetuin-B, Cyp7a1, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2, 3-oxoacid CoA transferase 1b, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, and fatty-acid synthase were identified as having potential important roles in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis in blunt snout bream. The results presented here are a foundation for future studies of miRNA-controlled lipid metabolism regulatory networks in blunt snout bream.

  5. A New Chiroptera Record in Guangxi,China:Murina aurata%广西翼手目一新纪录——金管鼻蝠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李友邦; Neil M.Furey; 韦龙韬

    2010-01-01

    2009年11月,在广西西北部木论国家级自然保护区小洞丹洞穴中采到一翼手目标本,经鉴定为金管鼻蝠Murina aurata,是广西翼手目新纪录.目前,在木论自然保护区的18个洞穴调查中,只在该洞发现有分布.标本现保存于广西师范大学生物多样性标本馆.

  6. First molecular cloning and gene expression analysis of teleost CD42 (glycoprotein Ib beta chain) GPIb-IX-V subunit from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji-Min; Kim, Ju-Won; Kim, Do-Hyung; Park, Chan-Il

    2015-04-01

    CD42 is a platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib that plays a key role in haemostasis and thrombin-induced platelet activation. Here, we report the molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the CD42c gene from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). Rock bream CD42 (RbCD42c) gene expression profiles were determined after infection with Streptococcus iniae, Edwardsiella tarda and red seabream iridovirus (RSIV). The full-length RbCD42c cDNA contained an open reading frame of 624 bp encoding 207 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequences of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-N terminal and LRR-C terminal were conserved between fish and mammals. RbCD42c was highly expressed in red blood cells, spleen, gill, liver and kidney of healthy rock bream. The RbCD42c gene was not significantly up- or downregulated after E. tarda exposure. However, RbCD42c gene expression was upregulated in kidney, spleen and gill after S. iniae infection. RbCD42c was upregulated in spleen, liver and gill, but downregulated in kidney 24 and 48 h after RSIV infection. These results suggest that RbCD42c has different expression patterns after infection with bacterial or viral pathogens. This gene may be directly involved in haemostasis.

  7. Heavy metal accumulation in Diplodus annularis, Liza aurata, and Solea vulgaris relevant to their concentration in water and sediment from the southwestern Mediterranean (coast of Sfax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Zohra; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn) were measured in the liver, gills, and muscle of Solea vulgaris, Liza aurata, and Diplodus annularis, collected from the south coast of Sfax (Gabes Gulf, southwestern Mediterranean). The concentrations of heavy metals in water exhibited the following decreasing order (expressed in μg l(-1)): Fe > Ni > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd whereas the trend is somewhat different in sediments (mg kg(-1) D.W.) Fe > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd. The levels of heavy metals varied significantly among fish species and tissues. Heavy metal levels were found generally higher in the liver and gills than the muscle in all species. The liver was the target organ for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn accumulation. Nickel and lead, however, exhibited their highest concentrations in the gills. The three studied fishes showed a difference in metals accumulation decreasing in following order S. vulgaris > D. annularis > L. aurata. Solea vulgaris with the highest TFwater, TFsediment, and metal concentrations in tissues would be considered as a potential bio-indicator in the south coast of Sfax for the assessment of environmental pollution status. Comparative studies with Luza zone indicate considerable bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb and Zn) in the various tissues of fish samples of the south coast of Sfax.

  8. Cytochrome P4501A, genotoxic and stress responses in golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) following short-term exposure to phenanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Pacheco, M; Santos, M A

    2007-01-01

    This study represents a first approach to short-term effects of phenanthrene (Phe) in fish. The teleost Liza aurata was exposed to 0.1-2.7microM Phe during 16h. CYP1A induction was assessed as liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. Genotoxicity was evaluated in gill and liver as DNA integrity (by alkaline unwinding), whereas in blood the erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) frequency was determined. Stress responses were determined as cortisol, glucose and lactate plasma levels. Liver EROD activity was significantly increased by Phe 0.3-2.7microM. Phe genotoxicity in gill was not found, whereas liver DNA integrity significantly decreased after exposure to Phe 0.1 and 0.9microM demonstrating its genotoxicity which did not correlate with liver CYP1A induction. Phe genotoxicity in blood was demonstrated by a significant ENA increase from 0.1 up to 2.7microM. In terms of stress responses, plasma cortisol was significantly increased by Phe 0.3-2.7microM, though plasma glucose was only significantly increased by Phe 0.9 and 2.7microM. The Phe observed effects on L. aurata detected at different levels demonstrate a physiological unbalance and a probable ecological risk to ichthyofauna.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals in tissues of the mullet Liza aurata in lake Ganzirri and Straits of Messina (Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Patrizia; Bella, Giuseppa Di; Dugo, Giacomo; Naccari, Francesco

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the presence of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in fish living in lake Ganzirri and the Straits of Messina, using the mullet Liza aurata as a "biological indicator". Different tissues of Liza aurata, which include the muscle, gill and vertebral column, were taken for analyses. Quantitative determination of the organochlorine compounds was performed by GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS. The concentrations of "essential" and "toxic" heavy metals were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. For the mullets of lake Ganzirri, the study showed DDE in three samples of gills and one of muscle, at concentrations below the MRL; no appreciable residues of PCBs (Aroclor 1232 series) were found. The concentrations of Zn and Cu were much higher than those of the "toxic" metals. No traces of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were found in the individuals from the Straits of Messina. Therefore, these results indicate that these two environments are not at toxicological risk.

  10. Organ specific antioxidant responses in golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) following a short-term exposure to phenanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Pacheco, M; Santos, M A

    2008-06-15

    Phenanthrene (Phe) is among the most abundant and ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic environment as a result of human activities. Even so, the knowledge about its impact on fish health is still limited. In this study, the teleost Liza aurata was exposed to 0.1, 0.3, 0.9 and 2.7 microM Phe concentrations during 16 h. Enzymatic antioxidants such as selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT), as well as a non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione - GSH) were quantified in three target organs - gill, kidney and liver. The lipid peroxidation (LPO) was also assessed as a marker of oxidative damage. GPx activity was decreased in gill (0.1 and 0.9 microM), whereas in the liver it was increased (0.3-2.7 microM). GST activity was decreased in kidney (0.3-2.7 microM) and CAT activity was increased in gill after 0.9 microM exposure. GSH content was significantly increased in gill by the lowest concentration and in liver by all Phe concentrations. Despite the antioxidant defense responses, LPO increased in gill (0.3-2.7 microM), kidney (0.1 microM) and liver (0.1 and 2.7 microM). These results revealed organ specific antioxidant defenses depending on the Phe concentration. Liver demonstrated a higher adaptive competence expressed as antioxidant defenses activation, namely GSH and GPX. The lower vulnerability of the kidney to oxidative damage (compared to gill and liver) seems to be related to its higher antioxidant basal levels. Globally, current data highlight the Phe potential to induce oxidative stress and, consequently, to affect the well-being of fish.

  11. Liver antioxidant and plasma immune responses in juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) exposed to dispersed crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Ndiaye, Awa; Sanchez, Wilfried; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2011-01-17

    Dispersants are often used after oil spills. To evaluate the environmental cost of this operation in nearshore habitats, the experimental approach conducted in this study exposed juvenile golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) for 48 h to chemically dispersed oil (simulating, in vivo, dispersant application), to dispersant alone in seawater (as an internal control of chemically dispersed oil), to mechanically dispersed oil (simulating, in vivo, natural dispersion), to the water-soluble fraction of oil (simulating, in vivo, an oil slick confinement response technique) and to seawater alone (control condition). Biomarkers such as fluorescence of biliary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites, total glutathione liver content, EROD (7-ethoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase) activity, liver antioxidant enzyme activities, liver lipid peroxidation and an innate immune parameter (haemolytic activity of the alternative complement pathway) were measured to assess the toxicity of dispersant application. Significant responses of PAH metabolites and total glutathione content of liver to chemically dispersed oil were found, when compared to water-soluble fraction of oil. As was suggested in other studies, these results highlight that priority must be given to oil slick confinement instead of dispersant application. However, since the same patterns of biomarker responses were observed for both chemically and mechanically dispersed oil, the results also suggest that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion occurring in nearshore areas (due to, e.g. waves). The results of this study must, nevertheless, be interpreted cautiously since other components of nearshore habitats must be considered to establish a framework for dispersant use in nearshore areas.

  12. Bioremediation using Gracilaria chouae co-cultured with Sparus macrocephalus to manage the nitrogen and phosphorous balance in an IMTA system in Xiangshan Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hailong; Huo, Yuanzi; Han, Fang; Liu, Yuanyuan; He, Peimin

    2015-02-15

    A cage experiment using the red alga Gracilaria chouae co-cultured with the black seabream Sparus macrocephalus in Xiangshan Bay, China was conducted to measure the nutrient flux of the integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) system. Results showed that trash fish were the main nutrient input contributor and adult fish were the main nutrient output contributor in the system. Contents of N and P in adult fish accounted for 54.45% and 59.48% of N and P in trash fish and fry, which suggests that 45.55% of N and 40.52% of P generated by fish farming were released into to the water. G. chouae proved to be an efficient bioremediation species in this IMTA system. To balance the excess nutrients generated by the system, 231.09 kg of seedlings should be cultured and 5315.07 kg of adult seaweed should be harvested.

  13. Attractive effect of acoustic taming on Sparus macrocephalus in a cage%网箱中黑鲷音响驯化的诱集效果探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德慧; 刘洪生; 胡庆松; 王伟定; 章守宇

    2012-01-01

    音响驯化作为鱼类行为控制技术之一,对海洋牧场内的鱼种行为控制有明显的作用。在驯化声源中,目标鱼种栖息海域背景噪声有望具有更佳的驯化效果。为此,在天然水域的网箱中采用录制的黑鲷栖息地背景噪声对黑鲷(Sparus macrocephalus)进行了音响驯化。由现场观察及数据分析,自然海域声音配合投饵能对黑鲷产生较好的集聚效果。黑鲷幼苗音响驯化一般经历3个过程,即环境适应,对饵料的需求达到一定量,建立声音与摄食之间的条件反射;黑鲷能识别声音,并维持一定的记忆时间。实验结果表明,采用海域背景噪声的音响驯化,配合投饵是一种有效的手段,并可以使黑鲷对声音的短期记忆转化为长期记忆。研究亮点:目前国内音响驯化研究环境主要停留在室内水槽中,自然水域网箱中的音响驯化国内未见报道。并且尝试将黑鲷放流海域的水下背景噪声作为驯化声源,探究鱼群诱集效果。另外将Atkinson-Shiffrin记忆理论运用到鱼类音响驯化领域中,探讨了定时声音刺激对黑鲷的行为反馈以及记忆变化的影响。%Fish acoustic taming, as one of the technology in the control of fish behavior, have good promotion in fish control in sea ranching. Among the sound sources, habitat waters background sound of target fishbased acoustic taming intends to involve better taming effect. To verify this, habitat waters' background sound of Sparus macrocephalus is utilized to conduct the acoustic taming in a cage. The results based on the analysis of data and participant experiment observation showed excellent aggregation effect. Acoustic taming on juvenile Sparus macrocephalus needs three stages : acclimatization ; impulsion of demanding food ( outside sign is that fish reaches certain length and weight) ; building conditioned reflex between sound and bait. Sparus macrocephalus can identify different sounds and

  14. Cholecystokinin in white sea bream: molecular cloning, regional expression, and immunohistochemical localization in the gut after feeding and fasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Micale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The peptide hormone cholecystokinin (CCK, secreted by the midgut, plays a key role in digestive physiology of vertebrates including teleosts, by stimulating pancreatic secretion, gut motility, and gallbladder contraction, as well as by delaying gastric emptying. Moreover, CCK is involved in the regulation of food intake and satiation. Secretion of CCK by the hindgut is controversial, and its biological activity remains to be elucidated. The present paper addresses the regional distribution of intestinal CCK in the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus, as well as the possible involvement of hindgut CCK in digestive processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Full-lengths mRNAs encoding two CCK isoforms (CCK-1 and CCK-2 were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. CCK gene and protein expression levels in the different gut segments were measured 3 h and 72 h after feeding, by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Moreover, endocrine CCK cells were immunoistochemically detected. Fasting induced a significant decrease in CCK-2 in all intestinal segments, including the hindgut. On the other hand, no significant difference was induced by fasting on hindgut CCK-1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrated two CCK isoforms in the hindgut of D.sargus, one of which (CCK-2 may be involved in the feedback control of uncompleted digestive processes. On the other hand, a functional role alternative to regulation of digestive processes may be inferred for D.sargus CCK-1, since its expression was unaffected by feeding or fasting.

  15. Significant population genetic structure detected in the rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844) inferred from fluorescent-AFLP analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongshuang; Ma, Daoyuan; Xu, Shihong; Liu, Qinghua; Wang, Yanfeng; Xiao, Zhizhong; Li, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Oplegnathus fasciatus (rock bream) is a commercial rocky reef fish species in East Asia that has been considered for aquaculture. We estimated the population genetic diversity and population structure of the species along the coastal waters of China using fluorescent-amplified fragment length polymorphisms technology. Using 53 individuals from three populations and four pairs of selective primers, we amplified 1 264 bands, 98.73% of which were polymorphic. The Zhoushan population showed the highest Nei's genetic diversity and Shannon genetic diversity. The results of analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 59.55% of genetic variation existed among populations and 40.45% occurred within populations, which indicated that a significant population genetic structure existed in the species. The pairwise fixation index F st ranged from 0.20 to 0.63 and were significant after sequential Bonferroni correction. The topology of an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean tree showed two significant genealogical branches corresponding to the sampling locations of North and South China. The AMOVA and STRUCTURE analyses suggested that the O. fasciatus populations examined should comprise two stocks.

  16. A Comprehensive Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns in Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Based on RNA-Seq Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Duan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala is an important fish species for its delicacy and high economic value in China. Codon usage analysis could be helpful to understand its codon biology, mRNA translation and vertebrate evolution. Based on RNA-Seq data for M. amblycephala, high-frequency codons (CUG, AGA, GUG, CAG and GAG, as well as low-frequency ones (NUA and NCG codons were identified. A total of 724 high-frequency codon pairs were observed. Meanwhile, 14 preferred and 199 avoided neighboring codon pairs were also identified, but bias was almost not shown with one or more intervening codons inserted between the same pairs. Codon usage bias in the regions close to start and stop codons indicated apparent heterogeneity, which even occurs in the flanking nucleotide sequence. Codon usage bias (RSCU and SCUO was related to GC3 (GC content of 3rd nucleotide in codon bias. Six GO (Gene ontology categories and the number of methylation targets were influenced by GC3. Codon usage patterns comparison among 23 vertebrates showed species specificities by using GC contents, codon usage and codon context analysis. This work provided new insights into fish biology and new information for breeding projects.

  17. Spatial structure of helminth communities in the golden grey mullet, Liza aurata (Actinopterygii: Mugilidae), from the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Lozano, Raúl; Pardo-Carranza, Trinidad V; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Balbuena, Juan Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Ecological investigations regarding the parasite fauna of grey mullets are scarce. The present study provides a detailed description of the helminth communities of Liza aurata in the Spanish western Mediterranean and analyzes the role of spatial, temporal, and host variables in shaping the infracommunities. In total, 204 fish were collected in 2 localities, situated ca. 290 km apart, in spring and fall of 2004 and 2005. A non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to visualize an ordination of the infracommunities according to their relative similarities in parasite abundances. The relationship between infracommunity composition and explanatory variables (host size, locality, year, and season of harvest) was examined by permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) applied to species abundances. Permutational tests for homogeneity of multivariate dispersion were used to test the null hypothesis of no differences in dispersion among groups formed by the factors whose effects were significant in PERMANOVA. A total of 33,241 helminth parasites, belonging to 18 species, was collected, i.e., 12 species of adult digeneans (23% of the parasite specimens), 3 digeneans as metacercariae (68%), 1 acanthocephalan (2.1%), and 2 monogeneans (6.5%). An important part of this helminth fauna is specialized to grey mullets, with a sizable portion of the component community restricted to the Mediterranean and northeast Atlantic. The NMDS ordination indicated high heterogeneity among infrapopulations. However, most differences at both the component and infracommunity level were related to geographic locality. In fact, the PERMANOVA showed that, among the explanatory variables considered, sampling locality accounted for the largest share of variation. The geographical differences observed may be related to local environmental characteristics or to the limited spatial dispersal of the species forming the component community. The latter was supported by the significant portion

  18. Applications of self-organizing maps for ecomorphological investigations through early ontogeny of fish.

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    Tommaso Russo

    Full Text Available We propose a new graphical approach to the analysis of multi-temporal morphological and ecological data concerning the life history of fish, which can typically serves models in ecomorphological investigations because they often undergo significant ontogenetic changes. These changes can be very complex and difficult to describe, so that visualization, abstraction and interpretation of the underlying relationships are often impeded. Therefore, classic ecomorphological analyses of covariation between morphology and ecology, performed by means of multivariate techniques, may result in non-exhaustive models. The Self Organizing map (SOM is a new, effective approach for pursuing this aim. In this paper, lateral outlines of larval stages of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus were recorded and broken down using by means of Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA. Gut contents of the same specimens were also collected and analyzed. Then, shape and trophic habits data were examined by SOM, which allows both a powerful visualization of shape changes and an easy comparison with trophic habit data, via their superimposition onto the trained SOM. Thus, the SOM provides a direct visual approach for matching morphological and ecological changes during fish ontogenesis. This method could be used as a tool to extract and investigate relationships between shape and other sinecological or environmental variables, which cannot be taken into account simultaneously using conventional statistical methods.

  19. Population dynamics of two diplectanid species (Monogenea) parasitising sparid hosts (Sparidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre, Yilmaz; Emre, Nesrin; Aydogdu, Ali; Bušelić, Ivana; Smales, Lesley R; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-03-01

    Economically important sparid fish species, gilthead (Sparus aurata) and white seabream (Diplodus sargus) (Sparidae) are frequently parasitised by diplectanid monogeneans, known to induce severe losses in farming conditions. We have analysed population dynamic of two diplectanid species, Lamellodiscus echeneis and Lamellodiscus ignoratus (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) collected from two bream species in the Beymelek Lagoon (southwest coast of Turkey), comparing it between different host variables (fish size, age and sex) in order to have insight in parasites' ecology, important for managing parasitosis in the intensive aquaculture system. In seabream (N = 127), L. echeneis prevalence was 46.5 % (exact 95 % confidence limits 38.90-54.14), mean abundance 5.64 (bootstrap 95 % confidence limits 4.20-7.65) and mean intensity 12.14 (bootstrap 95 % confidence limits 9.49-15.59). In white seabream (N = 102), L. ignoratus prevalence was 24.5 % (exact 95 % confidence limits 16.53-34.03), mean abundance 1.73 (bootstrap 95 % confidence limits 0.98-3.21) and mean intensity 7.04 (bootstrap 95 % confidence limits 4.60-11.40). Parasites' parameters differed only between seasons in both hosts and between age categories in gilthead, but not in white seabream.

  20. Comparison of heavy metal concentration of some marine fishes from Black and Aegean Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makedonski Lubomir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Major part of healthy human diet consist of marine fish and seafood products. And it is not surprising that there are numerous studies based on metal accumulation in various fish species. Fish may also be used for heavy metal monitoring programs of marine environments due to their easy sampling, sample preparation and chemical analysis. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, manganese, zinc, iron, chromium, total mercury and total arsenic were determined in edible part of two commercially valuable fish Greek aquaculture species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata purchased from Bulgarian market during 2011. The concentration of metals was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. The concentration of the heavy metals in examined fish species ranged as follow: Pb 0.008 - 0.013; Cd 0.0017 - 0.022; Ni 0.007 - 0.012; Cu 0.054 - 0.115; Mn 0.043 - 0.09; Zn 0.14 - 0.15; Fe 0.17 - 0.19; Cr 0.05 - 0.07; Hg 0.11 - 0.13; As 1.6 - 1.8 mg kg-1 wet weight, respectively.

  1. Culture of marine sponges with potential applications in Aquaculture and Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M F Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the sponges were collected from the sea bottom in the surrounding areas of Peniche (central western coast of Portugal, by scuba diving. They were sealed in plastic zip bags during transportation to the surface and laboratory, to avoid air contact, which they are not able to endure. They were maintained in a closed water circulation system, transplanted into artificial substrates of plastic and fed every two days, with a mixed solution of microalgae Nanochloropsis salina culture and faeces of gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata. As this species is susceptible to the light, half of the tanks of the culture system were protected with a black cloth and the other half were submitted to an acclimation process to this factor, in order for them to be used in aquariophilia. The sponges dimension and weight were assessed. The establishment of an efficient culture strategy will allow to use sponges as ornamental organism, as well as a diet for other interesting commercial species (also potentially as probiotics, or even as source of extracts for different biotechnology fields.

  2. Discovery of novel biopreservation agents with inhibitory effects on growth of food-borne pathogens and their application to seafood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahad, Ouissal Bourouni; El Bour, Monia; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Barros-Velàzquez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Selection of protective cultures is relevant in order to biopreserve and improve the functional safety of food products, mainly through inhibition of spoilage and/or pathogenic bacteria. Accordingly, the present study investigated potential applications of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the biopreservation of fish and shellfish products. For this purpose, a collection of 84 LAB strains isolated from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) was identified and characterized for their inhibitory activities against the most relevant seafood-spoilage and pathogenic bacteria potentially present in commercial products. The bioactive strains belonged to the genus Enterococcus and exhibited inhibition against Carnobacterium sp, Bacillus sp, Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio anguillarum. Treatment of cell-free extracts of the LAB strains with proteases revealed the proteinaceous nature of the inhibition. Interestingly, the cell-free extracts containing bacteriocins remained 100% active after treatment up to 100 °C for 30 min or 121 °C for 15 min. Molecular analysis led to identification of the bacteriocins investigated, including enterocins A, B, L50 and P. All of these proteins demonstrated remarkable anti-Listeria activity and were found to be heat-resistant small class IIa bacteriocins. The results presented in this work open the way for potential applications of these LAB strains to the biopreservation of minimally-processed seafood products.

  3. Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala): cDNA cloning, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes responding to fasting and refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Ping, Hai-Chao; Wei, Kai-Jian; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Shi, Ze-Chao; Yang, Rui-Bin; Zou, Gui-Wei; Wang, Wei-Min

    2015-11-01

    Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Yih, 1955) is an endemic freshwater fish in China for which the endocrine mechanism of regulation of feeding has never been examined. Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) play important roles in the regulation of fish feeding. In this study, full-length cDNAs of ghrelin, NPY and CCK were cloned and analyzed from blunt snout bream. Both the ghrelin and NPY genes of blunt snout bream had the same amino acid sequences as grass carp, and CCK also shared considerable similarity with that of grass carp. The three genes were expressed in a wide range of adult tissues, with the highest expression levels of ghrelin in the hindgut, NPY in the hypothalamus and CCK in the pituitary, respectively. Starvation challenge experiments showed that the expression levels of ghrelin and NPY mRNA increased in brain and intestine after starvation, and the expression levels of CCK decreased after starvation. Refeeding could bring the expression levels of the three genes back to the control levels. These results indicated that the feeding behavior of blunt snout bream was regulated by the potential correlative actions of ghrelin, NPY and CCK, which contributed to the defense against starvation. This study will further our understanding of the function of ghrelin, NPY and CCK and the molecular mechanism of feeding regulation in teleosts.

  4. CYTOTOXICITY AND GENOTOXICITY OF POLYETHYLENIMINE AND NICKEL CHLORIDE IN RED SEA BREAM (Pagrosomus major) FIN CELL LINE RSBF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华荣; 张士璀

    2002-01-01

    A continuous marine fish cell line RSBF (i.e. Red Sea Bream Fin) w as utilized to screen the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of polyethylenimine (PEI) and nickel chloride (NiCl2) in this study on the deleterious effects of aquatic genotoxins on fish. At the 0.01 to 1 μg/ml concentration tested, PEI had acute toxicity to the treated RSBF cells (IC50 =1.12, 0.92, 0.88 and 0.64 μg/ml PEI for time 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after treatment, respectively ) and markedly inhibited their proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. At the 0.001 to 5 μ mol/L concentration tested, NiCl2 posed no acute toxicity but significantly stimulated their growt h (107%-214% of control). Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to detect the genotoxic effects of PEI and NiCl2 by comparing the RAPD banding patterns of t he control and treated cells. RAPD analysis indicated that at the concentrations tested, PEI w as more genotoxic than NiCl2 to RSBF cells; that there was a slight dose-dep endent response in the genotoxic effect of PEI but not NiCl2; and that RAPD technique might provide a sensitive, non -specific genotoxic endpoint. And the potent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of PEI on fish cells sho wed that we should be cautious in utilizing it as gene vector in fish gene transfer and human gene therapy.

  5. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of polyethylenimine and nickel chloride in red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major) fin cell line RSBF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua-Rong; Zhang, Shi-Cui

    2002-12-01

    A continuous marine fish cell line RSBF (i. c. Red Sea Bream Fin) was utilized to screen the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of polyethylenimine (PEI) and nickel chloride (NiCl2) in this study on the deleterious effects of aquatic genotoxins on fish. At the 0.01 to 1 μg/ml concentration tested, PEI had acute toxicity to the treated RSBF cells (IC50=1.12, 0.92, 0.88 and 0.64 μg/ml PEI for time 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after treatment, respectively) and markedly inhibited their proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. At the 0.001 to 5 μmol/L concentration tested, NiCl2 posed no acute toxicity but significantly stimulated their growth (107% 214% of control). Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to detect the genotoxic effects of PEI and NiCl2 by comparing the RAPD banding patterns of the control and treated cells. RAPD analysis indicated that at the concentrations tested, PEI was more genotoxic than NiCl2 to RSBF cells; that there was a slight dose-dependent response in the genotoxic effect of PEI but not NiCl2; and that RAPD technique might provide a sensitive, non-specific genotoxic endpoint. And the potent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of PEI on fish cells showed that we should be cautious in utilizing it as gene, vector in fish gene transfer and human gene therapy.

  6. Identification, Phylogeny, and Function of fabp2 Paralogs in Two Non-Model Teleost Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitetzidou, Elisavet; Chatzifotis, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Efthimia; Sarropoulou, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein (IFABP or FABP2) is a cytosolic transporter of long-chain fatty acids, which is mainly expressed in cells of intestinal tissue. Fatty acids in teleosts are an important source of energy for growth, reproduction, and swimming and a main ingredient in the yolk sac of embryos and larvae. The fabp2 paralogs, fabp2a and fabp2b, were identified for 26 teleost fish species including the paralogs for the two non-model teleost fish species, namely the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Despite the high similarity of fabp2 paralogs, as well as the identical organization in four exons, paralogs were mapped to different chromosomes/linkage groups supporting the hypothesis that the identified transcripts are true paralogs originating from a single ancestor gene after genome duplication. This was also confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using fabp2 sequences of 26 teleosts and by synteny analysis carried out with ten teleosts. Differential expression analysis of the gilthead sea bream and European sea bass fabp2 paralogs in the intestine after fasting and refeeding experiment further revealed their altered implication in metabolism. Additional expression studies in seven developmental stages of the two species detected fabp2 paralogs relatively early in the embryonic development as well as possible complementary or separated roles of the paralogs. The identification and characterization of the two fabp2 paralogs will contribute significantly to the understanding of the fabp2 evolution as well as of the divergences in fatty acid metabolism.

  7. Effect of seasonal variation in seawater dissolved mercury concentrations on mercury accumulation in the muscle of red sea bream (Pagrus major) held in Minamata Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Akito; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Kindaichi, Michiaki; Sonoda, Ikuko; Koyama, Jiro

    2013-09-01

    Japanese stingfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) and Bambooleaf wrasse (Pseudolabrus japonicas) are monitored annually for mercury pollution in Minamata Bay, Japan. The average total mercury concentration in the muscle of these two species in Minamata Bay was 0.36 mg kg(-1) wet weight and 0.20 kg(-1) wet weigh, respectively, between 2008 and 2010. This is higher than levels elsewhere in Japan (0.125 mg kg(-1) wet weight and 0.038 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively). The FDA (2001) and EPA (2004) suggested that a proportion of mercury accumulated in fish is derived from seawater. We reared young red sea bream (Pagrus major) over a 2-year period in Minamata Bay and Nagashima (control) to evaluate the uptake of mercury from seawater and dietary sources. Fish were fed a synthesized diet that did not contain mercury. There was no difference in mercury accumulation in the muscle of red sea bream between Minamata Bay and Nagashima. Thus, our results suggest that the majority of mercury accumulated in fish muscle is not from seawater.

  8. A proto-type galectin-2 from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Molecular, genomic, and expression analysis, and recognition of microbial pathogens by recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulasitha, William Shanthakumar; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Wan, Qiang; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kang, Tae-Wook; Lee, Jehee

    2017-01-25

    A β-galactoside binding lectin, designated as galectin-2, was identified and characterized from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (OfGal-2). The cDNA of OfGal-2 comprised of 692 bp with a coding sequence of 396 bp, encoding a putative polypeptide of 131 amino acids. Gene structure analysis of OfGal-2 revealed a four exon-three intron organization. A single carbohydrate-binding domain containing all seven important residues for carbohydrate binding was located in the third exon, which formed a carbohydrate-binding pocket. Homology screening and sequence analysis demonstrated that OfGal-2 is an evolutionarily conserved proto-type galectin. OfGal-2 transcripts were detected in several healthy fish tissues, with the highest level observed in the intestine, followed by the liver. The expression of OfGal-2 was elevated upon the injection of various mitogenic stimulants and pathogens in a time-dependent manner. Upregulated expression in the liver after tissue injury suggested its role as a damage-associated molecular pattern. Recombinant OfGal-2 protein had hemagglutinating potential and possessed affinity towards lactose and galactose. Moreover, the recombinant protein agglutinated and bound potential pathogenic bacteria and a ciliate. The results of this study indicate that the galectin-2 from rock bream has a potential role in immunity, particularly in the recognition of invading pathogens.

  9. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  10. Evaluation of the fishery status for King Soldier Bream Argyrops spinifer in Pakistan using the software CEDA and ASPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Aamir Mahmood; Liu, Qun; Memon, Khadim Hussain; Baloch, Wazir Ali; Memon, Asfandyar; Baset, Abdul

    2015-07-01

    Catch and effort data were analyzed to estimate the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of King Soldier Bream, Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål, 1775, Family: Sparidae), and to evaluate the present status of the fish stocks exploited in Pakistani waters. The catch and effort data for the 25-years period 1985-2009 were analyzed using two computer software packages, CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) and ASPIC (a surplus production model incorporating covariates). The maximum catch of 3 458 t was observed in 1988 and the minimum catch of 1 324 t in 2005, while the average annual catch of A. spinifer over the 25 years was 2 500 t. The surplus production models of Fox, Schaefer, and Pella Tomlinson under three error assumptions of normal, log-normal and gamma are in the CEDA package and the two surplus models of Fox and logistic are in the ASPIC package. In CEDA, the MSY was estimated by applying the initial proportion (IP) of 0.8, because the starting catch was approximately 80% of the maximum catch. Except for gamma, because gamma showed maximization failures, the estimated results of MSY using CEDA with the Fox surplus production model and two error assumptions, were 1 692.08 t ( R 2=0.572) and 1 694.09 t ( R 2=0.606), respectively, and from the Schaefer and the Pella Tomlinson models with two error assumptions were 2 390.95 t ( R 2=0.563), and 2 380.06 t ( R 2=0.605), respectively. The MSY estimated by the Fox model was conservatively compared to the Schaefer and Pella Tomlinson models. The MSY values from Schaefer and Pella Tomlinson models were the same. The computed values of MSY using the ASPIC computer software program with the two surplus production models of Fox and logistic were 1 498 t ( R 2=0.917), and 2 488 t ( R 2=0.897) respectively. The estimated values of MSY using CEDA were about 1 700-2 400 t and the values from ASPIC were 1 500-2 500 t. The estimates output by the CEDA and the ASPIC packages indicate that the stock is overfished, and needs some

  11. Marine teleost ortholog of catalase from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): molecular perspectives from genomic organization to enzymatic behavior with respect to its potent antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Premachandra, H K A; Whang, Ilson; Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Kim, Eunmi; Lim, Bong-Soo; Jung, Hyung-Bok; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2013-10-01

    Catalases are well known antioxidant enzymes that can mainly dismutate hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen in order to prevent oxidative stress. The complete genomic DNA (gDNA) sequence of the catalase gene from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) was identified from our custom-constructed BAC genomic DNA library and designated as RbCat. RbCat consists of 13 exons, separated by 12 introns, within a 13,722-bp gDNA sequence. The complete cDNA sequence (3303 bp) of RbCat is comprised of a 1581-bp coding region, encoding a peptide of 527 amino acids (aa) in length, with a predicted molecular mass of 60 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.34. The anticipated promoter region of RbCat contains several transcription factor-binding sites, including sites that bind with immune- and antioxidant-responsive signaling molecules, suggesting its substantial transcriptional regulation. RbCat resembles the typical catalase family signature, i.e., it is composed of the catalase proximal active site motif along with a catalase proximal heme-ligand signature motif and shares great homology with its fish counterparts. According to multiple sequence alignment, functionally important amino acids present in RbCat were thoroughly conserved among its vertebrate counterparts. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RbCat evolved from a vertebrate origin, and further positioned it in the fish clade. Recombinant RbCat had noticeable peroxidase activity against its substrate, hydrogen peroxide, in a dose-dependent manner. However, it demonstrated substantial peroxidase activity within a broad range of temperatures and pH values. Constitutive RbCat mRNA expression of different magnitudes was detected in a tissue-specific manner, suggesting its diverse role in physiology with respect to the tissue type. Moreover, immune challenge experiments using Edwardsiella tarda and rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) as live pathogens and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid and lipopolysaccharide as mitogens

  12. Dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-09-01

    Our study explored the dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (AMP-0.1), 0.2% (AMP-0.2), 0.4% (AMP-0.4) and 0.8% (AMP-0.8) purified AMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The results indicated that dietary AMP supplements tended to improve growth performances. One of the best ones was found in diet group AMP-0.2, followed by diet groups AMP-0.1, AMP-0.4 and AMP-0.8. The Apparent digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein and lipid) also improved by AMP supplementation and the significantly highest dry matter digestibility was observed in diet group AMP-0.2. Fish fed diet groups AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 had significantly higher peroxidase and bactericidal activities than fish fed the control diet. Nitro-blue-tetrazolium (NBT) activity was found to be significantly (P AMP-0.4 and AMP-0.8. Total serum protein, lysozyme activity and agglutination antibody titer were also increased (P > 0.05) by dietary supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with AMP supplementation. Moreover, the fish fed AMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 showed the least oxidative stress condition. Finally it is concluded that, dietary AMP supplementation enhanced the growth, digestibility, immune response and stress resistance of red sea bream. The regression analysis revealed that a dietary AMP supplementation between 0.2 and 0.4% supported weight gain and lysozyme activity as a marker of immune functions for red sea bream, which is also inline with the most of the growth and health performance parameters of fish under present experimental conditions.

  13. Molecular aspects, genomic arrangement and immune responsive mRNA expression profiles of two CXC chemokine receptor homologs (CXCR1 and CXCR2) from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Wan, Qiang; Revathy, Kasthuri Saranya; Whang, Ilson; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Seokryel; Park, Myoung-Ae; Lee, Jehee

    2014-09-01

    The CXCR1 and CXCR2 are the prototypical receptors and are the only known receptors for mammalian ELR+ (Glu-Leu-Arg) CXC chemokines, including CXCL8 (interleukin 8). These receptors transduce the ELR+ chemokine signals and operate the downstream signaling pathways in inflammation and innate immunity. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of CXCR1 and CXCR2 genes from rock bream fish (OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2) at the molecular level. The cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of the OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2 were identified from a transcriptome library and a custom-constructed BAC library, respectively. Both OfCXCR genes consisted of two exons, separated by an intron. The 5'-flanking regions of OfCXCR genes possessed multiple putative transcription factor binding sites related to immune response. The coding sequences of OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2 encoded putative peptides of 355 and 360 amino acids (aa), respectively. The deduced aa sequences of OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2 comprised of a G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) family 1 profile with a GPCR signature and a DRY motif. In addition, seven conserved transmembrane regions were predicted in both OfCXCRs. While our multiple alignment study revealed the functionally significant conserved elements of the OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2, phylogeny analyses further confirmed their position in teleost sub clade, in which they manifested an evolutionary relatedness with other fish counterparts. Based on comparative analyses, teleost CXC chemokine receptors appear to be distinct from their non-fish orthologs in terms of evolution (both CXCR1 and CXCR2) and genomic organization (CXCR2). Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) detected the transcripts of OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2 in eleven examined tissues, with higher levels in head kidney, kidney and spleen highlighting their crucial importance in immunity. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) with concanavalin A (Con A) resulted in modulation of OfCXCR2 transcription, but not

  14. Insights into the mechanisms underlying mercury-induced oxidative stress in gills of wild fish (Liza aurata) combining {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics and conventional biochemical assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappello, Tiziana, E-mail: tcappello@unime.it [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Brandão, Fátima, E-mail: fatimabrandao@ua.pt [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Canário, João [Centro de Química Estrutural, Instítuto Superíor Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been described as a key pathway to initiate mercury (Hg) toxicity in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying Hg-induced oxidative stress in fish still need to be clarified. To this aim, environmental metabolomics in combination with a battery of conventional oxidative stress biomarkers were applied to the gills of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected from Largo do Laranjo (LAR), a confined Hg contaminated area, and São Jacinto (SJ), selected as reference site (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal). Higher accumulation of inorganic Hg and methylmercury was found in gills of fish from LAR relative to SJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed changes in metabolites related to antioxidant protection, namely depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its constituent amino acids, glutamate and glycine. The interference of Hg with the antioxidant protection of gills was corroborated through oxidative stress endpoints, namely the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at LAR. The increase of total glutathione content (reduced glutathione + oxidized glutathione) at LAR, in parallel with GSH depletion aforementioned, indicates the occurrence of massive GSH oxidation under Hg stress, and an inability to carry out its regeneration (glutathione reductase activity was unaltered) or de novo synthesis. Nevertheless, the results suggest the occurrence of alternative mechanisms for preventing lipid peroxidative damage, which may be associated with the enhancement of membrane stabilization/repair processes resulting from depletion in the precursors of phosphatidylcholine (phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine), as highlighted by NMR spectroscopy. However, the observed decrease in taurine may be attributable to alterations in the structure of cell membranes or interference in osmoregulatory processes. Overall, the novel concurrent use of metabolomics and conventional oxidative stress endpoints demonstrated to

  15. Effects of cadmium, naphthalene, and DDVP on gut carbohydrases activity in bream (Abramis brama L. ) and Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus Peters)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovanova, I.L.; Chuiko, G.M.; Pavlov, D.F. (Institute of the Biology of Inland Waters, Borok (Russian Federation))

    1994-03-01

    Previous research has shown that sublethal concentrations of cadmium, naphthalene and dichlorvos (DDVP) decreased growth rates in bream and Mozambique tilapia. One of the factors known to affect fish growth is the activity of gut digestive enzymes such as of lipases, proteases, carbohydrases. We assumed that toxicant-induced inhibition of the digestive enzyme activity and, consequently, the impaired digestion of food may contribute to the reduction of growth in fish exposed to toxicants. However, the influence of toxicants on digestive enzyme activities is poorly studied. The contribution of toxicant-induced changes of digestive enzymes activity to growth rate retardation in exposed fish remains unknown. The goal of this study was to examine the influence of an organophosphorus insecticide DDVP, a polyaromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene, and a metal cadmium on fish gut carbohydrase (CH) activity. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Expression Analysis of Lily Type Lectin Isotypes in the Rock Bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus: in the Tissue, Developmental Stage and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Mee; Yang, In Jung; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Noh, Gyeong Eon; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Kil

    2016-12-01

    Lectins belong to the pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) class and play important roles in the recognition and elimination of pathogens via the innate immune system. Recently, it was reported that lily-type lectin-1 is involved when a pathogen attacks in the early immune response of fish. However, this study is limited to information that the lectin is involved in the innate immune response against viral infection. In the present study, the lily-type lectin-2 and -3 of Oplegnathus fasciatus (OfLTL-2 and 3) have been presented to be included B-lectin domain and two D-mannose binding sites in the amino acid sequence that an important feature for the fundamental structure. To investigate the functional properties of OfLTLs, the tissue distribution in the healthy rock bream and temporal expression during early developmental stage analysis are performed using quantitative real-time PCR. OfLTL-2 and 3 are predominantly expressed in the liver and skin, but rarely expressed in other organ. Also, the transcripts of OfLTLs are not expressed during the early developmental stage but its transcripts are increased after immune-related organs which are fully formed. In the challenge experiment with RBIV (rock bream iridovirus), the expression of OfLTLs was increased much more strongly in the late response than the early, unlike previously known. These results suggest that OfLTLs are specifically expressed in the immune-related tissues when those organs are fully formed and it can be inferred that the more intensively involved in the second half to the virus infection.

  17. Effects of dietary tert-butylhydroquinone on domoic acid metabolism and transcription of detoxification-related liver genes in red sea bream Pagrus major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shan; LIANG XuFang; SHEN Dan; ZHANG WenBing; MAI KangSen

    2013-01-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neuroexcitatory amino acid that is produced by Pseudo-nitzschia during harmful algal blooms (HAB).Accumulation of DA can be transferred through food chain and cause neuronal damage in marine animal and in human.Like other algal toxins,DA was suggested to increase the oxidative stress and increase the detoxification-related gene expression in fish.The widely used food antioxidant,tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ),was known to induce a wide range of antioxidative potentials such as elevation of the glutathione levels and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs),via the activation of antioxidant response elements (AREs).In this study,the influences of dietary tBHQ on domoic acid (DA) metabolism and detoxification-related gene transcription were investigated both in vivo and in vitro.Oral administration of tBHQ resulted in significant decreases of DA accumulation of liver tissues in which red sea bream were fed with a single dose of 10 mg DA and 100 mg tBHQ per kg body weight per fish.Real-time PCR further revealed that the mRNA levels of AHR/ARNT/CYP1A1/GSTA1/GSTR were up-regulated in the above liver tissues at 72 h post tBHQ treatment.In consistence,tBHQ exposure also resulted in increased mRNA transcription of GSTA1,GSTA2 and GSTR in cultured red sea bream hepatocytes.Collectively,our findings in this research suggested that the dietary intake of tBHQ accelerated DA metabolism in fish,through mechanisms involving altered transcription of detoxificationrelated liver genes.

  18. Comparative analysis and evolutionary significance of the HMG1 gene in crucian carp,blunt snout bream,and their polyploid progeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Liu; Zhen Liu; Shaojun Liu; Liangguo Liu; Cuiping You; Lin Chen; Huan Zhong; Yun Liu

    2009-01-01

    The full-length mRNA of the high mobility group protein 1 coding gene (HMG1) was obtained by RACE-PCR from red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.),blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala),and their triploid and tetraploid progeny.The sequence contained an open reading frame of 579 nucleotides coding for 193 amino acids.The nucleotide identity of HMG1 was higher between the tetraploid hybrid and the maternal red crucian carp (99%) than between the tetraploid hybrid and the paternal blunt snout bream (97%).The nucleotide identity between the triploid hybrids and each parent (95%) was lower than that between the parents (98%).The protein identity between the tetraploid hybrid and each parent (100%) was higher than that between the triploid hybrid and each parent (97%).Our results suggest that interspecific hybridization generates a shock to the HMG1 gene in triploid hybrids,causing divergence of nucleotides.The HMG1 protein of the tetraploid hybrids was consistent with that of its parents,which reduced the barrier of cross incompatibility between alleles,providing the basis for the bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids forming a new polyploid species in nature.The secondary and tertiary structures of the HMG1 protein contain eight helices,three switches,two DNA-binding domains in the N-terminus,and a long acidic tail in the C-terminus.Together,these data suggest that the HMG1 protein plays a role of protein-DNA interactions,facilitating various DNA-dependent activities in the nucleus.We also investigated the phylogeny of fish,amphibian,reptilian,bird,and mammalian HMG1 proteins.Our results suggest that HMG1 is an ancestral protein that has been highly conserved.These data provide clues as to how interspecific hybridization may form polyploid hybrids.

  19. Physiological response, blood chemistry profile and mucus secretion of red sea bream (Pagrus major) fed diets supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus under low salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; El-Sabagh, Mabrouk; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Wang, Wei-Long; Yukun, Zhang; Olivier, Adissin

    2017-02-01

    Environmental stressors caused by inadequate aquaculture management strategies suppress the immune response of fish and make them more susceptible to diseases. Therefore, efforts have been made to relieve stress in fish by using various functional feed additives in the diet, including probiotics. The present work evaluates the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) on physiological stress response, blood chemistry and mucus secretion of red sea bream (Pagrus major) under low salinity stress. Fish were fed four diets supplemented with LR at [0 (LR0), 1 × 10(2) (LR1), 1 × 10(4) (LR2) and 1 × 10(6) (LR3) cells g(-1)] for 56 days. Before stress, blood cortisol, urea nitrogen (BUN) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05), whereas plasma glucose and triglyceride (TG) of fish-fed LR2 and LR3 diets were significantly lower (P salinity stress test, plasma cortisol, glucose, T-CHO and TG contents in all groups showed an increased trend significantly (P salinity stress (P > 0.05). In addition, the fish that received LR-supplemented diets showed significantly higher tolerance against low salinity stress than the fish-fed LR-free diet (P < 0.05). The physiological status and the detected immune responses, including total plasma protein and mucus myeloperoxidase activity in red sea bream, will provide a more comprehensive outlook of the effects of probiotics to relieve stress in fish.

  20. Combined use of environmental data and biomarkers in fish (Liza aurata) inhabiting a eutrophic and metal-contaminated coastal system - Gills reflect environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia; de Pablo, Hilda; Vale, Carlos; Pacheco, Mário

    2010-03-01

    An investigative biomonitoring study was carried out in a eutrophic coastal system with a moderate contamination by metals (Obidos lagoon, Portugal), combining the evaluation of exposure concentrations with metals accumulation and oxidative stress responses in gills of the golden grey mullet (Liza aurata). Two contrasting seasons (winter and summer) were considered at three sites: Barrosa (BB) and Bom-Sucesso (BS) branches; Middle lagoon (ML). Data on the water column pointed to a higher metals and nutrients availability at BB that was reflected in the higher metal concentrations in gills, particularly in winter. Similarly, oxidative stress responses demonstrated a pro-oxidant challenge at BB (winter and summer), which was corroborated by an integrated biomarker response index (IBR). Metal concentrations in gills were higher in summer than winter, reflecting the increased environmental concentrations in combination with elevated metabolic rates. Catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (GSH(t)) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) increases observed in winter at BB were related with metal accumulation, while summer enhancement of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), GST and GSH(t) was associated with other stressors. Inter-site differences on the basis of IBR were more accentuated in winter. Gills can be considered as an important route of entry for contaminants and were demonstrated to reflect water contamination and are therefore useful in the context of environmental assessment.

  1. Hepatic metallothionein concentrations in the golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) - Relationship with environmental metal concentrations in a metal-contaminated coastal system in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Ahmad, I; Maria, V L; Serafim, A; Bebianno, M J; Pacheco, M; Santos, M A

    2010-05-01

    This field survey was designed to assess the environmental metal contamination status of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). To achieve that goal, the concentrations of Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn in the sediments and water were assessed and Liza aurata hepatic metallothionein (MT) determined. The relationships between MT and environmental metal concentrations and hydrological factors were examined. Results revealed a wide distribution of metals both in water and sediments throughout the lagoon, mainly at Rio Novo do Principe (RIO) and Laranjo (LAR), at concentrations that may affect biota. MT concentrations were higher at the sites with high metal content (RIO and LAR). A significant positive correlation was found between MT and Cd in the sediments as well as with MT and Hg and Cu in the water. Moreover, a negative correlation between MT and salinity was found. Thus, the current data support MT use as a biomarker of metal exposure emphasizing the importance of hydrological parameters in its concentrations. Results suggest the continued monitoring of this lagoon system.

  2. The sub-cellular fate of mercury in the liver of wild mullets (Liza aurata)--Contribution to the understanding of metal-induced cellular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Olinda; Pereira, Patrícia; Cesário, Rute; Pacheco, Mário; Raimundo, Joana

    2015-06-15

    Mercury is a recognized harmful pollutant in aquatic systems but still little is known about its sub-cellular partitioning in wild fish. Mercury concentrations in liver homogenate (whole organ load) and in six sub-cellular compartments were determined in wild Liza aurata from two areas - contaminated (LAR) and reference. Water and sediment contamination was also assessed. Fish from LAR displayed higher total mercury (tHg) organ load as well as in sub-cellular compartments than those from the reference area, reflecting environmental differences. However, spatial differences in percentage of tHg were only observed for mitochondria (Mit) and lysosomes plus microsomes (Lys+Mic). At LAR, Lys+Mic exhibited higher levels of tHg than the other fractions. Interestingly, tHg in Mit, granules (Gran) and heat-denaturable proteins was linearly correlated with the whole organ. Low tHg concentrations in heat stable proteins and Gran suggests that accumulated levels might be below the physiological threshold to activate those detoxification fractions.

  3. Reproductive biology of the Golden grey mullet Liza aurata, in the Gulf of Gabes (central Mediterranean, Tunisia in the Gulf of Gabes (central Mediterranean, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. ABDALLAH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of its high commercial value, very few information are available on the biological feature of the Golden grey mullet in Tunisian waters (central Mediterranean. These data would be of great help in identifying the current stock state. In this study, Gonado Somatic Index (GSI, Hepato Somatic Index (HSI, condition factor (K, Length at first sexual maturity TL50 was calculated and the fecundity was estimated using the volumetric method. The Gonado Somatic Index (GSI indicated that the spawning season of the Golden grey mullet extends from October to December. The monthly variation of Hepato-Somatic Index (HSI indicates that L. aurata saves lipid reserves in liver. The species is sexually mature at 23.73, 23.84 and 23.79 cm TL respectively for female, male and combined sexes. In the present study the sex-ratio was unbalanced, with females dominating among large size individuals (TL > 24 cm. Absolute fecundity with a mean value of 286564 varied from a minimum of 210400 eggs for age 4 and a maximum of 533600 for age 7+.

  4. Contamination assessment of a coastal lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal) using defence and damage biochemical indicators in gill of Liza aurata - An integrated biomarker approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail: migueloliveira@ua.pt; Maria, V.L. [CIMA and Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Ahmad, I. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Serafim, A.; Bebianno, M.J. [CIMA and Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Pacheco, M.; Santos, M.A. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2009-03-15

    Fish gill importance in toxicants uptake, bioconcentration and excretion allied to meagre knowledge on branchial damage/protection responses substantiate this study. Five critical sites in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) were assessed in comparison with a reference site (Torreira), focusing on Liza aurata gill antioxidant defences versus damage (oxidative and genetic). Only in Barra fish displayed damage (lipid peroxidation) though no differences were found in antioxidants. In all other sites, except Rio, antioxidant alterations were found. Thus, fish from Gafanha, Laranjo and Vagos showed higher total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Higher glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activity was also found in the first and the last sites, respectively. In Laranjo, metallothionein levels were higher though lower in Gafanha and Vagos. In general, damage was not accompanied by defences weakening confirming that predicting damage based on antioxidants depletion is not straightforward. The integrated biomarker response index ranked sites as: Gafanha > Barra > Laranjo > Vagos > Rio > Torreira. - The integration of antioxidant defence and damage responses in fish, using gill as a key organ, can improve the aquatic contamination assessment.

  5. Identification of a novel transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β6 gene in fish: regulation in skeletal muscle by nutritional state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakowlew Sonia B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β family constitutes of dimeric proteins that regulate the growth, differentiation and metabolism of many cell types, including that of skeletal muscle in mammals. The potential role of TGF-βs in fish muscle growth is not known. Results Here we report the molecular characterization, developmental and tissue expression and regulation by nutritional state of a novel TGF-β gene from a marine fish, the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. S. aurata TGF-β6 is encoded by seven exons 361, 164, 133, 111, 181, 154, and 156 bp in length and is translated into a 420-amino acid peptide. The exons are separated by six introns: >643, 415, 93, 1250, 425 and >287 bp in length. Although the gene organization is most similar to mouse and chicken TGF-β2, the deduced amino acid sequence represents a novel TGF-β that is unique to fish that we have named TGF-β6. The molecule has conserved putative functional residues, including a cleavage motif (RXXR and nine cysteine residues that are characteristic of TGF-β. Semi-quantitative analysis of TGF-β6 expression revealed differential expression in various tissues of adult fish with high levels in skin and muscle, very low levels in liver, and moderate levels in other tissues including brain, eye and pituitary. TGF-β6 is expressed in larvae on day of hatching and increases as development progresses. A fasting period of five days of juvenile fish resulted in increased levels of TGF-β6 expression in white skeletal muscle compared to that in fed fish, which was slightly attenuated by one injection of growth hormone. Conclusion Our findings provide valuable insights about genomic information and nutritional regulation of TGF-β6 which will aid the further investigation of the S. aurata TGF-β6 gene in association with muscle growth. The finding of a novel TGF-β6 molecule, unique to fish, will contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the TGF

  6. Advances in understanding the mechanisms of mercury toxicity in wild golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) by (1)H NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Tiziana; Pereira, Patrícia; Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela; Pacheco, Mário; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is recognized as a dangerous contaminant due to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification within trophic levels, leading to serious health risks to aquatic biota. Therefore, there is an urgent need to unravel the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of Hg. To this aim, a metabolomics approach based on protonic nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), coupled with chemometrics, was performed on the gills of wild golden grey mullets L. aurata living in an Hg-polluted area in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Gills were selected as target organ due to their direct and continuous interaction with the surrounding environment. As a consequence of accumulated inorganic Hg and methylmercury, severe changes in the gill metabolome were observed, indicating a compromised health status of mullets. Numerous metabolites, i.e. amino acids, osmolytes, carbohydrates, and nucleotides, were identified as potential biomarkers of Hg toxicity in fish gills. Specifically, decrease of taurine and glycerophosphocholine, along with increased creatine level, suggested Hg interference with the ion-osmoregulatory processes. The rise of lactate indicated anaerobic metabolism enhancement. Moreover, the increased levels of amino acids suggested the occurrence of protein catabolism, further supported by the augmented alanine, involved in nitrogenous waste excretion. Increased level of isobutyrate, a marker of anoxia, was suggestive of onset of hypoxic stress at the Hg contaminated site. Moreover, the concomitant reduction in glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine reflected the occurrence of membrane repair processes. Finally, perturbation in antioxidant defence system was revealed by the depletion in glutathione and its constituent amino acids. All these data were also compared to the differential Hg-induced metabolic responses previously observed in liver of the same mullets (Brandão et al., 2015). Overall, the environmental metabolomics approach demonstrated its effectiveness in the

  7. Insights into the mechanisms underlying mercury-induced oxidative stress in gills of wild fish (Liza aurata) combining (1)H NMR metabolomics and conventional biochemical assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Tiziana; Brandão, Fátima; Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana; Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela; Canário, João; Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been described as a key pathway to initiate mercury (Hg) toxicity in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying Hg-induced oxidative stress in fish still need to be clarified. To this aim, environmental metabolomics in combination with a battery of conventional oxidative stress biomarkers were applied to the gills of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected from Largo do Laranjo (LAR), a confined Hg contaminated area, and São Jacinto (SJ), selected as reference site (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal). Higher accumulation of inorganic Hg and methylmercury was found in gills of fish from LAR relative to SJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed changes in metabolites related to antioxidant protection, namely depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its constituent amino acids, glutamate and glycine. The interference of Hg with the antioxidant protection of gills was corroborated through oxidative stress endpoints, namely the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at LAR. The increase of total glutathione content (reduced glutathione+oxidized glutathione) at LAR, in parallel with GSH depletion aforementioned, indicates the occurrence of massive GSH oxidation under Hg stress, and an inability to carry out its regeneration (glutathione reductase activity was unaltered) or de novo synthesis. Nevertheless, the results suggest the occurrence of alternative mechanisms for preventing lipid peroxidative damage, which may be associated with the enhancement of membrane stabilization/repair processes resulting from depletion in the precursors of phosphatidylcholine (phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine), as highlighted by NMR spectroscopy. However, the observed decrease in taurine may be attributable to alterations in the structure of cell membranes or interference in osmoregulatory processes. Overall, the novel concurrent use of metabolomics and conventional oxidative stress endpoints demonstrated to be

  8. Cytochrome b gene reveals panmixia among Japanese Threadfin Bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) populations along the coasts of Peninsular Malaysia and provides evidence of a cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong-Chiun; Ahmad, Abu Talib; Nuruddin, Ahmad Adnan; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated genetic differentiation among ten presumed Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus populations along the coast of Peninsular Malaysia based on the partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (982 bp). Genetic divergences (Kimura-2 parameter) ranged from 0.5% to 0.8% among nine of the ten populations while these nine populations were 4.4% to 4.6% diverged from the Kuala Besar population located at the Northeast coast. The constructed Neighbour Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees based on haplotypes showed the Kuala Besar population forming an isolated cluster. The Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) of the ten populations a priori assigned into four regions, revealed that most of the variation occurred within population with a fairly low but significant level of regional differentiation (FST = 0.07, p 0.05 and FCT = 0.07, p population. p Value after Bonferroni correction revealed that only pairwise FST values involving the Kuala Besar population with the other nine populations were significant. Thus, this study revealed that the N. japonicus populations off Peninsular Malaysia were panmictic. However, the Kuala Besar population, although morphologically identical was composed of a genetically discrete taxon from the rest. These findings are important contributions in formulating sustainable fishery management policies for this important fishery in Peninsular Malaysia.

  9. Comparative study of the metal accumulation in Hysterothalycium reliquens (nematode) and Paraphilometroides nemipteri (nematode) as compared with their doubly infected host, Nemipterus peronii (Notched threadfin bream).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhar, Roshan; Shazili, Noor Azhar; Harrison, Faizah Shaharom

    2014-10-01

    In February 2013, forty-seven Notched threadfin bream, the Nemipterus peronii, were sampled from the eastern coastal waters of the South China Sea. The concentration of various elements, namely cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), Lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and Zinc (Zn) were analyzed in the liver, muscle, and kidney organs of the host, as well as in their parasites Hysterothalycium reliquens (nematode) and the Paraphilometroides nemipteri (nematode), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The former group of parasites showed highest accumulation capacity for Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Ni, and Zn while the latter group had high accumulation potential of As, Hg, Cd, Al, Pb, and Sr. The divergence in heavy-metal accumulation profiles of both nematodes is linked with the specificity of microhabitats, cuticle morphology, and interspecific competition. The outcome of this study indicates that both parasite models can be used for biomonitoring of metal pollution in marine ecosystems.

  10. ANTILISTERIAL ACTYVITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM GILTHEAD BREAMS AND SEA BASSES FILLETS PACKAGED MAP AGAINST PRIMITIVE STRAINS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barile

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis typically caused by ready-to-eat processed food that have a refrigerated shelf-life, but lightly preserved fish products also belong to a high-risk category. Aim of the work was to evaluate antimicrobial activity linked bacteriocin-producing of LAB isolated from gilthead breams and sea basses fillets packaged in modified atmospheres. Fifty-five LAB strains were screened against 21 strains of Listeria monocytogenes, 1 Listeria innocua held in the culture collection of Department of Zootechnical Sciences and Food Ispection (SIA and submitted to antagonistic activity using the spot on lawn and the agar well diffusion assay. Lactococcus lactis sub. lactis Sa31 was able to produce bacteriocin in agar and different broth medium. The bacteriocin man31 showed sensitivity to trypsin, pronase E and papain, inactivation at temperatures ≥ 100°C, bactericidal mode of action and antilisterial act, rapidly. The bacteriocin man31 caused a reduction of L. monocytogenes ½ c growth about log10 > 3 UFC/ml, when was applied on indicator strain at 20,480 AU/ml concentration, in vitro.

  11. Chromosomal mapping of microsatellite repeats in the rock bream fish Oplegnathus fasciatus, with emphasis of their distribution in the neo-Y chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongdong; Lou, Bao; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello

    2013-03-19

    Despite the theoretical and experimental progress, our understanding on sex chromosome differentiation is still diagrammatic. The accumulation of repetitive DNA sequences is believed to occur in early stages of such differentiation. As fish species present a wide range of sex chromosome systems they are excellent models to examine the differentiation of these chromosomes. In the present study, the chromosomal distribution of 9 mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide microsatellites were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybrization (FISH) in rock bream fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus), which is characterized by an X1X2Y sex chromosome system. Generally, the males and females exhibited the same autosomal pattern of distribution for a specific microsatellite probe. The male specific Y chromosome displays a specific amount of distinct microsatellites repeats along both arms. However, the accumulation of these repetitive sequences was not accompanied by a huge heterochromatinization process. The present data provide new insights into the chromosomal constitution of the multiple sex chromosomes and allow further investigations on the true role of the microsatellite repeats in the differentiation process of this sex system.

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus or/and Lactococcus lactis on the growth, gut microbiota and immune responses of red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; El Basuini, Mohammed F; Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Nhu, Truong H; Dossou, Serge; Moss, Amina S

    2016-02-01

    Pagrus major fingerlings (3·29 ± 0·02 g) were fed with basal diet (control) supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactococcus lactis (LL), and L. rhamnosus + L. lactis (LR + LL) at 10(6) cell g(-1) feed for 56 days. Feeding a mixture of LR and LL significantly increased feed utilization (FER and PER), intestine lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, plasma total protein, alternative complement pathway (ACP), peroxidase, and mucus secretion compared with the other groups (P growth performance (Fn wt, WG, and SGR) and protein digestibility than the groups fed an individual LR or the control diet. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased in LR and LR + LL groups when compared with the other groups. Moreover, the fish fed LR or LL had better improvement (P growth, feed utilization, body protein and lipid contents, digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein, and lipid), protease activity, total intestine and LAB counts, hematocrit, total plasma protein, biological antioxidant potential, ACP, serum and mucus LZY and bactericidal activities, peroxidase, SOD, and mucus secretion than the control group. Interestingly, fish fed diets with LR + LL showed significantly lower total cholesterol and triglycerides when compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). These data strongly suggest that a mixture of LR and LL probiotics may serve as a healthy immunostimulating feed additive in red sea bream aquaculture.

  13. Chemometric analysis of fatty acids profile of bream (Abramis brama, ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua and perch (Perca fluviatilis meat from Lake Gopło and Włocławski Dam Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumila Kupcewicz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 18 fatty acid profiles have been determined in 63 samples of muscles from three freshwater fish species: bream, ruffe and perch by gas chromatography method. The fish were collected in natural condition from two reservoirs located in central Poland: Lake Gopło and Włocławski Reservoir. A chemometric study with the use of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, principal component (PCA and stepwise linear discrimination analysis (LDA was applied to characterize, classify and differentiate collected samples. The chemometric techniques by using fatty acids content as descriptors allow clearly distinguish 6 groups according to fish species and their geographical origin.

  14. Depletion of Essential Fatty Acids in the Food Source Affects Aerobic Capacities of the Golden Grey Mullet Liza aurata in a Warming Seawater Context.

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    Marie Vagner

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of thermal acclimation and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA content of the food source on the aerobic capacities of fish in a thermal changing environment. The model used was the golden grey mullet Liza aurata, a species of high ecological importance in temperate coastal areas. For four months, fish were exposed to two food sources with contrasting n-3 HUFA contents (4.8% ecosapentaenoic acid EPA + docosahexaenoic acid DHA on the dry matter DM basis vs. 0.2% EPA+DHA on DM combined with two acclimation temperatures (12°C vs. 20°C. The four experimental conditions were LH12, LH20, HH12 and HH20. Each group was then submitted to a thermal challenge consisting of successive exposures to five temperatures (9°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C. At each temperature, the maximal and minimal metabolic rates, metabolic scope, and the maximum swimming speed were measured. Results showed that the cost of maintenance of basal metabolic activities was particularly higher when n-3 HUFA food content was low. Moreover, fish exposed to high acclimation temperature combined with a low n-3 HUFA dietary level (LH20 exhibited a higher aerobic scope, as well as a greater expenditure of energy to reach the same maximum swimming speed as other groups. This suggested a reduction of the amount of energy available to perform other physiological functions. This study is the first to show that the impact of lowering n-3 HUFA food content is exacerbated for fish previously acclimated to a warmer environment. It raises the question of the consequences of longer and warmer summers that have already been recorded and are still expected in temperate areas, as well as the pertinence of the lowering n-3 HUFA availability in the food web expected with global change, as a factor affecting marine organisms and communities.

  15. Depletion of Essential Fatty Acids in the Food Source Affects Aerobic Capacities of the Golden Grey Mullet Liza aurata in a Warming Seawater Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagner, Marie; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Zambonino Infante, José-Luis; Mazurais, David; Dubillot, Emmanuel; Le Delliou, Hervé; Quazuguel, Patrick; Lefrançois, Christel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of thermal acclimation and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) content of the food source on the aerobic capacities of fish in a thermal changing environment. The model used was the golden grey mullet Liza aurata, a species of high ecological importance in temperate coastal areas. For four months, fish were exposed to two food sources with contrasting n-3 HUFA contents (4.8% ecosapentaenoic acid EPA + docosahexaenoic acid DHA on the dry matter DM basis vs. 0.2% EPA+DHA on DM) combined with two acclimation temperatures (12°C vs. 20°C). The four experimental conditions were LH12, LH20, HH12 and HH20. Each group was then submitted to a thermal challenge consisting of successive exposures to five temperatures (9°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C). At each temperature, the maximal and minimal metabolic rates, metabolic scope, and the maximum swimming speed were measured. Results showed that the cost of maintenance of basal metabolic activities was particularly higher when n-3 HUFA food content was low. Moreover, fish exposed to high acclimation temperature combined with a low n-3 HUFA dietary level (LH20) exhibited a higher aerobic scope, as well as a greater expenditure of energy to reach the same maximum swimming speed as other groups. This suggested a reduction of the amount of energy available to perform other physiological functions. This study is the first to show that the impact of lowering n-3 HUFA food content is exacerbated for fish previously acclimated to a warmer environment. It raises the question of the consequences of longer and warmer summers that have already been recorded and are still expected in temperate areas, as well as the pertinence of the lowering n-3 HUFA availability in the food web expected with global change, as a factor affecting marine organisms and communities.

  16. OPTIMAL DIETARY PYRIDOXINE REQUIREMENT OF JUVENILE BLUNT SNOUT BREAM, MEGALOBRAMA AMBLYCEPHALA%团头鲂幼鱼吡哆醇适宜需求量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 李向飞; 张微微; 徐维娜; 刘文斌

    2013-01-01

    试验采用单因素试验设计,以饲料中吡哆醇浓度为影响因素,研究了团头鲂幼鱼的适宜吡哆醇需求量。试验共配置了7组等氮等能的半纯化饲料,其吡哆醇的实际含量分别为0、1.04、1.99、4.07、5.91、7.96和9.22 mg/kg。选用840尾[均重:(6.81±0.17) g]团头鲂幼鱼,随机分为7组,每组4重复,每重复30尾鱼,日投饵3次,养殖期为8周。结果表明,当饲料中吡哆醇含量由0升高至5.91 mg/kg时,团头鲂的增重率、特定生长率、饲料利用率、成活率、蛋白效率比和氮保留率均得到显著改善(P0.05)。饲料中的吡哆醇含量显著影响团头鲂的肝体比(P0.05)。当饲料吡哆醇含量由0升高至5.91 mg/kg时,肝脏谷草转氨酶和谷丙转氨酶活性以及吡哆醇含量均显著升高(P0.05)。以肝脏中的谷丙和谷草转氨酶活性以及吡哆醇含量为评价指标,拟合折线模型得到团头鲂幼鱼的适宜吡哆醇的需求量为4.17-5.02 mg/kg。%This study was conducted to determine the optimal dietary pyridoxine requirement of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Eight hundred and forty fishes [average initial weight:(6.81±0.17) g] were fed with seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing different pyridoxine levels (0, 1.04, 1.99, 4.07, 5.91, 7.96 and 9.22 mg/kg) 3 times daily for 8 weeks, respectively. Each diet was tested in four replicates, and each replicate had 30 fishes. Weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate, protein efficiency ratio (PER) and nitrogen retention efficiency (NRE) were all increased significantly (P0.05). No significant difference (P>0.05) was observed both in condition factor and dressout percentage among all the treatments, while hepatosomatic index was significantly (P0.05) with further increase of pyridoxine levels. On the basis of the broken-line analysis of hepatic GOT and GPT activities and liver

  17. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial control region in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Liangguo; Liu, Shaojun; Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Yun

    2010-06-01

    The entire sequences of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA control region (CR) and portions of its flanking genes in the red crucian carp (RC) and blunt snout bream (BSB) as well as their polyploid hybrids (3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB) were determined and subjected to a comparative analysis. The mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species ranged from 923 to 937 bp in length, they had the same flanking gene arrangement as other vertebrates and the pattern of nucleotide substitution bias was also similar to that in other vertebrates. Our data are consistent with the viewpoint of three domains [extended terminal associated sequence (ETAS domain), central conserved sequence block domain and conserved sequence block (CSB) domain] within the mtDNA-CR of mammals. On the basis our comparative analysis of the mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species, we were able to identify the consensus sequences of functional conserved units, including the ETAS, CSB-F, CSB-D, CSB-E, CSB1, CSB2 and CSB3 and putative promoter. The percentage of variable nucleotide positions (41.98%) in the central domain was lower than those in the ETAS and conserved domain (71.70 and 47.12%, respectively), suggesting that the central domain was the most conserved part of the mtDNA-CR. These results provide useful and important information for the further study of mtDNA-CR structure in fish. The sequence similarities of mtDNA-CR among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective female parents were higher than those among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective male parents, providing the direct evidence of stringent maternal inheritance of mtDNA-CR in the 3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB hybrids.

  18. Effects of berberine on the growth and immune performance in response to ammonia stress and high-fat dietary in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Qing; Liu, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Man; Dai, Yong-Jun; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Xu, Wei-Na

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to figure out the effects of berberine on growth performance, immunity, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fed with high-fat diet. 320 fish (80.00 ± 0.90 g) were divided randomly into four trial groups (each with four replicates) and fed with 4 diets (normal diet, normal diet with 50 mg/kg berberine, high-fat diet, high-fat diet with 50 mg/kg berberine), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, ammonia stress test was carried out for 5 days. The result showed the growth performance, immune parameters including plasm acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, lysozyme (LYZ) activities and alternative complement C3 and C4 contents were suppressed in fish fed with high-fat diets but improved in berberine diets compared with control (normal diet). Hepatopancreas oxidative status, the malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and lipid peroxide (LPO) were increased significantly (P Berberine could slow the progression of the oxidative stress induced by high-fat through increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and total sulfydryl (T-SH) levels of fish. And the hepatocyte apoptosis in the high-fat group could also be alleviated by berberine. After the ammonia stress test, the accumulative mortality was extremely (P berberine compared to other groups. It was concluded berberine as a functional feed additive significantly inhibited the progression of oxidative stress, reduced the apoptosis and enhanced the immunity of fish fed with high-fat diet.

  19. Multiresidue determination of veterinary drugs in aquaculture fish samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Renata Pereira; Reyes, Rocío Cazorla; Romero-González, Roberto; Vidal, José Luis Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2012-05-01

    A simple, selective and fast multiresidue method was developed for the determination of 32 veterinary drug residues belonging to several families, in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The extraction was based on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) procedure, using as extraction solution a mixture of acetonitrile and methanol (75:25, v/v), and it reduces sample handling, increasing sample throughput in relation to current methodologies. The developed method was validated and mean recovery ranged from 69% to 125% (at 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/kg). Intra and interday precision, estimated as the same levels and expressed as relative standard deviation, RSD, were lower than 20% and 30%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were lower than 7.5 and 25 μg/kg, respectively, except for danofloxacin, oxytetracycline and tetracycline (LOD and LOQ of 15.0 and 50 μg/kg, respectively). Decision limit (CC(α)) and detection capability (CC(β)) were also calculated and ranged from 16.7 μg/kg (levamisole) to 605.0 (flumequine) μg/kg and from 23.5 μg/kg (levamisole) to 611.5 μg/kg (flumequine), respectively. The expanded uncertainty, U, was also evaluated ant it was below 25% at 100 μg/kg level, except for tetracycline (28%). Finally, the method was applied to ten samples obtained from local supermarkets in Almería (Spain) and traces of some compounds were detected.

  20. The Taxonomic Status of Japanese Threadfin BreamNemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Perciformes:Nemipteridae) with a Redescription of this Species from the South China Sea Based on Morphology and DNA Barcodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Ping; SHA Zhongli; Paul DN HEBERT; Barry RUSSELL

    2015-01-01

    Because of its importance as a food source,Nemipterus japonicus(Bloch, 1791) (Nemipteridae) or Japanese threadfin bream is the best studied of these taxa, and numerous investigations have examined its fisheries, its biology and biochemistry. De-spite such intensive work, the taxonomic status ofN. japonicushas never been seriously questioned and itis regarded as a common species, widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific Ocean. In fact, Bloch’s description of the type specimen ofN. ja-ponicus has ambiguous collection data and lacks a designation for the type locality, though it is probably Java. In this paper, DNA barcode results based on COI gene support the existence of two geographically separated lineages of the Japanese threadfin bream, both being an Indian Ocean and western Pacific lineage, with 2.7% sequence divergence, and the results indicate a possible existing of some cryptic species. The two lineages also possess a diagnostic difference in their belly color, with specimens in the South China Sea having a silver belly, while those from the Indian Ocean isolate specimen have a yellow coloration. Based upon new collections from the South China Sea, this species from the western Pacific is morphologically redescribed and its details of DNA barcode diver-sity are shown for the future investigations.

  1. Temporal stability of otolith elemental fingerprints discriminates among lagoon nursery habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournois, Jennifer; Ferraton, Franck; Velez, Laure; McKenzie, David J.; Aliaume, Catherine; Mercier, Lény; Darnaude, Audrey M.

    2013-10-01

    The chemical composition of fish otoliths reflects that of the water masses that they inhabit. Otolith elemental compositions can, therefore, be used as natural tags to discriminate among habitats. However, for retrospective habitat identification to be valid and reliable for any adult, irrespective of its age, significant differences in environmental conditions, and therefore otolith signatures, must be temporally stable within each habitat, otherwise connectivity studies have to be carried out by matching year-classes to the corresponding annual fingerprints. This study investigated how various different combinations of chemical elements in otoliths could distinguish, over three separate years, between four coastal lagoon habitats used annually as nurseries by gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). A series of nine elements were measured in otoliths of 301 S. aurata juveniles collected in the four lagoons in 2008, 2010 and 2011. Percentages of correct re-assignment of juveniles to their lagoon of origin were calculated with the Random Forest classification method, considering every possible combination of elements. This revealed both spatial and temporal variations in accuracy of habitat identification, with correct re-assignment to each lagoon ranging from 44 to 99% depending on the year and the lagoon. There were also annual differences in the combination of elements that provided the best discrimination among the lagoons. Despite this, when the data from the three years were pooled, a combination of eight elements (B, Ba, Cu, Li, Mg, Rb, Sr and Y) provided greater than 70% correct re-assignment to each single lagoon, with a multi-annual global accuracy of 79%. When considering the years separately, discrimination accuracy with these elemental fingerprints was above 90% for 2008 and 2010. It decreased to 61% in 2011, when unusually heavy rainfall occurred, which presumably reduced chemical differences among several of the

  2. 黄鳍鲷幼鱼对几种不同糖源的利用%Utilization of several different carbohydrate sources by juvenile yellowfin seabream (Sparus latus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小易; 刘永坚; 田丽霞; 麦康森; 阳会军

    2007-01-01

    Six isonitrogenous (crude protein: 45% of dry matter), isolipidic (crude lipid: 9% of dry matter) semi-purified diets including a cellulose control diet and five 25% glucose, maltose, dextrin, corn starch and pre-gelatinized corn starch diets were prepared. Each was fed to triplicate groups of juvenile yellowfin seabream Sparus latus [initial body weight: (3.57±0.13) g means ± SD] reared in 18 fiberglass tanks connected as a closed recirculating system at (27±1) ℃ for 8 weeks. The growth indices, feed efficiency (FE), protein efficiency rate (PER) and hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, EC 1.1.1.49), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH, EC 1.1.1.44), malic enzyme (ME, EC 1.1.1.40) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH, EC 1.1.1.42) activities were measured to evaluate the ability of yellowfin seabream to utilize different carbohydrate sources in diets. Results showed that weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), hepatosomatic index (HSI), intraperitoneal fat (IPF) ratio, FE, PER, hepatic lipogenic enzymes activities and the compositions of whole body, muscle and liver of juvenile yellowfin seabream were significantly affected by different dietary carbohydrate sources. The pre-gelatinized corn starch and maltose groups, displayed significantly better WG and SGR than other carbohydrate sources groups (P<0.05), but had no significant difference with the control group (P>0.05). Growth and WG were not dependent on the complexity of dietary carbohydrate source. Fish fed with the pre-gelatinized corn starch and control diets had significantly higher FE and PER than those fed with glucose, maltose, dextrin and corn starch diets (P<0.05). HSI was improved by the digestible carbohydrate inclusion. The IPF ratio in the pre-gelatinized corn starch group was higher than all other diet groups. In conclusion, pre-gelatinization of corn starch and maltose at a 25% inclusion level fed to fish significantly improved the growth of juvenile yellowfin

  3. Effects of dietary pantothenic acid on growth, intestinal function, anti-oxidative status and fatty acids synthesis of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qian

    dietary PA requirements of juvenile blunt snout bream were estimated to be 24.08 mg kg(-1.

  4. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and Microelements in Silver Bream (Brama brama L.), Northern Pike (Esox lucius L.), Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) From Tisza River, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrbac, Snežana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in liver, gills, gonads, and brain of four ecologically different fish species in Serbia: piscivorous northern pike, benthivorous sterlet and silver bream, and omnivorous common carp. Fish were caught at four sites along the stretch of the River Tisza in the Pannonian part of Serbia during October 2010. Results revealed that heavy metals and microelements with the highest values in fish samples were Fe, Al, and Zn. The highest concentration of heavy metals and microelements was recorded in omnivorous common carp, and organs that most intensively accumulated the greatest number of metals were liver and gills, whereas the locality did not exert a marked impact on level of bioaccumulation.

  5. Fish plasma lipoproteins--comparative observations in serranides and sparides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santulli, A; Cusenza, L; Modica, A; Curatolo, A; D'Amelio, V

    1991-01-01

    1. Diet, time from last feeding, temperature, season and sexual stage are some of the factors influencing the lipoprotein pattern. 2. Keeping these factors constant species-specific differences observed among lipoprotein patterns of Sparus aurata, Puntazzo puntazzo, Diplodus sargus, Diplodus vulgaris and Dicentrarchus labrax are discussed. 3. Feeding habits and therefore lipid absorption and the rate of lipoprotein maturation process are the factors determining the observed differences.

  6. 条石鲷(Oplegnathus fasciatus)心脏早期发育的组织学观察%ONTOGENY OF THE HEART OF ROCK BREAM OPLEGNATHUS FASCIATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何滔; 肖志忠; 刘清华; 李军

    2012-01-01

    Based on the histological observation under optical microscope, we studied the ontogeny of the heart of rock bream Oplegnathusfasciatus at (24 _+ 1.0)~C. At 13h 30min postfertilization, the heart primordium, an ellipsoidal tube de- rived from the mesoderm, appears in the ventral side of the midbrain. It consists of I-YSL exteriorly and a stuff of spindle cells interiorly. At 20h 30min post-fertilization, the heart is beginning to beat and the blood starts to circulate through a closed set of channels. At hatching, the heart appeared as a straight tube lying anterior to the coelom of rock bream. At 2 DAH (days after hatching), the heart was differentiated into four parts: sinous venosus, atrium, ventricle and bulbous arte-riosus. At 3 DAH, the atrioventricular and semilunar valves were formed. At 6 DAH, the sinoatial valve was developed and the trabeculae in the ventricle appeared. At 12 DAH, the blood cells in the heart increased sharply. At 27 DAH, the trabeculae were appeared in the atrium, and the heart of rock bream was developed completely.%应用石蜡切片技术和显微测量法,对条石鲷心脏的早期发生、分化和形成过程进行了连续观察。结果表明,在水温(24±1.0)℃的条件下,心脏原基在受精后13h30min出现于中部脑的腹面,其外部由卵黄多核层包围,内部则为扁平细胞所填充;受精后20h30min,心脏开始搏动,可见血细胞:初孵仔鱼心脏呈直管状,位于体腔前端;2日龄(days after hatching,DAH),心脏分化成静脉窦、心耳(心房)、心室和动脉球四个部分;3日龄,耳室瓣和半月瓣形成;6日龄,窦耳瓣和心小室形成:12日龄,心脏内血细胞的数量急剧增加,血流量显著加大;27日龄,心耳内形成小梁结构,心脏发育完善。

  7. Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - pollutant monitoring of the Elbe river using breams (Abramis brama L.). A classification system; Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - Schadstoffueberwachung der Elbe mit der Fischart Brassen (Abramis brama L.). Ein Klassifizierungssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, H.J. [Hydrobiologische Untersuchungen und Gutachten (HUuG), Tangstedt (Germany); Gaumert, T.; Reincke, H. [Wasserguetestelle Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    In 1979-1980, breams caught between Schnackenburg and Glueckstadt were analyzed for heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. After the German unification, the analyses were extended to further sections of the river. The report presents the results. [German] In den Jahren 1979-1980 wurden Brassen zwischen Schnackenburg und Glueckstadt fuer eine gezielte Analyse auf verschiedene Schwermetalle und Chlorkohlenwasserstoffe gefangen. Vorrangiges Ziel der damaligen ARGE-ELBE-Untersuchung war die Eignung des Weissfisches als Bioindikator zur Darstellung der Schadstoffbelastung in der Elbe. Nach der Wiedervereinigung wurde ein weiteres Sondermessprogramm mit dem Brassen durchgefuehrt. Der Brassen wurde an 10 Fangplaetzen im bundesdeutschen Elbelaengsschnitt 1994 befischt: An zwei Stationen in der Oberen Elbe, an drei Fangstellen in der Mittelelbe und an fuenf Fangorten in der Tideelbe. Die Befunde wurden hinsichtlich regionaler Belastung und Vermarktungsfaehigkeit dargestellt. In dem vorliegenden Bericht werden ausnahmslos die Schadstoffgehalte der Brassenfaenge der Elbe des Jahres 1994 ausgewertet. Zur Festlegung der Hintergrundbelastung (Referenzstandard) des Bewertungssystems wurden Brassen aus voraussichtlich gering belasteten Gewaessern beruecksichtigt. Ziel der Datenauswertung ist eine Klassifizierung, welche die regionalspezifische Kontamination im Muskelfleisch der Elbe-Brassen widerspiegelt. (orig.)

  8. 条石鲷视觉器官早期发育的组织学观察%Histological observation of eye ontogeny in rock bream larvae (Oplegnathus fasciatus )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何滔; 肖志忠; 刘清华; 马道远; 徐世宏; 肖永双; 李军

    2012-01-01

    应用石蜡切片技术和显微测量法,对条石鲷(Oplegnathusfasciatus)视觉器官的早期发生、分化和形成过程进行了连续观察。结果显示:在水温24℃±1.0℃的条件下,受精后10.5h,视杯出现;受精后15.5h,晶状体形成;受精后22h,在脉络膜裂口处出现角膜;2日龄,巩膜和脉络膜形成;3日龄,虹膜出现:6日龄,视网膜分化完全,由色素层、视锥视杆层、外界膜、外核层、外网状层、内核层、内网状层、神经节细胞层、神经纤维层和内界膜组成;13日龄,角膜分化完全,由外向内依次为复层扁平上皮、前弹性膜、纤维层、后弹性膜和肉皮层;21日龄,虹膜完全分化,由内向外依次为色素层、后缘层、基质层、前缘层和内皮层。此时条石鲷眼的各个部分(巩膜、脉络膜、视网膜、晶状体、虹膜、角膜)均发育完善。%Based on the histological observation under optical microscope, we studied the ontogeny of eyes in rock bream. The results showed that at 24℃±1.0℃, the optic vesicle appeared at 10.5 h after fertilization, and the lens was visible at 15.5 h after fertilization. As the choroid fissures widened, the cornea was developed in the site at 22 h after fertilization. At 2 DAH (days after hatching), the choroid and sclera were formed, and the iris was present at 3 DAH. At 6 DAH, the retina was well developed and consisted of pigment epithelium, rods and cones layer, external limiting membrane, outer nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, inner plexiform layer, ganglion cell layer, nerve fibre layer and internal limiting membrane. At 13 DAH, the cornea was well differentiated, and consisted of stratified squamous epithelium, lamina elastica anterior, fibre layer, lamina elastica porterior and en- dothelium. At 21 DAH, the iris was well developed and consisted of pigment layer, iris posterior, stroma, iris anterior and

  9. 真鲷虹彩病毒实时定量PCR检测方法的建立与应用%Development and application of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of red-sea bream iridovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉然; 岳志芹; 谭乐义; 刘荭; 赵巍; 梁成珠; 史秀杰; 徐彪; 朱来华; 何俊强

    2011-01-01

    以真鲷虹彩病毒(Red-sea bream iridovirus,RSIV)主要衣壳蛋白(Major capsid protein,MCP)的基因保守片段为靶序列,利用Primer Express 3.0软件设计定量PCR引物,建立了RSIV的SYBR Green I实时定量PCR检测方法.将RSIV MCP基因连接pMD18-T载体,构建重组质粒,经过梯度稀释后作为标准品,根据标准品拷贝数(X)与Ct值的关系绘制了标准曲线,为Ct=-3.184 1gX+40.270,相关系数R2=0.996 9.熔解曲线分析表明,定量PCR产物的Tm值为82.5℃.该方法的检测限为2.20×102拷贝/反应,对流行性造血器官坏死病毒、淋巴囊肿病毒、蛙病毒3、甲鱼虹彩病毒都没有扩增反应,具有特异性.利用该方法对84批海水鱼类(石鲽、大菱鲆、鲈鱼)进行检测,其中5批鱼样品感染RSIV,并利用标准曲线对病毒含量进行了定量分析.%A sensitive and specific SYBR Green Ⅰ real-time PCR assay for the detection of red-sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) was established.The real-time PCR primers were designed according to the conserved region of major capsid protein (MCP) gene by using Primer Express 3.0 software.The RSIV MCP gene was inserted into pMD18-T vector to construct the recombinant plasmid.The resulted plasmid was serially diluted and used as the standards.The relationship between plasmid copy number(X)and Ct value was described as a standard curve: Ct=-3.184 lgX+40.270(with an R2 value of 0.996 9).The detection limit of the assay was 2.20×102 virus copies per reaction.The assay showed specificity and could not be amplified with RSIV and epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), frog virus 3 (FV 3) ,or soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV).The Tm of the specific product was obtained as 82.5 ℃ through the melting curve analysis.This assay was applied in detecting whether the sea fish samples (stone flounder, turbot, and weever) of 84 batches were infected by RSIV.It was found that the samples of 5 batches presented positive

  10. Optimization of capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for species analysis of metallothionein-like proteins extracted from liver tissues of Elbe-bream and Roe deer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proefrock, Daniel; Prange, Andreas E-mail: andreas.prange@gkss.de; Schaumloeffel, Dirk; Ruck, Wolfgang

    2003-08-15

    Species analysis of metallothionein-like proteins (MLP) in liver tissues from Elbe-Bream (Abramis brama L.) and Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) using capillary electrophoresis (CE) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection is described. In order to allow systematic development of the method, commercially available metallothionein (MT) preparations of rabbit liver were used. Optimum separation efficiency was obtained by investigating the influence of parameters such as voltage, capillary temperature, buffer concentration, buffer pH and the use of different buffer systems. Instrumental parameters such as CE capillary position, interface adjustment and contamination problems are also discussed. Separation was performed using uncoated fused silica capillaries with 75 {mu}m i.d. and 70 cm length. The optimum conditions were found to be: Separation voltage 30 kV, positive polarity, capillary temperature 288.15 K and a buffer concentration of 100 mmol l{sup -1} Tricine-NH{sub 3} adjusted to pH 7.2. Sample preparation was performed so as to minimize oxidation and heavy metal contamination of the samples. The high molecular mass protein matrix was reduced by acetonitrile precipitation. For commercial MT preparations the relative standard deviations (R.S.D) in the retention times were 0.9% for MT-1 and 1.9% for MT-2; the R.S.D.'s in the peak areas were less than 6% for MT-1 and 16% for MT-2, respectively. Under optimized conditions the MLPs in the real samples could be separated efficiently in less than 10 min. By comparison with the migration times of commercially available MT preparations, two of the observed peaks could be assigned to MT-1 and MT-2.

  11. Infection kinetics of Aeromonas hydrophila in the blunt-snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala%嗜水气单胞菌在浸泡感染团头鲂的组织动态分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆春云; 谢骏; 习丙文; 梁利国; 夏飞; 潘良坤

    2015-01-01

    利用具有绿色荧光蛋白基因标记的嗜水气单胞菌(WJ-8GFP)对团头鲂(Megalobrama amblycephala)进行浸泡攻毒试验,探究温度对浸泡感染后嗜水气单胞菌在团头鲂各组织分布的影响。实验设立A组(水温25℃), B组(水温32℃), C组(水温25℃),其中 C组为对照组。用菌株 WJ-8GFP对实验组 A、B进行浸泡攻毒,试验组 C不进行攻毒处理,攻毒后分别于2h、4h、8h、12h、24h采集各组鱼血液、脾、肾、鳃、肠道、肌肉,培养法统计分析各组织器官上的荧光细菌数量。实验结果显示,在各取样时间段实验组 A(25℃)和实验组B(32℃)团头鲂各组织在均能检测到荧光嗜水气单胞菌,对照组未检测到嗜水气单胞菌;最高菌量出现在鳃,且鳃上嗜水气单胞菌数量显著大于其他组织(P<0.05),其次是脾、肾;组织内的菌量随时间大体呈现先上升后下降的趋势; B实验组中各组织菌量显著大于 A 实验组(P<0.05)。研究结果表明,鳃是嗜水气单胞菌浸泡感染团头鲂的主要组织器官,与25℃相比较,在水温32℃时团头鲂被嗜水气单胞菌感染的风险更高。%Fish disease has become an increasingly prominent problem in aquaculture development and causes severe economic damage to fisheries. Aeromonas hydrophila is an important fish pathogen that causes hemor-rhaging and septicemia in many cultured fishes. The infection kinetics of A. hydrophila in blunt-snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala were investigated with a strain, A. hydrophila WJ-8, that was transformed with a plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein (pEGFPuv-Kar). The purpose of this investigation was to fully eluci-date the pathogenesis of septicemia in blunt-snout bream and provide basic data on pathogenic factors of A. hy-drophila. Fish were divided into three experimental groups: group A, water temperature 25℃; group B, water temperature 32℃;and group C (control group), water

  12. Morphological and Histological Study on the Digestive Tract of Wild and Cultivated Yellowfin Black Porgy (Sparus latus)%野生与养殖黄鳍鲷消化道形态组织结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永翠; 李加儿; 区又君; 苏慧

    2012-01-01

    The morphology and histology of the digestive tract of wild and cultivated Yellowfin Black Porgy (Spams Lotus ) were studied using routine method of paraffin tissue section. The results showed that there were some differences between the two populations. Morphological observations showed that oesophagus was crude and short, and the V-shaped stomach was divided into three portions; cardiac stomach, fundic stomach and pyloric stomach. There were four pyloric caeca, and intestine was detoured two inflections in the body cavity. In wild fish, the teeth were harder and sharper, the fat in the body cavity was less, and the digestive tract was cruder and shorter. The average intestinal coefficients of the wild and cultivated Yellowfin Black Porgy were 0.71 ±0.03 and 0.94 ±0.12, respectively. Histological observations showed that mucous epithelium of oesophagus was composed of pinacocyte layer and goblet cell layer with rich goblet cells. Stomach had a single-layered columnar epithelium, without goblet cells. The gastric gland was developed in the cardiac stomach and fundic stomach. The histological features of pyloric caeca were similar to those of intestine, with columnar epithelium and less goblet cells. Meanwhile the distribution trend of goblet cells in the whole intestine was; foregut > midgut > hindgut and cultivated fish > wild fish. There were more goblet cells in rectum than in intestine. The major histological differences between wild and cultivated Yellowfin Black Porgy were that there were more goblet cells in the same part of digestive tract in cultivated fish than in wild fish, while the muscular coat was thicker in wild fish than in cultivated fish. It could be concluded that the differences of digestive tract between the two populations relied on their different living conditions and foods.%采用常规石蜡组织切片的方法对野生和养殖黄鳍鲷(Sparus latus)消化道的形态组织结构进行了比较观察.结果表明,野生和养殖黄

  13. 团头鲂幼鱼饲料中α-亚麻酸、亚油酸的适宜含量%Optimal Dietary α-Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid Contents of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) Fingerlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚林杰; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 许凡; 刘猛; 刘汉超; 董娇娇; 陈科全; 黄雨薇

    2015-01-01

    在半纯化饲料配方的基础上,分别设计6个α-亚麻酸含量(0.02%、0.55%、1.08%、1.60%、2.13%、2.65%)、6个亚油酸含量(0.86%、1.29%、1.73%、2.16%、2.59%、3.03%),以亚麻籽油、玉米油、棕榈油调节饲料中α-亚麻酸、亚油酸的含量,配制等氮等能(粗蛋白质含量为30.09%,粗脂肪含量为6.87%)的12种半纯化试验饲料,探讨团头鲂幼鱼[初始均重为(59.5±0.5) g]饲料中α-亚麻酸、亚油酸的适宜含量。养殖试验分为α-亚麻酸和亚油酸试验2部分,均设6组,每组4个重复,每个重复20尾,养殖周期为85 d。结果表明:在α-亚麻酸试验中,依据回归方程计算得到,在饲料α-亚麻酸含量分别为1.32%、1.33%时,团头鲂幼鱼具有最大的特定生长率和最小的饲料系数;0.02%组的脏体指数显著低于除1.08%组外的其他各组( P0.05);0.02%组血清总胆固醇、甘油三酯含量显著高于0.55%、1.08%组(P0.05);1.29%组血清总胆固醇含量显著高于1.73%组(P0.05)。以特定生长率、饲料系数作为主要评价指标,结合部分血清生化指标和形体指标,得到适合团头鲂幼鱼快速生长、维持鱼体正常健康的饲料中适宜的亚麻酸、亚油酸含量分别为1.32%~1.33%、2.02%~2.03%。%This experiment was conducted to estimate the optimal dietary α-linolenic acid ( LNA) and linoleic acid ( LA ) contents of blunt snout bream ( Megalobrama amblycephala ) fingerlings [ intial average body weight of (59.5±0.5) g]. The flax seed oil, corn oil and palm oil were used as lipid sources to regulate dieta-ry LNA and LA contents, a total of 6 gradients of LNA content such as 0. 02%, 0. 55%, 1. 08%, 1. 60%, 2.13% and 2. 65%, and 6 gradients of LA content such as 0. 86%, 1. 29%, 1. 73%, 2. 16%, 2. 59% and 3.03% were designed. Twelve isonitrogenous and isoenergetic semi-purified experimental diets ( crude protein content was 30.09%, and lipid content was 6.87%) were formulated. The feeding trial included 2

  14. 乌伦古湖欧鳊四种年龄鉴定材料的比较分析%Comparative studies on four calcified structures for age determination of common bream Abramis brama in Ulungur Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡少迪; 沈建忠; 马徐发; 李鸿; 刘其根; 刘军; 朱湘强

    2015-01-01

    This study described the morphology and annulus characteristics , and analyzed the consistency of age interpre -tations from four hard tissues (lapillus, scale, cleithrum, operculum) for age determination of common bream Abramis brama in Ulungur Lake, in Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region , China.The agreement of age readings between two times by the same reader on the cross-sectioned lapillus is the highest (90.5%, n =221), followed by the plane sectioned la-pillus (84.5%, n =171), cleithrum (83.7%, n =178), operculum (80.7%, n =176).And scales have the lowest agreement of age readings (74.2%, n =221).The agreement of age readings between the cross -sectioned lapilla and plane sectioned lapilla is the highest (83.6%, n =110).The next is the agreement between the cross -sectioned lapilla and cleithra (71.2%, n =73) and the following is that between the cross -sectioned lapilla and scales (62.4%, n =101).The opercula have the lowest agreement (30.0%, n =73) with the cross-sectioned lapilla.So, cleithra, scales and opercula may underestimate the ages of elderly individuals .In short, the lapillus is the best age determination materi -al, and the cross-section method is more appropriate.Scales, cleithra and opercula are not suitable for determining the a -ges of older individuals of common bream .%对新疆乌伦古湖欧鳊(Abramis brama)耳石、鳞片、匙骨、鳃盖骨等四种年龄鉴定材料的形态和年龄特征进行了描述,并对其年龄读数的一致性进行了比较分析。结果显示:3龄以下个体鳞片年轮标志多为普通切割型,3龄以后年轮显示为碎裂切割和疏密切割,高龄个体鳞片外围有年轮缺失的现象;微耳石磨片在透射光下呈明暗相间的轮纹;匙骨中心区域透明,年轮不清晰,外侧年轮清晰,但高龄个体外侧有年轮缺失的现象;鳃盖骨中心部分较厚,年轮不易观察。同一观察者2次读龄年龄读数吻合率中,耳石

  15. Development of Real-Time PCR Assay for the Detection of Red Sea Bream Iridovirus (RSIV)%一种真鲷虹彩病毒实时荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旻; 景宏丽; 方珍珍; 高隆英; 江育林; 林祥梅

    2011-01-01

    Red sea bream iridovirus(RSIV) is a pathogen causing high mortalities of red sea bream(Pagrosomus major) and more than 30 other species of culture marine fish belongs mainly to the orders Perciformes and Pleuronectiformes.So the red sea bream iridovirus disease had been in diseases list by OIE(World Organisation for Animal Health).At genetic level,RSIV cannot been distinguished from Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus(ISKNV) which is the representative species of Megalocytivir and both of them could be detected by PCR using same primers.A number of diagnostic methods on detection of RSIV are used in Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animal diseases,such as the histopathological observation of smears or tissue sections,IFAT using a MAb,and polymerase chain reactions(PCR).In order to establish a high efficient and reliable diagnostic method,a Real-time PCR assay for detection of RSIV was developed in this paper.The primers and TaqMan probes were designed according to the conserved regions of major capsid protein(MCP) gene of ISKNV.And the MCP gene was ligated into the pGEM-T plasmid vector to prepare of recombinant plasmid pGEM-T/RSIV as positive control.The Real-time PCR was carried out with viral DNA template in a 25-μL reaction mixture under the conditions of 45 cycles of denaturation(95 ℃ for 30 s),annealing(60 ℃ for 30 s).A good linear correlation was demonstrated in the standard curve for the Real-time PCR assay at the range of 102-106 copies of recombinant plasmid pGEM-T/RSIV template.The slope of standard curve was-3.496,correlation coefficient was 0.991,and efficiency was 93.2%.The detection limit of this Real-time PCR assay was 100 copies of viral gene segment(in pGEM-T/RSIV),and there was no cross reaction with other 6 aquatic viruses such as Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis(EHNV),Softshell turtle iridovirus(STIV) and Tiger frog virus(TFV) etc.In contrast,the cell culture method for

  16. Immune response in fish gonad upon nodavirus infection and vaccines development = Implicación de la respuesta inmunitaria de la gónada de peces durante una infección con nodavirus y desarrollo de vacunas

    OpenAIRE

    Valero Cuesta, Yulema

    2016-01-01

    La dorada (Sparus aurata) y la lubina (Dicentrarchus labrax) son las especies de peces más importantes de la acuicultura Mediterránea y de España. Entre los principales problemas que impiden la mejora de su cultivo se encuentran las pérdidas económicas provocadas por patologías. Nodavirus (NNV), extendido por todo el mundo, incluido el Mediterráneo, produce elevadas mortalidades en lubina, sobre todo en larvas, mientras que infecta a doradas sin producir enfermedad. Además, NNV se transmite v...

  17. Retrograde Positive Contrast Urethrocystography of the Fish Urogenital System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Macrì

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiological differences between the urinary tract of  Dicentrarchus labrax, Sparus aurata, Tinca tinca, and Cyprinus carpio are shown. In fresh water teleosts the urinary bladder is sigmoid and a short urethra leads to the urinary pore. Genital and anal pores are present. In Sparus aurata the urinary bladder has a globoid shape. In Dicentrarchus labrax the urinary bladder is smaller and elongate. In both marine teleosts a single urogenital pore is visible. Positive contrast was used to survey the urogenital system and evaluate shape and size of the bladder, urethra, ureter, and gonadal ducts. Results demonstrate the morphological variability of the urinary bladder and the craniodorsal entry of the ureters into the bladder. It is envisaged that this work will provide baseline information for further imaging studies for investigating the urogenital morphology and can be applied to identify disorders in fishes. Furthermore, the main interest of this study is that it demonstrates the morphological variability of the lower urinary system that exists between different species of fishes.

  18. Effects of dietary linoleic and linolenic acid levels on growth, body composition and digestive enzyme activities in juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala%饲料中亚油酸和亚麻酸含量对团头鲂幼鱼生长、体成分和消化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王煜恒; 刘文斌; 王会聪; 陈军; 骆桂兰; 邢军

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala with initial body weight of (0. 80±0. 02) g were randomly allotted into 36 tanks at a rate of 20 fish per tank and fed nine purified diets containing three linoleic acid (LA) levels (0. 5%, 1. 0% and 1. 5%) and three α-linolenic acid(ALA) levels (0. 5%, 0. 9% and 1. 3%) with tetraplication at water temperature of (27±3)℃ for 8 weeks. Weight gain, specific growth rate and protein ef-ficiency ratio were shown to be increased first and then decreased significantly with increase in dietary LA and ALA levels(P0 . 05 ) . The fish fed the diet containing 1. 3% ALA had significantly higher condition factor ( CF) than the other fish fed the diets containing ALA(P0.05); LA为1.0%组的鱼体肥满度显著高于其他两个LA组(P0.05); LA为0.5%组的肠道脂肪酶和蛋白酶活性显著低于其他两个LA组(P0.05)。研究表明,团头鲂幼鱼对 LA、 ALA 的需要量分别为1.0%~1.5%和0.5%~0.9%,当饲料中添加1.09%的LA和0.84%的ALA时,团头鲂幼鱼生长较好,各项生理机能指标正常。

  19. UTILIZATION OF CHOLINE IN DIFFERENT LEVELS AND DIETARY CHOLINE AVAILABILITY VALUES IN SEVEN COMMON FEED INGREDIENTS FOR JUVENILE BLUNT SNOUT BREAM,MEGALOBRAMA AMBLYCEPHALA%团头鲂幼鱼对不同浓度胆碱的利用率及7种常见饲料原料中胆碱生物学效价的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 蒋广震; 刘文斌; 钱妤; 朱杰

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate dietary choline availability values in juvenile blunt snout breamMegalobrama amblycephala, an 8-week feeding trial was conducted with seven common feed ingredients. Choline chloride was fortified to the basal diet that contained 310 g/kg diet from vitamin-free casein and gelatin to formulate four purified diets containing 0, 1030, 1230 and 1430 mg/kg choline, respectively. These four purified diets were used to generate a standard curve to evaluate choline availability in seven diets containing the following common feed ingredients: fish meal (FM), soybean meal (SBM), rapeseed meal (RSM), cottonseed meal (CSM), wheat middling (WM), wheat bran (WB) and rice bran (RB). The choline in seven diets was 1230 mg/kg including 1030 mg/kg choline chloride. Three groups ofMegalobrama am-blycephala with initial average weight (3.5±0.1) g were fed randomly with each diet in a flow-through system. Our re-sults indicated that weight gain and liver choline concentration were significantly increased for higher dietary choline levels (P 0.05);在同一胆碱水平(1230 mg/kg)的条件下,原料组的增长率均高于对照组;团头鲂幼鱼对鱼粉、豆粕、菜粕、棉粕、次粉、麸皮和米糠的胆碱生物学效价分别为87.42%、112.54%、76.84%、98.00%、95.91%、43.88%、91.5%。分析可知,团头鲂生产饲料中尚需要额外添加氯化胆碱方能满足其对胆碱的需要,实际添加量与饲料所使用的原料有关。

  20. Effects of replacing monocalcium phosphate with phytase on growth and phosphorus utilization in black sea bream, Acanthopagrus schlegelii%中性植酸酶替代磷酸二氢钙对黑鲷生长和磷利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐树德; 王树启; 游翠红; 张敏智; 张婷; 杜红方; 史宝军

    2014-01-01

    coefficients (ADCs) of crude protein and phosphorus increased when fish were fed with the diets in which MCP was replaced by phytase. Additionally, phosphorus discharge was significantly reduced in fish fed diets in which MCP was replaced by phytase. Our results suggest that the dietary phosphorus requirement for meeting normal growth in black sea bream is≥0.51%. MCP can partially be replaced by phytase without affecting the growth of black sea bream. A diet containing 200 mg/kg phytase is equivalent to 1%MCP. The partial substitution of MCP by phytase not only reduces inorganic phosphorus addition to the surrounding waters, but also improves use of phosphorus in the feed.%以鱼粉、豆粕、菜粕等为蛋白原料设计配方,磷酸二氢钙的添加量分别为1.5%、1.0%、0.5%和0(对应的饲料组为P1.5、PP1.0、PP0.5和PP0组),其中PP1.0、PP0.5和PP0组中均添加200 mg/kg的中性植酸酶,开展为期8周的黑鲷(Acanthopagrus schlegelii)养殖实验,以探讨中性植酸酶替代磷酸二氢钙对黑鲷生长和磷利用的影响。结果显示,黑鲷摄食实验饲料8周后,各组间成活率无显著差异(P>0.05);摄食饲料PP1.0、PP0.5和对照组(P1.5组)实验鱼的增重率无显著差异(P>0.05),但均显著高于 PP0处理组,饲料系数则显著低于 PP0处理组(P0.05)。添加植酸酶的各组鱼磷的表观消化率均显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。随着磷酸二氢钙添加量的降低,黑鲷对干物质和蛋白质的表观消化率呈升高的趋势,当饲料中磷酸二氢钙的添加量降到0时,黑鲷对干物质和蛋白质的表观消化率显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。以上结果说明,在本研究配方下,黑鲷正常生长对饲料有效磷的需求量≥0.51%;磷酸二氢钙可部分被植酸酶替代,当黑鲷饲料中含有20%鱼粉、32%豆粕和12%菜粕,且植酸酶添加量为200 mg/kg时,与饲料中添加1%的磷酸二氢钙相当;在不影响黑鲷生长的前提下,植

  1. 不同蛋白质和脂肪水平对1龄团头鲂生长性能和体组成的影响%EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PROTEIN AND LIPID LEVELS ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF BLUNT SNOUT BREAM (MEGALOBRAMA AMBLYCEPHALA) YEARLINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋阳阳; 李向飞; 刘文斌; 吴阳; 李贵锋; 朱浩

    2012-01-01

    试验采用3×3因子设计,探讨了饲料中不同蛋白质和脂肪水平对1龄团头鲂[均重:(50.37±1.27)g]生长性能和体组成的影响.试验设3个蛋白质水平(25%、30%和35%)和3个脂肪水平(3%、6%和9%),共配制9组饲料.试验鱼饲养于网箱(规格为2 m×1 m×1 m)中,每天投喂3次,试验期为8周.结果表明:蛋白质和脂肪之间无交互作用存在(P>0.05).蛋白质和脂肪水平对存活率无显著影响(P>0.05).增重率、特定生长率和饵料系数显著受蛋白质和脂肪水平影响(P<0.05).其中,25%蛋白组的增重率及特定生长率显著低于其他蛋白组(P<0.05),而6%脂肪组显著高于其他脂肪组(P<0.01).尽管35%蛋白6%脂肪组的饵料系数最低,但与除了25%蛋白3%脂肪和25%蛋白9%脂肪这两组外的其他组相比,差异均不显著(P>0.05).蛋白效率比和氮保留率随蛋白质水平的升高显著降低(P<0.05).此外,蛋白效率比显著受脂肪水平的影响(P<0.05),以6%组最高.能量保留率随脂肪水平的升高显著升高(P<0.05).鱼体肥满度随蛋白质和脂肪水平的升高显著升高(P<0.05).腹脂率和肝体比随脂肪水平的升高显著升高(P<0.05),而受蛋白质水平的影响较小(P>0.05).蛋白质水平对全鱼、胴体和肝脏的组成均无显著影响(P>0.05).脂肪水平对全鱼水分、脂肪和能量有极显著影响(P<0.01),其中,全鱼水分含量随脂肪水平的升高显著降低(P<0.01),而脂肪和能量含量则显著升高(P<0.01).胴体和肝脏水分、脂肪含量的变化趋势与全鱼基本一致.以上结果表明,1龄团头鲂的适宜蛋白质和脂肪水平分别为30%和6%,适宜蛋能比为18.21 g/MJ.%A 3×3 factorial design was used to determine effect of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth performance and body composition of blunt snout bream yearlings (average initial weight of 50.37±1.27 g). Nine experimental diets were

  2. 条石鲷鳃的组织发育及鳃上钠钾三磷酸腺苷酶活性的早期变化%Ontogeny of the gill and Na+, K+-ATPase activity of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何滔; 肖志忠; 刘清华; 李军

    2013-01-01

    Based on the histological observations under optical microscope, we studied the ontogeny of the gill of rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus at (24 ± 1. 0) ℃. At hatching, gill anlage was visible in the pharyngeal region. On 2 DAH(Day After Hatching) , as the branchial cavity was formed, four pairs of gill arches were evident and some muscular fibres were observed in gill arches. The blood cells were visible in the vascular structures of gills on 3 DAH, and the primordial filaments first appeared in the second and third arches, then in the first and fourth arches on 4 DAH. The primordial lamellae were first formed in the filaments of the second and third gill arches on 6 DAH,then in the first and fourth arches on 7 DAH. On 6 DAH,the pseudobranch anlage was observed as a paired structure lied by the anterior branchial cavity and the lamellae in the pseudobranch were visible on 7 DAH. The chloride cells were first arranged in the base of the lamellae on 7 DAH,then also in the base of filaments on 8 DAH. The pavement cells were visible in the branchial epithelium on 8 DAH and the pillar cells were developed to delimit the vascular structures of lamellae on 9 DAH. On 10 DAH,the mucous cells were seen in the lamellae of pseudobranch. From 14 DAH forward,the filaments and lamellae of gills increased in number and length prominently and the gill of larvae was similar to that of juvenile fish. The specific activity of Na+ ,K+ -ATPase increased from cleavage period (0.712 ±0.400)U/g to segmentation period(2. 315 ±0. 515)U/g,and then decreased progressively to a low level until 9 DAH( 1. 389 +0. 734)U/g. Subsequently,the activity increased. After 12 DAH,it decreased to the minimum at (0. 246 ±0. 126)U/g on 14 DAH. Then the activity increased rapidly and reached the maximum at(4.731 ±0. 309) U/g on 18 DAH. From 20 DAH, the specific activity of Na+ ,K + -ATPase reached a relatively stable level until 50 DAH ( 3. 667 ± 0. 633 ) U/g. The change of Na+ , K + -ATPase activity

  3. Apparent digestibility of proteins, amino acids and phosphorus of seven feed ingredients for bluntnose black bream%团头鲂对7种饲料的蛋白质、氨基酸及磷的表观消化率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雪姣; 梁丹妮; 刘文斌; 蒋广震; 王晶晶

    2011-01-01

    The apparent digestibility(AD) of dry matter, protein, amino acids and phosphorus of seven feed ingredients for bluntnose black bream( Megalobrama amblycephala Yih ) were determined by using 0.5%Cr2O3 as an indicator. The test diets consisted of 70% basal diet and 30% test feed ingredients, including fish meal, meat and bone meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles(DDGS) and rapeseed meal. The fish averaging (296.54±1.71) g were reared in indoor aquarium tanks(3.0 m ×0.8 m ×0.8 m), and the fecal samples were collected by abdominal pressure method after five weeks. The results showed that apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein, amino acids and phosphorus of seven feed ingredients were 53.65%-77.48%,78.66%-93.63%, 80.12%-94.83% and 3.21%-48.02%, respectively. Among the seven feed ingredients, the highest apparent digestibility of protein and total amino acids was in rapeseed meal; then the apparent digestibility of fish meal was close to that of peanut meal and soybean meal; and the lowest was in meat and bone meal. Apparent digestibility of phosphorus was the highest in DDGS, and the lowest in rapeseed meal and meat and bone meal,and others were 11.81%-29.10%. In conclusion, rapeseed meal, soybean meal, peanut meal can be used as high quality plant protein source to serve as alternative fishmeal for bluntnose black bream in production. The apparent digestibility of protein of DDGS was higher than that of meat and bone meal, and the apparent digestibility of phosphorus was the highest in seven feed ingredients. Therefore, DDGS can be used as a high quality fish feed ingredient.[Journal of Fishery Sciences of China, 2011, 18(1): 119-126]%本实验以0.5%的三氧化二铬(Cr2O3)为指示剂,研究分别以鱼粉、肉骨粉、豆粕、花生粕、棉粕、酒精糟及其残液干燥物(DDGS)和菜粕作为蛋白饲料,将这7种饲料原料与基础日粮按照3:7的比例组成实

  4. Toxicity of harmful cyanobacterial blooms to bream and roach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchet, Isabelle; Cadel-Six, Sabrina; Djediat, Chakib; Marie, Benjamin; Bernard, Cécile; Puiseux-Dao, Simone; Krys, Sophie; Edery, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are facing increasing environmental pressures, leading to an increasing frequency of cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (cHABs) that have emerged as a worldwide concern due to their growing frequency and their potential toxicity to the fauna that threatens the functioning of ecosystems. Cyanobacterial blooms raise concerns due to the fact that several strains produce potent bioactive or toxic secondary metabolites, such as the microcystins (MCs), which are hepatotoxic to vertebrates. These strains of cyanobacteria may be potentially toxic to fish via gastrointestinal ingestion and also by direct absorption of the toxin MC from the water. The purpose of our study was to investigate toxic effects observed in fish taken from several lakes in the Ile-de-France region, where MCs-producing blooms occur. This study comprises histological studies and the measurement of MC concentrations in various organs. The histological findings are similar to those obtained following laboratory exposure of medaka fish to MCs: hepatic lesions predominate and include cell lysis and cell detachment. MC concentrations in the organs revealed that accumulation was particularly high in the digestive tract and the liver, which are known to be classical targets of MCs. In contrast concentrations were very low in the muscles. Differences in the accumulation of MC variants produced by blooms indicate that in order to more precisely evaluate the toxic potential of a specific bloom it is necessary not only to consider the concentration of toxins, but also the variants produced.

  5. Are retailers' preferences for seafood attributes predictive for consumers wants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Polancoa, José; Mueller Loose, Simone; Luna, Ladislao

    2013-01-01

    choice and to test for differences in attribute preferences between retailers and consumers. Results indicate that both consumers and retailers agree in their marginal willingness to pay for wild over farmed seabream. However, they differ in the extent to which the disutility from farmed production can......Aquaculture production has grown considerably in the southern countries of Europe during the last two decades. This increase in supply has not been matched by an equivalent rise in consumer demand, resulting in price decay. For farmed seabream (Sparus aurata) this paper examines which attributes...... and claims are able to successfully influence Spanish consumers’ perceived value of seafood and to which degree consumers and retailers in a traditional fish market differ in their choice reaction to these attributes. A heteroscedastic logit model was used to assess the impact of seafood claims on consumer...

  6. Mitochondrial DNA analysis on genetic variation of wild, domesticated, and genetically selected populations of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)%团头鲂野生、驯养、选育3类遗传生态群体遗传变异的线粒体DNA分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐首杰; 李思发; 蔡完其

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of three genetic-ecological populations ["Pujiang No.1"selected strain F7(PJ), two domesticated populations(HX, GA) as well as four wild populations(LZ, YN, SS,JL)]of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) were analyzed by using combined nucleotide sequences of control region and CO I gene of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA).The results showed that: (1) Sixty-four haplotypes were defined in analyzed seven populations, in which no haplotype was shared among populations.(2) The haplotype diversity(Hd), number of variable sites, nucleotide diversity(π) and average number of nucleotide differences(K) were 0.857-0.943, 31-40, 0.275%-0.461% and 4.043-6.800, respectively in four wild populations.The four corresponding parameters were 0.714-0.800, 18-21, 0.122%-0.175% and 1.800-2.586, respectively in two domesticated populations, which were lower than those in the four wild populations.Likewise, those parameters were 0.843, 23, 0.193% and 2.843, respectively in genetically selected strain F7, which were lower than those in the four wild populations but higher than those in two domesticated populations.The above four genetic diversity parameters showed the same trend of change among seven populations.(3) For the seven populations studied,average genetic distance between populations ranged from 0.000 6 to 0.003 5.The pairwise FST value between populations ranged from 0.010 9 to 0.133 1.For pairwise FST value between populations, P value of permutation test were significant(P<0.05) between GA, HX and PJ populations, but no significant P value(P>0.05) were detected between four wild populations.The results indicated that distinct living environments (natural waters and closed fishponds) and artificial selection( strictly and orderly scientific breeding) had a strong impact on the population genetic structure, making difference in genetic variability and genetic differentiation between different types of genetic

  7. 抗应激制剂对运输团头鲂血清生化和肝脏抗氧化指标的影响%Effects of Anti-stress Agents on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Hepatic Antioxidant Parameters in Wuchang Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) during Long-distance Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周传朋; 刘波; 谢骏; 戈贤平; 徐跑; 王可宝; 周群兰; 潘良坤; 陈汝丽

    2014-01-01

    The serum cortisol (COR) ,levels of 3 ,5 ,3′ - triiodothyronine (T3) ,complement 3 (C3) , complement 4 (C4) ,hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) ,activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) ,and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were determined in Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) with initial body weight of (600 ± 12) g held in 1m3 tanks of 750 fish fed the diets containing 20 mg/L vitamin C , glutamine or anti-stress compund (anti-stress agents ) (without addition as control group ) during long-distance transportation period of 0 h ,4 h ,8 h ,and 12 h to evaluate the effect of anti-stress agents on the serum biochemical parameters and hepatic antioxidant abilities during the long-distance transportation period .The results showed that the anti-stress agents led to significantly (Pglutamine>anti-stress compound .%研究了在运输中添加维生素C,谷氨酰胺和抗应激复合物对团头鲂血清生化指标和肝脏抗氧化指标的影响,探讨团头鲂运输后高死亡率的原因以及维生素C、谷氨酰胺和抗应激复合物对运输应激的缓解作用。在运输团头鲂0、4、8、12 h后,分别采集团头鲂血液和肝脏样品,测定了血清皮质醇、三碘甲腺原氨酸、补体3、补体4、肝脏丙二醛含量、超氧化物歧化酶活力、总抗氧化能力等指标。试验结果表明,经过4 h后,与对照组相比,维生素C组血清皮质醇和肝脏丙二醛的含量显著降低(P<0.05);抗应激复合物组血清补体3和补体4含量显著升高(P<0.05);维生素C组、谷氨酰胺和抗应激复合物组肝脏超氧化物歧化酶活性显著提高(P<0.05);维生素C组和谷氨酰胺组肝脏总抗氧化能力分别显著升高(P<0.05)。经过8 h ,与对照组相比,维生素C组、谷氨酰胺组和抗应激复合物组血清皮质醇含量显著降低(P<0.05);维生素C组和抗应激复合物组血清补体3含量分别显著升高(P<0.05)

  8. Cloning and Tissue Expression Analysis ofPAX7 Gene in Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%草鱼PAX7基因的克隆、序列分析及组织表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘甜; 冷向军; 郭婷; 胡静; 魏静; 李小勤

    2014-01-01

    Paired box gene 7(PAX7)is crucially important to the cellular renewal, differentiation and apoptosis, especially in neural crest development, gastrulation, and muscle self-renewal. ThePAX7 domains sequence is conserved among several species, such as zebrafish, apteronotidae, and rainbow trout, and the conserved sequence zebrafish was used to design degenerate primers for reverse-transcription PCR(RT-PCR). A partial sequence ofPAX7 from grass carp was obtained for a 645 bp segment encoding a 214 amino acid peptide, containing a paired box domain with 128 amino acids. The deduced protein showed homology to zebrafish(Danio rerio), apteronotidae(Sternopygus macrurus), Japanese Medaka(Oryzias latipes), gilthead bream(Sparus aurata), rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon(Salmo salar), Arctic charr(Salvelinus alpinus), human(Homo sapiens), wild yak(Bos grunniens mutus), brown rat(Rattus norvegicus), and mouse(Mus musculus)with 90%-97% identities. Analysis of the PAX7 phylogenetic tree revealed that the grass carp joined with zebrafish, and there was a confluence of Japanese medaka, Arctic charr, Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, apteronotidae and gilthead bream. The other branch was consisted of mouse, brown rat, wild yak and human. These results conformed to the traditional species classification evolution status. The expression in tissues was detected by Real-time quantitative PCR, which indicated that the highest level ofPAX7 gene expression was found in muscle, a lower expression level was found in foregut and skin, and the lowest detectable level was found in heart, brain, kidney and liver. The results are in agreement with the function of the gene.%配对盒基因7(Paired box 7 gene,PAX7)在神经嵴发育及原肠胚形成、肌肉自主更新与再生中扮演着重要角色,对细胞更新、分化、凋亡等起着十分重要的调控作用。参照GenBank中斑马鱼、线鳍电鳗和虹鳟等物种PAX7序列的保守区域设计简并引

  9. Emerging pathogens of gilthead seabream: characterisation and genomic analysis of novel intracellular β-proteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth-Smith, Helena M B; Dourala, Nancy; Fehr, Alexander; Qi, Weihong; Katharios, Pantelis; Ruetten, Maja; Mateos, José M; Nufer, Lisbeth; Weilenmann, Roseline; Ziegler, Urs; Thomson, Nicholas R; Schlapbach, Ralph; Vaughan, Lloyd

    2016-07-01

    New and emerging environmental pathogens pose some of the greatest threats to modern aquaculture, a critical source of food protein globally. As with other intensive farming practices, increasing our understanding of the biology of infections is important to improve animal welfare and husbandry. The gill infection epitheliocystis is increasingly problematic in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a major Mediterranean aquaculture species. Epitheliocystis is generally associated with chlamydial bacteria, yet we were not able to localise chlamydial targets within the major gilthead seabream lesions. Two previously unidentified species within a novel β-proteobacterial genus were instead identified. These co-infecting intracellular bacteria have been characterised using high-resolution imaging and genomics, presenting the most comprehensive study on epitheliocystis agents to date. Draft genomes of the two uncultured species, Ca. Ichthyocystis hellenicum and Ca. Ichthyocystis sparus, have been de novo sequenced and annotated from preserved material. Analysis of the genomes shows a compact core indicating a metabolic dependency on the host, and an accessory genome with an unprecedented number of tandemly arrayed gene families. This study represents a critical insight into novel, emerging fish pathogens and will be used to underpin future investigations into the bacterial origins, and to develop diagnostic and treatment strategies.

  10. Life-history- and ecosystem-driven variation in composition and residence pattern of seabream species (Perciformes: Sparidae) in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Species composition and length-frequency distributions of six sparid fish species were investigated in two central Mediterranean coastal lagoons off the western coast of Italy: Fogliano and Caprolace. In the former, the sparid fauna was dominated by the gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata), whereas in Caprolace, species composition was more homogeneous across all six species. Size structure varied considerably among species: S. aurata, Diplodus puntazzo and Diplodus vulgaris had a single-cohort structure in both lagoons, whereas in Diplodus annularis and Diplodus sargus at least two cohorts were identified. In Lithognathus mormyrus inter-lagoon variation was detected, with a single-cohort structure in Fogliano and a two-cohort structure in Caprolace. While inter-specific differences can be explained by variation in life-history strategies among species, intra-specific variation in L. mormyrus is likely to be determined by the known differences between the two habitats: Fogliano being a more confined lagoon, and Caprolace more extensively influenced by the sea.

  11. Identification of an osteopontin-like protein in fish associated with mineral formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vera G; Laizé, Vincent; Valente, Marta S; Cancela, M Leonor

    2007-09-01

    Fish has been recently recognized as a suitable vertebrate model and represents a promising alternative to mammals for studying mechanisms of tissue mineralization and unravelling specific questions related to vertebrate bone formation. The recently developed Sparus aurata (gilthead seabream) osteoblast-like cell line VSa16 was used to construct a cDNA subtractive library aimed at the identification of genes associated with fish tissue mineralization. Suppression subtractive hybridization, combined with mirror orientation selection, identified 194 cDNA clones representing 20 different genes up-regulated during the mineralization of the VSa16 extracellular matrix. One of these genes accounted for 69% of the total number of clones obtained and was later identified as theS. aurata osteopontin-like gene. The 2138-bp full-length S. aurata osteopontin-like cDNA was shown to encode a 374 amino-acid protein containing domains and motifs characteristic of osteopontins, such as an integrin receptor-binding RGD motif, a negatively charged domain and numerous post-translational modifications (e.g. phosphorylations and glycosylations). The common origin of mammalian osteopontin and fish osteopontin-like proteins was indicated through an in silico analysis of available sequences showing similar gene and protein structures and was further demonstrated by their specific expression in mineralized tissues and cell cultures. Accordingly, and given its proven association with mineral formation and its characteristic protein domains, we propose that the fish osteopontin-like protein may play a role in hard tissue mineralization, in a manner similar to osteopontin in higher vertebrates.

  12. Morfología de la nefrona de "sparus auratus" / Adelina Zuasti Elizondo.

    OpenAIRE

    Zuasti Elizondo, Adelina

    1983-01-01

    Resumen de Tesis - Universidad de Murcia. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. DEPOSITO. DPT 86 2389. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. DEPOSITO. DPT 107 1122. MEDICINA ARRIXACA. DEPOSITO. DPT-S E-4 14. NEBRIJA. DEPOSITO. F 16 791.

  13. Lethal effects on different marine organisms, associated with sediment-seawater acidification deriving from CO2 leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basallote, M D; Rodríguez-Romero, A; Blasco, J; DelValls, A; Riba, I

    2011-08-01

    CO(2) leakages during carbon capture and storage in sub-seabed geological structures could produce potential impacts on the marine environment. To study lethal effects on marine organisms attributable to CO(2) seawater acidification, a bubbling CO(2) system was designed enabling a battery of different tests to be conducted, under laboratory conditions, employing various pH treatments (8.0, 7.5, 7.0, 6.5, 6.0, and 5.5). Assays were performed of three exposure routes (seawater, whole sediment, and sediment elutriate). Individuals of the clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and early-life stages of the gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, were exposed for 10 days and 72 h, respectively, to acidified clean seawater. S. aurata larvae were also exposed to acidified elutriate samples, and polychaete organisms of the specie Hediste diversicolor and clams R. philippinarum were also exposed for 10 days to estuarine whole sediment. In the fish larvae elutriate test, 100 % mortality was recorded at pH 6.0, after 48 h of exposure. Similar results were obtained in the clam sediment exposure test. In the other organisms, significant mortality (p < 0.05) was observed at pH values lower than 6.0. Very high lethal effects (calculating L[H(+)]50, defined as the H(+) concentration that causes lethal effects in 50 % of the population exposed) were detected in association with the lowest pH treatment for all the species. The implication of these results is that a severe decrease of seawater pH would cause high mortality in marine organisms of several different kinds and life stages. The study addresses the potential risks incurred due to CO(2) leakages in marine environments.

  14. Reproductive cycles of Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada and Liza aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartulović, V; Dulčić, J; Matić-Skoko, S; Glamuzina, B

    2011-06-01

    The reproductive cycles of three mullet species from the Eastern Adriatic coast were described using several biological parameters (gonado-somatic index, oocyte diameter and sex ratio) to improve knowledge about their reproduction.

  15. Identification of MicroRNA for Intermuscular Bone Development in Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ming Wan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermuscular bone (IB, which occurs only in the myosepta of the lower teleosts, is attracting more attention of researchers due to its particular development and lack of genetic information. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are emerging as important regulators for biological processes. In the present study, miRNAs from IBs and connective tissue (CT; encircled IBs from six-month-old Megalobrama amblycephala were characterized and compared. The results revealed the sequences and expression levels of 218 known miRNA genes (belonging to 97 families. Of these miRNAs, 44 known microRNA sequences exhibited significant expression differences between the two libraries, with 24 and 20 differentially-expressed miRNAs exhibiting higher expression in the CT and IBs libraries, respectively. The expressions of 11 miRNAs were selected to validate in nine tissues. Among the high-ranked predicted gene targets, differentiation, cell cycle, metabolism, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation were implicated. The pathway analysis of differentially-expressed miRNAs indicated that they were abundantly involved in regulating the development and differentiation of IBs and CT. This study characterized the miRNA for IBs of teleosts for the first time, which provides an opportunity for further understanding of miRNA function in the regulation of IB development.

  16. Leptin Genes in Blunt Snout Bream: Cloning, Phylogeny and Expression Correlated to Gonads Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghao Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the leptin related genes expression patterns and their possible function during the gonadal development in fish, the cDNA and genomic sequences of leptin, leptin receptor (leptinR, and leptin receptor overlapping transcript like-1 (leprotl1 were cloned and their expression levels were quantified in the different gonadal development stages of Megalobrama amblycephala. The results showed that the full length cDNA sequences of leptin, leptinR and leprotl1 were 953, 3432 and 1676 bp, coding 168, 1082, and 131 amino acid polypeptides, and the genomic sequences were 1836, 28,528 and 5480 bp, which respectively had 3, 15 and 4 exons, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that three genes were relatively conserved in fish species. Quantitative real-time PCR results showed that the three genes were ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues during the different gonadal development stages. The leptin and leptinR took part in the onset of puberty, especially in female M. amblycephala, by increasing the expression levels in brain during the stage I to III of ovary. The expression levels of leptin and leptinR had significant differences between male and female in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis tissues (p < 0.05. The leptinR had the same variation tendency with leptin, but the opposite changes of expression levels were found in leprotl1, which may resist the expression of leptinR for inhibiting the function of leptin in target organ. These findings revealed details about the possible role of these genes in regulating gonadal maturation in fish species.

  17. Shift in trophic level of Mediterranean mariculture species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C; Stergiou, Konstantinos I; Adamopoulos, Nikolaos; Pauly, Daniel; Mente, Eleni

    2014-08-01

    The mean trophic level of the farmed fish species in the Mediterranean has been increasing. We examined the farming-up hypothesis (i.e., the increase in the production of high-trophic-level species) in the Mediterranean by determining the trophic level of the aquafeeds (i.e., what the fish are fed) of 5 species of farmed marine fishes: common dentex (Dentex dentex), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), and red porgy (Pagrus sp.). The mean trophic level of aquafeed used in mariculture from 1950 to 2011 was higher (3.93) than the prey farmed fish consume in the wild (3.72) and increased at a faster rate (0.48/decade) compared with that based on their diets in the wild (0.43/decade). Future expected replacement of the fishmeal and oil in aquafeeds by plant materials may reverse the farming-up trend, although there are a number of concerns regarding operational, nutritional, environmental, and economic issues. The farming-up reversal can be achieved in an ecologically friendly manner by facilitating the mariculture of low-trophic-level fishes and by promoting high efficiency in the use of living marine resources in aquafeeds.

  18. Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of α- and β-Globin Gene of Hunphead Snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus)%红笛鲷α-珠蛋白和β-珠蛋白基因的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新中; 鲁义善; 吴灶和; 简纪常

    2011-01-01

    应用已知的标签序列通过RACE-PCR和RT-PCR方法成功克隆红笛鲷(Lutjanus sanguineus)α-珠蛋白和β-珠蛋白基因的全长cDNA序列.α-珠蛋白和β-珠蛋白基因的cDNA全长分别为560和563 bp,开放阅读框分别为429和444 bp,各编码143和148个氨基酸,理论相对分子质量分别为15690和16400,理论等电点为7.79和6.61.氨基酸序列BLAST结果表明,红笛鲷α-珠蛋白基因和β-珠蛋白基因编码的氨基酸序列与其他鱼类的相似性分别在59%~ 79%和55%~80%之间.用邻接法(Neighbor-Joining)构建的α -珠蛋白基因和β-珠蛋白基因的系统发育树表明,红笛鲷与真鲷(Pagrus major)、金头鲷(Sparus aurata)和鰤(Seriola quinqueradiata)等亲缘关系较近.

  19. Assessment of Tools for Marker-Assisted Selection in a Marine Commercial Species: Significant Association between MSTN-1 Gene Polymorphism and Growth Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Sánchez-Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection in complex traits as growth. Polymorphisms have been studied in five candidate genes influencing growth in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata: the growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, myostatin (MSTN-1, prolactin (PRL, and somatolactin (SL genes. Specimens evaluated were from a commercial broodstock comprising 131 breeders (from which 36 males and 44 females contributed to the progeny. In all samples eleven gene fragments, covering more than 13,000 bp, generated by PCR-RFLP, were analyzed; tests were made for significant associations between these markers and growth traits. ANOVA results showed a significant association between MSTN-1 gene polymorphism and growth traits. Pairwise tests revealed several RFLPs in the MSTN-1 gene with significant heterogeneity of genotypes among size groups. PRL and MSTN-1 genes presented linkage disequilibrium. The MSTN-1 gene was mapped in the centromeric region of a medium-size acrocentric chromosome pair.

  20. Development of a convenience and safety chilled sous vide fish dish: Diversification of aquacultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, M C; López, G; Díaz, P; Linares, M B; Garrido, M D

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic expansion of the ready-to-eat seabream sector in its adaptation to new lifestyles has led to the search for new presentation formats in seabream (Sparus aurata). Green sauce (olive oil, wine vinegar, garlic, fresh parsley, black pepper, basil and salt) and 60 ℃ of cooking temperature were chosen by the panellists for the sous vide cooking process. Seabream fillet and sauce were packaged in polypropylene trays, cooked, chilled and stored at 2 ℃. Microbiological (total viable counts,Enterobacteriaceae,lactic acid bacteria, anaerobic psychrotrophic, moulds and yeasts, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes), chemical (pH and TBARs) and sensory parameters were determined at 0, 7, 17, 34, 48 and 62 days. In the conditions used, the microbiological counts remained stable, and Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were absent. The acidic sauce had a positive effect on the pH of the product, and low TBARs were obtained throughout storage. The processing conditions used in the present study allowed a chilled ready-to-eat seabream product of consistently high quality up to 62 days of storage to be obtained, representing an expansion of the products offered by the aquacultural industry.

  1. Vanadium distribution following decavanadate administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, S S; Martins, H; Aureliano, M

    2006-01-01

    An acute exposure of two vanadate solutions-metavanadate and decavanadate-containing different vanadate oligomers, induces different patterns of subcellular vanadium distribution in blood plasma, red blood cells (RBC), and cardiac muscle subcellular fractions of the fish Sparus aurata (gilthead seabream). The highest amount of vanadium was found in blood plasma 1 h after (5 mM) intravenous vanadate administration (295 +/- 64 and 383 +/- 104 microg V/g dry tissue, for metavanadate and decavanadate solutions, respectively), being 80-fold higher than in RBC. After 12 h of administration, the amount of vanadium in plasma, as well as in cardiac cytosol, decreased about 50%, for both vanadate solutions. During the period between 1 and 12 h, the ratio of vanadium in plasma/vanadium in RBC increased from 27 to 128 for metavanadate, whereas it remains constant (77) for decavanadate. Both vanadium solutions were primarily accumulated in the mitochondrial fraction (138 +/- 0 and 195 +/- 34 ng V/g dry tissue for metavanadate and decavanadate solutions, respectively, after 12 h exposure), rather than in cytosol. The amount of vanadium in cardiac mitochondria was twofold higher than in cytosol, earlier for metavanadate (6 h) than for decavanadate (12 h). It is concluded that, in fish cardiac muscle, the vanadium distribution is dependent on the administration of decameric vanadate, with vanadium being mainly distributed in plasma, before being accumulated into the mitochondrial fraction.

  2. The Effect of 17α-Ethynylestradiol on Steroidogenesis and Gonadal Cytokine Gene Expression Is Related to the Reproductive Stage in Marine Hermaphrodite Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cabas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollutants have been reported to disrupt the endocrine system of marine animals, which may be exposed through contaminated seawater or through the food chain. Although 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2, a drug used in hormone therapies, is widely present in the aquatic environment, current knowledge on the sensitivity of marine fish to estrogenic pollutants is limited. We report the effect of the dietary intake of 5 µg EE2/g food on different processes of testicular physiology, ranging from steroidogenesis to pathogen recognition, at both pre-spermatogenesis (pre-SG and spermatogenesis (SG reproductive stages, of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., a marine hermaphrodite teleost. A differential effect between pre-SG and SG specimens was detected in the sex steroid serum levels and in the expression profile of some steroidogenic-relevant molecules, vitellogenin, double sex- and mab3-related transcription factor 1 and some hormone receptors. Interestingly, EE2 modified the expression pattern of some immune molecules involved in testicular physiology. These differences probably reflect a developmental adjustment of the sensitivity to EE2 in the gilthead seabream gonad.

  3. Identification of a new cartilage-specific S100-like protein up-regulated during endo/perichondral mineralization in gilthead seabream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vera G; Rosa, Joana; Laizé, Vincent; Gavaia, Paulo J; Cancela, M Leonor

    2011-10-01

    Calcium ions and calcium-binding proteins play a major role in many cellular processes, in particular skeletogenesis and bone formation. We report here the discovery of a novel S100 protein in fish and the analysis of its gene expression patterns. A 648-bp full-length cDNA encoding an 86-amino acid S100-like calcium-binding protein was identified through the subtractive hybridization of a gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) cDNA library constructed to identify genes associated with in vitro mineralization. Deduced protein lacks an identifiable signal peptide and exhibits two EF-hand motifs characteristic of S100 proteins. Phylogenetic and bioinformatic analyses of S100 sequences suggested that gilthead seabream protein represents a novel and fish-specific member of the S100 protein family. Expression of S100-like gene was up-regulated during the in vitro mineralization of bone-derived cell lines and during seabream development, from larvae throughout adulthood, reflecting skeletogenesis. Restriction of S100-like gene expression to chondrocytes of cartilaginous tissues undergoing endo/perichondral mineralization in juvenile fish further confirmed the mineralogenic role of the protein in fish and emphasized the potential of S100-like as a marker of mineralizing cartilage in developing fish.

  4. In vitro characterization of 6-Coumarin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and their uptake by immunocompetent fish cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, Adriana; Mandracchia, Delia; Di Franco, Cinzia; Cordero, Héctor; Morcillo, Patricia; Comparelli, Roberto; Cuesta, Alberto; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2015-03-01

    The primary aim of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro uptake of 6-Coumarin (6COUM) loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) by two gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) cell types: an established cell line (SAF-1 cells) and the primary cultures of head-kidney (HK)-the main haemopoietic organ in fish, equivalent to mammalian bone marrow-leucocytes. For this purpose, after the physicochemical characterization of SLN, the uptake by those immunocompetent fish cells was evaluated using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Concomitantly, the uptake of 6-COUM loaded SLN was compared with that achieved with 6-COUM loaded pectin microparticles (MPs), which were selected as a competitor of the delivery carriers. After SLN and MP physicochemical characterization, the results demonstrated that SAF-1 cells were able to internalize high percentages of 6-COUM SLNs when incubated for 4, 8 and 24h, with the highest SLN concentration tested (10 μg/ml). The ability of HK leucocytes to internalize SLN was also found to vary depending on both incubation time and SLN concentration. The highest values of HK leucocytes internalizing SLN particles (around 16%) were detected at the maximum SLN concentration (20 μg/ml) at incubation times of 4 or 8h. Conversely, HK leucocytes were unable to internalize MPs at any tested concentration and incubation time. A possible mechanism explaining the uptake into cells is proposed. The present work constitutes the first approximation to consider SLN as nanocarriers for delivering biologically active substances to fish.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Two Lytic Bacteriophages, φSt2 and φGrn1; Phage Therapy Application for Biological Control of Vibrio alginolyticus in Aquaculture Live Feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalatzis, Panos G; Bastías, Roberto; Kokkari, Constantina; Katharios, Pantelis

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a serious problem in aquaculture since they can result in massive mortalities in farmed fish and invertebrates. Vibriosis is one of the most common diseases in marine aquaculture hatcheries and its causative agents are bacteria of the genus Vibrio mostly entering larval rearing water through live feeds, such as Artemia and rotifers. The pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus strain V1, isolated during a vibriosis outbreak in cultured seabream, Sparus aurata, was used as host to isolate and characterize the two novel bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1 for phage therapy application. In vitro cell lysis experiments were performed against the bacterial host V. alginolyticus strain V1 but also against 12 presumptive Vibrio strains originating from live prey Artemia salina cultures indicating the strong lytic efficacy of the 2 phages. In vivo administration of the phage cocktail, φSt2 and φGrn1, at MOI = 100 directly on live prey A. salina cultures, led to a 93% decrease of presumptive Vibrio population after 4 h of treatment. Current study suggests that administration of φSt2 and φGrn1 to live preys could selectively reduce Vibrio load in fish hatcheries. Innovative and environmental friendly solutions against bacterial diseases are more than necessary and phage therapy is one of them.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Two Lytic Bacteriophages, φSt2 and φGrn1; Phage Therapy Application for Biological Control of Vibrio alginolyticus in Aquaculture Live Feeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos G Kalatzis

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections are a serious problem in aquaculture since they can result in massive mortalities in farmed fish and invertebrates. Vibriosis is one of the most common diseases in marine aquaculture hatcheries and its causative agents are bacteria of the genus Vibrio mostly entering larval rearing water through live feeds, such as Artemia and rotifers. The pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus strain V1, isolated during a vibriosis outbreak in cultured seabream, Sparus aurata, was used as host to isolate and characterize the two novel bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1 for phage therapy application. In vitro cell lysis experiments were performed against the bacterial host V. alginolyticus strain V1 but also against 12 presumptive Vibrio strains originating from live prey Artemia salina cultures indicating the strong lytic efficacy of the 2 phages. In vivo administration of the phage cocktail, φSt2 and φGrn1, at MOI = 100 directly on live prey A. salina cultures, led to a 93% decrease of presumptive Vibrio population after 4 h of treatment. Current study suggests that administration of φSt2 and φGrn1 to live preys could selectively reduce Vibrio load in fish hatcheries. Innovative and environmental friendly solutions against bacterial diseases are more than necessary and phage therapy is one of them.

  7. Characterization of the De Novo Biosynthetic Enzyme of Platelet Activating Factor, DDT-Insensitive Cholinephosphotransferase, of Human Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Basilios Tsoupras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activating factor (PAF, a potent inflammatory mediator, is implicated in several proinflammatory/inflammatory diseases such as glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, atherosclerosis, cancer, allergy, and diabetes. PAF can be produced by several renal cells under appropriate stimuli and it is thought to be implicated in renal diseases. The aim of this study is the characterization of DTT-insensitive cholinephosphotransferase (PAF-CPT of human mesangial cell (HMC, the main regulatory enzyme of PAF de novo biosynthetic pathway. Microsomal fractions of mesangial cells were isolated and enzymatic activity and kinetic parameters were determined by TLC and in vitro biological test in rabbit washed platelets. The effect of bovine serum albumin (BSA, dithiothreitol (DTT, divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+, EDTA, and various chemicals on the activity of PAF-CPT of HMC was also studied. Moreover, preliminary in vitro tests have been performed with several anti-inflammatory factors such as drugs (simvastatin, IFNa, rupatadine, tinzaparin, and salicylic acid and bioactive compounds of Mediterranean diet (resveratrol and lipids of olive oil, olive pomace, sea bass “Dicentrarchus labrax,” and gilthead sea breamSparus aurata”. The results indicated that the above compounds can influence PAF-CPT activity of HMC.

  8. Shelf life determination of the brined golden mullet Liza aurata during vacuum refrigerated storage using some quality aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyam Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Salted fish products are popular in many countries around the world. Salting is one of the oldest techniques for fish preservation, and is essentially intended to increase the shelf-life of the product depressing water activity by means of dehydration and salt uptake by the fish muscle. However, the current demand for salted fish is driven more by the flavour of the product than for preservation purposes. Vacuum-packaging represents a static form of hypobaric storage. It is widely used in the food industry because of its effectiveness in reducing oxidative reactions in the product at relatively low cost. Low temperature storage is one of the primary methods to maintain fish quality, based on the reduction in the rates of microbiological, chemical and biochemical changes. Material  and methods. Fresh Golden mullets were rapidly beheaded, scaled, gutted and immediately washed with tap water then, samples were taken to the laboratory in ice box for chemical and microbial analysis of fresh fish, other samples were put in the brine (6 liter water and 2160 g salt was used for brine solution. After 14 days of brining, fish were taken out of brine solution and drained, then they were Vacuum Packed and labelled (each pack contained two fish about 1500 g weight. All the packs were stored in a refrigerator 4°C. Some quality aspects including Total Volatile Nitrogen (TVN, Peroxide Value (PV, Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA, Total Viable Count (TVC, Halophilic Bacteria (HB and presence of Clostridium Botulinum were determined in fresh mullets, fresh brined mullets after 14 days of brining, and in (Vacuum Packed VP samples stored at 4°C at intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days. Results.  TVN increased from ten mg/100 g in fresh brined after 14 days to 30.80 mg/100 g in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, PV increased after brining from 1.50 meq/kg in fresh brined to 28.90 meq/kg in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, TBA increased from 0.07 mg MDA/kg in fresh brined to 0.10 after 60 days and then, decreased to 0.09 mg MDA/kg in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage and  TVC decreased from 4.70 log CFU/gr in fresh brined to 4.40 log CFU/ gr after 30 days and then, increased to 5.70 log CFU/gr in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, HB increased from 4.55 log CFU/gr in fresh brined to 6.30 log CFU/gr after 90 days of storage period at 4°C and exceeded the permissible level. Clostridium botulinum toxin was not detected in any of the samples throughout the storage. Conclusions. The results from this study clearly suggested that a combination of brining, vacuum packaging and storage at refrigerated temperature prolongs the shelf-life of Golden mullet to a great extent. Our findings revealed that the longest shelf-life was for VP brined Golden mullet stored at 4°C is 30 days.

  9. Spatial variations in dietary organic matter sources modulate the size and condition of fish juveniles in temperate lagoon nursery sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalas, Arthur; Ferraton, Franck; Paillon, Christelle; Vidy, Guy; Carcaillet, Frédérique; Salen-Picard, Chantal; Le Loc'h, François; Richard, Pierre; Darnaude, Audrey Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Effective conservation of marine fish stocks involves understanding the impact, on population dynamics, of intra-specific variation in nursery habitats use at the juvenile stage. In some regions, an important part of the catching effort is concentrated on a small number of marine species that colonize coastal lagoons during their first year of life. To determine the intra-specific variation in lagoon use by these fish and their potential demographic consequences, we studied diet spatiotemporal variations in the group 0 juveniles of a highly exploited sparid, the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), during their ∼6 months stay in a NW Mediterranean lagoon (N = 331, SL = 25-198 mm) and traced the origin of the organic matter in their food webs, at two lagoon sites with contrasted continental inputs. This showed that the origin (marine, lagoonal or continental) of the organic matter (OM) available in the water column and the sediment can vary substantially within the same lagoon, in line with local variations in the intensity of marine and continental inputs. The high trophic plasticity of S. aurata allows its juveniles to adapt to resulting differences in prey abundances at each site during their lagoon residency, thereby sustaining high growth irrespective of the area inhabited within the lagoon. However, continental POM incorporation by the juveniles through their diet (of 21-37% on average depending on the site) is proportional to its availability in the environment and could be responsible for the greater fish sizes (of 28 mm SL on average) and body weights (of 40.8 g on average) observed at the site under continental influence in the autumn, when the juveniles are ready to leave the lagoon. This suggests that continental inputs in particulate OM, when present, could significantly enhance fish growth within coastal lagoons, with important consequences on the local population dynamics of the fish species that use them as nurseries. As our results indicate that

  10. Molecular cloning, tissue expression of gene Muc2 in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala and regulation after re-feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chunyu; Xi, Bingwen; Ren, Mingchun; Dong, Jingjing; Xie, Jun; Xu, Pao

    2015-03-01

    Mucins are important components of mucus, which form a natural, physical, biochemical and semipermeable mucosal layer on the epidermis of fish gills, skin, and the gastrointestinal tract. As the first step towards characterizing the function of Muc2, we cloned a partial Megalobrama amblycephala Muc2 cDNA of 2 175 bp, and analyzed its tissue-specific expression pattern by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The obtained sequence comprised 41 bp 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), 2 134 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 711 amino acids. BLAST searching and phylogenetic analysis showed that the predicted protein contained several common secreted mucin-module domains (VWD-C8-TIL-VWD-C8) and had high homology with mucins from other vertebrates. Among four candidate reference genes ( β- Actin, RPI13α, RPII, 18S) for the qPCR, RPII was chosen as an appropriate reference gene because of its lowest variation in different tissues. M. amblycephala Muc2 was mainly expressed in the intestine, in the order (highest to lowest) middle-intestine > fore-intestine > hind-intestine. Muc2 was expressed relatively poorly in other organs (brain, liver, kidney, spleen, skin and gill). Furthermore, after 20-days of starvation, M. amblycephala Muc2 expressions after refeeding for 0 h, 3 h, 16 h, 3 d, and 10 d were significantly decreased in the three intestinal segments ( P<0.05) at 16 h, and were then upregulated to near the initial level at 10 d.

  11. Effects of commercial fishery on the bream population and the expansion of Chara aspera in Lake Veluwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, E.H.R.R.; Meijer, M.L.; Nes, van E.H.; Berg, van den M.S.

    2004-01-01

    The fish community in the shallow Lake Veluwe (3400 ha) has recently changed in composition. The total biomass of fish decreased to ca. 35% of the original biomass. The change in fish biomass followed the introduction of a commercial fishery and was in its turn followed by a rapid expansion of macro

  12. Molecular cloning and expression of toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4) in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ruifang; Liu, Han; Jakovlić, Ivan; Zhan, Fanbin; Wei, Jin; Yang, Pinhong; Wang, Weimin

    2016-06-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in teleost innate immune system. In this study, Megalobrama amblycephala (ma) tlr4 gene was cloned, its putative polypeptide product characterized, and expression analysed. Matlr4 cDNA is 2862 bp long, with an open reading frame of 2364 bp encoding 787 amino acids. MaTlr4 is a typical TLR protein, including the extracellular part with nine leucine-rich repeat motifs, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain. MaTlr4 has the highest level of identity (94%) and similarity (97%) with the grass carp Tlr4.2 homolog. This was also corroborated by the phylogenetic analysis, which placed MaTlr4 in a cluster with other cyprinid homologs. Matlr4 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues and during all sampled developmental stages. The observed peak in matlr4 mRNA expression during gastrula and somite stages is in good agreement with its proposed role in the development of the neural system. Temporal expression patterns of matlr4 and maMyD88 mRNAs and proteins were analyzed in liver, spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney and intestine after Aeromonas hydrophila infection. And mRNA expression varied between different time-points. Both MaTlr4 and MaMyD88 protein expressions at 12 hpi were significantly enhanced in head kidney and intestine. These results indicate that matlr4 is involved in the immune response in M. amblycephala, and that it is indeed a functional homologue of tlr4s described in other animal species.

  13. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) Infected by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lei; Hu, Hongtao; Wei, Wei; Wang, Weimin; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that play key roles in regulation of various biological processes. In order to better understand the biological significance of miRNAs in the context of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Megalobrama amblycephala, small RNA libraries obtained from fish liver at 0 (non-infection), 4, and 24 h post infection (poi) were sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 11,244,207, 9,212,958, and 7,939,157 clean reads were obtained from these three RNA libraries, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis identified 171 conserved miRNAs and 62 putative novel miRNAs. The existence of ten randomly selected novel miRNAs was validated by RT-PCR. Pairwise comparison suggested that 61 and 44 miRNAs were differentially expressed at 4 and 24 h poi, respectively. Furthermore, the expression profiles of nine randomly selected miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. MicroRNA target prediction, gene ontology (GO) annotation, and Kyoto Encylopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis indicated that a variety of biological pathways could be affected by A. hydrophila infection. Additionally, transferrin (TF) and transferrin receptor (TFR) genes were confirmed to be direct targets of miR-375. These results will expand our knowledge of the role of miRNAs in the immune response of M. amblycephala to A. hydrophila infection, and facilitate the development of effective strategies against A. hydrophila infection in M. amblycephala. PMID:27898025

  14. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Infected by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that play key roles in regulation of various biological processes. In order to better understand the biological significance of miRNAs in the context of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Megalobrama amblycephala, small RNA libraries obtained from fish liver at 0 (non-infection, 4, and 24 h post infection (poi were sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 11,244,207, 9,212,958, and 7,939,157 clean reads were obtained from these three RNA libraries, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis identified 171 conserved miRNAs and 62 putative novel miRNAs. The existence of ten randomly selected novel miRNAs was validated by RT-PCR. Pairwise comparison suggested that 61 and 44 miRNAs were differentially expressed at 4 and 24 h poi, respectively. Furthermore, the expression profiles of nine randomly selected miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. MicroRNA target prediction, gene ontology (GO annotation, and Kyoto Encylopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis indicated that a variety of biological pathways could be affected by A. hydrophila infection. Additionally, transferrin (TF and transferrin receptor (TFR genes were confirmed to be direct targets of miR-375. These results will expand our knowledge of the role of miRNAs in the immune response of M. amblycephala to A. hydrophila infection, and facilitate the development of effective strategies against A. hydrophila infection in M. amblycephala.

  15. Structure of spawning population of the bream Abramis brama in water bodies of the Dniprovsko-Orelsky nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Bondarev

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The population state of important food fish Abramis brama L. in the Dniprovsko-Orelsky Nature Reserve is under consideration . Basic population parameters of the species have been studied. Assessment of modern state and determination of perspectives of further existence of the roach in the Reserve’s basins have been done.

  16. Selective estrogen receptor modulators differentially alter the immune response of gilthead seabream juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenas, M C; Cabas, I; García-Alcázar, A; Meseguer, J; Mulero, V; García-Ayala, A

    2016-05-01

    17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen used in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, tamoxifen (Tmx), a selective estrogen-receptor modulator used in hormone replacement therapy, and G1, a G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) selective agonist, differentially increased the hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) gene expression and altered the immune response in adult gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) males. However, no information exists on the effects of these compounds on the immune response of juveniles. This study aims, for the first time, to investigate the effects of the dietary intake of EE2, Tmx or G1 on the immune response of gilthead seabream juveniles and the capacity of the immune system of the specimens to recover its functionality after ceasing exposures (recovery period). The specimens were immunized with hemocyanin in the presence of aluminium adjuvant 1 (group A) or 120 (group B) days after the treatments ceased (dpt). The results indicate that EE2 and Tmx, but not G1, differentially promoted a transient alteration in hepatic vtg gene expression. Although all three compounds did not affect the production of reactive oxygen intermediates, they inhibited the induction of interleukin-1β (il1b) gene expression after priming. Interestingly, although Tmx increased the percentage of IgM-positive cells in both head kidney and spleen during the recovery period, the antibody response of vaccinated fish varied depending on the compound used and when the immunization was administered. Taken together, our results suggest that these compounds differentially alter the capacity of fish to respond to infection during ontogeny and, more interestingly, that the adaptive immune response remained altered to an extent that depends on the compound.

  17. Algerian propolis extracts: Chemical composition, bactericidal activity and in vitro effects on gilthead seabream innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, El-Khamsa; Cerezuela, Rebeca; Charef, Noureddine; Mezaache-Aichour, Samia; Esteban, Maria Angeles; Zerroug, Mohamed Mihoub

    2017-03-01

    Propolis has been used as a medicinal agent for centuries. The chemical composition of four propolis samples collected from four locations of the Sétif region, Algeria, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was determined. More than 20 compounds and from 30 to 35 compounds were identified in the aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the propolis extracts against two marine pathogenic bacteria was evaluated. Finally, the in vitro effects of propolis on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) leucocyte activities were measured. The bactericidal activity of ethanolic extracts was very high against Shewanella putrefaciens, average against Photobacterium damselae and very low against Vibrio harveyi. The lowest bactericidal activity was always that found for the aqueous extracts. When the viability of gilthead seabream head-kidney leucocytes was measured after 30 min' incubation with the different extracts, both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of one of the propolis samples (from Babor) and the aqueous extract of another (from Ain-Abbassa) provoked a significant decrease in cell viability when used at concentrations of 100 and 200 μg ml(-1). Furthermore, significant inhibitory effects were recorded on leucocyte respiratory burst activity when isolated leucocytes where preincubated with the extracts. This effect was dose-dependent in all cases except when extracts from a third propolis sample (from Boutaleb) were used. Our findings suggest that some of Algerian propolis extracts have bactericidal activity against important bacterial pathogens in seabream and significantly modulate in vitro leucocyte activities, confirming their potential as a source of new natural biocides and/or immunomodulators in aquaculture practice.

  18. Evaluating the effects of protection on fish predators and sea urchins in shallow artificial rocky habitats: a case study in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, P; Bussotti, S; Boero, F

    2005-05-01

    Man-made defence structures (e.g., breakwaters, jetties) are becoming common features of marine coastal landscapes all around the world. The ecology of assemblages of species associated with such artificial structures is, however, poorly known. In this study, we evaluated the density and size of fish predators of echinoids (i.e., Diplodus sargus, Diplodus vulgaris, Sparus aurata), and the density of sea urchins (i.e., Paracentrotus lividus) at defence structures (i.e., breakwaters) inside and outside the marine protected area of Miramare (northern Adriatic Sea) in order to: (1) assess possible differences in fish predator density and size between protected and fished breakwaters; (2) assess whether fish predation may have the potential to affect sea urchin density in artificial rocky habitats. Surveys were carried out at four random times over a period of two years. Total density, and density of medium- and large-sized individuals of the three predatory fishes were generally greater at the protected than at the fished breakwaters, whereas no differences were detected in the density of small-sized individuals. Density of the sea urchin P. lividus did not show any difference between protected and fished breakwaters. The results of this study suggest that: (1) protection may significantly affect predatory fishes in artificial rocky habitats; (2) differences in predatory fish density, and size may be unrelated with the density of the sea urchin P. lividus; (3) protected artificial structures such as breakwaters, originally planned for other purposes, could represent a potential tool for fish population recovery and enhancement of local fisheries.

  19. Vanadium distribution, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress markers upon decavanadate in vivo administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, S S; Martins, H; Duarte, R O; Moura, J J G; Coucelo, J; Gutiérrez-Merino, C; Aureliano, M

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of decameric vanadate species to vanadate toxic effects in cardiac muscle was studied following an intravenous administration of a decavanadate solution (1mM total vanadium) in Sparus aurata. Although decameric vanadate is unstable in the assay medium, it decomposes with a half-life time of 16 allowing studying its effects not only in vitro but also in vivo. After 1, 6 and 12h upon decavanadate administration the increase of vanadium in blood plasma, red blood cells and in cardiac mitochondria and cytosol is not affected in comparison to the administration of a metavanadate solution containing labile oxovanadates. Cardiac tissue lipid peroxidation increases up to 20%, 1, 6 and 12h after metavanadate administration, whilst for decavanadate no effects were observed except 1h after treatment (+20%). Metavanadate administration clearly differs from decavanadate by enhancing, 12h after exposure, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (+115%) and not affecting catalase (CAT) activity whereas decavanadate increases SOD activity by 20% and decreases (-55%) mitochondrial CAT activity. At early times of exposure, 1 and 6h, the only effect observed upon decavanadate administration was the increase by 20% of SOD activity. In conclusion, decavanadate has a different response pattern of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress markers, in spite of the same vanadium distribution in cardiac cells observed after decavanadate and metavanadate administration. It is suggested that once formed decameric vanadate species has a different reactivity than vanadate, thus, pointing out that the differential contribution of vanadium oligomers should be taken into account to rationalize in vivo vanadate toxicity.

  20. Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

    2015-03-15

    In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 μm) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3).

  1. Effects of administration of probiotic strains on GALT of larval gilthead seabream: Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchietti, Simona; Mazzini, Massimo; Taddei, Anna Rita; Renna, Raffaella; Fausto, Anna Maria; Mulero, Victoriano; Carnevali, Oliana; Cresci, Alberto; Abelli, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Two bacterial strains Lactobacillus fructivorans (AS17B), isolated from adult seabream (Sparus aurata L.) gut, and Lactobacillus plantarum (906), isolated from human faeces, were administered contemporaneously during seabream development using Brachionus plicatilis and/or Artemia salina and dry feed as vectors. Experimental group A received the probiotic strains already via rotifers from day 5 post-hatch (ph), whereas treatment of group B began with Artemia feeding from day 27 ph. Fish were sampled at day 28 ph (group A and control) and day 99 ph (groups A, B and control) for electron microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry with the polyclonal antiserum ORa against homologous serum Ig and the mAb G7 specific for seabream acidophilic granulocytes. In all groups, timing and pattern of differentiation of the digestive tract did not differ. Furthermore, neither tissue damage nor manifest inflammation was provoked by probiotic administration. At day 28 ph, the developing GALT already housed mucosal leucocytes, including Ig(+) cells but no acidophilic granulocytes. No differences were seen between experimental groups. At day 99 ph, the density of Ig(+) cells (+51%) and acidophilic granulocytes (+284%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in group A than in controls. Also group B had a higher density of Ig(+) cells (+17%) and acidophilic granulocytes (+130%) compared with controls, although less pronounced. Light and electron microscopy observations detailed the occurrence of heterogeneous populations of lymphocytes and granulocytes in the developing intestinal mucosa, and highlighted the net expansion of G7(+) acidophilic granulocytes (A +536%, B +292% vs. control) due to probiotic administration. Evidence is provided that early feeding with probiotic-supplemented diet increased the number of Ig(+) cells and acidophilic granulocytes in seabream gut and that the effects were more pronounced when administration started during gut metamorphosis. These results point to a

  2. Phylogenetic consistencies among chondrichthyan and teleost fishes in their bioaccumulation of multiple trace elements from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffree, Ross A., E-mail: R.Jeffree@iaea.org [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories, 4, Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco); Oberhansli, Francois; Teyssie, Jean-Louis [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories, 4, Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco)

    2010-07-15

    Multi-tracer experiments determined the accumulation from seawater of selected radioactive trace elements (Mn-54, Co-60, Zn-65, Cs-134, Am-241, Cd-109, Ag-110m, Se-75 and Cr-51) by three teleost and three chondrichthyan fish species to test the hypothesis that these phylogenetic groups have different bioaccumulation characteristics, based on previously established contrasts between the carcharhiniform chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula (dogfish) and the pleuronectiform teleost Psetta maxima (turbot). Discriminant function analysis on whole body: water concentration factors (CFs) separated dogfish and turbot in two independent experiments. Classification functions grouped the perciform teleosts, seabream (Sparus aurata) and seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), with turbot and grouped the chondrichthyans, undulate ray (Raja undulata; Rajiformes) and spotted torpedo (Torpedo marmorata; Torpediniformes), with dogfish, thus supporting our hypothesis. Hierarchical classificatory, multi-dimensional scaling and similarity analyses based on the CFs for the nine radiotracers, also separated all three teleosts (that aggregated lower in the hierarchy) from the three chondrichthyan species. The three chondrichthyans were also more diverse amongst themselves compared to the three teleosts. Particular trace elements that were more important in separating teleosts and chondrichthyans were Cs-134 that was elevated in teleosts and Zn-65 that was elevated in chondrichthyans, these differences being due to their differential rates of uptake rather than loss. Chondrichthyans were also higher in Cr-51, Co-60, Ag-110m and Am-241, whereas teleosts were higher only in Mn-54. These contrasts in bioaccumulation patterns between teleosts and chondrichthyans are interpreted in the context of both proximate causes of underlying differences in physiology and anatomy, as well as the ultimate cause of their evolutionary divergence over more than 500 million years before present (MyBP). Our results

  3. The antimicrobial peptide hepcidin exerts an important role in the innate immunity against bacteria in the bony fish gilthead seabream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2008-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important mediators of the immune response against bacteria and hepcidin is a 20-25 residues member with known functions in iron regulation and the innate immune response. Most studies have focused on mammalian organisms but very little is known about other vertebrate groups including teleost fish. Thus, based on the sequence of an EST database, we have characterized hepcidin gene organization, gene expression, distribution and in vitro and in vivo regulation, as well as the biological activity of a synthetic peptide in the teleost fish gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). First, it was found that the seabream hep gene genomic organization is formed by 3 exons and 2 introns, while the mRNA transcript is constitutively detected in most of the fish tissues but mainly in peritoneal leucocytes, head-kidney, liver and skin. Moreover, we have identified for the first time that hep is much more highly expressed in acidophilic granulocytes than in monocyte-macrophages and lymphocytes. In vitro, hep expression is up-regulated by several mitogens, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and particulated antigens. Not surprisingly, intraperitoneal injection of bacteria or virus led to a significant gene up-regulation in the liver, head-kidney, peritoneal exudate or spleen. These observations suggest a major role for seabream hepcidin in the immune response to bacteria and viruses. Furthermore, the synthetic seabream Hep exerted an important antimicrobial activity against several bacterial strains in vitro reducing their viability. To conclude, seabream hep gene expression, up-regulation after in vitro or in vivo treatment with mitogens, PAMPs or particulated antigens and the direct in vitro biological activity against bacteria demonstrate that it is an important antimicrobial peptide and probably plays an important role in the innate immune response of fish.

  4. INTERSPECIFIC PHYLOGENESIS AND INTRASPECIFIC GENETIC DIFFERENCES OF GENUS MEGALOBRAMA: BLUNTNOSE BLACK BREAM (M.AMBLYCEPHALA), GUANGDONG BLACK BREAM (M.HOFFMANNI) AND BLACK BREAM (M.TERMINALIS)%鲂属团头鲂、三角鲂及广东鲂种间遗传关系及种内遗传差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思发; 朱泽闻; 邹曙明; 赵金良; 蔡完其

    2002-01-01

    采用形态判别、同工酶分析和RAPD分析相结合的方法,从3个层次研究分析了鲂属团头鲂、三角鲂和广东鲂的种间亲缘关系和种内遗传差异.结果表明: (1) 3种鲂在形态可数性状上差异不显著,而可量性状与框架分析揭示团头鲂与三角鲂亲缘关系较近,它们同广东鲂差异较大;(2) 团头鲂和三角鲂均具有MDH同工酶的s-Mdh-D位点,而广东鲂未见,引物S11 扩增的结果在3种鲂间均显示种的特异性,这些同工酶谱带和DNA扩增带可作为3种鲂的种间分子标记;(3) 3种鲂种间亲缘关系在三个研究层面上相互吻合:即广东鲂与团头鲂、三角鲂差异较大,亲缘关系较远,而三角鲂和团头鲂之间差异小,亲缘关系较近;(4) 同工酶和RAPD分析揭示,三角鲂种内遗传多样性显著地高于广东鲂和团头鲂.

  5. 二长棘鲷和黄鳍鲷骨骼系统的比较%A Study on Osteology of Parargyrops edita Tanaka and Sparus latus Houttuyn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨太有; 李仲辉

    2008-01-01

    对二长棘鲷和黄鳍鲷的骨骼系统进行了比较研究.结果表明,二长棘鲷脑颅中的上筛骨、侧筛骨、额骨、眶下骨、蝶耳骨、上枕骨,咽颅中的前上额骨、腭骨、舌额骨、齿骨、鳃盖骨、尾舌骨、咽鳃骨等与黄鳍鲷相应部分的骨骼有明显差异,某些特征可作属间或种间的鉴别依据.

  6. 黄鳍鲷肝细胞体外培养研究%Primary Culture of Liver Cell from Sparus latus hottuyn in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国平; 纪荣兴; 李丽美; 邹文政

    2003-01-01

    以黄鳍鲷肝脏细胞为材料,研究其肝细胞体外培养适宜的pH、血清浓度、谷氨酰胺等条件, 并进行传代培养试验.结果表明,培养液为:MEM含20%小牛血清、15 g/L L-谷氨酰胺及pH 6.9~7.1时,在23 ℃中静置培养,黄鳍鲷肝细胞生长良好,3~5 d长满单层,细胞主要为成纤维细胞状,并能顺利传代.细胞动力学试验表明:传代细胞1~2代为适应期,3~5代为旺盛期,6代之后表现出衰老现象.

  7. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF DISTRIBUTING AND ACCUMULATION Of HEAVY METALS ARE IN ORGANISMS Of THE FISHES BENTOPHAGES Of KREMENCHUG STORAGE POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Melnik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of heavy metals is investigational in organs and fabrics of the fishes bentophages - bream (Abramis brama L., roach (Rutilus rutilus L. and white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L. of the Kremenchug storage pool. It is set that after maintenance of heavy metals in organs and fabrics in the direction of increase of their concentration it is possible to present such row: bream < white bream < roach.

  8. Isolation and confirmation of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and leaping mullet (Liza saliens) in the Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorriehzahra, M E J; Ghasemi, M; Ghiasi, M; Karsidani, S Haghighi; Bovo, G; Nazari, A; Adel, M; Arizza, V; Dhama, K

    2016-07-15

    The present study was conducted on 428 moribund mullet fish samples to isolate and identify the causative agent of a mysterious acute mortality which recently occurred in wild mullets in Iranian waters of Caspian Sea, suspected to be due to viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease. Disease investigation was carried out employing various diagnostic procedures such as virology, bacteriology, parasitology, haematology, histopathology, IFAT, IHC and nested RT-PCR. Brain and eye samples of affected fishes were collected in sterile conditions and then kept at -80°C for cell culture isolation and nested RT-PCR detection of the causative agent. Other tissue samples were also collected and fixed for histopathology, IHC and EM examinations. CPE was observed in cell cultures at 6days after inoculation. Nine samples were found positive with virological assay. Nested RT-PCR, performed on suspected tissues and CPE positive samples, showed that about 21 tissue samples and all the CPE positive samples were positive for VNN virus (VNNV). IFAT was selected as a confirmatory method for detecting the presence of Betanodavirus antigen, cell culture isolation results and nested RT-PCR findings. Moreover, VNNV particles with 25-30nm in diameter were also visualized in the infected brain and retina. In pathogenicity studies, guppy fishes bathed in VNNV-infected tissue culture (10(-4) TCID50) showed clinical signs similar to naturally infected mullet after 15days post infection (dpi), with mortality rates reaching up to 100% at 30dpi. Affected organ samples as examined by cell culture isolation, IFAT, IHC and histopathology, revealed the presence of VNNV in the guppy fishes. In conclusion, it was confirmed that VNNV was the main causative agent for the disease outbreak in mullet fish in the Caspian Sea, and this is such first official report of VNN disease from Iran.

  9. Variation in heavy metals concentration in the edible oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, clam Polymesoda erosa and grey mullet Liza aurata from coastline of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gawade, L.; Chari, N.V.H.; Sarma, V.V.; Ingole, B.S.

    and to the other markets. Whereas the clam polymesoda erosa is very common in markets and is of public interest. 2.2. Methodology Analyses were carried out using 18 fish samples with size varying from 8-16 cm total length and 18 oyster samples of size varying from...

  10. Molecular cloning, immunohistochemical localization, characterization and expression analysis of caspase-8 from the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) exposed to ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengming; Ge, Xianping; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Wuxiao; Zhang, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Caspase-8 is an initiator caspase that plays a crucial role in some cases of apoptosis by extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Caspase-8 structure and function have been extensively studied in mammals, but in fish the characterization of that initiator caspase is still scarce. In this study, we isolated the caspase-8 gene from Megalobrama amblycephala, one of the most important industrial aquatic animals in China using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The 2034 bp full-length M. amblycephala caspase-8 cDNA sequence contained an ORF of 1467 bp encoding a polypeptide of 489 amino acid residues, a 5'-UTR of 102 bp and a 3'-UTR of 462 bp. The caspase-8 amino acid sequences contained two highly conservative death effector domains (DEDs) at N-terminal, the caspase family domains P20 and P10, caspase-8 active-site pentapeptide and potential aspartic acid cleavage sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that M. amblycephala caspase-8 were clustered with the caspase-8 from other vertebrate. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that caspase-8 transcripts were detected in liver after exposure to ammonia. Meanwhile using Western blot analysis, caspase-8 cleaved fragment was detected and significant alteration of procaspase-8 level was found with the same ammonia treatment condition. Furthermore, the result of immunohistochemical detection showed that remarkable changes of immunopositive staining were observed after ammonia treatment. Accordingly, the results signify that caspase-8 of fish may play an essential role in ammonia induced apoptosis.

  11. Feeding ecology of the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus cadenati (Perciformes: Sparidae) and the ballan wrasse, Labrus bergylta (Perciformes: Labridae), from Faial Island – Azores

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Copyright © 2005 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved To make a first approach in the assessment of the sea urchin predators in the Azores, the diet of white seabream (Diplodus sargus) and ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta), were studied by the analyses of their stomach contents. The white seabream is a diurnal omnivore, feeding on algae, sea-urchins, worms, gastropods and amphipods, while ballan wrasse fed mainly on echinoderms (sea-urchins), gastropods and decapods. Both species tended...

  12. The interspecific hybridization in four freshwater bream Megalobrama sp%鲂属4种鱼类种间杂交的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大龙; 杜睿; 聂竹兰; 杨振华; 罗伟; 易少奎; 高泽霞; 王卫民; 陈柏湘

    2014-01-01

    Ministry of AgricultureWild broodstocks of Megalobrama amblycephala( T) collected from Langzi Lake in Ezhou, Hubei Province, M. terminalis ( S) collected from Qiantang River original seed farm in Zhejiang Prov-ince, M. hoffmanni ( H) collected from Longxi River in Luzhou, Sichuan Province, and M. pellegrini ( G) in Zhao-qing Xijiang, Guangdong Province were used for a variety of hybrids and inbred as follows:T♀×T♂, T♀×H♂, T♀×S♂, T♀×G♂, S♀×S♂, S♀×T♂, S♀×G♂, H♀×H♂, and H♀×T♂. Fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival rate were relatively high in the hydrids, in which the larvae were reared for 45 days, indicating that it was possible to conduct hybridization within Megalobrama sp. , especially the hydrids reciprocal crossed be-tween M. amblycephala and M. pellegrini showing heterosis in both body length and body weight, not in the body height. No heterosis was found in the reciprocal crossed hybrid between M. amblycephala and M. terminalis. It is uncertain that there is heterosis in the reciprocal crosses between M. erminalis and M. hoffmanni.%利用湖北鄂州梁子湖的团头鲂Megalobrama amblycephala ( T)、浙江钱塘江原种场的三角鲂Magalo-brama terminalis ( S)、四川泸州龙溪河的厚颌鲂Megalobrama pellegrini ( H)、广东西江肇庆的广东鲂Mega-lobrama hoffmanni ( G)野生亲鱼进行多种杂交组合与自交,所有杂交与自交组合为T意×T裔、 T意×H裔、T意×S裔、 T意×G裔、 S意×S裔、 S意×T裔、 S意×G裔、 H意×H裔、 H意×T裔,将各组合受精卵在室内同一水泥池不同孵化桶内孵化,并将各组合子代培育45日龄。结果表明:所有组合的受精率、孵化率和成活率均相对较高,初步证明鲂属种间杂交具有可行性;团头鲂与厚颌鲂正反交子代除体高杂种优势不明显外,体长与体质量均表现出杂种优势;团头鲂与三角鲂正反交子代的体长、体质量、体高均未表现出明显的杂种优势;因广东鲂母本催产失败,团头鲂与广东鲂正反交以及三角鲂与广东鲂正反交子代是否有杂种优势还有待进一步研究。

  13. Nodavirus Colonizes and Replicates in the Testis of Gilthead Seabream and European Sea Bass Modulating Its Immune and Reproductive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Yulema; Arizcun, Marta; Esteban, M. Ángeles; Bandín, Isabel; Olveira, José G.; Patel, Sonal; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are threatening pathogens for fish aquaculture. Some of them are transmitted through gonad fluids or gametes as occurs with nervous necrosis virus (NNV). In order to be transmitted through the gonad, the virus should colonize and replicate inside some cell types of this tissue and avoid the subsequent immune response locally. However, whether NNV colonizes the gonad, the cell types that are infected, and how the immune response in the gonad is regulated has never been studied. We have demonstrated for the first time the presence and localization of NNV into the testis after an experimental infection in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a very susceptible and an asymptomatic host fish species, respectively. Thus, we localized in the testis viral RNA in both species using in situ PCR and viral proteins in gilthead seabream by immunohistochemistry, suggesting that males might also transmit the virus. In addition, we were able to isolate infective particles from the testis of both species demonstrating that NNV colonizes and replicates into the testis of both species. Blood contamination of the tissues sampled was discarded by completely fish bleeding, furthermore the in situ PCR and immunocytochemistry techniques never showed staining in blood vessels or cells. Moreover, we also determined how the immune and reproductive functions are affected comparing the effects in the testis with those found in the brain, the main target tissue of the virus. Interestingly, NNV triggered the immune response in the European sea bass but not in the gilthead seabream testis. Regarding reproductive functions, NNV infection alters 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone production and the potential sensitivity of brain and testis to these hormones, whereas there is no disruption of testicular functions according to several reproductive parameters. Moreover, we have also studied the NNV infection of the testis in vitro to

  14. Salinity-dependent copper accumulation in the guppy Poecilia vivipara is associated with CTR1 and ATP7B transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Evelise Sampaio; Abril, Sandra Isabel Moreno; Zanette, Juliano; Bianchini, Adalto

    2014-07-01

    Copper (Cu) accumulation and regulation of key-genes involved in Cu homeostasis were evaluated in freshwater- and saltwater-acclimated guppies Poecilia vivipara. Fish were exposed (96h) to environmentally relevant concentrations of dissolved Cu (0, 5.0, 9.0 and 20.0μg/L). In freshwater guppies, gill and liver Cu accumulation was dependent on Cu concentration in the exposure medium. In saltwater guppies, this dependence was observed only in the gut. These findings indicate that Cu accumulation was salinity- and tissue-dependent. Key genes involved in Cu metabolism were sequenced for the first time in P. vivipara. Transcripts coding for the high-affinity copper transporter (CTR1) and copper-transporting ATPase (ATP7B) were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. The full-length CTR1 open reading frame (1560bp) and a partial ATP7B (690bp) were discovered. Predicted amino acid sequences shared high identities with the CTR1 of Fundulus heteroclitus (81%) and the ATP7B of Sparus aurata (87%). Basal transcriptional levels addressed by RT-qPCR in control fish indicate that CTR1 and ATP7B was highly transcribed in liver of freshwater guppies while CTR1 was highly transcribed in gut of saltwater guppies. This could explain the higher Cu accumulation observed in liver of freshwater guppies and in gut of saltwater guppies, because CTR1 is involved in Cu uptake. Reduced gill mRNA expression of CTR1 was observed in freshwater guppies exposed to 20.0μg/L Cu and in saltwater guppies exposed to 5.0μg/L Cu. In turn, reduced mRNA expression of gut ATP7B was observed in freshwater and salt water guppies exposed to 9.0 and 20.0μg/L Cu. Liver CTR1 and ATP7B transcription were not affected by Cu exposure. These findings suggest that gill CTR1 and gut ATP7B are down-regulated to limit Cu absorption after exposure to dissolved Cu, while liver CTR1 and ATP7B levels are maintained to allow Cu storage and detoxification. In conclusion, findings reported here

  15. 翘嘴鳊及其亲本肌肉营养成分分析%Muscle nutrients of the backcross progeny of female diploid F1 hybrid (blunt snout bream × topmouth culter) × male blunt snout bream and its parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何周玲; 刘少军; 肖军; 胡方舟; 文明; 叶利海; 张纯; 徐康; 陶敏

    2014-01-01

    为研究新型杂交鱼翘嘴鳊(二倍体鲂鲌F1♀×团头鲂♂)的肌肉营养价值,实验运用生化方法测定和分析了翘嘴鳊、翘嘴红鲌、团头鲂、二倍体鲂鲌F1(团头鲂早×翘嘴红鲌♂)的肌肉营养成分,包括这些样品的水分、脂肪、蛋白质和灰分含量,以及脂肪酸组成和氨基酸组成.结果表明,翘嘴鳊与其原始亲本相比具有较高的蛋白质和较低的碳水化合物含量;脂肪酸分析发现翘嘴鳊的不饱和脂肪酸,尤其是油酸、DHA等含量显著高于其原始父母本和其他有关鱼类(P<0.05);翘嘴鳊肌肉中具有较高呈味氨基酸比例,该比例高于其父母本的相应比例.研究表明,翘嘴鳊是一种营养价值高、口感好的优质鱼类.

  16. The use of multivariate analysis to link sediment contamination and toxicity data to establish sediment quality guidelines: an example in the Gulf of Cadiz (Spain); El uso del analisis multivariante en la union de datos de toxicidad y contaminacion para establecer guias de calidad de sedimento: Un ejemplo en la Bahia de Cadiz (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Valls, T. Angel; Forja, Jesus M [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz, (Spain); Gomez-Parra, Abelardo [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, CSIC, Puerto Real, Cadiz, (Spain)

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate marine sediment quality in the Gulf of Cadiz, chemical concentration and toxicity test endpoints from sediments were linked using multivariate analysis. Sediment samples were collected synoptically at seven stations in two littoral ecosystems of the Gulf of Cadiz (five in the Bay of Cadiz and two in the salt marsh of the Barbate River), and subjected to six separate, replicated sediment toxicity tests and comprehensive sediment chemistry analyses. The toxic effects of sediments were tested using three operational sediment phases: whole sediment, using the estuarine amphipod Microdeutopus gryllotalpa (10 d static: survival) and the estuarine clam Ruditapes philippinaru (48 h static: survival) and of the marine fish Sparus aurata (48 h static. Survival); and interstitial water, using populations of the estuarine rotifer Brachionus Plicatilis (7 d static: Population decline) and of the marine bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox ). To evaluate the levels of contamination, the concentrations in the sediments of organic carbon, 14 trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ag, Hg, As, Sn, V, Ni, Co and Cr) and the surfactant linear alkylbenzenesulphonate (LAS) were measured. The results of the toxicity tests were compared in a dose-response relationship between sites, demonstrating a general agreement between the toxicity values determined by all the tests, except in the case of interstitial water toxicity (principally due to toxic mixtures of trace metals). Data derived from sediment chemistry and bioassays were assembled by multivariate statistical techniques (PCA and factor analysis), showing that the two data types could be represented by only five factors corresponding to five overlapping chemical-biological effect relations. Positive prevalence of these factors in the cases studied was used to establish those ranges in chemical concentrations associated with adverse effects. The sediment quality guidelines, in terms of concentrations at or below

  17. Vacuolating encephalopathy and retinopathy associated with a nodavirus-like agent: a probable cause of mass mortality of wild Golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and Sharpnose grey mullet (Liza saliens) in Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorriehzahra, Mohammad Jalil; Nazari, Alireza; Ghasemi, Mohaddes; Ghiasi, Maryam; Karsidani, Somayeh Haghighi; Bovo, Giuseppe; Daud, Hassan Hj Mohd

    2014-12-01

    Mullets are dominant fishes in the catch composition in the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea and after (Rutilus frisii kutum Kamensky, 1901) have a worthy role in production of marine proteins and incomings of north provinces of Iran. Mullets stocks decreased dramatically in recent decades in the Caspian Sea and catch amount reached from 6446 MT on 2002 to 2151 MT in 2012. Mysterious mortalities occurred in wild mullet (Liza auratu) and (Liza saliens) in Iranian waters of Caspian Sea in recent years. Regarding to investigation of causative agent of mentioned outbreak about 322 suspected samples were collected from coastal capture sites of Iranian north provinces in 2008 till 2011. Moribund fish revealed skin darkening, erratic swimming, belly-up at rest and high distension of swim bladder. Target tissues such as brain and eye were removed and then fixed for histopathology and TEM assay. Widespread and massive vacuolation were observed in brain, spinal cord, retina and optical nerve and intracytoplasmic vacuoles and virus particles in retina. So concerning to clinical signs, histopathological and TEM findings, it could be concluded that nodavirus-like agent could be probable cause of mass mortality of wild mullet in Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea.

  18. Evaluation of cytotoxic compounds in different organs of the sea bream Sarpa salpa as related to phytoplankton consumption: an in vitro study in human liver cell lines HepG2 and WRL68.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Hamza, Asma; Van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2012-09-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the cytotoxic effects of not-yet identified compounds present in organ extracts of Sarpa salpa, collected in autumn, the period with a peak in health problems. In addition, we studied the cytotoxicity of extracts of epiphytes found in the stomach content of S. salpa collected in summer and of epiphytes collected from the sea in the Sfax area at the end of spring. We tested these fractions in two human hepatic cell lines: HepG2 and WRL68. We observed a significant loss of viable cells when HepG2 cells were exposed for 72 h to acetone extracts of livers of S. salpa at a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml protein. Proteins extracted from brain or muscle did not significantly induce cell death at the studied concentrations (≤10 mg/ml). There was a significant loss of viable cells when treated with liver extract of S. salpa dissolved in DMSO. Extracts of epiphytes collected in late spring showed a cytotoxic effect in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, we observed a significantly decreased cell viability of HepG2 at a dilution (1/40) of epiphyte extracts from stomach contents of two fish we had collected. The cytotoxic effect of the observed epiphyte extracts confirms the transfer of toxins originating from toxic dinoflagellates which live in epiphyte on the Posidonia oceanica leaves to fish organs by grazing. Hence, the liver of this fish can cause a threat to human health and consumption should for this reason be dissuaded.

  19. Sea urchins, their predators and prey in SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mamede

    2014-06-01

    Alentejo coast: (1 P. lividus appears to have a “sit-and-wait” behavior remaining in crevices or burrows for prolonged times, feeding on drift algae trapped there and, therefore, does not seem to have the ability to significantly influence the structure of the benthic macroalgae community; (2 the studied marine protected area does not appear, to date, to have had significant effects on the abundance and/or on the size of the various studied organisms; and (3 the fish species Diplodus vulgaris and Coris julis may be important predators of P. lividus. Lastly (4, results obtained in the surveys indicate that in this coast: the vast majority of fishermen found traces of sea urchins in the stomach contents of certain fish species (e.g. Diplodus sargus, D. vulgaris, Sparus aurata; the occurrence of urchin barrens is not known by most respondents; the recreational harvesting of sea urchins is a frequent activity on intertidal and shallow subtidal rocky habitats, during winter and spring, and mostly in Easter.

  20. Strategies to enhance the competitiveness of semi-intensive aquaculture systems in costal earth ponds: the organic aquaculture approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sardinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthen ponds are the main production system for European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata in Portugal and in Southern Spain. Production costs in this low productivity farming system are higher compared to intensive cage farms, and its economic sustainability depends on product differentiation and optimization of production. The development of new farming protocols, to enhance productivity of ponds and lagoons, or the implementation of certification processes to add value to products from extensive and semi-intensive systems, could render these activities more economics benefits and be attractive for a new generation of farmers. One clear strategy to differentiate and add value to seabream produced in semi-intensive systems is its production under organic standards. Feeds often represent 40-60% of the operational costs of fish farming. In relation to the traditional feeds, the organic certified feeds currently present a price-differential of about +30%. To assess it economic feasibility, it is therefore essential to validate if such higher feeding costs will represent an increase on productivity (fish growth and feed conversion or can be fully integrated in the final sale price. Throughout a full production cycle of gilthead seabream (from 9 grams until >350 grams, a series of trials allowed us to assess the effects of: a an organic certified feed; b variable feeding levels (100 and 80% of recommendations; and c culture density (0.5 and 1.0 kg/m3 on the overall growth performance, body composition and environmental impact at the fish farm level. Results show that growth performance (weight gain and feed conversion ratio of seabream fed the organic feed was similar to that found in fish fed a traditional diet. With the organic feed, a reduction of the feeding level by 20% of the manufacturer recommendations led to a lower growth, while a similar reduction on the feeding level of the traditional feed had no impact

  1. Full length cDNA cloning and tissue expression of PRLR in Cyprinus carpio var. jian%建鲤催乳素受体基因全长cDNA的克隆、序列分析与组织表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    , kidney, and intestine suggesting that the primary function of PRLR in C. carpio var. jian is in osmotic regulation. The PRLR transcript was detected in the gonads, liver, and spleen, suggesting that prolactin has a range of physiological functions in fish. Our results have provided valuable insight into the mechanisms of osmotic regulation in C. carpio var. jian.%  为了解催乳素受体(Prolactin Receptor, PRLR)的基因序列及其在建鲤(Cyprinus carpio var. jian)渗透调节组织中的表达情况,采用同源克隆和末端快速扩增(rapid amplication of cDNA ends, RACE)的方法分离克隆了建鲤PRLR基因全长cDNA,得到2440 bp的全长cDNA,包括1821 bp的开放阅读框(ORF),213 bp的5′末端非编码区(UTR)以及406 bp 的3′末端非编码区(UTR)。对该基因序列和推测的氨基酸序列进行同源性比对和系统分析显示:建鲤与其他硬骨鱼类该基因的氨基酸序列相似度在37.46%~87.25%,与鲤(Cyprinus carpio)的氨基酸相似度最高(87.25%),鲫(Carassius auratus)次之(86.86%),和金头鲷(Sparus aurata)的相似度较低(41.87%),和人(Homo sapiens)最低(37.46%),表明不同物种间的PRLR的氨基酸序列具有较高的保守性。用实时定量PCR (RT-PCR)检测该基因在建鲤脑、肠、鳃、性腺、肝、脾、肾、皮肤中催乳素受体的相对表达量,其中鳃、肾、肠3个主要渗透调节组织的表达量较高,这表明建鲤的渗透调节组织是PRLR的主要表达场所,从定量角度提示了催乳素(prolactin, PRL)通过 PRLR 的表达,作用于渗透调节组织从而行使其渗透压调节功能。本研究旨在为进一步探索建鲤的渗透调控机制提供基础依据。

  2. Severe fish mortality associated with 'red tide' observed in the sea off Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A; George, M; Narvekar, P.V.; Jayakumar, D.A; Shailaja, M; Sardessai, S.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Shenoy, D.M; Naik, H.; Maheswaran, P.A.; KrishnaKumari, L.; Rajesh, G.; Sudhir, A.K.; Binu, M.S.

    Severe fish mortality associated with the "red tide" phenomenon caused by Noctiluca blooms was observed in the sea off Cochin, Kerala, India at depths less than 40 m. The dead fish, almost entirely comprised of the threadfin bream (Nemipterus...

  3. The Formation of the Polyploid Hybrids From Different Subfamily Fish Crossings and Its Evolutionary Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaojun; Qin, Qinbo; Xiao, Jun; Lu, Wenting; Shen, Jiamin; Li, Wei; Liu, Jifang; Duan, Wei; Zhang, Chun; Tao, De Min; Zhao, Rurong; Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Yun

    2007-01-01

    This study provides genetic evidences at the chromosome, DNA content, DNA fragment and sequence, and morphological levels to support the successful establishment of the polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp × blunt snout bream, which belonged to a different subfamily of fish (Cyprininae subfamily and Cultrinae subfamily) in the catalog. We successfully obtained the sterile triploid hybrids and bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (RCC) (♀) × blunt snout bream (BSB) (♂) as w...

  4. Cholesterol content in meat of some Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragić L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine cholesterol content in meat of five Cyprinidae species: white bream (Bllica bjoerkna L, carp bream (Abramis brama L, baltic vimba (Vimba vimba carinata Pallas, zope (Abramis balerus L and crucian carp (Carassius carassius gibelio Bloch from the river Danube. Cholesterol content was examined in the function of season factor and individual weight. Cholesterol concentration in meat of white bream carp bream, baltic vimba, zope and crucian carp is on average level below 20 mg/100 g of meat, which makes meat of these fish species nutritively very valuable. Cholesterol content is variable during the season. Its concentration in meat and in lipids is lowest during spring, during summer it increases and during autumn decreases, except in meat of white bream. Body weight has influence on cholesterol content when its concentration is expressed as % of cholesterol in lipids. Its content in lipids decreases with increasing of individual weight, except in meat of carp bream.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae) in Greece: evidence from sequence analysis of mtDNA segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasotiropoulos, Vasilis; Klossa-Kilia, Elena; Alahiotis, Stamatis N; Kilias, George

    2007-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis has been used to explore genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships among five species of the Mugilidae family, Mugil cephalus, Chelon labrosus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, and Liza saliens. DNA was isolated from samples originating from the Messolongi Lagoon in Greece. Three mtDNA segments (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I) were PCR amplified and sequenced. Sequencing analysis revealed that the greatest genetic differentiation was observed between M. cephalus and all the other species studied, while C. labrosus and L. aurata were the closest taxa. Dendrograms obtained by the neighbor-joining method and Bayesian inference analysis exhibited the same topology. According to this topology, M. cephalus is the most distinct species and the remaining taxa are clustered together, with C. labrosus and L. aurata forming a single group. The latter result brings into question the monophyletic origin of the genus Liza.

  6. Morphological recognition of artificial F1 hybrids between three common European cyprinid species:Rutilus rutilus,Blicca bjoerkna and Abramis brama%三种普通欧洲鲤科鱼类(拟鲤、粗鳞鳊和欧鳊)人工杂交F1代形态学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. NZAU MATONDO; M. OVIDIO; P. PONCIN; P. VANDEWALLE; J.C. PHILIPPART

    2008-01-01

    对反交试验获得的18个月的拟鲤、粗鳞鳊和欧鳊F1代进行了鉴定.对不同于拟鲤、粗鳞鳊和欧鳊三种鱼的可量和可数形态特征分析表明,拟鲤×欧鳊和拟鲤×粗鳞鳊杂交种比粗鳞鳊×欧鳊杂交种与它们的双亲更容易区分.拟鲤杂交种间具有很多形态上的相似性,例如,上侧虹膜在拟鲤为红色,杂交种则介于双亲之间.在粗鳞鳊×欧鳊杂交种中也可以观察到居间类型.拟鲤×粗鳞鳊和拟鲤×欧鳊各自的杂交种可以通过眼睛的大小、较少的侧线鳞数和2行咽喉齿等特征相区分.粗鳞鳊×欧鳊杂交种与另外两个杂交种相比,具有更多的臀鳍分支鳍条数和一个中央具一黑线的虹斑.三个种进行杂交再获得的互交种通常不易区分.%The F1 hybrids of roach Rutilus rutilus, silver bream Blicca bjoerkna, and common bream Abramis brama from experimental reciprocal cross-breedings were identified at 18 months of age in relation to the parental species. The morphological analysis, including quantitative (plastic and meristic) and nonmetric features differing in the roach, the silver bream and the common bream, revealed that roach×common bream and roach×silver bream hybrids were easier to distinguish from their parents than silver bream×common bream hybrids. These roach hybrids had many morphological similarities such as the upper iris coloured in red as in the roach, and they were morphologically intermediate to the two parents. This contrasted with the silver bream×common bream hybrids, in which intermediate characteristics were also observed, but with some parental variants. Roach×silver bream hybrids were distinguishable from roach×common bream hybrids by its large eye, its lower scale numbers along the lateral line and its two rows of pharyngeal teeth. Silver bream×common bream hybrids, compared to the two other types of hybrids studied, had higher anal fin soft ray numbers and a clear eye iris with a median

  7. [Aquaporins in gametogenesis of vertebrate animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoblina, M N

    2008-01-01

    A review of the data on the presence, localization, and supposed role of aquaporin water channels in oocytes of Xenopus laevis, oogenesis and maturation of teleosts Sparus auratus and Oncorhynchus mykiss, oogenesis and oocyte maturation of rats and mice, and spermatogenesis of several mammalians.

  8. Is humane slaughter of fish possible for industry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, van de J.W.; Kestin, S.; Robb, D.; Oehlenschlaeger, J.; Lambooij, E.; Kuhlmann, H.; Kloosterboer, K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate industrial and research slaughter methods for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), gilt-head seabream (Sparus auratus) and eel (Anguilla anguilla) with respect to welfare and quality. As a general term of reference, an optimal slaughter method should render fish unconscious u

  9. 超高压协同温度处理武昌鱼茶香鱼肠的制备方法及其风味测定%Optimization of Combined Ultrahigh Pressure and Thermal Treatment for Production of Blunt-Snout Bream Sausage with Added Matcha and Analysis of Its Volatile Flavor Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚校兰; 李丛胜; 路彦霞; 姜海强

    2014-01-01

    利用超高压和温度协同处理武昌鱼,生产高品质武昌鱼茶香味鱼肠.通过响应面试验得出,当加压压力410.52 MPa、加压温度41.07℃、加压时间14.91 min时,鱼肠具有良好物性.同时,还对鱼肠的风味进行了检测,通过气相色谱-质谱联用测定了鱼肠样品中的挥发性风味物质.结果表明,传统加热处理和超高压热处理都有利于香气物质的产生,而超高压热处理后再进行热处理不利于香气物质的产生.

  10. 鄱阳湖、梁子湖、淤泥湖团头鲂苗种生产性能比较试验%A comparative experiment on performance traits of bluntnose black bream (Megalo brama amblycephala Yih) fry and fingerlings in Poyang Lake, Liangzi Lake and Yuni Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道印; 欧阳敏

    1999-01-01

    我们于1997年3月9日至13日分别从湖北鄂州市武昌鱼原种场和公安县淤泥湖渔场两地引进团头鲂亲本各30组,鄱阳湖团头鲂来源于与鄱阳湖水系相通的天然大沙湖种质资源库.将三个不同水域的团头鲂在江西省鄱阳湖团头鲂原种场经短期强化培育进行人工养殖,得到试验用水花鱼苗,将不同水域团头鲂F1代水花至夏花阶段为同水体用水花网片分格培育,夏花冬片阶段分单养和混养两种对比试验方式进行.其结果为:水花至夏花阶段鄱阳湖、梁子湖、淤泥湖团头鲂的成活率依次为73.25%、70%、65.5%;夏花至冬片鱼种阶段各水域团头鲂F1代成活率无明显差异,其个体增肉倍数与群体增肉倍数依次为鄱阳湖团头鲂〉淤泥湖团头鲂〉梁子湖团头鲂.

  11. NUTRITIONAL REGULATION OF LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE GENE EXPRESSION AND VISCERAL FAT DEPOSITION IN RED SEA BREAM (PAGRUS MAJOR)%真鲷(Pagrus major)脂蛋白脂肪酶基因表达与内脏脂肪蓄积营养调控定量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁旭方; 白俊杰; 劳海华; 李贵生; 周天鸿; Hiroshi Y. Ogata

    2003-01-01

    采用竞争性PCR方法,进行4种营养状况对真鲷脂蛋白脂肪酶(LPL)基因mRNA表达水平与内脏脂肪蓄积影响的定量研究.结果表明,真鲷LPL基因在肝脏存在营养诱导性表达,饥饿、高脂食物均是其表达诱导因子;在腹腔肠系膜脂肪组织存在组成性表达,其表达水平受摄食状态的影响,但饲料脂肪水平却不起作用.当真鲷喂食高脂食物时,诱导产生的大量肝脏LPL将为肝脏提供更多的来源于食物的游离脂肪酸,使肝脏有可能出现营养诱导性脂肪蓄积,但真鲷腹腔肠系膜脂肪组织LPL基因表达水平未出现适应性变化,其腹腔肠系膜脂肪组织将不可能作为营养诱导性蓄脂器官.由于上述营养状况对真鲷体重、腹脂指数、肝指数均没有产生显著性影响,说明真鲷具有在不同营养状况下与哺乳类相似的维持其内脏脂肪蓄积稳定的代谢机制,推测真鲷应存在某种在功能上与哺乳类相似的肥胖基因.

  12. 不同孔径筛片粉碎团头鲂饲料对其加工性状、鱼体生长和消化酶活性的影响%Effects of Different Mill Screen Mesh Sizes on Feed Processing Characteristics, Growth and Digestive Enzyme Activity of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温超; 吴萍; 刘文斌; 周岩民

    2011-01-01

    The test aimed to compare the effects of four plant protein raw materials - general cottonseed meal (CCM) ,high - protein cottonseed meal ( HCM), degossypolled cottonseed meal (DCM) and sunflower seed meal (SSM) ,as well as two different feed processing methods on the growth rate,feed efficiency,shape,internal organs index and body compositions of grass carp quantitatively under the same condition. With basically consistent levels of protein 29% and fat 3. 5% ,every material was designed with low and high dose levels,each feed formula had two feed processing methods and there were 16 experimental groups in all. The experiment lasted for 56 d in a net cage of cement pool. The average body weight of grass carps was (39.4 ± 1.8) g. The results showed that: (1) the effects of four plant protein raw materials on the specific growth rate (SGR) , viscera/body ratio ( VBR) ,body composition and spleen/body ratio (SBR) of grass carp showed significant difference (P 0.05 ) ; (2) two dose levels of the same protein material had no significant differences on the SGR,FCR,PER and physical indicators (P >0.05) of grass carps,but crude protein content and crude lipid content of the whole fish and muscle had significant differences (P 0.05). The results also showed that adding GCM,HCM,DCM and SSM in the diets of grass carp could improve feed efficiency and got good breeding effect; the amounts of GCM, HCM,DCM and SSM should be controlled between 22% ~ 32% , 20% ~ 28% , 18. 5% ~ 26. 5% and 15. 5% ~ 22.5% respectively, and there was no obvious difference on the growth of grass carp used four plant protein materials (P >0.05) in this range; hard pellet feed was superior to the extruded pellet feed on growth and feed efficiency.%将团头鲂饲料原料用锤片式粉碎机在3种不同孔径(0.8、1.0、1.2 mm)的筛片下进行粉碎然后制成颗粒料,并选用450尾团头鲂随机分为3组,每组5个重复,分别饲喂上述3种饲料,研究不同孔径筛片粉碎团头鲂饲料对其加工性状、鱼体生长和消化酶活性的影响.结果表明,筛片孔径与粉碎机产量呈正相关,与单位产量电耗呈负相关,1.2mm孔径组的饲料硬度显著或极显著低于另两组,0.8mm孔径组饲料溶失率显著低于1.0mm孔径组(P<0.05),0.8mm孔径组饲料淀粉糊化度极显著高于另两组(P<0.01);1.0mm孔径组的团头鲂增重和增重率均高于另两组,但差异不显著(P>0.05),其特定生长率显著高于0.8mm孔径组(P<0.05),0.8mm孔径组的肥满度显著高于1.2mm孔径组(P<0.05);各组肝体比、肠道相对长度和消化酶活性无显著差异.综合比较,团头鲂饲料采用1.0mm孔径的筛片粉碎较好.

  13. 肉骨粉和大豆分离蛋白替代鱼粉对黑鲷幼鱼消化性能及血清指标的影响%Effects of replacing fish meal with mixture of meat and bone meal and soy protein isolate on digestive function and serum biochemistry parameters of juvenile black sea bream, Acanthopagrus schlegelii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎慧; 华颖; 陆静; 邵庆均

    2014-01-01

    肉骨粉和大豆分离蛋白以1∶1比例混合,分别替代0 (CK)、15% (T1)、30% (T2)、45% (T3)、60% (T4)和75% (T5)鱼粉,配制6种等氮等能饲料,替代组添加包膜必需蛋氨酸、赖氨酸和精氨酸,使这3种氨基酸水平与CK组一致,每组3个重复,每个重复20尾黑鲷幼鱼,探讨肉骨粉和大豆分离蛋白替代鱼粉对黑鲷幼鱼消化性能及血清生化指标的影响.结果表明:当混合蛋白替代比例超过60%时,胃蛋白酶活性显著降低,而幽门、前肠及中肠胰蛋白酶活性无显著变化.胃和中肠肌层厚度随混合蛋白替代比例的增加而显著降低.干物质和粗蛋白消化率随混合蛋白替代比例的增加而显著降低.血清总蛋白、葡萄糖和三酰甘油含量随混合蛋白替代比例的增加均无显著变化,而总胆固醇则显著降低.血清谷草转氨酶和谷丙转氨酶活性随混合蛋白替代比例的增加而显著增大.结果提示黑鲷幼鱼饲料中以1∶1比例混合肉骨粉和大豆分离蛋白可替代45%鱼粉而不影响其消化性能与生理健康.

  14. Hybridisation between two cyprinid fishes in a novel habitat: genetics, morphology and life-history traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffrey Joe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential role hybridisation in adaptive radiation and the evolution of new lineages has received much recent attention. Hybridisation between roach (Rutilus rutilus L. and bream (Abramis brama L. is well documented throughout Europe, however hybrids in Ireland occur at an unprecedented frequency, often exceeding that of both parental species. Utilising an integrated approach, which incorporates geometric morphometrics, life history and molecular genetic analyses we identify the levels and processes of hybridisation present, while also determining the direction of hybridisation, through the analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Results The presence of F2 hybrids was found to be unlikely from the studied populations, although significant levels of backcrossing, involving both parental taxa was observed in some lakes. Hybridisation represents a viable conduit for introgression of genes between roach and bream. The vast majority of hybrids in all populations studied exhibited bream mitochondrial DNA, indicating that bream are maternal in the majority of crosses. Conclusions The success of roach × bream hybrids in Ireland is not due to a successful self reproducing lineage. The potential causes of widespread hybridisation between both species, along with the considerations regarding the role of hybridisation in evolution and conservation, are also discussed.

  15. Gökova Körfezi'nde küçük ölçekli balıkçılıkta birim çabaya düşen av miktarı (CPUE ve av kompozisyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı Dereli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gökova Körfezi’nde avcılık yapan küçük ölçekli balıkçı gemilerinin uzatma ağı ve parakete av kompozisyonları ve birim çabaya düşen av miktarları (CPUE, Temmuz 2009 – Mayıs 2011 tarihleri arasında yürütülen çalışmalarla tespit edilmiştir. Toplam 16 deniz çalışması (uzatma ağı ile 5, parakete ile 11 ticari balıkçıların tekne ve av araçlarıyla yürütülmüştür. Balıkçılık çabası (f, CPUE ve günlük av miktarını hesaplamak için ise karaya çıkış noktalarında rasgele seçimle 131 örnekleme (72 kez uzatma ağı, 59 kez paraketeyle gerçekleştirilmiştir. Her iki av aracı birlikte değerlendirildiğinde, Teleostei grubundan 27, Crustacea grubundan 1, Cephalapoda grubundan 2 ve Chondrichthyes grubundan 1 olmak üzere toplam 31 tür tespit edilmiştir. Uzatma ağı ile 19 tür, parakete ile 16 tür yakalanmıştır. Karaya çıkarılan ürün içerisinde, uzatma ağlarında ağırlıklı olarak Pagellus erythrinus, Trachurus mediterraneus ve Scomber japonicus, parakete balıkçığında ise Sparus aurata, Dicentrarchus labrax ve Pagellus erythrinus türleri tespit edilmiştir. Uzatma ağları av kompozisyonu içinde ticari olmayan türlerin oranı (% 50, paraketeninkinden daha yüksektir (% 12. Ortalama CPUE, uzatma ağı için 15,5 ± 19,8 kg/30 posta ağ/gün ve parakete için 1,7 ± 2,8 kg/100 iğne/gün, tekne başına günlük av (kg ortalaması ise uzatma ağı için 10,8 ± 11,0 kg/tekne/gün ve parakete için 5,2 ± 4,3 kg/tekne/gün olarak hesaplanmıştır. Ortalama CPUE değerleri açısından iki av aracı arasında (t:-11,065; p:0,000 ve kooperatifler arasında (uzatma ağı, t:4,382; p:0,000; parakete, t:3,973; p:0,000 istatistiki olarak anlamlı farklılık tespit edilmiştir. Gökova Körfezi’nde uzatma ağı balıkçılığında yakalanan tür sayısının yıllar içerisinde düşüş gösterdiği ve ortalama CPUE değerinin arttığı belirlenmiştir. Parakete bal

  16. 建鲤催乳素基因全长cDNA的克隆及序列分析和组织表达%Full-length cDNA cloning and tissue expression of PRL from Cyprinus carpio var. Jian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰; 李冰; 张成锋; 朱健

    2012-01-01

    To reveal the gene sequences of prolactin and its expression in osmotic regulation tissue of Cyprinus carpio var.Jian,the full-length cDNA encoding prolactin was cloned from Cyprinus carpio var.Jian using homology cloning and RACE PCR approach.The prolactin was 1 028 bp in length,including 51 bp 5'terminal UTR,633 bp encoding region and 344 bp 3'terminal UTR.Phylogenetic analysis using MEGA 4 software showed that the putative prolactin amino acid sequence and other teleosts have the high similarity of 55.02%-94.76%.The prolactin amino acid sequence of Cyprinus carpio var.Jian and that of Ctenopharyngodon idella were close to each other in similarity of 94.76%.For other fishes,the similarity was 94.26%,90.00%,70.53%,70.53%,65.70%,63.90%,63.29%,62.93%,62.38%,62.32%,55.02% with Schizothorax prenanti,Danio rerio,Salmo salar,Oncorhynchus mykiss,Anguilla japonica,Oreochromis Niloticus,Epinephelus coioides,Acanthopagrus schlegelii,Paralichthys olivaceus,Sparus aurata,Takifugu rubripes,respectively.Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that prolactin genes were expressed in the pituitary,brain,liver,kidney,intestines,gonad,spleen and gills.The prolactin transcript was detected at a high level in pituitary,moderate in brain,gills,spleen,liver,kidney and intestines,and low in gonad.This suggests that the pituitary gland is the main expression site of prolactin in Cyprinus carpio var.Jian.The prolactin transcript was detected in the gonads,liver,and spleen suggests that there may exist many physiological functions about prolactin in fish.%为了解催乳素(prolactin,PRL)的基因序列以及在建鲤渗透调节组织中的表达情况,采用同源克隆和末端快速扩增(rapidamplication of cDNA ends,RACE)的方法分离克隆了建鲤(Cyprinuscarpio var.Jian)PRL基因全长cDNA,得到1 028bp的全长cDNA,包括633bp的开放阅读框(ORF),51bp的5′末端非编码区(UTR)以及344bp的3′末端非编码区(UTR)。对该基因序列和

  17. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Lateolabrax japonicus Glucose-6-phosphatase Catalytic Subunit (G6PC) cDNA and Its 5'-flanking Region%鲈鱼6-磷酸葡萄糖酶催化亚基(G6PC)cDNA和5’侧翼序列的克隆及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱云霞; 郑伟贤; 宋娟娟

    2011-01-01

    6-磷酸葡萄糖酶(glucose-6-phosphatase,G6Pase,EC 3.1.3.9)催化6-磷酸葡萄糖水解产生磷酸和葡萄糖,即糖异生途径和糖原分解途径的最后一个限速反应.我们用SMART RACE技术从鲈鱼(Lateolabraxjaponicus)肝脏中克隆了6-磷酸葡萄糖酶催化亚基(glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit,G6PG)基因cDNA序列.该序列全长1651 bp,5’端非翻译区75 bp,3’端非翻译区496 bp,开放阅读框1080bp,可编码一个由359个氨基酸组成的蛋白,该蛋白理论分子量40.45kD、等电点9.30(GenBank登录号:HQ317736.1).氨基酸序列分析表明,鲈鱼G6PC与胡瓜鱼(Osmerus mordax)、翘嘴红鲌(Erythroculter ilishaeformis)、慈鲷(Haplochromis nub ilus)、斑马鱼(Danio rerio)、黑青斑河鲀(Tetraodon nigroviridis)、金头鲷(Sparus aurata)、非洲爪蟾(Xenopus laevis、牛(Bos taurus)、人(Homo sapiens)、小鼠(Mus musculus)及大鼠(Rattus norvegicus)11个物种的同源性达58%以上,其中与胡瓜鱼同源性最高,为85%.RT-PCR分析G6PC基因在鲈鱼肌、心、眼、脑、鳃、肝、肠、肾、脂和脾10个组织中的表达,在肝、肠和肾中有较高的表达,在脑和鳃只有微弱的表达.用基因组步移技术克隆了G6PC基因的5’侧翼区的序列1 243bp,表明该序列含有2个TATA box位点,2个胰岛素作用序列(insulin response sequence,IRS)及C/EBPb、CRE-BP、HNF-3b等潜在的转录因子结合位点.本研究结果表明,鲈鱼G6PC基因在肝、肠和肾中有高表达,其5’侧翼区存在多个转录因子结合位点,该结果为研究G6PC基因的表达调控机制提供了基础资料.%Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, EC3.1.3.9) catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate into glucose, the final step in the gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic pathways. A full-length cDNA of glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6PC) from Lateolabrax japordcus was amplified by SMART RACE method. The cDNA was 1 651 bp in size, with a 75 bp 5'-UTR, 496 bp 3'-UTR and

  18. Aerobic capacity influences the spatial position of individuals within fish schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Killen, Shaun S.; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John Fleng;

    2012-01-01

    of juvenile mullet Liza aurata were filmed at three swim speeds in a swim tunnel, with one focal fish from each school then also measured for standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and maximum aerobic swim speed. At faster speeds, fish with lower MMR and AS swam near...

  19. Fish positions relative to neighbours modulate the hydrodynamic advantages of schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    this by filming individual grey mullet Liza aurata when swimming alone (n=20) and the same fish when swimming in a school (n=20; eight fish per school, with one focal fish in each school) at three swimming speeds in a swim-tunnel. TBF was measured in focal fish swimming to the side of a neighbour, using a range...

  20. Otolith microchemistry: Insights into bioavailable pollutants in a man-made, urban inlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronis, Christina; Evans, Noreen J; McDonald, Bradley J; Nice, Helen E; Gagnon, Marthe Monique

    2017-02-23

    Black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri) were collected from an artificial inlet, Claisebrook Cove, Western Australia. Claisebrook Cove is adjacent to an historic contaminated site that was remediated during the 1990s. It was later identified as a priority area due to elevated levels of sediment contaminants including Zn, Cu, and Pb. Black bream were collected from this cove in 2005 and 2012 and their otoliths were analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry of the most recent growth zone. Levels of Zn and Mn, which are metabolically regulated, did not correlate with sediment contamination. However, reduction in sediment Cu levels over time coincided with reduced Cu otolith levels from 2005 to 2012. Results indicate that the elemental composition of the marginal edge of Black bream otoliths can identify bioavailable contaminants in an urban estuary and, with monitoring, can be utilized to establish long-term trends.

  1. [Characterization of the intestinal digestive glycosidases in plankton- and benthos-feeding species of the fish genus Ballerus (Cyprinidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovanova, I L; Filippov, A A; Bolotovskiĭ, A A; Levin, B A

    2015-01-01

    The activity of hydrolases (maltase, saccharase, amylolytic activity) in the intestinal mucosa of the plankton-feeding zope Ballerus ballerus and the benthos-feeding white-eye bream Ballerus sapa was investigated. The temperature characteristics of maltase hydrolysis (T(opt) and E(act)) are similar in both species. The lower K(m) of maltase hydrolysis in the white-eye bream reflects a higher enzyme/substrate affinity and indicates a more effective carbohydrate hydrolysis in the benthos-versus plankton-feeding species. The glycosidase activity in the white-eye bream is twice as high as in the zope. This may be due not only to different feeding spectra and biochemical food contents but also to the differences in thyroid status of species under consideration.

  2. A dot immunobinding assay (DIA) to detect the exotoxin produced by the pathogenic bacteria of the vibriosis in marine cage-cultured Pagrus major%海水养殖真鲷弧菌病病原菌外毒素的点酶法检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴后波; 潘金培

    2003-01-01

    Vibriosis, caused by Vibrio mimicus, became a major cause of serious economic losses in the farming of red sea bream along the coast of southern China. It has been demonstrated that the pathogenicity of V. mimicus for red sea bream is due to the production of a heat-labile exotoxin. In the present paper, a dot immunobinding assay (DIA) to detect the toxin produced by V. mimicus was developed. The lowest concentration of the toxin the DIA could detect was 0. 025/μg·mL-1 The DIA could detect the toxin in the supernatant of liver and spleen of the diseased red sea bream Pagrus major, even if the supernatant was diluted by 1000 times. It was concluded that the DIA would be useful for rapid and effective detection of the toxin in large samples.

  3. Eléments pour l'identification des restes crâniens des poissons dulçaquicoles de Belgique et du Nord de la France. 2. Cypriniformes

    OpenAIRE

    Libois, Roland; Hallet, Catherine

    1988-01-01

    Outline drawings of the most typical skull bones of 23 Cypriniformes species (dentary, maxillary, pharyngeal bone) are presented. The main distinctive morphological features are summarized into identification keys. Biometrical relationships also computed for eigth common species (Gudgeon, Bleak, Rudd, Roach, Common bream, Carp, Tench and the Stone loach). Peer reviewed

  4. Estimating spawning habitat availability in flooded areas of the river Waal, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Ruizeveld de Winter, A.C.; Straatsma, M.W.; Brink, N.G.M.; Leeuw, de J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fish spawning habitat availability in the river Waal is significantly influenced by seasonal and annual variations in discharge. In this paper we develop habitat suitability models, based on a literature survey of spawning preferences of the commonly occurring species roach (Rutilus rutilus), bream

  5. Match or mismatch: the influence of phenology on size-dependent life history and divergence in population structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherding, Jost; Beeck, Peter; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Scharf, Werner R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary 1. In gape-limited predators, body size asymmetries determine the outcome of predator-prey interactions. Due to ontogenetic changes in body size, the intensity of intra- and interspecific interactions may change rapidly between the match situation of a predator-prey system and the mismatch situation in which competition, including competition with the prey, dominates. 2. Based on a physiologically structured population model using the European perch (Perca fluviatilis), analysis was performed on how prey density (bream, Abramis brama), initial size differences in the young-of-the-year (YOY) age cohort of the predator, and phenology (time-gap in hatching of predator and prey) influence the size structure of the predator cohort. 3. In relation to the seasonality of reproduction, the match situation of the predator-prey system occurred when perch hatched earlier than bream and when no gape-size limitations existed, leading to decreased size divergence in the predator age cohort. Decreased size divergence was also found when bream hatched much earlier than perch, preventing perch predation on bream occurring, which, in turn, increased the competitive interaction of the perch with bream for the common prey, zooplankton; i.e. the mismatch situation in which also the mean size of the age cohort of the predator decreased. 4. In between the total match and the mismatch, however, only the largest individuals of the perch age cohort were able to prey on the bream, while smaller conspecifics got trapped in competition with each other and with bream for zooplankton, leading to enlarged differences in growth that increased size divergence. 5. The modelling results were combined with 7 years of field data in a lake, where large differences in the length-frequency distribution of YOY perch were observed after their first summer. These field data corroborate that phenology and prey density per predator are important mechanisms in determining size differences within the YOY

  6. Biomass and abundance biases in European standard gillnet sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmejkal, Marek; Ricard, Daniel; Prchalová, Marie; Říha, Milan; Muška, Milan; Blabolil, Petr; Čech, Martin; Vašek, Mojmír; Jůza, Tomáš; Monteoliva Herreras, Agustín; Encina, Lourdes; Peterka, Jiří; Kubečka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The European Standard EN 14757 recommends gillnet mesh sizes that range from 5 to 55mm (knot-to-knot) for the standard monitoring of fish assemblages and suggests adding gillnets with larger mesh sizes if necessary. Our research showed that the recommended range of mesh sizes did not provide a representative picture of fish sizes for larger species that commonly occur in continental Europe. We developed a novel, large mesh gillnet which consists of mesh sizes 70, 90, 110 and 135mm (knot to knot, 10m panels) and assessed its added value for monitoring purposes. From selectivity curves obtained by sampling with single mesh size gillnets (11 mesh sizes 6 - 55mm) and large mesh gillnets, we identified the threshold length of bream (Abramis brama) above which this widespread large species was underestimated by European standard gillnet catches. We tested the European Standard gillnet by comparing its size composition with that obtained during concurrent pelagic trawling and purse seining in a cyprinid-dominated reservoir and found that the European Standard underestimated fish larger than 292mm by 26 times. The inclusion of large mesh gillnets in the sampling design removed this underestimation. We analysed the length-age relationship of bream in the Římov Reservoir, and concluded that catches of bream larger than 292mm and older than five years were seriously underrepresented in European Standard gillnet catches. The Římov Reservoir is a typical cyprinid-dominated water body where the biomass of bream > 292mm formed 70% of the pelagic trawl and purse seine catch. The species-specific relationships between the large mesh gillnet catch and European Standard catch suggested that the presence of carp (Cyprinus carpio), European catfish (Silurus glanis), tench (Tinca tinca) or bream warrants the use of both gillnet types. We suggest extending the gillnet series in the European Standard to avoid misinterpretation of fish community biomass estimates.

  7. Biomass and abundance biases in European standard gillnet sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Šmejkal

    Full Text Available The European Standard EN 14757 recommends gillnet mesh sizes that range from 5 to 55mm (knot-to-knot for the standard monitoring of fish assemblages and suggests adding gillnets with larger mesh sizes if necessary. Our research showed that the recommended range of mesh sizes did not provide a representative picture of fish sizes for larger species that commonly occur in continental Europe. We developed a novel, large mesh gillnet which consists of mesh sizes 70, 90, 110 and 135mm (knot to knot, 10m panels and assessed its added value for monitoring purposes. From selectivity curves obtained by sampling with single mesh size gillnets (11 mesh sizes 6 - 55mm and large mesh gillnets, we identified the threshold length of bream (Abramis brama above which this widespread large species was underestimated by European standard gillnet catches. We tested the European Standard gillnet by comparing its size composition with that obtained during concurrent pelagic trawling and purse seining in a cyprinid-dominated reservoir and found that the European Standard underestimated fish larger than 292mm by 26 times. The inclusion of large mesh gillnets in the sampling design removed this underestimation. We analysed the length-age relationship of bream in the Římov Reservoir, and concluded that catches of bream larger than 292mm and older than five years were seriously underrepresented in European Standard gillnet catches. The Římov Reservoir is a typical cyprinid-dominated water body where the biomass of bream > 292mm formed 70% of the pelagic trawl and purse seine catch. The species-specific relationships between the large mesh gillnet catch and European Standard catch suggested that the presence of carp (Cyprinus carpio, European catfish (Silurus glanis, tench (Tinca tinca or bream warrants the use of both gillnet types. We suggest extending the gillnet series in the European Standard to avoid misinterpretation of fish community biomass estimates.

  8. Metazoan parasites of grey mullets (Teleostea: Mugilidae) from the Mistras Lagoon (Sardinia - western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Merella, Paolo; Garippa, Giovanni

    2001-01-01

    A total of 127 specimens of grey mullets (Teleostea: Mugilidae) from the Mistras Lagoon (Sardinia - western Mediterranean) were examined for metazoan parasites. Five species of grey mullets were found: Chelon labrosus, Liza aurata, L. ramada, L. saliens and Mugil cephalus. Forty-one species of parasites were identified: 14 monogeneans, 5 crustaceans, 18 digeneans, 3 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan; 26 of them being reported from Sardinia for the first time. Findings of faunal interest are: Er...

  9. Study of Myxosporea (Myxozoa), infecting worldwide mullets with description of a new species

    OpenAIRE

    Yurakhno, V. M.; Ovcharenko, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Existing data on Myxozoa parasites infecting mullets were reviewed. The validity of nine species names was updated. Sixteen species were registered during analysis of original material collected in the Mediterranean, Black, Azov, and Japan Seas in 2004–2005. A new bivalvulid myxozoan parasite, Myxobolus adeli n. sp., was described from the inner organs of the golden grey mullet Liza aurata (Risso, 1810) collected in the Mediterranean (Ebro Delta, Spain), Black Sea (Kerch Strait, Ukraine), and...

  10. InxAl1-xN chiral nanorods mimicking the polarization features of scarab beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, R.; Birch, J.; Hsiao, C.-L.; Sandström, P.; Arwin, H.; Järrendahl, K.

    2015-03-01

    The scarab beetle Cetonia aurata is known to reflect light with brilliant colors and a high degree of circular polarization. Both color and polarization effects originate from the beetles exoskeleton and have been attributed to a Bragg reflection of the incident light due to a twisted laminar structure. Our strategy for mimicking the optical properties of the Cetonia aurata was therefore to design and fabricate transparent, chiral films. A series of films with tailored transparent structures of helicoidal InxAl1-xN nanorods were grown on sapphire substrates using UHV magnetron sputtering. The value of x is tailored to gradually decrease from one side to the other in each nanorod normal to its growth direction. This introduces an in-plane anisotropy with different refractive indices in the direction of the gradient and perpendicular to it. By rotating the sample during film growth the in-plane optical axis will be rotated from bottom to top and thereby creating a chiral film. Based on Muellermatrix ellipsometry, optical modeling has been done suggesting that both the exoskeleton of Cetonia aurata and our artificial material can be modeled by an anisotropic film made up of a stack of thin layers, each one with its in-plane optical axis slightly rotated with respect to the previous layer. Simulations based on the optical modeling were used to investigate how pitch and thickness of the film together with the optical properties of the constitutive materials affects the width and spectral position of the Bragg reflection band.

  11. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jepsen, Niels; Baktoft, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tags to explore species-and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm) in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama) and perch...... (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging...... of fish in Lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear...

  12. Physiological and ecological factors influencing the radiocaesium contamination of fish species from Kiev reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulikov, A.O. [A.N. Severtzov Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Ecology of Animals, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-23

    The monitoring of {sup 137}Cs contamination of fish from the northern part of the Kiev reservoir between 1987 and 1992 indicated systematic differences in the long-term average contamination levels of different species, which are closely related to their trophic levels. The average contamination of the predatory species: perch (Perca fluviatilis) and pike (Esox lucius) were roughly factors of 6.3 and 4.4 respectively, higher than those of the nonpredatory species: bream (Abramis brama), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophothalmus). For tench (Tinca tinca) and goldfish (Carassius sp.), this factor is 2. The solution of the caesium balance equation in fish obtained for equilibrium conditions, which is applicable to the long-term contamination, provides some explanations for these accumulation differences between the species with respect to influences by different ecological and physiological factors.

  13. Commercial and game fish from the Dąbie lake (Poland and their infection of Paracoenogonimus ovatus (Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Anna Linowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Paracoenogonimus ovatus is the parasite that infest wide definitive host range (predator birds and at least two intermediate hosts: molluscs (Viviparus viviparus, V. fasciatus and freshwater fish from eastern and central Europe. The larvae of the parasite (metacercariae go to the muscle and connective tissue, and at high intensity of infection to the internal organs and brain of fish. A total of 128 fishes were caught in autumn 2009 and 2014, by fishing boats operating in Lake Dąbie, which is one of the largest lakes in Poland. The species selected reflect the species structure of commercial and recreational catches. They were roach, bream, silver bream, crucian carp (Cyprinidae, ruffe, perch, zander (Percidae and pike (Esocidae. The fish were filleted, and the skinned muscle was compressed under a trichinoscope, what allowed to see and count metacercariae in the tissues. To facilitate parasite isolation from the cysts, the muscle tissues were subjected to a 0.1 % solution of activated pepsin and 5 % citric acid at a temperature of 20ºC. The free larvae were measured and identified under an Olympus BX 50 microscope coupled with a camera running AxioVs40 V 4.8.2.0 software. Metacercariae are grouped primarily at depths ranging from just beneath the skin to about 50% of fillet thickness. The infection prevalence of P. ovatus metacercariae in the fish analyzed was 78,5%. The density of infection per gram of muscle tissue mass in the fish infected was 8.85 (from 1 to 84 metacercariae. The highest density was noted in roach, bream and white bream (17.09, 11.14 and 9.58, respectively. Metacercariae occurred singly in pike, parasites were not found in the muscles of crucian carp, ruffe, and perch examined. The reason for such differences in infection is the availability and composition of food, as well as the behavior of the fish examined.

  14. Identification of estrogenic compounds in fish bile using bioassay-directed fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Corine J; Van Oostveen, Annemiek M; Brouwer, Abraham; Lamoree, Marja H; Legler, Juliette

    2004-12-01

    Conjugates of estrogenic chemicals, endogenous as well as xenobiotic, are mainly excreted via bile into the intestine. Therefore, measurement of estrogenic activity in bile yields useful information about an organism's internal exposure to (xeno-)estrogens. Although previous studies in The Netherlands have reported estrogenic activity in male fish bile, the contribution of natural hormones and xenobiotic substances to this activity is unknown. To identify compounds responsible for estrogenic activity in fish bile, we developed a bioassay-directed fractionation method for estrogenic chemicals. In this approach, the in vitro reporter gene assay ER-CALUX (Estrogen Responsive Chemical Activated Luciferase Gene Expression) was used to assess estrogenic activity in deconjugated bile samples and to direct RP-HPLC fractionation and chemical analysis (by GC-MS) of estrogenic compounds. The method was applied to bile from male breams (Abramis brama) collected at three locations in The Netherlands. At one of these locations, the River Dommel, extremely high levels of plasma vitellogenin and a high incidence of intersex gonads in these male breams have previously been observed, indicating the exposure to estrogens. In this study, the natural hormones 17beta-estradiol, estrone, and estriol accounted for the majority of estrogenic activity in male bream bile. At the River Dommel, the synthetic contraceptive pill component ethynylestradiol was found in effective concentrations as well. The detected natural and synthetic hormones may be responsible forthe estrogenic effects observed in wild bream from this location. Furthermore, a large number of xenobiotic chemicals was detected at relatively high levels in bile, including triclosan, chloroxylenol, and clorophene. Although chloroxylenol was shown for the first time to be weakly estrogenic, these compounds did not contribute significantly to the estrogenic activity observed.

  15. Progress in live food production and use in fish and shellfish hatcheries

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgeloos, P

    1998-01-01

    Different species of microalgae, the rotifer, Brachionus spp., and the brine shrimp, Artemia spp., are essential live food in the farming of several species of molluscs (e.g. oyster, clam, scallop), crustaceans (e.g. marine shrimp, freshwater prawn, crabs) and fish (e.g. bass, bream, grouper, turbot, flounder, halibut, ayu). A brief overview is given of the latest developments in their production and use in industrial hatcheries.

  16. A notable Ichthyological find in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U de V. Pienaar

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available A notable ichthyological find has been made in the Kruger National Park with the recording, during April 1970, of a specimen of the marine fish, Acanthopagrus berda Forskal near the confluence of the Crocodile and Komati Rivers. This is the first record of the River or Mud Bream within the fresh water river system of the Transvaal and also the furthest point inland that this fish has been collected.

  17. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE EVIDENCE OF VIRUS INFECTION IN CULTURED MARINE FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Electron microscope investigation on the red sea bream (Pagrosomus major), bastard halibut (Paralichthys olivaceus) and stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus) in North China revealed virus infection in the bodies of the dead and diseased fish. These viruses included the lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), parvovirus, globular virus, and a kind of baculavirus which was not discovered and reported before and is now tentatively named baculavirus of stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus).

  18. Plasma biomarkers in fish provide evidence for endocrine modulation in the Elbe River, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Markus; Tyler, Charles R; Hoffmann, Mervée; Maddix, Sue; Karbe, Ludwig

    2002-06-01

    Blood plasma samples were collected from wild bream (Abramis brama L.) in the Elbe River, Germany, and analyzed for the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (VTG), a biomarker for estrogen exposure, and the sex steroids 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), testosterone (T), and 17beta-estradiol (E2) to investigate for evidence of endocrine modulation. In addition, the gonadal status and the prominence of spawning tubercles were investigated. Nine riverine sites were investigated on the Elbe that were influenced by different sources of endocrine-active substances. Bream were collected from a lake that received no domestic or industrial discharges as a control. Plasma VTG concentrations were significantly higher in male bream from the Czech border to the middle Elbe, with the highest concentrations in fish sampled at the locations near Magdeburg and downstream of Dresden (between 20 and 100 times higher than in the controls), regions that are characterized by high levels of effluent discharges into the river. Following the Elbe from this site to the sea, the concentrations of plasma VTG in males were lower than at Meissen but were still elevated above the controls. 11KT and E2 titers showed suppressions in their normal concentrations at some locations (those receiving the greatest industrial discharges). There were reciprocal relationships between inhibitory effects on gonadal growth, maturation, and plasma sex steroids and exposure to pollutants, such as organotins, pesticides, or metals. However, there was no single chemical that alone could explain the observed inhibitory effects on sexual development. The results indicate that the endocrine system in wild bream is disrupted in stretches of the Elbe River.

  19. Study on food preservation by irradiation of agricultural and marine products from Cheju island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.H.; Choung, C.C.; Cho, H.O. (Jeju Univ. (Republic of Korea))

    1984-01-01

    Salted dry yellow sea bream were vaccum packed in a plastic bags and irradiated at differents levels (0,0.5,1.0,1.5, and 2.0 Mrad) using sup(60)Co source. The irradiated samples were stored at room temperature 5degC. Physical and chemical properties were examined during storage. The total bacterial count was depressed according to level of irradiation applied. It was noted that cold storage after irradiation was more effective than room temperature. TMA contents slowly increased with higher dosage rates up to 1.5 Mrad but there was a gradual decrease of TMA at the 2.0 Mrad level. It was observed that there was a rapid decrease of TMAO 20 days after irradiation irrespective of storage temperature. The reduction of total nitrogen content was highest in the control but to a lesser degree when irradiation was applied. VBN content increased in all treatments 30 days after irradiation but it was also noted that there was a tendency toward depression of VBN by irradiation. The shelf life of salted dry sea bream was extended by 20 days with irradiation plus room temperature, and by 40 days with irradiation plus cold storage. To extend shelf life of salted dry sea bream, the most effective dosage rate was 1.0 Mrad based on tenderness, bacterial count and rancidity.

  20. Profenofos residues in wild fish from cotton-growing areas of New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Chapman, J C

    2001-01-01

    The organophosphorus (OP) pesticide profenofos (O-4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate) is used heavily in cotton-growing areas of eastern Australia toward the end of the growing season. European carp (Cyprinus carpio), bony bream (Nematalosa erebi), and mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were collected from the cotton-growing areas around Wee Waa, New South Wales, to determine the relationship between profenofos residues and acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity in wild fish. Profenofos concentrations in water, sediment, and fish tissue reflected its general level of use; levels in March 1994 were significantly higher than in 1993 and generally decreased in May, 6 wk after cessation of spraying. Residues in carp and bony bream generally correlated with concentrations in water and sediment, although residues in fish tend to persist longer at some sites. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was a useful indicator of profenofos exposure within a season, particularly if linked with residue measurements. Bony bream and gravid female mosquitofish recovered AChE levels more slowly than carp or nongravid mosquitofish. Recovery in creeks was generally more rapid than in lagoons.

  1. Trophic interaction between topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva and the co-occurring species during summer in the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didenko A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topmouth gudgeon, Pseudorasbora parva is the most common invasive fish in Europe, which can compete with the juveniles of valuable commercial fishes. The goal of this work is to study the diet of topmouth gudgeon and trophic relationships with some native fishes inhabiting the littoral zone of the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir. The obtained relatively low values of diet overlaps between topmouth gudgeon and other co-occurring cyprinids such as juvenile roach, Rutilus rutilus; silver bream, Blicca bjoerkna; rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus; Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and bleak, Abramis brama, indicate that it is not a serious food competitor for them, especially commercially valuable ones. On the contrary, high diet overlaps were observed among some native cyprinids such as juvenile roach, silver bream, rudd, and bleak. The major prey items of topmouth gudgeon were Chydorus sphaericus and chironomids, whereas other cyprinids selected Bosmina spp. This peculiarity may be due to different vertical distributions of these fish in the littoral zone of the reservoir, where topmouth gudgeon inhabit near-bottom water layers, where they preyed on near-bottom and benthic zooplankters and chironomids, while juvenile roach, silver bream, rudd, and juvenile and adult bleak live in higher water layers, where they preyed on pelagic zooplankton.

  2. Who Is Who: An Anomalous Predator-Prey Role Exchange between Cyprinids and Perch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Vejřík

    Full Text Available Piscivory in cyprinids (Cyprinidae is extremely rare. Specifically, common bream (Abramis brama and common carp (Cyprinus carpio are zooplanktivorous fish in deep lentic waters. Nevertheless, we observed predation by these two cyprinids under natural conditions in the Vír Reservoir, Czech Republic. We conducted diet analysis for cyprinids caught by trawling and gillnets and the large amount of young-of-the-year (YOY perch (Perca fluviatilis, with sizes of 37-52 mm standard length, were found in their digestive tracts. In 2010, a large amount of YOY perch caused a significant decrease in Daphnia spp. size and abundance in the reservoir. Hence, a food deficit was induced for the cyprinids, apparent also from the poor nutritional condition of common bream which was much worse than the condition of those in similar reservoirs. Common carp and common bream shifted to forced piscivory, and they utilized the YOY perch as an alternative food source. In contrast, smaller species, such as roach (Rutilus rutilus and bleak (Alburnus alburnus, widely utilized planktonic cyanobacteria. In the following year, YOY perch occurred in significantly lower numbers and conversely, Daphnia spp. size and abundance were significantly higher. The forced piscivory was not observed. Our results indicate a switch to forced piscivory by cyprinids, which was caused by a shortage of their natural food source. Moreover, this phenomenon presents an effective mechanism for reduction in the numbers of YOY perch, ensuring the stability of the ecosystem.

  3. Fish fauna of the lower reaches of the River Drava and surrounding marshland habitats near Donji Miholjac (Eastern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ćaleta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field research of ichthyofauna of the lower reaches of the River Drava near Donji Miholjac was made during 2006 using fishing nets and electrofisher. Additional data was collected from the local anglers to present all caught species in this area. Sampling was conducted on all types of water habitats including side arms, artificial channels, backwater arms and the main river channel. A total of 44 fish species were reported. Six species were documented from the catch of local anglers. The family Cyprinidae is represented by 24 species, Percidae by 4, Cobitidae by 3, Gobiidae and Centrarchidae by 2, while the remaining families were represented by 1 species. The most abundant species in this part of the River Drava is roach (Rutilus rutilus. The largest part of total biomass belongs to bream (Abramis brama. Other important species according to abundance in the examined area are: bitterling (Rhodeus amarus, European perch (Perca fluviatilis, silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna and common bleak (Alburnus alburnus. According to the ichthyofauna composition, the explored area is classified as a typical bream zone which is characteristic for the lower part of the river.

  4. Thynnascaris rhacodes sp. n. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) in fishes from the Israeli Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, T L; Overstreet, R M

    1978-01-01

    Thynnascaris rhacodes sp. n. infects Pelates quadrilineatus, Solea vulgaris, Boops boops, Lithognathus mormyrus, Obleida melanura, Diplodus vulgaris, D. sargus, and Sparus auratus from the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Unique in that the cuticle on the female tail is wrinkled, the ascaridoid is further characterized by possessing 27 to 35 precloacal papillae, a body length of 11 to 85 mm, similar spicules 3 to 6% of body length, a length-ratio of intestinal cecum to ventricular appendage of 1 : 1 to 5, and lips longer than wide.

  5. Trophic shift in young-of-the-year mullets during salt marsh colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Lebreton, B.; Richard, P.; Guillou, G.; Blanchard, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This study investigated the trophic shift of young-of-the-year (YoY) thinlip grey mullets Liza ramada and golden grey mullets Liza aurata during their recruitment in a salt marsh located on the European Atlantic coast. Stable isotope signatures (δ13C and δ15N) of the fishes followed a pattern, with enrichments in 13C and 15N to increasing length: δ13C in fishes 30 mm δ13C ranged from -15.8 to -12.7‰, closer to th...

  6. BIOACCUMULATION OF COPPER, ZINC, MANGAN, IRON AND MAGNESIUM IN SOME ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT FISH FROM THE WESTERN SHORES OF ANTALYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazim UYSAL

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioaccumulation of copper, zinc, manganese, iron and magnesium which generaly result from agricultural activities was determined in muscle, skin and gills of some economically important sea fish(Diplodus sargus, Siganus rivulatus, Lithognathus mormyrus, Liza aurata, Chelon labrasus from the western shores of Antalya, intensive agricultural regions. The minimum and maximum levels of investigated elements (mg kg-1 wet weight in tissues of the fish varied from 0.54 to1.69 for copper; from 4.14 to 407.23 for zinc from 0.15 to 9.17 for mangan; from 3.45 to104.49 for iron; and from 204.33 to 784.30 for magnesium. While the lowest levels of elements were determined in the muscle, the highest levels (except copper were encountered in the gills. Copper and zinc levels in muscle of the species were remarkably lower than the maximum permissible levels informed by World Health Organization (WHO, Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO and Turkish Legislation although zinc contents in the skin of some species (D. sargus, S. rivulatus, L. mormyrus and L. aurata were higher than that levels.

  7. Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships in grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae) based on PCR-RFLP analysis of mtDNA segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasotiropoulos, V; Klossa-Kilia, E; Kilias, G; Alahiotis, S

    2002-04-01

    The genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships among five species of the Mugilidae family (Mugil cephalus, Chelon labrosus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, and Liza saliens) were investigated at the mtDNA level, on samples taken from Messolongi lagoon-Greece. RFLP analysis of three PCR-amplified mtDNA gene segments (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I) was used. Ten, eight, and nine restriction enzymes were found to have at least one recognition site at 12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I genes, respectively. Several fragment patterns were revealed to be species-specific, and thus they could be useful in species taxonomy as diagnostic markers, as well as for further evolutionary studies. Seven different haplotypes were detected. The greatest amount of genetic differentiation was observed at the interspecific level, while little variation was revealed at the intraspecific level. The highest values of nucleotide sequence divergence were observed between M. cephalus and all the other species, while the lowest was found between C. labrosus and L. saliens. Dendrograms obtained by the three different methods (UPGMA, Neighbor-Joining, and Dollo parsimony), were found to exhibit in all cases the same topology. According to this, the most distinct species is M. cephalus, while the other species are clustered in two separate groups, thefirst one containing L. aurata and L. ramada, the other L. saliens and C. labrosus. This last clustering makes the monophyletic origin of the genus Liza questionable.

  8. Assessment of heavy metal contamination levels and toxicity in sediments and fishes from the Mediterranean Sea (southern coast of Sfax, Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohra, Ben Salem; Habib, Ayadi

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of heavy metals in sediment is regarded as a global crisis with a large share in industrializing cities like Sfax (Tunisia). Seven heavy metals such as Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn), and one metalloid such as Arsenic (As) in sediments and fish (D. annularis, L. aurata, and S. vulgaris) were investigated from the Southern coast of Sfax in Tunisia. The range of metals in sediments were 13.11-36; 4.42-7.92; 8.23-28.56; 50,564-11,956; 2.9-6.8; 9.13-30.51; 65.06-151.50, and 47-546 kg(-1) DW for As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The level of studied metals in sediment samples exceeded the limits of the quality assessment guidelines (SQGs). The potential ecological risk index (PERI) proved that the investigated region could pose moderate risk for the aquatic biota. Metal bioaccumulation in the fish muscles varied significantly among species. Indeed, S. vulgaris and D. annularis accumulated higher amount of metal than L. aurata. The target hazard quotients (THQ) of individual heavy metals in fish, except for As and Hg, revealed safe levels for human consumption. Nevertheless, the total THQ indexes exceeded 1 suggesting the combined effects on muscles fish, which may constitute a risk to population's health.

  9. Phylogeny of Trachylepis sp. (Reptilia) from Turkey inferred from mtDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Ozgür; Candan, Kamil; Kankiliç, Tolga; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Durmuş, Salih Hakan; Poulakakis, Nikos; Ilgaz, Cetin

    2014-12-01

    The taxonomic status of the species included into the genus Trachylepis in Turkey are doubtful. So far, three morphological species have been attributed to this genus in Turkey; Trachylepis aurata. T. vittata, and T. septemtaeniata. Here, we investigated the taxonomy of the Turkish Trachylepis species by employing phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches and using mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b and 12 S rRNA). In total, 45 Trachylepis and 6 Mabuya specimens were used analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out using Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) methods. The phylogenetic relationships and the genetic distances retrieved, revealed that the Turkish species, which currently recognized as Trachylepis, are highly diversified, forming a distinct clade that shows closer phylogenetic affinity with the species of the genus Mabuya rather than the other Trachylepis species. In this clade, the three Turkish species are monophyletic with T. vittata to branch off first in late Miocene (10.54 Mya). The other two species (T. septemtaeniata and T. aurata) seem to have sister group relationship that diverged at the end of Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.27 Mya). As a whole, the examination of mtDNA lineages in the Turkish lizards of the genus Trachylepis may contribute substantially to the refining of their taxonomic status, since the three species of Turkey, although monophyletic, represent a distinct radiation that would could probably recognized as a different genus in Mabuya sensu lato.

  10. Predator diversity and density affect levels of predation upon strongly interactive species in temperate rocky reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    Indirect effects of predators in the classic trophic cascade theory involve the effects of basal species (e.g. primary producers) mediated by predation upon strongly interactive consumers (e.g. grazers). The diversity and density of predators, and the way in which they interact, determine whether and how the effects of different predators on prey combine. Intraguild predation, for instance, was observed to dampen the effects of predators on prey in many ecosystems. In marine systems, species at high trophic levels are particularly susceptible to extinction (at least functionally). The loss of such species, which is mainly attributed to human activities (mostly fishing), is presently decreasing the diversity of marine predators in many areas of the world. Experimental studies that manipulate predator diversity and investigate the effects of this on strongly interactive consumers (i.e. those potentially capable of causing community-wide effects) in marine systems are scant, especially in the rocky sublittoral. I established an experiment that utilised cage enclosures to test whether the diversity and density of fish predators (two sea breams and two wrasses) would affect predation upon juvenile and adult sea urchins, the most important grazers in Mediterranean sublittoral rocky reefs. Changes in species identity (with sea breams producing major effects) and density of predators affected predation upon sea urchins more than changes in species richness per se. Predation upon adult sea urchins decreased in the presence of multiple predators, probably due to interference competition between sea breams and wrasses. This study suggests that factors that influence both fish predator diversity and density in Mediterranean rocky reefs (e.g. fishing and climate change) may have the potential to affect the predators' ability to control sea urchin population density, with possible repercussions for the whole benthic community structure.

  11. Concentration of mercury in muscles of predatory and non-predatory fish from lake Pluszne (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczyńska Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study examined the concentration of total mercury and correlation coefficients between fish size or FCF (condition factor and the content of Hg in muscle tissue of six freshwater fish: bream (Abramis brama L., roach (Rutilus rutilus L., whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L., vendace (Coregonus albula L., perch (Perca fluviatilis L., and pike (Esox lucius L.. Material and Methods: The fish were caught from the Lake Pluszne located in the Olsztyn Lake District (Poland. Mercury was analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry using Milestone DMA-80 (with dual-cell. Results: The content of the element in the muscles of the examined fish was as follows: pike (0.197 mg/kg ≈ perch (0.173 mg/kg > vendace (0.114 mg/kg ≈ roach (0.095 mg/kg and roach ≈ whitefish (0.065 mg/kg, and whitefish ≈ bream (0.042 mg/kg (p ≤ 0.05. In all cases, the content of mercury correlated positively with the body weight and total length of the fish. Only the correlation coefficients between mercury concentration and weight or length of bream were slightly higher (0.979 and 0.977 respectively, p ≤ 0.001. The length and weight relationship of the fish was also determined. Conclusion: The results showed that the levels of mercury were lower than the maximum acceptable limit established by the Commission Regulation (EC No 629/2008 of 2 July 2008. Thus, they are safe from consumer health point of view.

  12. Morphological polymorphism in tapeworms: redescription of Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) and characterisation of its morphotypes from different fish hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Oros, Mikuláš; Barčák, Daniel; Miklisová, Dana; Kirin, Diana; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-02-01

    Recent morphological and molecular data have shown that one of the most common parasites of freshwater fish in the Palaearctic Region, the cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Eucestoda: Caryophyllidea), is highly polymorphic. Five distinct morphotypes of C. laticeps, largely corresponding to different fish hosts and representing separate, yet closely related genetic lineages, have been recognised and they are characterised in the present paper. Morphotype 1 from breams, Abramis brama (L.) (type-host) and Ballerus spp., corresponds to the original Taenia laticeps Pallas, 1781 and its neotype (paragenophore ex A. brama in Russia) is designated. This morphotype is characterised by a slender body and flabellate scolex. Morphotype 2 was found in the Macedonian vimba Vimba melanops (Heckel) and the vimba bream V. vimba (L.); it is typified by a more robust body, with most anterior extent of the vitelline follicles near the scolex and the cirrus-sac situated more anteriorly than in other morphotypes. Morphotype 3 is represented by worms from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. that possess a cuneicrispitate scolex (having the form of a wedge with shallow indentations on anterior margin). Morphotype 4 from the common nase Chondrostoma nasus (L.) has a large, robust body and a wide scolex with numerous superficial grooves (wrinkles) in its anterior part. Morphotype 5 is represented by worms from the white-eye bream Ballerus sapa (Pallas); its typical characteristics are a festoon-like anterior margin of the scolex, the absence of vitelline follicles posterior to the cirrus-sac and the absence of a well-developed internal seminal vesicle. Discriminant analysis of 15 morphometric variables readily separated Morphotypes 3, 4 and 5 and confirmed the key discriminating power of traits related to the reproductive system, especially the terminal reproductive organs. Morphological polymorphism and the genetic divergence of different morphotypes of C. laticeps correspond

  13. Megalocytiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Nakajima

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Megalocytivirus, represented by red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV, the first identified and one of the best characterized megalocytiviruses, Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, the type species of the genus, and numerous other isolates, is the newest genus within the family Iridoviridae. Viruses within this genus are causative agents of severe disease accompanied by high mortality in multiple species of marine and freshwater fish. To date outbreaks of megalocytivirus-induced disease have occurred primarily in south-east Asia and Japan, but infections have been detected in Australia and North America following the importation of infected ornamental fish. The first outbreak of megalocytiviral disease was recorded in cultured red sea bream (Pagrus major in Japan in 1990 and was designated red sea bream iridovirus disease (RSIVD. Following infection fish became lethargic and exhibited severe anemia, petechiae of the gills, and enlargement of the spleen. Although RSIV was identified as an iridovirus, sequence analyses of RSIV genes revealed that the virus did not belong to any of the four known genera within the family Iridoviridae. Thus a new, fifth genus was established and designated Megalocytivirus to reflect the characteristic presence of enlarged basophilic cells within infected organs. Indirect immunofluorescence tests employing recently generated monoclonal antibodies and PCR assays are currently used in the rapid diagnosis of RSIVD. For disease control, a formalin-killed vaccine was developed and is now commercially available in Japan for several fish species. Following the identification of RSIV, markedly similar viruses such as infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, dwarf gourami iridovirus (DGIV, turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV, Taiwan grouper iridovirus (TGIV, and rock bream iridovirus (RBIV were isolated in East and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analyses of the major capsid protein (MCP and

  14. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-07-26

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  15. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV. To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  16. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario. PMID:27472337

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOZYME PATTERN AND MORPHOLOGY OF THREE MARINE FISH CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华荣; 张士璀; 李红岩; 童裳亮; 相建海

    2002-01-01

    Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i. e., Hounder Gill) from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i. e. , Sea Perch Heart) from sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these three cell lines and their corresponding tissues of origin were investigated and compared. The results showed: (1) No difference was found in the LDH isozyme patterns of FG and flounder gill tissue. However, the LDH isozyme patterns of SPH and RSBF were significantly different from their corresponding tissues of origin; (2) LDH isozyme patterns of FG, SPH and RSBF were markedly different from each other and could serve as genetic markers for species identification and detection of cross contamination. Morphological change analysis of these three cell lines in comparison to their original tissues indicated that FG cells still appeared epithelioid without morphological transformation. However, morphological changes were found in SPH and RSBF compared to their original tissues. Therefore, the cellular morphology was still plastic in the relatively stable culture conditions, and it was possible that change of LDH patterns wasrelated to morphological changes of fish cells in vitro.

  18. Hepcidin gene expression induced in the developmental stages of fish upon exposure to Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Jian; Bo, Jun; Yang, Ming; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Wang, Xin-Hong; Chen, Fang-Yi; Yuan, Jian-Jun

    2009-04-01

    Hepcidin is known to be expressed in fish with bacterial challenge and iron overload. Here we first report the hepcidin expression induced in the developmental stages from embryo to fry of red sea bream (Pagarus major) and in juvenile black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegelii B.) upon continuous waterborne exposure to BaP. The gene expression of CYP1A1 and IgL (immunoglobulin light chain) were both measured. Expression of the Pagarus major hepcidin gene (PM-hepc) was increased in post hatch fry at 24 h and 120 h exposure to BaP at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 microg/l, respectively. The gene expression pattern was comparable to that of CYP1A1 but different from that of IgL. In addition, a high number of AS-hepc2 transcripts (Acanthopagrus schlegelii B. hepcidin gene) were detected in the liver upon exposure to 1.0 microg/l BaP. This study demonstrates that hepcidin gene expression is significantly induced in BaP-exposed red sea bream and black porgy.

  19. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in five species of fish from three sites in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Doush, Inaam

    2002-06-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrmetroic (GC-MS) method was developed to measure six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 54 fish samples. Five fish species highly consumed by the local population (shrimps, Emperors, Rabbitfish, Doublebar Bream and Greasy Grouper) were selected from three different sites on the Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia where agricultural, municipal and petroleum industry activities take place. Variations in PAH levels among the three sites were not significant. Total concentrations of PAHs benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene ranged from non-detectable to 44.9 microg kg(-1). In this study, concentrations of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and total PAHs greater than the acceptable tolerance limit (1 microg kg(-1)) were found in 68.5, 40.7, 51.9 and 83.3% of the fish samples, respectively. PAH contents in fish vary considerably with species; Doublebar bream contain the highest while shrimps contain the lowest. This pilot study clearly shows that the consumption of fish could be a source of exposure of the local population to PAHs. Since there is a consensus on the substantial contribution of PAHs to cancer in humans, it would be interesting to conduct further research in order to determine the magnitude of the problem along other coastal regions of Saudi Arabia.

  20. Bioaccumulation of six PCB indicator congeners in a heavily polluted water reservoir in Eastern Slovakia: tissue-specific distribution in fish and their parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázová, Tímea; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of six indicator PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) were measured in several organs and adipose tissue of a freshwater predatory fishes (European perch, northern pike, pike perch, wels catfish) as well as in nonpredators (common carp, freshwater bream, goldfish, white bream) and in acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii from the water reservoir Zemplínska šírava (Eastern Slovakia), which is considered to be one of the most PCB-contaminated places in Europe. Concentration of PCBs was determined by capillary gas chromatography in samples from May to September 2009. The two-way main-effect ANOVA confirmed that feeding habits of fish (P kidney, brain, and adipose tissue of their host. About 20 times lower amount of PCBs was detected in the liver and almost 3 times in muscles of infected perch. Data on PCB accumulation in perch infected with acanthocephalans demonstrated a decline of PCB values in all organs as well as in adipose tissue compared to noninfected fish. About 20 times lower amount of PCBs was detected in the liver and almost 3 times in muscles of infected perch. Present results could indicate that some parasitic organisms may influence positively their hosts in PCB-contaminated environment.

  1. In vitro biomonitoring in polar extracts of solid phase matrices reveals the presence of unknown compounds with estrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, J; Leonards, P; Spenkelink, A; Murk, A J

    2003-01-01

    Determination of estrogenic activity has so far mainly concentrated on the assessment of compounds in surface water and effluent. This study is one of the first to biomonitor (xeno-)estrogens in sediment, suspended particulate matter and aquatic organisms. The relatively polar acetone extracts from these solid phase matrices do not contain the well-known estrogenic compounds such as hormones, alkylphenols and phthalates. An in vitro 'estrogen receptor-mediated chemical activated luciferase gene expression' (ER-CALUX) assay was applied to samples from various locations in the Netherlands. Estrogenic activity measured in polar fractions of particulate matter and sediment extracts ranged from below detection limit to up to 4.5 pmol estradiol equivalents (EEQ)/g dry weight. Estrogenic activity in freshwater river sediments was up to five times higher compared to sediments from large lakes and coastal locations. Tissue extracts EEQs were determined in bream (Abramis brama), flounder (Platichthysflesus), freshwater mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and marine mussels (Mytilus edulis). The highest biota EEQ levels were found in the freshwater zebra mussel (30 pmol EEQ/g lipid). One sample site showed greatly elevated EEQs in sediment and biota, which correlated with effects found in the wild populations of bream. The EEQ activity of the unknown compounds in the polar fraction mostly was much higher than the calculated EEQ levels based on known estrogens in the non-polar fraction (previously published data).

  2. POP levels in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and edible fish from the eastern Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Serkan; Pazi, Idil

    2017-01-01

    Organochlorinated pesticides and Aroclors were measured in the muscle of two edible fish species (gray mullet, sea bream) and blue crab, collected from eastern Mediterranean coast in 2013. The concentration of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and Aroclors in biota samples which were collected at six sites ranged from 1.0-8.6 and 9-47.5 ng g(-1) wet weight, respectively. Total DDT concentrations in seafood samples were compared to tolerance level established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA); the concentrations were detected below the tolerence level. Health risk assessment was conducted related to the consumption of chemically contaminated seafood. The estimated daily intake of OCPs calculated by using the estimated daily fish consumption in Turkey was far below the acceptable daily intake as established by FAO/WHO. Our data indicated that consumption of blue crab, gray mullet, and sea bream collected from the Mediterranean coast of Turkey could pose "no risk" for human health in terms of OCPs.

  3. Marine genetic swamping: hybrids replace an obligately estuarine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David G; Gray, Charles A; West, Ronald J; Ayre, David J

    2010-02-01

    Populations of obligately estuarine taxa are potentially small and isolated and may lack genetic variation and display regional differentiation as a result of drift and inbreeding. Hybridization with a wide-ranging marine congener should introduce genetic variation and reduce the effects of inbreeding depression and genetic drift. However, high levels of hybridization can cause demographic and genetic swamping. In southeastern Australia hybridization occurs between obligately estuarine Black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri) and migratory marine Yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus australis). Here, we surveyed genetic variation at eight microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region of juvenile fish from five coastal lagoons (including temporal replication in two lagoons) (total n = 970) to determine the frequency and persistence of hybridization, and its likely consequence for the estuarine restricted A. butcheri. Of 688 juvenile fish genotyped 95% were either A. australis (347) or hybrids (309); only 5% (32) were A. butcheri. Most hybrids were later generation hybrids or A. butcheri backcrosses, which are likely multi-generational residents within lagoons. Far greater proportions of hybrid juveniles were found within two lagoons that are generally closed to the ocean (>90% hybrid fish within generally closed lagoons vs. 12-27% in permanently or intermittently open lagoons). In both lagoons, this was consistent across multiple cohorts of fish [79-97% hybrid fish (n = 282)]. Hybridization and introgression represent a major threat to the persistence of A. butcheri and have yet to be investigated for large numbers of estuarine taxa.

  4. Sex change and effective population size: implications for population genetic studies in marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, I; Chopelet, J; Waples, R S; Mann, B Q; Mariani, S

    2016-10-01

    Large variance in reproductive success is the primary factor that reduces effective population size (Ne) in natural populations. In sequentially hermaphroditic (sex-changing) fish, the sex ratio is typically skewed and biased towards the 'first' sex, while reproductive success increases considerably after sex change. Therefore, sex-changing fish populations are theoretically expected to have lower Ne than gonochorists (separate sexes), assuming all other parameters are essentially equal. In this study, we estimate Ne from genetic data collected from two ecologically similar species living along the eastern coast of South Africa: one gonochoristic, the 'santer' sea bream Cheimerius nufar, and one protogynous (female-first) sex changer, the 'slinger' sea bream Chrysoblephus puniceus. For both species, no evidence of genetic structuring, nor significant variation in genetic diversity, was found in the study area. Estimates of contemporary Ne were significantly lower in the protogynous species, but the same pattern was not apparent over historical timescales. Overall, our results show that sequential hermaphroditism may affect Ne differently over varying time frames, and that demographic signatures inferred from genetic markers with different inheritance modes also need to be interpreted cautiously, in relation to sex-changing life histories.

  5. Molecular characterization of carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA in Megalobrama amblycephala and effects on its expression of feeding status and dietary lipid and berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kang-Le; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Wang, Li-Na; Xu, Wei-Na; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I, EC 2.3.1.21) controls the main regulatory step of fatty acid oxidation, and hence studies of its molecular characterization are useful to understand lipid metabolism in cultured fish. Here, a full-length cDNA coding CPT I was cloned from liver of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. This cDNA obtained covered 2499bp with an open reading frame of 2181bp encoding 726 amino acids. This CPT I mRNA predominantly expressed in heart and white muscle, while little in eye and spleen. The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of sequence alignments among several vertebrate species suggests that this blunt snout bream CPT I sequence belongs to the CPT IA family. In order to investigate the characterization of CPT IA mRNA expression, post-prandial experiment and feeding trial were conducted. The results showed that CPT IA mRNA expression was unchanged from 2 to 12h, and then significantly increased at 24h post-feeding in liver and heart. Berberine, an alkaloid, was identified as a promising lipid-lowering drug. In order to elucidate the effect of berberine on CPT I expression, fish were fed for 8 weeks with three diets (low-fat diet (LFD, 5% fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 15% fat), and berberine-supplemented diet (BSD, 15% fat). The results showed that HFD could decrease the expression of CPT IA and PPARα, while BSD increased those expressions.

  6. Concentrations of metals and trace elements in different tissues of nine fish species from the Međuvršje reservoir (West Morava River Basin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đikanović Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Element concentrations in selected fish species from different trophic levels were analyzed. The following fish species were analyzed: common nase (Chondrostoma nasus, roach (Rutilus rutilus, freshwater bream (Abramis brama, barbel (Barbus barbus, Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio,chub (Squalius cephalus, European perch (Perca fluviatilis, wels catfish (Silurus glanisand northern pike (Esox lucius. Fish were collected from the Međuvršje Reservoir (West Morava River Basin, western Serbia during 2012, and samples of liver, muscle and gills were analyzed for As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The liver and gills had the highest measured element concentrations, with Cu, Zn, Fe and Sr being the most prominent. The bioaccumulation of metals was species-specific, with the accumulation exhibiting the following trends: Prussian carp > northern pike > freshwater bream > European perch > chub > common nase > barbell > roach > wels catfish; Li>Pb>Zn>Cu>Fe>Ba>Mn>Sr>Cr>As>Mo>Ni>B, in all examined species; for Co, Cd and Hg, the bioaccumulation factor (BAF was 0. Results of this study point to the tissue-specific differences in element concentrations, and to distinct differences between fish species regarding the accumulation patterns: common nase, with the highest accumulation observed in the liver, and Prussian carp, with the highest accumulation observed in the gills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173045 i br. 37009

  7. Concentrations of 17 elements in muscle, gills, liver and gonads of five economically important fish species from the Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhardt M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Danube River in the vicinity of the city of Belgrade receives large amounts of untreated or poorly treated communal and industrial waste waters. The aim of this study was to assess elemental accumulation patterns in a number of economically important fish species in this area that belong to different trophic levels. Concentrations of 17 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were assessed in liver, muscle, gills and gonads of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, freshwater bream (Abramis brama, white bream (Blicca bjoerkna, common carp (Cyprinus carpio and wels catfish (Silurus glanis from the Danube River in Serbia by the use of ICP-OES. Silver carp specimens were differentiated from the other four species by high concentrations of Al and Fe in the liver. Common carp specimens were differentiated by high concentrations of Zn in gills, muscle and liver. Distribution of elements among different tissues had a consistent pattern among the species. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, As, Zn, Cu and Fe in muscle were at acceptable levels for human consumption, while concentrations of Fe and Zn were above maximum acceptable concentrations in liver and gonads.

  8. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Skov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder tags to explore species- and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus, common bream (Abramis brama and perch (Perca fluviatilis. In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging of fish in lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear to be the most vulnerable of the three species and based on a comparison with mortality estimates from lakes without significant avian predation, this study suggest that predation from cormorants can induce age/size truncation in lake Viborg, leaving very few larger perch in the lake. This truncation reduces the likelihood of anglers catching a large perch and may also influence lower trophic levels in the lake and thus turbidity as large piscivorous perch often play an important structuring role in lake ecosystem functioning.

  9. Contamination of Omnivorous Freshwater Fish Species and Sediments by Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niewiadowska Alicja

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were determined in 158 muscle samples of bream (Abramis brama and roach (Rutilus rutilus, and 84 samples of sediments collected from 10 river and lake sampling sites in 2011 and 2012. The concentrations of DDTs (p,p’-DDT, o,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, and p,p’-DDD, HCH isomers (a-, ß-, and y-HCH, HCB, and PCBs (six indicator PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180 were determined using the capillary gas chromatography. The mean concentrations of DDTs in bream and roach were in the range of 11.2-654 and 4.5-121 ug/kg wet weight respectively, and PCBs were in the range of 1.3-75.9 and 1.1-112 ug/kg wet weight, respectively. Mean concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in sediments were 0.5-270 ug/kg dry weight and ⋋0.1-2.2 ug/kg dry weight respectively. The study showed clear spatial differences in the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish and sediments from different aquatic ecosystems. The highest levels of contaminants were detected in fish and sediments from the Vistula River in vicinity of Cracow. The possible risk to the fish meat consumers and ecological risk were evaluated.

  10. The role of the Environmental Specimen Bank in environmental monitoring: The example of CHC in selected matrices; Die Rolle der Umweltprobenbank in der Umweltueberwachung am Beispiel von chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen in ausgewaehlten Matrizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marth, P.; Kettrup, A. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie]|[Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Umweltanalytik; Schramm, K.W.; Henkelmann, B.; Wolf, A.; Oxynos, K.; Schmitzer, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1999-03-01

    For precautionary environmental protection the Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) has been successfully established as a permanent environmental surveillance tool in Germany. The presented monitoring results on chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) show very clearly the effects of political decisions and can be used for the identification of pollutant sources. The CHC burden of breams (Abramis brama) from five German rivers (Elbe, Rhein, Saar, Mulde, Saale) gives an current overview of the pollution situation of different limnic ecosystems in Germany. A calculation model about the distribution of organic pollutants between different tissues offers the possibility to predict concentrations in liver and muscle of breams. Legislative emission restrictions have led to a significant decrease of dioxin levels in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs between 1988-1996. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Umweltprobenbank des Bundes hat sich im Rahmen der Oekologischen Umweltbeobachtung zu einem wichtigen und permanenten Instrument der Umweltpolitik entwickelt. Neben der Langzeitkonservierung fuer zukuenftige Forschungsaufgaben wird am Beispiel der chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffe demonstriert, dass das durchgefuehrte Monitoring-Programm als Nachweis fuer die Effektivitaet gesetzlicher Massnahmen und zur Identifizierung von Schadstoffeintragsquellen genutzt werden kann. Der vorliegende Beitrag vermittelt am Beispiel der Brassen (Abramis brama) als Akkumulationsindikator einen aktuellen und raeumlich differenzierten Ueberblick ueber die chlororganische Belastungssituation bundesdeutscher Gewaesser (Elbe, Rhein, Saar, Mulde, Saale). Betrachtungen zur Verteilung organischer Chemikalien zwischen Gewebetypen von Brassen zeigen, dass sich die Verteilung der Schadstoffkonzentrationen in Leber und Muskel mit einem geringen Fehler errechnen laesst. Die Dioxingehalte von Silbermoeweneiern (Larus argentatus) belegen, dass die Belastung durch strengere Emissionsgrenzwerte seit Beginn der neunziger Jahre

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabonomic profiling using tO2PLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirwan, Gemma M