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Sample records for bream sparus aurata

  1. Organic iron requirements of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    OpenAIRE

    Samartzis, Alexandros

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the organic iron (Fe) requirements of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). A total number of four experiments have been carried out each one for 12 weeks, in order to address and extend the knowledge on nutritional issues and challenges related with the culture of the gilthead sea bream in the Greek aquaculture industry and therefore enhance the fish health status under intensive culture conditions. These experiments aimed to determine the optimum ...

  2. Taurine supplemented plant protein based diets with alternative lipid sources for juvenile sea bream, sparus aurata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lipid sources were evaluated as fish oil replacements in fishmeal free, plant protein based diets for juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. A twelve week feeding study was undertaken to examine the performance of fish fed the diets with different sources of essential fatty acids (canola o...

  3. Energy metabolism of hyperthyroid gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Ruiz-Jarabo, Ignacio; Arjona, Francisco J; Laiz-Carrión, Raúl; Flik, Gert; Klaren, Peter H M; Mancera, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones, in particular 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine or T3, are involved in multiple physiological processes in mammals such as protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. However, the metabolic actions of T3 in fish are still not fully elucidated. We therefore tested the effects of T3 on Sparus aurata energy metabolism and osmoregulatory system, a hyperthyroid-induced model that was chosen. Fish were implanted with coconut oil depots (containing 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0μg T3/g body weight) and sampled at day 3 and 6 post-implantation. Plasma levels of free T3 as well as glucose, lactate and triglyceride values increased with increasing doses of T3 at days 3 and 6 post-implantation. Changes in plasma and organ metabolite levels (glucose, glycogen, triglycerides, lactate and total α amino acid) and enzyme activities related to carbohydrate, lactate, amino acid and lipid pathways were detected in organs involved in metabolism (liver) and osmoregulation (gills and kidney). Our data implicate that the liver uses amino acids as an energy source in response to the T3 treatment, increasing protein catabolism and gluconeogenic pathways. The gills, the most important extruder of ammonia, are fuelled not only by amino acids, but also by lactate. The kidney differs significantly in its substrate preference from the gills, as it obtained metabolic energy from lactate but also from lipid oxidation processes. We conclude that in S. aurata lipid catabolism and protein turnover are increased as a consequence of experimentally induced hyperthyroidism, with secondary osmoregulatory effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physiological responses of reared sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758) to an Amyloodinium ocellatum outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, M.; Schrama, D.; Soares, F.

    2017-01-01

    about the host responses to A. ocellatum infestation is scarce. In this work, we analysed the proteome of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) plasma and relate it with haematological and immunological indicators, in order to enlighten the different physiological responses when exposed to an A....... ocellatum outbreak. Using 2D-DIGE, immunological and haematological analysis and in response to the A. ocellatum contamination we have identified several proteins associated with acute-phase response, inflammation, lipid transport, homoeostasis, and osmoregulation, wound healing, neoplasia and iron transport...

  5. Energy metabolism of hyperthyroid gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Chacoff, L.; Ruiz-Jarabo, I.; Arjona, F.J.; Laiz-Carrion, R.; Flik, G.; Klaren, P.H.; Mancera, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones, in particular 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine or T3, are involved in multiple physiological processes in mammals such as protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. However, the metabolic actions of T3 in fish are still not fully elucidated. We therefore tested the effects of T3 on Sparus

  6. Experimental Susceptibility of Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata, via Challenge with Anisakis pegreffii Larvae

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    Fabio Marino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The endoscopic and histopathological findings detected in Sparus aurata experimentally infected with third-stage Anisakis larvae without intermediate host are evaluated and discussed. In six fish, live nematode larvae were introduced by gastroscopy into the stomach. The first observation by endoscope, 15 days after challenge, showed the presence of some larvae at the level of gastric mucosa. An explorative celioscopy, performed 60 days after challenge, showed haemorrhages and/or nodules on the gut of two fishes. Necropsy and histology demonstrated parasites in the context of the tissue changes. The finding of live nematode larvae as well as the evidence of tissue change confirm the experimental susceptibility of gilthead sea bream towards Anisakis.

  7. Experimental Susceptibility of Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata, via Challenge with Anisakis pegreffii Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Fabio; Lanteri, Giovanni; De Stefano, Carmelo; Costa, Antonella; Gaglio, Gabriella; Macrì, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The endoscopic and histopathological findings detected in Sparus aurata experimentally infected with third-stage Anisakis larvae without intermediate host are evaluated and discussed. In six fish, live nematode larvae were introduced by gastroscopy into the stomach. The first observation by endoscope, 15 days after challenge, showed the presence of some larvae at the level of gastric mucosa. An explorative celioscopy, performed 60 days after challenge, showed haemorrhages and/or nodules on the gut of two fishes. Necropsy and histology demonstrated parasites in the context of the tissue changes. The finding of live nematode larvae as well as the evidence of tissue change confirm the experimental susceptibility of gilthead sea bream towards Anisakis. PMID:23957000

  8. A Comparative BAC Map for the Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.

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    Heiner Kuhl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first comparative BAC map of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, a highly valuated marine aquaculture fish species in the Mediterranean. High-throughput end sequencing of a BAC library yielded 92,468 reads (60.6 Mbp. Comparative mapping was achieved by anchoring BAC end sequences to the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus genome. BACs that were consistently ordered along the stickleback chromosomes accounted for 14,265 clones. A fraction of 5,249 BACs constituted a minimal tiling path that covers 73.5% of the stickleback chromosomes and 70.2% of the genes that have been annotated. The N50 size of 1,485 “BACtigs” consisting of redundant BACs is 337,253 bp. The largest BACtig covers 2.15 Mbp in the stickleback genome. According to the insert size distribution of mapped BACs the sea bream genome is 1.71-fold larger than the stickleback genome. These results represent a valuable tool to researchers in the field and may support future projects to elucidate the whole sea bream genome.

  9. Determination of some quality properties of marinated sea bream (Sparus Aurata L., 1758 during cold storage

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    Gülderen Kurt Kaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the effect of sea bream (Sparus aurata marinated some quality properties during cold storage. The fillets of fish were immersed into brine including 3.5% acetic acid 11% salt in the ratio of 1: 1.5 (fish: marinate brine for marination process. After the process of ripening, samples were grouped into two and packed in plastic containers; one being plain (in sunflower oil and the other being sauced (sauced prepared with sunflower oil. During storage, sensory, crude protein, lipid, dry matter and crude ash, TBA, TVB-N, TMA-N and peroxide analyses were done periodically. According to results of 200 days of storage, TVB-N values of sea bream marinates packaged as plain and sauced were 15.86/14.89 mg/100g, TBA 7.06/7.99 mg MA/kg, TMA-N 2.97/3.12, mg/100g, the value of peroxide was 7.23/7.45 meq/kg respectively. According to chemical and sensory analyses results obtained in the study; it was concluded that sea bream marinates packaged as plain and sauced can be stored in +4 °C for 200 days.

  10. Dorsal and ventral target strength measurements on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) in sea cages

    CERN Document Server

    Soliveres, Ester; Espinosa, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a relationship between target strength (TS) and total body length of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), in order to monitor its growth in sea cages. Five classes of commercial size gilthead sea bream are characterized, comprising lengths from 20 to 25 cm, corresponding to weights between 160 and 270 g. A few specimens were introduced into a sea cage of 3 m in diameter and a height of 2.7 m. We measure TS directly using a Simrad EK60 echosounder with a 7^{\\circ} split-beam transducer working at 200 kHz. The transducer was located in the center of the cage during measurements, at the bottom facing upwards for ventral recordings and on the surface facing downwards to perform dorsal recordings. Two analyses based on single echo detection were performed: the first one obtains compensated transducer directivity TS values from intensity and angular echosounder data; while the second one omit phase information, affording uncompensated TS values (TSu). Two algorithms have bee...

  11. The changes of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in sea bream ( Sparus aurata) during irradiation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Nuray; Özden, Özkan

    2007-10-01

    Aqua cultured fish (sea bream) were irradiated by Cobalt-60 at commercial irradiation facility at dose of 2.5 and 5 kGy at 2-4 °C. The proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid composition changes of irradiated aqua cultured sea bream ( Sparus aurata) of Aegean Sea were investigated. Total saturated (28.01%) and total monounsaturated (28.42%) fatty acid contents of non-irradiated decreased content of 27.69-27.97% for 2.5 kGy irradiated groups and increased content of 28.33-28.56% for 5 kGy irradiated groups after irradiation process. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid content for irradiated samples was lower than that of non-irradiated samples. Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, arginine, alanine, tyrosine, cystine, tryptophan, lysine and proline contents for 2.5 and 5 kGy irradiated sea bream are significantly different ( p<0.05).

  12. The changes of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in sea bream (Sparus aurata) during irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkan, Nuray [Faculty of Fisheries, Department of the Seafood Processing and Quality Control, Istanbul University, Ordu, Cad. No. 200, 34470 Laleli/Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: nurerkan@istanbul.edu.tr; Ozden, Ozkan [Faculty of Fisheries, Department of the Seafood Processing and Quality Control, Istanbul University, Ordu, Cad. No. 200, 34470 Laleli/Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozden@istanbul.edu.tr

    2007-10-15

    Aqua cultured fish (sea bream) were irradiated by Cobalt-60 at commercial irradiation facility at dose of 2.5 and 5 kGy at 2-4 deg. C. The proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid composition changes of irradiated aqua cultured sea bream (Sparus aurata) of Aegean Sea were investigated. Total saturated (28.01%) and total monounsaturated (28.42%) fatty acid contents of non-irradiated decreased content of 27.69-27.97% for 2.5 kGy irradiated groups and increased content of 28.33-28.56% for 5 kGy irradiated groups after irradiation process. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid content for irradiated samples was lower than that of non-irradiated samples. Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, arginine, alanine, tyrosine, cystine, tryptophan, lysine and proline contents for 2.5 and 5 kGy irradiated sea bream are significantly different (p<0.05)

  13. Fast skeletal muscle transcriptome of the Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata determined by next generation sequencing

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    Garcia de la serrana Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. occurs around the Mediterranean and along Eastern Atlantic coasts from Great Britain to Senegal. It is tolerant of a wide range of temperatures and salinities and is often found in brackish coastal lagoons and estuarine areas, particularly early in its life cycle. Gilthead sea bream are extensively cultivated in the Mediterranean with an annual production of 125,000 metric tonnes. Here we present a de novo assembly of the fast skeletal muscle transcriptome of gilthead sea bream using 454 reads and identify gene paralogues, splice variants and microsatellite repeats. An annotated transcriptome of the skeletal muscle will facilitate understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of traits linked to production in this economically important species. Results Around 2.7 million reads of mRNA sequence data were generated from the fast myotomal of adult fish (~2 kg and juvenile fish (~0.09 kg that had been either fed to satiation, fasted for 3-5d or transferred to low (11°C or high (33°C temperatures for 3-5d. Newbler v2.5 assembly resulted in 43,461 isotigs >100 bp. The number of sequences annotated by searching protein and gene ontology databases was 10,465. The average coverage of the annotated isotigs was x40 containing 5655 unique gene IDs and 785 full-length cDNAs coding for proteins containing 58–1536 amino acids. The v2.5 assembly was found to be of good quality based on validation using 200 full-length cDNAs from GenBank. Annotated isotigs from the reference transcriptome were attributable to 344 KEGG pathway maps. We identified 26 gene paralogues (20 of them teleost-specific and 43 splice variants, of which 12 had functional domains missing that were likely to affect their biological function. Many key transcription factors, signaling molecules and structural proteins necessary for myogenesis and muscle growth have been identified. Physiological status affected the

  14. Antibacterial and anti-PAF activity of lipid extracts from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Andriotis, Michalis; Demopoulos, Constantinos A; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2008-11-15

    The anti-PAF and the antibacterial activities of lipid extracts obtained from cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and cultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) were evaluated. Total lipids of sea bass and gilthead sea bream exerted PAF-like activity while, in higher amounts they inhibited this PAF activity. Neutral lipids of both sea bass and gilthead sea bream contained only PAF antagonists while the polar lipid fractions contained both PAF antagonists and agonists. Total lipids of sea bass exhibited stronger PAF-like activity than did those of gilthead sea bream; however, neutral lipids of sea bass contained stronger PAF antagonists than did gilthead sea bream. Total lipids of both sea bass and gilthead sea bream exhibited antibacterial activity only towards Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with those of sea bass being more potent. Subsequently, neutral lipids of both sea bass and gilthead sea bream also showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and less so towards Escherichia coli (E. coli), while only neutral lipids of sea bass showed antibacterial activity against Enterococcusfaecalis (E. faecalis). Sea bass neutral lipids were more active against S. aureus than were those of gilthead sea bream, while their activity towards E. coli was similar. Polar lipids of both sea bass and gilthead sea bream showed antibacterial activity against all bacteria strains. Sea bass polar lipids were more active towards S. aureus than were those of gilthead sea bream, while their activities against E. faecalis and E. coli were the same. The detected antibacterial activities of the lipid extracts isolated from sea bass and gilthead sea bream were observed in amounts equal to those that exerted either PAF inhibition or PAF-like activity, suggesting that PAF antagonists and agonists of fish lipids may be responsible for the antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of PTHrP, PTHR1, and CaSR expression levels in tissues of sea bream (Sparus aurata) using quantitative PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hang, X.M.; Power, D.; Flik, G.; Balment, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) method has been established to measure the mRNA expression levels of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), parathyroid hormone receptor type 1 (PTHR1), and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in sea bream (Sparus aurata), using the housekeeping gene, beta-actin, as

  16. Development and validation of a gene expression oligo microarray for the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patarnello Tomaso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquaculture represents the most sustainable alternative of seafood supply to substitute for the declining marine fisheries, but severe production bottlenecks remain to be solved. The application of genomic technologies offers much promise to rapidly increase our knowledge on biological processes in farmed species and overcome such bottlenecks. Here we present an integrated platform for mRNA expression profiling in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, a marine teleost of great importance for aquaculture. Results A public data base was constructed, consisting of 19,734 unique clusters (3,563 contigs and 16,171 singletons. Functional annotation was obtained for 8,021 clusters. Over 4,000 sequences were also associated with a GO entry. Two 60mer probes were designed for each gene and in-situ synthesized on glass slides using Agilent SurePrint™ technology. Platform reproducibility and accuracy were assessed on two early stages of sea bream development (one-day and four days old larvae. Correlation between technical replicates was always > 0.99, with strong positive correlation between paired probes. A two class SAM test identified 1,050 differentially expressed genes between the two developmental stages. Functional analysis suggested that down-regulated transcripts (407 in older larvae are mostly essential/housekeeping genes, whereas tissue-specific genes are up-regulated in parallel with the formation of key organs (eye, digestive system. Cross-validation of microarray data was carried out using quantitative qRT-PCR on 11 target genes, selected to reflect the whole range of fold-change and both up-regulated and down-regulated genes. A statistically significant positive correlation was obtained comparing expression levels for each target gene across all biological replicates. Good concordance between qRT-PCR and microarray data was observed between 2- and 7-fold change, while fold-change compression in the microarray was

  17. Glycogenesis and de novo lipid synthesis from dietary starch in juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The effects of replacing a digestible energy source from fat (fish oil) with carbohydrate (wheat starch) on performance, glycogenesis and de novo lipogenesis was examined in triplicate groups of juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), fed four extruded experimental diets. In order to trace...... feeding periods. Glycogenesis originating from dietary starch accounted for up to 68·8 and 38·8% of the liver and whole-body glycogen pools, respectively, while up to 16·7% of the liver lipid could be attributed to dietary starch. Between 5 and 8% of dietary starch carbon was recovered in whole-body lipid...... correlated directly with dietary starch inclusion level. The study suggests that gilthead sea bream efficiently synthesises glycogen from both dietary starch and endogenous sources. In contrast, lipogenesis from carbon derived from starch seems to play a minor role in overall lipid synthesis and deposition...

  18. SHELF –LIFE OF SEA BREAM (SPARUS AURATA PACKAGED IN MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE: RELATIONSHIPs BETWEEN SENSORY AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pennisi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The research evaluates sensorial and microbiological parameters of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata during storage in MAP. Fish samples, obtained from three off-shore breedings located in Messina, Pisa and Sassari, were analyzed after 1, 5, 8, 12, 15 and 19 days of storage. Sensory assessment was carried out using the Quality Index Method (QIM. Microbiological assays (CMT, CPT, H2S-producing bacteria were performed on muscle pools. The results show that the shelf-life of gilthead sea bream packaged in MAP as determined by acceptability sensory scores, was lower than 12 days. A relationship between QIM and the microbiological parameter of H2S producing bacteria has been found, even if not it cannot be considered statistically significant according to statistical analysis.

  19. Transcriptomic changes in relation to early-life events in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarropoulou, E; Tsalafouta, A; Sundaram, A Y M; Gilfillan, G D; Kotoulas, G; Papandroulakis, N; Pavlidis, M

    2016-07-26

    Teleosts are exposed to a broad range of external stimuli, which may be either of acute or chronic nature. The larval phase of certain fish species offer a unique opportunity to study the interactions between genes and environmental factors during early life. The present study investigates the effects of early-life events, applied at different time points of early ontogeny (first feeding, flexion and development of all fins; Phase 1) as well as on the subsequent juvenile stage after the application of an additional acute stressor (Phase 2) in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), a commercially important European aquaculture species. Animal performance, the cortisol response and gene expression patterns during early development as well as on the subsequent phases (juveniles) after the application of additional acute stressors were investigated. Significant differences on fish performance were found only for juveniles exposed to early-life events at the phase of the formation of all fins. On the transcriptome level distinct expression patterns were obtained for larvae as well as for juveniles with the most divergent expression pattern found to be again at the phase of the development of all fins, which showed to have also an impact later on in the acute stress response of juveniles. The present study showed that applying an early-life protocol, characterized by the unpredictable, variable and moderate intensity of the applied stimuli provides a relative realistic model to evaluate the impact of daily aquaculture practices on fish performance. In addition, the power of investigating global gene expression patterns is shown, providing significant insights regarding the response of early-life events during development and as juveniles after the application of extra acute stressors.

  20. Characterization of the cellular damage induced by Aflatoxin B1 in sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 hepatocytes

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    Giuseppe Crescenzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. is one of the most intensively farmed fish spe- cies in the Mediterranean, greatly studied for the relevant economic value, although its sensitivity to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 has to be investigated, yet. The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro evalua- tion of cytotoxic potential of AFB1 on S. aurata hepatocytes in order to grade the range of AFB1 toxicity, and the boundary between acute and long-term toxicity. Primary monolayer cultures of hepatocytes from S. aurata juveniles were treated with a wide range of concentrations from 5x103 ng/ml to 2x10 2x10-5 ng/ml of AFB1 for a different period of exposure (24, 48, 72 hours. The cytotoxic activity was characterized by MTT reduction assay. After each exposition hepatocytes were examined for morphologic alterations and apoptosis induction. AFB1 exposure significantly reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-depend- ent manner. Dose-response curves obtained after 24, 48 and 72 hrs revealed that prolonged exposure times lead to a significant increase of the toxicpotencyofAFB toxic potency of AFB AFB1. Ourresultsdemonstratethat Our results demonstrate that S. aurata hepatocytes are highly sensitive to AFB1 exposure. Such scientific findings could provide new insights to investigate the real impact of aflatoxin on marine farmed fish.

  1. Dietary differences are reflected on the gut prokaryotic community structure of wild and commercially reared sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormas, Konstantinos A; Meziti, Alexandra; Mente, Eleni; Frentzos, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    We compared the gut prokaryotic communities in wild, organically-, and conventionally reared sea bream (Sparus aurata) individuals. Gut microbial communities were identified using tag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. There were distinct prokaryotic communities in the three different fish nutritional treatments, with the bacteria dominating over the Archaea. Most of the Bacteria belonged to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The number of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was reduced from the wild to the conventionally reared fish, implying a response of the gut microorganisms to the supplied food and possibly alterations in food assimilation. The dominant bacterial OTU in all examined fish was closely related to the genus Diaphorobacter. This is the first time that a member of the β-Proteobacteria, which dominate in freshwaters, are so important in a marine fish gut. In total the majority of the few Archaea OTUs found, were related to methane metabolism. The inferred physiological roles of the dominant prokaryotes are related to the metabolism of carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds. This study showed the responsive feature of the sea bream gut prokaryotic communities to their diets and also the differences of the conventional in comparison to the organic and wild sea bream gut microbiota. PMID:25066034

  2. Partial replacement of fish meal by T-Iso in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata juveniles diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of microalga Isochrysis sp. T-Iso in partial substitution of fish meal and the study of the effects on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata perform- ances and chemical composition of fillets. The results show that the microalga T-Iso nutrients support growth better than control diets, and the chemical composition of sea bream fillets also meets the needs of consumers for healthy diets. T-Iso resulted highly digestible, and support the best perform- ances of fish fed on 70% alga diet probably due to its high protein efficiency in comparison to other diets. The presence of a high quantity of cyclic isoprenoid could explain this high efficiency of T-Iso. Gilthead sea bream fed on 70% T-Iso showed fillets with a low level of protein and a high level of fat; moreover, their somatic indexes were higher than those of fish fed other diets. Highest percentage T- Iso diet showed the highest amount of the sum of saturated fatty acids, mainly due to myristate and palmitate. On the contrary, the sum of polyunsaturated decreases, mainly because of the reduction of EPA and DHA amounts. If the mass production economical problems are solved, T-Iso will represent a good solution in partial substitution of fish meal.

  3. A gene-based radiation hybrid map of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata refines and exploits conserved synteny with Tetraodon nigroviridis

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    Tsalavouta Matina

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative teleost studies are of great interest since they are important in aquaculture and in evolutionary issues. Comparing genomes of fully sequenced model fish species with those of farmed fish species through comparative mapping offers shortcuts for quantitative trait loci (QTL detections and for studying genome evolution through the identification of regions of conserved synteny in teleosts. Here a comparative mapping study is presented by radiation hybrid (RH mapping genes of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata, a non-model teleost fish of commercial and evolutionary interest, as it represents the worldwide distributed species-rich family of Sparidae. Results An additional 74 microsatellite markers and 428 gene-based markers appropriate for comparative mapping studies were mapped on the existing RH map of Sparus aurata. The anchoring of the RH map to the genetic linkage map resulted in 24 groups matching the karyotype of Sparus aurata. Homologous sequences to Tetraodon were identified for 301 of the gene-based markers positioned on the RH map of Sparus aurata. Comparison between Sparus aurata RH groups and Tetraodon chromosomes (karyotype of Tetraodon consists of 21 chromosomes in this study reveals an unambiguous one-to-one relationship suggesting that three Tetraodon chromosomes correspond to six Sparus aurata radiation hybrid groups. The exploitation of this conserved synteny relationship is furthermore demonstrated by in silico mapping of gilthead sea bream expressed sequence tags (EST that give a significant similarity hit to Tetraodon. Conclusion The addition of primarily gene-based markers increased substantially the density of the existing RH map and facilitated comparative analysis. The anchoring of this gene-based radiation hybrid map to the genome maps of model species broadened the pool of candidate genes that mainly control growth, disease resistance, sex determination and reversal, reproduction as well

  4. Collagen Fibrils in Cultured and Wild Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Liver. An Electron Microscopy and Image Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berillis, Panagiotis; Mente, Eleni; Nengas, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to measure liver collagen fibril diameter in cultured and wild sea breams (Sparus aurata). Cultured sea breams were fed three isonitrogenous diets. The organically produced feed contained sustainable certified fish meal (45%), fish oil (14%), and organic certified wheat; the laboratory feed contained fish meal (45%), fish oil (14%), wheat meal, and soya meal; and the commercial feed included fish meal (46%), fish oil (17%), soya meal, wheat meal, and corn gluten meal. The organic diet had higher amounts of vitamins A, C, and E; specific amino acids; and minerals that enhanced the biosynthesis of collagen. This study shows that fish fed the organic feed had significantly bigger collagen fibril diameters than the fish fed the conventional feed. Furthermore, the organically fed fish had similarly sized collagen fibril diameters as wild fish. More research is needed to understand the long-term effects and the mechanism and function of fish collagen peptide intake on lipid absorption and metabolism; and to identify dietary regimes that are able to improve whole body lipid profiles and suppress the transient increase of plasma triglycerides. PMID:21516288

  5. Histological, histochemical and morphometric changes of splenic melanomacrophage centers (SMMCs) in Sparicotyle-infected cultured sea breams (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vico, G; Cataldi, M; Carella, F; Marino, F; Passantino, A

    2008-01-01

    Diseases caused by parasites are much more frequently described in cultured fish, which suffer from artificial conditions and numerous stress factors. This study investigates the histological, histochemical and morphometric modifications of splenic melanomacrophage centers (SMMCs) infected by Sparicotyle chrisophrii (Monogenea, ectoparasite of the gills) in sea breams (Sparus aurata), cultured in floating cages in the Gulf of Gaeta (Italy). Infected fish swam near the water surface, showing severe signs of anemia. Several spleens were collected from both healthy and dead fish (70-100 gr. body weight). A spleen histopathology was evaluated by using traditional stainings, such as Haematoxylin and Eosin (HE), Periodic Acid-Schiff reaction (PAS), Perl's reaction for haemosiderin and Schmorl's reaction for lipofuscins. Furthermore, SMMCs morphometry was performed on PAS-stained sections to study 7 morphometric parameters [Mean SMMCs profile area (MPA), Mean SMMCs maximum diameter (Media), Mean SMMCs minimum diameter (media), Mean SMMCs diameter (Dia), Mean SMMCs Perimeter (P), Mean SMMCs Form Factor (FF) and Mean SMMCs number per square millimeter of spleen tissue (MN)]. A light microscope of HE stained sections of spleen revealed a dramatic increase in the size and number of SMMCs in parasitized animals. Morphometric data illustrated statistically significant differences (p fish. This study emphasizes the importance of using histopathological investigations to unravel the complex biological host/parasite interaction, which results in systemic lesions affecting reared marine species.

  6. Histochemical localization of zinc in the retina cells of gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata) fed different presentations of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Pedro Luis; Dominguez, David; José Caballero, María; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2017-02-01

    To describe the distribution of zinc in the retina of a representative marine fish species and to determine whether the intracellular deposition amount correlates with the presentation of the zinc included in the practical diets (organic, inorganic, encapsulated, fish meal, and Control diet), we examined the precise localization of endogenous zinc in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) retina by autometallography. As observed by light microscopy, reaction products were widely distributed throughout the retina, including the outer segments of photoreceptors, except in the nuclear layers. Differing from other species previously studied, zinc depositions were not different between the outer and inner retina, and the retinal ganglion cell layer showed reaction products with a characteristic disposition surrounding the neuronal soma. An additional finding in this species was the rich disposition around photoreceptors, so abundant that it outlines the shape of the rods and cones. With regards to the diet, the zinc organic formulation was able to produce a higher amount of precipitates, followed by fish meal and encapsulated zinc diets. The inorganic and the Control diet produced a basal zinc deposition in the same layers above mentioned although less evident and similar to that determined in other species fed with non-supplemented diets. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Using trace elements in otoliths to discriminate between wild and farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. and Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Arechavala-Lopez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trace elements in otoliths of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. and sea bream (Sparus aurata L. from fish farms and coastal wild populations in the western Mediterranean Sea were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results showed that concentrations of Mg, K, and Mn differed significantly between wild and farmed sea bass, while concentrations of Mg, K, Mn, Fe, Zn, Sr, and Ba varied significantly between wild and farmed sea bream. Discriminate analysis and cross-validation classification showed that the trace element profile in otoliths can be used to separate farmed fish from wild stocks with high accuracy on both sea bass (individuals correctly classified: 90.7 % and sea bream (individuals correctly classified: 96.6 %. Moreover, trace elements in otoliths resulted to be useful to discriminate among wild fish stocks within each species.

  8. Sample size matters in dietary gene expression studies—A case study in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Kokou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns in gene expression studies is the calculation of statistical significance which in most cases remains low due to limited sample size. Increasing biological replicates translates into more effective gains in power which, especially in nutritional experiments, is of great importance as individual variation of growth performance parameters and feed conversion is high. The present study investigates in the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata, one of the most important Mediterranean aquaculture species. For 24 gilthead sea bream individuals (biological replicates the effects of gradual substitution of fish meal by plant ingredients (0% (control, 25%, 50% and 75% in the diets were studied by looking at expression levels of four immune-and stress-related genes in intestine, head kidney and liver. The present results showed that only the lowest substitution percentage is tolerated and that liver is the most sensitive tissue to detect gene expression variations in relation to fish meal substituted diets. Additionally the usage of three independent biological replicates were evaluated by calculating the averages of all possible triplets in order to assess the suitability of selected genes for stress indication as well as the impact of the experimental set up, thus in the present work the impact of FM substitution. Gene expression was altered depending of the selected biological triplicate. Only for two genes in liver (hsp70 and tgf significant differential expression was assured independently of the triplicates used. These results underlined the importance of choosing the adequate sample number especially when significant, but minor differences in gene expression levels are observed.

  9. Effects of dietary energy density and digestible protein:energy ratio on de novo lipid synthesis from dietary protein in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The effects of varying dietary digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) content on performance, nutrient retention efficiency and the de novo lipogenesis of DP origin were examined in triplicate groups of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), fed nine extruded experimental diets. In order...... was apparent from inherently high de novo lipogenesis originating from DP...

  10. Genomic Prediction of Resistance to Pasteurellosis in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata Using 2b-RAD Sequencing

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    Christos Palaiokostas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata is a species of paramount importance to the Mediterranean aquaculture industry, with an annual production exceeding 140,000 metric tons. Pasteurellosis due to the Gram-negative bacterium Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp causes significant mortality, especially during larval and juvenile stages, and poses a serious threat to bream production. Selective breeding for improved resistance to pasteurellosis is a promising avenue for disease control, and the use of genetic markers to predict breeding values can improve the accuracy of selection, and allow accurate calculation of estimated breeding values of nonchallenged animals. In the current study, a population of 825 sea bream juveniles, originating from a factorial cross between 67 broodfish (32 sires, 35 dams, were challenged by 30 min immersion with 1 × 105 CFU virulent Phdp. Mortalities and survivors were recorded and sampled for genotyping by sequencing. The restriction-site associated DNA sequencing approach, 2b-RAD, was used to generate genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotypes for all samples. A high-density linkage map containing 12,085 SNPs grouped into 24 linkage groups (consistent with the karyotype was constructed. The heritability of surviving days (censored data was 0.22 (95% highest density interval: 0.11–0.36 and 0.28 (95% highest density interval: 0.17–0.4 using the pedigree and the genomic relationship matrix respectively. A genome-wide association study did not reveal individual SNPs significantly associated with resistance at a genome-wide significance level. Genomic prediction approaches were tested to investigate the potential of the SNPs obtained by 2b-RAD for estimating breeding values for resistance. The accuracy of the genomic prediction models (r = 0.38–0.46 outperformed the traditional BLUP approach based on pedigree records (r = 0.30. Overall results suggest that major quantitative trait loci

  11. Preliminary Investigation on the Use of Allyi Isothiocyanate to Increase the Shelf-Life of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus Aurata) Fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Crinò, Chiara; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against fish spoilage bacteria (specific spoilage organisms; SSOs) as well as its possible use in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets to extend their shelf-life. In this regard, in vitro tests are carried out in order to evaluate the inhibitory activity of AITC and its vapours on several strains of SSOs. The AITC effect on the shelf-life of sea bream fillets was made by putting them in plastic trays hermetically closed with the addition AITC. Microbiological and sensorial evaluations were made on fish fillets during storage. Treated fillets maintained microbial populations at a significantly lower level compared with the control samples during storage, showing better sensorial characteristics. Therefore, the use of AITC's vapours seems to be a new and interesting alternative way to increase fish product shelf-life.

  12. Preliminary investigation on the use of allyl isothiocyanate to increase the shelf-life of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Giarratana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC against fish spoilage bacteria (specific spoilage organisms; SSOs as well as its possible use in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata fillets to extend their shelf-life. In this regard, in vitro tests are carried out in order to evaluate the inhibitory activity of AITC and its vapours on several strains of SSOs. The AITC effect on the shelflife of sea bream fillets was made by putting them in plastic trays hermetically closed with the addition AITC. Microbiological and sensorial evaluations were made on fish fillets during storage. Treated fillets maintained microbial populations at a significantly lower level compared with the control samples during storage, showing better sensorial characteristics. Therefore, the use of AITC’s vapours seems to be a new and interesting alternative way to increase fish product shelf-life.

  13. The toxicological impacts of some heavy metals on carbonic anhydrase from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Elif Duygu; Söyüt, Hakan; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2015-03-01

    It is known that heavy metals have toxic effects on fish. Insufficient measures are a serious problem in our country and around the world. This problem can threaten human health in areas where it is common for people to obtain nutrition from local bodies of water. In this study, the toxicological impacts of some heavy metals were investigated on carbonic anhydrase activity in gilthead gills. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) was purified from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) gills with a specific activity of 2872.92 EU mg(-1) and a yield of 32.84% using affinity chromatography. The overall purification was approximately ∼ 84-fold. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a single band, and the MW was approximately 30.5 kDa (Soyut et al., 2008, 2012; Soyut and Beydemir, 2008, 2012; Kaya et al., 2013). The kinetic and characteristic properties of CA such as the optimum pH, stable pH, optimum temperature, activation energy (Ea), activation enthalpy (ΔH), Q10, Km and Vmax were determined. Cadmium (Cd(2+)), copper (Cu(2+)), nickel (Ni(2+)) and silver (Ag(+)) inhibited CA activity in in vitro conditions. Ki values were calculated for these metals. Ki values were 31.20mM for cadmium (Cd(2+)), 161.96 mM for copper (Cu(2+)), 10.79 mM for nickel (Ni(2+)) and 0.0082 mM for silver (Ag(+)) based on Lineweaver-Burk plots. Except for cadmium, heavy metals had the same inhibition mechanism. Cadmium was competitive, and the others were noncompetitive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Olive oil bioactive compounds increase body weight, and improve gut health and integrity in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Enric; Andree, Karl B; Quintela, José C; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio R; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2017-02-01

    An olive oil bioactive extract (OBE) rich in bioactive compounds like polyphenols, triterpenic acids, long-chain fatty alcohols, unsaturated hydrocarbons, tocopherols and sterols was tested (0, 0·08, 0·17, 0·42 and 0·73 % OBE) in diets fed to sea bream (Sparus aurata) (initial weight: 5·4 (sd 1·2) g) during a 90-d trial (four replicates). Fish fed diets containing 0·17 and 0·42 % OBE were 5 % heavier (61·1 (sd 1·6) and 60·3 (sd 1·1) g, respectively) than those of the control group (57·0 (sd 0·7) g), although feed conversion ratio and specific feed intake did not vary. There were no differences in lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the intestine and liver, although there was a tendency of lower intestinal and hepatic LPO levels in fish fed OBE diets. No differences in villus size were found among treatments, whereas goblet cell density in the control group was on average14·3 % lower than in fish fed OBE diets. The transcriptomic profiling of intestinal markers, covering different biological functions like (i) cell differentiation and proliferation, (ii) intestinal permeability, (iii) enterocyte mass and epithelial damage, (iv) IL and cytokines, (v) pathogen recognition receptors and (vi) mitochondria function, indicated that among the eighty-eight evaluated genes, twenty-nine were differentially expressed (0·17 % OBE diet), suggesting that the additive has the potential of improving the condition and defensive role of the intestine by enhancing the maturation of enterocytes, reducing oxidative stress, improving the integrity of the intestinal epithelium and enhancing the intestinal innate immune function, as gene expression data indicated.

  15. Use of microarray technology to assess the time course of liver stress response after confinement exposure in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairns Michael T

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection programs for growth and stress traits in cultured fish are fundamental to the improvement of aquaculture production. The gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata is the main aquacultured species in the Mediterranean area and there is considerable interest in the genetic improvement of this species. With the aim of increasing the genomic resources in gilthead sea bream and identifying genes and mechanisms underlying the physiology of the stress response, we developed a cDNA microarray for gilthead sea bream that is enriched by suppression substractive hybridization with stress and immunorelevant genes. This microarray is used to analyze the dynamics of gilthead sea bream liver expression profile after confinement exposure. Results Groups of confined and control juvenile fish were sampled at 6, 24, 72 and 120 h post exposure. GeneSpring analyses identified 202 annotated genes that appeared differentially expressed at least at one sampling time (P Conclusions Collectively, these findings show the complex nature of the adaptive stress response with a clear indication that the ER is an important control point for homeostatic adjustments. The study also identifies metabolic pathways which could be analyzed in greater detail to provide new insights regarding the transcriptional regulation of the stress response in fish.

  16. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to fish pasteurellosis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massault, C.; Franch, R.; Haley, C.; Koning, de D.J.; Bovenhuis, H.; Pellizzari, C.; Patarnello, T.; Bargelloni, L.

    2011-01-01

    Fish pasteurellosis is a bacterial disease causing important losses in farmed fish, including gilthead sea bream, a teleost fish of great relevance in marine aquaculture. We report in this study a QTL analysis for resistance to fish pasteurellosis in this species. An experimental population of 500

  17. Classification of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) from 1H NMR lipid profiling combined with principal component and linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzi, Serge; Giani, Ivan; Héberger, Károly; Axelson, David E; Moretti, Vittorio M; Reniero, Fabiano; Guillou, Claude

    2007-11-28

    The combination of (1)H NMR fingerprinting of lipids from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) with nonsupervised and supervised multivariate analysis was applied to differentiate wild and farmed fish and to classify farmed specimen according to their areas of production belonging to the Mediterranean basin. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied on processed (1)H NMR profiles made a clear distinction between wild and farmed samples. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) allowed classification of samples according to the geographic origin, as well as for the wild and farmed status using both PCA scores and NMR data as variables. Variable selection for LDA was achieved with forward selection (stepwise) with a predefined 5% error level. The methods allowed the classification of 100% of the samples according to their wild and farmed status and 85-97% to geographic origin. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) analyses provided complementary means for the successful discrimination among classes investigated.

  18. Role of Sp1 and SREBP-1a in the insulin-mediated regulation of glucokinase transcription in the liver of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Miriam; Metón, Isidoro; Córdoba, Marlon; Fernández, Felipe; Baanante, Isabel V

    2008-01-15

    Insulin induction of glucokinase (GCK) transcription in the liver is essential for maintaining glucose homeostasis. To study the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of hepatic GCK expression in the carnivorous fish gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), we analysed the role of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a) and specificity protein (Sp) 1 in insulin-dependent GCK transcription. Transient transfection experiments performed in HepG2 cells and electrophoretic mobility shift assays allowed us to identify a cis-element in the proximal region of GCK promoter implicated in transactivation by SREBP-1a. Consistently, mutations in the SRE binding site completely abolished the enhancing effect of SREBP-1a. These results and previous findings suggest that SREBP-1a plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of key enzymes in glycolysis-gluconeogenesis. Since SREBP-1a and Sp1 may mediate insulin action on S. aurata GCK transcription, we analysed the effect of insulin on HepG2 cells transfected with GCK promoter reporter constructs carrying intact or mutated SRE or Sp boxes. Insulin transactivated GCK irrespective of the presence of an intact or mutated SRE box. However, insulin failed to induce GCK transcription when using reporter constructs that had either a mutated Sp site or no Sp site. Our findings indicate that Sp1, rather than SREBP-1a, mediates the insulin-dependent induction of S. aurata GCK.

  19. Characterization data of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata IGF-I receptors (IGF-IRa/Rb

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    Emilio J. Vélez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this data article we describe the coding sequence of two IGF-IR paralogues (IGF-IRa and IGF-IRb obtained from gilthead sea bream embryos. The putative protein architecture (domains and other important motifs was determined and, amino acid sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis of both receptors together with IGF-IR orthologues from different vertebrates was performed. Additionally, a semi-quantitative conventional PCR was done to analyze the mRNA expression of both receptors in different tissues of gilthead sea bream. These data will assist in further physiological studies in this species. In this sense, the expression of both receptors during ontogeny in muscle as well as the differential effects of IGF-I and IGF-II on their regulation during in vitro myogenesis has been recently studied (doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.11.011; [1].

  20. Metabolic Effects of Insulin and IGFs on Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, Núria; Capilla, Encarnación; Navarro, Isabel; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2012-01-01

    Primary cultures of gilthead sea bream myocytes were performed in order to examine the relative metabolic function of insulin compared with IGF-I and IGF-II (insulin-like growth factors, IGFs) at different stages in the cell culture. In these cells, the in vitro effects of insulin and IGFs on 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) and l-alanine uptake were studied in both myocytes (day 4) and small myotubes (day 9). 2-DG uptake in gilthead sea bream muscle cells was increased in the presence of insulin and IGFs in a time dependent manner and along with muscle cell differentiation. On the contrary, l-alanine uptake was also stimulated by insulin and IGFs but showed an inverse pattern, being the uptake higher in small myocytes than in large myotubes. The results of preincubation with inhibitors (PD-98059, wortmannin, and cytochalasin B) on 2-DG uptake indicated that insulin and IGFs stimulate glucose uptake through the same mechanisms, and evidenced that mitogenesis activator protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K–Akt transduction pathways mediate the metabolic function of these peptides. In the same way, we observed that GLUT4 protein synthesis was stimulated in the presence of insulin and IGFs in gilthead sea bream muscle cells in a different manner at days 4 or 9 of the culture. In summary we describe here, for the first time, the effects of insulin and IGFs on 2-DG and l-alanine uptake in primary culture of gilthead sea bream muscle cells. We show that both MAPK and PI3K–Akt transduction pathways are needed in order to control insulin and IGFs actions in these cells. Moreover, changes in glucose uptake can be explained by the action of the GLUT4 transporter, which is stimulated in the presence of insulin and IGFs throughout the cell culture. PMID:22654873

  1. Pharmacokinetics and residue depletion of erythromycin in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata L. after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, A; Pellegrino, R M; Cagnardi, P; della Rocca, G

    2014-09-01

    Erythromycin (ERY) is an antibiotic effective against Streptococcus iniae, a microorganism responsible for significant losses in aquaculture. No data are available on the pharmacokinetics and residue depletion of ERY in sea bream. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ERY in this species after a single oral administration at 75 mg kg(-1) b.w. and to assess its residue depletion from tissues after prolonged treatment for 10 days. ERY was rapidly absorbed in sea bream (Cmax  = 10.04 μg g(-1) and Tmax =1 h), with a half-life of 9.35 h and an AUC0-24 of 56.81 (h μg mL(-1) ). The data obtained and the evaluation of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters allowed us to hypothesize that dosage used in this study should be effective against S. iniae. A rapid reduction in erythromycin concentrations was observed in tissues, with the drug being detectable only during the first day post-treatment. In Europe, the use of ERY in aquaculture is allowed by off-label prescription with a withdrawal time of 500 °C day(-1) . The absence of ERY residues in tissues already at 24 h post-treatment suggests that ERY in sea bream should not pose human food safety issues. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cytokine modulation by stress hormones and antagonist specific hormonal inhibition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) head kidney primary cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, Ali Reza; Parra, David; Reyes-López, Felipe E; Tort, Lluís

    2017-09-01

    A tight interaction between endocrine and immune systems takes place mainly due to the key role of head kidney in both hormone and cytokine secretion, particularly under stress situations in which the physiological response promotes the synthesis and release of stress hormones which may lead into immunomodulation as side effect. Although such interaction has been previously investigated, this study evaluated for the first time the effect of stress-associated hormones together with their receptor antagonists on the expression of cytokine genes in head kidney primary cell culture (HKPCC) of the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the seawater gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The results showed a striking difference when comparing the response obtained in trout and seabream. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) decreased the expression of immune-related genes in sea bream but not in rainbow trout and this cortisol effect was reverted by the antagonist mifepristone but not spironolactone. On the other hand, while adrenaline reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) in rainbow trout, the opposite effect was observed in sea bream showing an increased expression (IL-1β, IL-6). Interestingly, this effect was reverted by antagonist propranolol but not phentolamine. Overall, our results confirm the regional interaction between endocrine and cytokine messengers and a clear difference in the sensitivity to the hormonal stimuli between the two species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth-promoting effects of sustained swimming in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Josefina; Moya, A; Millán-Cubillo, A; Vélez, E J; Capilla, E; Pérez-Sánchez, J; Gutiérrez, J; Fernández-Borrás, J

    2015-12-01

    Fish growth is strongly influenced by environmental and nutritional factors and changing culture conditions can help optimize it. The importance of early-life experience on the muscle phenotype later in life is well known. Here, we study the effects of 5 weeks of moderate and sustained swimming activity (5 BL s(-1)) in gilthead sea bream during early development. We analysed growth and body indexes, plasma IGF-I and GH levels, feed conversion, composition [proximate and isotopic ((15)N/(13)C)] and metabolic key enzymes (COX, CS, LDH, HOAD, HK, ALAT, ASAT) of white muscle. Moderate and continuous exercise in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream increased plasma IGF-I, whereas it reduced plasma GH. Under these conditions, growth rate improved without any modification to feed intake through an increase in muscle mass and a reduction in mesenteric fat deposits. There were no changes in the content and turnover of muscle proteins and lipid reserves. Glycogen stores were maintained, but glycogen turnover was higher in white muscle of exercised fish. A lower LDH/CS ratio demonstrated an improvement in the aerobic capacity of white muscle, while a reduction in the COX/CS ratio possibly indicated a functional adaptation of mitochondria to adjust to the tissue-specific energy demand and metabolic fuel availability in exercised fish. We discuss the synergistic effects of dietary nutrients and sustained exercise on the different mitochondrial responses.

  4. Quantitative trait loci involved in sex determination and body growth in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. through targeted genome scan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Loukovitis

    Full Text Available Among vertebrates, teleost fish exhibit a considerably wide range of sex determination patterns that may be influenced by extrinsic parameters. However even for model fish species like the zebrafish Danio rerio the precise mechanisms involved in primary sex determination have not been studied extensively. The zebrafish, a gonochoristic species, is lacking discernible sex chromosomes and the sex of juvenile fish is difficult to determine. Sequential protandrous hermaphrodite species provide distinct determination of the gender and allow studying the sex determination process by looking at the mechanism of sex reversal. This is the first attempt to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic variation for sex determination and body weight in a sequential protandrous hermaphrodite species, the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata. This work demonstrates a fast and efficient strategy for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL detection in the gilthead sea bream, a non-model but target hermaphrodite fish species. Therefore a comparative mapping approach was performed to query syntenies against two other Perciformes, the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, a gonochoristic species and the Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer a protandrous hermaphrodite. In this manner two significant QTLs, one QTL affecting both body weight and sex and one QTL affecting sex, were detected on the same linkage group. The co-segregation of the two QTLs provides a genomic base to the observed genetic correlation between these two traits in sea bream as well as in other teleosts. The identification of QTLs linked to sex reversal and growth, will contribute significantly to a better understanding of the complex nature of sex determination in S. aurata where most individuals reverse to the female sex at the age of two years through development and maturation of the ovarian portion of the gonad and regression of the testicular area. [Genomic sequences reported in this manuscript have been

  5. Lysine and Leucine Deficiencies Affect Myocytes Development and IGF Signaling in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Sheida; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Vélez, Emilio J.; Lutfi, Esmail; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing aquaculture production requires better knowledge of growth regulation and improvement in diet formulation. A great effort has been made to replace fish meal for plant protein sources in aquafeeds, making necessary the supplementation of such diets with crystalline amino acids (AA) to cover the nutritional requirements of each species. Lysine and Leucine are limiting essential AA in fish, and it has been demonstrated that supplementation with them improves growth in different species. However, the specific effects of AA deficiencies in myogenesis are completely unknown and have only been studied at the level of hepatic metabolism. It is well-known that the TOR pathway integrates the nutritional and hormonal signals to regulate protein synthesis and cell proliferation, to finally control muscle growth, a process also coordinated by the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). This study aimed to provide new information on the impact of Lysine and Leucine deficiencies in gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes examining their development and the response of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), MRFs, as well as key molecules involved in muscle growth regulation like TOR. Leucine deficiency did not cause significant differences in most of the molecules analyzed, whereas Lysine deficiency appeared crucial in IGFs regulation, decreasing significantly IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-IRb mRNA levels. This treatment also down-regulated the gene expression of different MRFs, including Myf5, Myogenin and MyoD2. These changes were also corroborated by a significant decrease in proliferation and differentiation markers in the Lysine-deficient treatment. Moreover, both Lysine and Leucine limitation induced a significant down-regulation in FOXO3 gene expression, which deserves further investigation. We believe that these results will be relevant for the production of a species as appreciated for human consumption as it is gilthead sea bream and demonstrates the importance of

  6. Lysine and Leucine Deficiencies Affect Myocytes Development and IGF Signaling in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Azizi

    Full Text Available Optimizing aquaculture production requires better knowledge of growth regulation and improvement in diet formulation. A great effort has been made to replace fish meal for plant protein sources in aquafeeds, making necessary the supplementation of such diets with crystalline amino acids (AA to cover the nutritional requirements of each species. Lysine and Leucine are limiting essential AA in fish, and it has been demonstrated that supplementation with them improves growth in different species. However, the specific effects of AA deficiencies in myogenesis are completely unknown and have only been studied at the level of hepatic metabolism. It is well-known that the TOR pathway integrates the nutritional and hormonal signals to regulate protein synthesis and cell proliferation, to finally control muscle growth, a process also coordinated by the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs. This study aimed to provide new information on the impact of Lysine and Leucine deficiencies in gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes examining their development and the response of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs, MRFs, as well as key molecules involved in muscle growth regulation like TOR. Leucine deficiency did not cause significant differences in most of the molecules analyzed, whereas Lysine deficiency appeared crucial in IGFs regulation, decreasing significantly IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-IRb mRNA levels. This treatment also down-regulated the gene expression of different MRFs, including Myf5, Myogenin and MyoD2. These changes were also corroborated by a significant decrease in proliferation and differentiation markers in the Lysine-deficient treatment. Moreover, both Lysine and Leucine limitation induced a significant down-regulation in FOXO3 gene expression, which deserves further investigation. We believe that these results will be relevant for the production of a species as appreciated for human consumption as it is gilthead sea bream and demonstrates

  7. Prolactin regulates luminal bicarbonate secretion in the intestine of the sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlazzo, A; Carvalho, E S M; Gregorio, S F; Power, D M; Canario, A V M; Trischitta, F; Fuentes, J

    2012-11-01

    The pituitary hormone prolactin is a pleiotropic endocrine factor that plays a major role in the regulation of ion balance in fish, with demonstrated actions mainly in the gills and kidney. The role of prolactin in intestinal ion transport remains little studied. In marine fish, which have high drinking rates, epithelial bicarbonate secretion in the intestine produces luminal carbonate aggregates believed to play a key role in water and ion homeostasis. The present study was designed to establish the putative role of prolactin in the regulation of intestinal bicarbonate secretion in a marine fish. Basolateral addition of prolactin to the anterior intestine of sea bream mounted in Ussing chambers caused a rapid (bicarbonate secretion measured by pH-stat. A clear inhibitory dose-response curve was obtained, with a maximal inhibition of 60-65% of basal bicarbonate secretion. The threshold concentration of prolactin for a significant effect on bicarbonate secretion was 10 ng ml(-1), which is comparable with putative plasma levels in seawater fish. The effect of prolactin on apical bicarbonate secretion was independent of the generation route for bicarbonate, as shown in a preparation devoid of basolateral HCO(3)(-)/CO(2) buffer. Specific inhibitors of JAK2 (AG-490, 50 μmol l(-1)), PI3K (LY-294002, 75 μmol l(-1)) or MEK (U-012610, 10 μmol l(-1)) caused a 50-70% reduction in the effect of prolactin on bicarbonate secretion, and demonstrated the involvement of prolactin receptors. In addition to rapid effects, prolactin has actions at the genomic level. Incubation of intestinal explants of anterior intestine of the sea bream in vitro for 3 h demonstrated a specific effect of prolactin on the expression of the Slc4a4A Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) co-transporter, but not on the Slc26a6A or Slc26a3B Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger. We propose a new role for prolactin in the regulation of bicarbonate secretion, an essential function for ion/water homeostasis in the intestine of marine fish.

  8. Extending Immunological Profiling in the Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata, by Enriched cDNA Library Analysis, Microarray Design and Initial Studies upon the Inflammatory Response to PAMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Boltaña

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the development and validation of an enriched oligonucleotide-microarray platform for Sparus aurata (SAQ to provide a platform for transcriptomic studies in this species. A transcriptome database was constructed by assembly of gilthead sea bream sequences derived from public repositories of mRNA together with reads from a large collection of expressed sequence tags (EST from two extensive targeted cDNA libraries characterizing mRNA transcripts regulated by both bacterial and viral challenge. The developed microarray was further validated by analysing monocyte/macrophage activation profiles after challenge with two Gram-negative bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs; lipopolysaccharide (LPS and peptidoglycan (PGN. Of the approximately 10,000 EST sequenced, we obtained a total of 6837 EST longer than 100 nt, with 3778 and 3059 EST obtained from the bacterial-primed and from the viral-primed cDNA libraries, respectively. Functional classification of contigs from the bacterial- and viral-primed cDNA libraries by Gene Ontology (GO showed that the top five represented categories were equally represented in the two libraries: metabolism (approximately 24% of the total number of contigs, carrier proteins/membrane transport (approximately 15%, effectors/modulators and cell communication (approximately 11%, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism (approximately 7.5% and intracellular transducers/signal transduction (approximately 5%. Transcriptome analyses using this enriched oligonucleotide platform identified differential shifts in the response to PGN and LPS in macrophage-like cells, highlighting responsive gene-cassettes tightly related to PAMP host recognition. As observed in other fish species, PGN is a powerful activator of the inflammatory response in S. aurata macrophage-like cells. We have developed and validated an oligonucleotide microarray (SAQ that provides a platform enriched for the study

  9. Isolation of mast cells from the peritoneal exudate of the teleost fish gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-González, Nuria Esther; García-García, Erick; Montero, Jana; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Meseguer, José; García-Ayala, Alfonsa; Mulero, Victoriano

    2014-09-01

    Inflammation is the first response of animals to infection or tissue damage. Sparus aurata (Perciformes) was the first fish species shown to possess histamine-containing mast cells at mucosal tissues. We report a separation protocol for obtaining highly enriched (over 95% purity) preparations of fish mast cells in high numbers (5-20 million mast cells per fish). The peritoneal exudate of S. aurata is composed of lymphocytes, acidophilic granulocytes, macrophages and mast cells. We separated the lymphocyte fraction through discontinuous density gradient centrifugation. The remaining cells were cultivated overnight in RPMI-1640 culture medium containing 5% fetal calf serum, which allowed macrophages to adhere to the cell culture flasks. Finally, acidophilic granulocytes were separated from the mast cells though a Magnetic-Activated Cell Separation (MACS) protocol, using a monoclonal antibody against these cells. The purity of mast cells-enriched fractions was analyzed by flow cytometry and by transmission electron microscopy. The functionality of purified mast cells was confirmed by the detection of histamine release by ELISA after stimulation with compound 48/80 and the induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8 following stimulation with bacterial DNA. This fish mast cells separation protocol is a stepping stone for further studies addressing the evolution of vertebrate inflammatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of compound mixture of caprylic acid, iron and mannan oligosaccharide against Sparicotyle chrysophrii (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea) in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigos, George; Mladineo, Ivona; Nikoloudaki, Chrysa; Vrbatovic, Anamarija; Kogiannou, Dimitra

    2016-08-05

    We have evaluated the therapeutic effect of a compound mixture of caprylic acid (200 mg/kg fish), organic iron (0.2% of diet) and mannan oligosaccharide (0.4% of diet) in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata Linnaeus, infected with Sparicotyle chrysophrii Beneden et Hesse, 1863 in controlled conditions. One hundred and ten reared and S. chrysophrii-free fish (197 g) located in a cement tank were infected by the parasite two weeks following the addition of 150 S. chrysophrii-infected fish (70 g). Growth parameters and gill parasitic load were measured in treated against control fish after a ten-week-period. Differences in final weight, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate and feed efficiency were not statistically significant between the experimental groups, suggesting no evident effect with respect to fish growth during the study period. Although the prevalence of S. chrysophrii was not affected by the mixture at the end of the experiment, the number of adults and larvae was significantly lower. The mean intensity encompassing the number of adults and larvae was 8.1 in treated vs 17.7 in control fish. Individual comparisons of gill arches showed that the preferred parasitism site for S. chrysophrii it the outermost or fourth gill arch, consistently apparent in fish fed the modified diet and in control fish. In conclusion, the combined application of caprylic acid, organic iron and mannan oligosaccharide can significantly affect the evolution of infection with S. chrysophrii in gilthead sea bream, being capable of reducing adult and larval stages of the monogenean. However, no difference in growth improvement was observed after the trial period, potentially leaving space for further optimisation of the added dietary compounds.

  11. Dietary vegetable oils do not alter the intestine transcriptome of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, but modulate the transcriptomic response to infection with Enteromyxum leei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calduch-Giner Josep A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies conducted with gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. have determined the maximum dietary replacement of fish meal and oil without compromising growth or product quality. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of the nutritional background on fish health and fish fed plant protein-based diets with fish oil (FO diet or a blend of vegetable oils (66VO diet were exposed for 102 days to the intestinal myxosporean parasite Enteromyxum leei, and the intestine transcriptome was analyzed with a customized oligo-microarray of 7,500 annotated genes. Results Infection prevalence was high and similar in the two diet groups, but the outcome of the disease was more pronounced in fish fed the 66VO diet. No differences were found in the transcriptome of both diet control groups, whereas the number of differentially expressed genes in infected groups was considerable. K-means clustering of these differentially expressed genes identified four expression patterns that reflected the progression of the disease with the magnitude of the fold-change being higher in infected 66VO fish. A positive correlation was found between the time of infection and the magnitude of the transcriptional change within the 66VO group, being higher in early infected animals. Within this diet group, a strong up-regulation of many components of the immune specific response was evidenced, whereas other genes related to complement response and xenobiotic metabolism were down-regulated. Conclusions The high replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in practical fish feeds did not modify the intestine transcriptome of gilthead sea bream, but important changes were apparent when fish were exposed to the myxosporean E. leei. The detected changes were mostly a consequence rather than a cause of the different disease progression in the two diet groups. Hence, the developed microarray constitutes an excellent diagnostic tool to address changes associated with the

  12. Sodium salt medium-chain fatty acids and Bacillus-based probiotic strategies to improve growth and intestinal health of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata

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    Paula Simó-Mirabet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance. Therefore, a number of alternatives, including enzymes, prebiotics, probiotics, phytonutrients and organic acids used alone or in combination have been proposed for the improvement of immunological state, growth performance and production in livestock animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate two commercially available feed additives, one based on medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs from coconut oil and another with a Bacillus-based probiotic, in gilthead sea bream (GSB, Sparus aurata, a marine farmed fish of high value in the Mediterranean aquaculture. Methods The potential benefits of adding two commercial feed additives on fish growth performance and intestinal health were assessed in a 100-days feeding trial. The experimental diets (D2 and D3 were prepared by supplementing a basal diet (D1 with MCFAs in the form of a sodium salt of coconut fatty acid distillate (DICOSAN®; Norel, Madrid, Spain, rich on C-12, added at 0.3% (D2 or with the probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940, added at 0.1% (D3. The study integrated data on growth performance, blood biochemistry, histology and intestinal gene expression patterns of selected markers of intestinal function and architecture. Results MCFAs in the form of a coconut oil increased feed intake, growth rates and the surface of nutrient absorption, promoting the anabolic action of the somatotropic axis. The probiotic (D3 induced anti

  13. Metabolic and transcriptional responses of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) to environmental stress: New insights in fish mitochondrial phenotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermejo-Nogales, A.; Nederlof, M.A.J.; Benedito-Palos, L.; Ballester-Lozano, G.F.; Folkedal, O.; Olsen, R.E.; Sitjà-Bobadilla, A.; Pérez-Sánchez, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to phenotype fish metabolism and the transcriptionally-mediated response of hepatic mitochondria of gilthead sea bream to intermittent and repetitive environmental stressors: (i) changes in water temperature (T-ST), (ii) changes in water level and chasing (C-ST) and

  14. Effect of temperature on the metabolism, behaviour and oxygen requirements of Sparus aurata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remen, M.; Nederlof, M.A.J.; Folkedal, O.; Thorsheim, G.; Sitjà-Bobadilla, A.; Pérez-Sánchez, J.; Oppedal, F.; Olsen, R.E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of temperature on the limiting oxygen saturation (LOS) of gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. This threshold was defined as the % O2 saturation where fish no longer upheld their routine metabolic rate (RMR, the metabolic rate of fed and active fish) during a progressive

  15. Potential use of high levels of vegetal proteins in diets for market-sized gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    OpenAIRE

    Monge-Ortiz, Raquel; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; Marquez, Lorenzo; Moyano-Lopez, Francisco Javier; Jover Cerda, Miguel; Tomas-Vidal, A.

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The effect of partial or total dietary substitution of fishmeal (FM) by vegetal protein sources on growth and feed efficiency was carried out in on-growing gilthead sea bream (mean initial weight 131 g). The Control diet (FM 100) contained FM as the primary protein source, while in Diets FM 25 and FM 0 the FM protein was replaced at 75% and 100%, respectively, by a vegetable protein mixture consisting of wheat gluten, soybean meal, rapeseed meal and crystalline amino...

  16. Dietary supplementation of heat-treated Gracilaria and Ulva seaweeds enhanced acute hypoxia tolerance in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoni, Leonardo J; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Queiroz, Augusto; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Gonçalves, José Fernando Magalhães; Rocha, Cristina M R; Abreu, Helena T; Schrama, Johan W; Ozorio, Rodrigo O A; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2017-06-15

    Intensive aquaculture practices involve rearing fish at high densities. In these conditions, fish may be exposed to suboptimal dissolved O2 levels with an increased formation of reactive O2 species (ROS) in tissues. Seaweeds (SW) contain biologically active substances with efficient antioxidant capacities. This study evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation of heat-treated SW (5% Gracilaria vermiculophylla or 5% Ulva lactuca) on stress bioindicators in sea bream subjected to a hypoxic challenge. 168 fish (104.5 g average weight) were distributed in 24 tanks, in which eight tanks were fed one of three experimental diets for 34 days: (i) a control diet without SW supplementation, (ii) a control diet supplemented with Ulva, or (iii) a control diet with Gracilaria Thereafter, fish from 12 tanks (n=4 tanks/dietary treatment) were subjected to 24 h hypoxia (1.3 mg O2 l(-1)) and subsequent recovery normoxia (8.6 mg O2 l(-1)). Hypoxic fish showed an increase in hematocrit values regardless of dietary treatment. Dietary modulation of the O2-carrying capacity was conspicuous during recovery, as fish fed SW supplemented diets displayed significantly higher haemoglobin concentration than fish fed the control diet. After the challenge, survival rates in both groups of fish fed SW were higher, which was consistent with a decrease in hepatic lipid peroxidation in these groups. Furthermore, the hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities were modulated differently by changes in environmental O2 condition, particularly in sea bream fed the Gracilaria diet. After being subjected to hypoxia, the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and molecular chaperones in liver and heart were down regulated in sea bream fed SW diets. This study suggests that the antioxidant properties of heat-treated SW may have a protective role against oxidative stress. The nature of these compounds and possible mechanisms implied are currently being investigated. © 2017. Published by The Company

  17. Dietary supplementation of heat-treated Gracilaria and Ulva seaweeds enhanced acute hypoxia tolerance in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo J. Magnoni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive aquaculture practices involve rearing fish at high densities. In these conditions, fish may be exposed to suboptimal dissolved O2 levels with an increased formation of reactive O2 species (ROS in tissues. Seaweeds (SW contain biologically active substances with efficient antioxidant capacities. This study evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation of heat-treated SW (5% Gracilaria vermiculophylla or 5% Ulva lactuca on stress bioindicators in sea bream subjected to a hypoxic challenge. 168 fish (104.5 g average weight were distributed in 24 tanks, in which eight tanks were fed one of three experimental diets for 34 days: (i a control diet without SW supplementation, (ii a control diet supplemented with Ulva, or (iii a control diet with Gracilaria. Thereafter, fish from 12 tanks (n=4 tanks/dietary treatment were subjected to 24 h hypoxia (1.3 mg O2 l−1 and subsequent recovery normoxia (8.6 mg O2 l−1. Hypoxic fish showed an increase in hematocrit values regardless of dietary treatment. Dietary modulation of the O2-carrying capacity was conspicuous during recovery, as fish fed SW supplemented diets displayed significantly higher haemoglobin concentration than fish fed the control diet. After the challenge, survival rates in both groups of fish fed SW were higher, which was consistent with a decrease in hepatic lipid peroxidation in these groups. Furthermore, the hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities were modulated differently by changes in environmental O2 condition, particularly in sea bream fed the Gracilaria diet. After being subjected to hypoxia, the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and molecular chaperones in liver and heart were down regulated in sea bream fed SW diets. This study suggests that the antioxidant properties of heat-treated SW may have a protective role against oxidative stress. The nature of these compounds and possible mechanisms implied are currently being investigated.

  18. Potential use of high levels of vegetal proteins in diets for market-sized gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Ortiz, Raquel; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; Márquez, Lorenzo; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Jover-Cerdá, Miguel; Tomás-Vidal, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The effect of partial or total dietary substitution of fishmeal (FM) by vegetal protein sources on growth and feed efficiency was carried out in on-growing gilthead sea bream (mean initial weight 131 g). The Control diet (FM 100) contained FM as the primary protein source, while in Diets FM 25 and FM 0 the FM protein was replaced at 75% and 100%, respectively, by a vegetable protein mixture consisting of wheat gluten, soybean meal, rapeseed meal and crystalline amino acids. Diets FM 25 and FM 0 also contained krill meal at 47 g/kg in order to improve palatability. At the end of the trial (after 158 d), fish survival was above 90%. Final weight and the specific growth rate were statistically lower in fish fed the Control diet (361 g and 0.64%/d), compared with 390-396 g and 0.69-0.70%/d after feeding vegetal diets. No significant differences were found regarding feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The digestibility of protein and amino acids (determined with chromium oxide as indicator) was similar in all diets. The blood parameters were not significantly affected by treatments. The activity of trypsin and pepsin was significantly reduced after feeding Diet FM 0. In the distal intestine, the villi length in fish fed Diet FM 25 was significantly longer and the intestine of the fish fed the FM 100 diet showed a smaller number of goblet cells. In conclusion, a total FM substitution by a vegetal mix supplemented with synthetic amino acids in on-growing sea bream is feasible.

  19. Metabolic and transcriptional responses of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) to environmental stress: new insights in fish mitochondrial phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Nogales, Azucena; Nederlof, Marit; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Folkedal, Ole; Olsen, Rolf Eric; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to phenotype fish metabolism and the transcriptionally-mediated response of hepatic mitochondria of gilthead sea bream to intermittent and repetitive environmental stressors: (i) changes in water temperature (T-ST), (ii) changes in water level and chasing (C-ST) and (iii) multiple sensory perception stressors (M-ST). Gene expression profiling was done using a quantitative PCR array of 60 mitochondria-related genes, selected as markers of transcriptional regulation, oxidative metabolism, respiration uncoupling, antioxidant defense, protein import/folding/assembly, and mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis. The mitochondrial phenotype mirrored changes in fish performance, haematology and lactate production. T-ST especially up-regulated transcriptional factors (PGC1α, NRF1, NRF2), rate limiting enzymes of fatty acid β-oxidation (CPT1A) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (CS), membrane translocases (Tim/TOM complex) and molecular chaperones (mtHsp10, mtHsp60, mtHsp70) to improve the oxidative capacity in a milieu of a reduced feed intake and impaired haematology. The lack of mitochondrial response, increased production of lactate and negligible effects on growth performance in C-ST fish were mostly considered as a switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. A strong down-regulation of PGC1α, NRF1, NRF2, CPT1A, CS and markers of mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis (BAX, BCLX, MFN2, MIRO2) occurred in M-ST fish in association with the greatest circulating cortisol concentration and a reduced lactate production and feed efficiency, which represents a metabolic condition with the highest allostatic load score. These findings evidence a high mitochondrial plasticity against stress stimuli, providing new insights to define the threshold level of stress condition in fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A; Steffensen, John F

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (U sus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in U sus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (U opt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between U crit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced U crit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between U sus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between U sus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high U sus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between U sus and U opt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming

  1. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg−1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and

  2. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Christian Svendsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata, both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: 1 gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e. burst-assisted swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC; 2 variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit correlates with metabolic scope (MS or anaerobic capacity (i.e. maximum EPOC; 3 there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus and minimum cost of transport (COTmin; and 4 variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e. the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance travelled. Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e. EPOC increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg-1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis, a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and optimum

  3. Performance of maximum likelihood mixture models to estimate nursery habitat contributions to fish stocks: a case study on sea bream Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklitschek, Edwin J; Darnaude, Audrey M

    2016-01-01

    Mixture models (MM) can be used to describe mixed stocks considering three sets of parameters: the total number of contributing sources, their chemical baseline signatures and their mixing proportions. When all nursery sources have been previously identified and sampled for juvenile fish to produce baseline nursery-signatures, mixing proportions are the only unknown set of parameters to be estimated from the mixed-stock data. Otherwise, the number of sources, as well as some/all nursery-signatures may need to be also estimated from the mixed-stock data. Our goal was to assess bias and uncertainty in these MM parameters when estimated using unconditional maximum likelihood approaches (ML-MM), under several incomplete sampling and nursery-signature separation scenarios. We used a comprehensive dataset containing otolith elemental signatures of 301 juvenile Sparus aurata, sampled in three contrasting years (2008, 2010, 2011), from four distinct nursery habitats. (Mediterranean lagoons) Artificial nursery-source and mixed-stock datasets were produced considering: five different sampling scenarios where 0-4 lagoons were excluded from the nursery-source dataset and six nursery-signature separation scenarios that simulated data separated 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 standard deviations among nursery-signature centroids. Bias (BI) and uncertainty (SE) were computed to assess reliability for each of the three sets of MM parameters. Both bias and uncertainty in mixing proportion estimates were low (BI ≤ 0.14, SE ≤ 0.06) when all nursery-sources were sampled but exhibited large variability among cohorts and increased with the number of non-sampled sources up to BI = 0.24 and SE = 0.11. Bias and variability in baseline signature estimates also increased with the number of non-sampled sources, but tended to be less biased, and more uncertain than mixing proportion ones, across all sampling scenarios (BI nursery signatures improved reliability of mixing proportion

  4. Performance of maximum likelihood mixture models to estimate nursery habitat contributions to fish stocks: a case study on sea bream Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin J. Niklitschek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Mixture models (MM can be used to describe mixed stocks considering three sets of parameters: the total number of contributing sources, their chemical baseline signatures and their mixing proportions. When all nursery sources have been previously identified and sampled for juvenile fish to produce baseline nursery-signatures, mixing proportions are the only unknown set of parameters to be estimated from the mixed-stock data. Otherwise, the number of sources, as well as some/all nursery-signatures may need to be also estimated from the mixed-stock data. Our goal was to assess bias and uncertainty in these MM parameters when estimated using unconditional maximum likelihood approaches (ML-MM, under several incomplete sampling and nursery-signature separation scenarios. Methods We used a comprehensive dataset containing otolith elemental signatures of 301 juvenile Sparus aurata, sampled in three contrasting years (2008, 2010, 2011, from four distinct nursery habitats. (Mediterranean lagoons Artificial nursery-source and mixed-stock datasets were produced considering: five different sampling scenarios where 0–4 lagoons were excluded from the nursery-source dataset and six nursery-signature separation scenarios that simulated data separated 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 standard deviations among nursery-signature centroids. Bias (BI and uncertainty (SE were computed to assess reliability for each of the three sets of MM parameters. Results Both bias and uncertainty in mixing proportion estimates were low (BI ≤ 0.14, SE ≤ 0.06 when all nursery-sources were sampled but exhibited large variability among cohorts and increased with the number of non-sampled sources up to BI = 0.24 and SE = 0.11. Bias and variability in baseline signature estimates also increased with the number of non-sampled sources, but tended to be less biased, and more uncertain than mixing proportion ones, across all sampling scenarios (BI < 0.13, SE < 0

  5. Predicting Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata Freshness by a Novel Combined Technique of 3D Imaging and SW-NIR Spectral Analysis

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    Eugenio Ivorra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A technique that combines the spatial resolution of a 3D structured-light (SL imaging system with the spectral analysis of a hyperspectral short-wave near infrared system was developed for freshness predictions of gilthead sea bream on the first storage days (Days 0–6. This novel approach allows the hyperspectral analysis of very specific fish areas, which provides more information for freshness estimations. The SL system obtains a 3D reconstruction of fish, and an automatic method locates gilthead’s pupils and irises. Once these regions are positioned, the hyperspectral camera acquires spectral information and a multivariate statistical study is done. The best region is the pupil with an R2 of 0.92 and an RMSE of 0.651 for predictions. We conclude that the combination of 3D technology with the hyperspectral analysis offers plenty of potential and is a very promising technique to non destructively predict gilthead freshness.

  6. Replacement of Marine Fish Oil with de novo Omega-3 Oils from Transgenic Camelina sativa in Feeds for Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Mónica B; Sprague, M; Montero, D; Usher, S; Sayanova, O; Campbell, P J; Napier, J A; Caballero, M J; Izquierdo, M; Tocher, D R

    2016-10-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are essential components of the diet of all vertebrates. The major dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA for humans has been fish and seafood but, paradoxically, farmed fish are also reliant on marine fisheries for fish meal and fish oil (FO), traditionally major ingredients of aquafeeds. Currently, the only sustainable alternatives to FO are vegetable oils, which are rich in C18 PUFA, but devoid of the eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) abundant in FO. Two new n-3 LC-PUFA sources obtained from genetically modified (GM) Camelina sativa containing either EPA alone (ECO) or EPA and DHA (DCO) were compared to FO and wild-type camelina oil (WCO) in juvenile sea bream. Neither ECO nor DCO had any detrimental effects on fish performance, although final weight of ECO-fed fish (117 g) was slightly lower than that of FO- and DCO-fed fish (130 and 127 g, respectively). Inclusion of the GM-derived oils enhanced the n-3 LC-PUFA content in fish tissues compared to WCO, although limited biosynthesis was observed indicating accumulation of dietary fatty acids. The expression of genes involved in several lipid metabolic processes, as well as fish health and immune response, in both liver and anterior intestine were altered in fish fed the GM-derived oils. This showed a similar pattern to that observed in WCO-fed fish reflecting the hybrid fatty acid profile of the new oils. Overall the data indicated that the GM-derived oils could be suitable alternatives to dietary FO in sea bream.

  7. Immunization of sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles against Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida by short bath: Effect on some pro-inflammatory molecules and the Mx gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, V; Padilla, D; Bravo, J; Román, L; Rosario, I; Acosta, B; Vega, B; El Aamri, F; Escuela, O; Ramos-Vivas, J; Acosta, F

    2015-10-01

    Cytokines are a family of proteins derived from macrophages, lymphocytes, granulocytes, mast cells and epithelial cells and can be divided into interferons (IFNs), Interleukins (ILs) and Tumor Necrosis factors (TNFs) among others. The presence of cytokines in a wide number of fish species has been proved and several molecules types have been already cloned and sequenced. In this work some proinflamatory molecules and Mx gene were detected in the liver of vaccinated sea bream juveniles with an average body weight of 5 g. The method of immunization was by short bath and three different bacterins against the marine pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida were designed and used to immunize fish. Five genes encoding for five different molecules were analyzed by real time PCR: IL-1β, IL Ir-2, Cox-2, Mx and TNFα. Gene expression was quantified along four days after fish immunization and results were compared among groups. Results show that the heat-inactivated vaccine stimulates the up-regulation of IL-1β, IL Ir-2, Cox-2 and TNFα genes whereas the UV-light inactivated vaccine was the unique vaccine which stimulates the expression of Mx gene. The present is a novel study that shows by the first time the effect of the inactivation process of vaccines on the expression levels of genes involved in the defense against Photobacterium damselae subsp piscicida. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Origin of broodstock and effects on the deformities of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. 1758 in a Mediterranean commercial hatchery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Theodorou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of broodstock of different origin as a method to improve fry production performance and consequently to minimize deformities was examined at industrial scale in a commercial gilthead sea bream hatchery. The outcome of fry production from three different broodstock groups (BA: broodfish (Mediterranean with multiannual hatchery presence, BB: selected offspring originating from the BA group, and BC: broodfish of Atlantic origin was investigated in the same rearing conditions and feeding protocol. Performance factors assessed were the survival and weaning of the larvae; the mortality rates from the “weaning until the end of the hatchery stage” of the larvae/fry; the percentage of fry without swim bladder; the percentage of fry with skeletal deformities and the feed conversion ratio. In all factors, no statistical differences among the experimental groups were detected. However, due to early rejection of the deformed individuals, benefits are expected from the decrease of the supplied amount of food and the reduced labor cost.

  9. Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2013-04-14

    The effect of ration size on muscle fatty acid (FA) composition and mRNA expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism have been addressed in juveniles of gilthead sea bream fed a practical diet over the course of an 11-week trial. The experimental setup included three feeding levels: (i) full ration until visual satiety, (ii) 70 % of satiation and (iii) 70 % of satiation with the last 2 weeks at the maintenance ration. Feed restriction reduced lipid content of whole body by 30 % and that of fillet by 50 %. In this scenario, the FA composition of fillet TAG was not altered by ration size, whereas that of phospholipids was largely modified with a higher retention of arachidonic acid and DHA. The mRNA transcript levels of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and FA desaturase 2 were not regulated by ration size in the present experimental model. In contrast, mRNA levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturases were markedly down-regulated by feed restriction. An opposite trend was found for a muscle-specific lipoprotein lipase, which is exclusive of fish lineage. Several upstream regulatory transcriptions were also assessed, although nutritionally mediated changes in mRNA transcripts were almost reduced to PPARα and β, which might act in a counter-regulatory way on lipolysis and lipogenic pathways. This gene expression pattern contributes to the construction of a panel of biomarkers to direct marine fish production towards muscle lean phenotypes with increased retentions of long-chain PUFA.

  10. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium molnari in Spanish Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.) and European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Cultures: from Hatchery to Market Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitjà-Bobadilla, A.; Padrós, F.; Aguilera, C.; Alvarez-Pellitero, P.

    2005-01-01

    A long-term epidemiological study of Cryptosporidium molnari in aquacultured European sea bass (ESB) and gilthead sea bream (GSB) was performed in different types of facilities on the Atlantic, Cantabric, and Mediterranean coasts. Four types of studies were carried out. In study A, fish raised from juveniles to marketable size (ongrowing stage) were periodically sampled in three different types of cultures. Studies B and C focused on hatchery and nursery facilities. In study D, occasional samplings were performed during mortality or morbidity outbreaks. As a general trend, C. molnari was more prevalent in GSB than in ESB. Data on the distribution pattern of C. molnari in total sampled GSB (studies A, B, and D) had a variance higher than the mean (overdispersion). In GSB (study A), the type of ongrowing system (sea cages, earth ponds, or indoor tanks) was found to have no significant effect. There was a significant relationship between the presence of the parasite and both fish weight and season. The highest infection values were recorded in spring. Prevalence and intensity had convex weight profiles, with a peak in 30- to 100-g fish. In study D, the prevalence of infection was higher in fish recently introduced in sea cages and in preongrowing systems. In studies B and C, fish were almost never infected before entering the postlarval and nursery facilities. The parasite seems to enter the host mainly through the water in production steps with less stringent water treatment. Recirculation systems and fish cannibalism could contribute to oocyst concentration and dispersion in aquaculture facilities. PMID:15640180

  11. Toxic Effects of Domoic Acid in the Seabream Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Vasconcelos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxicity induced in fish by domoic acid (DA was assessed with respect to occurrence of neurotoxic signs, lethality, and histopathology by light microscopy. Sparus aurata were exposed to a single dose of DA by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of 0, 0.45, 0.9, and 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw. Mortality (66.67 ± 16.67% was only observed in dose of 9.0 mg kg−1 bw. Signs of neurological toxicity were detected for the doses of 0.9 and 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw. Furthermore, the mean concentrations (±SD of DA detected by HPLC-UV in extracts of brain after exposure to 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw were 0.61 ± 0.01, 0.96 ± 0.00, and 0.36 ± 0.01 mg DA kg−1 tissue at 1, 2, and 4 hours. The lack of major permanent brain damage in S. aurata, and reversibility of neurotoxic signs, suggest that lower susceptibility to DA or neuronal recovery occurs in affected individuals.

  12. Impact of Diets Containing Plant Raw Materials as Fish Meal and Fish Oil Replacement on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata, and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Freshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorakis Kriton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate whether the total or high substitution of fish meal (FM and fish oil (FO by sustainable plant raw materials (plant meal and oils in long-term feeding for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp can result in spoilage alterations during ice storage. These three species were fed throughout their whole rearing cycle with plant-based diets and compared to counterparts that received FM/FO-based diets or commercial-like diets. Sensory QIM schemes adopted for these species and ATP breakdown products (K-value and components were used to evaluate the freshness. Sensory acceptability of 14, 15, and 12 days was found for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp, respectively. This corresponded to K-values of approximately 80%, 35%, and 65% for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp, respectively. No major effect of dietary history on postmortem shelf life was shown for gilthead sea bream and common carp; neither sensory-perceived nor chemical freshness showed diet-related differences. Rainbow trout fed with the plant-based diet exhibited slightly worse sensory freshness than fish fed with FM/FO-based diets, at the end of shelf life. These findings imply that FM and FO can be successfully substituted without major impacts on shelf life of fish.

  13. Jellyfish Stings Trigger Gill Disorders and Increased Mortality in Farmed Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Belmar, Mar; M'Rabet, Charaf; Dhaouadi, Raouf; Chalghaf, Mohamed; Daly Yahia, Mohamed Néjib; Fuentes, Verónica; Piraino, Stefano; Kéfi-Daly Yahia, Ons

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish are of particular concern for marine finfish aquaculture. In recent years repeated mass mortality episodes of farmed fish were caused by blooms of gelatinous cnidarian stingers, as a consequence of a wide range of hemolytic, cytotoxic, and neurotoxic properties of associated cnidocytes venoms. The mauve stinger jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) has been identified as direct causative agent for several documented fish mortality events both in Northern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea aquaculture farms. We investigated the effects of P. noctiluca envenomations on the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata by in vivo laboratory assays. Fish were incubated for 8 hours with jellyfish at 3 different densities in 300 l experimental tanks. Gill disorders were assessed by histological analyses and histopathological scoring of samples collected at time intervals from 3 hours to 4 weeks after initial exposure. Fish gills showed different extent and severity of gill lesions according to jellyfish density and incubation time, and long after the removal of jellyfish from tanks. Jellyfish envenomation elicits local and systemic inflammation reactions, histopathology and gill cell toxicity, with severe impacts on fish health. Altogether, these results shows P. noctiluca swarms may represent a high risk for Mediterranean finfish aquaculture farms, generating significant gill damage after only a few hours of contact with farmed S. aurata. Due to the growth of the aquaculture sector and the increased frequency of jellyfish blooms in the coastal waters, negative interactions between stinging jellyfish and farmed fish are likely to increase with the potential for significant economic losses.

  14. Dietary oils mediate cortisol kinetics and the hepatic mRNA expression profile of stress-responsive genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) exposed to crowding stress. Implications on energy homeostasis and stress susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Sanchez, Jaume; Borrel, Miriam; Bermejo-Nogales, Azucena; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Calduch-Giner, Josep A.; Kaushik, Sadasivam

    2013-01-01

    Juveniles of gilthead sea bream were fed with plant protein-based diets with fish oil (FO diet) or vegetable oils (66VO diet) as dietary lipid sources. No differences in growth performance were found between both groups, and fish with an average body mass of 65-70 g were crowded (90-100 kg/m(3)) to assess the stress response within the 72 h after the onset of stressor. The rise in plasma cortisol and glucose levels was higher in stressed fish of group 66VO (66VO-S) than in FO group (FO-S), bu...

  15. Short-term exposure of sea bream (Sparus aurata and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax fry to high concentrations of the pesticide Dimilin® (diflubenzuron; effects on survival and histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELIDIS Panagiotis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of Dimilin® on the survival and histology of two commercially important marine fish species, sea bream and sea bass, after a short-term exposure, were examined. Sea bream and sea bass fry of similar mean weight (0.25±0.05g SD were exposed to three concentrations of the pesticide (diflubenzuron, 1500, 1000 and 500 ppm, for 96 h. For each species, three groups of ten fish (replicates were exposed to each concentration,while three groups were not exposed and kept as controls. The mortality was recorded daily and tissue samples from fish of allgroups were collected for histological examination, after 24 and 96 h exposure. During the first 24 h of exposure, almost all seabream exposed to 1500 and 1000 ppm died. Similarly, almost all sea bass fry exposed to 1500 ppm also died but few fishexposed to 1000 ppm survived. Throughout the exposure period, sea bream fry exposed to 500 ppm exhibited similar survivalwith this of the control groups (percentage of alive fish after 96 h: 73.3±25.1% SD and 70±17.3% SD respectively, while seabass fry exposed to the same concentration exhibited significantly lower survival rate compared to that of the control groups(percentage of alive fish after 96 h: 26.6±20.8% SD and 86.6±5.7% SD respectively. The histological examination indicatedsimilar findings for both species. As the fish exposed to 1500 and 1000 ppm died in the first 24 h of exposure, before collectingthe tissue samples, the gills exhibited severe lesions of autolysis.The tissue samples of the fish exposed to 500 ppm werecollected from live fish and these revealed severe extensive hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the gill respiratory epithelium.These lesions became more pronounced after 96 h exposure. Only areas of mild hyperplasia / hypertrophy of the respiratory epithelium were observed in fish from the control groups, after 24 and 96 h exposure. No lesions in the internal organs of the fish exposed to Dimilin® were

  16. Dietary oils mediate cortisol kinetics and the hepatic mRNA expression profile of stress-responsive genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) exposed to crowding stress. Implications on energy homeostasis and stress susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Borrel, Míriam; Bermejo-Nogales, Azucena; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Kaushik, Sadasivam

    2013-06-01

    Juveniles of gilthead sea bream were fed with plant protein-based diets with fish oil (FO diet) or vegetable oils (66VO diet) as dietary lipid sources. No differences in growth performance were found between both groups, and fish with an average body mass of 65-70 g were crowded (90-100 kg/m(3)) to assess the stress response within the 72 h after the onset of stressor. The rise in plasma cortisol and glucose levels was higher in stressed fish of group 66VO (66VO-S) than in FO group (FO-S), but the former stressed group regained more quickly the cortisol resting values of the corresponding non-stressed diet group. The cell-tissue repair response represented by derlin-1, 75 kDa glucose-regulated protein and 170 kDa glucose-regulated protein was triggered at a lower level in 66VO-S than in FO-S fish. This occurred in concert with a long-lasting up-regulation of glucocorticoid receptors, antioxidant enzymes, enzyme subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and enzymes involved in tissue fatty acid uptake and β-oxidation. This gene expression pattern allows a metabolic phenotype that is prone to "high power" mitochondria, which would support the replacement of fish oil with vegetable oils when theoretical requirements in essential fatty acids for normal growth are met by diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural and functional characterizations of activin type 2B receptor (acvr2b) ortholog from the marine fish, gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata: evidence for gene duplication of acvr2b in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkenstein, Bruria; Krol, Ekaterina; Esterin, Elena; Kim, Yong-Soo

    2012-12-01

    Myostatin (MSTN), a negative regulator of muscle growth and a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, can bind the two activin type 2 receptors (ACVR2). It has been previously shown that WT mice injected with ACVR2B extracellular domain (ACVR2B-ECD) had higher muscle mass. Likewise, fish larvae immersed in Pichia pastoris culture supernatant, containing goldfish Acvr2b-ECD, showed enhanced larval growth. However, it is not clear whether fish Mstn1 and Mstn2 signal through the same receptor and whether fish express more than one acvr2b gene. In the current study, three cDNAs encoding acvr2b (saacvr2b-1, saacvr2b-2a, and saacvr2b-2b) were cloned from gilthead sea bream. All three contain the short extracellular binding domain, a short transmembrane region, and a conserved catalytic domain of serine/threonine protein kinase. Bioinformatics analysis provided evidence for the existence of two acvr2b genes (acvr2b-1 and acvr2b-2) in several other fish species as well, probably as a result of gene or genome duplication. The two isoforms differ in their amino acid sequences. The direct inhibitory effect of Acvr2b-ECD on Mstn activity was tested in vitro. The saAcvr2b-1-ECD was expressed in the yeast P. pastoris. Evidence is provided for N-glycosylation of Acvr2b-1-ECD. The affinity-purified Acvr2b-1-ECD inhibited recombinant mouse/rat/human mature MSTN activity when determined in vitro using the CAGA-luciferase assay in A204 cells. A lower inhibitory activity was obtained when unprocessed purified, furin-digested, and activated saMstn1 was used. Results of this study demonstrate for the first time the existence of two acvr2b genes in fish. In addition, the study shows that bioactive fish Acvr2b-ECD can be produced from P. pastoris.

  18. Dietary supplementation with arachidonic acid alters the stress response of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anholt, R.D. van; Koven, W.M.; Lutzky, S.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) larvae were fed Artemia nauplii enriched with a low or high level of arachidonic acid (ArA, 20:4n-6; 1.5 and 7.5 mg ArA/g dw, respectively) and their response to two stressors was determined. Larvae of 28 and 50 days post-hatch (DPH) were subjected to 90 s of air

  19. Antioxidant property of wild and farmed sea bream (Sparus aurata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-26

    Dec 26, 2011 ... vention of several degenerative diseases, including car- diovascular and inflammatory disorders, cancer and stroke (Kris-Etherton et al., 2003; Din et al., 2004). .... TBA (0.5% TBA in 0.025 M NaOH containing 0.025% BHA). Finally, the reaction mixture was cooled in ice and centrifuged at 5319 g for. 15 min.

  20. Antioxidant property of wild and farmed sea bream ( Sparus aurata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and hydroxyl radicalscavenging activity (RSA) as well as the reducing power activity of different extracts increased linearly with increasing concentration. DPPH scavenging activity was more effective with farmed fish extracts. Extracts of oven cooked wild and grilled farmed fish ...

  1. The effects of swimming pattern on the energy use of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Maria Faldborg; Steffensen, John Fleng; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen consumption ( ) was measured for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) during spontaneous and forced activities. During spontaneous activity, the swimming pattern was analysed for the effect on   on the average speed (U), turning rate (¿) and change in speed (¿U). All swimming characteristics ......   at the respective optimum swimming speeds with the lowest cost of transport (Uopt) resulted in similar values independent of swimming mode. This could be an important observation in estimating energetic costs of free-ranging fishes.......Oxygen consumption ( ) was measured for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) during spontaneous and forced activities. During spontaneous activity, the swimming pattern was analysed for the effect on   on the average speed (U), turning rate (¿) and change in speed (¿U). All swimming characteristics...... contributed significantly to the source of spontaneous swimming costs, and the models explained up to 58% of the variation in   Prediction of   of fish in field studies can thereby be improved if changes in speed and direction are determined in addition to swimming speed. A relationship between swimming speed...

  2. Parathyroid hormone-related protein and calcium regulation in vitamin D-deficient sea bream (Sparus auratus).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Hang, X.M.; Guerreiro, P.M.; Spanings, F.A.T.; Ross, H.A.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2007-01-01

    Gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) were fed a vitamin D-deficient diet for 22 weeks. Growth rate, whole body mineral pools and calcium balance were determined. Plasma parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and calcitriol levels were assessed. Expression of mRNA for pthrp and pth1r was

  3. Impact of synthetic surfactants and oil dispersants on the gills of juvenile gilthead (Sparus aurata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Masini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Histological, scanning electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies were performed on the gills of juvenile gilthead (Sparus aurata L. exposed to various concentrations of three anionic detergents: sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, safety sea cleaner 2 (SSC2, and FINASOL OSR2, in short term (96 h and chronic (28 days experiments. The mortality rate, median lethal concentration (LC50 and the no observed effect concentration (NOEC, were calculated. At concentrations above 10 mg/L, mortality was from 50 to 100% after exposure to SDS and SSC2, both in short term and chronic experiments. Gills were spongiotic and there were many lamellar fusions, membrane disruptions, hydropic degenerations and exfoliations of lamellar and interlamellar epithelium after 96 h of treatment and more markedly after chronic experiment. Microridges of the cell surface were less evident or absent. The enzymes of ion transport were down regulated. Exposure to FINASOL OSR2 (100 mg/L showed no evident branchial alteration.

  4. Assessment of gold nanoparticle effects in a marine teleost (Sparus aurata) using molecular and biochemical biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, M., E-mail: mteles0@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Fierro-Castro, C. [Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Na-Phatthalung, P. [Department of Microbiology and Excellent Research Laboratory on Natural Products, Faculty of Science and Natural Product Research Center of Excellence, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Tvarijonaviciute, A. [Department of Medicine and Animal Surgery, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Trindade, T. [Department of Chemistry & CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Soares, A.M.V.M. [Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Tort, L. [Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Oliveira, M. [Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • AuNP effects were investigated at molecular and biochemical levels in Sparus aurata. • AuNP coated with PVP exerts more effects than AuNP coated with citrate. • AuNP-PVP induced changes in antioxidant, immune and apoptosis related-genes mRNA levels. • The increase in plasma TOS indicates that AuNP-PVP generates oxidative stress. • AuNP-PVP induced in S. aurata a non-monotonic response pattern. - Abstract: Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are increasingly employed in a variety of applications and are likely to be increasing in the environment, posing a potential emerging environmental threat. Information on possible hazardous effects of engineered nanoparticles is urgently required to ensure human and environmental safety and promote the safe use of novel nanotechnologies. Nevertheless, there is a lack of comprehensive knowledge on AuNP effects in marine species. The present study aimed to assess AuNP effects in a marine teleost, Sparus aurata, by combining endpoints at different biological levels (molecular and biochemical). For that purpose, fish were exposed via water for 96 h to 4, 80 and 1600 μg L{sup −1} of AuNP (∼40 nm) coated with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Results revealed a significant impact of AuNP-PVP in the hepatic expression of antioxidant, immune and apoptosis related genes. Total oxidative status was increased in plasma after exposure to the lowest concentration of AuNP-PVP, although without altering the total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, AuNP did not induce significant damage in the liver since the activity of neither hepatic indicator (aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase) increased. Overall, the present study demonstrated that AuNP, even with a biocompatible coating is able to alter oxidative status and expression of relevant target genes in marine fish. Another important finding is that effects are mainly induced by the lowest and intermediate concentrations of the PVP coated AuNP revealing

  5. Kinetic of biomarker responses in juveniles of the fish Sparus aurata exposed to contaminated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Caselles, Carmen; Jiménez-Tenorio, Natalia; Riba, Inmaculada; Sarasquete, Carmen; DelValls, T Angel

    2007-08-01

    Sediments in the National Park of the Atlantic Islands (Galicia, Spain) were affected by the spill of the tanker Prestige (November, 2002) and still present high levels of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The adverse effects associated with the contaminants in sediments were tested using a chronic bioassay, exposing juveniles of the fish Sparus aurata (seabream). A toxicokinetic approach is proposed to evaluate sediment quality by linking chemical and ecotoxicological data along the time. Sediment samples were physicochemically characterized and the concentration of contaminants (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs - and metals) was measured. Fishes were exposed to contaminated sediments, and samples from different tissues were collected every 15 days throughout the 60 days that lasted the experiment. A biomarker of exposure (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity - EROD activity) and a biomarker of effect (histopathology) were analyzed during the exposure period. Results show a relationship between the biomarkers and the concentrations in sediments of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-PAHs. Besides, the toxicokinetic approach links biomarkers response providing information about the relationship between the detoxification process and the damages observed in the different tissues. The frequency of the histological damage is highest when the EROD activity slightly decreases in accordance with the mechanism of detoxification of this enzymatic system against PAHs and other organic contaminants.

  6. Growth and reproduction of the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata in Mellah lagoon (north-eastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamya Chaoui

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Gilthead seabream Sparus aurata (L., a protandrous hermaphrodite, was caught in Mellah lagoon (Algeria from July 1997 to June 1998. Its age, growth and reproduction were studied. Fish ranged in size from 157 to 610 mm total length and weighed from 60 to 4000 g wet weight. There were fish aged 1+ to 7+ years old in the samples. Direct scale readings were made by counting the number of rings. These were compared with the data obtained by backcalculating the lengths at different ages. These two methods were in agreement and showed that the growth rate of gilthead seabream in Mellah lagoon is very high compared to other study areas. The growth parameters of the Von Bertalanffy equation were: L∞ = 55.33 cm, K = 0.513, t0 = - 0.282, with F’ = 7.359. The fitted length-weight relationship was W = 1.292. 10-2 L3.06. The reproductive season extended from October to January, with a peak in December. Sex inversion occurred at a total length of 44 cm. Sexual maturity was reached at 32.6 cm total length.

  7. Mating behaviour and gamete release in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758) held in captivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra-Zatarain, Z.; Duncan, N.

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to describe the reproductive behaviour of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in captivity. Twenty-four mature gilthead seabream, divided in two tanks, were utilized for the present study. Reproductive behaviour was recorded using submersibles cameras. A total of 67 spawning events were analysed. The mean duration time that gilthead seabream spent spawning was 54 ± 4 min/day, during which mean number of individual spawning events was 5.6 ± 0.2. The mean volume of eggs produced by both broodstocks was 405 ± 13.4 mL with a fertilization rate of 91.6 ± 0.4%. The reproductive behaviour began with a schooling behaviour and then forming light aggregations. From an aggregation or an encounter while swimming freely a female initiated a spawning rush followed by one or more males to gametes liberation. The spawning rush was brief, 1.6 ± 0.5 sec, over an approximately 1.7 ± 0.2 m distance from the tank bottom to the water surface. Pair spawning, between a single female and male, was the most common (71.6%). Group spawning was less common and involved a single female spawning with two males (22.5%) or three males (4.9%). Spawning rushes involving more than one female were not observed. Gilthead seabream in the present study presented a tendency to pair spawn and eggs collected as a “spawn” were actually the sum of many separate spawning events over a short time period. This is the first description of gilthead seabream spawning and the findings help to understand microsatellite based observations of spawning kinetics. (Author)

  8. Improving sperm cryopreservation with antifreeze proteins: effect on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) plasma membrane lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirão, José; Zilli, Loredana; Vilella, Sebastiano; Cabrita, Elsa; Schiavone, Roberta; Herráez, Maria Paz

    2012-02-01

    Changes in the plasma membrane lipid composition have been related to a decrease in sperm quality during cryopreservation. Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) have been tested in different species because of their ability to depress the freezing point and their potential interaction with membranes, but controversial effects were reported. In the present study we analyzed separately the lipid composition of two sperm membrane domains, head plasma membrane (HM) and flagellar membrane (FM), after cryopreservation with an extender containing 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) either alone or with AFPI or AFPIII (1 μg/ml). We used sperm from a teleost, Sparus aurata, because the lack of acrosome avoids changes of lipid profiles due to capacitation process or acrosomal losses during freezing/thawing. Comparing with the control (cryopreservation with 5% DMSO alone), the addition of AFPIII increased the velocity, linearity of movement, and percentage of viable cells. In addition, freezing with DMSO alone increased the phosphatidyl-serine content as well as the saturated fatty acids and decreased the unsaturated ones (mainly polyunsaturated) both in HM and FM. These changes in the lipid components were highly avoided with the addition of AFPIII. HM had a higher amount of saturated fatty acids than FM and was more affected by cryopreservation without AFPs. The percentage of viable cells was positively correlated with the amount of unsaturated fatty acids in the HM, whereas the motility parameters were positively correlated with both FM and HM amount of unsaturated fatty acids. AFPs, especially AFPIII, seem to have interacted with unsaturated fatty acids, stabilizing the plasma membrane organization during cryopreservation and contributing to improve sperm quality after thawing.

  9. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) immune responses are modulated after feeding with purified antinutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Benjamín; Couto, Ana; Azeredo, Rita; Machado, Marina; Krogdahl, Ashild; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of two purified antinutrients, soy saponins and phytosterols, in an important species for Mediterranean aquaculture. For this purpose, gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were fed six experimental diets containing two levels of those antinutrients, alone or in combination, and a control diet, to apparent visual satiation under controlled conditions. Blood and head-kidney were collected at 7, 15 and 48 days following first feeding in order to assess immune parameters and the expression of immune-related genes. Plasma bactericidal and alternative complement pathway activities increased in fish fed antinutrients compared to fish fed the control diet during the course of the experiment, with more important changes at 7 and 48 days for bactericidal activity and at 7 and 15 days for complement values. In contrast, plasma total immunoglobulins (Ig) increased in fish fed antinutrients only at 48 days. Caspase 1 (casp1), interleukin 18 (il18), colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (csfr) and hepcidin (hep) presented similar patterns of expression with more important changes at 7 and 48 days, while interleukin 10 (il10) and β-defensin (def) were mainly up-regulated in fish fed antinutrients at 48 days. The level of expression of IgM increased already at 7 days in fish fed the low concentration of both saponins and phytosterols while a general up-regulation was observed at 48 days compared to fish fed the control diet. Results suggest that feeding seabream a diet with purified saponins and phytosterols, alone or in combination, induces a number of changes that are related to the development of inflammation, with most important changes in fish fed the lower phytosterols concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunotoxicological effects of inorganic arsenic on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardiola, F.A.; Gónzalez-Párraga, M.P.; Cuesta, A. [Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Meseguer, J. [Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Geology and Pedology, Faculty of Chemistry, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Martínez, S.; Martínez-Sánchez, M.J.; Pérez-Sirvent, C. [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Geology and Pedology, Faculty of Chemistry, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Esteban, M.A., E-mail: aesteban@um.es [Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: •Short exposure to arsenic increases the hepato-somatic index and produces histopathological alterations in the liver. •Arsenic is bioaccumulated in the liver of gilthead seabream but no in the muscle. •Arsenic-exposure affects the innate immune system in the gilthead seabream. •Ten days of exposure to As enhances the immune parameters. -- Abstract: Arsenic (As) has been associated with multitude of animal and human health problems; however, its impact on host immune system has not been extensively investigated. In fish, there are very few works on the potential risks or problems associated to the presence of arsenic. In the present study we have evaluated the effects of exposure (30 days) to sub-lethal concentrations of arsenic (5 μM As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the teleost fish gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), with special emphasis in the innate immune response. The arsenic concentration was determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) in liver and muscle of exposed fish showing As accumulation in the liver after 30 days of exposure. The hepatosomatic index was increased at significant extent after 10 days but returned to control values after 30 days of exposure. Histological alterations in the liver were observed including hypertrophy, vacuolization and cell-death processes. Focusing on the immunological response, the humoral immune parameters (seric IgM, complement and peroxidase activities) were no affected to a statistically significant extent. Regarding the cellular innate parameters, head-kidney leucocyte peroxidase, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities were significantly increased after 10 days of exposition compared to the control fish. Overall, As-exposure in the seabream affects the immune system. How this might interfere with fish biology, aquaculture management or human consumers warrants further investigations. This paper describes, for the first time, the immunotoxicological effects of arsenic exposure in the

  11. Mating behaviour and gamete release in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758 held in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibarra-Zatarain Zohar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe the reproductive behaviour of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata in captivity. Twenty-four mature gilthead seabream, divided in two tanks, were utilized for the present study. Reproductive behaviour was recorded using submersibles cameras. A total of 67 spawning events were analysed. The mean duration time that gilthead seabream spent spawning was 54 ± 4 min/day, during which mean number of individual spawning events was 5.6 ± 0.2. The mean volume of eggs produced by both broodstocks was 405 ± 13.4 mL with a fertilization rate of 91.6 ± 0.4%. The reproductive behaviour began with a schooling behaviour and then forming light aggregations. From an aggregation or an encounter while swimming freely a female initiated a spawning rush followed by one or more males to gametes liberation. The spawning rush was brief, 1.6 ± 0.5 sec, over an approximately 1.7 ± 0.2 m distance from the tank bottom to the water surface. Pair spawning, between a single female and male, was the most common (71.6%. Group spawning was less common and involved a single female spawning with two males (22.5% or three males (4.9%. Spawning rushes involving more than one female were not observed. Gilthead seabream in the present study presented a tendency to pair spawn and eggs collected as a “spawn” were actually the sum of many separate spawning events over a short time period. This is the first description of gilthead seabream spawning and the findings help to understand microsatellite based observations of spawning kinetics.

  12. Skin healing and scale regeneration in fed and unfed sea bream, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canario Adelino VM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish scales are an important reservoir of calcium and phosphorus and together with the skin function as an integrated barrier against environmental changes and external aggressors. Histological studies have revealed that the skin and scales regenerate rapidly in fish when they are lost or damaged. In the present manuscript the histological and molecular changes underlying skin and scale regeneration in fed and fasted sea bream (Sparus auratus were studied using a microarray 3 and 7 days after scale removal to provide a comprehensive molecular understanding of the early stages of these processes. Results Histological analysis of skin/scales revealed 3 days after scale removal re-epithelisation and formation of the scale pocket had occurred and 53 and 109 genes showed significant up or down-regulation, respectively. Genes significantly up-regulated were involved in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation and adhesion, immune response and antioxidant activities. 7 days after scale removal a thin regenerated scale was visible and only minor changes in gene expression occurred. In animals that were fasted to deplete mineral availability the expression profiles centred on maintaining energy homeostasis. The utilisation of fasting as a treatment emphasised the competing whole animal physiological requirements with regard to barrier repair, infection control and energy homeostasis. Conclusions The identification of numerous genes involved in the mitotic checkpoint and cell proliferation indicate that the experimental procedure may be useful for understanding cell proliferation and control in vertebrates within the context of the whole animal physiology. In response to skin damage genes of immune surveillance were up-regulated along with others involved in tissue regeneration required to rapidly re-establish barrier function. Additionally, candidate fish genes were identified that may be involved in cytoskeletal re

  13. Biogenic fish-gut calcium carbonate is a stable amorphous phase in the gilt-head seabream, Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Elizabeth; Weiner, Steve; Fine, Maoz

    2013-01-01

    The main source of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) in the ocean comes from the shells of calcifying planktonic organisms, but substantial amounts of CaCO₃ are also produced in fish intestines. The precipitation of CaCO₃ assists fish in intestinal water absorption and aids in whole body Ca²⁺ homeostasis. Here we report that the product formed in the intestinal lumen of the gilt-head seabream, Sparus aurata, is an amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) phase. With FTIR spectroscopy and SEM imaging, our study shows that the fish-derived carbonates from S. aurata are maintained as a stable amorphous phase throughout the intestinal tract. Moreover, intestinal deposits contained up to 54 mol% Mg²⁺, the highest concentration yet reported in biogenic ACC. Mg is most likely responsible for stabilizing this inherently unstable mineral. The fish carbonates also displayed initial rapid dissolution when exposed to seawater, exhibiting a significant increase in carbonate concentration.

  14. Morphological and phylogenetic description of a new xenoma-inducing microsporidian, Microsporidium aurata nov. sp., parasite of the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel Rahman; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2013-11-01

    A new species of Microsporidia found in the marine teleost Sparus aurata collected from Hurghada coasts along the Red Sea, Egypt was described based on light and ultrastructural studies. Twenty three (30.6%) out of 75 of the examined fish were parasitized with a microsporidian parasite. Numerous macroscopic whitish cysts embedded in the peritoneal cavity were observed to infect many organs of the body including muscles, connective tissues, and the intestinal epithelium. The infection was developed as tumor-like masses of often up to 5 mm in diameter inducing an enormous hypertrophy to the infected organs. Fresh spores appeared mostly ovoid to pyriform in shape reaching a size of 1.7 ± 0.5 (1.5-2.5) μm × 1.3 ± 0.4 (1-2) μm; they possessed a large vacuole at the posterior end. These spores were located within a sporophorous vesicle which was bound by a thick amorphous wall. The ultrastructural features support the placement of the present species within the genus Microsporidium. The developmental stages were enclosed within a xenoma structure that was bounded by a double-layered cyst wall. The life cycle of the microsporidian pathogen described herein included four stages: proliferation (merogony), sporogony, sporoblast, spores, and liberation. Mature spores appeared electron dense, uninucleate, and were ellipsoidal in shape. At the anterior end of the spore, the anchoring disk was found in a central position. There was a definite number (5-11) of turns of the polar tube. A 538-bp region of the SSU rDNA gene of the studied species was sequenced (GenBank accession number: KF0220444). Multiple sequence alignment calculated a high degree of similarity (>92%) with six microsporidian species. The most closely related sequence was provided by the GenBank entry AF151529 for Microsporidium prosopium isolated from Hyperoplus lanceolatus differing in 67 nucleotide positions in its SSU rDNA with the highest percentage of identity (97.2%) and the lowest divergence value

  15. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation in farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata slaughtered and chilled under different icing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pena, Javier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the slaughtering and chilled storage (up to 14 days related to the commercialization of fresh farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata. A slurry ice (SI system was applied and evaluated in comparison to traditional flake ice (FI. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation were analyzed and compared to sensory acceptance and trimethylamine (TMA formation. An important quality loss could be assessed in fish during slaughtering and chilling storage, according to sensory assessment and TMA formation. However, lipid damage development was found relatively low, in agreement to the different lipid quality indexes checked (lipid hydrolysis; primary, secondary and tertiary lipid oxidation. No development of rancid odor and no polyunsaturated fatty acid losses were detected. The employment of SI as a slaughtering and chilling strategy was found useful to inhibit quality loss in gilthead seabream resulting in a shelf life increase and a TMA and free fatty acid formation inhibition.Este trabajo estudia el sacrificio y conservación en hielo (hasta 14 días de dorada (Sparus aurata. Para ello, se aplicó hielo líquido (SI de forma comparativa con hielo tradicional (FI en escamas. Se analizó el desarrollo de hidrólisis y oxidación lipídicas, procediéndose a su comparación con la evaluación sensorial y la formación de trimetilamina (TMA. Se observó una importante pérdida de calidad de acuerdo con la valoración sensorial y la formación de TMA. Sin embargo, la alteración lipídica fue baja, a tenor de los índices ensayados (hidrólisis lipídica; oxidación lipídica primaria, secundaria y terciaria. No se detectaron desarrollo de olor rancio ni pérdida de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados. El empleo de SI en esta especie resultó ser útil al objeto de inhibir la pérdida de calidad; así, se observó un incremento en el tiempo de vida útil y una inhibición en la formación de TMA y ácidos grasos libres.

  16. PTHrP and calcium balance in gilthead sea bream, Sparus auratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, Wolter

    2007-01-01

    The research aimed to elucidate hypercalcemic regulation in juvenile sea bream confronted with an experimentally induced limited access to environmental calcium. The principle to restrict sea bream in its access to calcium in water and diet was to activate hypercalcemic regulatory factors such as

  17. PTHrP regulation and calcium balance in sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) under calcium constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Bevelander, G.S.; Hang, X.; Lu, W.; Guerreiro, P.M.; Spanings, T.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile gilthead sea bream were exposed to diluted seawater (2.5 per thousand salinity; DSW) for 3 h or, in a second experiment, acclimated to DSW and fed a control or calcium-deficient diet for 30 days. Branchial Ca(2+) influx, drinking rate and plasma calcium levels were assessed. Sea bream

  18. Effect of n-3 HUFA levels in rotifers and Artemia on growth and survival of larval black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Li, Kuiran; Huang, Bingxin; Chen, Xiaolin

    2004-12-01

    Requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was studied using rotifers and Artemia at various levels of n-3 HUFA. Five treatments with rotifers and Artemia differing in n-3 HUFA were prepared by enriching them with various oil emulsions. Results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influence fish n-3 HUFA levels and are essential for growth and survival of black sea bream larvae. The results also indicated that the incorporation of n-3HUFA TG (triacylglycerols) into tissues of larval black sea bream was more effective from natural fish oil in comparison with n-3 HUFA fatty acid ethyl esters from ethyl-esterified oil.

  19. Comparative evaluation of sunflower oil and linseed oil as dietary ingredient for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassef Elham A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to define the optimal mixtures of either sunflower oil (SFO or linseed oil (LO with fish oil (FO, in fish meal (FM based diets for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata fingerling, without significant effect on fish performance, fatty acid composition and liver structure. The trial lasted nine weeks with 420 fish (~4.0 g testing seven isonitrogenous (~48% CP and isolipidic (~18% L diets contained three incremental inclusions of either SFO or LO (40, 48, 56 g kg-1 and the only-fish oil control (CTRL diet. Results showed that the combination of 32 g fish oil plus 48 g of either SFO or LO kg-1 diet as the lipid source had performed the best among all. Fatty acid (FA composition of muscle lipids evidenced that specific fatty acids were selectively retained or utilized. Diet induced- changes in hepatic morphology with vegetable oil inclusion level were further described. Linolenic acid (α-LNA, n-3 had led to less pronounced steatosis symptoms than linoleic acid (LOA, n-6 in liver cells. This study provides sound support for the use of preferably sunflower oil then linseed oil as a complementary lipid resource (48 g kg diet-1 with marine fish oil in gilthead seabream fingerling diets. Therefore, represents novel data on the potential of using sunflower oil (SFO as a possible dietary partial substitute of fish oil for the species.

  20. Dietary dehydrated lemon peel improves the immune but not the antioxidant status of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Beltrán, José María; Espinosa, Cristóbal; Guardiola, Francisco A; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2017-05-01

    Lemon (Citrus limon) is the third most important species of citrus in the world, while Spain is the major producer in Europe. Numerous beneficial effects of lemon are known, which explains their use in traditional medicine. The paper describes the effect of dietary dehydrated lemon peel (a sub-product of the lemon industry) on the growth, immune and antioxidant status of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) over a period of 30 days. Fish fed diets enriched with dehydrated lemon peel (1.5% and 3%) for 15 days showed improved growth and both humoral (seric immunoglobulin M) and cellular (peroxidase activity and phagocytic ability of head kidney leucocytes) immunity, as well as the expression of some immune-related genes (nkefa, il1β, igth and csfr1). However, decreases growth promotion was observed after thirty days of trial. Neither the anti-oxidant enzymes activity nor the expression of several anti-oxidants and anti-stress genes in liver was improved by the diet. The possible inclusion of dehydrated lemon peel in fish diets for its immunostimulant effects is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infection in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): Immune-related studies

    OpenAIRE

    Estensoro Atienza, Itziar

    2013-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral estudia diversos aspectos de la enteromixosis de la dorada, relacionados principalmente con la transmisión y la caracterización del parásito, con los factores que afectan a su establecimiento en el hospedador y a la interacción parásito-hospedador, y con la respuesta inmunitaria inducida por el parásito. En primer lugar, se desarrolló un nuevo método de transmisión de E. leei, que mejora los resultados obtenidos por los hasta ahora disponibles. El parásito se tr...

  2. Comparative immunoendocrine responses to stressors in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    OpenAIRE

    Khansari, Ali Reza

    2017-01-01

    Els peixos d'aqüicultura habiten un mitjà potencialment estressant que pot suposar un desafiament addicional a l'animal. En els peixos, la resposta a l'estrès comporta l'activació de l'eix Hypothalamic-Hipofisari-Interrenal (HPI) i del Cervell-Simpatico-Cromafí (BSC) com a resposta neuroendocrina que promou la secreció de les hormones de l'estrès per cèl·lules interrenals i cromafins del ronyó anterior. Per tant, la resposta a l'estrès activarà l'eix d'HPI per segregar hormones, i també modul...

  3. Effects of dietary nutrient composition on de novo lipogenesis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn

    substantiate that considerable de novo lipogenesis was taking place and apparently subject to nutritional control, while apparent retention of poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) appeared to be un-affected by dietary treatment. Combined, this caused the SAFA and MUFA content of the fish to increase...... to rigorously maintain a certain whole body energy status under a wide variety of dietary DP/DE ratios, energy densities and nutrient compositions, even if substantial amounts of dietary protein is sacrificed to achieve this. This may indicate that this species has evolved to maximise energy storage in the from...

  4. Response of Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758 Larvae to Nursery Odor Cues as Described by a New Set of Behavioral Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Morais

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Temperate marine fish larvae use a series of environmental cues (e.g., olfactory, hearing, visual to mediate the selection of nursery habitats. However, habitat selection may vary according to individuals' physiological condition. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the ability of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758 larvae to utilize natural odor cues to locate nursery habitats along ontogeny and to examine how it varies with individual's physiological condition. The hypothesis being tested is that S. aurata larvae prefer coastal rocky reefs as nursery areas, but they might use coastal lagoons as nursery grounds—ecosystems known for their productivity—if under starvation conditions, as a compensatory mechanism to avoid slow growth or even death. A choice-chamber experiment was used to investigate the behavioral responses of satiated and starved laboratory-reared S. aurata larvae, along ontogeny (pre-flexion, flexion, post-flexion, to water collected in a coastal artificial rocky reef and a coastal lagoon. The physiological condition of S. aurata larvae was determined by analyzing several biochemical condition indices. Complementarily, a new set of four preference indexes were developed—Choice-Chamber Preference Indexes—and discussed to provide a clear measure of the behavioral changes of a species along ontogeny by balancing all the behavioral choices made during the experimental trials, including the unresponsive behavior. A developmental threshold was identified at 24 days post-hatching, before which insufficient swimming capability disabled responsive behavior. Beyond this threshold, post-flexion larvae preferred rocky coastal water over lagoon water, even if under starvation conditions or poor physiological condition, despite the fact that the unresponsive behavior was largely predominant. S. aurata larvae displayed a cautionary behavioral strategy, so the compensatory mechanisms to ensure metapopulation stability and

  5. Effects of dietary administration of fenugreek seeds on metabolic parameters and immune status of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, F A; Bahi, A; Esteban, M A

    2018-03-01

    Medical plants could be used as a prophylactic method in aquaculture because they are considered safe and so very promising alternatives to the use of chemicals. The aim of the present work was to examine the effects of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds administered for 8 weeks on the metabolic and immune status of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Four experimental groups were designated: one receiving a basal diet (control) and three fed powdered fenugreek seeds incorporated in the fish feed at 1%, 5% and 10%. The results show that significant decreases in aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, potassium and the albumin/globulin ratio were detected in the serum of fish fed 10% fenugreek compared with the values recorded in control fish. As regards the immune status, fish fed the 5% supplemented diet had higher haemolytic complement and peroxidase activities than the control fish whilst antiprotease activity was higher in fish fed the 1% fenugreek level respect to control fish and the fish fed the highest fenugreek supplementation rate. Interestingly, the results also revealed a significant enhancement of most of the cellular immune parameters studied, especially in fish fed the highest level of fenugreek (10%). However, the bacteriostatic activity of serum against fish pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria was non-affected to any significant extent in fish fed the supplemented diets. Overall, the results suggest that the high level of dietary fenugreek tested in this work (10%) did not negatively affect any of the metabolic parameters measured in serum but increased some of them. In addition, the inclusion of fenugreek seeds in the gilthead seabream diet at 5% or 10% improved the humoral and cellular immune activities, respectively. Further studies are needed to better understand the effects of this natural product, which may be suitable for use as a feed additive in fish aquaculture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Dietary administration of microalgae Navicula sp. affects immune status and gene expression of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Guardiola, Francisco; Rojas, Maurilia; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Esteban, María Ángeles

    2013-09-01

    Effects of silage microalgae enriched with a probiotic and lyophilized microalgae were evaluated on main immune parameters and different gene expression of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). A total of 60 seabream were grouped into 3 treatment diets which were a control diet (commercial diet) without microalgae (C), commercial diet supplemented with silage microalgae Navicula sp. plus Lactobacillus sakei 5-4 (10(6) CFU g(-1)) (SM), and commercial diet supplemented with lyophilized microalgae (LM) for 4 weeks. Generally, the results showed a significant increase in the immune parameters, principally in leucocyte peroxidase, phagocytosis and complement activities in fish fed with SM diet compared to control group. About the gene expression in head-kidney, transcript levels (Interleukin-8, Interleukin-1β and β-defensin) were upregulated in fish fed with SM after 4 weeks of treatments. However, the gene expression was upregulated in intestine from fish fed with LM with significant difference in transferrin and cyclooxygenase 2 gene at 2 weeks, and in occludin, transferrin, interleukin-8 and interleukin-1β at 4 weeks. Finally, about the digestive enzymes, LM diet caused an upregulated of α-amylase and alkaline phosphatase genes at 2 weeks; however SM diet caused an upregulated trypsin gene at 4 weeks. SM diet a higher enhancing effect on gilthead seabream immune parameters than that observed when using LM. Furthermore, dietary administration of microalgae Navicula sp. provokes upregulation of several genes in the gut that correlates with slight inflammation. Further studies are needed to know if this diatom could be useful for administering as diet supplement for farmed fish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Melatonin synthesis under calcium constraint in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Kulczkowska, E.; Kalamarz, H.; Guerreiro, P.M.G.; Flik, G.

    2008-01-01

    Brain or blood plasma melatonin was analysed as a measure for pineal melatonin production in sea bream. Access to calcium was limited by diluting the seawater to 2.5‰ and removing calcium from the diet or by prolonged feeding of vitamin D-deficient diet. Interactions/relations between melatonin and

  8. Age-dependent QTL affecting body weight in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. LOUKOVITIS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined 24 maternal half-sib families of gilthead seabream to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with body weight at four time points during a production cycle. 57 brooders and 637 offspring were genotyped for 14 informative microsatellite markers, spanning linkage groups 1 and 21. The QTL detection method was based on half-sib interval mapping analysis through a linear regression approach. One QTL was found significant at all time points in linkage group 1, with its effect having different profile across time, and one QTL in linkage group 21 that seems to impact body weight at a later growth stage of the species. Current results verified previously published QTL for growth in the above linkage groups, using a different genetic background of seabream. These QTL can be considered as valuable candidates for use in marker-assisted selective breeding programs, aiming at high rates of genetic improvement for growth in S. aurata.

  9. DHA but not EPA, enhances sound induced escape behavior and Mauthner cells activity in Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Santana, Tibiábin; Atalah, Eyad; Betancor, Mónica Beatriz; Caballero, María José; Hernández-Cruz, Carmen Mari; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2014-01-30

    Dietary omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have a marked effect on fish behavior. There is limited information on the mechanisms involved in this effect and its relation to neuron development and functioning. Deficiency of n-3 LCPUFA reduces fish escape swimming. Mauthner cells (M-cell) are neurons responsible for initiating an escape response. The aim was to compare the effect of dietary DHA and EPA on escape behavior and neuronal activity of sea bream larvae. We studied burst swimming speed as a measure of behavior. M-cell activity was studied by ChAT immuno-fluorescence. Feeding the lowest n-3 LCPUFA levels a lower burst swimming speed. Increase in dietary EPA did not significantly improve escape response. Elevation of dietary DHA was correlated with a higher burst speed denoting the importance of this nutrient for escape swimming. Incorporation of DHA into larval tissues was proportional to DHA dietary levels and significantly correlated with burst speed. In addition, a higher immunoreactivity to ChAT, associated to a higher neural activity, was found in M-cell of larvae fed higher dietary DHA contents. These results show first evidence of n-3 LCPUFA on fish neuronal activity and their implications in behavior, denoting that DHA boosts escape swimming and this effect is at least partly mediated by the increase in neural activity of M-cell. © 2013.

  10. Towards a deeper understanding of fatty acid bioaccessibility and its dependence on culinary treatment and lipid class: a case study of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sara; Afonso, Cláudia; Cardoso, Carlos; Oliveira, Rui; Alves, Francisca; Nunes, Maria L; Bandarra, Narcisa M

    2016-11-08

    The bioaccessibility of total lipids and fatty acids (FA) in raw and grilled gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) was determined using an in vitro digestion model. The particular impact of grilling on the FA profile of seabream was also studied. In addition, the influence of lipid class on the bioaccessibility of each FA was analysed. Grilling did not change the relative FA profile, and only the absolute values were altered. However, the relative FA profile varied across lipid classes, being more dissimilar between TAG and phospholipids. Long-chain SFA and PUFA seemed to be less bioaccessible. Moreover, grilling reduced bioaccessibility of protein, fat and many FA, with the highest reductions found in PUFA such as the DHA. Strong evidence supporting a predominantly regioselective action of lipase during in vitro digestion was found, and the impact of this phenomenon on FA bioaccessibility was assessed.

  11. Inorganic, organic, and encapsulated minerals in vegetable meal based diets for Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Domínguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Substituting fishmeal (FM with vegetable meal (VM can markedly affect the mineral composition of feeds, and may require additional mineral supplementation. Their bioavailability and optimal supplementation levels depend also on the form of delivery of minerals. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different delivery forms of three major trace elements (Zn, Mn and Se in a marine teleost. Gilthead sea bream juveniles of 22.5 g were fed a VM-based diet for 12 weeks that was either not supplemented with these minerals or supplemented with inorganic, organic, or encapsulated inorganic forms of minerals in triplicate and compared to a FM-based diet. Our results showed that mineral delivery form significantly affected the biochemical composition and morphology of posterior vertebrae. Supplementation of VM-based diets with inorganic forms of the target minerals significantly promoted growth, increased the vertebral weight and content of ash and Zn, enhanced bone mineralization and affected the vertebral shape. Conversely, encapsulation of inorganic minerals reduced fish growth and vertebral mineral content, whereas supplementation of organic minerals, enhanced bone osteogenesis by upregulating bone morphogenetic protein 2 (bmp2 gene and produced vertebrae with a larger length in relation to height. Furthermore, organic mineral forms of delivery downregulated the expression of oxidative stress related genes, such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn sod and glutathione peroxidase 1 (gpx-1, suggesting thus that dietary minerals supplemented in the organic form could be reasonably considered more effective than the inorganic and encapsulated forms of supply.

  12. Inorganic, organic, and encapsulated minerals in vegetable meal based diets for Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, David; Rimoldi, Simona; Robaina, Lidia E; Torrecillas, Silvia; Terova, Genciana; Zamorano, María J; Karalazos, Vasileios; Hamre, Kristin; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2017-01-01

    Substituting fishmeal (FM) with vegetable meal (VM) can markedly affect the mineral composition of feeds, and may require additional mineral supplementation. Their bioavailability and optimal supplementation levels depend also on the form of delivery of minerals. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different delivery forms of three major trace elements (Zn, Mn and Se) in a marine teleost. Gilthead sea bream juveniles of 22.5 g were fed a VM-based diet for 12 weeks that was either not supplemented with these minerals or supplemented with inorganic, organic, or encapsulated inorganic forms of minerals in triplicate and compared to a FM-based diet. Our results showed that mineral delivery form significantly affected the biochemical composition and morphology of posterior vertebrae. Supplementation of VM-based diets with inorganic forms of the target minerals significantly promoted growth, increased the vertebral weight and content of ash and Zn, enhanced bone mineralization and affected the vertebral shape. Conversely, encapsulation of inorganic minerals reduced fish growth and vertebral mineral content, whereas supplementation of organic minerals, enhanced bone osteogenesis by upregulating bone morphogenetic protein 2 (bmp2) gene and produced vertebrae with a larger length in relation to height. Furthermore, organic mineral forms of delivery downregulated the expression of oxidative stress related genes, such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn sod) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (gpx-1), suggesting thus that dietary minerals supplemented in the organic form could be reasonably considered more effective than the inorganic and encapsulated forms of supply.

  13. Xenobiotic-contaminated diets affect hepatic lipid metabolism: Implications for liver steatosis in Sparus aurata juveniles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maradonna, F.; Nozzi, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Santangeli, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Traversi, I. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell’Ambiente e della Vita, Università di Genova, 16132 Genova (Italy); Gallo, P. [INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, 80055 Portici, Napoli (Italy); Fattore, E. [Dipartimento Ambiente e Salute, IRCCS–Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, 20156 Milano (Italy); Mita, D.G. [INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Mandich, A. [INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell’Ambiente e della Vita, Università di Genova, 16132 Genova (Italy); Carnevali, O., E-mail: o.carnevali@univpm.it [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Diets contaminated with NP, BPA, or t-OP affect lipid metabolism. • Xenobiotic-contaminated diets induce metabolic disorders. • Hepatic metabolic disorders may be related to environmental pollution. - Abstract: The metabolic effects induced by feed contaminated with a lower or a higher concentration of -nonylpnenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (t-OP) or bisphenol A (BPA), three environmental endocrine disruptors, were assessed in juvenile sea bream liver. Histological analysis demonstrated that all these three xenobiotics induced hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. These findings prompted analysis of the expression of the major molecules involved in lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (which is encoded by ppars), fatty acid synthase (encoded by fas), lipoprotein lipase (encoded by lpl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (encoded by hsl). The enzymes encoded by ppars and fas are in fact responsible for lipid accumulation, whereas lpl- and hsl- encoded proteins play a pivotal role in fat mobilization. The three xenobiotics modulated ppar mRNA expression: pparα mRNA expression was induced by the higher dose of each contaminant; pparβ mRNA expression was upregulated by the lower doses and in BPA2 fish ppary mRNA overexpression was induced by all pollutants. These data agreed with the lipid accumulation profiles documented by histology. Fas mRNA levels were modulated by the two NP doses and the higher BPA concentration. Lpl mRNA was significantly upregulated in all experimental groups except for BPA1 fish while hsl mRNA was significantly downregulated in all groups except for t-OP2 and BPA1 fish. The plasma concentrations of cortisol, the primary stress biomarker, were correlated with the levels of pepck mRNA level. This gene encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which is one of the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Pepck mRNA was significantly overexpressed in fish exposed to NP2 and both t-OP doses. Finally, the genes

  14. Vertebrae length and ultra-structure measurements of collagen fibrils and mineral content in the vertebrae of lordotic gilthead seabreams (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berillis, Panagiotis; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Boursiaki, Vaia; Karapanagiotidis, Ioannis T; Mente, Eleni

    2015-08-01

    Skeletal deformities of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) are a major factor affecting the production cost, the external morphology and survival and growth of the fish. Adult individuals of S. aurata were collected from a commercial fish farm in Greece and were divided into two groups: one with the presence of lordosis, a skeletal deformity, and one without any skeletal deformity. Fishes were X-rayed, and cervical, abdominal and caudal vertebrae lengths were measured. Vertebrae were taken from the site of the vertebral column where lordosis occurred. One part was decalcified and prepared for collagen examination with transmission electron microscopy, and the rest were incinerated, and the Ca and P contents were measured. The stoichiometries of the samples were obtained by EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy). The same procedure was followed for fish without skeletal deformities (vertebrae were taken from the middle region of the vertebral column). The decalcified vertebrae parts were examined with TEM, collagen micrographs were taken and the fibrils' periods and diameters were measured. There were no significant differences for both Ca and P or the collagen fibrils' periods between the two fish groups. The mean lengths of the cervical, abdominal and caudal vertebrae where lordosis occurred were similar to the lengths of the respective regions of the individuals without the skeletal deformity. The TEM examination showed a significantly smaller mean vertebrae collagen fibril diameter from the fishes with lordosis compared with those from the controls, revealing the significance of collagen to bone structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of seaweed supplementation on growth performance, immune and oxidative stress responses in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cesar dos Santos Queiroz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds have important nutraceutical properties, including antioxidant and biological response-modifying qualities. Their dietary supplementation may increase the immune and antioxidant capacity of fish necessary to cope to stressful conditions and minimizing disease outbreaks. There are essentially four major groups of seaweed that can be classified by color, namely green (Chlorophyta, brown/yellow (Phaeophyta, red (Rhodophyta, and blue-green (Cyanophyta. Some green seaweed has active radical scavenging properties. Red and brown have bioactive compounds that play a vital role as antihypertensive and antioxidant. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of seaweed supplementation on growth performance, immune and oxidative stress responses in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata. Three seaweed species, each from one of the following groups, Rhodophyta (R, Phaeophyta (P and Chlorophyta (C, were supplemented to the experimental diets at 2.5% and 7.5% and tested against a control diet (Ctrl with no supplementation. In addition to six diets with seaweed in two different levels of supplementation: R2.5%, P2.5%, C2.5%, R7.5%, P7.5% and C7.5%; a diet with a mix (M, supplemented at 7.5% (2.5% of each algae was also tested. A total of 360 seabream fingerlings, 13.07 ± 0.13cm and 31.17 ± 0.63g were allocated in 24 rectangular tanks, 115L capacity each, with a 4L/min water output connected to a recirculation seawater system. Fish were fed twice a day until satiation and water quality (temperature: 20.5 ºC; D.O.: 8.13 mg/L; Ammonia: 0.5 mg/L Nitrite: 0.5 mg/L were daily monitored. At day 40 of the trial, an intermediate sampling was carried out. Standard zootechnical parameters were measured for the growth performance determination. In addition, blood, liver and intestine samples were collected for the evaluation of the immune (lysozyme and peroxidase and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase

  16. Composition and metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids in Sparus aurata semen and its relation to viability expressed as sperm motility when activated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnsteiner, Franz; Mansour, Nabil; Caberlotto, Stefano

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigated aspects of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in Sparus aurata semen and tested the effect of lipids, carbohydrates and related metabolites on sperm viability using in vitro incubation experiments. Sparus aurata semen contained enzyme systems to metabolize sugars and lipids. Also key enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and enzymes involved in ATP metabolism were detected. When spermatozoa were incubated in sperm motility inhibiting saline solution for 48 h phospholipid levels decreased constantly and triglycerides levels during the first 24 h of incubation indicating that spermatozoa utilize lipids as energy resources. After 24 h triglycerides levels started to re-increase indicating a change in sperm metabolism, in particular the onset of triglycerides synthesis by the fatty acid synthase complex. In the incubation period from 0 to 24 h glucose levels were constant, and decreased thereafter. Glycogen levels did not change at all. Semen contained also considerable amounts of sialic acid, glucuronic acid and hexosamines, components of mucopolysaccharides. To find out whether lipids, carbohydrates, and related metabolites had a positive effect on sperm functionality semen was incubated together with the described compounds in sperm motility inhibiting saline solution and motility when activated was determined. In the control 37.2+/-10.1% of the spermatozoa were locally motile and 38.3+/-13.3% motile after 24 h, 36.4+/-5.2% were locally motile and 9.6+/-4.5% were motile after 48 h. The swimming velocity was 89.0+/-13.1 microm/s after 24 h and 61.3+/-12.6% after 48 h. Different types of lipids (arachidic acid, linoleic acid, and glycerol trimyristate) and metabolites acting as fuel for the tricarboxylic acid cycle (hydroxybutyrate, ketoglutarate, and pyruvate) had a positive effect on the sperm viability. Tested carbohydrates (fucose, galactose, glucosamine, glucose, glucoheptose, glycogen, and sialic acid) had no effect. Also lactate

  17. Exposure of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata to sediments contaminated with heavy metals down-regulates the gene expression of stress biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Benhamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals incidence in the aquatic environment and its accumulation in fish are under constant review. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata specimens were exposed for two weeks to sediments highly concentrated in metals, collected at the Portman Bay (Murcia, Spain. The metals bioaccumulation was tested in liver, muscle and skin. The potential of the sediment exposure to induce variation of the stress biomarkers genes was conducted in liver and skin. Results revealed that sediments were highly contaminated with metals. However, following 2 weeks exposure to the sediments, Cd accumulates only in liver. Interestingly, the expression of the genes mta, hsp 70 and hsp 90 were significantly down-regulated in skin. Nevertheless, cyp1a1 gene was up-regulated only in liver. Results uphold that the stress response magnitude was organ-dependent and the skin was the most responsive tissue to metal stress conditions. These results suggest that skin should be considered as target organ for biomarkers analysis in fishes.

  18. Preliminary insights into the incorporation of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in fish feed: influence on performance and physiology of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, A; García García, B; Caballero, M J; Hernández, M D

    2015-08-01

    Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were fed a basal (control) diet and four experimental diets (R600, R1200, R1800 and R2400), containing 600, 1200, 1800 and 2400 mg kg(-1), respectively, of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). At 4 and 12 weeks from the beginning of the ongrowing period, the fish were sacrificed, blood was drawn to obtain plasma and the liver and intestines were dissected. Growth and feed intake were unaffected by rosemary extract addition. A histological examination of the intestine revealed no differences among the dosages, while the liver showed a sharp decrease in hepatic steatosis in diets supplemented with rosemary extract. Furthermore, plasma alanine aminotransferase was lower with these diets at the end of the ongrowing period. Rosemary extract reduced the plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides on week 4 and glucose and HDL/LDL cholesterol ratio on week 12, suggesting better transport and energy metabolism of the lipids. Overall, the most evident effect of rosemary extract was observed with the 600 mg kg(-1) dose.

  19. Dietary supplementation of heat-treated Gracilaria and Ulva seaweeds enhanced acute hypoxia tolerance in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnoni, Leonardo J.; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Queiroz, Augusto; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Gonçalves, Jose Fernando Magalhaes; Rocha, Cristina M.R.; Abreu, Helena T.; Schrama, Johan W.; Ozorio, Rodrigo O.A.; Perez-Sanchez, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    Intensive aquaculture practices involve rearing fish at high densities. In these conditions, fish may be exposed to suboptimal dissolved O2 levels with an increased formation of reactive O2 species (ROS) in tissues. Seaweeds (SW) contain biologically active substances with

  20. Otolith reading and multi-model inference for improved estimation of age and growth in the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Lény; Panfili, Jacques; Paillon, Christelle; N'diaye, Awa; Mouillot, David; Darnaude, Audrey M.

    2011-05-01

    Accurate knowledge of fish age and growth is crucial for species conservation and management of exploited marine stocks. In exploited species, age estimation based on otolith reading is routinely used for building growth curves that are used to implement fishery management models. However, the universal fit of the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF) on data from commercial landings can lead to uncertainty in growth parameter inference, preventing accurate comparison of growth-based history traits between fish populations. In the present paper, we used a comprehensive annual sample of wild gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata L.) in the Gulf of Lions (France, NW Mediterranean) to test a methodology improving growth modelling for exploited fish populations. After validating the timing for otolith annual increment formation for all life stages, a comprehensive set of growth models (including VBGF) were fitted to the obtained age-length data, used as a whole or sub-divided between group 0 individuals and those coming from commercial landings (ages 1-6). Comparisons in growth model accuracy based on Akaike Information Criterion allowed assessment of the best model for each dataset and, when no model correctly fitted the data, a multi-model inference (MMI) based on model averaging was carried out. The results provided evidence that growth parameters inferred with VBGF must be used with high caution. Hence, VBGF turned to be among the less accurate for growth prediction irrespective of the dataset and its fit to the whole population, the juvenile or the adult datasets provided different growth parameters. The best models for growth prediction were the Tanaka model, for group 0 juveniles, and the MMI, for the older fish, confirming that growth differs substantially between juveniles and adults. All asymptotic models failed to correctly describe the growth of adult S. aurata, probably because of the poor representation of old individuals in the dataset. Multi

  1. Structural and functional analysis of myostatin-2 promoter alleles from the marine fish Sparus aurata: evidence for strong muscle-specific promoter activity and post-transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjar-Boger, Elisabeth; Hinits, Yaniv; Funkenstein, Bruria

    2012-09-25

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. In contrast to mammals, fish possess at least two paralogs of MSTN: MSTN-1 and MSTN-2. In this study, we analyzed the structural-functional features of the four variants of Sparus aurata MSTN-2 5'-flanking region: saMSTN-2a, saMSTN-2as, saMSTN-2b and saMSTN-2c. In silico analysis revealed numerous putative cis regulatory elements including several E-boxes known as binding sites to myogenic transcription factors. Transient transfection experiments using non-muscle and muscle cell lines showed surprisingly high transcriptional activity in muscle cells, suggesting the presence of regulatory elements unique to differentiated myotubes. These observations were confirmed by in situ intramuscular injections of promoter DNA followed by reporter gene assays. Moreover, high promoter activity was found in differentiated neural cell, in agreement with MSTN-2 expression in brain. Progressive 5'-deletion analysis, using reporter gene assays, showed that the core promoter is located within the first -127 bp upstream of the ATG, and suggested the presence of regulatory elements that either repress or induce transcriptional activity. Transient transgenic zebrafish provided evidence for saMSTN-2 promoter ability to direct GFP expression to myofibers. Finally, our data shows that although no mature saMSTN-2 mRNA is observed in muscle; unspliced forms accumulate, confirming high level of transcription. In conclusion, our study shows for the first time that MSTN-2 promoter is a very robust promoter, especially in muscle cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of dietary polyvinylchloride microparticles on general health, immune status and expression of several genes related to stress in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Cristóbal; Cuesta, Alberto; Esteban, María Ángeles

    2017-09-01

    It is a long-recognized fact that marine plastic debris contaminates the oceans and seas of the entire world. Even though their effects on the aquatic biota are not well documented or understood. The effects of dietary polyvinylchloride microparticles (PVC-MPs) on the general health, immune status and some stress markers were studied using gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) as a model of marine fish. Thirty specimens were randomly placed in three running sea water aquaria and fish in each aquarium received an experimental diet containing 0 (control), 100 or 500 mg kg-1 of PVC-MPs for 30 days. Metabolic parameters in serum indicated that the dietary intake of PVC-MPs negatively affected several vital organs. Humoral immune parameters were determined in serum and skin mucus. Cellular immune parameters were determined in head-kidney leucocytes. Concomitantly, the expression of different genes related to stress was studied in head-kidney and liver. Regarding head-kidney gene expression, prdx5 was significantly decreased by PVC-MPs intake for 15 and 30 days, respect to the values found in control fish. On the other hand, the expression of prdx1 and prdx3 were significantly increased by the PVC-MPs intake during 15 and 30 days, compared with the values found in control fish. Furthermore, the expression of hsp90 and ucp1 genes decreased and increased, respectively, in the liver of fish fed 500 mg kg-1 of PVC-MPs for 30 days. Although ingestion of PVC-MPs provoked few significant effects (mostly increases) in the main immune activities of gilthead seabream compared with the values found in control fish, PVC-MPs are recognized by the fish as stressors. Continued exposure of fish to high concentrations of PVC-MPs could have a negative impact on fish physiology due to the chronic stress produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal expression of arginine vasotocin mRNA and its correlations to gonadal steroidogenic enzymes and sexually dimorphic coloration during sex reversal in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Tomassini, José J; Wong, Ten-Tsao; Zohar, Yonathan

    2017-06-01

    Arginine vasotocin is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus of teleost fish that has been shown to regulate gonad development and sexual behavior. To study the role of arginine vasotocin in the gonadal cycle of the hermaphrodite gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, we cloned the seabream arginine vasotocin (avt) complementary DNA (cDNA). We investigated the expression of brain avt throughout the gonad cycle using real-time quantitative PCR and compared its expression levels to the expression levels of two key gonadal steroidogenic enzymes, cyp19a1a and cyp11b2. In July, when the process of sex reversal is thought to begin, avt expression was elevated over the previous 2 months. Avt in the brain remained at or above the level of July until November then peaked again in December. There was no difference between males and females in the expression levels of brain avt throughout the year. However, only in ambisexual fish was the expression of the cyp19a1a gonadal aromatase correlated to the expression of avt in the brain. Cyp11b2 did not show any correlation to brain avt expression. We also found that females had more intense body coloration than males and that this intensity peaked prior to spawning. Avt expression and female coloration were positively correlated. The fact that brain avt expression was lowest during gonad quiescence, together with the observation of a correlation between brain avt with gonadal cyp19a1a and body coloration during that time suggests that avt may play a role during the process of sex reversal and spawning of the gilthead seabream.

  4. Dioktil Adipat (DOA 'ın Sparus aurata (Çipura karaciğer ve solungaç histolojisi üzerine etkileri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Üreten

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polimer üretim süreçlerinde ikincil plastikleştirici olarak çok yaygın kullanılan dioktil adipat (DOA ’ın ekotoksikolojik etkileri ayrıntılı olarak araştırılmamıştır. Bu çalışmanın amacı 15 gün süreyle 250, 500 ve 750 ppm DOA’ya maruz bırakılan erkek çipura balıklarının (Sparus aurata solungaç ve karaciğerlerindeki histopatolojik değişimlerin ışık mikroskobu ile belirlenmesidir. Kontrol grubuyla karşılaştırıldığında, deneme grubu örneklerinin solungaçlarında vakuolizasyon, merkezi venada genişleme ve çarpıcı füzyon olarak ayırt edilen önemli histopatolojik değişimler gözlenmiştir. Ayrıca solungacın epitel, pillar mukus ve mitokondri zengini hücrelerinde belirgin hipertrofi ve hiperplazi de not edilmiştir. DOA’ya maruz bırakılan balıkların karaciğerlerinin incelenmesi yağlanma, fibrozis ve nekrozis olarak bir dizi hepatosellüler değişim ortaya koymuştur. Kanamaya ek olarak parankimatik sinüzoidler ve hepatopankreasın merkezi venleri genişlemiştir. Çalışma, DOA etkisinin araştırılan her iki dokuda da çoklu histolojik değişimlere yol açtığını, üstelik bu değişimlerin hepsinin uygulanan kimyasalın artan konsantrasyonuyla bağlantılı olduğunu göstermektedir. Sonuçta DOA’nın bir sucul kirletici olarak daha fazla dikkate alınması gerektiği vurgulanmıştır

  5. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) response to three music stimuli (Mozart--"Eine Kleine Nachtmusik," Anonymous--"Romanza," Bach--"Violin Concerto No. 1") and white noise under recirculating water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsoglou, Sofronios E; Karakatsouli, Nafsika; Psarrou, Anna; Apostolidou, Sofia; Papoutsoglou, Eustratios S; Batzina, Alkisti; Leondaritis, Georgios; Sakellaridis, N

    2015-02-01

    This study presents the results of the response of Sparus aurata to three different musical stimuli, derived from the transmission (4 h per day, 5 days per week) of particular music pieces by Mozart, Romanza and Bach (140 dB(rms) re 1 μPa), compared to the same transmission level of white noise, while the underwater ambient noise in all the experimental tanks was 121 dB(rms) re 1 μPa. Using recirculating sea water facilities, 10 groups, 2 for each treatment, of 20 specimens of 11.2 ± 0.02 g (S.E.), were reared for 94 days, under 150 ± 10 l× 12L-12D, and were fed an artificial diet three times per day. Fish body weight showed significant differences after 55 days, while its maximum level was observed after the 69th day until the end of the experiment, the highest value demonstrated in Mozart (M) groups, followed by those of Romanza (R), Bach (B), control (C) and white noise (WN). SGR (M = B), %WG (M = B) and FCR (all groups fed same % b.w.) were also improved for M group. Brain neurotransmitters results exhibited significant differences in DA-dopamine, (M > B), 5HIAA (C > B), 5HIAA:5HT (WN > R), DOPAC (M > B), DOPAC:DA and (DOPAC + HVA):DA, (C > M), while no significant differences were observed in 5HT, NA, HVA and HVA:DA. No differences were observed in biometric measurements, protease activity, % fatty acids of fillet, visceral fat and liver, while differences were observed regarding carbohydrase activity and the amount (mg/g w.w.) of some fatty acids in liver, fillet and visceral fat. In conclusion, present results confirm those reported for S. aurata, concerning the observed relaxing influence--due to its brain neurotransmitters action--of the transmission of Mozart music (compared to R and B), which resulted in the achievement of maximum growth rate, body weight and improved FCR. This conclusion definitely supports the musical "understanding" and sensitivity of S. aurata to music stimuli as well as suggesting a specific effect of white noise.

  6. Análisis transcriptómico y de microarrays para la identificación de genes biomarcadores de la utilización de los nutrientes de la dieta en músculo esquelético de dorada (Sparus aurata)

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Arteaga, Alberto Felipe

    2015-01-01

    [spa] La acuicultura constituye una de las actividades productivas de mayor desarrollo en las últimas décadas. Entre los peces de origen marino, la dorada (Sparus aurata) es la especie de mayor producción en España y en Europa. Sin embargo, a pesar del interés en la producción, los recursos genómicos para estudiar el impacto de los nutrientes de la dieta en el metabolismo son limitados. Actualmente, el análisis de expresión génica a nivel de mRNA es una de las principales herramientas utiliz...

  7. Can Early Life-Stages of the Marine Fish Sparus aurata be Useful for the Evaluation of the Toxicity of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates Homologues (LAS C10-C14 and Commercial LAS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hampel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most commercial household cleaning agents and personal care products contain the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS as the active compound. After their use they are discharged, theoretically after adequate wastewater treatment, into receiving waters finally reaching estuaries and coastal waters. Laboratory toxicity tests are useful tools in determining at which concentration a certain wastewater compound becomes hazardous for an existing group of organisms. Early life-stage toxicity tests include exposure during the most sensitive development period of the organism. In fish, this type of assay has shown to predict accurately maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC values (comprised in the range defined by the NOEC and LOEC in fish early life-stage tests. For this reason, larvae of the seabream, Sparus aurata, were exposed to increasing concentrations of LAS homologues (C10-C14 and commercial LAS. Obtained LC50 values ranged between 0.1 and 3.0 mg l-1 and were compared with LC50 values of previous hatching experiments with the same species. Larvae proved to be more sensitive to LAS exposure of individual homologues than eggs, except in the case of commercial LAS. LC50 values can be directly employed to determine their potential risk in a concrete environment with known pollutant concentrations. Dividing the LC50 value with the found homologue concentration and extrapolating with certain security factors proposed by different environmental organisms, potentially hazardous pollutant concentrations may be detected. Average estuarine or coastal LAS concentrations are generally below toxicity limits for this kind of organism, considering that the average alkyl chain length of commercial LAS is 11.6 carbon atoms.

  8. Activity of R(+) limonene on the maximum growth rate of fish spoilage organisms and related effects on shelf-life prolongation of fresh gilthead sea bream fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2016-11-21

    R(+)limonene (LMN) is the major aromatic compound in essential oils obtained from oranges, grapefruits, and lemons. The improvement of preservation techniques to reduce the growth and activity of spoilage microorganisms in foods is crucial to increase their shelf life and to reduce the losses due to spoilage. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of LMN on the shelf life of fish fillets. Its effectiveness was preliminarily investigated in vitro against 60 strains of Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs) and then on gilt-head sea bream fillets stored at 2±0.5°C for 15days under vacuum. LMN showed a good inhibitory effect against tested SSOs strains. On gilt-head sea bream fillets, LMN inhibited the growth SSOs effectively, and its use resulted in a shelf-life extension of ca. 6-9days of treated fillets, compared to the control samples. The LMN addition in Sparus aurata fillets giving a distinctive smell and like-lemon taste to fish fillets that resulted pleasant to panellists. Its use contributed to a considerable reduction of fish spoilage given that the fillets treated with LMN were still sensory acceptable after 15days of storage. LMN may be used as an effective antimicrobial system to reduce the microbial growth and to improve the shelf life of fresh gilt-head sea bream fillets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Unraveling vasotocinergic, isotocinergic and stress pathways after food deprivation and high stocking density in the gilthead sea bream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzynska, Arleta Krystyna; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2018-01-01

    The influence of chronic stress, induced by food deprivation (FD) and/or high stocking density (HSD), was assessed on stress, vasotocinergic and isotocinergic pathways of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Fish were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: (1) fed at low stocking density (LSD-F; 5kg·m-3); (2) fed at high stocking density (HSD-F, 40kg·m-3); (3) food-deprived at LSD (LSD-FD); and (4) food-deprived at HSD (HSD-FD). After 21days, samples from plasma, liver, hypothalamus, pituitary and head-kidney were collected. Both stressors (FD and HSD) induced a chronic stress situation, as indicated by the elevated cortisol levels, the enhancement in corticotrophin releasing hormone (crh) expression and the down-regulation in corticotrophin releasing hormone binding protein (crhbp) expression. Changes in plasma and liver metabolites confirmed a metabolic adjustment to cope with energy demand imposed by stressors. Changes in avt and it gene expression, as well as in their specific receptors (avtrv1a, avtrv2 and itr) at central (hypothalamus and pituitary) and peripheral (liver and head-kidney) levels, showed that vasotocinergic and isotocinergic pathways are involved in physiological changes induced by FD or HSD, suggesting that different stressors are handled through different stress pathways in S. aurata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbiological spoilage and investigation of volatile profile during storage of sea bream fillets under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlapani, Foteini F; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Boziaris, Ioannis S

    2014-10-17

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) profile was determined during storage of sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets under air and Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP - CO2/O2/N2: 60/10/30) at 0, 5 and 15°C. Microbiological, TVB-N (Total Volatile Base Nitrogen) and sensory changes were also monitored. Shelf-life of sea bream fillets stored under air was 14, 5 and 2days (d) at 0, 5 and 15°C respectively, while under MAP was 18, 8, and 2d at 0, 5 and 15°C respectively. At the end of shelf life, the total microbial population ranged from 7.5 to 8.5logcfu/g. Pseudomonas spp. were among the dominant spoilage microorganisms in all cases, however growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) were favoured under MAP compared to air. TVB-N production was favoured at higher temperatures and under air compared to lower temperatures and MAP. TVB-N increased substantially from the middle of storage and its value never reached concentrations higher than 30-35mgN/100g, which is the legislation limit, making it a poor chemical spoilage index (CSI). A lot of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and ethyl esters that were detected in the present study have been reported as bacterial metabolites, others as products of chemical oxidation while others as aroma constituents. VOCs such as 3-methylbutanal, acetic acid, ethanol, ethyl esters of isovaleric and 2-methylbutyric acids, 1-penten-3-ol, 1-octen-3-ol and cis-4-heptenal appeared from the early or middle stages and increased until the end of storage. From those only 3-methylbutanal, acetic acid, ethanol and the ethyl esters have been reported as microbial origin, making them potential CSI candidates of sea bream fillets. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. PREVALENCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO SPP. ISOLATED ON AQUACULTURED GILTHEAD SEA BREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scarano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp isolated from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata farmed on sea cages and to identify and characterize the pathogen by molecular techniques. Eighty fish were collected from two hatcheries located on the North-Est Sardinian Mediterranean coast, and microbiological analysis were performed on different body parts such as skin, gills, muscle and intestinal tract. Subsequently 100 pure colonies with typical morphology and phenotypic characteristics were selected and submitted to the molecular identification. The analysis on the prevalence of Vibrio spp showed the effect of the hatchery rearing system (P<0.001, of the date of sampling (P<0.001, and of the body part (P<0.001. All the strains selected were confirmed to be members of the genus Vibrio spp by the molecular method/techinique/identification, whereas the rpoA gene sequence analyses allowed to identify 89 strains belonging to the species Vibrio harveyi, 6 to V. diabolicus, 2 to V. parahaemolyticus and 1 to V. mediterranei.

  12. Suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) and macroarray techniques reveal differential gene expression profiles in brain of sea bream infected with nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dios, S; Poisa-Beiro, L; Figueras, A; Novoa, B

    2007-03-01

    Despite of the impact that viruses have on aquatic organisms, relatively little is known on how fish fight against these infections. In this work, the brain gene expression pattern of sea bream (Sparus aurata) in response to nodavirus infection was investigated. We used the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method to generate a subtracted cDNA library enriched with gene transcripts differentially expressed after 1 day post-infection. Some of the ESTs from the infected tissues fell in gene categories related to stress and immune responses. For the reverse library (ESTs expressed in controls compared with infected tissues) the most abundant transcripts were of ribosomal and mitochondrial nature. Several ESTs potentially induced by virus exposure were selected for in vivo expression studies. We observed a clear difference in expression between infected and control samples for two candidate genes, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 7 interacting protein, which seems to play an important role in apoptosis and the interferon induced protein with helicase C domain 1 (mda-5) that contributes to apoptosis and regulates the type I IFN production, a key molecule of the antiviral innate response in most organisms.

  13. Proteolytic systems' expression during myogenesis and transcriptional regulation by amino acids in gilthead sea bream cultured muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Emilio J; Azizi, Sheida; Verheyden, Dorothy; Salmerón, Cristina; Lutfi, Esmail; Sánchez-Moya, Albert; Navarro, Isabel; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Capilla, Encarnación

    2017-01-01

    Proteolytic systems exert an important role in vertebrate muscle controlling protein turnover, recycling of amino acids (AA) or its use for energy production, as well as other functions like myogenesis. In fish, proteolytic systems are crucial for the relatively high muscle somatic index they possess, and because protein is the most important dietary component. Thus in this study, the molecular profile of proteolytic markers (calpains, cathepsins and ubiquitin-proteasome system (UbP) members) were analyzed during gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) myogenesis in vitro and under different AA treatments. The gene expression of calpains (capn1, capn3 and capns1b) decreased progressively during myogenesis together with the proteasome member n3; whereas capn2, capns1a, capns1b and ubiquitin (ub) remained stable. Contrarily, the cathepsin D (ctsd) paralogs and E3 ubiquitin ligases mafbx and murf1, showed a significant peak in gene expression at day 8 of culture that slightly decreased afterwards. Moreover, the protein expression analyzed for selected molecules presented in general the same profile of the mRNA levels, which was confirmed by correlation analysis. These data suggest that calpains seem to be more important during proliferation, while cathepsins and the UbP system appear to be required for myogenic differentiation. Concerning the transcriptional regulation by AA, the recovery of their levels after a short starvation period did not show effects on cathepsins expression, whereas it down-regulated the expression of capn3, capns1b, mafbx, murf1 and up-regulated n3. With regards to AA deficiencies, the major changes occurred at day 2, when leucine limitation suppressed ctsb and ctsl expression. Besides at the same time, both leucine and lysine deficiencies increased the expression of mafbx and murf1 and decreased that of n3. Overall, the opposite nutritional regulation observed, especially for the UbP members, points out an efficient and complementary role of these

  14. Calcium handling in Sparus auratus: effects of water and dietary calcium levels on mineral composition, cortisol and PTHrP levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Bevelander, G.S.; Rotllant, J.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.; 10-40 g body mass) were acclimatized in the laboratory to full strength (34 per thousand) or dilute (2.5 per thousand) seawater and fed normal, calcium-sufficient or calcium-deficient diet for nine weeks. Mean growth rate, whole-body calcium and

  15. Aquaporin 1a expression in gill, intestine and kidney of the euryhaline silver sea bream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie E Deane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic salinity acclimation, abrupt salinity transfer and cortisol administration on aquaporin 1 (AQP1 expression in gill, intestine and kidney of silver sea bream (Sparus sarba. An AQP1a cDNA was cloned and found to share 83 – 96 % amino acid sequence identity with AQP1 genes from several fish species. Tissue distribution studies of AQP1a mRNA demonstrated that it was expressed in gill, liver, intestine, rectum, kidney, heart, urinary bladder and whole blood. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to measure AQP1a transcript abundance in sea bream that were acclimated to salinity conditions of 0, 6, 12, 33, 50 and 70ppt for 1 month. The abundance of gill AQP1a transcript was highest in sea bream acclimated to 0ppt whereas no differences were found among 0 – 50ppt groups. For intestine, the highest AQP1a transcript amounts were found in sea bream acclimated to 12 and 70ppt whereas the transcript abundance of kidney AQP1a was found to be unchanged amongst the different salinity groups. To investigate the effects of acute salinity alterations on AQP1a expression, sea bream were abruptly transferred from 33ppt to 6ppt. For intestine AQP1a levels were altered at different times, post transfer, but remained unchanged in gill and kidney. To study the effects of cortisol on AQP1a expression, sea bream were administered a single dose of cortisol followed by a 3 day acclimation to either 33ppt or 6ppt. The findings from this experiment demonstrated that cortisol administration resulted in alterations of AQP1a transcript in gill and intestine but not in kidney.

  16. NADPH production, a growth marker, is stimulated by maslinic acid in gilthead sea bream by increased NADP-IDH and ME expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino-Palomares, Eva E; Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J; García-Salguero, Leticia; Peragón, Juan; de la Higuera, Manuel; Lupiáñez, José A

    2016-09-01

    NADPH plays a central role in reductive biosynthesis of membrane lipids, maintenance of cell integrity, protein synthesis and redox balance maintenance. Hence, NADPH is involved in the growth and proliferation processes. In addition, it has been shown that changes in nutritional conditions produced changes in NADPH levels and growth rate. Maslinic acid (MA), a pentacyclic triterpene of natural origin, is able to stimulate NADPH production, through regulation of the two oxidative phase dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway. Our main objective was to study the effects of MA on the kinetic behaviour and on the molecular expression of two NADPH-generating systems, NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH) and malic enzyme (ME), in the liver and white muscle of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Four groups of 12g of a mean body mass were fed for 210days in a fish farm, with diets containing 0 (control), and 0.1g of MA per kg of diet. Two groups were fed ad libitum (C-AL and MA-AL) and another's two, with restricted diet of 1% of fish weight (C-R and MA-R). Results showed that MA significantly increased the main kinetic parameter of the NADPH-forming enzymes (NADP-IDH and ME). In this sense, specific activity, maximum velocity, catalytic efficiency and activity ratio values were higher in MA conditions than control groups. Moreover, these changes were observed in both feeding regimen, AL and R. Meanwhile, the Michaelis constant changed mainly in groups fed with the MA and restricted diet, these changes are related to the best substrate affinity by enzyme. Moreover, in the Western-blot result, we found that MA increased both protein levels studied, this behaviour being consistent with the regulation of the number of enzyme molecules. All results, indicate that MA, independently of the fed regimen, could potentially be a nutritional additive for fish as it improved the metabolic state of fish, as consequence of increased activity and expression of NADP

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata Production in Offshore Fish Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín García García

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment is used in this study to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of producing gilthead seabream in an offshore sea farm exposed to storms in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea. The farming methods used can be considered as “basic” since no centralized or automatic food distribution system exists and there is no control system. This study aims to identify the main hotspots under these conditions and to propose and compare viable alternatives to them. Contribution analysis found that the component of the system with the greatest potential environmental impact (48% of the overall impact was fish feed, especially the raw material used. Other contributory factors were the fuel consumed by the vessels operating in the farm (35%, the dumping of N and P in the environment due to the metabolism of the fish (12%, the cages and their anchorage system (5%. A sensitivity analysis showed that a significant reduction in potential environmental impact can be achieved by increasing feeding efficiency. Feed formulation in raw materials is also an important factor and could serve to diminish overall adverse effects. A balance needs to be found between productive performance (growth, survival and feed conversion rate, feed price and its influence on production costs and the overall environmental consequences.

  18. RANCIDITY DEVELOPMENT DURING FROZEN STORAGE OF FILLETS FROM GILTHEAD SEABREAM (Sparus aurata REARED IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Gatta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipid oxidation indices (Free Fatty Acids-FFA, Peroxide Value-PV and Thiobarbituric Acid-TBA were evaluated in frozen fillets from seabream reared in Italy in: land based facilities (recirculation systems, lagoons or net-cages. Statistically significant differences emerged among seabream sources for all indices. Quality loss related to rancidity seemed to have been affected by both storage time and culturing system.

  19. Daily rhythms of digestive enzyme activity and gene expression in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Sotres, José Antonio; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Yúfera, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    In order to identify daily changes in digestive physiology in developing gilthead seabream larvae, the enzyme activity (trypsin, lipases and α-amylase) and gene expression (trypsinogen-try, chymotrypsinogen-ctrb, bile salt-activated lipase-cel1b, phospholipase A2-pla2 and α-amylase-amy2a) were measured during a 24h cycle in larvae reared under a 12h light/12h dark photoperiod. Larvae were sampled at 10, 18, 30 and 60days post-hatch. In each sampling day, larvae were sampled every 3h during a complete 24h cycle. The enzyme activity and gene expression exhibited a marked dependent behavior to the light/darkness cycle in all tested ages. The patterns of activity and expression of all tested enzymes were compared to the feeding pattern found in the same larvae, which showed a rhythmic feeding pattern with a strong light synchronization. In the four tested ages, the activities of trypsin, and to a lesser extent lipases and amylase, were related to feeding activity. Molecular expression of the pancreatic enzymes tended to increase during the night, probably as an anticipation of the forthcoming ingestion of food that will take place during the next light period. It follows that the enzymatic activities are being regulated at translational and/or post-translational level. The potential variability of enzyme secretion along the whole day is an important factor to take into account in future studies. A particularly striking consequence of the present results is the reliability of studies based in only one daily sample taken at the same hour of the day, as those focused to assess ontogeny of digestive enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of compositional analysis to distinguish farmed and wild gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Valfré

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent food scares have emphasized the need for traceability in the food chain. This is particularly true in the fish sector, where a large difference in the final price between wild and farmed fish and even between farmed fish reared in different countries exists. So for these commercial and hygienic reasons it is very important to find useful tools for the characterization of quality of fish and for the differentiation of fish from different production methods and from different countries, in accordance with EC Regulation No. 2065/2001 and Italian Ministry of Agriculture Decree No. 27.03.02, that allow retail trade of fishery and aquaculture products only against the indication of the official commercial name, the method of production and the geographical origin of fish (Moretti et al., 2003.

  1. Persistence of duplicated PAC1 receptors in the teleost, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Melody S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Duplicated genes are common in vertebrate genomes. Their persistence is assumed to be either a consequence of gain of novel function (neofunctionalisation or partitioning of the function of the ancestral molecule (sub-functionalisation. Surprisingly few studies have evaluated the extent of such modifications despite the numerous duplicated receptor and ligand genes identified in vertebrate genomes to date. In order to study the importance of function in the maintenance of duplicated genes, sea bream (Sparus auratus PAC1 receptors, sequence homologues of the mammalian receptor specific for PACAP (Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, were studied. These receptors belong to family 2 GPCRs and most of their members are duplicated in teleosts although the reason why both persist in the genome is unknown. Results: Duplicate sea bream PACAP receptor genes (sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, members of family 2 GPCRs, were isolated and share 77% amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR with specific primers for each gene revealed that they have a differential tissue distribution which overlaps with the distribution of the single mammalian receptor. Furthermore, in common with mammals, the teleost genes undergo alternative splicing and a PAC1Ahop1 isoform has been characterised. Duplicated orthologous receptors have also been identified in other teleost genomes and their distribution profile suggests that function may be species specific. Functional analysis of the paralogue sbPAC1s in Cos7 cells revealed that they are strongly stimulated in the presence of mammalian PACAP27 and PACAP38 and far less with VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide. The sbPAC1 receptors are equally stimulated (LOGEC50 values for maximal cAMP production in the presence of PACAP27 (-8.74 ± 0.29 M and -9.15 ± 0.21 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0.05 and PACAP38 (-8.54 ± 0.18 M and -8.92 ± 0.24 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0

  2. Studies on metazoan parasites of two marine fish species of interest for aquaculture: Seriola dumerili and Sparus aurata

    OpenAIRE

    Repullés Albelda, Aigües

    2013-01-01

    0.1. Introducción general La acuicultura ha experimentado un importante aumento durante los últimos 50 años, resultado del incremento global de población y la creciente demanda de proteínas de alta calidad. En los últimos 40 años, la proporción de reservas pesqueras moderadamente explotadas ha descendido progresivamente hasta estabilizarse en el 15% y en la actualidad, la mayoría de los stocks pesqueros están sobreexplotados y (FAO, 2010). Más de la mitad de los productos acuáticos provien...

  3. The Bromodomain testis-specific gene (Brdt characterization and expression in gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, and European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Úbeda-Manzanaro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple genes and transcription factors are involved in regulation and control of the complex process of sex determination and differentiation of fish species. Also more, several hormonal factors and some environmental conditions can also be adequate spawning strategies and stimuli for inducing reproduction of fish species. Brdt gene belongs to the bromodomain-extraterminal domain (BET family of transcriptional coregulators. In mammals, Brdt gene is almost exclusively expressed in testis. Furthermore, Brdt protein is involved in elongating spermatids, and is required for proper spermatogenesis and male fertility. However, from our understanding of fish species, the role of this gene as key, during gametogenesis, still remains unknown. In this study, two Brdt mRNA transcripts were isolated from two teleostean fish species, gilthead seabream and European seabass. In both species the shorter form lacked a functional C-terminal domain, which may involve a different function as transcriptional regulator. The pattern of Brdt expression showed that the highest levels occurred in the gonads. Significantly lower levels of expression were detected in brain, pituitary and different organ systems (heart, kidney, gills, among other somatic tissues from both studied species. In situ hybridization approach evidenced that Brdt mRNA expression was restricted to specific cell-types of the germ line, during both oogenesis and spermatogenesis processes.

  4. Flow cytometry based techniques to study testicular acidophilic granulocytes from the protandrous fish gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves-Pozo Elena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The gilthead seabream is a protandrous seasonal breeding teleost that is an excellent model for studying the testicular regression process which occurs in both seasonal testicular involution and sex reversion. Little is known about the cell types and the molecular mechanisms involved in such processes, mainly because of the lack of appropriate methods for testis dissociation, and testicular cell isolation, culture and functional characterization. We have previously reported that gilthead seabream acidophilic granulocytes infiltrate the testis at post-spawning stage, settle close to the spermatogonia and accumulate intracellular interleukin-1&bgr;. In this paper, we report several flow cytometry based assays which allow to establish the role played by gilthead seabream testicular acidophilic granulocytes and permits their quantification.

  5. Metabolic fingerprinting of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata liver to track interactions between dietary factors and seasonal temperature variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomé S. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Farmed gilthead seabream is sometimes affected by a metabolic syndrome, known as the “winter disease”, which has a significant economic impact in the Mediterranean region. It is caused, among other factors, by the thermal variations that occur during colder months and there are signs that an improved nutritional status can mitigate the effects of this thermal stress. For this reason, a trial was undertaken where we assessed the effect of two different diets on gilthead seabream physiology and nutritional state, through metabolic fingerprinting of hepatic tissue. For this trial, four groups of 25 adult gilthead seabream were reared for 8 months, being fed either with a control diet (CTRL, low-cost commercial formulation or with a diet called “Winter Feed” (WF, high-cost improved formulation. Fish were sampled at two time-points (at the end of winter and at the end of spring, with liver tissue being taken for FT-IR spectroscopy. Results have shown that seasonal temperature variations constitute a metabolic challenge for gilthead seabream, with hepatic carbohydrate stores being consumed over the course of the inter-sampling period. Regarding the WF diet, results point towards a positive effect in terms of performance and improved nutritional status. This diet seems to have a mitigating effect on the deleterious impact of thermal shifts, confirming the hypothesis that nutritional factors can affect the capacity of gilthead seabream to cope with seasonal thermal variations and possibly contribute to prevent the onset of “winter disease”.

  6. Filter-feeding in common bream (Abramis brama), white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) : structures, functions and ecological significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den C.

    1993-01-01

    bream

    In this thesis the retention mechanism of the branchial sieve of three sympatric cyprinid fish species, the common bream (Abramis brama), the white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and the roach

  7. Expression Analysis of Interferon-Stimulated Gene 15 in the Rock BreamOplegnathus fasciatusagainst Rock Bream Iridovirus (RSIV) Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yang, In Jung; Kim, Woo-Jin; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Noh, Gyeong Eon; Lee, Seunghyung; Lee, Young Mee; Hwang, Hyung Kyu; Kim, Hyun Chul

    2017-12-01

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is known to interfere with viral replication and infection by limiting the viral infection of cells. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) interferes with viral replication and infectivity by limiting viral infection in cells. It also plays an important role in the immune response. In this study, tissue-specific expression of ISG15 in healthy rock bream samples and spatial and temporal expression analysis of rock bream ISG15 (RbISG15) were performed following rock bream iridovirus (RSIV) infection. RbISG15 expression was significantly higher in the eye, gill, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, spleen, and stomach, but low in the brain. There were particularly high levels of expression in the liver and muscle. RbISG15 expression was also examined in several tissues and at various times following RSIV infection. ISG15 expression increased within 3 h in the whole body and decreased at 24 h after infection. In addition, temporal expression of several tissues following RSIV infection showed a similar pattern in the muscle, kidney, and spleen, increasing at 3 h and decreasing at 72 h. These results suggest that ISG15 plays an important role in the immune response of rock bream. Overall, this study characterizes the response of RbISG15 following RSIV infection.

  8. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady...... to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3...

  9. Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) replication in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) exposed for different time periods to susceptible water temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Vinay, Tharabenahalli-Nagaraju; Lee, Jehee; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-11-01

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) is a member of the Megalocytivirus genus that causes severe mortality to rock bream. Water temperature is known to affect the immune system and susceptibility of fish to RBIV infection. In this study, we evaluated the time dependent virus replication pattern and time required to completely eliminate virus from the rock bream body against RBIV infection at different water temperature conditions. The rock bream was exposed to the virus and held at 7 (group A1), 4 (group A2) and 2 days (group A3) at 23 °C before the water temperature was reduced to 17 °C. A total of 28% mortality was observed 24-35 days post infection (dpi) in only the 7 day exposure group at 23 °C. In all 23 °C exposure groups, virus replication peaked at 20 to 22 dpi (10 6 -10 7 /μl). In recovery stages (30-100 dpi), the virus copy number was gradually reduced, from 10 6 to 10 1 with faster decreases in the shorter exposure period group at 23 °C. When the water temperature was increased in surviving fish from 17 to 26 °C at 70 dpi, they did not show any mortality or signs of disease and had low virus copy numbers (below 10 2 /μl). Thus, fish need at least 50 days from peaked RBIV levels (approximately 20-25 dpi) to inhibit the virus. This indicates that maintaining the fish at low water temperature (17 °C) for 70 days is sufficient to eradicate RBIV from fish body. Thus, RBIV could be eliminated slowly from the fish body and the virus may be completely eliminated under the threshold of causing mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Innate immune responses against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) following poly (I:C) administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-12-01

    Poly (I:C) showed promise as an immunoprotective agents in rock bream against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection. In this study, we evaluated the time-dependent virus replication pattern and antiviral immune responses in RBIV-infected rock bream with and without poly (I:C) administration. In the poly (I:C)+virus-injected group, virus copy numbers were more than 18.9-, 24.0- and 479.2-fold lower than in the virus only injected group at 4 (4.73 × 10 4 and 8.95 × 10 5 /μl, respectively), 7 (3.67 × 10 5 and 8.81 × 10 6 /μl, respectively) and 10 days post infection (dpi) (1.26 × 10 5 and 6.02 × 10 7 /μl, respectively). Moreover, significantly high expression levels of TLR3 (8.6- and 7.7-fold, at 4 and 7 dpi, respectively) and IL1β (3.6-fold at 2 dpi) were observed in the poly (I:C)+virus-injected group, but the expression levels were not significantly in the virus-injected group. However, IL8 and TNFα expression levels showed no statistical significance in both groups. Mx, ISG15 and PKR were significantly highly expressed from 4 to 10 dpi in the virus-injected group. Nevertheless, in the poly (I:C)+virus-injected group, Mx and ISG15 expression were significantly expressed from 2 dpi. In summary, poly (I:C) administration in rock bream induces TLR3, IL1β, Mx and ISG15-mediated immune responses, which could be a critical factor for inhibition of virus replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Partition of aerobic and anaerobic swimming costs and their correlation to tail-beat frequency and burst activity in Sparus aurata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    until fatigue at 10°C. The anaerobic swimming cost was measured as the excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) following each swimming speed. To determine tail-beat frequency, amplitude and burst and coast behaviour, the peduncle position was determined at 25 s·' by video tracking. The data showed......, and resulted in a total anaerobic capacity of 170 mg O2 kg·'. Normalized tail-beat amplitude and frequency both predicted the swimming speed but only tail-beat frequency was able to predict the aerobic swimming cost. The change to burst and coast swimming was correlated to the first measurements of EPOC...... and both the burst frequency (bursts min·') and burst distance (percentage burst distance) were found to predict EPOC by linear regressions. The low temperature used in the present study resulted in a prolonged recovery time, which increased with the anaerobic contribution to 10 hours after fatigue. Due...

  12. Efecto de la alimentación de dorada (Sparus aurata, L.) con piensos sin harina de pescado sobre la actividad de enzimas digestivas.

    OpenAIRE

    GUTIÉRREZ VELA, MIRIAM

    2017-01-01

    [ES] La dorada es la especie que más se produce en el mediterráneo, pero la caída en el precio de venta está disminuyendo la rentabilidad de la producción. Por otro lado, la alimentación supone uno de los mayores costes en la producción de especies acuícolas. Por lo tanto, la disminución de los costes por alimentación, como incluir fuentes de proteínas alternativas más baratas que la harina de pescado, resulta una alternativa para mejorar la rentabilidad de la producción. El ob...

  13. Estrategias de alimentación y cultivo de la dorada (sparus aurata). Regulación endocrina y estado inmunopatológico.

    OpenAIRE

    Mingarro Martí, Mónica

    2004-01-01

    RESUMEN En la presente tesis doctoral se abordó la regulación de la somatolactina (SL) y del eje somatotrópico (GH-IGF-I) en tres ciclos de engorde con inicio en distinta época del año (primavera, verano y otoño). Se determinaron variaciones estacionales de GH e IGF-I con picos en el periodo estival y los niveles más bajos en otoño e invierno. Los niveles circulantes de GH estuvieron correlacionados positivamente con las tasas de ingesta de alimento, mientras que los niveles de IGF-I lo es...

  14. DNA vaccine encoding myristoylated membrane protein (MMP) of rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) induces protective immunity in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2018-02-01

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) in Korea. In this study, we investigated the potential of viral membrane protein to induce antiviral status protecting rock bream against RBIV infection. We found that fish administered with ORF008L (myristoylated membrane protein, MMP) vaccine exhibited significantly higher levels of survival compared to ORF007L (major capsid protein, MCP). Moreover, ORF008L-based DNA vaccinated fish showed significant protection at 4 and 8 weeks post vaccination (wpv) than non-vaccinated fish after infected with RBIV (6.7 × 10 5 ) at 23 °C, with relative percent survival (RPS) of 73.36% and 46.72%, respectively. All of the survivors from the first RBIV infection were strongly protected (100% RPS) from re-infected with RBIV (1.1 × 10 7 ) at 100 dpi. In addition, the MMP (ORF008L)-based DNA vaccine significantly induced the gene expression of TLR3 (14.2-fold), MyD88 (11.6-fold), Mx (84.7-fold), ISG15 (8.7-fold), PKR (25.6-fold), MHC class I (13.3-fold), Fas (6.7-fold), Fas ligand (6.7-fold), caspase9 (17.0-fold) and caspase3 (15.3-fold) at 7 days post vaccination in the muscle (vaccine injection site). Our results showed the induction of immune responses and suggest the possibility of developing preventive measures against RBIV using myristoylated membrane protein-based DNA vaccine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Occurrence, bionomics and harmfulness of Crepidodera aurata (Marsh. (Coleoptera, Alticidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Urban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flea-beetle Crepidodera aurata (Marsh. is a forestry-important species of the family Alticidae. Its occurrence, bionomics and harmfulness were studied at Forest District Bílovice nad Svitavou (Training Forest Enterprise Masaryk Forest Křtiny near Brno in the period 2007 to 2010. Salix caprea L. was the main host and Populus tremula L. an additional host. Last year’s beetles occurred on woody species from the beginning of May to mid-October (most abundantly in June. In the laboratory, they lived 2 to 2.5 months and damaged on average 19.1 cm2 leaves S. caprea. Females laid on average 246.5 eggs, namely in 15.4 clutches at 16 eggs. Beetles of the new generation mostly overwintered (70% in pupal chambers. About 30% this year’s beetles left pupal chambers. These occurred on trees from the second decade of July to the beginning of November (most abundantly in September. The smaller part of them ran over from S. caprea to newly grown young P. tremula in September and October. Males damaged on average 6.1 (females 7.0 cm2 leaves of P. tremula during 3 to 4-week feeding. Beetles do not mate before hibernation and eggs develop in ovaries of females only after wintering. The development is obligatorily univoltine. With respect to the low consumption of food it is not usually necessary to control the pest.

  16. Transmission of iridovirus from freshwater ornamental fish (pearl gourami) to marine fish (rock bream).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joon Bum; Cho, Hye Jin; Jun, Lyu Jin; Hong, Su Hee; Chung, Joon-Ki; Jeong, Hyun Do

    2008-10-16

    Freshwater pearl gourami Trichogaster leeri and seawater rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus infected by the iridoviruses PGIV-SP and IVS-1 were carrying similar numbers of viral particles (2.52 x 10(8) and 2.46 x 10(8) viral genome copies mg(-1) spleen tissue, respectively). The viral genome copy number for both iridoviruses decreased much faster in seawater than in freshwater, reaching a concentration of less than 0.5%, versus 26 to 54% in freshwater, after 4 d of incubation at 25 degrees C. The decrease in copy number altered the infectivity of the viruses, as reflected by the decreased cumulative mortality of rock bream injected intraperitoneally with the incubated iridoviruses. Moreover, uninfected rock bream cohabitated with PGIV-SP-challenged rock bream showed 100% cumulative mortality; a similar experiment using IVS-1 had the same result, implying the potential for iridoviral transmission from freshwater ornamental fish to marine fish even in a marine environment. Of 58 outwardly healthy marine fish groups collected from various markets, 2 rock bream groups and 1 sea perch group Lateolabrax sp. tested positive for PGIV-SP by 2-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thus, PGIV-SP from freshwater ornamental fish may have crossed both environmental and species barriers to infect marine fish such as rock bream.

  17. Fish polar lipids retard atherosclerosis in rabbits by down-regulating PAF biosynthesis and up-regulating PAF catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasopoulou Constantina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activating factor (PAF has been proposed as a key factor and initial trigger in atherosclerosis. Recently, a modulation of PAF metabolism by bioactive food constituents has been suggested. In this study we investigated the effect of fish polar lipid consumption on PAF metabolism. Results The specific activities of four PAF metabolic enzymes; in leukocytes, platelets and plasma, and PAF concentration; either in blood cells or plasma were determined. Samples were acquired at the beginning and at the end of a previously conducted study in male New Zealand white rabbits that were fed for 45 days with atherogenic diet supplemented (group-B, n = 6 or not (group-A, n = 6 with gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata polar lipids. The specific activity of PAF-Acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH; a catabolic enzyme of PAF, was decreased in rabbits' platelets of both A and B groups and in rabbits' leukocytes of group A (p 0.05. Free and bound PAF levels increased in group A while decreased in group B (p Conclusions Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata polar lipids modulate PAF metabolism upon atherosclerotic conditions in rabbits leading to lower PAF levels and activity in blood of rabbits with reduced early atherosclerotic lesions compared to control group.

  18. Parasitic diseases of marine fish: epidemiological and sanitary considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M; Florio, D; Gustinelli, A; Marcer, F; Quaglio, F

    2006-06-01

    Over recent decades, parasitic diseases have been increasingly considered a sanitary and economic threat to Mediterranean aquaculture. In order to monitor the distribution of parasites in cultured marine fish from Italy and study their pathogenic effects on the host, a three-year survey based on parasitological and histopathological exams was carried out on 2141 subjects from eleven fish species and coming from different farming systems (extensive, intensive inland farms, inshore floating cages, offshore floating cages and submersible cages). A number of parasitic species was detected, mostly in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), mullets (Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo), with distribution patterns and prevalence values varying in relation to the farming system, in-season period and size category. The epidemiology and pathological effects of the parasites found during the survey are discussed.

  19. Trade-fishing and the dynamics of bream numbering of Dagestan coastline of Caspian Sea and delta water body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Idrisova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analys of the trade-fishing is presented. The leading position of bream in the tradefishing catches of Dagestan and its age staff are shown. The numbering and biomass of bream of Dagestan coastline of Caspian Sea and delta water body are calenlated according to different methods.

  20. The effect of organic and conventional production methods on sea bream growth, health and body composition: a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Mente

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a better understanding of organic sea bream aquaculture production in Greece, in particular its consequences for fish growth, health and body composition, and to propose and update standards for sustainable organic sea bream farming. Gilthead sea bream were kept in sea cages at densities of 4 kg m–3 (organic and 15 kg m–3 (conventional, and were fed organically produced feed (45% crude protein, 14% fat or conventional feed (46% crude protein, 17% fat. The amino acid profile of the conventional diet, particularly the lysine content, which is one of most important dietary amino acids for sea bream, appeared to be unsatisfactory. “Organic” sea bream stored less fat content in their white muscle than the conventional sea bream. The liver lipid content was lower and the hepatosomatic index was higher for the organic sea bream. The microbiological analysis showed that both Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli on the skin were below the enumeration detection limit in both the organic and conventional sea bream. Total viable counts on the skin and muscle of both the organically and conventionally cultured sea bream were approximately 3 log cfu g –1, which is well below the acceptable limit (7 log cfu g–1 for marine species. The results showed that the combination of a low stocking density and feed with a different ingredient composition but similar nutritional value resulted in similar growth rates and nutrient profiles of the final product. Further research on nutrition is required to provide information on setting the appropriate standards for organic sea bream aquaculture to ensure that the final product is in line with the consumers’ preferences.

  1. Comparison of Sensitivity between Yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata and Red Sea Bream Pagrus major to Nocardia seriolae

    OpenAIRE

    Itano, Tomokazu; Nakaoka, Noriyoshi; Kawakami, Hidemasa; Kono, Tomoya; Sakai, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    The sensitivity of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata and red sea bream Pagrus major to Nocardia seriolae was investigated. The LD50 for yellowtail and red sea bream after being injected with N. seriolae was 1.1 x 10(3) CFU/100 g B.W. and 3.4 x 10(4) CFU/100 g B.W.,respectively. In an immersion challenge, the LD50 for yellowtail was 1.2 x 10(4) CFU/mL, while no###mortality was observed in red sea bream at 1.0 x 10(5) CFUlmL for 26 days. These data indicate that yellowtail is more sensitive to ...

  2. Impact of fish species on levels of lead accumulation in the meat of common bream (Abramis brama L., white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L. and common bleak (Alburnus alburnus L. from the Vistula River (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena STANEK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the concentration of lead in the meat of common bream (Abramis brama L., white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L. and common bleak (Alburnus alburnus L.. The experimental fish were obtained in natural condition from Vistula River, located within Toru., near wastewater treatment plant. The study involved 60 individuals of freshwater fish caught in autumn. Analyses were carried out on 10 individuals of common bream, 20 white bream and 30 individuals of common bleak. The muscles samples for analyses were taken from the large side muscle of fish body above the lateral line. There were chosen for analyses individuals with similar biometric measurements. Due to a relatively low amounts of meat obtained from white bream and common bleak, the material from individuals of similar body length was combined (about 2-3 pieces. Pb concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer Solaar 939 QZ, ATI Unicam. Analyses of variance (test post hoc -Tukey test indicated that the mean value of lead was the highest in the meat of common bream (0.086 ƒĘgEg-1 wet weight and the lowest in the meat of white bream (0.075 ƒĘgEg-1 wet weight. There were no statistical significant differences in the lead content between the analyzed fish species (at p< 0.05. Analysis of correlation indicated a negative and statistical significant correlation between the fish body length and Pb concentration.

  3. Biological characteristics of silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna in commercial fishery in the Kyiv reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zakharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The determination and analysis of main biological characteristics of silver bream from the point of view of the formation and exploitation of its commercial stock in the Kyiv reservoir. Methodology. The work is based the results of monitoring field studies carried out on the Kyiv reservoir during 2012–2014. Ichthyological materials were collected from standard commercial gill nets with mesh sizes of 30–80 mm, which were set in different habitats and depths of the reservoir. Collection and processing of samples was carried out using conventional ichthyological methods adapted for the Dnieper reservoirs. Findings. According to the data of monitoring gill nets, silver bream population in 2014 was composed of 10 age groups. The majority of their population (70.8% in catches was composed of age-5 to age-7 fish, i.e. the number of modal classes increased due to the right wing of the older age groups. The frequency distribution of silver bream had a shape of a curve with wide, however broken (due to the reduction in age-5 fish peak and gradual decrease. Age-length properties, fatness parameters and condition factor of silver bream in the Kiev reservoir during last years remained on the stable high level indicating on favorable fattening conditions and forming the ichthyomass of this species. At the present time, silver bream of the Kyiv reservoir formed a commercial stock with such qualitative and quantitative characteristics, which allow exploiting it in the mode of traditional commercial harvest and specialized harvest of silver bream concentrations with the use of gill nets with mesh sizes of 50, 60 mm. Originality. We obtained and analyzed the new data on the current state of silver bream (Blіcca bjoerkna in Kyiv reservoir as an important element of commercial fish production. Practical Value. The results of the work allows increasing qualitative and quantitative characteristics of silver bream catches and will be used for the

  4. Dietary keto-acid feed-back on pituitary activity in gilthead sea bream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarz, Antoni; Costa, Rita; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2010-01-01

    The influence of a daily oral dose of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG, 0.1 g/kg body weight), an intermediate metabolite in the Krebs cycle and a dietary additive, on the pituitary proteome of gilthead sea bream was determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). A high-resolution map of the sea b...

  5. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to RSIVD in Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawayama, Eitaro; Tanizawa, Shiho; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Nakayama, Kei; Ohta, Kohei; Ozaki, Akiyuki; Takagi, Motohiro

    2017-12-01

    Red sea bream iridoviral disease (RSIVD) is a major viral disease in red sea bream farming in Japan. Previously, we identified one candidate male individual of red sea bream that was significantly associated with convalescent individuals after RSIVD. The purpose of this study is to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked to the RSIVD-resistant trait for future marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two test families were developed using the candidate male in 2014 (Fam-2014) and 2015 (Fam-2015). These test families were challenged with RSIV, and phenotypes were evaluated. Then, de novo genome sequences of red sea bream were obtained through next-generation sequencing, and microsatellite markers were searched and selected for linkage map construction. One immune-related gene, MHC class IIβ, was also used for linkage map construction. Of the microsatellite markers searched, 148 and 197 were mapped on 23 and 27 linkage groups in the female and male linkage maps, respectively, covering approximately 65% of genomes in both sexes. One QTL linked to an RSIVD-resistant trait was found in linkage group 2 of the candidate male in Fam-2014, and the phenotypic variance of the QTL was 31.1%. The QTL was closely linked to MHC class IIβ. Moreover, the QTL observed in Fam-2014 was also significantly linked to an RSIVD-resistant trait in the candidate male of Fam-2015. Our results suggest that the RSIVD-resistant trait in the candidate male was controlled by one major QTL closely linked to the MHC class IIβ gene and could be useful for MAS of red sea bream.

  6. Gene expression regulation of the TLR9 and MyD88-dependent pathways in rock bream against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-11-01

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV), which is a member of the Megalocytivirus genus, causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream in Korea. To date, the innate immune defense mechanisms of rock bream against RBIV is unclear. In this study, we assessed the expression levels of genes related to TLR9 and MyD88-dependent pathways in RBIV-infected rock bream in high, low or no mortality conditions. In the high mortality group (100% mortality at 15 days post infection (dpi)), high levels of TLR9 and MyD88 expressions (6.4- and 2.4-fold, respectively) were observed at 8 d and then reduced (0.6- and 0.1-fold, respectively) with heavy viral loads at 10 dpi (2.21 × 10 7 /μl). Moreover, TRAF6, IRF5, IL1β, IL8, IL12 and TNFα expression levels showed no statistical significance until 10 dpi. Conversely, in the low mortality group (28% expected mortality at 35 dpi), TLR9, MyD88 and TRAF6 expression levels were significantly higher than those in the control group at several sampling points until 30 dpi. Higher levels of IRF5, IL1β, IL8, IL12 and TNFα expression were also observed, however, these were not significantly different from those of the control group. In the no mortality group (0% mortality at 40 dpi), significantly higher levels of MyD88 (2 d, 4 d and 40 dpi), TRAF6 (2 dpi), IL1β (4 dpi) and IL8 (2 d and 4 dpi) expression were observed. In summary, RBIV-infected rock bream induces innate immune response, which could be a major contributing factor to effective fish control over viral transcription. MyD88, TRAF6, IL1β and IL8-related immune responses were activated in fish survivor condition (low or no mortality group). This is a critical factor for RBIV disease recovery; however, these immune responses did not efficiently respond in fish dead condition (high mortality group). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative study on milt quality features of different finfish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Ballestrazzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the main sperm characteristics of three different finfish species. Twenty-one gilt-  head sea bream (Sparus aurata, 20 brown trout (Salmo trutta, morpha fario and 15 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus  mykiss male broodstocks, farmed under optimal conditions for each species and fed standard diets for broodstocks, were  manually stripped. Brown trout yielded small amounts of sperm (4.5 vs18.13 ml that were very concentrated (≅8.5 x  109 vs 1.24 x 109 Szoa/ml with respect to the other species. The duration of spermatozoan motility for gilthead sea  bream sperm was significantly longer (almost 50 min, in comparison to the one-minute motility of Salmonids. Single  fatty acids of brown trout sperm were higher than in the other two species for almost all detected fatty acids. In partic-  ular, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA was at least three times more concentrated in brown trout than in rainbow trout or gilt-  head sea bream sperm (1238.3 µg/g vs305.6 and 333.3 µg/g, respectively; P   total unsaturated fatty acid classes were significantly higher in brown trout sperm than in the other two species - almost  double with respect to gilthead sea bream sperm and more than double in comparison to RT sperm (P  

  8. Sabanejewia Aurata (De Filippi, 1863 Populations Management Decisions Support System for Rosci0132 (Olt River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtean-Bănăduc Angela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ADONIS: CE was used to design a specific management model for the Sabanejewia aurata (De Filippi, 1863 populations. The proposed model is based on this species, in situ identified biological/ecological necessities in relation to the habitats, the conservation status indicators and appropriate management actions and the pressures and threats founded in the study area. Such on species, on habitats and on site based management system was done to complete this approach for ROSCI0132, the other fish species which are living there being treated already in this respect.

  9. Heavy metal concentrations in gill and liver tissues of Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata in the coast of Babolsar, southern Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Kardel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal accumulation in the aquatic ecosystems is a main concern which threats human health. In this study two commercial fish species, Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata were selected for assessing heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Zn concentrations in gill and liver tissues at Babolsar’s coast, the southern Caspian Sea, Iran. Babolsar is one of the important fishery stations in the southern Caspian Sea. The results showed that liver tissue of C. aurata significantly accumulated higher concentration of Cd, Pb and Zn compared to that of R. kutum, but these results were not significant for gill tissue. Liver tissue accumulated higher concentration of Cd and Pb compared to gill tissue in C. aurata, but these results were not significant for R. kutum. It is concluded that the liver tissue of C. aurata has higher potential to accumulate heavy metal pollution compared to liver tissue of R. kutum

  10. Bream (Abramis brama (L.)) as zoogeomorphic agents and ecosystem engineers: Implications for fine sediment transport in lowland rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James; Rice, Stephen; Hodgkins, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Despite increasing recognition that animals play important roles in geomorphological systems (zoogeomorphology), with important ecological implications for the animals and their ecosystems (ecosystem engineering), sediment transport continues to be regarded as an abiotic process. This research challenges that orthodoxy by investigating the biotic processes associated with bioturbation in rivers caused by feeding bream (Abramis brama (L.)) and quantifying their impact on fine sediment suspension and sediment yield. Experiments in lakes have demonstrated that bream negatively influence ecosystem dynamics through bottom up mechanisms as a result of physical bioturbation caused by benthivorous feeding. Although this level of bioturbation, and thus sediment entrainment, can alter the fundamental biogeochemical cycles and food web dynamics in lentic ecosystems, research is yet to assess this potential effect in riverine ecosystems or evaluate this bioturbation mechanism as a driver of fluvial sediment flux - even though they are common in rivers across mainland Europe. A series of ex-situ mesocosm experiments have investigated the controls of fine sediment entrainment by bream, assessing the roles of both biomass (size and number) and food density on suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Bream create large volumes of suspended sediment during feeding (highest recorded turbidity 1172 NTU) and there are significant (p fish, fish size and food density. Supplementary experiments have assessed bream as ecosystem engineers in the presence of the congener species, roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), which share the same ecological niche. In the presence of roach, the impact of bream on turbidity increased by an average of 120% (6.6 NTU to 15 NTU) and increased further at the 90th percentile by 240% (32 NTU to 110 NTU). In light of these findings, the extensive geographical distribution of bream and the observation that shoals of bream commonly exceed one thousand

  11. Heavy metal concentrations in gill and liver tissues of Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata in the coast of Babolsar, southern Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Kardel; Farzaneh Mirzapour; Shila Omidzahir; Maryam Akhoundian

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in the aquatic ecosystems is a main concern which threats human health. In this study two commercial fish species, Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata were selected for assessing heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Zn) concentrations in gill and liver tissues at Babolsar’s coast, the southern Caspian Sea, Iran. Babolsar is one of the important fishery stations in the southern Caspian Sea. The results showed that liver tissue of C. aurata significantly accumulated higher concentration of...

  12. Protective immunity against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection and TLR3-mediated type I interferon signaling pathway in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) following poly (I:C) administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the potential of poly (I:C) to induce antiviral status for protecting rock bream from RBIV infection. Rock bream injected with poly (I:C) at 2 days before infection (1.1 × 10 4 ) at 20 °C had significantly higher protection with RPS 13.4% and 33.4% at 100 and 200 μg/fish, respectively, through 100 days post infection (dpi). The addition of boost immunization with poly (I:C) at before/post infection at 20 °C clearly enhanced the level of protection showing 33.4% and 60.0% at 100 and 200 μg/fish, respectively. To investigate the development of a protective immune response, rock bream were re-infected with RBIV (1.1 × 10 7 ) at 200 dpi. While 100% of the previously unexposed fish died, 100% of the previously infected fish survived. Poly (I:C) induced TLR3 and Mx responses were observed at several sampling time points in the spleen, kidney and blood. Moreover, significantly high expression levels of IRF3 (2.9- and 3.1-fold at 1 d and 2 days post administration (dpa), respectively), ISG15 and PKR expression (5.4- and 10.2-fold at 2 dpa, respectively) were observed in the blood, but the expression levels were low in the spleen and kidney after poly (I:C) administration. Our results showed the induction of antiviral immune responses and indicate the possibility of developing long term preventive measures against RBIV using poly (I:C). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CpG ODN 1668 induce innate and adaptive immune responses in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-10-01

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream in Korea. CpG ODN 1668 showed promise as immunoprotective agents against RBIV infection in rock bream. In this study, we assessed innate/adaptive-related gene expression patterns in RBIV-infected rock bream with and without CpG ODN 1668 administration to determine important immune defense related factors that may affect fish survival. In the CpG ODN 1668+virus-injected group, virus copies were more than 7.4- to 790591-fold lower than in the virus-injected group at 4 d (8.79 × 10 4 and 6.58 × 10 5 /μl, respectively), 7 d (5.30 × 10 2 and 2.29 × 10 7 /μl, respectively) and 10 dpi (7.79 × 10 1 and 6.16 × 10 7 /μl, respectively). Furthermore, in the CpG ODN 1668+virus-injected group, significantly higher levels of MyD88 (6 h, 1 d, 4 d and 7 dpi), IL1β (1 d, 2 d and 7 dpi) and perforin/granzyme (1 dpi) expression were observed, whereas these genes were not significantly expressed in the virus-injected group at that time points. Mx, ISG15 and PKR were significantly highly expressed at 4 d and 7 dpi and reduced when low viral loads at 10 dpi in the CpG ODN 1668+virus-injected group. Conversely, in the virus-injected group, Mx, ISG15 and PKR expression were significantly higher than the control group until 10 dpi. However, MHC class I, CD8, Fas, Fas ligand and caspases (3, 8 and 9) expression levels showed no statistically significant differences between virus- and CpG ODN 1668+virus-injected group. In summary, CpG ODN 1668 administration in fish induces innate immune response or cell death pathway, which could be a major contributing factor to effective fish control over viral transcription on 4 d to 10 dpi. Expression of MyD88, IL1β, perforin and granzyme-related immune gene response is critical factor for inhibition of RBIV replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. First record of red filament threadfin bream, Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1830) (Perciformes, Nemipteridae), from Chinese waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ping; Wu, Renxie; Liu, Jing

    2011-11-01

    We collected five specimens of threadfin bream from Beihai, Guangxi, China in March 2010. These were subsequently identified as red filament threadfin bream Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1830), being the first record of this species from Chinese waters. N. marginatus is distinguished by the following characteristics: lower border of eye lies above a line from tip of snout to upper base of pectoral fin; mouth oblique, maxillary extending to lower anterior border of pupil; teeth in jaws in several rows, pointed; upper jaw with 3 to 5 pairs of small recurved canines; suborbital with straight lower edge and rounded posterior edge; pectoral fins extending to between level of anus and origin of anal fin; pelvic fins reaching to the first or second anal rays; caudal fin forked, upper lobe tails into a short reddish filament; dorsal fin bluish with a yellow margin distally and a broad yellow median band which subdivides posteriorly into 3 small bands.

  15. [Metazoan parasites of bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758) in Lake Durusu (Terkos)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatoy, Emine; Soylu, Erhan

    2006-01-01

    In this study, metazoan parasites of bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758) in the Lake Durusu (Terkos) were investigated between June 2002 and May 2003. During this study, a total of 67 bream were examined for the presence of metazoan parasites. Ten species of parasites were found on 64 of the 67 fish examined. These parasites are: Dactylogyrus sphyrna (Linstow, 1878) and D. distinguendus (Nybelin, 1936) Monogenoidea, Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) Cestoidea, Tetracotyle sp, Diplostomum sp. and Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1832) metacercaria Trematoda, Eustrongylides excisus (Jagerskiöld, 1909) Nematoda, Piscicola geometra (Linnaeus, 1758) Hirudinea, glochidia of mollusk, Bivalvia, Argulus foliaceus (L., 1758) Crustacea. Diplostomum sp., Dactylogyrus sphyrna and D. distinguendus were found to be the dominant parasites of A. brama. Both the prevalence and intensity of other parasites were not found to be high. All identified parasites are a new finding for A. brama in the Lake Durusu. This is the first time that D. distinguendus has been identified in Turkey.

  16. Induced artificial androgenesis in common tench, Tinca tinca (L., using common carp and common bream eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents artificial induction using tench eggs, Tinca tinca (L., of androgenetic origin. The oocytes taken from common bream, Abramis brama (L. and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. were genetically inactivated using UV irradiation and then inseminated using tench spermatozoa. Androgenetic origin (haploid or diploid embryos was checked using a recessive colour (blond and morphological markers. The percentage of hatched embryos in all experimental groups was much lower than in the control groups. All haploid embryos showed morphological abnormalities, which were recorded as haploid syndrome (stunted body, poorly formed retina, etc.. The optimal dose of UV irradiation of common bream and common carp eggs was 3456 J m–2. At this dose, almost 100% of haploid embryos were produced at a hatching rate of over 6%. Lower UV-ray doses affected abnormal embryo development. The highest yield of tench androgenesis (about 2% was noted when eggs were exposed to thermal shock 30 min after egg activation.

  17. Protective immunity against Megalocytivirus infection in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) following CpG ODN administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Lee, Jehee; Ortega-Villaizan, M; Perez, Luis; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-06-27

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) disease in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) remains an unsolved problem in Korea aquaculture farms. CpG ODNs are known as immunostimulant, can improve the innate immune system of fish providing resistance to diseases. In this study, we evaluated the potential of CpG ODNs to induce anti-viral status protecting rock bream from different RBIV infection conditions. We found that, when administered into rock bream, CpG ODN 1668 induces better antiviral immune responses compared to other 5 CpG ODNs (2216, 1826, 2133, 2395 and 1720). All CpG ODN 1668 administered fish (1/5µg) at 2days before infection (1.1×10 7 ) held at 26°C died even though mortality was delayed from 8days (1µg) and 4days (5µg). Similarly, CpG ODN 1668 administered (5µg) at 2days before infection (1.2×10 6 ) held at 23/20°C had 100% mortality; the mortality was delayed from 9days (23°C) and 11days (20°C). Moreover, when CpG ODN 1668 administered (1/5/10µg) at 2/4/7days before infection or virus concentration was decreased to 1.1×10 4 and held at 20°C had mortality rates of 20/60/30% (2days), 30/40/60% (4days) and 60/60/20% (7days), respectively, for the respective administration dose, through 100 dpi. To investigate the development of a protective immune response, survivors were re-infected with RBIV (1.1×10 7 ) at 100 and 400 dpi, respectively. While 100% of the previously unexposed fish died, 100% of the previously infected fish survived. The high survival rate of fish following re-challenge with RBIV indicates that protective immunity was established in the surviving rock bream. Our results showed the possibility of developing preventive measures against RBIV using CpG ODN 1668 by reducing RBIV replication speed (i.e. water temperature of 20°C and infection dose of 1.1×10 4 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular and biometric characterization of natural bream × roach hybrids population in the Dobczyce Reservoir (S Poland

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    Maciej K Konopiński

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural hybrids of leuciscine cyprinids were investigated in a medium-sized submontane reservoir (49°52'N, 20°03'E, altitude 270 m in the Carpathian part of the Vistula basin. The material included 380 hybrid specimens (TL: 24.0–39.8 cm, SL: 19.0–31.7 cm, W: 134–714 g collected in 2006–2013. To detect their ancestry, genotypes of the 327 putative hybrids were compared to reference genotypes of 85 roaches, 115 common breams, 18 rudds, and 99 silver breams. Individuals were typed in 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci (Dubut et al. 2009, while species specific amplification of a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was used to detect maternal origin of hybrids (Wyatt et al. 2006. Few individuals with traces of rudd and silver bream ancestry were excluded from the study. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA suggests bias towards bream maternal origin, with only 22 individuals (6,7% with roach mitochondrial DNA. The analyzed set of hybrids was composed mostly of first generation bream × roach hybrids. Only 7 individuals (2,1% showed a sign of backcrossing to bream, however, this finding has to be confirmed by analysis of further loci as it might result from presence of null alleles in roach. F2 generation hybrids were not detected. Biometric investigation of collected specimens comprised of selected morphometric (body height, and lengths of head, trunk, and tail and meristic characters (counts of scales in lateral line and soft rays in anal fin of individuals of different maternal origin. As all the analyzed differences between these categories of specimens appeared insignificant, the investigated population of hybrids may be regarded morphologically uniform.

  19. Species specificity in the magnitude and duration of the acute stress response in Mediterranean marine fish in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanouraki, E; Mylonas, C C; Papandroulakis, N; Pavlidis, M

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the species-specific stress response for seven Mediterranean fishes in culture. Also, to evaluate the method of measuring free cortisol concentration in the rearing water as a non-invasive and reliable indicator of stress in marine species, of aquaculture importance. Gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata (Sparidae); common dentex, Dentex dentex (Sparidae); common Pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (Sparidae); sharpsnout sea bream, Diplodus puntazzo (Sparidae); dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Serranidae); meagre, Argyrosomus regius (Sciaenidae) and European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Moronidae) were subjected to identical acute stress (5-6 min chasing and 1-1.5 min air exposure) under the same environmental conditions and samples were analyzed by the same procedures. Results indicated that there was a clear species-specificity in the magnitude, timing and duration of the stress response in terms of cortisol, glucose and lactate. European sea bass showed a very high response and dusky grouper and meagre a very low response, except plasma glucose concentrations of dusky grouper which was constantly high, while sharpsnout sea bream presented a protracted stress response, up to 8h. The present study confirmed that free cortisol release rate into the water can be used as a reliable stress indicator. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Aspects on respiratory physiology of cultured Sea bream, Sparidentex hasta (Valenciennes 1830, Kingdom of Bahrain

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    Khadija Zainal

    2016-06-01

    The fish regulatory ability to withstand declining oxygen concentration in the water was limited. A typical steep straight line relationship was found between oxygen consumption rate and oxygen concentration indicating a non regulatory ability and extreme in-tolerance to hypoxia. Therefore, the fish is considered as oxy-conformer, i.e., unable to continue metabolism at anaerobic condition. Correlation between minimum (basic oxygen consumption rate and body weight was of non-linear form. The present study provides comparative data to base on for further prospective related studies on juvenile Sea bream and other fish species.

  1. The analysis of the pharyngeal-sieve mechanism and the efficiency of food intake in the bream (Abramis brama, Cyprinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboezem, W.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanism and the selectivity of food intake in bream ( Abramis brama ). It is a compilation of six articles which have been published (or will soon be published) in international journals.

    In the first chapter, diets and feeding modes in

  2. Physicochemical properties of natural actomyosin from threadfin bream (Nemipterus spp.) induced by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aimei; Lin, Liying; Liang, Yan; Benjakul, Soottawat; Shi, Xiaoling; Liu, Xin

    2014-08-01

    Changes of physicochemical properties in natural actomyosin (NAM) from threadfin bream (Nemipterus spp.) induced by high hydrostatic pressure (200, 400, 600MPa for 10, 30, 50min) were studied. The increase in turbidity of NAM was coincidental with the decrease in protein solubility with increasing pressure and time, suggesting the formation of protein aggregates. SDS-PAGE showed that polymerisation and degradation of myosin heavy chain were induced by high pressure. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of NAM treated by high pressure was lost, suggesting the denaturation of myosin and the dissociation of actomyosin complex. Surface hydrophobicity of NAM increased when the pressure and pressurization time increased, indicating that the exposed hydrophobic residues increased upon application of high pressure. Decrease in total sulfhydryl content and increase in surface-reactive sulfhydryl content of NAM samples were observed with the extension of pressurizing time, indicating the formation of disulphide bonds through oxidation of SH groups or disulphide interchanges. The above changes of physicochemical properties suggested conformational changes of NAM from muscle of threadfin bream induced by high hydrostatic pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phenotypic Diversity of Infectious Red Sea Bream Iridovirus Isolates from Cultured Fish in Japan▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmoto, Hajime; Taniguchi, Ken; Ikawa, Takuya; Kawai, Kenji; Oshima, Syun-ichirou

    2009-01-01

    Megalocytivirus is causing economically serious mass mortality by infecting fish in and around the Pacific region of Asia. The recent emergence of many new iridoviruses has drawn attention to the marked taxonomic variation within this virus family. Most studies of these viruses have not included extensive study of these emergent species. We explored the emergence of red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) on a fish farm in Japan, and we specifically endeavored to quantify genetic and phenotypic differences between RSIV isolates using in vitro and in vivo methods. The three isolates had identical major capsid protein sequences, and they were closely related to Korean RSIV isolates. In vitro studies revealed that the isolates differed in replication rate, which was determined by real-time quantitative PCR of viral genomes in infected cells and cell culture supernatant, and in cell viability, estimated by the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay for infected cells. In vivo studies showed that the isolates exhibit different virulence characteristics: infected red sea bream showed either acute death or subacute death according to infection with different isolates. Significant differences were seen in the antigenicity of isolates by a formalin-inactivated vaccine test. These results revealed that variant characteristics exist in the same phylogenetic location in emergent iridoviruses. We suggest that this strain variation would expand the host range in iridoviral epidemics. PMID:19346349

  4. Phenotypic diversity of infectious red sea bream iridovirus isolates from cultured fish in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmoto, Hajime; Taniguchi, Ken; Ikawa, Takuya; Kawai, Kenji; Oshima, Syun-ichirou

    2009-06-01

    Megalocytivirus is causing economically serious mass mortality by infecting fish in and around the Pacific region of Asia. The recent emergence of many new iridoviruses has drawn attention to the marked taxonomic variation within this virus family. Most studies of these viruses have not included extensive study of these emergent species. We explored the emergence of red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) on a fish farm in Japan, and we specifically endeavored to quantify genetic and phenotypic differences between RSIV isolates using in vitro and in vivo methods. The three isolates had identical major capsid protein sequences, and they were closely related to Korean RSIV isolates. In vitro studies revealed that the isolates differed in replication rate, which was determined by real-time quantitative PCR of viral genomes in infected cells and cell culture supernatant, and in cell viability, estimated by the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay for infected cells. In vivo studies showed that the isolates exhibit different virulence characteristics: infected red sea bream showed either acute death or subacute death according to infection with different isolates. Significant differences were seen in the antigenicity of isolates by a formalin-inactivated vaccine test. These results revealed that variant characteristics exist in the same phylogenetic location in emergent iridoviruses. We suggest that this strain variation would expand the host range in iridoviral epidemics.

  5. Estrès i resposta immuno-endocrina en peixos caracterització del receptor glucocorticoide en l'orada (Sparus Aurata) i el seu paper en la resposta inflamatòria /

    OpenAIRE

    Acerete Rodríguez, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada El cortisol és el principal glucocorticoide en peixos teleostis, assumint també funcions com a mineralocorticoide. És el principal indicador de la resposta a l'estrès, però també participa en diverses vies metabòliques, és immunosupresor amb funcions antiinflamatòries i és la principal hormona osmorreguladora en peixos. Al fetge, els glucocorticoides augmenten la transcripció de gens implicats en la gluconeogènesi, en el...

  6. Çipura (Sparus aurata L., 1758 Larvalarında Mikropartikül Yeme Geçiş Döneminde Sindirim Enzimlerindeki Değişimler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Süzer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, çipura larvalarında mikropartikül yeme geçiş olarak kabul edilen sövraj döneminde (35–50. gün larval gelişim ve yaşama oranının yanı sıra sindirim enzimleri aktivitesindeki değişimler incelenmiştir. Mikropartikül yeme geçiş döneminde aktivitesi izlenen enzimlerden tripsin aktivitesi deneme başında göreceli olarak yüksek bir aktivite göstermiş, deneme sonuna kadar azalma devam etmiştir. Pepsin aktivitesi ilk kez 38. günde tespit edilmiştir. Bundan sonraki günlerde pepsin aktivitesi ani artış göstermiş, 45. günde maksimum seviyeye yükselmiştir. Bu günden sonra aktivitede yavaş azalmalar tespit edilmiştir. Lipaz aktivitesinde denemenin başından sonuna kadar küçük değişimler izlenmiştir. Amilaz aktivitesi ise mikropartikül yem girişinin ardından yükselmiş, denemenin başından sonuna kadar yavaş bir azalma göstermiştir. Bununla birlikte, sövraj dönemi başında, larvalara ait total boy ortalama 15.45±1.23 mm, deneme sonunda ise 27.13±2.67 mm olarak bulunmuştur. Ayrıca, deneme başında larvalara ait ağırlık ortalama ortalama 21.5±2.2 mg, sövraj dönemi sonunda ise 39.2 ±5.2 mg olarak bulunmuştur. Buna ek olarak, spesifik büyüme oranı ve yaşama oranı sırasıyla %3.75/gün ve %91.8 olarak hesaplanmıştır

  7. Sustitución de aceites de pescado en dietas de engorde de dorada (Sparus aurata) ricas en proteínas vegetales. Efectos sobre el crecimiento y los perfiles de ácidos grasos

    OpenAIRE

    Benedito-Palos, Laura

    2010-01-01

    El sector acuícola es una de las actividades industriales con mas demanda de harinas y aceites de pescado. Sin embargo, debido al estancamiento de las pesquerías a nivel mundial, la actividad piscícola no puede estar basada únicamente en las reservas finitas de pescado. Por tanto, la sustitución de harinas y aceites de pescado por fuentes alternativas de materias primas resulta ineludible. Para abordar esta problemática, se analizó el efecto de dietas basadas en una sustitución conjunta de...

  8. Effect of artificial regulations of Artemia n-3 HUFA content on growth and survival of black seabream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Ke

    1998-06-01

    The requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black seabream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was tested using Artemia with various levels of n-3 HUFA. Four treatments with Artemia differing in their n-3 HUFA were prepared by feeding them various oil emulsions. The results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influences fish n-3 HUFA levels and are necessary for good growth and survival of black seabream larvae. The proper value of n-3 HUFA level and DHA, EPA level in Artemia should be 4.273% and 0.873% (wet weight) for good growth and survival in black seabream larvae respectively.

  9. Efecto del 17a-etinilestradiol sobre el sistema inmunitario y reproductor de la dorada (Sparus aurata L.). Caracterización funcional del receptor de estrógenos asociado a proteína G = Effect of 17a-ethinylestradiol on inmune and reproductive system of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Functional characterization of the G protein-couplet estrogen receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Cabas Sánchez, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: 1. Evaluar la capacidad del EE2 de provocar una respuesta estrogénica en vivo en ejemplares macho de dorada 2. Evaluar la capacidad del EE2 de alterar la fisiología y la respuesta inmunitaria local de la gónada 3. Evaluar la habilidad del EE2 de alterar la respuesta inmunitaria sistémica, analizando actividades inmunitarias de leucocitos de riñón cefálico, el perfil de expresión de macrófagos y la capacidad en vivo de responder a un reto inmunológico. 4. Realizar una ...

  10. Free amino acids as indicators of nutritional status of silver bream (Vimba vimba), when using commercial and purified diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasek, Karolina; Zhang, Yongfang; Hliwa, Piotr; Gomułka, Piotr; Ostaszewska, Teresa; Dabrowski, Konrad

    2009-06-01

    Studies on larval rearing of silver bream (Vimba vimba), a migratory cyprinid fish have addressed on limited scale larval and juvenile rearing using commercial and semipurified diets along with live feeds, such as brine shrimp Artemia nauplii. The objectives of the present study were (1) to determine whether experimental, protein-, peptide-, free amino acid-based diets are adequate for larval silver bream, a stomachless fish, (2) to evaluate whether commercial and purified diets are comparable as the first/exclusive feed for growth and survival of silver bream, and (3) to examine whether free amino acid concentrations in fish body are potential indicators of availability of amino acid sources. We report here the differences in diets acceptance, fish growth and diet utilization in silver bream in comparison to other cyprinid fishes. We specifically address the response in free amino acids in the body to dietary treatments. Experimental diets included: a commercial Aglo Norse feed, casein-gelatin based diet (CG), free amino acid mixture diet (FAA), dipeptide (PP), dipeptide-protein (PP50) based diet, and dipeptide diet without arginine (NoArg). In addition, live Artemia were offered to 3 groups and "fasting" control treatment was included during 3 week long trial. Fish offered Artemia overperformed those offered formulated diets both in terms of mass (80.7+/-26.3 mg) and survival (97.2%). We also indicate that commercial and purified diets are comparable as the first/exclusive feed for growth and survival of silver bream. Our experiment also showed that the whole body free amino acid concentrations of 9 indispensable amino acids (IDAA) out of 10 (His, Thr, Arg, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Trp, Lys) in the PP50 group was the highest among 7 diet treatments and the totalfree amino acid concentration, total dispensable amino acids (DAA) and total IDAA of the PP50 diet fed fish showed the same trend. This may indicate that diets based on 50% of dipeptides and 50% of protein are

  11. The occurrence of the Golden Grey Mullet, Liza aurata (Risso, 1810) in the coastal waters of the Netherlands (Pisces, Perciformes, Mugilidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.; Groot, de S.J.; Doornbos, G.

    1981-01-01

    The Golden grey mullet, Liza aurata (Risso, 1810), inhabits the coastal waters of the Netherlands at least since 1939, as was established by re-examining preserved specimens in the collection of the Institute of Taxonomic Zoology (Zoological Museum), Amsterdam. A key to the three Mullet species in

  12. Evaluation of DNA damage induced by environmental exposure to mercury in Liza aurata using the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla Sofia Alves; Guilherme, Sofia Isabel Antunes Gomes; Barroso, Carlos Miguel Miguez; Verschaeve, Luc; Pacheco, Mário Guilherme Garcês; Mendo, Sónia Alexandra Leite Velho

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the major aquatic contaminants even though emissions have been reduced over the years. Despite the relative abundance of investigations carried out on Hg toxicity, there is a scarcity of studies on its DNA damaging effects in fish under realistic exposure conditions. This study assessed the Hg genotoxicity in Golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) at Laranjo basin, a particularly contaminated area of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) well known for its Hg contamination gradient. (1) Fish were seasonally caught at Laranjo basin and at a reference site (S. Jacinto), and (2) animals from the reference site were transplanted and caged (at bottom and surface), for 3 days, in two different locations within Laranjo basin. Using the comet assay, blood was analyzed for genetic damage and apoptotic cell frequency. The seasonal survey showed greater DNA damage in the Hg-contaminated area for all sampling seasons excluding winter. The temporal variation pattern of DNA lesions was: summer approximately autumn > winter > spring. Fish caged at Laranjo also exhibited greater DNA damage than those caged at the reference site, highlighting the importance of gill uptake on the toxicity of this metal. No increased susceptibility to apoptosis was detected in either wild or caged fish, indicating that mercury damages DNA of blood cells by a nonapoptotic mechanism. Both L. aurata and the comet assay proved to be sensitive and suitable for genotoxicity biomonitoring in mercury-contaminated coastal systems.

  13. IMPACT OF OOCYTE SIZE ON LHRHa INDUCED OVULATION AND FERTILIZED EGG QUALITY IN SADDLED BREAM OBLADA MELANURA (LINNAEUS, 1758

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    Nenad Antolović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of oocyte size and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa on ovulatory success in artificial fertilization. Vitellogenic females with maximum oocyte diameters 400-550 µm were repeatedly injected with LHRHa (20 µg kg-1 per injection. Fish with maximum oocyte diameters 500 µm spawned within 48-54 h. These results demonstrate that injected LHRHa is effective for ovulation of saddled bream with maximum oocyte diameters >500µm.

  14. Mitochondrial Genome Variation after Hybridization and Differences in the First and Second Generation Hybrids of Bream Fishes.

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    Wei-Zhuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Hybridization plays an important role in fish breeding. Bream fishes contribute a lot to aquaculture in China due to their economically valuable characteristics and the present study included five bream species, Megalobrama amblycephala, Megalobrama skolkovii, Megalobrama pellegrini, Megalobrama terminalis and Parabramis pekinensis. As maternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome (mitogenome involves species specific regulation, we aimed to investigate in which way the inheritance of mitogenome is affected by hybridization in these fish species. With complete mitogenomes of 7 hybrid groups of bream species being firstly reported in the present study, a comparative analysis of 17 mitogenomes was conducted, including representatives of these 5 bream species, 6 first generation hybrids and 6 second generation hybrids. The results showed that these 17 mitogenomes shared the same gene arrangement, and had similar gene size and base composition. According to the phylogenetic analyses, all mitogenomes of the hybrids were consistent with a maternal inheritance. However, a certain number of variable sites were detected in all F1 hybrid groups compared to their female parents, especially in the group of M. terminalis (♀ × M. amblycephala (♂ (MT×MA, with a total of 86 variable sites between MT×MA and its female parent. Among the mitogenomes genes, the protein-coding gene nd5 displayed the highest variability. The number of variation sites was found to be related to phylogenetic relationship of the parents: the closer they are, the lower amount of variation sites their hybrids have. The second generation hybrids showed less mitogenome variation than that of first generation hybrids. The non-synonymous and synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS were calculated between all the hybrids with their own female parents and the results indicated that most PCGs were under negative selection.

  15. Occurrence and potential transfer of mycotoxins in gilthead sea bream and Atlantic salmon by use of novel alternative feed ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Beltrán, Eduardo; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Karalazos, V.; Hernández Hernández, Félix; Berntssen, Marc H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Plant ingredients and processed animal proteins (PAP) are suitable alternative feedstuffs for fish feeds in aquaculture practice, although their use can introduce contaminants that are not previously associated with marine salmon and gilthead sea bream farming. Mycotoxins are well known natural contaminants in plant feed material, although they also could be present on PAPs after fungi growth during storage. The present study surveyed commercially available plant ingredients (19) and PAP (19)...

  16. The testis and ovary transcriptomes of the rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus: A bony fish with a unique neo Y chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus is considerably one of the most economically important marine fish in East Asia and has a unique neo-Y chromosome system that is a good model to study the sex determination and differentiation in fish. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the testis and ovary tissues of rock bream. A total of 40,004,378 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406649 and 53,108,992 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406648 high quality reads were obtained from testis and ovary RNA sequencing, respectively, and 60,421 contigs (with average length of 1301 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 14,036 contigs that show gender-enriched expressional profile with either testis-enriched (237 contigs or ovary-enriched (581 contigs with RPKM >100. There are 237 male- and 582 female-abundant expressed genes that show sex dimorphic expression. We hope that the gonad transcriptome and those gender-enriched transcripts of rock bream can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of teleost gonad tissue and give useful information in fish gonad development.

  17. Characterization of the peripheral thyroid system of gilthead seabream acclimated to different ambient salinities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Jarabo, I.; Klaren, P.H.M.; Louro, B.; Martos-Sitcha, J.A.; Pinto, P.I.; Vargas-Chacoff, L.; Flik, G.; Martinez-Rodriguez, G.; Power, D.M.; Mancera, J.M.; Arjona, F.J

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in many developmental and physiological processes, including osmoregulation. The regulation of the thyroid system by environmental salinity in the euryhaline gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) is still poorly characterized. To this end seabreams were exposed to four

  18. Characterization of the peripheral thyroid system of gilthead seabream acclimated to different ambient salinities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Jarabo, I.; Klaren, P.H.M.; Louro, B.; Martos-Sitcha, J.A.; Pinto, P.I.; Vargas-Chacoff, L.; Flik, G.; Martinez-Rodriguez, G.; Power, D.M.; Mancera, J.M.; Arjona, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in many developmental and physiological processes, including osmoregulation. The regulation of the thyroid system by environmental salinity in the euryhaline gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) is still poorly characterized. To this end seabreams were exposed to four

  19. Transcriptome analysis and microsatellite discovery in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Tuan; Gao, Ze-Xia; Zhao, Hong-Hao; Yi, Shao-Kui; Chen, Bo-Xiang; Zhao, Yu-Hua; Lin, Li; Liu, Xue-Qin; Wang, Wei-Min

    2015-07-01

    The blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala, is a herbivorous freshwater fish species native to China and a major aquaculture species in Chinese freshwater polyculture systems. In recent years, the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila has been reported to be its pathogen causing great losses of farmed fish. To understand the immune response of the blunt snout bream to A. hydrophila infection, we used the Solexa/Illumina technology to analyze the transcriptomic profile after artificial bacterial infection. Two nonnormalized cDNA libraries were synthesized from tissues collected from control blunt snout bream or those injected with A. hydrophila. After assembly, 155,052 unigenes (average length 692.8 bp) were isolated. All unigenes were annotated using BLASTX relative to several public databases: the National Center for Biotechnology Information nonreduntant (Nr) database, SwissProt, Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Gene Ontology (GO). The sequence similarity (86%) of the assembled unigenes was to zebrafish based on the Nr database. A number of unigenes (n = 30,482) were assigned to three GO categories: biological processes (25,242 unigenes), molecular functions (26,096 unigenes), and cellular components (22,778 unigenes). 20,909 unigenes were classified into 25 KOG categories and 28,744 unigenes were assigned into 315 specific signaling pathways. In total, 238 significantly differentially expressed unigenes (mapped to 125 genes) were identified: 101 upregulated genes and 24 downregulated genes. Another 303 unigenes were mapped to unknown or novel genes. Among the known expressed genes identified, 53 were immune-related genes and were distributed in 71 signaling pathways. The expression patterns of selected up- and downregulated genes from the control and injected groups were determined with reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Microsatellites (n = 10,877), including di-to pentanucleotide

  20. Absence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and infectious hemorrhagic necrosis virus (INHV) in a Tunisian fish farm: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, N; Hammami, S

    2012-01-01

    Beyond the obvious problems related to the sustainable management of wild stocks, current fish farming practices in the Mediterranean area entail important environmental risks and potential outbreaks of fish diseases linked to massive translocations across regional boundaries. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) are well-known fish diseases caused by the VHSV and IHNV viruses, and positive cases are subject to obligatory reporting to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). In August 2004, the OIE published the first record of a VHS outbreak in a sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) aquaculture facility on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. However, D. labrax is not considered as a susceptible host species for viral hemorrhagic septicaemia according to OIE's International Aquatic Animal Health Code (2009) and VHSV was not previously reported in the Mediterranean. In this sense and given the high risk of disease translocation associated with farmed fish in marine aquaculture, the present study was aimed at investigating the presence of VHSV and IHNV in stocks of sea bass and sea bream (Sparus aurata) reared inside a Tunisian coastal fish farm. Cell culture, IFAT and RT-PCR were applied to screen for both VHSV and IHNV in 69 pooled samples of sea bass and 24 pooled samples of sea bream. All three techniques showed the absence of both viruses within fish at the selected site.

  1. Insulin, IGF-I, and muscle MAPK pathway responses after sustained exercise and their contribution to growth and lipid metabolism regulation in gilthead sea bream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gurmaches, J; Cruz-Garcia, L; Ibarz, A; Fernández-Borrás, J; Blasco, J; Gutiérrez, J; Navarro, I

    2013-10-01

    Herein, we studied whether sustained exercise positively affects growth of gilthead sea bream by alterations in a) plasma concentrations of insulin and IGF-I, b) signaling pathways in muscle, or c) regulation of lipid metabolism. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of moderated swimming (1.5 body lengths per second; BL/s) on the circulating concentrations of insulin and IGF-I, morphometric parameters, and expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in gilthead sea bream (80-90 g BW). Exercise increased the specific growth rate (P growth and metabolic homeostasis during swimming. The observed decrease in plasma insulin concentrations (P = 0.016) could favor the mobilization of tissue reserves in exercised fish. In this sense, the increase in liver fatty acid content (P = 0.041) and the changes in expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors PPARα (P = 0.017) and PPARγ (P = 0.033) indicated a hepatic lipid mobilization. Concentration of glycogen in both white and red muscles was decreased (P = 0.021 and P = 0.017, respectively) in exercised (n = 12) relative to control (n = 12) gilthead sea bream, whereas concentrations of glucose (P = 0.016) and lactate (P = 0.0007) were decreased only in red muscle, indicating the use of these substrates. No changes in the glucose transporter and in lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression were found in any of the tissues studied. Exercised sea bream had decreased content of PPARβ mRNA in white and red muscle relative to control sea bream expression (P = 0.001 and P = 0.049, respectively). Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was significantly down-regulated in both white and red muscles of exercised sea bream (P = 0.0374 and P = 0.0371, respectively). Tumor necrosis factor-α expression of white muscle was down-regulated in exercised gilthead sea bream (P = 0.045). Collectively, these results contribute to the knowledge base about hormonal regulation of growth and lipid metabolism in exercised gilthead

  2. Microsatellite Development for an Endangered Bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Teleostei, Cyprinidae Using 454 Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuogang Peng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Megalobrama pellegrini is an endemic fish species found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. This species has become endangered due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and overfishing. However, the available genetic data for this species is limited. Here, we developed 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the M. pellegrini genome using next-generation sequencing techniques. A total of 257,497 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on 454 GS-FLX titanium platforms and 49,811 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 404 bp; 24,522 (49.2% sequences contained microsatellite repeats. Of the 53 loci screened, 33 were amplified successfully and 26 were polymorphic. The genetic diversity in M. pellegrini was moderate, with an average of 3.08 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. In addition, we tested cross-species amplification for all 33 loci in four additional breams: M. amblycephala, M. skolkovii, M. terminalis, and Sinibrama wui. The cross-species amplification showed a significant high level of transferability (79%–97%, which might be due to their dramatically close genetic relationships. The polymorphic microsatellites developed in the current study will not only contribute to further conservation genetic studies and parentage analyses of this endangered species, but also facilitate future work on the other closely related species.

  3. Occurrence and potential transfer of mycotoxins in gilthead sea bream and Atlantic salmon by use of novel alternative feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Beltrán, Eduardo; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Silva, Joana; Karalazos, Vasileios; Hernández, Félix; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2015-06-01

    Plant ingredients and processed animal proteins (PAP) are suitable alternative feedstuffs for fish feeds in aquaculture practice, although their use can introduce contaminants that are not previously associated with marine salmon and gilthead sea bream farming. Mycotoxins are well known natural contaminants in plant feed material, although they also could be present on PAPs after fungi growth during storage. The present study surveyed commercially available plant ingredients (19) and PAP (19) for a wide range of mycotoxins (18) according to the EU regulations. PAP showed only minor levels of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1 and the mycotoxin carry-over from feeds to fillets of farmed Atlantic salmon and gilthead sea bream (two main species of European aquaculture) was performed with plant ingredient based diets. Deoxynivalenol was the most prevalent mycotoxin in wheat, wheat gluten and corn gluten cereals with levels ranging from 17 to 814 and μg kg(-1), followed by fumonisins in corn products (range 11.1-4901 μg kg(-1) for fumonisin B1+B2+B3). Overall mycotoxin levels in fish feeds reflected the feed ingredient composition and the level of contaminant in each feed ingredient. In all cases the studied ingredients and feeds showed levels of mycotoxins below maximum residue limits established by the Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC. Following these guidelines no mycotoxin carry-over was found from feeds to edible fillets of salmonids and a typically marine fish, such as gilthead sea bream. As far we know, this is the first report of mycotoxin surveillance in farmed fish species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Toxicity of short-term copper exposure to early life stages of red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liang; Huang, Wei; Liu, Jinhu; Ye, Zhenjiang; Dou, Shuozeng

    2010-09-01

    Acute (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 mg Cu/L) and chronic (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12 mg Cu/L) toxicity tests of Cu with embryonic and larval red sea bream, Pagrus major, were carried out to investigate their biological responses to Cu exposure in static water at 18 +/- 1 degrees C (dissolved organic carbon, 1.8 +/- 0.65 mg C/L; hardness, 6,183 +/- 360 mg CaCO3/L; salinity, 33 +/- 1 per thousand). The 24- and 48-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) values of Cu for embryos were 0.23 and 0.15 mg/L, whereas the 48-, 72-, and 96-h LC50 values for larvae were 0.52, 0.19, and 0.13 mg/L, respectively, suggesting that embryos were more sensitive to Cu toxicity than larvae. Copper exposures at > or =0.06 mg concentrations caused low hatching success, a delay in the time to hatching of embryos, and reductions in the growth and yolk absorption of the larvae, whereas high mortality and morphological malformations occurred in the embryos and larvae at > or =0.08 mg/L concentrations. Copper concentration did not significantly affect the heart rate of the embryos, but it significantly decreased the heart rate of the newly hatched larvae when the Cu concentration was > or =0.08 mg/L, suggesting that Cu at high concentrations could induce heartbeat disturbances in red sea bream more easily at the larval stage than at the embryonic stage. Hatching success, time to hatching, growth rate, morphological abnormality, yolk absorption, and heart rate were Cu concentration-dependent and could be effective endpoints for evaluating Cu toxicity to the early life stages of red sea bream in nature. Copyright 2010 SETAC.

  5. Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala MyD88 and TRAF6: Characterisation, Comparative Homology Modelling and Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Tuan Tran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MyD88 and TRAF6 play an essential role in the innate immune response in most animals. This study reports the full-length MaMyD88 and MaTRAF6 genes identified from the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala transcriptome profile. MaMyD88 is 2501 base pairs (bp long, encoding a putative protein of 284 amino acids (aa, including the N-terminal DEATH domain of 78 aa and the C-terminal TIR domain of 138 aa. MaTRAF6 is 2252 bp long, encoding a putative protein of 542 aa, including the N-terminal low-complexity region, RING domain (40 aa, a coiled-coil region (64 aa and C-terminal MATH domain (147 aa. Coding regions of MaMyD88 and MaTRAF6 genomic sequences consisted of five and six exons, respectively. Physicochemical and functional characteristics of the proteins were analysed. Alpha helices were dominant in the secondary structure of the proteins. Homology models of the MaMyD88 and MaTRAF6 domains were constructed applying the comparative modelling method. RT-qPCR was used to analyse the expression of MaMyD88 and MaTRAF6 mRNA transcripts in response to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. Both genes were highly upregulated in the liver, spleen and kidney during the first 24 h after the challenge. While MyD88 and TRAF6 have been reported in various aquatic species, this is the first report and characterisation of these genes in blunt snout bream. This research also provides evidence of the important roles of these two genes in the blunt snout bream innate immune system.

  6. Dietary supplementation with selenium yeast and tea polyphenols improve growth performance and nitrite tolerance of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Meng; Lin, Wang; Hou, Jie; Guo, Honghui; Li, Li; Li, Dapeng; Tang, Rong; Yang, Fan

    2017-09-01

    In order to explore the effects of dietary selenium yeast, tea polyphenols and their combination on growth of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) and its resistance to nitrite stress, 360 healthy Wuchang bream with initial body weight of (55.90 ± 2.60) g were randomly divided into four groups: a control group fed with basal diet and three treated groups fed with basal diets supplemented with 0.50 mg/kg selenium yeast, 50 mg/kg tea polyphenols, and the combination of 0.50 mg/kg selenium yeast and 50 mg/kg tea polyphenols, respectively. After 60 d of feeding, the growth performance of Wuchang bream was measured. Then 25 fish per tank were exposed to nitrite stress of 15.0 mg/L. The serum stress hormones, liver histology and hepatic antioxidant responses were evaluated before nitrite exposure (0 h) and at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h after exposure. The results showed that before nitrite exposure, compared with the control, the weight gain, specific growth rate, liver total antioxidant capacity, the activities and transcriptional levels of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) in the selenium yeast and combination groups were significantly increased, while feed conversion rate was decreased significantly, which suggested that the combined use of selenium yeast and tea polyphenols as well as the single selenium yeast supplementation improved growth performance and enhanced antioxidant capacity in fish. After nitrite exposure, compared with the control, liver total antioxidant capacity as well as the activities and transcription levels of catalase superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in three treatment groups were significantly increased in varying degrees whereas serum cortisol contents and liver malondialdehyde levels were decreased significantly. By contrast, the combined use of selenium yeast and tea polyphenols was more effective than the single supplementation with selenium yeast or tea polyphenols. In

  7. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  8. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Liu

    Full Text Available Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These

  9. Anti-stress properties and two HSP70s mRNA expressions of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fed with all-plant-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Zhao, Yuhua; Wang, Weimin; Gul, Yasmeen; Cao, Junming; Huang, Yanhua; Sheng, Guangcheng; Ding, Zhujin; Du, Rui

    2014-06-01

    The influence of all-plant-based diet on fingerling blunt snout breams (Megalobrama amblycephala) was tested by examining growth performance, anti-stress properties and related gene expression. Healthy fish were randomly divided into triplicate groups per dietary treatment and fed with different formulated diets. The results showed that both weight gain, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio of all-plant-based diet group were significant higher than those of the control (p plant-based diet group was significantly lower than that of the control (p plant-based diets could not affect the growth performance of blunt snout breams. Compared to the control group, the lysozyme levels in serum and mucus, and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase activities in serum and liver decreased significantly (p plant-based diets, the superoxide dismutase activities in mucus, serum and liver as well as catalase activity in serum and liver were decreased significantly (p plant-based diet, whereas the HSP70 mRNA expression decreased significantly (p plant-based diet could decrease the anti-stress properties (non-specific immunity, stress resistance and antioxidant ability) and HSP70 mRNA expression in blunt snout breams fingerling. Although all-plant-based diets could not affect the growth performance of blunt snout breams, the application of all-plant-based diet should be discreet in the production practice.

  10. Development temperature has persistent effects on muscle growth responses in gilthead sea bream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de la serrana, Daniel; Vieira, Vera L A; Andree, Karl B; Darias, Maria; Estévez, Alicia; Gisbert, Enric; Johnston, Ian A

    2012-01-01

    Initially we characterised growth responses to altered nutritional input at the transcriptional and tissue levels in the fast skeletal muscle of juvenile gilthead sea bream. Fish reared at 21-22°C (range) were fed a commercial diet at 3% body mass d(-1) (non-satiation feeding, NSF) for 4 weeks, fasted for 4d (F) and then fed to satiation (SF) for 21d. 13 out of 34 genes investigated showed consistent patterns of regulation between nutritional states. Fasting was associated with a 20-fold increase in MAFbx, and a 5-fold increase in Six1 and WASp expression, which returned to NSF levels within 16h of SF. Refeeding to satiation was associated with a rapid (growth factors FGF6 and IGF1 increased 6.0 and 4.5-fold within 16 h and 24 h of refeeding respectively. The average growth in diameter of fast muscle fibres was checked with fasting and significant fibre hypertrophy was only observed after 13d and 21d SF. To investigate developmental plasticity in growth responses we used the same experimental protocol with fish reared at either 17.5-18.5°C (range) (LT) or 21-22°C (range) (HT) to metamorphosis and then transferred to 21-22°C. There were persistent effects of development temperature on muscle growth patterns with 20% more fibres of lower average diameter in LT than HT group of similar body size. Altering the nutritional input to the muscle to stimulate growth revealed cryptic changes in the expression of UNC45 and Hsp90α with higher transcript abundance in the LT than HT groups, whereas there were no differences in the expression of MAFbx and Six1. It was concluded that myogenesis and gene expression patterns during growth are not fixed, but can be modified by temperature during the early stages of the life cycle.

  11. Reproductive biology of bream Abramis brama (L.) in the lower reaches of the Irtysh River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Liu, Chengjie; Ding, Huiping; Xie, Peng; Ma, Xufa; Guo, Yan; Xie, Congxin

    2017-03-01

    The reproductive biology of bream Abramis brama (L.) was studied from 546 fish collected from the lower reaches of the Irtysh River in Xinjiang, north-west China, from March to November 2013. The overall sex ratio (M/F) was 1.06:1, and was not significantly different from the theoretical 1:1 ratio (P>0.5). However, there was a dominance of males during the pre-spawning season (1.33 in March and 1.56 in April, P<0.5), while females were dominant during the peak spawning season (0.88 in June, P<0.5). The monthly variation in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and proportion of gonads at each macroscopic maturity stage, indicated that A. brama spawned once a year with peak spawning occurring from late May to June. The unimodal distribution of oocyte diameter each month indicated that A. brama is a single spawner, with a high degree of spawning synchronicity. The standard lengths (SL50) and ages (A 50) at first maturity for males and females, were 178 and 204 mm, and 5.6 and 6.8 years, respectively. The mean absolute fecundity (AF) was 77 311 eggs per fish, and mean relative fecundity (RF) was 162 eggs per gram of body weight (BW). The AF of A. brama increased linearly with increasing of gonad weight (GW), eviscerated weight (EW) and standard length (SL), but was not significantly correlated with age. As, A. brama in the lower reaches of the Irtysh River reaches reproductive maturity relatively late in their life span, is mature for a short period and spawns in aggregations, this fish is vulnerable to overexploitation.

  12. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Thomas Y.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Jensen, Lasse F.; Steffensen, John F.; Pertoldi, Cino; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is predicted to affect the distribution and abundance of aquatic ectotherms owing to increasing constraints on organismal physiology, in particular involving the metabolic scope (MS) available for performance and fitness. The oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis prescribes MS as an overarching benchmark for fitness-related performance and assumes that any anaerobic contribution within the MS is insignificant. The MS is typically derived from respirometry by subtracting standard metabolic rate from the maximal metabolic rate; however, the methodology rarely accounts for anaerobic metabolism within the MS. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), this study tested for trade-offs (i) between aerobic and anaerobic components of locomotor performance; and (ii) between the corresponding components of the MS. Data collection involved measuring oxygen consumption rate at increasing swimming speeds, using the gait transition from steady to unsteady (burst-assisted) swimming to detect the onset of anaerobic metabolism. Results provided evidence of the locomotor performance trade-off, but only in S. aurata. In contrast, both species revealed significant negative correlations between aerobic and anaerobic components of the MS, indicating a trade-off where both components of the MS cannot be optimized simultaneously. Importantly, the fraction of the MS influenced by anaerobic metabolism was on average 24.3 and 26.1% in S. aurata and P. reticulata, respectively. These data highlight the importance of taking anaerobic metabolism into account when assessing effects of environmental variation on the MS, because the fraction where anaerobic metabolism occurs is a poor indicator of sustainable aerobic performance. Our results suggest that without accounting for anaerobic metabolism within the MS, studies involving the OCLTT hypothesis could overestimate the metabolic scope available for

  13. Effects of toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia on flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Chuanyue; Liu, Wanjing; Xia, Hu; Li, Jian; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2017-03-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms result in the production of an organic biomass containing cyanotoxins (e.g. microcystins) and an elevated ammonia concentration in the water environment. The ingestion of toxic cyanobacteria and exposure to ammonia are grave hazards for fish. The present study assessed the effects of dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on the flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure had no impact on fish growth performance, fillet proximate composition and drip loss, whereas it significantly decreased fillet total amino acids, total essential amino acids, hardness and gumminess, and increased fillet ultimate pH as well as malondialdehyde content. However, there was no significant interaction between dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on these parameters. Additionally, dietary toxic cyanobacteria significantly increased fillet initial pH, thaw loss and protein carbonyl content, whereas ammonia exposure did not. The results of the present study indicate that dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure reduced the quality of blunt snout bream fillet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effects of Modified Handling on the Physiological Stress of Trawled-and-Discarded Yellowfin Bream (Acanthopagrus australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Sven Sebastian; Broadhurst, Matt Kenyon; Millar, Russell Brian

    2015-01-01

    Modified handling is often claimed to reduce (sub-)lethal impacts among organisms caught-and-released in fisheries. Improving welfare of discarded fish warrants investigation, when their survival is of both economic and ecological importance. In this study, juvenile yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus australis) were trawled in an Australian penaeid fishery and then discarded after on-board sorting in either dry or water-filled (modified) trays and with delays in starting sorting of either 2 or 15 mins. Blood plasma cortisol, glucose and potassium were sampled immediately from some yellowfin bream, while others were placed into cages (with controls) and sampled after five days. Irrespective of their on-board handling, all trawled fish incurred a relatively high acute stress response (i.e. an increase in Mean ± SE cortisol from a baseline of jellyfish Catostylus mosaicus in catches). When C. mosaicus was present, the potassium concentrations of fish sampled immediately after sorting were significantly elevated, possibly due to nematocyst contact and subsequent inhibition of ion pumps or cytolysis. Stress also increased during handling in response to warmer air temperatures and longer exposure. While most fish had substantially recovered by 120 hours after discarding, deploying selective trawls (to reduce jellyfish) for short periods and then quickly sorting catches in water would benefit discard welfare.

  15. Genetic diversity of and differentiation among five populations of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala revealed by SRAP markers: implications for conservation and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ji

    Full Text Available The blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala is an important freshwater aquaculture fish throughout China. Because of widespread introductions of this species to many regions, the genetic diversity of wild and natural populations is now threatened. In the present study, SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers were used to assess genetic diversity of blunt snout bream. Three natural populations (Liangzi Lake, Poyang Lake and Yuni Lake, one cultured population (Nanxian and one genetic strain ('Pujiang No. 1' of blunt snout bream were screened with 88 SRAP primer combinations, of which 13 primer pairs produced stable and reproducible amplification patterns. In total, 172 bands were produced, of which 132 bands were polymorphic. Nei's gene diversity (h and Shannon's information index (I values provided evidence of differences in genetic diversity among the five populations (Poyang Lake>Liangzi Lake>Nanxian>'Pujiang No. 1'>Yuni Lake. Based on cluster analysis conducted on genetic distance values, the five blunt snout bream populations were divided into three groups, Poyang Lake and Liangzi Lake (natural populations, Nanxian and 'Pujiang No. 1' (cultured population and genetically selected strain, and Yuni Lake (natural population. Significant genetic differentiation was found among the five populations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, with more genetic divergence existing among populations (55.49%, than within populations (44.51%. This molecular marker technique is a simple and efficient method to quantify genetic diversity within and among fish populations, and is employed here to help manage and conserve germplasm variability of blunt snout bream and to support the ongoing selective breeding programme for this fish.

  16. Development temperature has persistent effects on muscle growth responses in gilthead sea bream.

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    Daniel Garcia de la serrana

    Full Text Available Initially we characterised growth responses to altered nutritional input at the transcriptional and tissue levels in the fast skeletal muscle of juvenile gilthead sea bream. Fish reared at 21-22°C (range were fed a commercial diet at 3% body mass d(-1 (non-satiation feeding, NSF for 4 weeks, fasted for 4d (F and then fed to satiation (SF for 21d. 13 out of 34 genes investigated showed consistent patterns of regulation between nutritional states. Fasting was associated with a 20-fold increase in MAFbx, and a 5-fold increase in Six1 and WASp expression, which returned to NSF levels within 16h of SF. Refeeding to satiation was associated with a rapid (<24 h 12 to 17-fold increase in UNC45, Hsp70 and Hsp90α transcripts coding for molecular chaperones associated with unfolded protein response pathways. The growth factors FGF6 and IGF1 increased 6.0 and 4.5-fold within 16 h and 24 h of refeeding respectively. The average growth in diameter of fast muscle fibres was checked with fasting and significant fibre hypertrophy was only observed after 13d and 21d SF. To investigate developmental plasticity in growth responses we used the same experimental protocol with fish reared at either 17.5-18.5°C (range (LT or 21-22°C (range (HT to metamorphosis and then transferred to 21-22°C. There were persistent effects of development temperature on muscle growth patterns with 20% more fibres of lower average diameter in LT than HT group of similar body size. Altering the nutritional input to the muscle to stimulate growth revealed cryptic changes in the expression of UNC45 and Hsp90α with higher transcript abundance in the LT than HT groups, whereas there were no differences in the expression of MAFbx and Six1. It was concluded that myogenesis and gene expression patterns during growth are not fixed, but can be modified by temperature during the early stages of the life cycle.

  17. Toxicological effects of crude oil and oil dispersant: biomarkers in the heart of the juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).

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    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Imbert, Nathalie; Sanchez, Wilfried; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2013-02-01

    Dispersant use is a controversial oil spill response technique in coastal areas. Using an experimental approach, this study evaluated the toxicity of dispersant use upon juveniles of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata). Fish were exposed for 48 h to either dispersant only, chemically dispersed oil, mechanically dispersed oil, the water soluble fraction of oil or to control conditions. Following exposure and a depuration period, biomarkers were assessed in fish hearts, namely the total glutathione content and the activity of four enzymes (glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides). Comparing biomarker responses between the different treatments, this study revealed that 48 h exposure to dispersed oil (whether mechanically or chemically dispersed) resulted in a toxicity that was still detectable after a 14 days depuration period. Comparing biomarkers responses after an exposure to chemically and mechanically dispersed oil, this study suggests that chemical dispersion of the oil slick would not be more toxic than its natural dispersion under certain turbulent meteorological conditions (e.g. waves). Furthermore, the results indicated that the heart could be a target organ of interest in further studies investigating the toxicity of hydrocarbons. This study, which has been integrated into the DISCOBIOL project (Dispersant et techniques de lutte en milieu côtier: effets biologiques et apport à la réglementation), presents information of interest when attempting to provide a framework for dispersant applications in coastal areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Proximate Composition, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Attributes of Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and Emperor Sea Bream (Lethrinus spp. Fillets Sold on Retail Market

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    Cătălina Nicoleta Boițeanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The variety of seafood on the European market has considerably increased in recent years. This study presents data to the main nutritional values and the sensory properties of two exotic fish species, mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and emperor sea bream (Lethrinus spp., sold on retail market in Germany. Information on the quality of frozen and glazed fillets is still missing, but is important to characterize these products. This also includes details on the substances added to increase the water-binding ability. Aims: The paper aims to assess the quality of exotic fish fillets sold on the German market, through the evaluation of physical and chemical parameters, microbiological quality and sensory attributes. Materials and methods: 10 samples of each fish species were analysed after homogenisation to determine the following parameters:  pH-value (with a pH meter; water (gravimetrically; ash (in  a muffle furnace at 550 °C; salt (NaCl; by auto-titration; fat (by a modified Smedes method; protein (with a LECO TruSpecN based on the principles of the Dumas combustion method; total phosphorus content (photometrically; total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, using the EU reference method; total viable bacteria count (TVC and specific fish spoiling bacteria (SSO (by decimal dilutions method. The sensory assessments were done with cooked and fried fillets by a panel consisting of 6 specialists, using a descriptive method. Results: Lipid, ash and salt contents of mahi-mahi were comparable to the emperor sea bream values. Due to low lipid content, both species can be classified as lean species. The protein amount of emperor sea bream was significantly higher compared to mahi-mahi and many other common fish species. In mahi-mahi samples, slightly higher values of total phosphates content were found. The pH values of emperor sea bream were in a normal range for fresh fish, whereas in mahi-mahi significantly higher values were determined which

  19. Monorchis lewisi n. sp. (Trematoda: Monorchiidae) from the surf bream, Acanthopagrus australis (Sparidae), in Moreton Bay, Australia.

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    Cribb, T H; Wee, N Q-X; Bray, R A; Cutmore, S C

    2018-01-01

    We describe Monorchis lewisi n. sp. (Monorchiidae) from the surf bream, Acanthopagrus australis (Günther, 1859) (Sparidae), in Moreton Bay, eastern Australia. The new species differs from most existing species of Monorchis Monticelli, 1893 in its possession of an elongate I-shaped excretory vesicle, and from other congeners in the relative configuration of the gut and suckers. Ovipusillus mayu Dove & Cribb, 1998 is re-reported from Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål, 1775) (Carangidae) from Moreton Bay. We report new second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and 28S rDNA sequence data for both species. Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses of the 28S rDNA dataset suggest that existing subfamily and genus concepts within the family require substantial revision.

  20. Identification of a myeloperoxidase-like ortholog from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), deciphering its transcriptional responses to induced pathogen stress.

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    Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Whang, Ilson; Nam, Bo-Hye; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2015-08-01

    Myeloperoxidases (MPOs) are heme-linked oxidative stress-generating enzymes found abundantly in azurophilic granules of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Mature MPOs act as potent antimicrobial agents by producing hypohalous acids using hydrogen peroxide and halide ions as substrates. These acids can readily oxidize reactive groups of biomolecules on invading microbes. In this study, we identified and characterized a homolog of MPO from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), designated as RbMPO. We analyzed the RbMPO gene for its basal expression level in physiologically important tissues and for transcriptional changes under different pathogenic stress conditions. The complete coding sequence of RbMPO consisted of 2652 nucleotides encoding an 884 amino acid sequence with a predicted molecular mass of 99.7 kDa. Our in silico analysis confirmed the typical MPO domain arrangement in RbMPO, including the propeptide, large chain and heavy chain, along with the heme peroxidase signature. Intriguingly, a C1q domain was also identified in the C-terminal region of the derived amino acid sequence. Most of the known functionally important residues of MPOs are found to be well conserved in RbMPO, showing a close evolutionary relationship with other teleostan MPOs, particularly with that of mandarin fish. RbMPO exhibited a ubiquitous basal expression in physiologically relevant tissues, with particularly high expression levels in blood cells. Basal transcript levels of RbMPO in gill and spleen tissues were found to change upon different pathogen or pathogen-derived mitogen stimulation, with detectable inductive responses. Together, these data suggest the potential involvement of RbMPO in the innate immune response in rock bream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Modified Handling on the Physiological Stress of Trawled-and-Discarded Yellowfin Bream (Acanthopagrus australis.

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    Sven Sebastian Uhlmann

    Full Text Available Modified handling is often claimed to reduce (sub-lethal impacts among organisms caught-and-released in fisheries. Improving welfare of discarded fish warrants investigation, when their survival is of both economic and ecological importance. In this study, juvenile yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus australis were trawled in an Australian penaeid fishery and then discarded after on-board sorting in either dry or water-filled (modified trays and with delays in starting sorting of either 2 or 15 mins. Blood plasma cortisol, glucose and potassium were sampled immediately from some yellowfin bream, while others were placed into cages (with controls and sampled after five days. Irrespective of their on-board handling, all trawled fish incurred a relatively high acute stress response (i.e. an increase in Mean ± SE cortisol from a baseline of <4 to 122.0 ± 14.9 ng/mL that was mostly attributed to the trawling process, and exacerbated by variation in key parameters (low salinity, changes in water temperature and the presence of jellyfish Catostylus mosaicus in catches. When C. mosaicus was present, the potassium concentrations of fish sampled immediately after sorting were significantly elevated, possibly due to nematocyst contact and subsequent inhibition of ion pumps or cytolysis. Stress also increased during handling in response to warmer air temperatures and longer exposure. While most fish had substantially recovered by 120 hours after discarding, deploying selective trawls (to reduce jellyfish for short periods and then quickly sorting catches in water would benefit discard welfare.

  2. Resveratrol supplementation improves lipid and glucose metabolism in high-fat diet-fed blunt snout bream.

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    Zhang, Dingdong; Yan, Yanan; Tian, Hongyan; Jiang, Guangzhen; Li, Xiangfei; Liu, Wenbin

    2018-02-01

    Here, we aimed to investigate whether resveratrol (RSV) can ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic disorder in fish. Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) with average weight 27.99 ± 0.56 g were fed a normal fat diet (NFD, 5% fat, w/w), a HFD (11% fat), or a HFD supplemented with 0.04, 0.36, or 1.08% RSV for 10 weeks. As expected, fish fed a HFD developed hepatic steatosis, as shown by elevated hepatic and plasma triglycerides, raised whole body fat, intraperitoneal fat ratio and hepatosomatic index, and increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). RSV supplementation lessened increases in body mass, whole body fat, and intraperitoneal fat, and alleviated development of hepatic steatosis, elevations of plasma triglyceride and glucose, and abnormalities of ALT and AST in HFD-fed fish. RSV supplementation increased SIRT1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and consequently hepatic mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1a), and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), implying upregulation of lipolysis, β-oxidation, and lipid transport, respectively, in the liver. Conversely, hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) mRNA expression were decreased, implying suppression of fatty acid uptake, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis. Additionally, RSV downregulated glucokinase (GCK) and sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and upregulated glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) mRNA expression, thus restoring normal glucose fluxes. Thus, RSV improves lipid and glucose metabolisms in blunt snout bream, which are potentially mediated by activation of SIRT1.

  3. The correlation between bioaccumulation and pattern of stress-related genes expression of black sea bream ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli) by cadmium exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong; Park, Ho-Ra; Yeo, Won-Jun; Kim, Ji-Hye; Han, Kyung-Nam

    2017-06-01

    In order to correlate the expression of detoxifying enzyme genes and Cd accumulation in black sea bream, we analyzed four tissues (brain, gills, liver, and muscle) from black sea breams that were exposed to four different concentrations of Cd (0, 2, 13, and 25 mg/L) for various durations (0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h). The highest level of Cd was accumulated in the liver, followed by the gills, brain, and muscle. The accumulation of Cd was significantly correlated with the duration of exposure and the concentration in brain, gill, and liver tissue, but not in muscle tissue, and the rate of accumulation increased with Cd concentration. The expression of metallothionein II (MT II) mRNA exhibited a similar pattern as Cd accumulation, especially in that the expression of MT II mRNA decreased in muscle tissue with increases in exposure duration. In contrast, the expression of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) mRNA was highest in the liver, followed by brain, muscle, and gill tissues, and in gills and muscle tissue of Cd-exposed fish, the expression of CYP1A mRNA fell below that of the control fish. Overall, the liver of black sea bream was the most sensitive to Cd exposure, and the expression of MT II mRNA was 200-fold greater than the control fish. These findings indicate that the detoxification mechanisms of black sea bream are influenced by both MT II and CYP1A and that the genes participate in the detoxification of different tissues.

  4. The effect of exposure to a high-fat diet on microRNA expression in the liver of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala.

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    Dingdong Zhang

    Full Text Available Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala are susceptible to hepatic steatosis when maintained in modern intensive culture systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs in diet-induced hepatic steatosis in this species. MiRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, are involved in diverse biological processes, including lipid metabolism. Deep sequencing of hepatic small RNA libraries from blunt snout bream fed normal-fat and high-fat diets identified 202 (193 known and 9 novel miRNAs, of which 12 were differentially expressed between the normal-fat and high-fat diet groups. Quantitative stem-loop reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed the upregulation of miR-30c and miR-30e-3p and the downregulation of miR-145 and miR-15a-5p in high-fat diet-fed fish. Bioinformatics tools were used to predict the targets of these verified miRNAs and to explore potential downstream gene ontology biological process categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Six putative lipid metabolism-related target genes (fetuin-B, Cyp7a1, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2, 3-oxoacid CoA transferase 1b, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, and fatty-acid synthase were identified as having potential important roles in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis in blunt snout bream. The results presented here are a foundation for future studies of miRNA-controlled lipid metabolism regulatory networks in blunt snout bream.

  5. Effect of water accommodated fraction of 0# diesel oil and crude oil on EROD activity of liver of Sparus macrocephlus and its mRNA expression.

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    Lei, Li; Shen, Xinqiang; Jiang, Mei

    2016-12-01

    We studied the effect of water accommodated fractions (WAF) of 0# diesel and crude oil on ethoxy resorufin o-deethylase (EROD) activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression quantity in the liver of Sparus macrocephlus. We found that there were some differences in the EROD activity and CYP1A1 mRNA induction between these two petroleum hydrocarbons. Both the EROD activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression of fish exposed to 0# diesel WAF were higher than those of crude oil WAF fish. The EROD activities and CYP1A1 mRNA expressions in the livers 0# diesel WAF exposed group declined faster than those of crude oil WAF and the recovery of EROD activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression in the crude oil group was higher than that of 0# diesel group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Comprehensive Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns in Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Based on RNA-Seq Data

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    Xiaoke Duan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala is an important fish species for its delicacy and high economic value in China. Codon usage analysis could be helpful to understand its codon biology, mRNA translation and vertebrate evolution. Based on RNA-Seq data for M. amblycephala, high-frequency codons (CUG, AGA, GUG, CAG and GAG, as well as low-frequency ones (NUA and NCG codons were identified. A total of 724 high-frequency codon pairs were observed. Meanwhile, 14 preferred and 199 avoided neighboring codon pairs were also identified, but bias was almost not shown with one or more intervening codons inserted between the same pairs. Codon usage bias in the regions close to start and stop codons indicated apparent heterogeneity, which even occurs in the flanking nucleotide sequence. Codon usage bias (RSCU and SCUO was related to GC3 (GC content of 3rd nucleotide in codon bias. Six GO (Gene ontology categories and the number of methylation targets were influenced by GC3. Codon usage patterns comparison among 23 vertebrates showed species specificities by using GC contents, codon usage and codon context analysis. This work provided new insights into fish biology and new information for breeding projects.

  7. RECRUITMENT OF JUVENILE GOLDEN GREY MULLET, Liza aurata (Risso, 1810 AND FLATHEAD GREY MULLET, Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758 IN THE NERETVA RIVER ESTUARY

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    V. Bartulović

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Research of recruitment, growth and diet of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata and flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus was carried out on the sampling sites in estuary of Neretva; Mala Neretva, Kanal and port of Ploče. On sandy–muddy beaches, samples were collected using seine net and on deeper sites with rocky bottoms, samples were collected by using small »dip net«. Total length of body and total weight were measured. Stomach contents were analysed using inverted microscope. Prey frequency (%F, abundance (%N and coefficient of empty stomach (%V were determined. Also possible food competition between different species of mullet juveniles was studied, based on space and time overlap of their recruitment. Recruitment of golden grey mullet (length category of 15–20 mm in samples lasted from October to January. Analysis of lenght–weight relationship in the area of estuary of Mala Neretva showed that population has a negative alometric growth. In analyzed stomach contents from October to February, dominant were harpacticoid copepods. There was a substantial increase in the percentage of insects in March, and gammarids in December. Juveniles of flathead grey mullet were found in samples from September to November, with small length categories of 10–15 mm in September and October. Analysis of length–weight relationship established that samples on all three sites had a negative alometric growth. Fast growth was recorded during all three months because the sea temperature was above 20 °C. In the stomachs of flathead grey mullet juveniles the dominant prey group was also harpacticoids on all three sites. Statistically significant level of competition (SI= 0.747 was determined between L. aurata and M. cephalus in the estuary of Mala Neretva, mainly because of high percentage of harpacticoids in prey content of both species.

  8. Monitoring of Monthly Price Changes of Cultured Fishes in Sinop Province Between 2012 and 2013

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    Birol Baki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the monthly price changes of cultured fish which were offered for sale in retail fish outlets in Sinop, Turkey. The fish enterprises were determined by stratified sampling method. The enterprises were grouped as I (the most, II (moderate and III (the least according to the amount of their sales. Each group was represented by two different fish enterprises. During the study, prices of the same fish species were obtained twice a month at the same time of the day and the data were calculated as average ± SD. The differences between the groups were determined by one-way variance analysis (ANOVA and the price relation level between species was evaluated by the correlation analysis using IBM SPSS 21 Statisticssoftware. It was determined that sea bream (Sparus aurata, sea bass (Dicentrarhus labrax, rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss (portion size and kilos and salmon (Salmo salar (import were offered for sale in fish markets as cultured fish species. These species were sold during the fishing ban period (April-August. They were also sold starting from September when the fishing ban period ended up and the fishery products were at their lowest. For all the species, the differences between the pricesice were not significant between the sampled enterprises. The average values of the current prices were higher than that of 2008-2013 period. A negative strong relation was determined between the rainbow trout and the salmon.

  9. Designation of pathogenic resistant bacteria in the Sparusaurata sea collected in Tunisia coastlines: Correlation with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouiten, Amina; Mehri, Ines; Beltifa, Asma; Ghorbel, Asma; Sire, Olivier; Van Loco, Joris; Abdenaceur, Hassen; Reyns, Tim; Ben Mansour, Hedi

    2017-05-01

    Vibrio is characterized by a large number of species and some of them are human pathogens causing gastro intestinal and wound infections through the ingestion or manipulation of contaminated fishes including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus. In this study, we reported the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from wild and farm sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) along the Tunisian coast from December 2015 to April 2016. Therefore, the antibiograms indicate a difference between farmed and wild fish. Resistance against amoxicillin antibiotic appears for the bacteria isolated from wild fish, while those from aquaculture farming presented sensitivity to amoxicillin and resistance to antibiotics colistin and fusidic acid. The chloramphenicol antibiotic exhibited a high sensitivity in all isolated bacteria. In fact, traces of amoxicillin in the organs of the fish from Hergla farm were detected by UPLC-MS/MS analysis during December 2016 to April 2016. In addition, antibiotics were detected in January 2014 with high concentration of norfloxacin 2262 ng/g in fish from Hergla coast. The results obtained in this work indicated that the use and presence of antibiotics in water impacts on the occurrence of resistant bacteria and the detection of antibiotic in fish. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Can multiple fish farms be integrated within a semi-enclosed bay without causing acute ecosystem degradation?

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    Kristian Puhr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the possibility that multiple fish farms (FFs containing sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream (Sparus aurata can be successfully integrated within a semi-enclosed bay in the Croatian Adriatic. The research focuses on determining principal environmental factors (EFs that control the integration and attempts to estimate their individual and synergic ability to influence deposition and removal of organic matter (OM and trace elements (TE from the system. The complexity of the designated tasks demanded a comprehensive number of various datasets and samples to be used in the analysis. The ADCP data revealed strong wind induced currents forming within the research domain resulting in high system flushing efficiency (3.5–6 days. The sediment samples from all stations contained relatively inert minerals which contributed to overall low OM and TE concentrations and very limited variability found across the entire bathymetric range. The thermal advection effect recorded at two stations was attributed to specific seabed topography and the hydrodynamic response formed during Maestral wind episodes. The results indicate that a successful integration of four FFs has taken place within the research site (semi enclosed bay, and that the key EFs responsible for its success are strong wind induced hydrodynamics, favorable seabed topography and sediment mineral composition. The synergy of the principal EFs that formed within the system was found to have an attenuating effect regarding FFs chemical influence (OM and TE and an amplifying one regarding spatial footprint which extended to ≈2000 m distance.

  11. Fish polar lipids retard atherosclerosis in rabbits by down-regulating PAF biosynthesis and up-regulating PAF catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Tsoupras, Alexandros B; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Demopoulos, Constantinos A; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2011-11-16

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) has been proposed as a key factor and initial trigger in atherosclerosis. Recently, a modulation of PAF metabolism by bioactive food constituents has been suggested. In this study we investigated the effect of fish polar lipid consumption on PAF metabolism. The specific activities of four PAF metabolic enzymes; in leukocytes, platelets and plasma, and PAF concentration; either in blood cells or plasma were determined. Samples were acquired at the beginning and at the end of a previously conducted study in male New Zealand white rabbits that were fed for 45 days with atherogenic diet supplemented (group-B, n = 6) or not (group-A, n = 6) with gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) polar lipids.The specific activity of PAF-Acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH); a catabolic enzyme of PAF, was decreased in rabbits' platelets of both A and B groups and in rabbits' leukocytes of group A (p PAF in plasma was increased in both A and B groups in both leukocytes and platelets (p PAF-cholinephosphotransferase (PAF-CPT); a biosynthetic enzyme of PAF showed increased specific activity only in rabbits' leukocytes of group A (p PAF-acetyltransferase (Lyso-PAF-AT) specific activity (p > 0.05). Free and bound PAF levels increased in group A while decreased in group B (p PAF metabolism upon atherosclerotic conditions in rabbits leading to lower PAF levels and activity in blood of rabbits with reduced early atherosclerotic lesions compared to control group.

  12. Comparison of heavy metal concentration of some marine fishes from Black and Aegean Seas

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    Makedonski Lubomir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Major part of healthy human diet consist of marine fish and seafood products. And it is not surprising that there are numerous studies based on metal accumulation in various fish species. Fish may also be used for heavy metal monitoring programs of marine environments due to their easy sampling, sample preparation and chemical analysis. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, manganese, zinc, iron, chromium, total mercury and total arsenic were determined in edible part of two commercially valuable fish Greek aquaculture species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata purchased from Bulgarian market during 2011. The concentration of metals was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. The concentration of the heavy metals in examined fish species ranged as follow: Pb 0.008 - 0.013; Cd 0.0017 - 0.022; Ni 0.007 - 0.012; Cu 0.054 - 0.115; Mn 0.043 - 0.09; Zn 0.14 - 0.15; Fe 0.17 - 0.19; Cr 0.05 - 0.07; Hg 0.11 - 0.13; As 1.6 - 1.8 mg kg-1 wet weight, respectively.

  13. Culture of marine sponges with potential applications in Aquaculture and Biotechnology

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    Susana M F Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the sponges were collected from the sea bottom in the surrounding areas of Peniche (central western coast of Portugal, by scuba diving. They were sealed in plastic zip bags during transportation to the surface and laboratory, to avoid air contact, which they are not able to endure. They were maintained in a closed water circulation system, transplanted into artificial substrates of plastic and fed every two days, with a mixed solution of microalgae Nanochloropsis salina culture and faeces of gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata. As this species is susceptible to the light, half of the tanks of the culture system were protected with a black cloth and the other half were submitted to an acclimation process to this factor, in order for them to be used in aquariophilia. The sponges dimension and weight were assessed. The establishment of an efficient culture strategy will allow to use sponges as ornamental organism, as well as a diet for other interesting commercial species (also potentially as probiotics, or even as source of extracts for different biotechnology fields.

  14. Applications of self-organizing maps for ecomorphological investigations through early ontogeny of fish.

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    Tommaso Russo

    Full Text Available We propose a new graphical approach to the analysis of multi-temporal morphological and ecological data concerning the life history of fish, which can typically serves models in ecomorphological investigations because they often undergo significant ontogenetic changes. These changes can be very complex and difficult to describe, so that visualization, abstraction and interpretation of the underlying relationships are often impeded. Therefore, classic ecomorphological analyses of covariation between morphology and ecology, performed by means of multivariate techniques, may result in non-exhaustive models. The Self Organizing map (SOM is a new, effective approach for pursuing this aim. In this paper, lateral outlines of larval stages of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus were recorded and broken down using by means of Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA. Gut contents of the same specimens were also collected and analyzed. Then, shape and trophic habits data were examined by SOM, which allows both a powerful visualization of shape changes and an easy comparison with trophic habit data, via their superimposition onto the trained SOM. Thus, the SOM provides a direct visual approach for matching morphological and ecological changes during fish ontogenesis. This method could be used as a tool to extract and investigate relationships between shape and other sinecological or environmental variables, which cannot be taken into account simultaneously using conventional statistical methods.

  15. Applications of self-organizing maps for ecomorphological investigations through early ontogeny of fish.

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    Russo, Tommaso; Scardi, Michele; Cataudella, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new graphical approach to the analysis of multi-temporal morphological and ecological data concerning the life history of fish, which can typically serves models in ecomorphological investigations because they often undergo significant ontogenetic changes. These changes can be very complex and difficult to describe, so that visualization, abstraction and interpretation of the underlying relationships are often impeded. Therefore, classic ecomorphological analyses of covariation between morphology and ecology, performed by means of multivariate techniques, may result in non-exhaustive models. The Self Organizing map (SOM) is a new, effective approach for pursuing this aim. In this paper, lateral outlines of larval stages of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus) were recorded and broken down using by means of Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA). Gut contents of the same specimens were also collected and analyzed. Then, shape and trophic habits data were examined by SOM, which allows both a powerful visualization of shape changes and an easy comparison with trophic habit data, via their superimposition onto the trained SOM. Thus, the SOM provides a direct visual approach for matching morphological and ecological changes during fish ontogenesis. This method could be used as a tool to extract and investigate relationships between shape and other sinecological or environmental variables, which cannot be taken into account simultaneously using conventional statistical methods.

  16. Microbiological changes, shelf life and identification of initial and spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under various conditions using 16S rRNA gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlapani, Foteini F; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar; Boziaris, Ioannis S

    2015-09-01

    Sea bream fillets are one of the most important value-added products of the seafood market. Fresh seafood spoils mainly owing to bacterial action. In this study an exploration of initial and spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under air and commercial modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0 and 5 °C was conducted by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of isolates grown on plates. Sensory evaluation and enumeration of total viable counts and spoilage microorganisms were also conducted to determine shelf life and bacterial growth respectively. Different temperatures and atmospheres affected growth and synthesis of spoilage microbiota as well as shelf life. Shelf life under air at 0 and 5 °C was 14 and 5 days respectively, while under MAP it was 20 and 8 days respectively. Initial microbiota were dominated by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Psychrobacter and Macrococcus caseolyticus. Different temperatures and atmospheres affected the synthesis of spoilage microbiota. At the end of shelf life, different phylotypes of Pseudomonas closely related to Pseudomonas fragi were found to dominate in most cases, while Pseudomonas veronii dominated in fillets under MAP at 0 °C. Furthermore, in fillets under MAP at 5 °C, new dominant species such as Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Carnobacterium divergens and Vagococcus fluvialis were revealed. Different temperature and atmospheric conditions affected bacterial growth, shelf life and the synthesis of spoilage microbiota. Molecular identification revealed species and strains of microorganisms that have not been reported before for sea bream fillets stored under various conditions, thus providing valuable information regarding microbiological spoilage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effect of different wavelengths of light on the antioxidant and immunity status of juvenile rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, exposed to thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jong Ryeol; Shin, Yoon Sub; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Tae Hwan; Jung, Min-Min; Choi, Cheol Young

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the effect of light wavelengths on antioxidant and immunity parameters in juvenile rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, exposed to thermal stress (25 and 30°C). We exposed the fish to light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting green (520 nm) and red light (630 nm) of 0.25 and 0.5 W/m2 intensity, and measured the activity, and mRNA and protein expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We also determined the levels of plasma hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), melatonin, and lysozyme. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of caspase-3 were measured and terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed. We observed that mRNA expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes and plasma H2O2 levels were significantly higher after exposure to high temperatures. However, increases in these parameters were significantly lower after exposure to green LED light. The plasma melatonin and lysozyme levels were significantly lower in the different groups after exposure to high temperatures; however, in groups exposed to green LED light, their levels were significantly higher than those in the control group. The expression pattern of caspase-3 mRNA was similar to that of H2O2. The TUNEL assay showed that apoptosis was markedly higher at higher water temperatures than that at 20°C. These results indicate that high water temperatures induce oxidative stress and decrease the immunity in juvenile rock bream but green LED light inhibits the rise in oxidative stress and combats the decrease in immunity and should, thus, be useful in the culture of rock bream.

  18. Effect of different wavelengths of light on the antioxidant and immunity status of juvenile rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, exposed to thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jong Ryeol; Shin, Yoon Sub; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Tae Hwan; Jung, Min-Min; Choi, Cheol Young

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effect of light wavelengths on antioxidant and immunity parameters in juvenile rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, exposed to thermal stress (25 and 30°C). We exposed the fish to light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting green (520 nm) and red light (630 nm) of 0.25 and 0.5 W/m2 intensity, and measured the activity, and mRNA and protein expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We also determined the levels of plasma hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), melatonin, and lysozyme. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of caspase-3 were measured and terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed. We observed that mRNA expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes and plasma H2O2 levels were significantly higher after exposure to high temperatures. However, increases in these parameters were significantly lower after exposure to green LED light. The plasma melatonin and lysozyme levels were significantly lower in the different groups after exposure to high temperatures; however, in groups exposed to green LED light, their levels were significantly higher than those in the control group. The expression pattern of caspase-3 mRNA was similar to that of H2O2. The TUNEL assay showed that apoptosis was markedly higher at higher water temperatures than that at 20°C. These results indicate that high water temperatures induce oxidative stress and decrease the immunity in juvenile rock bream but green LED light inhibits the rise in oxidative stress and combats the decrease in immunity and should, thus, be useful in the culture of rock bream.

  19. Comprehensive biometric, biochemical and histopathological assessment of nutrient deficiencies in gilthead sea bream fed semi-purified diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Estensoro, Itziar; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2015-09-14

    Seven isoproteic and isolipidic semi-purified diets were formulated to assess specific nutrient deficiencies in sulphur amino acids (SAA), n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC-PUFA), phospholipids (PL), P, minerals (Min) and vitamins (Vit). The control diet (CTRL) contained these essential nutrients in adequate amounts. Each diet was allocated to triplicate groups of juvenile gilthead sea bream fed to satiety over an 11-week feeding trial period. Weight gain of n-3 LC-PUFA, P-Vit and PL-Min-SAA groups was 50, 60-75 and 80-85 % of the CTRL group, respectively. Fat retention was decreased by all nutrient deficiencies except by the Min diet. Strong effects on N retention were found in n-3 LC-PUFA and P fish. Combined anaemia and increased blood respiratory burst were observed in n-3 LC-PUFA fish. Hypoproteinaemia was found in SAA, n-3 LC-PUFA, PL and Vit fish. Derangements of lipid metabolism were also a common disorder, but the lipodystrophic phenotype of P fish was different from that of other groups. Changes in plasma levels of electrolytes (Ca, phosphate), metabolites (creatinine, choline) and enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase) were related to specific nutrient deficiencies in PL, P, Min or Vit fish, whereas changes in circulating levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I primarily reflected the intensity of the nutritional stressor. Histopathological scoring of the liver and intestine segments showed specific nutrient-mediated changes in lipid cell vacuolisation, inflammation of intestinal submucosa, as well as the distribution and number of intestinal goblet and rodlet cells. These results contribute to define the normal range of variation for selected biometric, biochemical, haematological and histochemical markers.

  20. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  1. Endocrine regulation of carbonate precipitate formation in marine fish intestine by stanniocalcin and PTHrP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregório, Sílvia F; Carvalho, Edison S M; Campinho, Marco A; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M; Fuentes, Juan

    2014-05-01

    In marine fish, high epithelial bicarbonate secretion by the intestine generates luminal carbonate precipitates of divalent cations that play a key role in water and ion homeostasis. In vitro studies highlight the involvement of the calciotropic hormones PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related protein) and stanniocalcin (STC) in the regulation of epithelial bicarbonate transport. The present study tested the hypothesis that calciotropic hormones have a regulatory role in carbonate precipitate formation in vivo. Sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles received single intraperitoneal injections of piscine PTHrP(1-34), the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) or purified sea bream STC, or were passively immunized with polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against sea bream STC (STC-Ab). Endocrine effects on the expression of the basolateral sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (Slc4a4.A), the apical anion exchangers Slc26a6.A and Slc26a3.B, and the V-type proton pump β-subunit (Atp6v1b) in the anterior intestine were evaluated. In keeping with their calciotropic nature, the hypocalcaemic factors PTHrP(7-34) and STC up-regulated gene expression of all transporters. In contrast, the hypercalcaemic factor PTHrP(1-34) and STC antibodies down-regulated transporters involved in the bicarbonate secretion cascade. Changes in intestine luminal precipitate contents provoked by calcaemic endocrine factors validated these results: 24 h post-injection either PTHrP(1-34) or immunization with STC-Ab reduced the carbonate precipitate content in the sea bream intestine. In contrast, the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) increased not only the precipitated fraction but also the concentration of HCO3(-) equivalents in the intestinal fluid. These results confirm the hypothesis that calciotropic hormones have a regulatory role in carbonate precipitate formation in vivo in the intestine of marine fish. Furthermore, they illustrate for the first time in fish the counteracting effect of PTHr

  2. The dynamicity of the mesonephros microstructure in bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758 of the Dnieper-Bug estuary system in relation to spawning migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Heina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the mesonephros structure in the bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758 during its spawning migration, to determine the perspective of the use of microanatomical monitoring data in fisheries practice for assessing the functional status of fish. Methodology. Collection of ichthyological material was carried out using permit documents of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS of Ukraine, while their processing was done at the Department of Aquatic Bioresources and Aquaculture of the Kherson State Agricultural University. Ichthyological material was collected using gill nets, fyke nets, beach seines. Monitoring stations were located along the spawning migration run of the bream from the Dnieper lagoon to the plavni system of the Dnieper River. Field and laboratory processing of the material was done using author’s equipment and original methods specially designed for histological diagnostics of tissues of aquatic animals. Findings. The basis of the adaptation of bream kidneys to waters of different salinities us structural irregularity of nephrons expressed in the size and structure of renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules. Significant fluctuations of osmolarity parameters within the lower Dnieper area have significant effects on changes in the structure and function of nephrogenic tissue in form of the reduction in the diameter of Boumen-Shumliansky capsule by 9.0 µm. Changes of the Boumen-Shumliansky capsule diameter in fish with moderate mineralization is the range of 6.0 and 4.0 µm. The reduction in the height of epitheliocytes of proximal convoluted tubules by 3.0; 2.0 and 4.0 µm also indicate on the reduction of the functional activity of the convolute. The fluctuations of nephrogenic and homeopathic tissue ratio have a balance nature that can be related to the redistribution of these components due to the appearance of an adaptation under the effect of chloride-ions. The dislocation of ion-transporting cells near the blood

  3. Insights into the mechanisms underlying mercury-induced oxidative stress in gills of wild fish (Liza aurata) combining {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics and conventional biochemical assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappello, Tiziana, E-mail: tcappello@unime.it [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Brandão, Fátima, E-mail: fatimabrandao@ua.pt [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Canário, João [Centro de Química Estrutural, Instítuto Superíor Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been described as a key pathway to initiate mercury (Hg) toxicity in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying Hg-induced oxidative stress in fish still need to be clarified. To this aim, environmental metabolomics in combination with a battery of conventional oxidative stress biomarkers were applied to the gills of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected from Largo do Laranjo (LAR), a confined Hg contaminated area, and São Jacinto (SJ), selected as reference site (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal). Higher accumulation of inorganic Hg and methylmercury was found in gills of fish from LAR relative to SJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed changes in metabolites related to antioxidant protection, namely depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its constituent amino acids, glutamate and glycine. The interference of Hg with the antioxidant protection of gills was corroborated through oxidative stress endpoints, namely the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at LAR. The increase of total glutathione content (reduced glutathione + oxidized glutathione) at LAR, in parallel with GSH depletion aforementioned, indicates the occurrence of massive GSH oxidation under Hg stress, and an inability to carry out its regeneration (glutathione reductase activity was unaltered) or de novo synthesis. Nevertheless, the results suggest the occurrence of alternative mechanisms for preventing lipid peroxidative damage, which may be associated with the enhancement of membrane stabilization/repair processes resulting from depletion in the precursors of phosphatidylcholine (phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine), as highlighted by NMR spectroscopy. However, the observed decrease in taurine may be attributable to alterations in the structure of cell membranes or interference in osmoregulatory processes. Overall, the novel concurrent use of metabolomics and conventional oxidative stress endpoints demonstrated to

  4. Effect of dietary betaine on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and lipid metabolism in blunt snout bream fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjoumani, Jean-Jacques Yao; Wang, Kaizhou; Zhou, Man; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Dingdong

    2017-12-01

    An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary betaine levels on the growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) with initial body weight 4.3 ± 0.1 g [mean ± SEM]. Five practical diets were formulated to contain normal-fat diet (NFD), high-fat diet (HFD), and high-fat diet with betaine addition (HFB) at difference levels (0.6, 1.2, 1.8%), respectively. The results showed that the highest final body weight (FBW), weight gain ratio (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF), and feed intake (FI) (P high in fat group compared to the lowest in NDF and 1.2% betaine supplementation, while VSI and survival rate (SR) were not affected by dietary betaine supplementation. Significantly higher (P high-density lipoprotein (HDL) content were observed in HFD but were improved when supplemented with 1.2% betaine. In addition, increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in 1.2% betaine inclusion could reverse the increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) level induced by HFD. Based on the second-order polynomial analysis, the optimum growth of blunt snout bream was observed in fish fed HFD supplemented with 1.2% betaine. HFD upregulated fatty acid synthase messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and downregulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA expression; nevertheless, 1.2% betaine supplementation significantly reversed these HFD-induced effects, implying suppression of fatty acid synthesis, β-oxidation, and lipid transport. This present study indicated that inclusion of betaine (1.2%) can significantly improve growth performance and antioxidant defenses, as well as reduce fatty acid synthesis and enhance mitochondrial β-oxidation and lipid transportation in high-fat diet-fed blunt snout bream, thus effectively

  5. Evaluation of oxidative DNA lesions in plasma and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of wild fish (Liza aurata) as an integrated approach to genotoxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Ahmad, I; Maria, V L; Ferreira, C S S; Serafim, A; Bebianno, M J; Pacheco, M; Santos, M A

    2010-12-21

    Genetic lesions (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) were seasonally quantified in the blood of Liza aurata caught at Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), a multi-contaminated aquatic system. Thus, five critical sites were assessed and compared with a reference site (Torreira). Oxidative DNA damage was found in Gafanha (harbour-water area), Laranjo (metal-contaminated) and Vagos (contaminated with PAHs) in the spring; Rio Novo do Principe (near a former paper-mill effluent) in the autumn; Rio Novo do Principe and Vagos in the winter. ENA were higher than Torreira at VAG (spring and winter). Torreira did not display seasonal variation neither in terms of 8-OHdG or total ENA. A positive correlation between 8-OHdG and ENA was found, suggesting oxidative stress as a mechanism involved in the formation of ENA. This study clearly demonstrates the presence of DNA-damaging substances in Ria de Aveiro and recommends the use of 8-OHdG and ENA as biomarkers of environmental contamination. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression Analysis of Lily Type Lectin Isotypes in the Rock Bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus: in the Tissue, Developmental Stage and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Mee; Yang, In Jung; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Noh, Gyeong Eon; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Kil

    2016-12-01

    Lectins belong to the pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) class and play important roles in the recognition and elimination of pathogens via the innate immune system. Recently, it was reported that lily-type lectin-1 is involved when a pathogen attacks in the early immune response of fish. However, this study is limited to information that the lectin is involved in the innate immune response against viral infection. In the present study, the lily-type lectin-2 and -3 of Oplegnathus fasciatus (OfLTL-2 and 3) have been presented to be included B-lectin domain and two D-mannose binding sites in the amino acid sequence that an important feature for the fundamental structure. To investigate the functional properties of OfLTLs, the tissue distribution in the healthy rock bream and temporal expression during early developmental stage analysis are performed using quantitative real-time PCR. OfLTL-2 and 3 are predominantly expressed in the liver and skin, but rarely expressed in other organ. Also, the transcripts of OfLTLs are not expressed during the early developmental stage but its transcripts are increased after immune-related organs which are fully formed. In the challenge experiment with RBIV (rock bream iridovirus), the expression of OfLTLs was increased much more strongly in the late response than the early, unlike previously known. These results suggest that OfLTLs are specifically expressed in the immune-related tissues when those organs are fully formed and it can be inferred that the more intensively involved in the second half to the virus infection.

  7. Effects of various LED light spectra on antioxidant and immune response in juvenile rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus exposed to bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Oh, Sung-Yong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used in plastics and plasticizers. As an environmental toxin included in industrial wastewater, it contaminates the aquatic environment and is known to cause endocrine disruption in fish. Particular wavelengths of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are known to affect the endocrine regulation of fish. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of green and red LED light on the antioxidant and immune systems in juvenile rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) exposed to BPA. We used green and red LED exposure at two intensities (0.3 and 0.5W/m(2)) for 1, 3, and 5 days. We measured liver mRNA expression and plasma levels of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and caspase-3. Furthermore, we measured plasma levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lipid peroxidation (LPO), melatonin, and immunoglobulin M (IgM). DNA damage and apoptotic activity were measured using comet and terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays, respectively. We found that SOD, H2O2, and LPO increased significantly, whereas melatonin and IgM decreased significantly, suggesting that BPA induces oxidative stress and reduces immune function. Likewise, both DNA damage and apoptotic activity increased following BPA exposure. However, we found that exposure to green LED light effectively reduced the detrimental effects induced by BPA, including decreasing DNA damage, apoptotic activity, SOD mRNA expression, and plasma levels of SOD, H2O2, and LPO. Likewise, the plasma levels of melatonin and IgM increased. Thus, our results indicate that green light conditions effectively reduces oxidative stress and promotes the immune function in juvenile rock bream. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of a novel transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β6 gene in fish: regulation in skeletal muscle by nutritional state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakowlew Sonia B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β family constitutes of dimeric proteins that regulate the growth, differentiation and metabolism of many cell types, including that of skeletal muscle in mammals. The potential role of TGF-βs in fish muscle growth is not known. Results Here we report the molecular characterization, developmental and tissue expression and regulation by nutritional state of a novel TGF-β gene from a marine fish, the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. S. aurata TGF-β6 is encoded by seven exons 361, 164, 133, 111, 181, 154, and 156 bp in length and is translated into a 420-amino acid peptide. The exons are separated by six introns: >643, 415, 93, 1250, 425 and >287 bp in length. Although the gene organization is most similar to mouse and chicken TGF-β2, the deduced amino acid sequence represents a novel TGF-β that is unique to fish that we have named TGF-β6. The molecule has conserved putative functional residues, including a cleavage motif (RXXR and nine cysteine residues that are characteristic of TGF-β. Semi-quantitative analysis of TGF-β6 expression revealed differential expression in various tissues of adult fish with high levels in skin and muscle, very low levels in liver, and moderate levels in other tissues including brain, eye and pituitary. TGF-β6 is expressed in larvae on day of hatching and increases as development progresses. A fasting period of five days of juvenile fish resulted in increased levels of TGF-β6 expression in white skeletal muscle compared to that in fed fish, which was slightly attenuated by one injection of growth hormone. Conclusion Our findings provide valuable insights about genomic information and nutritional regulation of TGF-β6 which will aid the further investigation of the S. aurata TGF-β6 gene in association with muscle growth. The finding of a novel TGF-β6 molecule, unique to fish, will contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the TGF

  9. Plasticizers and bisphenol A, in packaged foods sold in the Tunisian markets: study of their acute in vivo toxicity and their environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltifa, Asma; Feriani, Anouar; Machreki, Monia; Ghorbel, Asma; Ghazouani, Lakhdar; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Van Loco, Joris; Reyns, Tim; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2017-10-01

    organisms such as fish. We have followed the fate of BBP in bream Sparus aurata. In fact, chemical analysis showed the contamination of wild S. aurata by BBP from Sousse Coast (1.5 mg/kg) and wild S. aurata from Monastir Coast (0.33 mg/kg).

  10. Do dietary amino acid profiles affect performance of larval gilthead seabream?

    OpenAIRE

    Aragão, C.; Conceição, L. E. C.; Lacuisse, M.; Yúfera, M.; Dinis, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Live preys commonly used in fish larval rearing seem to be imbalanced in terms of amino acids. Manipulation of their amino acid composition is di fficult, but the use of microencapsulated diets allows this manipulation. This study analysed the effect of amino acid supplementation, in order to compensate for dietary amino acid imbalances, on growth and survival of gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata ) larvae.

  11. Effects of dietary Aloe vera crude extracts on digestive enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabriel Gabriel

    2017-10-16

    Oct 16, 2017 ... El-Dakar (2015) reported that basil (Ocimum basilicum) extracts significantly increased serum lipase activity in Sparus aurata fingerlings, while protease activity was reported to increase significantly in. Labeo rohita fingerlings after being fed with Mucuna pruriens ethanolic extracts (Ojha et al., 2014).

  12. The Sexual and Mating System of the Shrimp Odontonia katoi (Palaemonidae, Pontoniinae), a Symbiotic Guest of the Ascidian Polycarpa aurata in the Coral Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, J. Antonio; Hemphill, Carrie A.; Ritson-Williams, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Theory predicts that monogamy is adaptive in symbiotic crustaceans inhabiting relatively small and morphologically simple hosts in tropical environments where predation risk away from hosts is high. We tested this prediction in the shrimp Odontonia katoi, which inhabits the atrial chamber of the ascidian Polycarpa aurata in the Coral Triangle. Preliminary observations in O. katoi indicated that males were smaller than females, which is suggestive of sex change (protandry) in some symbiotic organisms. Thus, we first investigated the sexual system of O. katoi to determine if this shrimp was sequentially hermaphroditic. Morphological identification and size frequency distributions indicated that the population comprised males that, on average, were smaller than females. Gonad dissections demonstrated the absence of transitional individuals. Thus, O. katoi is a gonochoric species with reverse sexual dimorphism. The population distribution of O. katoi in its ascidian host did not differ significantly from a random distribution and shrimps inhabiting the same host individual as pairs were found with a frequency similar to that expected by chance alone. This is in contrast to that reported for other socially monogamous crustaceans in which pairs of heterosexual conspecifics are found in host individuals more frequently than expected by chance alone. Thus, the available information argues against monogamy in O. katoi. Furthermore, that a high frequency of solitary females were found brooding embryos and that the sex ratio was skewed toward females suggests that males might be roaming among hosts in search of receptive females in O. katoi. Symbiotic crustaceans can be used as a model system to understand the adaptive value of sexual and mating systems in marine invertebrates. PMID:25799577

  13. The sexual and mating system of the shrimp Odontonia katoi (Palaemonidae, Pontoniinae, a symbiotic guest of the ascidian Polycarpa aurata in the Coral Triangle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Antonio Baeza

    Full Text Available Theory predicts that monogamy is adaptive in symbiotic crustaceans inhabiting relatively small and morphologically simple hosts in tropical environments where predation risk away from hosts is high. We tested this prediction in the shrimp Odontonia katoi, which inhabits the atrial chamber of the ascidian Polycarpa aurata in the Coral Triangle. Preliminary observations in O. katoi indicated that males were smaller than females, which is suggestive of sex change (protandry in some symbiotic organisms. Thus, we first investigated the sexual system of O. katoi to determine if this shrimp was sequentially hermaphroditic. Morphological identification and size frequency distributions indicated that the population comprised males that, on average, were smaller than females. Gonad dissections demonstrated the absence of transitional individuals. Thus, O. katoi is a gonochoric species with reverse sexual dimorphism. The population distribution of O. katoi in its ascidian host did not differ significantly from a random distribution and shrimps inhabiting the same host individual as pairs were found with a frequency similar to that expected by chance alone. This is in contrast to that reported for other socially monogamous crustaceans in which pairs of heterosexual conspecifics are found in host individuals more frequently than expected by chance alone. Thus, the available information argues against monogamy in O. katoi. Furthermore, that a high frequency of solitary females were found brooding embryos and that the sex ratio was skewed toward females suggests that males might be roaming among hosts in search of receptive females in O. katoi. Symbiotic crustaceans can be used as a model system to understand the adaptive value of sexual and mating systems in marine invertebrates.

  14. The sexual and mating system of the shrimp Odontonia katoi (Palaemonidae, Pontoniinae), a symbiotic guest of the ascidian Polycarpa aurata in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, J Antonio; Hemphill, Carrie A; Ritson-Williams, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Theory predicts that monogamy is adaptive in symbiotic crustaceans inhabiting relatively small and morphologically simple hosts in tropical environments where predation risk away from hosts is high. We tested this prediction in the shrimp Odontonia katoi, which inhabits the atrial chamber of the ascidian Polycarpa aurata in the Coral Triangle. Preliminary observations in O. katoi indicated that males were smaller than females, which is suggestive of sex change (protandry) in some symbiotic organisms. Thus, we first investigated the sexual system of O. katoi to determine if this shrimp was sequentially hermaphroditic. Morphological identification and size frequency distributions indicated that the population comprised males that, on average, were smaller than females. Gonad dissections demonstrated the absence of transitional individuals. Thus, O. katoi is a gonochoric species with reverse sexual dimorphism. The population distribution of O. katoi in its ascidian host did not differ significantly from a random distribution and shrimps inhabiting the same host individual as pairs were found with a frequency similar to that expected by chance alone. This is in contrast to that reported for other socially monogamous crustaceans in which pairs of heterosexual conspecifics are found in host individuals more frequently than expected by chance alone. Thus, the available information argues against monogamy in O. katoi. Furthermore, that a high frequency of solitary females were found brooding embryos and that the sex ratio was skewed toward females suggests that males might be roaming among hosts in search of receptive females in O. katoi. Symbiotic crustaceans can be used as a model system to understand the adaptive value of sexual and mating systems in marine invertebrates.

  15. Insights into the mechanisms underlying mercury-induced oxidative stress in gills of wild fish (Liza aurata) combining (1)H NMR metabolomics and conventional biochemical assays.

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    Cappello, Tiziana; Brandão, Fátima; Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana; Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela; Canário, João; Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been described as a key pathway to initiate mercury (Hg) toxicity in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying Hg-induced oxidative stress in fish still need to be clarified. To this aim, environmental metabolomics in combination with a battery of conventional oxidative stress biomarkers were applied to the gills of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected from Largo do Laranjo (LAR), a confined Hg contaminated area, and São Jacinto (SJ), selected as reference site (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal). Higher accumulation of inorganic Hg and methylmercury was found in gills of fish from LAR relative to SJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed changes in metabolites related to antioxidant protection, namely depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its constituent amino acids, glutamate and glycine. The interference of Hg with the antioxidant protection of gills was corroborated through oxidative stress endpoints, namely the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at LAR. The increase of total glutathione content (reduced glutathione+oxidized glutathione) at LAR, in parallel with GSH depletion aforementioned, indicates the occurrence of massive GSH oxidation under Hg stress, and an inability to carry out its regeneration (glutathione reductase activity was unaltered) or de novo synthesis. Nevertheless, the results suggest the occurrence of alternative mechanisms for preventing lipid peroxidative damage, which may be associated with the enhancement of membrane stabilization/repair processes resulting from depletion in the precursors of phosphatidylcholine (phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine), as highlighted by NMR spectroscopy. However, the observed decrease in taurine may be attributable to alterations in the structure of cell membranes or interference in osmoregulatory processes. Overall, the novel concurrent use of metabolomics and conventional oxidative stress endpoints demonstrated to be

  16. Advances in understanding the mechanisms of mercury toxicity in wild golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) by (1)H NMR-based metabolomics.

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    Cappello, Tiziana; Pereira, Patrícia; Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela; Pacheco, Mário; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is recognized as a dangerous contaminant due to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification within trophic levels, leading to serious health risks to aquatic biota. Therefore, there is an urgent need to unravel the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of Hg. To this aim, a metabolomics approach based on protonic nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), coupled with chemometrics, was performed on the gills of wild golden grey mullets L. aurata living in an Hg-polluted area in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Gills were selected as target organ due to their direct and continuous interaction with the surrounding environment. As a consequence of accumulated inorganic Hg and methylmercury, severe changes in the gill metabolome were observed, indicating a compromised health status of mullets. Numerous metabolites, i.e. amino acids, osmolytes, carbohydrates, and nucleotides, were identified as potential biomarkers of Hg toxicity in fish gills. Specifically, decrease of taurine and glycerophosphocholine, along with increased creatine level, suggested Hg interference with the ion-osmoregulatory processes. The rise of lactate indicated anaerobic metabolism enhancement. Moreover, the increased levels of amino acids suggested the occurrence of protein catabolism, further supported by the augmented alanine, involved in nitrogenous waste excretion. Increased level of isobutyrate, a marker of anoxia, was suggestive of onset of hypoxic stress at the Hg contaminated site. Moreover, the concomitant reduction in glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine reflected the occurrence of membrane repair processes. Finally, perturbation in antioxidant defence system was revealed by the depletion in glutathione and its constituent amino acids. All these data were also compared to the differential Hg-induced metabolic responses previously observed in liver of the same mullets (Brandão et al., 2015). Overall, the environmental metabolomics approach demonstrated its effectiveness in the

  17. Effects of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and cortisol on gene expression of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in sea bream hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L Y; Woo, Norman Y S

    2010-11-01

    The present study investigated the regulatory effects of growth hormone (GH), human insulin-like growth factor I (hIGF-I), thyroxine (T(4)), triiodothyronine (T(3)) and cortisol, on mRNA expression of key enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, including glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glycogen synthase (GS), glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in hepatocytes isolated from silver sea bream. Genes encoding GK, G6Pase, GS and GP were partially cloned and characterized from silver sea bream liver and real-time PCR assays were developed for the quantification of the mRNA expression profiles of these genes in order to evaluate the potential of these carbohydrate metabolic pathways. GK mRNA level was elevated by GH and hIGF-I, implying that GH-induced stimulation of GK expression may be mediated via IGF-I. GH was found to elevate GS and G6Pase expression, but reduce G6PDH mRNA expression. However, hIGF-I did not affect mRNA levels of GS, G6Pase and G6PDH, suggesting that GH-induced modulation of GS, G6Pase and G6PDH expression levels is direct, and occurs independently of the action of IGF-I. T(3) and T(4) directly upregulated transcript abundance of GK, G6Pase, GS and GP. Cortisol significantly increased transcript amounts of G6Pase and GS but markedly decreased transcript abundance of GK and G6PDH. These changes in transcript abundance indicate that (1) the potential of glycolysis is stimulated by GH and thyroid hormones, but attenuated by cortisol, (2) gluconeogenic and glycogenic potential are augmented by GH, thyroid hormones and cortisol, (3) glycogenolytic potential is upregulated by thyroid hormones but not affected by GH or cortisol, and (4) the potential of the pentose phosphate pathway is attenuated by GH and cortisol but unaffected by thyroid hormones. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of protein hydrolysates supplementation in low fish meal diets on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of red sea bream Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Rahimnejad, Samad; Herault, Mikaël; Fournier, Vincent; Lee, Cho-Rong; Dio Bui, Hien Thi; Jeong, Jun-Bum; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the supplemental effects of three different types of protein hydrolysates in a low fish meal (FM) diet on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal morphology, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A FM-based diet was used as a high fish meal diet (HFM) and a low fish meal (LFM) diet was prepared by replacing 50% of FM by soy protein concentrate. Three other diets were prepared by supplementing shrimp, tilapia or krill hydrolysate to the LFM diet (designated as SH, TH and KH, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (4.9 ± 0.1 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily for 13 weeks and then challenged by Edwardsiella tarda. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P growth performance was obtained in fish fed HFM and hydrolysate treated groups compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant improvements in feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios were obtained in fish fed the hydrolysates compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant enhancement in digestibility of protein was found in fish fed SH and KH diets and dry matter digestibility was increased in the group fed SH diet in comparison to LFM group. Fish fed the LFM diet showed significantly higher glucose level than all the other treatments. Whole-body and dorsal muscle compositions were not significantly influenced by dietary treatments. Histological analysis revealed significant reductions in goblet cell numbers and enterocyte length in the proximal intestine of fish fed the LFM diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and total immunoglobulin level were significantly increased in fish fed the diets containing protein hydrolysates compared to the LFM group. Also, significantly higher lysozyme and antiprotease activities were found in fish fed the hydrolysates and HFM diets compared to those offered LFM diet. Fish fed the LFM diet exhibited the lowest disease resistance against E. tarda and dietary

  19. Ingestion and ejection of hooks: effects on long-term health and mortality of angler-caught yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Matt K; Butcher, Paul A; Brand, Craig P; Porter, Mark

    2007-02-08

    Ninety juvenile yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis were angled from holding tanks, allowed to ingest nickel-plated, carbon-steel J-hooks and released (with their lines cut) into individual experimental tanks during 2 experiments in order to assess their (1) long-term (up to 105 d) health, mortality and rate of hook ejection and (2) short- and medium-term (Expt 1, 3 died within 8 d, providing a non-significant mortality of 15%. Between Day 6 and Day 56 post-release, 13 of the surviving individuals ejected their hooks, which were typically oxidized to about 94% of their original weight and often broken into 2 pieces. At Day 105, there were no significant differences between the 20 control and 17 hook-ingested/-ejected fish in terms of their ability to digest and assimilate food (measured as changes in apparent digestibility coefficients), stress (measured as concentrations of plasma cortisol and glucose) or of morphological parameters that included weight (Wt) and maximum height (MH), maximum width (MW) and maximum girth (MG). During Expt 2, 3 individuals that still contained ingested hooks and 3 controls were sampled on each of 9 occasions between Day 3 and Day 42 post-release. All fish were sampled for blood cortisol and glucose and were then euthanized before being weighed and measured for total length (TL), MH, MW and MG. Hook-ingested individuals were also X-rayed to determine the position and orientation of hooks. There were no significant differences in plasma glucose between hook-ingested and control fish. Irrespective of the treatment of fish, concentrations of cortisol were elevated on some sampling occasions, indicating variable, acute stress. The MH and MG of fish were not significantly different between groups. Significant differences were detected for MG and Wt, with hook-ingested fish having weights similar to those of the control fish but a relatively greater MW (owing to stomach distension from ingested hooks) until 2 wk post-release, after

  20. Cytochrome b gene reveals panmixia among Japanese Threadfin Bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) populations along the coasts of Peninsular Malaysia and provides evidence of a cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong-Chiun; Ahmad, Abu Talib; Nuruddin, Ahmad Adnan; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated genetic differentiation among ten presumed Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus populations along the coast of Peninsular Malaysia based on the partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (982 bp). Genetic divergences (Kimura-2 parameter) ranged from 0.5% to 0.8% among nine of the ten populations while these nine populations were 4.4% to 4.6% diverged from the Kuala Besar population located at the Northeast coast. The constructed Neighbour Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees based on haplotypes showed the Kuala Besar population forming an isolated cluster. The Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) of the ten populations a priori assigned into four regions, revealed that most of the variation occurred within population with a fairly low but significant level of regional differentiation (FST = 0.07, p 0.05 and FCT = 0.07, p Malaysia were panmictic. However, the Kuala Besar population, although morphologically identical was composed of a genetically discrete taxon from the rest. These findings are important contributions in formulating sustainable fishery management policies for this important fishery in Peninsular Malaysia.

  1. A new type of homodiploid fish derived from the interspecific hybridization of female common carp × male blunt snout bream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi; Ye, Xiaolan; Wang, Yude; Chen, Yuting; Lin, Bowen; Yi, Zhenfeng; Mao, Zhuangwen; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhao, Rurong; Wang, Juan; Zhou, Rong; Ren, Li; Yao, Zhanzhou; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Xiao, Jun; Qin, Qinbo; Liu, Shaojun

    2017-06-23

    It is commonly believed that hybridization might lead to the formation of new polyploidy species, but it is unclear whether hybridization can produce a new homodiploid species. Here, we report the spontaneous occurrence of a new crucian carp-like homodiploid fish (2n = 100) that originated from the interspecific hybridization of female common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Cyprininae, 2n = 100) × male blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala, Cultrinae, 2n = 48). The phenotype and reproductive traits of this new crucian carp-like homodiploid fish were found to be very similar to those of the existing diploid species (diploid crucian carp; Carassius auratus). FISH and 5S rDNA analyses revealed that the genotype of the crucian carp-like homodiploid fish differs from those of its parents but is closely related to that of diploid crucian carp. The results provide evidence of the existence of a possible route through which the distant hybridization of this cross can generate crucian carp. The new type of homodiploid fish is of great value in fish genetic breeding and for studying the early evolutionary process.

  2. Depletion of Essential Fatty Acids in the Food Source Affects Aerobic Capacities of the Golden Grey Mullet Liza aurata in a Warming Seawater Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vagner

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of thermal acclimation and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA content of the food source on the aerobic capacities of fish in a thermal changing environment. The model used was the golden grey mullet Liza aurata, a species of high ecological importance in temperate coastal areas. For four months, fish were exposed to two food sources with contrasting n-3 HUFA contents (4.8% ecosapentaenoic acid EPA + docosahexaenoic acid DHA on the dry matter DM basis vs. 0.2% EPA+DHA on DM combined with two acclimation temperatures (12°C vs. 20°C. The four experimental conditions were LH12, LH20, HH12 and HH20. Each group was then submitted to a thermal challenge consisting of successive exposures to five temperatures (9°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C. At each temperature, the maximal and minimal metabolic rates, metabolic scope, and the maximum swimming speed were measured. Results showed that the cost of maintenance of basal metabolic activities was particularly higher when n-3 HUFA food content was low. Moreover, fish exposed to high acclimation temperature combined with a low n-3 HUFA dietary level (LH20 exhibited a higher aerobic scope, as well as a greater expenditure of energy to reach the same maximum swimming speed as other groups. This suggested a reduction of the amount of energy available to perform other physiological functions. This study is the first to show that the impact of lowering n-3 HUFA food content is exacerbated for fish previously acclimated to a warmer environment. It raises the question of the consequences of longer and warmer summers that have already been recorded and are still expected in temperate areas, as well as the pertinence of the lowering n-3 HUFA availability in the food web expected with global change, as a factor affecting marine organisms and communities.

  3. Effects of emodin and vitamin C on growth performance, biochemical parameters and two HSP70s mRNA expression of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Yih) under high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jianhua; Xie, Jun; Xu, Pao; Ge, Xianping; Liu, Wenbin; Ye, Jinyun

    2012-05-01

    In order to study the effects of dietary emodin, high-dose vitamin C (Vc) and their combination on growth of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Y.) and its resistance to high temperature stress, 1200 healthy Wuchang bream with initial body weight of 133.44 ± 2.11 g were randomly divided into four groups: a control group fed with basal diet (containing 50.3 mg/kg Vc) and three treated groups fed with basal diets supplemented with 60 mg/kg emodin, 700 mg/kg Vc, and the combination of 60 mg/kg emodin + 700 mg/kg Vc, respectively. After feeding for 60 days, the growth performance of Wuchang bream was measured. Then 25 fish per tank were exposed to heat stress of 34 °C. The biochemical parameters of blood and liver, and expression levels of liver two HSP70s mRNA before and after heat stress were determined and the cumulative mortality of each group under heat stress was counted. The results showed that before stress, compared with the control, the weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR), serum total protein (TP), lysozyme (LSZ), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and expression level of HSP70 mRNA significantly increased in emodin and Vc groups while feed conversion rate (FCR), serum cortisol (COR), triglyceride (TG) and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) contents decreased (P stress, compared with the control, the serum TP, LSZ, ALP levels, liver SOD, CAT activities, and expression levels of HSC70 and HSP70 mRNAs increased in emodin and Vc groups in varying degrees and serum COR, glucose, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), TG and liver MDA levels decreased to some extent. Although these parameters had similar changing trend as above ones in combination group, it did not show any synergism either. Statistics showed that under heat stress, the cumulative mortalities of emodin and Vc groups, except at 6 h in emodin group, were significantly lower than that of the control (P 0

  4. Chemometric analysis of fatty acids profile of bream (Abramis brama, ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua and perch (Perca fluviatilis meat from Lake Gopło and Włocławski Dam Reservoir

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    Bogumila Kupcewicz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 18 fatty acid profiles have been determined in 63 samples of muscles from three freshwater fish species: bream, ruffe and perch by gas chromatography method. The fish were collected in natural condition from two reservoirs located in central Poland: Lake Gopło and Włocławski Reservoir. A chemometric study with the use of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, principal component (PCA and stepwise linear discrimination analysis (LDA was applied to characterize, classify and differentiate collected samples. The chemometric techniques by using fatty acids content as descriptors allow clearly distinguish 6 groups according to fish species and their geographical origin.

  5. PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION IN FISH FARMS ALONG THE EASTERN ADRIATIC COAST

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    Marija Tomec

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of net phytoplankton composition were performed at three fish farms situated at the northern, middle and southern part of the eastern Adriatic Sea coast, respectively. In the northern part investigations were conducted in the Limski kanal, in the middle part at the Ugljan island and in the southern part in the place Drače on the Pelješac peninsula (Figure 1. At all three localities fish culture included mostly two species: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax. Beside some physico–chemical parameters (sea water temperature, salinity special attention was placed on the examination of qualitative net phytoplankton composition, which was conducted in the period of May and November 2004 and May and October 2005. Samples were collected at the depths of 0. 5 and 4 meters. According to the physico–chemical parameters, sea water temperature was influenced by the temperature of the environment. Qualitative net phytoplankton composition consisted of 153 microphytic species belonging to the systematic compartments of Cyanobacteria, Chrysophyta and Dinophyta (Table 1. The most numerous algal group were diatoms or Bacillarophyceae (84 species or 55% with relative frequencies of species from 1 to 7. Taxonomic composition of diatoms showed the community Chaetoceros–Rhizosolenia (Proboscia as the dominant one. The second numerically most dominant compartment were Dinophyta (62 species or 401% with dominant the species of the genera Ceratium and Protoperidinium. Relative frequencies of species was ranging from 1 to 7 (mass presence of specimens in the water column. From Cyanobacteria (4 species or 3%, only filamentous algae were determined, with individual presence in net phytoplankton composition. Qualitative net phytoplankton composition suggests the similarity of species composition in the water column at all investigated fish farms. From the obtained characteristics of net phytoplankton composition

  6. Effect of taurine supplementation on hepatic metabolism and alleviation of cadmium toxicity and bioaccumulation in a marine teleost, red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Takeshi; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kono, Kumiko; Ito, Mana; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Mochida, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to unravel the mechanism of the beneficial action of taurine on marine teleost fish, red sea bream (Pagrus major), by analyzing the hepatic metabolism. Moreover, the ameliorative effects of the nutrient against cadmium toxicity and bioaccumulation were further evaluated. The fish were fed a diet containing 0 % (TAU0 %), 0.5 % (TAU0.5 %), or 5.0 % (TAU5.0 %) taurine for 40-55 days (d) and subjected to cadmium acute toxicity and bioaccumulation tests. Taurine deficiency in feed severely affected growth and the hepatic metabolic profiles of the fish, including a remarkable increase in myo-inositol, aspartate, and ß-alanine in the TAU0 % group, which indicates a complementary physiological response to taurine deficiency. For the acute toxicity test, fish were fed the test diets for 55 d and were then exposed to different dose of cadmium ranging from 0 to 5.6 mg/L for 96 h. Fish fed taurine had a higher tolerance to cadmium than those not fed taurine. For the bioaccumulation test, fish were fed the test diets for 40 d and then were chronically exposed to 0.2 mg/L of cadmium for 28 d followed by depuration for 21 d. Cadmium concentrations in the liver and muscle of fish fed TAU5.0 % were significantly lower than those of fish fed TAU0 % for the first 7 d of exposure and the first 7 d of elimination. Our findings suggest a possible mechanism for the beneficial role played by taurine and that the inclusion of taurine in fish aquaculture feed may reduce cadmium contamination of fish intended for human consumption.

  7. Effects of dietary pantothenic acid on growth, intestinal function, anti-oxidative status and fatty acids synthesis of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu; Li, Xiang-Fei; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Cai, Dong-Sen; Tian, Hong-Yan; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Four groups of juvenile Megalobrama amblycephala were fed three times daily with six semi-purified diets containing 3.39 (PA unsupplied diet), 10.54, 19.28, 31.04, 48.38 and 59.72 mg kg(-1) calcium D-pantothenate. The results showed that survival rate, final weight, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen retention efficiency all increased significantly (Pdietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 19.28 mg kg(-1), whereas the opposite was true for feed conversion ratio. Whole-body crude protein increased as dietary PA levels increased, while the opposite pattern was found for the crude lipid content. Intestinal α-amylase, lipase, protease, Na+-K+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were all elevated in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic catalase activities improved with increases in dietary PA, while the opposite was true for malondialdehyde contents. The liver PA concentration and coenzyme A content rose significantly (Pdietary PA levels and then plateaued. The percentage of hepatic saturated fatty acids increased significantly (Pdietary PA levels increased, while the percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) decreased as dietary PA increased. Fish fed diets containing 19.28 and 31.04 mg kg(-1) PA exhibited higher (Pdietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 31.04 mg kg(-1). Based on broken-line regression analyses of weight gain, liver CoA concentrations and PA contents against dietary PA levels, the optimal dietary PA requirements of juvenile blunt snout bream were estimated to be 24.08 mg kg(-1).

  8. Genetic effects of hatchery fish on wild populations in red sea bream Pagrus major (Perciformes, Sparidae) inferred from a partial sequence of mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, K; Toriya, S; Shishidou, H; Sugaya, T; Kitada, S

    2010-12-01

    Variation in the mitochondrial DNA transcriptional control region sequence was investigated in wild and hatchery-released red sea bream Pagrus major from Kagoshima Bay, where an extensive hatchery-release programme has been conducted for >30 years. The programme has successfully augmented commercial catches in the bay (released juveniles have been produced from the captive broodstock, repeatedly used over multiple generations). Samples were also obtained from outside the bay, where limited stocking has occurred. Genetic diversity indices measured as number of haplotypes, haplotype richness, haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were lower in hatchery-released fish than in wild fish. Genetic differences in wild fish from the bay, especially in the inner bay, compared with fish from outside the bay were detected in terms of decreased genetic diversity indices and changed haplotype frequencies. Unbiased population pair-wise F(ST) estimates based on an empirical Bayesian method, however, revealed low genetic differentiation between samples from the bay and its vicinity. Mixed stock identification analyses estimated the proportion of hatchery-released fish in wild populations in the inner and central bays at 39·0 and 8·7%, respectively, although the precision of the estimates was very low because of the small genetic differentiation between populations and relatively small sample sizes. Hence, the long-term extensive hatchery release programme has affected the genetic diversity of wild populations in the bay; however, the genetic effects were low and appeared to remain within the bay. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. The taxonomic status of Japanese threadfin bream Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Perciformes: Nemipteridae) with a redescription of this species from the south china sea based on morphology and DNA barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ping; Sha, Zhongli; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Russell, Barry

    2015-02-01

    Because of its importance as a food source, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Nemipteridae) or Japanese threadfin bream is the best studied of these taxa, and numerous investigations have examined its fisheries, its biology and biochemistry. Despite such intensive work, the taxonomic status of N. japonicus has never been seriously questioned and it is regarded as a common species, widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific Ocean. In fact, Bloch's description of the type specimen of N. japonicus has ambiguous collection data and lacks a designation for the type locality, though it is probably Java. In this paper, DNA barcode results based on COI gene support the existence of two geographically separated lineages of the Japanese threadfin bream, both being an Indian Ocean and western Pacific lineage, with 2.7% sequence divergence, and the results indicate a possible existing of some cryptic species. The two lineages also possess a diagnostic difference in their belly color, with specimens in the South China Sea having a silver belly, while those from the Indian Ocean isolate specimen have a yellow coloration. Based upon new collections from the South China Sea, this species from the western Pacific is morphologically redescribed and its details of DNA barcode diversity are shown for the future investigations.

  10. PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION AT THE FISH AND SHELLFISH FARM IN THE KALDONTA BAY (CRES ISLAND

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    Marija Tomec

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kaldonta Bay is situated at the south–western coast of the Cres island in the Lošinj channel, rather protected from larger influence of general sea water current. In the Bay there are installed 44 floating cages of 5 by 10 m dimensions. The cages are used for the culture of about 70 tons of sea water fish: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, sharp–snouted sparus (Diplodus puntazzo and dentex (Dentex dentex. Besides some physico–chemical parameters (sea water temperature, transparence and salinity, special attention has been paid to the qualitative composition of net phytoplankton. Investigations were performed in the period of May, September and December 2003 and February 2004 at five locations in the Kaldonta Bay (Figure 1 at the depths of 0.5 m, 5 m, 10 m and 1 m from the bottom. According to the physico–chemical parameters, sea water temperature was influenced by the temperature of the environment, and the transparence suggested to the oligotrophic situation in the investigated aquatorium. Qualitative composition of net phytoplankton comprised 161 microphytic species belonging to the systematic compartments of Cyanobacteria, Chrysophyta and Dinophyta (Table 1. The most numerous algal group were diatoms or Bacillarophyceae (98 species or 61%, with relative frequencies of species from 1 to 7. Taxonomic composition of diatoms showed Chaetoceros–Rhizosolenia (Proboscia to be the dominant community. Diatom species was the most abundant in late autumn period (beginning of December. The second most important comparatment were Dinophyta (55 species or 34.1%, with the dominant genera Ceratium and Protoperidinium. During the investigation, the representatives of Dinophyta did not show large variety of species in the water column. Relative frequency of the species was 1, rarely 2 and 3. Dinophyts were the most abundant in September. From Cyanobacteria (5 species or 3.1% only filamentous algae were determined

  11. The formation of diploid and triploid hybrids of female grass carp × male blunt snout bream and their 5S rDNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiguo; Xie, Lihua; Li, Tangluo; Liu, Shaojun; Xiao, Jun; Hu, Jie; Wang, Jing; Qin, Qinbo; Liu, Yun

    2013-11-23

    Hybridization is a useful strategy to alter the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring. It could transfer the genome of one species to another through combing the different genome of parents in the hybrid offspring. And the offspring may exhibit advantages in growth rate, disease resistance, survival rate and appearance, which resulting from the combination of the beneficial traits from both parents. Diploid and triploid hybrids of female grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus, GC, Cyprininae, 2n = 48) × male blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala, BSB, Cultrinae, 2n = 48) were successfully obtained by distant hybridization. Diploid hybrids had 48 chromosomes, with one set from GC and one set from BSB. Triploid hybrids possessed 72 chromosomes, with two sets from GC and one set from BSB.The morphological traits, growth rates, and feeding ecology of the parents and hybrid offspring were compared and analyzed. The two kinds of hybrid offspring exhibited significantly phenotypic divergence from GC and BSB. 2nGB hybrids showed similar growth rate compared to that of GC, and 3nGB hybrids significantly higher results. Furthermore, the feeding ecology of hybrid progeny was omnivorous.The 5S rDNA of GC, BSB and their hybrid offspring were also cloned and sequenced. There was only one type of 5S rDNA (designated type I: 180 bp) in GC and one type of 5S rDNA (designated type II: 188 bp) in BSB. However, in the hybrid progeny, diploid and triploid hybrids both inherited type I and type II from their parents, respectively. In addition, a chimera of type I and type II was observed in the genome of diploid and triploid hybrids, excepting a 10 bp of polyA insertion in type II sequence of the chimera of the diploid hybrids. This is the first report of diploid and triploid hybrids being produced by crossing GC and BSB, which have the same chromosome number. The obtainment of two new hybrid offspring has significance in fish genetic breeding. The results illustrate the effect

  12. Effects of dietary pantothenic acid on growth, intestinal function, anti-oxidative status and fatty acids synthesis of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qian

    dietary PA requirements of juvenile blunt snout bream were estimated to be 24.08 mg kg(-1.

  13. Response of captive seabass and seabream as behavioural indicator in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pais; Meloni, G.; Serra, S.; Martino, G; Oliveri, A; Sarà, G.

    2007-01-01

    Welfare of cultivate fish at high-density represents an important concern for modern aquaculture. The behaviour of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and seabream (Sparus aurata) reared in cages was studied in a fish farm of northern Sardinia (Italy) in autumn 2006 to test whether captive condition had an effect on the movement patterns of these two species.Video images recorded before, during and after the manual feeding distribution allowed us to collect data on different b...

  14. A monogenean fish parasite, Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp., belonging to a novel marine species lineage found in the South-Eastern Pacific and the Mediterranean and North Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Ziętara, Marek S.; Lebedeva, Dar’ya; Muñoz,Gabriela; Lumme, Jaakko

    2012-01-01

    Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp. is the first Gyrodactylus species reported from Chile. It is an ectoparasite living on fins and skin of a small fish, the Chilean tidal pond dweller Helcogrammoides chilensis (Cancino) (Perciformes: Tripterygiidae). A phylogenetic analysis based on 5.8S+ITS2 of rDNA placed the new species close to marine Gyrodactylus species found in Europe: G. orecchiae Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria, Cave & Shinn, 2009 on gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. from the Adriatic ...

  15. Efecto de la salinidad ambiental sobre el crecimiento de la dorada

    OpenAIRE

    Mancera Romero, Juan Miguel; Martín del Río, María del Pilar

    2000-01-01

    La influencia de la salinidad ambiental (agua salada: 35%o salinidad¡ agua salobre: 10%o salinidad) sobre el crecimiento y eficiencia de conversión fue estudiada durante 8 meses en juveniles de dorada (Sparus aurata L.). La dorada mostraba un crecimiento similar en agua salobre respecto a agua salada. El crecimiento estaba fuertemente correlacionado con la temperatura del agua, mostrando un periodo de quiescencia durante los meses de invierno. La tasa diaria de crecimiento y...

  16. Spawning phenology of the white bream (Blicca bjoerkna in the "Dnieper-Orylskiy" Nature Reserve in relation to seasonal temperature dynamic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Bondarev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between climatic conditions and the phenology of spawning of the white bream Blicca bjoerkna (Linnaeus, 1758 in natural habitats of the "Dnipro-Orylskiy" Nature Reserve. The characteristic of spawning distribution is symmetric, as the asymmetry coefficients do not significantly differ from zero. The distribution of the timing of spawning and its duration are also characterized by excesses, which do not significantly differ from zero alternatives. Analysis of meteorological data for the period of study allowed us to determine the trends in temperature variation, which correlate with the temperature of the water. Spawning events in any given year take place entirely within an upward temperature progression that can be accurately described by a linear equation in the form: Y = b + a · x, where Y – ten-day average temperature; x – the order of decades for I–VI months of the year, a and b – the parameters of the equation. The same equation can be used to describe downward movements in the temperature for decades during the VII–XII months of the year. Regression parameters and coefficients of determination have the following environmental sense. For the ascending temperature branch the regression coefficient b will decrease in proportion to the increase in the contrast between winter and summer temperatures. Due to the fact that linear approximation is a certain generalization of the sinusoid natural course of temperature, it should be borne in mind that the highest summer temperatures are close to the change in direction in the course of temperature from increase to decrease. Therefore, the coefficient b will largely depend on the minimum winter temperatures and should be interpreted as a marker of the coldness of the winter. This interpretation is all the more justified because we are concerned here with assessment of the impact on fish spawning, and the processes that precede spawning events clearly

  17. Diplodus levantinus (Teleostei: Sparidae, a new species of sea bream from the southeastern Mediterranean Sea of Israel, with a checklist and a key to the species of the Diplodus sargus species group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Fricke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The sea bream Diplodus levantinus n. sp. is described from off the coasts of Israel in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, where it replaces Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus, 1758. The new species is characterized by 11-12 spines and 10-16 soft rays in the dorsal fin, 3 spines and 11-13 soft rays in the anal fin, 15-17 pectoral fin rays, 6-9 + 8-12 gill rakers on the first gill arch, upper and lower jaws with a single row of 4 incisors on each side, followed by a total of 16-19 molariform teeth in the upper jaw and 12-14 molariform teeth in the lower jaw, with the molariforms of the upper jaw separated from the incisors by a wide, toothless gap, and the sides of the body in adults with 8 vertical bars of equal width which are present even in large adults, followed by a broad bar on the caudal peduncle which usually nearly reaches the ventral margin of the caudal peduncle. An updated checklist of the species of the genus Diplodus, and a key to species of the Diplodus sargus species group from the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, are presented.

  18. Anthropogenic chemical cues can alter the swimming behaviour of juvenile stages of a temperate fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Cotgrove, Lucy; Smee, Sarah Louise; Simón-Otegui, David; Hinz, Hilmar; Grau, Amalia; Palmer, Miquel; Catalán, Ignacio A

    2017-04-01

    Human pressure on coastal areas is affecting essential ecosystems including fish nursery habitats. Among these anthropogenic uses, the seasonal increment in the pressure due to leisure activities such as coastal tourism and yachting is an important environmental stressor in many coastal zones. These pressures may elicit understudied impacts due to, for example, sunscreens or other seasonal pollutants. The island of Majorca, northwest Mediterranean Sea, experiences one of the highest number of tourist visits per capita in the world, thus the surrounding coastal habitat is subject to high anthropogenic seasonal stress. Studies on early stages of fishes have observed responses to coastal chemical cues for the selection or avoidance of habitats. However, the potential interferences of human impacts on these signals are largely unknown. A choice chamber was used to determine water type preference and behaviour in naïve settled juvenile gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), a temperate species of commercial interest. Fish were tested individually for behavioural changes with respect to water types from potential beneficial habitats, such as seawater with extract of the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica, anthropogenically influenced habitats such as water extracted from a commercial and recreational harbour and seawater mixed with sunscreen at concentrations observed in coastal waters. Using a Bayesian approach, we investigated a) water type preference; b) mean speed; and c) variance in the movement (as an indicator of burst swimming activity, or "sprint" behaviour) as behavioural descriptors with respect to water type. Fish spent similar percentage of time in treatment and control water types. However, movement descriptors showed that fish in sunscreen water moved slower (98.43% probability of being slower) and performed fewer sprints (90.1% probability of having less burst in speed) compared to control water. Less evident increases in sprints were observed in harbour

  19. Structure and origin of the tooth pedicel (the so-called bone of attachment) and dental-ridge bone in the mandibles of the sea breams Acanthopagrus australis, Pagrus auratus and Rhabdosargus sarba (Sparidae, Perciformes, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D R; Bassett, J R; Moffat, L A

    1994-01-01

    teeth, that the dental ridge is formed from pedicels and spongy bone, and that sea bream spongy bone is cellular. The term "bone of attachment" is inappropriate for the pedicel. It can be used for the spongy bone between the compact bone of the jaw and between adjacent pedicel.

  20. Morphological re-description and molecular characterization of Kudoa pagrusi (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) infecting the heart muscles of the common sea bream fish Pagrus pagrus (Perciformes: Sparidae) from the Red Sea, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Maher, Sherein; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, 100 samples of different sizes of the common sea bream fish Pagrus pagrus were collected from the Egyptian water along the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea and examined for the prevalence of myxosporidian parasites in general and Kudoa spp. in particular. Fish samples were thoroughly externally examined. After dissection, all the internal organs were removed and examined. A total of 60 out of 100 fish specimens were found to be infected with Kudoa stages. Parasitic infection was restricted to the heart muscles of the examined fish. None of the other organs was found to be infected. Macroscopic cysts (plasmodia) heavily infested the different parts of the heart muscles. Each plasmodium measured 1.2-2.5 (1.53 ± 0.2) mm × 0.63-0.80 (0.65 ± 0.2) mm. Mature spores are quadratic in shape in the apical view showing four equal valves and four symmetrical polar capsules. Fresh spores were 5.0-7.1 (5.7 ± 0.2) μm long × 5.4-8.5 (6.1 ± 0.3) μm wide. On the basis of spore morphology, the present species was identified as Kudoa pagrusi. Morphometric characterization revealed that the relatively small size of this Kudoa species was the distinctive feature that separates it from all previously described species. Molecular analysis based on small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences revealed that the highest percentage of identity was observed with K. scomberomori and followed by K. shiomitsui, K. hypoepicarclialis, K. amamiensis, and K. kenti. The kudoid spores showed morphometric variations to some extents but had essentially identical nucleotide sequences of the SSU rDNA gene sequences closest to those of K. scomberomori and K. shiomitsui recorded from elasmobranchs in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The present findings support the identification of an ancestral marine origin of the present Kudoa species.

  1. The effect of dietary folic acid on biochemical parameters and gene expression of three heat shock proteins (HSPs) of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fingerling under acute high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesay, Daniella Fatmata; Habte-Tsion, Habte-Michael; Zhou, Qunlan; Ren, Mingchun; Xie, Jun; Liu, Bo; Chen, Ruli; Pan, Liangkun

    2017-08-01

    The effects of dietary folic acid on biochemical parameters and gene expression of three heat shock proteins (HSPs) of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fingerling under acute high temperature stress. Six dietary folic acid groups (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0) mg/kg diets were designed and assigned into 18 tanks in three replicates each (300 l/tank) and were administered for 10 weeks in a re-circulated water system. The fingerlings with an initial weight of 27.0 ± 0.03 g were fed with their respective diets four times daily. At the end of the experiment, samples were collected before challenge, 0, 24, 72 h, and 7 days. Serum total protein (TP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cortisol, glucose, complement C3 (C3), complement C4 (C4, immunoglobulin M (IgM) hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the expression of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), 70 (HSP70), and 90 (HSP90) were studied. The results showed that fish fed with dietary folic acid between 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/kg significantly (P folic acid level 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/kg before and after the same temperature challenge of 32 °C. Before stress, 0, 24, 72 h, and 7 days significantly (P folic acid inclusion level and temperature duration have significant interactive effect on serum biochemical parameters, antioxidant parameters, and gene expression level (P > 0.05) of the three HSPs. However, there were statistical significant interactive effect between dietary folic acid inclusion level and temperature duration on serum C3 and C4 (P  0.05). The present results indicate that supplementation of basal diet from 1.0 mg/kg; 2.0 and 5.0 mg/kg can enhance acute high temperature resistance ability in M. amblycephala fingerling to some degree and improve physiological response, immune and antioxidant capacities, and expression level of three HSPs.

  2. Dicty_cDB: SLD739 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . 50 0.027 1 ( AM979751 ) Sparus aurata EST, clone cDN14P0005A06, 5'-end se... 42 6.5 1 ( FE224212 ) O053E12 Antarctic... fish Dissostichus mawsoni adult... 42 6.5 1 ( FE221128 ) O019B05 Antarctic fish Dissostichus maws...oni adult... 42 6.5 1 ( FE203112 ) B385G09 Antarctic fish Dissostichus mawsoni ad...ult... 42 6.5 1 ( FE196180 ) B197B12 Antarctic fish Dissostichus mawsoni adult... 42 6.5 1 ( FE195928 ) B193H07 Antarctic

  3. Estudio de la patogenicidad y factores de virulencia de Streptococcus iniae en peces de acuicultura marina

    OpenAIRE

    El Aamri, Fátima

    2013-01-01

    Programa de Doctorado: Sanidad Animal y Seguridad Alimentaria Premio Extraordinario de Doctorado. Rama Ciencias de la Salud [ES]En este trabajo, describimos el primer aislamiento de Streptococcus iniae en bocinegro (Pagrus pagrus), así como el primer aislamiento de este patógeno en Europa afectando a la dorada (Sparus aurata). En ambas especies, la enfermedad produjo letargia, anorexia, natación errática, exoftalmia y muerte súbita, con tasas de mortalidad del 25% en bocinegro y del 10%...

  4. Mx Protein involvement in the innate immune system against viral infections in Senegalese Sole (Solea senegalensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Torres, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    La acuicultura es una actividad de gran interés económico y ecológico, que presenta un alto potencial de crecimiento, y cuyo desarrollo sostenible constituye la vía óptima de aprovechamiento de los recursos pesqueros sin perjuicio de las poblaciones naturales de las especies cultivadas. Hasta 1990 el cultivo de peces marinos en España estaba dominado por la dorada (Sparus aurata); sin embargo, la necesidad de diversificación ha llevado al cultivo de otras especies, entre las que destaca el le...

  5. A small-scale fishery near a rocky littoral marine reserve in the northwestern Mediterranean (Medes Islands after two decades of fishing prohibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Martín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fishing in the Medes Islands Marine Reserve (511 ha, including a no-take zone and a buffer area was prohibited in 1983. This study is the result of a 2.5-year monitoring program (sampling on board fishing boats from June 2003 to December 2005 aimed at characterizing the small-scale fishing carried out near the reserve. A total of 109 species were identified. The various métiers in use with the fishing gears trammel net, longline and gillnet were identified on the basis of the landing profiles. The main fishing target species included striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, common sole (Solea solea, gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus, seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax, spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas and hake (Merluccius merluccius. Most of the catches consisted of mature individuals and discards were very low or nil. The exception was Palinurus elephas, with catches made up mostly of juveniles. The estimated stock parameters for Mullus surmuletus, Pagellus erythrinus, Sparus aurata and Scorpaena porcus (Lc mean catch length; Lopt length at maximum yield per recruit; Y/Rc; Y/Rmax; Y/R at F(0.1, Y/R(0.1 and the distributions of the exploited sizes, with presence of very large individuals, suggest a situation of low fishing pressure.

  6. Response of captive seabass and seabream as behavioural indicator in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pais

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Welfare of cultivate fish at high-density represents an important concern for modern aquaculture. The behaviour of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax and seabream (Sparus aurata reared in cages was studied in a fish farm of northern Sardinia (Italy in autumn 2006 to test whether captive condition had an effect on the movement patterns of these two species.Video images recorded before, during and after the manual feeding distribution allowed us to collect data on different behaviours of captive fish. Thus, behaviours indicating the position of fish in the water column, swimming direction and possible aggressive behaviours (aggression, direction change and collision showed juveniles and adults of seabass and seabream were overall affected by feeding rhythms and captive overcrowding. Seabream had a major tendency to swim towards the bottom and higher frequency of horizontal swimming and collisions than seabass. The overall behavioural difference between two species was explained in terms of their differences in ecological features in the wild.

  7. Inmunotoxicología producida por metales pesados y caracterización del moco de piel en peces= Heavy metal immunotoxicology and skin mucus in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Guardiola Abellan, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Durante la presente Tesis Doctoral se han estudiado los efectos inmunotoxicológicos de la exposición mediante baño a arsénico, cadmio y mercurio en la dorada (Sparus aurata L.), la cual es una especie que posee la mayor tasa de producción en la acuicultura mediterránea. Por otra parte, también se han estudiado los parámetros inmunológicos y físico-químicos del moco de la piel de cinco especies de peces teleósteos marinos. En el caso de la dorada los parámetros inmunológicos en el moco se comp...

  8. Are retailers' preferences for seafood attributes predictive for consumers wants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Polancoa, José; Mueller Loose, Simone; Luna, Ladislao

    2013-01-01

    and claims are able to successfully influence Spanish consumers’ perceived value of seafood and to which degree consumers and retailers in a traditional fish market differ in their choice reaction to these attributes. A heteroscedastic logit model was used to assess the impact of seafood claims on consumer......Aquaculture production has grown considerably in the southern countries of Europe during the last two decades. This increase in supply has not been matched by an equivalent rise in consumer demand, resulting in price decay. For farmed seabream (Sparus aurata) this paper examines which attributes...... choice and to test for differences in attribute preferences between retailers and consumers. Results indicate that both consumers and retailers agree in their marginal willingness to pay for wild over farmed seabream. However, they differ in the extent to which the disutility from farmed production can...

  9. A scanning electron microscopy study of Argulus vittatus (Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1814) (Crustacea: Branchiura) from Algerian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ider, Djamila; Ramdane, Zouhir; Courcot, Lucie; Amara, Rachid; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2014-06-01

    A study of the Algerian Branchiura, Argulus vittatus (Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1814) was conducted using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). New morphological features are reported for the first time (mouth con, first maxilla, second maxilla, structures and ornamentation of thoracic segments, structure of semen papillae, etc.). The morphology of small and large female specimens was compared. Two new hosts, Pagellus erythrinus L. and Sparus aurata L., are reported for this species. Until now, six host species were reported for A. vittatus, and stenoxenic specificity for Sparid fishes was observed for Algerian specimens. The biogeographical distribution of this species seems to be restricted to the eastern coast of Algeria. Additional information about the host specificity, ecology, and life cycle of this parasitic species were given.

  10. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF DIFFERENT CELLS TO RED SEA BREAM IRIDOVIRUS (RSIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Mahardika

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RSIV is an isolate virus in the genus Megalocytivirus (family Iridoviridae that has been reported to be pathogen in more than 31 marine fish species in East Asia. The aim of study was to know the susceptibility of several cultured cells to RSIV. RSIV inoculum was inoculated onto cultured cells and then incubated in 25oC. Routine observation of cytopatic effect (CPE was carried out for 7 days and harvested cells were prepared for virus titration and electron microscopy (EM. The result showed that RSIV grew and propagated in GF (grunt fin, KF-1 (koi fin and BF-2 (barfin flounder which caused cytophatic effect as cel ls enlargement. However, RSIV did not propagated on EPC (epithelioma papulosum cyprini, FHM (feathed minnow and EK-1 (eel kidney cells. The virus titer were 105.3 TCID50/mL in GF cells, 103.8 and 4.3 TCID50/mL in KF-1, 103.6 and 3.8 TCID50/mL in BF-2, and 7 102.1 TCID50/mL in EPC, FHM and EK-1. The EM observation revealed formation of enlarged cells containing hexagonal virus particles with 140-160 nm in diameter. These results indicated that GF was cultured cell to be optimal for replication of isolate RSIV derived from Ise bay, Mie, Japan.

  11. The food and feeding habits of the Delagoa threadfin bream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nemipterus bipunctatus is among the Nemipterids that support artisanal fisheries throughout most of the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region. Despite its economic importance, information on food and feeding habits is poorly known in the region. Feeding habit was examined with respect to size, sex, maturity stages of the ...

  12. The biology of the bronze bream, Pachymetopon grande (Teleostei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-05-02

    May 2, 1991 ... (1981) also states that P. grande attains sexual maturity between 40-45 cm caudal-fork length and breeds during .... Size at sexual maturity was determined by recording the proportion of reproductively active fish (developing, ...... Sex reversal in the sparid fish. Chrysoblephus laticeps. Koedoe 15: 135-139.

  13. From beans to breams: how participatory workshops can contribute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, extensive discussions provided an element of verification of relative abundance and biodiversity data. Although the free-scoring method employed in quantifying relative abundance and biodiversity meant that comparisons among workshops were problematic, this was resolved by assigning data to categories ...

  14. Review of heavy metal accumulation on aquatic environment in Northern East Mediterrenean Sea part I: some essential metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Ayşe Bahar; Yanar, Alper; Alkan, Ela Nur

    2017-03-01

    All pollutants can reach the aquatic environments and the levels of heavy metals in upper members of the food web like fish can reach values many times higher than those found in aquatic environment or in sediments. Although heavy metals are essential or non-essential, all heavy metals are potentially harmful to humans and most organisms at some level of exposure and absorption. Marine organisms are good indicators for long-term monitoring of metal accumulation. The present review study is for evaluation of the data from previous studies about the toxic effects of selected heavy metals, like essential metals (copper, zinc, iron, chromium, and manganese), on seawater, sediment, and in different tissues of aquatic animals (demersal and bentic fish, invertabres) collected from different areas in Northern East Mediterrenean Sea since the 1990s. Some concern arose from previous studies, particularly in terms of safety for human consumption. For this purpose, 86 articles and 4 theses were examined and information was collected on the table to open a forward-looking view of the pollution of studied area. In previous studies, the variations in feeding habits, habitats, and the level of copper found in edible muscles of the demersal fish species (deep water fish species, carnivore) such as Mullus barbatus barbatus, Solea lascaris, Sparus aurata were always higher than those found in pelagic (omnivore) Mugil cephalus, Liza aurata. Results show discrepancies caused by many factors; thus, more work must be done carefully.

  15. Description and comparative study of physico-chemical parameters of the teleost fish skin mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Francisco A; Cuartero, María; Del Mar Collado-González, María; Arizcún, Marta; Díaz Baños, F Guillermo; Meseguer, José; Cuesta, Alberto; Esteban, María A

    2015-01-01

    The study of mucosal surfaces, and in particular the fish skin and its secreted mucus, has been of great interest recently among immunologists. Measurement of the viscosity and other physico-chemical parameters (protein concentration, pH, conductivity, redox potential, osmolality and density) of the skin mucus can help to understand its biological functions. We have used five marine species of teleost: gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa L.), common dentex (Dentex dentex L.) and dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus L.), all of them with commercial interest in the aquaculture of the Mediterranean area. Mucus showed a direct shear- and temperature-dependent viscosity, with a non-Newtonian behavior, which differed however between two groups: one with higher viscosity (D. labrax, U. cirrosa, D. dentex) and the other with lower viscosity (S. aurata, E. marginatus). In addition, there was a clear interrelation between density and osmolality, as well as between density and temperature. Taking into account that high values of viscosity should improve the barrier effect against pathogens but low values of viscosity are needed for good locomotion characteristics, our results may help elucidate the relationship between physico-chemical and biological parameters of skin mucus, and disease susceptibility.

  16. Spatial patterns and temporal trends in the fisheries landings of the Messolonghi-Etoliko lagoons (Western Greek Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Katselis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Messolonghi-Etoliko lagoon is one of the largest lagoon system in the northern Mediterranean coast. This area contains six clearly distinct lagoons with different topographic and hydrological features. The fishery landings of the lagoons are based on the ontogenic and seasonal migrations of the species. The total annual fishery landings of the barrier fish traps are estimated as 195 mt and are mainly composed of 16 species belonging to 8 families. Eel (Anguilla anguilla, the four species of Mugilidae (Liza saliens, L. aurata, L. ramada and Mugil cephalus, the two species of Sparidae (Sparus aurata and Diplodus annularis and one species of Mullidae (Mullus barbatus represent more than 92% of the total annual landings. The composition of the fishery landings varies between lagoons. The cluster analysis showed three groups of lagoons. The first group comprised lagoons in which the landings were dominated by eel, the second group was dominated by Mugilidae species and S. aurata, and the third by L. ramada and M. cephalus. The diversity index of the fishery landings is fairly constant in time, except for the Etoliko lagoon, where repeated anoxic crises decreased the diversity index value to almost zero in 1992. All the landing series showed a dominant annual cycle. Two seasonal patterns of the fishery landings were observed and linked to the fish spawning behaviour and/or their reaction to environmental forcings. The first one concerns species caught from summer to early autumn and the second pattern concerns species trapped during their autumn to winter offshore migration.

  17. Comparative analysis of the humoral immunity of skin mucus from several marine teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Francisco A; Cuesta, Alberto; Abellán, Emilia; Meseguer, José; Esteban, María A

    2014-09-01

    Fish skin mucus contains several immune substances that provide the first line of defence against a broad spectrum of pathogens although they are poorly studied to date. Terminal carbohydrate composition and levels of total IgM antibodies, several immune-related enzymes (lysozyme, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, esterases, proteases and antiproteases) as well as the bactericidal activity (against fish pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio angillarum, Photobacterium damselae and non-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Shewanella putrefaciens) were identified and measured in the skin mucus of five marine teleosts: gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa), common dentex (Dentex dentex) and dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus). First, lectin binding results suggests that skin mucus contain, in order of abundance, N-acetylneuraminic acid, glucose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine, galactose and fucose residues. Second, results showed that while some immune activities were very similar in the studied fish (e.g. IgM and lysozyme activity) other such as protease, antiprotease, alkaline phosphatase, esterase and peroxidase activities varied depending on the fish species. High levels of peroxidase and protease activity were found in U. cirrosa respect to the values obtained in the other species while E. marginatus and S. aurata showed the highest levels of alkaline phosphatase and esterase activities, respectively. Moreover, skin mucus of S. aurata revealed higher bactericidal activity against pathogenic bacteria, contrarily, to what happened with non-pathogenic bacteria (E. coli, B. subtilis). Thus, study of the variations in the carbohydrate profile and immune-related components of the fish skin mucus could help to understand the fish resistance as well as the presence and distribution of pathogens and magnitude of infections, aspects that are of major importance for the

  18. Recent advances in fish hatchery management Avanços recentes em larvicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald P. Phelps

    2010-07-01

    apresenta rápido crescimento. Exemplos recentes de avanços em tecnologia de reprodução que resultaram no aumento da produção aquícola são os do pangasius (Pangasius sp. e dourada (Sparus aurata. Dietas têm sido desenvolvidas para reprodutores de espécies marinhas com qualidade semelhante ou mesmo superior às tradicionais dietas à base de peixe. A composição lipídica, particularmente ômega-3 e ácidos graxos altamente insaturados "HUFAs", das dietas de reprodutores se reflete na composição e qualidade dos ovos. A qualidade da proteína e sua concentração na dieta também influenciam no sucesso reprodutivo e na qualidade dos ovos. A utilização de hôrmonios liberadores de gonadotrofinas (GnRHa administrados por injeção ou como implantes de liberação lenta para a indução de desova tem sido amplamente utilizada. Nestas espécies o GnRHa estimula o avanço da maturação dos ovócitos fazendo com que a desova induzida ocorra com sucesso. Tem-se observado significantes avanços no desenvolvimento de microdietas elaboradas para larvas de peixes. Essas microdietas têm sido utilizadas com sucesso reduzindo a demanda das larvas por alimentos vivos como a artemia, e a qualidade de ambos alimentos tem sido melhorada com o uso de ácidos graxos. Não somente a quantidade de omega-3 HUFAs adicionada a uma dieta influência o crescimento de larvas, mas também a proporção dos ácidos graxos específicos. O enriquecimento de alimentos vivos com aminoácidos pode também melhorar o crescimento e a sobrevivência de larvas de peixes.

  19. All-fish gene constructs for growth hormone gene transfer in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavari, B; Hong, Y; Funkenstein, B; Moav, B; Schartl, M

    1993-07-01

    In order to develop all-fish expression vectors for microinjection into fertilized fish eggs, we have prepared the following constructs: rainbow trout metallothionein a/b and the gilthead seabream growth hormone cDNA (ptMTa-gbsGHcDNA, ptMTb-gsbGHcDNA), carp β-actin gilthead seabream GH cDNA (pcAβ-gsbGHcDNA). The inducible metallothionein promoters a and b were cloned from rainbow trout, and the constitutive promoter β-actin was isolated from carp.The metallothionein promoters were cloned by using the PCR technique. The tMTa contains 430 bp, while the tMTb contains 260 bp (Hong et al. 1992). These two promoters were introduced to pGEM-3Z containing the GH cDNA of Sparus aurata to form ptMTa-gsbGH and ptMTb-gsbGH, respectively. The carp cytoplasmic β-actin gene was chosen as a source for isolating strong constitutive regulatory sequences. One of these regulatory sequences in pUC118 was ligated to GH cDNA of S. aurata to form the pcAβ-gsbGHcDNA.Expression of the constructs containing the metallothionein promoters was tested in fish cell culture and was found to be induced effectively by zinc. The ptMTa gsb-GH cDNA construct was microinjected into fertilized carp eggs, and integration in the genome of carp was detected in the DNA isolated from fins at the age of two months.

  20. Isolation of a novel aquaglyceroporin from a marine teleost (Sparus auratus): function and tissue distribution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, C.R.; Estevao, M.D.; Fuentes, J.; Cardoso, J.C.; Fabra, M.; Passos, A.L.; Detmers, F.J.M.; Deen, P.M.T.; Cerda, J.; Power, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aquaporins (formerly called the major intrinsic protein family) are transmembrane channel proteins. The family includes the CHIP group, which are functionally characterised as water channels and the GLP group, which are specialised for glycerol transport. The present study reports the

  1. An ecotoxicological study on tin- and bismuth-catalysed PDMS based coatings containing a surface-active polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretti, Carlo; Oliva, Matteo; Mennillo, Elvira; Barbaglia, Martina; Funel, Marco; Reddy Yasani, Bhaskar; Martinelli, Elisa; Galli, Giancarlo

    2013-12-01

    Novel films were prepared by condensation curing reaction of a poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) matrix with bismuth neodecanoate and dibutyltin diacetate catalysts. An ecotoxicological study was performed on the leachates of the coatings using the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the unicellular alga Dunaliella tertiolecta, the crustacean Artemia salina and the fish Sparus aurata (larvae) as testing organisms. A copper-based self-polishing commercial paint was also tested as reference. The results showed that the tin-catalysed coatings and the copper paint were highly toxic against at least two of the four test organisms, whereas bismuth-catalysed coatings did not show any toxic effect. Moreover, the same biological assessment was also carried out on PDMS coatings containing a surface-active fluorinated polymer. The toxicity of the entire polymeric system resulted only from the tin catalyst used for the condensation curing reaction, as the bismuth catalysed coatings incorporating the surface-active polymer remained atoxic toward all the tested organisms. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Catch and discardfish species of trawl fisheries in the Iskenderun Bay (Northeastern Mediterranean with emphasis on lessepsian and chondricthyan species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. YEMISKEN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish species in catch and discard of trawl fisheries in and around Iskenderun Bay were examined within the fishing closure period and fishingperiod.The sampling was performed from May 2010 to January 2011 by a commercial trawl vessel.Chondricthyan species composed 49 % of discard catch biomass whileGymnura altavela and Dasyatis pastinacawere dominant in hauls. 27 lessepsian fish species were captured during the study,nine of them beingtarget species for trawl fisheries. In total, 14 of the lessepsian fish species were determined as discard species.In both sampling periods, Equulites klunzingeriand Citharus linguatula contributed to discard fish catch dissimilarity among depth ranges (deeper and shallower than 60 m. E. klunzingerishowed high abundance in discard catch.There were no significant differences in the distribution of the discard fish biomass between the sampling periods (ANOVA test, p>0.05. However, depth range pointed out significantdifferences in discard fish catch composition (p<0.05.Among major commercial fish species of trawl fisheries, Mullus surmuletus and Sparus aurata were not separated as discard in anyhaul by fishermen. Any size of these two species  were included in commercial catch (Total length ranged from 61 to 721 mm.

  3. Genomic cloning and promoter functional analysis of myostatin-2 in shi drum, Umbrina cirrosa: conservation of muscle-specific promoter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjar-Boger, Elisabeth; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Radaelli, Giuseppe; Funkenstein, Bruria

    2013-02-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-ß superfamily, known as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth in mammals. In contrast to mammals, fish possess at least two paralogs of MSTN: MSTN-1 and MSTN-2. Here we describe the cloning and sequence analysis of spliced and precursor (unspliced) transcripts as well as the 5' flanking region of MSTN-2 from the marine fish Umbrina cirrosa (ucMSTN-2). In silico analysis revealed numerous putative cis regulatory elements including several E-boxes known as binding sites to myogenic transcription factors. Transient transfection experiments using non-muscle and muscle cell lines showed high transcriptional activity in muscle cells and in differentiated neural cells, in accordance with our previous findings in MSTN-2 promoter from Sparus aurata. Comparative informatics analysis of MSTN-2 from several fish species revealed high conservation of the predicted amino acid sequence as well as the gene structure (exon length) although intron length varied between species. The proximal promoter of MSTN-2 gene was found to be conserved among Perciforms. In conclusion, this study reinforces our conclusion that MSTN-2 promoter is a very strong promoter, especially in muscle cells. In addition, we show that the MSTN-2 gene structure is highly conserved among fishes as is the predicted amino acid sequence of the peptide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Shift in trophic level of Mediterranean mariculture species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C; Stergiou, Konstantinos I; Adamopoulos, Nikolaos; Pauly, Daniel; Mente, Eleni

    2014-08-01

    The mean trophic level of the farmed fish species in the Mediterranean has been increasing. We examined the farming-up hypothesis (i.e., the increase in the production of high-trophic-level species) in the Mediterranean by determining the trophic level of the aquafeeds (i.e., what the fish are fed) of 5 species of farmed marine fishes: common dentex (Dentex dentex), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), and red porgy (Pagrus sp.). The mean trophic level of aquafeed used in mariculture from 1950 to 2011 was higher (3.93) than the prey farmed fish consume in the wild (3.72) and increased at a faster rate (0.48/decade) compared with that based on their diets in the wild (0.43/decade). Future expected replacement of the fishmeal and oil in aquafeeds by plant materials may reverse the farming-up trend, although there are a number of concerns regarding operational, nutritional, environmental, and economic issues. The farming-up reversal can be achieved in an ecologically friendly manner by facilitating the mariculture of low-trophic-level fishes and by promoting high efficiency in the use of living marine resources in aquafeeds. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. In vitro effects of virgin microplastics on fish head-kidney leucocyte activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Cristóbal; García Beltrán, José María; Esteban, María Angeles; Cuesta, Alberto

    2017-12-20

    Microplastics are well-documented pollutants in the marine environment that result from production or fragmentation of larger plastic items. The knowledge about the direct effects of microplastics on immunity, including fish, is still very limited. We investigated the in vitro effects of microplastics [polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE)] on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) head-kidney leucocytes (HKLs). After 1 and 24 h of exposure of HKLs with 0 (control), 1, 10 and 100 mg mL -1 MPs in a rotatory system, cell viability, innate immune parameters (phagocytic, respiratory burst and peroxidase activities) and the expression of genes related to inflammation (il1b), oxidative stress (nrf2, prdx3), metabolism of xenobiotics (cyp1a1, mta) and cell apoptosis (casp3) were studied. Microplastics failed to affect the cell viability of HKLs. In addition, they provoke very few significant effects on the main cellular innate immune activities, as decrease on phagocytosis or increase in the respiratory burst of HKLs with the highest dose of microplastics tested. Furthermore, microplastics failed to affect the expression of the selected genes on sea bass or seabream, except the nrf2 which was up-regulated in seabream HKLs incubated with the highest doses. Present results seem to suggest that continue exposure of fish to PVC or PE microplastics could impair fish immune parameters probably due to the oxidative stress produced in the fish leucocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does coastal lagoon habitat quality affect fish growth rate and their recruitment? Insights from fishing and acoustic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, P.; Laugier, T.; Kantoussan, J.; Galgani, F.; Mouillot, D.

    2013-07-01

    Ensuring the sustainability of fish resources necessitates understanding their interaction with coastal habitats, which is becoming ever more challenging in the context of ever increasing anthropogenic pressures. The ability of coastal lagoons, exposed to major sources of disturbance, to provide resources and suitable habitats for growth and survival of juvenile fish is especially important. We analysed three lagoons with different ecological statuses and habitat quality on the basis of their eutrophication and ecotoxicity (Trix test) levels. Fish abundances were sampled using fishing and horizontal beaming acoustic surveys with the same protocols in the same year. The relative abundance of Anguilla anguilla, Dicentrarchus labrax or the Mugilidae group was not an indicator of habitat quality, whereas Atherina boyeri and Sparus aurata appeared to be more sensitive to habitat quality. Fish abundance was higher in the two lagoons with high eutrophication and ecotoxicity levels than in the less impacted lagoon, while fish sizes were significantly higher in the two most severely impacted lagoons. This leads us to suggest low habitat quality may increase fish growth rate (by the mean of a cascading effect), but may reduce lagoon juvenile abundance by increasing larval mortality. Such a hypothesis needs to be further validated using greater investigations which take into account more influences on fish growth and recruitment in such variable environments under complex multi-stressor conditions.

  7. Evaluation of an integrated cell culture RT-PCR assay to detect and quantify infectious lymphocystis disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Estefania J; Borrego, Juan J; Castro, Dolores

    2016-12-01

    The lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), a member of the Iridoviridae family, infects a wide range of fish species including gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), the most important species cultured in the Mediterranean. LCDV is difficult to propagate in cell culture and does not produce clear and consistent cytopathic effects (CPE), especially in samples collected from subclinically infected fish. An integrated cell culture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (ICC-RT-PCR) assay, followed by dot-blot hybridization of the RT-PCR products, was developed to improve the detection of infectious LCDV. The sensitivity of the ICC-RT-PCR assay, which can be performed in 7 d, was at least 100-fold higher than viral diagnosis obtained by CPE development. The developed assay thus allows the determination of infectious titres in samples with low viral loads, including those from asymptomatic carrier fish, in which no CPE was recorded after a 14-d incubation period. The ICC-RT-PCR assay enables rapid, specific and sensitive detection and quantification of infectious LCDV, and may be a valuable tool in the study of aspects of LCDV infection including transmission or epizootiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. State of the art of Italian aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Melotti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available According to aquaculture production statistics published by FEAP (2007, Italy is the fifth largest fish producer in the European Union having a total quantity for 2006 estimated around 60,000 t. This data is exclusively referred to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, seabream (Sparus aurata, seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax and European eel (Anguilla anguilla but even if we consider the total aquaculture production elaborated by ISMEA (2006 through year 2005 including sturgeons, carps, striped bass, catfish and ornamental fish, Italy ranks fourth with 69,100 t after Norway (655,364 t, Great Britain (141,793 t and Greece (83,600 t. Over the last 15 years, Italian finfish production has known a decrease related to all the species mainly reared (trout, eel, carps, catfish except for the eurhyaline species that have had an important expansion (Table 1. Based on these considerations, in this work we describe the main features of fish aquaculture in Italy focalizing the attention to the single sectors of the farmed species and their trend for the future.

  9. Assessment of Tools for Marker-Assisted Selection in a Marine Commercial Species: Significant Association between MSTN-1 Gene Polymorphism and Growth Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Sánchez-Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection in complex traits as growth. Polymorphisms have been studied in five candidate genes influencing growth in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata: the growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, myostatin (MSTN-1, prolactin (PRL, and somatolactin (SL genes. Specimens evaluated were from a commercial broodstock comprising 131 breeders (from which 36 males and 44 females contributed to the progeny. In all samples eleven gene fragments, covering more than 13,000 bp, generated by PCR-RFLP, were analyzed; tests were made for significant associations between these markers and growth traits. ANOVA results showed a significant association between MSTN-1 gene polymorphism and growth traits. Pairwise tests revealed several RFLPs in the MSTN-1 gene with significant heterogeneity of genotypes among size groups. PRL and MSTN-1 genes presented linkage disequilibrium. The MSTN-1 gene was mapped in the centromeric region of a medium-size acrocentric chromosome pair.

  10. Modeling microbial spoilage and quality of gilthead seabream fillets: combined effect of osmotic pretreatment, modified atmosphere packaging, and nisin on shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsironi, Theofania N; Taoukis, Petros S

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was the kinetic modeling of the effect of storage temperature on the quality and shelf life of chilled fish, modified atmosphere-packed (MAP), and osmotically pretreated with the addition of nisin as antimicrobial agent. Fresh gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fillets were osmotically treated with 50% high dextrose equivalent maltodextrin (DE 47) plus 5% NaCl. Water loss, solid gain, salt content, and water activity were monitored throughout treatment and treatment conditions were selected for the shelf life study. Untreated and osmotically pretreated slices with and without nisin (2 x 10(4) IU/100 g osmotic solution), packed in air or modified atmosphere (50% CO(2)-50% air), and stored at controlled isothermal conditions (0, 5, 10, and 15 degrees C) were studied. Quality assessment and modeling were based on growth of several microbial indices, total volatile nitrogen, trimethylamine nitrogen, lipid oxidation (TBARS), and sensory scoring. Temperature dependence of quality loss rates was modeled by the Arrhenius equation, validated under dynamic conditions. Pretreated samples showed improved quality stability during subsequent refrigerated storage, in terms of microbial growth, chemical changes, and organoleptic degradation. Osmotic pretreatment with the addition of nisin in combination with MAP was the most effective treatment resulting in significant shelf life extension of gilthead seabream fillets (48 days compared to 10 days for the control at 0 degrees C).

  11. The growth of finfish in global open-ocean aquaculture under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Dane H; Levin, Simon A; Watson, James R

    2017-10-11

    Aquaculture production is projected to expand from land-based operations to the open ocean as demand for seafood grows and competition increases for inputs to land-based aquaculture, such as freshwater and suitable land. In contrast to land-based production, open-ocean aquaculture is constrained by oceanographic factors, such as current speeds and seawater temperature, which are dynamic in time and space, and cannot easily be controlled. As such, the potential for offshore aquaculture to increase seafood production is tied to the physical state of the oceans. We employ a novel spatial model to estimate the potential of open-ocean finfish aquaculture globally, given physical, biological and technological constraints. Finfish growth potential for three common aquaculture species representing different thermal guilds-Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ), gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata ) and cobia ( Rachycentron canadum )-is compared across species and regions and with climate change, based on outputs of a high-resolution global climate model. Globally, there are ample areas that are physically suitable for fish growth and potential expansion of the nascent aquaculture industry. The effects of climate change are heterogeneous across species and regions, but areas with existing aquaculture industries are likely to see increases in growth rates. In areas where climate change results in reduced growth rates, adaptation measures, such as selective breeding, can probably offset potential production losses. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Assessment of tools for marker-assisted selection in a marine commercial species: significant association between MSTN-1 gene polymorphism and growth traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ramos, Irma; Cross, Ismael; Mácha, Jaroslav; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Krylov, Vladimir; Rebordinos, Laureana

    2012-01-01

    Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection in complex traits as growth. Polymorphisms have been studied in five candidate genes influencing growth in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata): the growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), myostatin (MSTN-1), prolactin (PRL), and somatolactin (SL) genes. Specimens evaluated were from a commercial broodstock comprising 131 breeders (from which 36 males and 44 females contributed to the progeny). In all samples eleven gene fragments, covering more than 13,000 bp, generated by PCR-RFLP, were analyzed; tests were made for significant associations between these markers and growth traits. ANOVA results showed a significant association between MSTN-1 gene polymorphism and growth traits. Pairwise tests revealed several RFLPs in the MSTN-1 gene with significant heterogeneity of genotypes among size groups. PRL and MSTN-1 genes presented linkage disequilibrium. The MSTN-1 gene was mapped in the centromeric region of a medium-size acrocentric chromosome pair.

  13. TLR agonists extend the functional lifespan of professional phagocytic granulocytes in the bony fish gilthead seabream and direct precursor differentiation towards the production of granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulcre, María P; López-Muñoz, Azucena; Angosto, Diego; García-Alcazar, Alicia; Meseguer, José; Mulero, Victoriano

    2011-03-01

    Neutrophils are major cells participants in innate host responses. They are short-lived leukocytes, although microbial products activate intracellular signaling cascades that prolong their survival by inhibiting constitutive apoptosis. To gain insight into the phylogeny of this important cell type, we examined the ability of toll-like receptor agonists to extend the lifespan of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) acidophilic granulocytes, which are the functional equivalent of mammalian neutrophils. The results obtained demonstrated that apoptosis was also the default state of seabream acidophilic granulocytes and that toll-like receptor agonists were able to dramatically extend their functional lifespan (up to 10 days) by inhibiting apoptosis and inducing a long lasting activation of phagocytic and respiratory burst activities, together with the expression of genes coding for several proinflammatory molecules. This process was independent on contaminating cells and interleukin-1β production. In addition, the results showed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not nuclear factor κB, c-Jun terminal kinase or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, was involved in the inhibition of acidophilic granulocyte apoptosis following toll-like receptor engagement. Finally, stimulation of head kidney hematopoietic precursor cells with toll-like receptor agonists promoted their terminal differentiation to acidophilic granulocytes. These results demonstrated that the extension of neutrophil lifespan by microbial products is conserved in lower vertebrates although the magnitude of the response is much higher in fish. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular Identification and Phylogenetic Relationships of Threadfin Breams (Family: Nemipteridae Using mtDNA Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaithilingam RAVITCHANDIRANE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome c oxidase-1 gene sequences of mitochondrial genome were analyzed for species identification and phylogenetic relationship among the commercially important Nemipterus species. Sequence analysis of COI gene clearly indicated that all the nine fish species fell into distinct clads, which are genetically distant from each other and exhibited identical phylogenetic reservation. All the COI gene sequences provide sufficient phylogenetic information and evolutionary relationship to distinguish the nine Nemipterus species unambiguously. As per the neighbour-joining (NJ and maximum likelihood (ML trees, all the nine species are genetically distant from each other and exhibited identical phylogenetic reservation. Based on the NJ and ML phylogenetic trees N. mesoprion, N. zysron, N. hexodon, N. nematophorus, N. virgatus and N. bipunctatus were closely related with high bootstrap value (97. The overall mean Kimura two parameter (K2P distances between the nine species was 0.109. The intra species K2P distance was high in N. japonicus (0.069 followed by N. peronii (0.050 and N. mesoprion (0.002. This study proves the use of mtDNA COI gene sequence based approach is an alternative tool for identifying fish species at a faster pace.

  15. Identification of MicroRNA for Intermuscular Bone Development in Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ming Wan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermuscular bone (IB, which occurs only in the myosepta of the lower teleosts, is attracting more attention of researchers due to its particular development and lack of genetic information. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are emerging as important regulators for biological processes. In the present study, miRNAs from IBs and connective tissue (CT; encircled IBs from six-month-old Megalobrama amblycephala were characterized and compared. The results revealed the sequences and expression levels of 218 known miRNA genes (belonging to 97 families. Of these miRNAs, 44 known microRNA sequences exhibited significant expression differences between the two libraries, with 24 and 20 differentially-expressed miRNAs exhibiting higher expression in the CT and IBs libraries, respectively. The expressions of 11 miRNAs were selected to validate in nine tissues. Among the high-ranked predicted gene targets, differentiation, cell cycle, metabolism, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation were implicated. The pathway analysis of differentially-expressed miRNAs indicated that they were abundantly involved in regulating the development and differentiation of IBs and CT. This study characterized the miRNA for IBs of teleosts for the first time, which provides an opportunity for further understanding of miRNA function in the regulation of IB development.

  16. Characterization of the De Novo Biosynthetic Enzyme of Platelet Activating Factor, DDT-Insensitive Cholinephosphotransferase, of Human Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Basilios Tsoupras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activating factor (PAF, a potent inflammatory mediator, is implicated in several proinflammatory/inflammatory diseases such as glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, atherosclerosis, cancer, allergy, and diabetes. PAF can be produced by several renal cells under appropriate stimuli and it is thought to be implicated in renal diseases. The aim of this study is the characterization of DTT-insensitive cholinephosphotransferase (PAF-CPT of human mesangial cell (HMC, the main regulatory enzyme of PAF de novo biosynthetic pathway. Microsomal fractions of mesangial cells were isolated and enzymatic activity and kinetic parameters were determined by TLC and in vitro biological test in rabbit washed platelets. The effect of bovine serum albumin (BSA, dithiothreitol (DTT, divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+, EDTA, and various chemicals on the activity of PAF-CPT of HMC was also studied. Moreover, preliminary in vitro tests have been performed with several anti-inflammatory factors such as drugs (simvastatin, IFNa, rupatadine, tinzaparin, and salicylic acid and bioactive compounds of Mediterranean diet (resveratrol and lipids of olive oil, olive pomace, sea bass “Dicentrarchus labrax,” and gilthead sea breamSparus aurata”. The results indicated that the above compounds can influence PAF-CPT activity of HMC.

  17. Characterization of the De Novo Biosynthetic Enzyme of Platelet Activating Factor, DDT-Insensitive Cholinephosphotransferase, of Human Mesangial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoupras, Alexandros Basilios; Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Iatrou, Christos; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Demopoulos, Constantinos Alexandros

    2007-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF), a potent inflammatory mediator, is implicated in several proinflammatory/inflammatory diseases such as glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, atherosclerosis, cancer, allergy, and diabetes. PAF can be produced by several renal cells under appropriate stimuli and it is thought to be implicated in renal diseases. The aim of this study is the characterization of DTT-insensitive cholinephosphotransferase (PAF-CPT) of human mesangial cell (HMC), the main regulatory enzyme of PAF de novo biosynthetic pathway. Microsomal fractions of mesangial cells were isolated and enzymatic activity and kinetic parameters were determined by TLC and in vitro biological test in rabbit washed platelets. The effect of bovine serum albumin (BSA), dithiothreitol (DTT), divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+), EDTA, and various chemicals on the activity of PAF-CPT of HMC was also studied. Moreover, preliminary in vitro tests have been performed with several anti-inflammatory factors such as drugs (simvastatin, IFNa, rupatadine, tinzaparin, and salicylic acid) and bioactive compounds of Mediterranean diet (resveratrol and lipids of olive oil, olive pomace, sea bass “Dicentrarchus labrax,” and gilthead sea breamSparus aurata”). The results indicated that the above compounds can influence PAF-CPT activity of HMC. PMID:17710109

  18. Ictiofauna e população de Liza aurata do canal de Mira - Ria de Aveiro

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Josepha Manuela Ferreira Duarte

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem por objectivo actualizar dados sobre a diversidade espacial da ictiofauna do Canal de Mira, da Ria de Aveiro, abordar métodos de gestão de recursos ictiológicos em termos de esforço de pesca, averiguando a quantidade dos indivíduos de cada espécie neste espaço, usando como índice o número de diversidade (N2) e a distribuição de indivíduos por espécies, por fim, fazer um estudo sobre a espécie mais abundante, relacionado com aspectos do seu crescimento, recrutamento, id...

  19. Shelf life determination of the brined golden mullet Liza aurata during vacuum refrigerated storage using some quality aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Mariyam Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background. Salted fish products are popular in many countries around the world. Salting is one of the oldest techniques for fish preservation, and is essentially intended to increase the shelf-life of the product depressing water activity by means of dehydration and salt uptake by the fish muscle. However, the current demand for salted fish is driven more by the flavour of the product than for preservation purposes. Vacuum-packaging represents a static form of hypobaric storage. It is widely...

  20. Evidence for 5S rDNA horizontal transfer in the toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus (Schneider, 1801) based on the analysis of three multigene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Manuel A; Cross, Ismael; Palazón, José L; Ubeda-Manzanaro, María; Sarasquete, Carmen; Rebordinos, Laureana

    2012-10-07

    The Batrachoididae family is a group of marine teleosts that includes several species with more complicated physiological characteristics, such as their excretory, reproductive, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Previous studies of the 5S rDNA gene family carried out in four species from the Western Atlantic showed two types of this gene in two species but only one in the other two, under processes of concerted evolution and birth-and-death evolution with purifying selection. Here we present results of the 5S rDNA and another two gene families in Halobatrachus didactylus, an Eastern Atlantic species, and draw evolutionary inferences regarding the gene families. In addition we have also mapped the genes on the chromosomes by two-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two types of 5S rDNA were observed, named type α and type β. Molecular analysis of the 5S rDNA indicates that H. didactylus does not share the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) sequences with four other species of the family; therefore, it must have evolved in isolation. Amplification with the type β specific primers amplified a specific band in 9 specimens of H. didactylus and two of Sparus aurata. Both types showed regulatory regions and a secondary structure which mark them as functional genes. However, the U2 snRNA gene and the ITS-1 sequence showed one electrophoretic band and with one type of sequence. The U2 snRNA sequence was the most variable of the three multigene families studied. Results from two-colour FISH showed no co-localization of the gene coding from three multigene families and provided the first map of the chromosomes of the species. A highly significant finding was observed in the analysis of the 5S rDNA, since two such distant species as H. didactylus and Sparus aurata share a 5S rDNA type. This 5S rDNA type has been detected in other species belonging to the Batrachoidiformes and Perciformes orders, but not in the Pleuronectiformes and Clupeiformes orders. Two

  1. Evidence for 5S rDNA Horizontal Transfer in the toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus (Schneider, 1801) based on the analysis of three multigene families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Batrachoididae family is a group of marine teleosts that includes several species with more complicated physiological characteristics, such as their excretory, reproductive, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Previous studies of the 5S rDNA gene family carried out in four species from the Western Atlantic showed two types of this gene in two species but only one in the other two, under processes of concerted evolution and birth-and-death evolution with purifying selection. Here we present results of the 5S rDNA and another two gene families in Halobatrachus didactylus, an Eastern Atlantic species, and draw evolutionary inferences regarding the gene families. In addition we have also mapped the genes on the chromosomes by two-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Two types of 5S rDNA were observed, named type α and type β. Molecular analysis of the 5S rDNA indicates that H. didactylus does not share the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) sequences with four other species of the family; therefore, it must have evolved in isolation. Amplification with the type β specific primers amplified a specific band in 9 specimens of H. didactylus and two of Sparus aurata. Both types showed regulatory regions and a secondary structure which mark them as functional genes. However, the U2 snRNA gene and the ITS-1 sequence showed one electrophoretic band and with one type of sequence. The U2 snRNA sequence was the most variable of the three multigene families studied. Results from two-colour FISH showed no co-localization of the gene coding from three multigene families and provided the first map of the chromosomes of the species. Conclusions A highly significant finding was observed in the analysis of the 5S rDNA, since two such distant species as H. didactylus and Sparus aurata share a 5S rDNA type. This 5S rDNA type has been detected in other species belonging to the Batrachoidiformes and Perciformes orders, but not in the Pleuronectiformes

  2. Identification of a fish short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase associated with bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Joana; Cox, Cymon J; Leonor Cancela, M; Laizé, Vincent

    2017-12-14

    Although human and mouse genetics have largely contributed to the better understanding of the mechanisms underlying skeletogenesis, much more remains to be uncovered. In this regard alternative and complementary systems have been sought and cell systems capable of in vitro calcification have been developed to study the mechanisms underlying bone formation. In gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a gene coding for an unknown protein that is strongly up-regulated during extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization of a pre-osteoblast cell line was recently identified as a potentially important player in bone formation. In silico analysis of the deduced protein revealed the presence of domains typical of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductases (SDR). Closely related to carbonyl reductase 1, seabream protein belongs to a novel subfamily of SDR proteins with no orthologs in mammals. Analysis of gene expression by qPCR confirmed the strong up-regulation of sdr-like expression during in vitro mineralization but also revealed high expression levels in calcified tissues. A possible role for Sdr-like in osteoblast and bone metabolism was further evidenced through (i) the localization by in situ hybridization of sdr-like transcript in pre-osteoblasts of the operculum and (ii) the regulation of sdr-like gene transcription by Runx2 and retinoic acid receptor, two regulators of osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. Expression data also indicated a role for Sdr-like in gastrointestinal tract homeostasis and during gilthead seabream development at gastrulation and metamorphosis. This study reports a new subfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases in vertebrates and, for the first time, provides evidence of a role for SDRs in bone metabolism, osteoblast differentiation and/or tissue mineralization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Can we predict personality in fish? Searching for consistency over time and across contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filipa Castanheira

    Full Text Available The interest in animal personality, broadly defined as consistency of individual behavioural traits over time and across contexts, has increased dramatically over the last years. Individual differences in behaviour are no longer recognised as noise around a mean but rather as adaptive variation and thus, essentially, raw material for evolution. Animal personality has been considered evolutionary conserved and has been shown to be present in all vertebrates including fish. Despite the importance of evolutionary and comparative aspects in this field, few studies have actually documented consistency across situations in fish. In addition, most studies are done with individually housed fish which may pose additional challenges when interpreting data from social species. Here, we investigate, for the first time in fish, whether individual differences in behavioural responses to a variety of challenges are consistent over time and across contexts using both individual and grouped-based tests. Twenty-four juveniles of Gilthead seabream Sparus aurata were subjected to three individual-based tests: feed intake recovery in a novel environment, novel object and restraining and to two group-based tests: risk-taking and hypoxia. Each test was repeated twice to assess consistency of behavioural responses over time. Risk taking and escape behaviours during restraining were shown to be significantly consistent over time. In addition, consistency across contexts was also observed: individuals that took longer to recover feed intake after transfer into a novel environment exhibited higher escape attempts during a restraining test and escaped faster from hypoxia conditions. These results highlight the possibility to predict behaviour in groups from individual personality traits.

  4. Phylogenetic consistencies among chondrichthyan and teleost fishes in their bioaccumulation of multiple trace elements from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffree, Ross A., E-mail: R.Jeffree@iaea.org [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories, 4, Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco); Oberhansli, Francois; Teyssie, Jean-Louis [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories, 4, Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco)

    2010-07-15

    Multi-tracer experiments determined the accumulation from seawater of selected radioactive trace elements (Mn-54, Co-60, Zn-65, Cs-134, Am-241, Cd-109, Ag-110m, Se-75 and Cr-51) by three teleost and three chondrichthyan fish species to test the hypothesis that these phylogenetic groups have different bioaccumulation characteristics, based on previously established contrasts between the carcharhiniform chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula (dogfish) and the pleuronectiform teleost Psetta maxima (turbot). Discriminant function analysis on whole body: water concentration factors (CFs) separated dogfish and turbot in two independent experiments. Classification functions grouped the perciform teleosts, seabream (Sparus aurata) and seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), with turbot and grouped the chondrichthyans, undulate ray (Raja undulata; Rajiformes) and spotted torpedo (Torpedo marmorata; Torpediniformes), with dogfish, thus supporting our hypothesis. Hierarchical classificatory, multi-dimensional scaling and similarity analyses based on the CFs for the nine radiotracers, also separated all three teleosts (that aggregated lower in the hierarchy) from the three chondrichthyan species. The three chondrichthyans were also more diverse amongst themselves compared to the three teleosts. Particular trace elements that were more important in separating teleosts and chondrichthyans were Cs-134 that was elevated in teleosts and Zn-65 that was elevated in chondrichthyans, these differences being due to their differential rates of uptake rather than loss. Chondrichthyans were also higher in Cr-51, Co-60, Ag-110m and Am-241, whereas teleosts were higher only in Mn-54. These contrasts in bioaccumulation patterns between teleosts and chondrichthyans are interpreted in the context of both proximate causes of underlying differences in physiology and anatomy, as well as the ultimate cause of their evolutionary divergence over more than 500 million years before present (MyBP). Our results

  5. Ca. Similichlamydia in Epitheliocystis Co-infection of Gilthead Seabream Gills: Unique Morphological Features of a Deep Branching Chlamydial Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth-Smith, Helena M B; Katharios, Pantelis; Dourala, Nancy; Mateos, José M; Fehr, Alexander G J; Nufer, Lisbeth; Ruetten, Maja; Guevara Soto, Maricruz; Vaughan, Lloyd

    2017-01-01

    The Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) bacterial superphylum constitutes a broad range of organisms with an intriguing array of ultrastructural morphologies, including intracellular membranes and compartments and their corresponding complex genomes encoding these forms. The phylum Chlamydiae are all obligate intracellular bacteria and, although much is already known of their genomes from various families and how these regulate the various morphological forms, we know remarkably little about what is likely the deepest rooting clade of this phylum, which has only been found to contain pathogens of marine and fresh water vertebrates. The disease they are associated with is called epitheliocystis; however, analyses of the causative agents is hindered by an inability to cultivate them for refined in vitro experimentation. For this reason, we have developed tools to analyse both the genomes and the ultrastructures of bacteria causing this disease, directly from infected tissues. Here we present structural data for a member of the family Ca. Similichlamydiaceae from this deep-rooted clade, which we have identified using molecular tools, in epitheliocystis lesions of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in Greece. We present evidence that the chlamydial inclusions appear to develop in a perinuclear location, similar to other members of the phylum and that a chlamydial developmental cycle is present, with chlamydial forms similar to reticular bodies (RBs) and elementary bodies (EBs) detected. Division of the RBs appeared to follow a budding process, and larger RBs with multiple condensed nucleoids were detected using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by focused-ion beam, scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). As model hosts, fish offer many advantages for investigation, and we hope by these efforts to encourage others to explore the biology of fish pathogens from the PVC.

  6. Using a concentrate of phenols obtained from olive vegetation water to preserve chilled food: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fasolato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are plant metabolites characterised by several interesting bioactive properties such as antioxidant and bactericidal activities. In this study the application of a phenols concentrate (PC from olive vegetation water to two different fresh products – gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata and chicken breast – was described. Products were treated in a bath of PC (22 g/L; chicken breast or sprayed with two different solutions (L1:0.75 and L2:1.5 mg/mL; seabream and then stored under refrigeration conditions. The shelf life was monitored through microbiological analyses – quality index method for seabream and a specific sensory index for raw breast. The secondary products of lipid-peroxidation of the chicken breast were determined using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs test on cooked samples. Multivariate statistical techniques were adopted to investigate the impact of phenols and microbiological data were fitted by DMfit software. In seabream, the levels of PC did not highlight any significant difference on microbiological and sensory features. DMfit models suggested an effect only on H2S producing bacteria with an increased lag phase compared to the control samples (C: 87 h vs L2: 136 h. The results on chicken breast showed that the PC bath clearly modified the growth of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae. The phenol dipping was effective in limiting lipid-peroxidation (TBARs after cooking. Treated samples disclosed an increase of shelf life of 2 days. These could be considered as preliminary findings suggesting the use of this concentrate as preservative in some fresh products.

  7. Histamine and mast cell activator compound 48/80 are safe but inefficient systemic adjuvants for gilthead seabream vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez González, N E; Cabas, I; Montero, J; García Alcázar, A; Mulero, V; García Ayala, A

    2017-07-01

    Histamine has a key role in the regulation of inflammatory and innate immune responses in vertebrates. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), a marine hermaphrodite teleost of great commercial value, was the first fish species shown to possess histamine-containing mast cells (MCs) at mucosal tissues. MCs are highly abundant in the peritoneal exudate of gilthead seabream and compound 48/80 (Co 48/80), often used to promote MC activation and histamine release, is able to promote histamine release from gilthead seabream MCs in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of histamine and Co 48/80 on the immune responses of gilthead seabream. For this purpose, histamine and Co 48/80 were intraperitoneally injected alone or combined with 109 heat-killed Vibrio anguillarum cells and their effects on head kidney and peritoneal exudate were analyzed. The results indicated that although histamine and Co 48/80 were both able to alter the percentage of peritoneal exudate and head kidney immune cell types, only Co 48/80 increased reactive oxygen species production by peritoneal leukocytes. In addition, histamine, but not Co 48/80, was able to slightly impair the humoral adaptive immune response, i.e. production of specific IgM to V. anguillarum. Notably, both histamine and Co 48/80 reduced the expression of the gene encoding histamine receptor H2 in peritoneal exudate leukocytes. These results show for the first time in fish that although systemic administration of histamine and Co 48/80 is safe, neither compound can be regarded as an efficient adjuvant for gilthead seabream vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ESSA1 embryonic stem like cells from gilthead seabream: a new tool to study mesenchymal cell lineage differentiation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Vijayakumar; Laizé, Vincent; Gavaia, Paulo J; Leonor Cancela, M

    2012-10-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are a promising tool for generation of transgenic animals and an ideal experimental model for in vitro studies of embryonic cell development, differentiation and gene manipulation. Here we report the development and initial characterization of a pluripotent embryonic stem like cell line, designated as ESSA1, derived from blastula stage embryos of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, L). ESSA1 cells are cultured in Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum and, unlike other ES cells, without a feeder layer. They have a round or polygonal morphology, grow exponentially in culture and form dense colonies. ESSA1 cells also exhibit intense alkaline phosphatase activity, normal karyotype and are positive for stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA1) and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) markers for up to 30 passages. Upon treatment with all-trans retinoic acid, ESSA1 cells differentiate into neuron-like, oligodendritic, myocyte and melanocyte cells; they can also form embryoid bodies when seeded in bacteriological plates, a characteristic usually associated with pluripotency. The capacity of ESSA1 cells to differentiate into osteoblastic, chondroblastic or osteoclastic cell lineages and to produce a mineralized extracellular matrix in vitro was demonstrated through histochemical techniques and further confirmed by immunocytochemistry using lineage-specific markers. Furthermore, ESSA1 cells can be used to produce chimera, where they contribute to the development of a variety of tissues including the trunk and gut of zebrafish embryos and fry. Thus, ESSA1 cells represent a promising model for investigating bone-lineage cell differentiation in fish and also highlight the potential of piscine stem cell research. Copyright © 2012 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of the infralittoral system along the north-east Spanish coast based on sport shore-based fishing tournament catches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordoa, Ana

    2009-03-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in the structure of fish assemblages were analysed based on the catch data from a total of 2329 shore-based sport fishing tournaments held in north-eastern Spain from 2002 to 2006 with a view to characterizing the infralittoral system along 400 km of coastline and assessing the usefulness of these data as an additional means of monitoring coastal areas. A total of 63 species in 35 families were identified in the catches. Daily catch rates per fisherman varied from 0.1 kg to 0.5 kg according to the fishing area, and maximum catch rates and minimum species richness values were observed in the vicinity of the mouths of major rivers. Cluster analysis yielded six separate major groups. Two groups were characterized by predominantly or entirely rocky bottoms where the main species were Coris julis and Serranus cabrilla and were differentiated by a higher abundance of labrids and serranids and an absence of sparids. A third group encompassed areas under the influence of major rivers, where Chelon labrosus dominated the fish community. The other three groups were dominated by sparids but with differences in the total contribution by the main species, Sparus aurata, Lithognathus mormyrus, and Pagellus acarne, to each fish assemblage, indicating differences in ecological structure. The results suggest that sublittoral fish assemblages can be regarded as ecosystem descriptors and should not be overlooked as indicators of ecosystem changes. The study showed that a structured legislative framework for regulating recreational fishing tournaments can be extremely useful for monitoring littoral fishes at minimal added cost.

  10. Characterization of the peripheral thyroid system of gilthead seabream acclimated to different ambient salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Jarabo, I; Klaren, P H M; Louro, B; Martos-Sitcha, J A; Pinto, P I S; Vargas-Chacoff, L; Flik, G; Martínez-Rodríguez, G; Power, D M; Mancera, J M; Arjona, F J

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in many developmental and physiological processes, including osmoregulation. The regulation of the thyroid system by environmental salinity in the euryhaline gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) is still poorly characterized. To this end seabreams were exposed to four different environmental salinities (5, 15, 40 and 55ppt) for 14days, and plasma free thyroid hormones (fT3, fT4), outer ring deiodination and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities in gills and kidney, as well as other osmoregulatory and metabolic parameters were measured. Low salinity conditions (5ppt) elicited a significant increase in fT3 (29%) and fT4 (184%) plasma concentrations compared to control animals (acclimated to 40ppt, natural salinity conditions in the Bay of Cádiz, Spain), while the amount of pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone subunit β (tshb) transcript abundance remained unchanged. In addition, plasma fT4 levels were positively correlated to renal and branchial deiodinase type 2 (dio2) mRNA expression. Gill and kidney T4-outer ring deiodination activities correlated positively with dio2 mRNA expression and the highest values were observed in fish acclimated to low salinities (5 and 15ppt). The high salinity (55ppt) exposure caused a significant increase in tshb expression (65%), but deiodinase gene expression (dio1 and dio2) and activity did not change and were similar to controls (40ppt). In conclusion, acclimation to different salinities led to changes in the peripheral regulation of thyroid hormone metabolism in seabream. Therefore, thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of ion transport and osmoregulatory physiology in this species. The conclusions derived from this study may also allow aquaculturists to modulate thyroid metabolism in seabream by adjusting culture salinity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Algerian propolis extracts: Chemical composition, bactericidal activity and in vitro effects on gilthead seabream innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, El-Khamsa; Cerezuela, Rebeca; Charef, Noureddine; Mezaache-Aichour, Samia; Esteban, Maria Angeles; Zerroug, Mohamed Mihoub

    2017-03-01

    Propolis has been used as a medicinal agent for centuries. The chemical composition of four propolis samples collected from four locations of the Sétif region, Algeria, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was determined. More than 20 compounds and from 30 to 35 compounds were identified in the aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the propolis extracts against two marine pathogenic bacteria was evaluated. Finally, the in vitro effects of propolis on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) leucocyte activities were measured. The bactericidal activity of ethanolic extracts was very high against Shewanella putrefaciens, average against Photobacterium damselae and very low against Vibrio harveyi. The lowest bactericidal activity was always that found for the aqueous extracts. When the viability of gilthead seabream head-kidney leucocytes was measured after 30 min' incubation with the different extracts, both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of one of the propolis samples (from Babor) and the aqueous extract of another (from Ain-Abbassa) provoked a significant decrease in cell viability when used at concentrations of 100 and 200 μg ml-1. Furthermore, significant inhibitory effects were recorded on leucocyte respiratory burst activity when isolated leucocytes where preincubated with the extracts. This effect was dose-dependent in all cases except when extracts from a third propolis sample (from Boutaleb) were used. Our findings suggest that some of Algerian propolis extracts have bactericidal activity against important bacterial pathogens in seabream and significantly modulate in vitro leucocyte activities, confirming their potential as a source of new natural biocides and/or immunomodulators in aquaculture practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbon cycling in a zero-discharge mariculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kenneth; Sher, Yonatan; Erez, Jonathan; van Rijn, Jaap

    2011-03-01

    Interest in mariculture systems will rise in the near future due to the decreased ability of the ocean to supply the increasing demand for seafood. We present a trace study using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and chemical profiles of a zero-discharge mariculture system stocked with the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Water quality maintenance in the system is based on two biofiltration steps. Firstly, an aerobic treatment step comprising a trickling filter in which ammonia is oxidized to nitrate. Secondly, an anaerobic step comprised of a digestion basin and a fluidized bed reactor where excess organic matter and nitrate are removed. Dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity values were higher in the anaerobic loop than in the aerobic loop, in agreement with the main biological processes taking place in the two treatment steps. The δ13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C(DIC)) was depleted in 13C in the anaerobic loop as compared to the aerobic loop by 2.5-3‰. This is in agreement with the higher dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in the anaerobic loop and the low water retention time and the chemolithotrophic activity of the aerobic loop. The δ13C and δ15N of organic matter in the mariculture system indicated that fish fed solely on feed pellets. Compared to feed pellets and particulate organic matter, the sludge in the digestion basin was enriched in 15N while δ13C was not significantly different. This latter finding points to an intensive microbial degradation of the organic matter taking place in the anaerobic treatment step of the system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Threats posed by artisanal fisheries to the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean marine protected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, J.; Muñoz, M.; Casadevall, M.

    2012-11-01

    Artisanal fisheries are frequently considered as a sustainable activity compatible with the conservation objectives of marine protected areas (MPAs). Few studies have examined the impacts of these fisheries on the reproductive potential of exploited fish species within the marine reserves. This study evaluated the potential impact of artisanal fishing on the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean MPA through onboard sampling from January 2008 to December 2010. Eleven sex-changing fish species constituted an important part of the catch (20% overall and up to 60% of the total gill net catch) and, in five of them, most individuals were of one sex. Artisanal fishing can negatively affect the sustainability of those coastal fishes showing sex reversal, particularly the protogynous ones such as Diplodus cervinus and Epinephelus marginatus, as well as the species with complex mating systems (e.g. some sparids, labrids and scorpaenids). In all species the average size for the individuals captured was above the minimum landing size (where this exists), but in four species (Conger conger, Diplodus puntazzo, Sphyraena spp. and Sparus aurata) it was below the size of first maturity (L50). Results show that sex and size selection by artisanal fishing not only can have an impact on the reproduction of coastal fish species but may also be exacerbating rather than reducing the impact of fishing on coastal resources. Thus, new management actions need to be urgently implemented in the MPAs where artisanal fisheries are allowed to operate in order to protect the reproductive potential of these species, particularly those showing a complicated reproductive strategy.

  14. Prostaglandin E2 promotes M2 polarization of macrophages via a cAMP/CREB signaling pathway and deactivates granulocytes in teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Jana; Gómez-Abellán, Victoria; Arizcun, Marta; Mulero, Victoriano; Sepulcre, María P

    2016-08-01

    The profile of prostaglandin (PG) production is determined by the differential expression of the enzymes involved in their production and degradation. Although the production of PGE2 by fish leukocytes has been relatively well studied in several fish species, knowledge of how its production is regulated, its biological activities and the signaling pathways activated by this PG is scant or even contradictory. In this work we show that in the teleost fish gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) macrophages regulate PGE2 release mainly by inducing the expression of the genes encoding the enzymes responsible for its synthesis, while acidophilic granulocytes (AGs) not only induce these genes quickly after activation but also inhibit the expression of the genes encoding the enzymes responsible for PGE2 degradation at later time points. In addition, treatment of macrophages with PGE2 promoted their M2 polarization, which is characterized by high expression levels of interleukin-10, mannose-receptor c-type 1 and arginase 2 genes. In sharp contrast, PGE2 promoted the deactivation of AGs, since it decreased the production of reactive oxygen species and the expression of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines. These differences are the result of the alternative signaling pathways used by PGE2 in macrophages and AGs, a cAMP/CREB signaling pathway operating in macrophages, but not in AGs, downstream of PGE2. Our data identify for the first time a role for professional phagocyte-derived-PGE2 in the resolution of inflammation in fish and highlight key differences in the PGE2 signaling pathway in macrophages and granulocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of emodin and vitamin E on the growth and crowding stress of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Xu, Pao; Xie, Jun; Ge, Xianping; Xia, Silei; Song, Changyou; Zhou, Qunlan; Miao, Linghong; Ren, Mingchun; Pan, Liangkun; Chen, Ruli

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary emodin, high-dose vitamin E and their combination on the growth of Megalobrama amblycephala and its resistance to acute crowding stress. The fish were randomly divided into four groups: a control group fed with basal diet, and three treatment groups fed with basal diet supplemented with 60 mg/kg emodin (the emodin group), 500 mg/kg vitamin E (the vit E group), and 60 mg/kg emodin together with 500 mg/kg vitamin E (the combination group). After 60 days, the fish were exposed to acute crowding stress for 24 h. The results showed that the weight gain of the vit E group, specific growth rate of the vit E group, total serum protein concentration (TP) of the vit E group, serum lysozyme activity of the emodin group, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the emodin group, hepatic heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) levels of the vit E group and the emodin group, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity of the combination group significantly increased while the weight gain and specific growth rate of the combination group significantly decreased compared with the control group before stress. After crowding stress, the vit E group had improved serum TP 12 h post-stress, hepatic SOD activity 24 h post-stress, and hepatic HSP70 mRNA levels 12 and 24 h post-stress while the emodin group had enhanced serum SOD activity 12 and 24 h post-stress and hepatic HSP70 mRNA levels 12 and 24 h post-stress, as compared with the control. However, the serum cortisol content of the three treatment groups 12 and 24 h post-stress, ALT activity in the vit E group and emodin group 24 h post-stress, and serum alkaline phosphatase and liver catalase activity in the combination group 24 h post-stress were lower than those in the control group. The cumulative mortality was lower in the emodin, vit E, and combination group after Aeromonas hydrophila infection compared with the control group. Therefore, dietary supplementation with 60 mg/kg emodin or 500 mg/kg vitamin E can improve HSP70 mRNA levels and antioxidant capabilities, resistance to crowding stress, and growth in M. amblycephala. However, the combination of emodin and vit E does not have a synergistic effect in M. amblycephala. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sustainable Resource Use of Common Bream and Roach Catch from Reduction Fishing in Östergötland

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient inflows from anthropogenic sources into water systems are causing eutrophication, algal blooms and trophic changes in Swedish lakes and seas. The European water framework directive was implemented to regulate member countries' policies to achieve a good status in surface waters. Reduction fishing has shown to be an effective lake restoration tool involving removal of large quantities of planktivorous fish, decreasing the internal nutrient loads and recovering the lake status. The Adm...

  17. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Infected by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that play key roles in regulation of various biological processes. In order to better understand the biological significance of miRNAs in the context of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Megalobrama amblycephala, small RNA libraries obtained from fish liver at 0 (non-infection, 4, and 24 h post infection (poi were sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 11,244,207, 9,212,958, and 7,939,157 clean reads were obtained from these three RNA libraries, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis identified 171 conserved miRNAs and 62 putative novel miRNAs. The existence of ten randomly selected novel miRNAs was validated by RT-PCR. Pairwise comparison suggested that 61 and 44 miRNAs were differentially expressed at 4 and 24 h poi, respectively. Furthermore, the expression profiles of nine randomly selected miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. MicroRNA target prediction, gene ontology (GO annotation, and Kyoto Encylopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis indicated that a variety of biological pathways could be affected by A. hydrophila infection. Additionally, transferrin (TF and transferrin receptor (TFR genes were confirmed to be direct targets of miR-375. These results will expand our knowledge of the role of miRNAs in the immune response of M. amblycephala to A. hydrophila infection, and facilitate the development of effective strategies against A. hydrophila infection in M. amblycephala.

  18. Evolution of Fish Let-7 MicroRNAs and Their Expression Correlated to Growth Development in Blunt Snout Bream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo-Wen; Zhou, Lai-Fang; Liu, Yu-Long; Wan, Shi-Ming; Gao, Ze-Xia

    2017-03-16

    The lethal-7 (let-7) miRNA, known as one of the first founding miRNAs, is present in multiple copies in a genome and has diverse functions in animals. In this study, comparative genomic analysis of let-7 miRNAs members in fish species indicated that let-7 miRNA is a sequence conserved family in fish, while different species have the variable gene copy numbers. Among the ten members including let-7a/b/c/d/e/f/g/h/i/j, the let-7a precursor sequence was more similar to ancestral sequences, whereas other let-7 miRNA members were separate from the late differentiation of let-7a. The mostly predicted target genes of let-7 miRNAs are involved in biological process, especially developmental process and growth through Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. In order to identify the possible different functions of these ten miRNAs in fish growth development, their expression levels were quantified in adult males and females of Megalobrama amblycephala, as well as in 3-, 6-, and 12-months-old individuals with relatively slow- and fast-growth rates. These ten miRNAs had similar tissue expression patterns between males and females, with higher expression levels in the brain and pituitary than that in other tissues (p growth rates, the expression levels of let-7 miRNAs in pituitary and brain from the slow-growth group were always significantly higher than that in the fast-growth group (p growth development in M. amblycephala through negatively regulating expression of their target genes.

  19. Identification, distribution and conservation status of the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African golden cat Caracal aurata is Africa's least known felid. This paper describes how C. aurata can be most readily identified in the field and reviews what is known about this species' distribution and conservation status in Kenya. Forty-six records for C. aurata from 38 sites were compiled. The Mau Forest is the only ...

  20. Nutritional studies in the seed production of fish-XII. Improvement of dietary value of brine shrimp Artemia salina for fish larvae by feeding them on .OMEGA.3 highly unsaturated fatty acids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    渡辺, 武; 太田, 雅大; 北島, 力; 藤田, 矢郎

    1982-01-01

    ...; an emulsion resulted. The dietary value of the nauplii for juveniles of flunder, rock sea bream and red sea bream was compared for fish fed on various kinds of emulsified lipids or on baker's yeast...

  1. Improvement of Dietary Value of Bring Shrimp Artemia salina for Fish Larvae by Feeding Them on [omega]3 Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takeshi WATANABE; Masahiro OHTA; Chikara KITAJIMA; Shrio FUJITA

    1982-01-01

    ...; an emulsion resulted. The dietary value of the nauplii for juveniles of flunder, rock sea bream and red sea bream was compared for fish fed on various kinds of emulsified lipids or on baker's yeast...

  2. Variation in heavy metals concentration in the edible oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, clam Polymesoda erosa and grey mullet Liza aurata from coastline of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gawade, L.; Chari, N.V.H.; Sarma, V.V.; Ingole, B.S.

    and to the other markets. Whereas the clam polymesoda erosa is very common in markets and is of public interest. 2.2. Methodology Analyses were carried out using 18 fish samples with size varying from 8-16 cm total length and 18 oyster samples of size varying from...

  3. Isolation and confirmation of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and leaping mullet (Liza saliens) in the Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorriehzahra, M E J; Ghasemi, M; Ghiasi, M; Karsidani, S Haghighi; Bovo, G; Nazari, A; Adel, M; Arizza, V; Dhama, K

    2016-07-15

    The present study was conducted on 428 moribund mullet fish samples to isolate and identify the causative agent of a mysterious acute mortality which recently occurred in wild mullets in Iranian waters of Caspian Sea, suspected to be due to viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease. Disease investigation was carried out employing various diagnostic procedures such as virology, bacteriology, parasitology, haematology, histopathology, IFAT, IHC and nested RT-PCR. Brain and eye samples of affected fishes were collected in sterile conditions and then kept at -80°C for cell culture isolation and nested RT-PCR detection of the causative agent. Other tissue samples were also collected and fixed for histopathology, IHC and EM examinations. CPE was observed in cell cultures at 6days after inoculation. Nine samples were found positive with virological assay. Nested RT-PCR, performed on suspected tissues and CPE positive samples, showed that about 21 tissue samples and all the CPE positive samples were positive for VNN virus (VNNV). IFAT was selected as a confirmatory method for detecting the presence of Betanodavirus antigen, cell culture isolation results and nested RT-PCR findings. Moreover, VNNV particles with 25-30nm in diameter were also visualized in the infected brain and retina. In pathogenicity studies, guppy fishes bathed in VNNV-infected tissue culture (10(-4) TCID50) showed clinical signs similar to naturally infected mullet after 15days post infection (dpi), with mortality rates reaching up to 100% at 30dpi. Affected organ samples as examined by cell culture isolation, IFAT, IHC and histopathology, revealed the presence of VNNV in the guppy fishes. In conclusion, it was confirmed that VNNV was the main causative agent for the disease outbreak in mullet fish in the Caspian Sea, and this is such first official report of VNN disease from Iran. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of element concentrations in widely consumed cultured fish in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Aksan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Balık çiftlikleri, insanların tüketmesi için yüksek miktarlarda besin üretmektedir. Fakat sucul ekosistemlerde ağır metal kirliliği, ciddi bir problem olabilir. Bu çalışmada, Aralık 2011 ve Ocak 2013 tarihleri arasında Kocaeli ilinde bulunan balık hallerinden alınan üç kültür balığı türünün (Oncoryhynicus mykiss (gökkuşağı alabalığı, Dicentrarchus labrax (levrek ve Sparus aurata (çipura, yenilebilir dokularında bulunan mikronütrient ve esansiyel olmayan element konsantrasyonları izlenmiştir. Ca, K, Mg, Na, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, Se, ve Zn konsantrasyonları ICP-MS kullanılarak analiz edilmiş ve bölge halkı için bu balıkların tüketimi sonucu bu elementlerin yıllık alım miktarları hesaplanmıştır. Balık kas dokusunda bulunan element konsantrasyonlarının hiç biri, Birleşmiş Milletler Gıda ve Tarım Örgütü ve Türk Gıda Kodeksi tarafından belirlenen limitleri aşmamıştır. Hesaplanan element alım miktarları, bu çiftlik balıklarının insanlar tarafından tüketilmesinin risk oluşturmadığını göstermiştir. Temel bileşenler analizi, deniz çiftlik balıklarının kas dokusundaki elementlerin üç bileşen altında gruplanabileceğini göstermiştir

  5. Salinity-dependent copper accumulation in the guppy Poecilia vivipara is associated with CTR1 and ATP7B transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Evelise Sampaio; Abril, Sandra Isabel Moreno; Zanette, Juliano; Bianchini, Adalto

    2014-07-01

    Copper (Cu) accumulation and regulation of key-genes involved in Cu homeostasis were evaluated in freshwater- and saltwater-acclimated guppies Poecilia vivipara. Fish were exposed (96h) to environmentally relevant concentrations of dissolved Cu (0, 5.0, 9.0 and 20.0μg/L). In freshwater guppies, gill and liver Cu accumulation was dependent on Cu concentration in the exposure medium. In saltwater guppies, this dependence was observed only in the gut. These findings indicate that Cu accumulation was salinity- and tissue-dependent. Key genes involved in Cu metabolism were sequenced for the first time in P. vivipara. Transcripts coding for the high-affinity copper transporter (CTR1) and copper-transporting ATPase (ATP7B) were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. The full-length CTR1 open reading frame (1560bp) and a partial ATP7B (690bp) were discovered. Predicted amino acid sequences shared high identities with the CTR1 of Fundulus heteroclitus (81%) and the ATP7B of Sparus aurata (87%). Basal transcriptional levels addressed by RT-qPCR in control fish indicate that CTR1 and ATP7B was highly transcribed in liver of freshwater guppies while CTR1 was highly transcribed in gut of saltwater guppies. This could explain the higher Cu accumulation observed in liver of freshwater guppies and in gut of saltwater guppies, because CTR1 is involved in Cu uptake. Reduced gill mRNA expression of CTR1 was observed in freshwater guppies exposed to 20.0μg/L Cu and in saltwater guppies exposed to 5.0μg/L Cu. In turn, reduced mRNA expression of gut ATP7B was observed in freshwater and salt water guppies exposed to 9.0 and 20.0μg/L Cu. Liver CTR1 and ATP7B transcription were not affected by Cu exposure. These findings suggest that gill CTR1 and gut ATP7B are down-regulated to limit Cu absorption after exposure to dissolved Cu, while liver CTR1 and ATP7B levels are maintained to allow Cu storage and detoxification. In conclusion, findings reported here

  6. Construction of a high-density linkage map and fine mapping of QTLs for growth and gonad related traits in blunt snout bream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shi-Ming; Liu, Hong; Zhao, Bo-Wen; Nie, Chun-Hong; Wang, Wei-Min; Gao, Ze-Xia

    2017-04-19

    High-density genetic maps based on SNPs are essential for fine mapping loci controlling specific traits for fish species. Using restriction-site associated DNA tag sequencing (RAD-Seq) technology, we identified 42,784 SNPs evenly distributed across the Megalobrama amblycephala genome. Based on 2 parents and 187 intra-specific hybridization progenies, a total of 14,648 high-confidence SNPs were assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs) of maternal and paternal map. The total length of the integrated map was 3,258.38 cM with an average distance of 0.57 cM among 5676 effective loci, thereby representing the first high-density genetic map reported for M. amblycephala. A total of eight positive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected in QTL analysis. Of that, five QTL explained ≥35% of phenotypic variation for growth traits and three QTL explained ≥16% phenotypic variation for gonad related traits. A total of 176 mapped markers had significant hits in the zebrafish genome and almost all of the 24 putative-chromosomes of M. amblycephala were in relatively conserved synteny with chromosomes of zebrafish. Almost all M. amblycephala and zebrafish chromosomes had a 1:1 correspondence except for putative-chromosome 4, which mapped to two chromosomes of zebrafish caused by the difference in chromosome numbers between two species.

  7. The use of multivariate analysis to link sediment contamination and toxicity data to establish sediment quality guidelines: an example in the Gulf of Cadiz (Spain); El uso del analisis multivariante en la union de datos de toxicidad y contaminacion para establecer guias de calidad de sedimento: Un ejemplo en la Bahia de Cadiz (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Valls, T. Angel; Forja, Jesus M [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz, (Spain); Gomez-Parra, Abelardo [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, CSIC, Puerto Real, Cadiz, (Spain)

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate marine sediment quality in the Gulf of Cadiz, chemical concentration and toxicity test endpoints from sediments were linked using multivariate analysis. Sediment samples were collected synoptically at seven stations in two littoral ecosystems of the Gulf of Cadiz (five in the Bay of Cadiz and two in the salt marsh of the Barbate River), and subjected to six separate, replicated sediment toxicity tests and comprehensive sediment chemistry analyses. The toxic effects of sediments were tested using three operational sediment phases: whole sediment, using the estuarine amphipod Microdeutopus gryllotalpa (10 d static: survival) and the estuarine clam Ruditapes philippinaru (48 h static: survival) and of the marine fish Sparus aurata (48 h static. Survival); and interstitial water, using populations of the estuarine rotifer Brachionus Plicatilis (7 d static: Population decline) and of the marine bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox ). To evaluate the levels of contamination, the concentrations in the sediments of organic carbon, 14 trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ag, Hg, As, Sn, V, Ni, Co and Cr) and the surfactant linear alkylbenzenesulphonate (LAS) were measured. The results of the toxicity tests were compared in a dose-response relationship between sites, demonstrating a general agreement between the toxicity values determined by all the tests, except in the case of interstitial water toxicity (principally due to toxic mixtures of trace metals). Data derived from sediment chemistry and bioassays were assembled by multivariate statistical techniques (PCA and factor analysis), showing that the two data types could be represented by only five factors corresponding to five overlapping chemical-biological effect relations. Positive prevalence of these factors in the cases studied was used to establish those ranges in chemical concentrations associated with adverse effects. The sediment quality guidelines, in terms of concentrations at or below

  8. Sea urchins, their predators and prey in SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mamede

    2014-06-01

    Alentejo coast: (1 P. lividus appears to have a “sit-and-wait” behavior remaining in crevices or burrows for prolonged times, feeding on drift algae trapped there and, therefore, does not seem to have the ability to significantly influence the structure of the benthic macroalgae community; (2 the studied marine protected area does not appear, to date, to have had significant effects on the abundance and/or on the size of the various studied organisms; and (3 the fish species Diplodus vulgaris and Coris julis may be important predators of P. lividus. Lastly (4, results obtained in the surveys indicate that in this coast: the vast majority of fishermen found traces of sea urchins in the stomach contents of certain fish species (e.g. Diplodus sargus, D. vulgaris, Sparus aurata; the occurrence of urchin barrens is not known by most respondents; the recreational harvesting of sea urchins is a frequent activity on intertidal and shallow subtidal rocky habitats, during winter and spring, and mostly in Easter.

  9. Strategies to enhance the competitiveness of semi-intensive aquaculture systems in costal earth ponds: the organic aquaculture approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sardinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthen ponds are the main production system for European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata in Portugal and in Southern Spain. Production costs in this low productivity farming system are higher compared to intensive cage farms, and its economic sustainability depends on product differentiation and optimization of production. The development of new farming protocols, to enhance productivity of ponds and lagoons, or the implementation of certification processes to add value to products from extensive and semi-intensive systems, could render these activities more economics benefits and be attractive for a new generation of farmers. One clear strategy to differentiate and add value to seabream produced in semi-intensive systems is its production under organic standards. Feeds often represent 40-60% of the operational costs of fish farming. In relation to the traditional feeds, the organic certified feeds currently present a price-differential of about +30%. To assess it economic feasibility, it is therefore essential to validate if such higher feeding costs will represent an increase on productivity (fish growth and feed conversion or can be fully integrated in the final sale price. Throughout a full production cycle of gilthead seabream (from 9 grams until >350 grams, a series of trials allowed us to assess the effects of: a an organic certified feed; b variable feeding levels (100 and 80% of recommendations; and c culture density (0.5 and 1.0 kg/m3 on the overall growth performance, body composition and environmental impact at the fish farm level. Results show that growth performance (weight gain and feed conversion ratio of seabream fed the organic feed was similar to that found in fish fed a traditional diet. With the organic feed, a reduction of the feeding level by 20% of the manufacturer recommendations led to a lower growth, while a similar reduction on the feeding level of the traditional feed had no impact

  10. An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral reefs are areas of maximum biodiversity, but the parasites of coral reef fishes, and especially their species richness, are not well known. Over an 8-year period, parasites were collected from 24 species of Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae and Caesionidae off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Results Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 207 host-parasite combinations and 58 parasite species identified at the species level, with 27 new host records. Results are presented for isopods, copepods, monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes and nematodes. When results are restricted to well-sampled reef fish species (sample size > 30), the number of host-parasite combinations is 20–25 per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 9–13 per fish species. Lutjanids include reef-associated fish and deeper sea fish from the outer slopes of the coral reef: fish from both milieus were compared. Surprisingly, parasite biodiversity was higher in deeper sea fish than in reef fish (host-parasite combinations: 12.50 vs 10.13, number of species per fish 3.75 vs 3.00); however, we identified four biases which diminish the validity of this comparison. Finally, these results and previously published results allow us to propose a generalization of parasite biodiversity for four major families of reef-associated fishes (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae and Lethrinidae): well-sampled fish have a mean of 20 host-parasite combinations per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 10 per fish species. Conclusions Since all precautions have been taken to minimize taxon numbers, it is safe to affirm than the number of fish parasites is at least ten times the number of fish species in coral reefs, for species of similar size or larger than the species in the four families studied; this is a major improvement to our estimate of biodiversity in coral reefs. Our results suggest that extinction of a coral reef fish species would eventually result in the coextinction of at least ten species of parasites. PMID:22947621

  11. Inter- and size-specific patterns of fish seasonal migration between a shallow lake and its streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Brodersen, J.; Nilsson, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study used passive telemetry (passive integrated transponders) to evaluate winter migration in three species of cyprinids (roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), white bream (Blicca bjoerkna (L.)) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L.))) and their potential predators (pike (Esox lucius (L.......)) and perch (Perca fluviatilis (L.))) between a shallow lake and its streams. Migration patterns were investigated from October to June, and a substantial part of the roach (40%) and white bream (55%) populations tagged in the lake during autumn migrated during winter into the streams, whereas only very few...... piscivores (white bream, only few rudd (

  12. Gamete compatibility between marine and estuarine Acanthopagrus spp. (Sparidae) and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D G; Gray, C A; West, R J; Ayre, D J

    2010-08-01

    On Australia's south-east coast, hybridization between estuary-restricted black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri Munro and its migratory coastal congener yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis (Günther) has led to estuarine populations largely composed of hybrids that are most genetically similar to A. butcheri. The fertilization success achieved when ova of estuary-caught A. butcheri were fertilized with the cryogenically preserved sperm of either ocean-caught A. australis or estuary-caught A. butcheri-like was compared. The experimental crosses, which by chance included both pure parental and hybrid bream, revealed no evidence that gametic incompatibility provides a barrier to fertilization among both pure species and their hybrids.

  13. Severe fish mortality associated with 'red tide' observed in the sea off Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; George, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; Jayakumar, D.A.; Shailaja, M.S.; Sardessai, S.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Shenoy, D.M.; Naik, H.; Maheswaran, P.A.; KrishnaKumari, L.; Rajesh, G.; Sudhir, A.K.; Binu, M.S.

    Severe fish mortality associated with the "red tide" phenomenon caused by Noctiluca blooms was observed in the sea off Cochin, Kerala, India at depths less than 40 m. The dead fish, almost entirely comprised of the threadfin bream (Nemipterus...

  14. Statistical analysis of the somatic growth rate of O+ fish in relation to temperature under natural conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, W.M.; Van Nes, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    The somatic growth rate of 0+ fish of the six major species in Dutch shallow eutrophic lakes, bream (Abramis brama), roach (Rutilus rutilus), pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca) (planktivorous and piscivorous), perch (Perca fluviatilis), ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), and smelt (Osmerus eperlanus),

  15. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 13, No 35 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different feed amounts on the growth performance of gilthead sea bream (Sparusaurata) in the Black Sea · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. B Baki ...

  16. Biological justification for fish harvest limits in the Zaporizhzhya (Dnipro reservoir for 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Marenkov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the current state of the populations of roach, bream, pikeperch and silver bream in the Zaporozhye (Dnipro reservoir and to determine the acceptable amounts of commercial harvest of these fish species for 2017 by determining scientifically justified limits. Methodology. The summarized results of ichthyological studies conducted during 2010–2016 years were used during the research. The materials were collected in the Zaporizhzhya (Dnipro Reservoir using standard fish sampling methods. A set of standard fishing gears (gill nets with mesh sizes of 30–120 mm was used for studying fish fauna. Juvenile fish were caught in the third decade of July – first decade of August using a beach seine of 10 m in length. The processing of collected samples was conducted by conventional methods. Findings. We studied the current state of commercial fish populations, the exploitation of which is limited (roach, bream, pikeperch, silver bream. We determined the basic biological parameters of these species, determined the age and sex structure of their populations and assessed their stocks. Based on these data, we determined the rates of natural, fishing and total mortality and calculated the amounts of commercial catches of the investigated fish species. With an optimum catch of the roach not exceeding 25% of the calculated stock, we recommended to set a limit on the catch of this species for 2017 as 190 tons. Next year, it is advisable to set a limit for the bream catch not higher than 88 tons. Due to a critical state of the pikeperch stock in the Zaporozhye (Dnieper reservoir, the recommended limit of its catch for 2017 should not exceed 14 tons. The estimated catch limit for the silver bream for the following year is recommend to be 70 tons. The harvst of these fish species within the proposed limits will allow carrying out their commercial exploitation without environmental damage. Originality. We presented the results of the study of

  17. hydromedusae off the orange river mouth, southern africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 242 zooplankton samples from the upper 100 m of the water column was collected discontinuously from March 1997 to January 1999 off the Orange River mouth on the west coast of southern Africa. Six species of hydromedusae were recovered at generally low abundance, of which Euphysa aurata, Leuckartia ...

  18. Aerobic capacity influences the spatial position of individuals within fish schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Killen, Shaun S.; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    of juvenile mullet Liza aurata were filmed at three swim speeds in a swim tunnel, with one focal fish from each school then also measured for standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and maximum aerobic swim speed. At faster speeds, fish with lower MMR and AS swam near...

  19. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceae 3: Ficus subgenus Ficus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.

    2003-01-01

    The sections of Ficus L. subg. Ficus are described and their Malesian species listed and a key to their identification is provided. One new subsection is established: Ficus subg. Ficus sect. Eriosycea subsect. Auratae. Four new species and two new subspecies are described: F. auricoma, F.

  20. Histological and ultrastructural study of the gastric wall of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-01-05

    Jan 5, 1989 ... Histological and ultrastructural study of the gastric wall of the freshwater bream,. Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) with reference to 'parietal-like' cells. Heleen L. Coetzee*, Maria M. Nel and J.H. Swanepoel. Department of Zoology, Rand Afrikaans University, P.O. Box 524, Johannesburg, 2000 Republic ...

  1. Alternative approaches can greatly reduce the number of fish used for acute toxicity testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, C.C.; Murk, A.J.; Waart, van de B.J.; Hoeven, van der J.C.M.; Roode, de D.F.

    2006-01-01

    We first examined the uptake kinetics of Cd and Zn in the juvenile marine black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegeli) over a wide range of ambient Cd and Zn concentrations, and the relationships with metal accumulation (uptake rate and amount of nonexchangeable surface binding) were established for

  2. Lake restoration by fish removal: Short and Long-term effects in 36 Danish lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Liboriussen, Lone; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2008-01-01

    and persistent reduction of the bream stock which reduced resuspension and SS, while the biomass of roach returned to former levels, decreasing the zooplankton grazing with less control on Chla. Total algal biomass also declined after fish removal, particularly that of cyanobacteria, whereas the biomass...

  3. WIE SE GROND KOOP BOAS (RUT 4:9)? 1. INLEIDING EN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    London: Darton, Long- man & Todd. ELLIGER K & RUDOLPH W (REDS.) 1983. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. GORDIS R. 1974. Love, marriage and business in the Book of Ruth: a chapter in Hebrew. Customary Law. In: H.N. Bream, R.D. Heim & C.A. Moore (eds.), A light unto my.

  4. Production and verification of heterozygous clones in Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitotic gynogenetic diploids Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were produced by activating eggs with ultra violet (UV) irradiated sperm of red sea bream (Pagrus major), followed by hydrostatic pressure treatment to block the first mitotic division. By crossing two mitotic gynogenetic diploid females with two males, two ...

  5. characterisation, phylogenetic analysis,functional annotation and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-01-06

    Jan 6, 2017 ... 1Key Lab of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of. Education/Key Lab of ... qPCR: a) in five tissues from a healthy blunt snout bream, indicating the highest constitutive expression level .... in a Rotor-Gene Q real-time PCR cycler (Qiagen, Dusseldorf, Germany). The reaction.

  6. Dicty_cDB: VHD430 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 03495.1 lmos2p04e08_SP6 Striped sea bream hepatic library Lithognathus mormyrus cDNA, mRNA sequence. 36 0.62... clone AT0AA010D11 of library AT0AA from strain CBS 4311 of Saccharomyces servazzii. 38 0.57 3 EB503495 |EB5

  7. Risk assessment of methylmercury in five European countries considering the national seafood consumption patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Jacxsens, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    confirms the substantial contribution of tuna to MeHg exposure in each of the countries. Also hake, cod, sea bream, sea bass and octopus are identified as important contributors. From this study, it is concluded that a country-specific seafood consumption advice is needed. Policy makers may adopt...

  8. Use of genomic information in mass-spawning fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massault, C.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis uses the current genetic and genomic resources to permit genetic improvement of stress response in European sea bass and disease resistance in gilthead sea bream, two traits of economical importance. One way to integrate such genetic knowledge into breeding programmes, is to detect for

  9. Effect of graded levels of phosphorus on growth and mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... A principal source of deposited lipid in phosphorus deficient red sea bream. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish., 46: 1227-1230. Satoh S, Porn-Ngam N, Takeuchi T, Watanabe T (1996). Influence of dietary phosphorus levels on growth and mineral availability in rainbow trout. Fish Sci., 62: 483-487. Schwarz FJ (1995).

  10. Match or mismatch: the influence of phenology on size-dependent life history and divergence in population structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherding, Jost; Beeck, Peter; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Scharf, Werner R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary 1. In gape-limited predators, body size asymmetries determine the outcome of predator-prey interactions. Due to ontogenetic changes in body size, the intensity of intra- and interspecific interactions may change rapidly between the match situation of a predator-prey system and the mismatch situation in which competition, including competition with the prey, dominates. 2. Based on a physiologically structured population model using the European perch (Perca fluviatilis), analysis was performed on how prey density (bream, Abramis brama), initial size differences in the young-of-the-year (YOY) age cohort of the predator, and phenology (time-gap in hatching of predator and prey) influence the size structure of the predator cohort. 3. In relation to the seasonality of reproduction, the match situation of the predator-prey system occurred when perch hatched earlier than bream and when no gape-size limitations existed, leading to decreased size divergence in the predator age cohort. Decreased size divergence was also found when bream hatched much earlier than perch, preventing perch predation on bream occurring, which, in turn, increased the competitive interaction of the perch with bream for the common prey, zooplankton; i.e. the mismatch situation in which also the mean size of the age cohort of the predator decreased. 4. In between the total match and the mismatch, however, only the largest individuals of the perch age cohort were able to prey on the bream, while smaller conspecifics got trapped in competition with each other and with bream for zooplankton, leading to enlarged differences in growth that increased size divergence. 5. The modelling results were combined with 7 years of field data in a lake, where large differences in the length-frequency distribution of YOY perch were observed after their first summer. These field data corroborate that phenology and prey density per predator are important mechanisms in determining size differences within the YOY

  11. Molecular differentiation of three loach species (Pisces, Cobitidae) based on the nuclear 5S rDNA marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtiklis, Lech; Boroń, Alicja; Ptasznik, Piotr; Lusková, Vera; Lusk, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of the 5S rDNA fragment among three loach species: Cobitis taenia, C. elongatoides and Sabanejewia aurata was investigated using universal PCR primers for this gene. Three amplification products were obtained: 220 bp length for C. taenia and C. elongatoides, and 330 bp for S. aurata. Two amplicons with the same length (in Cobitis) were digested with TaqI restriction endonuclease. This enzyme found one restriction site T/CGA in the C. elongatoides fragment, while in the case of C. taenia no cleavage effect was observed. On this basis we constructed an easy and cheap method for loach species discrimination. It seems adequate for effective support of conservation initiatives for endangered loaches.

  12. Climate Changes and Adaptation of Some Marine Organisms – Persian Gulf Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnood Zahra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Data records since from 2008 to 2012 show the occurrence of the coral reef bleaching, an increase in population of jellyfish and a decreasing presence of some migratory marine mammals in the Persian Gulf has increased. Results of our biometric methods on jellyfish of the Persian Gulf (Aurelia aurata, show a significant increase in size during the last four years (p < 0.05. Our studies in the area showed that in the sampling areas in close proximity to superhot wastewater of industries cooled in terrestrial pools and then emptied into the sea, the abundance of the Aurelia aurata was significantly lower than in regions where superhot water was directly emptied into the seawater. This paper will review the effects of global warming, especially in the Persian Gulf.

  13. The First Record of Three Cymothoid Isopods from Red Sea Fishes, Yemeni Coastal Waters

    OpenAIRE

    A.B. Al-Zubaidy; F.T. Mhaisen

    2013-01-01

    A total of 680 fish specimens belonging to 31 species from the Yemeni coastal waters of the Red Sea were inspected for the poorly studied isopod infestations. Three isopod species of the suborder Cymothoida, family Cymothoidae were detected. These are Nerocila orbignyi (Guérin-Méneville, 1832) from both Moolgarda seheli and Liza aurata, Cymothoa exigua Schioedte and Meinert, 1884 from both Lutjanus gibbus and Chelon macrolepis and Ceratothoa capri (Trilles, 1964) from C. macrolepis. All these...

  14. InxAl1-xN chiral nanorods mimicking the polarization features of scarab beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, R.; Birch, J.; Hsiao, C.-L.; Sandström, P.; Arwin, H.; Järrendahl, K.

    2015-03-01

    The scarab beetle Cetonia aurata is known to reflect light with brilliant colors and a high degree of circular polarization. Both color and polarization effects originate from the beetles exoskeleton and have been attributed to a Bragg reflection of the incident light due to a twisted laminar structure. Our strategy for mimicking the optical properties of the Cetonia aurata was therefore to design and fabricate transparent, chiral films. A series of films with tailored transparent structures of helicoidal InxAl1-xN nanorods were grown on sapphire substrates using UHV magnetron sputtering. The value of x is tailored to gradually decrease from one side to the other in each nanorod normal to its growth direction. This introduces an in-plane anisotropy with different refractive indices in the direction of the gradient and perpendicular to it. By rotating the sample during film growth the in-plane optical axis will be rotated from bottom to top and thereby creating a chiral film. Based on Muellermatrix ellipsometry, optical modeling has been done suggesting that both the exoskeleton of Cetonia aurata and our artificial material can be modeled by an anisotropic film made up of a stack of thin layers, each one with its in-plane optical axis slightly rotated with respect to the previous layer. Simulations based on the optical modeling were used to investigate how pitch and thickness of the film together with the optical properties of the constitutive materials affects the width and spectral position of the Bragg reflection band.

  15. Host specificity, pathogenicity, and mixed infections of trypanoplasms from freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losev, Alexander; Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Kostygov, Alexei Yu; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2015-03-01

    This work summarizes the results of the 8-year study focused on Trypanoplasma sp. parasitizing freshwater fishes in the vicinity of Kyiv, Ukraine. Out of 570 fish specimens of 2 different species analyzed, 440 individuals were found to be infected. The prevalence of infection ranged from 24 % in Abramis brama Linnaeus (freshwater bream) to 100 % in Cobitis taenia Linnaeus (spined loach). The level of parasitemia also varied between moderate in freshwater bream and very high in spined loach. Interestingly, no clinical manifestations of trypanoplasmosis were observed even in extremely heavily infected C. taenia. We hypothesize that different species may differ in evolutionary timing allowing for reciprocal adaptation of the members of the "host-parasite" system. Molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA sequences revealed that several specimens were simultaneously infected with at least two different trypanoplasm species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the mixed infection with fish trypanoplasms.

  16. Evolutionary impacts of hybridization and interspecific gene flow on an obligately estuarine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D G; Gray, C A; West, R J; Ayre, D J

    2009-01-01

    For free-spawning estuarine taxa, gene flow among estuaries may occur via hybridization with mobile congeners. This phenomenon has rarely been investigated, but is probably susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance. In eastern Australia, the estuarine Black Bream Acanthopagrus butcheri and marine Yellowfin Bream Acanthopagrus australis have overlapping distributions and the potential to hybridize. We used surveys of microsatellite and mtDNA variation in 565 adults from 25 estuaries spanning their distributional range to characterize the species and their putative hybrids. Hybrids were widespread (68% of estuaries) and hybrid frequencies varied greatly among estuaries (0-58%). Most (88%) were classed as advanced generation backcrosses with A. butcheri and displayed A. butcheri mtDNA haplotypes. We found most hybrids in the three estuaries within the zone of sympatry (57%). Our study highlights the underemphasized importance of estuaries as sites of hybridization and suggests that hybridization is driven both by opportunity for contact and human activity.

  17. Histological-morphometric structure of the liver of some cyprinids (Cyprinidae Rafinesque, 1810 from the Zaporizhzhia reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sharamok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the state of the liver of wild carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 and bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758 from sites of the Zaporizhzhia reservoir with different human pressures based on histological and cytometric parameters Methodology.The study was carried out in two zones of the Zaporizhzhia reservoir with different degrees and types of human impact - the lower part, located in the agrarian zone (conditionally "environmentally clean" site, and in the Samara Bay with high content of heavy metals in water. The objects of the study were age-4 bream and wild carp. The fish livers for histological studies were obtained from freshly caught fish (in the spring-summer period by anatomical dissection. Fragments of organs of 0.3 – 0.5 cm were taken for preservation. For the preparation of histological preparations, the liver tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The pictures of histological preparations were made with the aid of a digital camera connected to the microscope. Histologic sections were investigated with 40X magnification using a microscope with the Sciencelab T500 5.17 M digital camera. Findings. Human impact on the hydroelectric system causes signs of hepatocyte hypertrophy and a number of histopathologies in cyprinids in the Samara Bay. The cytometric analysis of the liver showed that the area of hepatocytes in the bay was larger in comparison with the the individuals of similar age from the lower part of the reservoir by 20 and 10% for the wild carp and bream, respectively. In this case, a 14% increase in the small diameter of cells was observed the in hepatocytes of carp, and a 10% increase in large diameter and a 19% increase in nucleus area was observed in bream. The results of the histological invesatigation of the morphological structure of the liver of cyprinids inhabiting the Samara Bay have revealed a number of pathological changes. Fatty liver dystrophy was observed in 37% of bream and 12

  18. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jepsen, Niels; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging......The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tags to explore species-and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm) in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama) and perch...... of fish in Lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear...

  19. Summer use of the tidal freshwaters of the River Seine by three estuarine fish: Coupling telemetry and GIS spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pichon, C.; Coustillas, J.; Zahm, A.; Bunel, M.; Gazeau-Nadin, C.; Rochard, E.

    2017-09-01

    Acoustic telemetry and GIS-based spatial analysis were used to investigate the summer habitat use and movement patterns of three fish species in the tidal freshwaters of the Seine estuary (France). Experimental displacement of tagged individuals of thin-lipped grey mullet (Liza ramada), European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and common bream (Abramis brama) were conducted to test for their spatial fidelity and home range establishment. Most tagged individuals (95%) successfully returned to their previously occupied capture site, showing spatial homing abilities. The studied upstream tidal freshwater segment of the Seine estuary was regularly used by grey mullet as a part of its larger summer home range, while European eel and common bream were resident in this segment. The fidelity of eel to small nocturnal refuges and the regular use of intertidal waterbodies at high tide by grey mullet and bream suggested that they possess a capacity of acquiring spatial memory of habitats in a fluctuating environment. Importantly, the scale of movements travelled by each species was positively related to tidal phase. Grey mullet and bream, both visual feeders, exhibited short-term tidal movements to known habitats, providing food resources and contiguous resting habitat suggesting that they have shown behavioural strategies adaptive to fluctuating environments. Eel, in contrast, was found to have a different strategy strongly related to diel dynamics: it stayed in subtidal habitats rich in refuges that remained available at low tide. The results of this study emphasize the importance of restoring intertidal waterbodies and the relevance of considering the availability of adjacent subtidal habitats providing refuge at low tides.

  20. Major commercial products from micro- and macroalgae

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Griffiths, M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available , tilapia Tetraselmis Crustaceans Macroalgae used as grazing fodder for animals such as urchins and abalone include Ecklonia maxima, Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria gracilis (Naidoo et al. 2006). Of the 1000 tons of microalgae produced... form leads to enhanced deposition in the tissues of carp, chicken and red sea bream (Olaizola, 2003; Spolaore et al 2006). Phycobiliproteins Phycobiliproteins are unique to algae. They are a group of water‐soluble, light harvesting...

  1. Commercial and game fish from the Dąbie lake (Poland and their infection of Paracoenogonimus ovatus (Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Anna Linowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Paracoenogonimus ovatus is the parasite that infest wide definitive host range (predator birds and at least two intermediate hosts: molluscs (Viviparus viviparus, V. fasciatus and freshwater fish from eastern and central Europe. The larvae of the parasite (metacercariae go to the muscle and connective tissue, and at high intensity of infection to the internal organs and brain of fish. A total of 128 fishes were caught in autumn 2009 and 2014, by fishing boats operating in Lake Dąbie, which is one of the largest lakes in Poland. The species selected reflect the species structure of commercial and recreational catches. They were roach, bream, silver bream, crucian carp (Cyprinidae, ruffe, perch, zander (Percidae and pike (Esocidae. The fish were filleted, and the skinned muscle was compressed under a trichinoscope, what allowed to see and count metacercariae in the tissues. To facilitate parasite isolation from the cysts, the muscle tissues were subjected to a 0.1 % solution of activated pepsin and 5 % citric acid at a temperature of 20ºC. The free larvae were measured and identified under an Olympus BX 50 microscope coupled with a camera running AxioVs40 V 4.8.2.0 software. Metacercariae are grouped primarily at depths ranging from just beneath the skin to about 50% of fillet thickness. The infection prevalence of P. ovatus metacercariae in the fish analyzed was 78,5%. The density of infection per gram of muscle tissue mass in the fish infected was 8.85 (from 1 to 84 metacercariae. The highest density was noted in roach, bream and white bream (17.09, 11.14 and 9.58, respectively. Metacercariae occurred singly in pike, parasites were not found in the muscles of crucian carp, ruffe, and perch examined. The reason for such differences in infection is the availability and composition of food, as well as the behavior of the fish examined.

  2. Electron microscope evidence of virus infection in cultured marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Jin-Xing; Qu, Ling-Yun

    2000-09-01

    Electron microscope investigation on the red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major), bastard halibut ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus) in North China revealed virus infection in the bodies of the dead and diseased fish. These viruses included the lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), parvovirus, globular virus, and a kind of baculavirus which was not discovered and reported before and is now tentatively named baculavirus of stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus).

  3. Aprovechamiento de recursos pesqueros infrautilizados para la obtención de alimentos mejorados para el cultivo de peces

    OpenAIRE

    Aurrekoetxea, G.; Perera, M.N.

    2002-01-01

    Several underutilised fishery resources were analysed, including low market value species and fish processing byproducts, and then one was selected due to its composition, amount and availability for high quality protein production for juvenile gilthead sea bream and turbot diets. Among the available extraction technologies, enzymatic hydrolysis was selected, since the resulting final product has high nutritional value. Four commercial enzymes were tested to determine their activity, and the ...

  4. Fish fauna of the lower reaches of the River Drava and surrounding marshland habitats near Donji Miholjac (Eastern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ćaleta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field research of ichthyofauna of the lower reaches of the River Drava near Donji Miholjac was made during 2006 using fishing nets and electrofisher. Additional data was collected from the local anglers to present all caught species in this area. Sampling was conducted on all types of water habitats including side arms, artificial channels, backwater arms and the main river channel. A total of 44 fish species were reported. Six species were documented from the catch of local anglers. The family Cyprinidae is represented by 24 species, Percidae by 4, Cobitidae by 3, Gobiidae and Centrarchidae by 2, while the remaining families were represented by 1 species. The most abundant species in this part of the River Drava is roach (Rutilus rutilus. The largest part of total biomass belongs to bream (Abramis brama. Other important species according to abundance in the examined area are: bitterling (Rhodeus amarus, European perch (Perca fluviatilis, silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna and common bleak (Alburnus alburnus. According to the ichthyofauna composition, the explored area is classified as a typical bream zone which is characteristic for the lower part of the river.

  5. Effects of portable solar water quality control machines on aquaculture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Cheng, Guofeng; Liu, Chong; Liu, Shijing; Lu, Shimin; Tian, Changfeng; Tang, Rong; Gu, Zhaojun

    2017-02-01

    The effects of a portable solar water quality control machine (PSWM) on water quality and sediment of aquaculture ponds were studied in bream aquaculture ponds in Shanghai, China. PSWM operation reduced the temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) differences between upper and lower water levels. Concentrations of NH4+-N, NO2--N, TN, TP, COD and TSS increased rapidly and reached maximums at 12 h. The density and biomass of phytoplankton and levels of chlorophyll a reached maximums after 40 h of PSWM operation. In a 165-day study, the mean concentrations of NH4+-N, NO2--N and the available phosphorous (AP) in the PSWM ponds were significantly lower than in the control ponds, but the TP was significantly greater than the control ponds. Compared with the test began, the thickness of the sediment in PSWM ponds declined by 12.4 ± 4.3 cm, the control ponds increased by 5.0 ± 2.3 cm and the TN and AP levels in sediment significantly declined. PSWM treatment increased the production of bream and silver carp by 30 and 25%, respectively, and the feed coefficient was reduced by 24.2%. Use of PSWM in bream aquaculture ponds improved water quality, reduced sediment, reduced aquaculture pollution emissions and increased production.

  6. First detection of circovirus-like sequences in amphibians and novel putative circoviruses in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarján, Zoltán László; Pénzes, Judit J; Tóth, Róza P; Benkő, Mária

    2014-03-01

    The negative samples of a collection, established originally for seeking new adeno- and herpesviruses in lower vertebrates, were screened for the pres-ence of circoviruses by a consensus nested PCR targeting the gene coding for the replication-associated protein. Six fish samples representing five species, namely asp (Aspius aspius), roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and monkey goby (Neogobius fluviatilis), as well as three frog samples were found positive for circoviral DNA. Sequence analysis of the amplicons indicated the presence of three novel putative circo-like viruses and a circovirus in Hungarian fishes and one novel circovirus in a common toad (Bufo bufo), and another one in a dead and an alive specimen of green tree frog (Litoria caerulea), respectively. In phylogeny reconstruction, the putative bream circovirus clustered together with circoviruses discovered in other cyprinid fishes recently. Three other piscine circoviral sequences appeared closest to sequences derived from different environmental samples. Surprisingly, the nucleotide sequence derived from two fish samples (a bream and a monkey goby) proved to be from porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), almost identical to a sequence detected in Sweden previously. This is the first report on the detection of PCV2 in fish and circoviral DNA in amphibian hosts.

  7. Trophic interaction between topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva and the co-occurring species during summer in the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didenko A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topmouth gudgeon, Pseudorasbora parva is the most common invasive fish in Europe, which can compete with the juveniles of valuable commercial fishes. The goal of this work is to study the diet of topmouth gudgeon and trophic relationships with some native fishes inhabiting the littoral zone of the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir. The obtained relatively low values of diet overlaps between topmouth gudgeon and other co-occurring cyprinids such as juvenile roach, Rutilus rutilus; silver bream, Blicca bjoerkna; rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus; Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and bleak, Abramis brama, indicate that it is not a serious food competitor for them, especially commercially valuable ones. On the contrary, high diet overlaps were observed among some native cyprinids such as juvenile roach, silver bream, rudd, and bleak. The major prey items of topmouth gudgeon were Chydorus sphaericus and chironomids, whereas other cyprinids selected Bosmina spp. This peculiarity may be due to different vertical distributions of these fish in the littoral zone of the reservoir, where topmouth gudgeon inhabit near-bottom water layers, where they preyed on near-bottom and benthic zooplankters and chironomids, while juvenile roach, silver bream, rudd, and juvenile and adult bleak live in higher water layers, where they preyed on pelagic zooplankton.

  8. Is natural bait type a stochastic process for size and condition of fishes in the recreational fishery of Ιzmir Bay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. AYDIN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining bait type might be one of the most important factors that influence the amount and size of the fish catch in marine recreational fishery. To this end, the relationships between two types of natural bait and catch per unit effort (CPUE, yield per unit effort (YPUE, fish size and condition (K=W/TL3 were evaluated in recreational fishery İzmir Bay (Middle Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey. The most abundant angling species in Turkish coasts; annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, blotched picarel (Spicara flexuosa, two banded sea bream (Diplodus vulgaris and bogue (Boops boops were collected by anglers between September 2006 – February 2007 with using baits; onyx (Solen vagina, and sardine (Sardina pilchardus. The average CPUE and YPUE of hooks baited with onyx were significantly higher than the bait sardine. Eventhough the averages of specimens caught with bait sardine were bigger than onyx except for bogue but, total length-frequency distributions were revealed some differences only for annular sea bream and blotched picarel between two baits. High conditioned individuals of bogue were caught with bait sardine and the rest of the other species with onyx.

  9. What fish and how many there are in Danube Delta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂVODARU Ion

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The real figure of fish fauna and fishery of the Danube delta is difficult to be estimated due to the limitation in fish sampling and underreporting of catch. This paper proposes to compare output of fish sampling with commercial catch statistics. Fish fauna from Danube delta complex lakes was sampled in 2006-2008 period and catchstatistics represent a long time series data recording. For fish sampling was used two complementary methods: electric fishing for shallow border zone and Nordic gillnet fishing for deep open water. The frequency of occurrence and the dominance in abundance analysis was based on 267 samples including 57158 individuals from both sampling methods since the dominance in biomass was based on 640 kg of fish only from gillnet sampling. In total was sampled 40 fish species, while catch statistics recorded 10 commercial species plus more 3 categories that include more other different species. In the sampling analysis, the most frequent species (very frequent were perch, bleak, roach, rudd and white bream. The most abundant(eudominant and dominant species were bleak, roach, rudd, perch, and white bream. In biomass dominate (eudominant and dominant roach, rudd, perch, white bream, bleak, gibel carp and pike. This analysis shows that Danube delta lakes are dominate by small eurytopic and opportunistic species, favoured by eutrophication of lakes. However, this figure is expression of sampling methods that are limited in estimation of real fish population status. Nevertheless, when this structure is compared to commercial statistics, it is noticed completely other figure. The difference in fish structure may be explained by targeting fishing to large size and high market value fish species. It is not neglected that commercial statistics is deformed by unreported catch sold on black market. According with recorded statistics from 1920 until 2010 the catch trend continuously decrease and species composition was well balanced before

  10. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Thomas Y.; Tirsgaard, B.

    2016-01-01

    of the MS. Data collection involved measuring oxygen consumption rate at increasing swimming speeds, using the gait transition from steady to unsteady (burst-assisted) swimming to detect the onset of anaerobic metabolism. Results provided evidence of the locomotor performance trade-off, but only in S...... 24.3 and 26.1% in S. aurata and P. reticulata, respectively. These data highlight the importance of taking anaerobic metabolism into account when assessing effects of environmental variation on the MS, because the fraction where anaerobic metabolism occurs is a poor indicator of sustainable aerobic...

  11. AcEST: BP917385 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7|MT_LIZAU Metallothionein OS=Liza aurata GN=mt PE=3 SV=1 29 8.3 sp|P52720|MTB_SALSA Metallothionein B OS=Salmo salar GN=mtb...|P68502|MTB_SALAL Metallothionein B OS=Salvelinus alpinus GN=mtb PE=3 SV=1 Length...othionein B OS=Oncorhynchus mykiss GN=mtb PE=3 SV=1 Length = 60 Score = 29.3 bits...CPLPLSKCQNLCL 57 +SC PCCP SKC + C+ Sbjct: 30 KSCCPCCPSGCSKCASGCV 48 >sp|P52720|MTB_SALSA Metallothionein B OS=Salmo salar GN=mtb

  12. Antioxidant responses versus DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in golden grey mullet liver: a field study at Ria de Aveiro (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Ahmad, I; Maria, V L; Pacheco, M; Santos, M A

    2010-10-01

    The present work aimed to investigate golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) liver protection versus damage responses at a polluted coastal lagoon, Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), as a tool to evaluate the human impacts on environmental health at five critical sites in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) in comparison to a reference site (Torreira; TOR). Protection was evaluated by measuring non-enzymatic [total glutathione (GSHt) and non-protein thiols (NPT)] and enzymatic [catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR)] antioxidant defenses. Damage was assessed as DNA integrity loss and lipid peroxidation (LPO). No significant differences were found between sites in terms of non-enzymatic defenses (GSHt and NPT). CAT did not display significant differences among sites. However, GPx at Barra (BAR, associated with naval traffic), Gafanha (GAF, harbor and dry-dock activities area), Laranjo (LAR, metal contaminated associated with chlor-alkali plant), and Vagos (VAG, contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was significantly lower than the reference site. GST was lower at GAF, Rio Novo do Príncipe (RIO, pulp mill effluent area), LAR, and VAG, whereas GR was lower at RIO. The loss of antioxidant defenses was paralleled by higher LPO levels only at GAF and VAG. However, no DNA integrity loss was found. Results highlight the importance of the adopted multibiomarkers as applied in the liver of L. aurata in coastal water pollution monitoring. The integration of liver antioxidant defense and damage responses can improve the aquatic contamination assessment.

  13. Phylogeny of Trachylepis sp. (Reptilia) from Turkey inferred from mtDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Ozgür; Candan, Kamil; Kankiliç, Tolga; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Durmuş, Salih Hakan; Poulakakis, Nikos; Ilgaz, Cetin

    2014-12-01

    The taxonomic status of the species included into the genus Trachylepis in Turkey are doubtful. So far, three morphological species have been attributed to this genus in Turkey; Trachylepis aurata. T. vittata, and T. septemtaeniata. Here, we investigated the taxonomy of the Turkish Trachylepis species by employing phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches and using mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b and 12 S rRNA). In total, 45 Trachylepis and 6 Mabuya specimens were used analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out using Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) methods. The phylogenetic relationships and the genetic distances retrieved, revealed that the Turkish species, which currently recognized as Trachylepis, are highly diversified, forming a distinct clade that shows closer phylogenetic affinity with the species of the genus Mabuya rather than the other Trachylepis species. In this clade, the three Turkish species are monophyletic with T. vittata to branch off first in late Miocene (10.54 Mya). The other two species (T. septemtaeniata and T. aurata) seem to have sister group relationship that diverged at the end of Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.27 Mya). As a whole, the examination of mtDNA lineages in the Turkish lizards of the genus Trachylepis may contribute substantially to the refining of their taxonomic status, since the three species of Turkey, although monophyletic, represent a distinct radiation that would could probably recognized as a different genus in Mabuya sensu lato.

  14. Megalocytiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Nakajima

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Megalocytivirus, represented by red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV, the first identified and one of the best characterized megalocytiviruses, Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, the type species of the genus, and numerous other isolates, is the newest genus within the family Iridoviridae. Viruses within this genus are causative agents of severe disease accompanied by high mortality in multiple species of marine and freshwater fish. To date outbreaks of megalocytivirus-induced disease have occurred primarily in south-east Asia and Japan, but infections have been detected in Australia and North America following the importation of infected ornamental fish. The first outbreak of megalocytiviral disease was recorded in cultured red sea bream (Pagrus major in Japan in 1990 and was designated red sea bream iridovirus disease (RSIVD. Following infection fish became lethargic and exhibited severe anemia, petechiae of the gills, and enlargement of the spleen. Although RSIV was identified as an iridovirus, sequence analyses of RSIV genes revealed that the virus did not belong to any of the four known genera within the family Iridoviridae. Thus a new, fifth genus was established and designated Megalocytivirus to reflect the characteristic presence of enlarged basophilic cells within infected organs. Indirect immunofluorescence tests employing recently generated monoclonal antibodies and PCR assays are currently used in the rapid diagnosis of RSIVD. For disease control, a formalin-killed vaccine was developed and is now commercially available in Japan for several fish species. Following the identification of RSIV, markedly similar viruses such as infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, dwarf gourami iridovirus (DGIV, turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV, Taiwan grouper iridovirus (TGIV, and rock bream iridovirus (RBIV were isolated in East and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analyses of the major capsid protein (MCP and

  15. A new species of Nemipterus (Perciformes: Nemipteridae) and first record of N. nematophorus (Bleeker) from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Barry C; Ho, Hsuan-Ching

    2017-02-09

    A new species of threadfin bream, Nemipterus sugillatus, from Taiwan and Indonesia is described and figured. Nemipterus sugillatus n. sp. resembles N. virgatus (Houttuyn) in colour pattern but differs from the latter, notably in lacking a second yellow stripe along the base of the dorsal fin, and by the absence of a red spot at the origin of the lateral line. Nemipterus sugillatus n. sp. is also distinct from N. virgatus in having only 7 anal soft rays (versus 8) and in lacking a long trailing caudal filament. Nemipterus nematophorus Bleeker is reported for the first time from Taiwan. A key to the species of Nemipterus from Taiwan is provided.

  16. マダイ仔魚の成長および飢餓耐性に及ぼすタウリン強化ワムシの効果

    OpenAIRE

    陳, 昭能; 竹内, 俊郎; 高橋, 隆行; 友田, 努; 小磯, 雅彦; 桑田, 博; JAU-NENG, CHEN; TOSHIO, TAKEUCHI; Takayuki, Takahashi; TSUTOMU, TOMODA; MASAHIKO, KOISO; HIROSHI, KUWADA; 東京海洋大学海洋科学部; 日清丸紅飼料株式会社; (独)水産総合研究センター能登島栽培漁業センター

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of rotifers enriched with taurine on the growth performance and survival of larval red sea bream Pagrus major. Larvae at 2 days post-hatching (dph ; total length 2.33± 0.05mm) were divided into two groups and fed on rotifers enriched with or without 400 (mg/L) taurine for 17 h. There was no significant difference in activity of rotifers and their fatty acid profiles in rotifers irrespective of enrichment with or without taurine. The taurine c...

  17. Fish parasites as bioindicators of water pollution. Canadian translation of fisheries and aquatic sciences No. 5598

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuperman, B.I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of monogenetic flukes of the species Diplozoon paradoxum and cestodes of the species Caryophyllaeus laticeps (parasites of bream) as bioindicators of water pollution resulting from human activity since they are highly resistant to toxins and increase significantly in number in a polluted zone. The data presented was obtained during a study on the effect of the effluent of the coal-tar chemical industry on the fish parasites in the Sheksna pool of the Rybinsk Reservoir after the breakdown of purification installations at the Cherepovets metallurgical combine in 1987.

  18. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV. To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  19. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-07-26

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  20. Monogenea of Chinese marine fishes. XIV. Two new species of Microcotylidae from fishes of the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianyin, Z; Tingbao, Y

    2001-01-01

    Two new species of microcotylid monogeneans are described. Solostamenides platyorchis n. sp. was obtained from the gills of Mugil cephalus (Mugilidae) and Polylabroides guangdongensis n. sp. from the gills of Sparus macrocephalus, S. berda and Acanthopagrus latus (Sparidae). Solostamenides platyorchis is morphologically similar to S. mugilis (Vogt, 1878) Unnithan, 1971 and S. pseudomugilis (Hargis, 1956) Unnithan, 1971 in the structure of the copulatory organ, but differs from them in the number, arrangement and shape of the testes. Features of P. guangdongensis distinguishing it from other species of the genus include a copulatory organ lacking small spines and an extremely long polar filament on the egg. In view of this species, we suggest omitting the presence of small spines on the copulatory organ as a diagnostic character of the genus Polylabroides Mamaev & Parukhin, 1976.

  1. High prevalence of trypanosome co-infections in freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Losev, Alexander; Kostygov, Alexei Yu; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2014-12-01

    One thousand three hundred seventy three fish specimens of eight different species from the vicinity of Kyiv, Ukraine, were examined for the presence of trypanosomes and 921 individuals were found to be infected. The prevalence of infection ranged from 24% in freshwater bream, Abramis brama (Linnaeus), to 100% in spined loach, Cobitis 'taenia' Linnaeus. The level of parasitaemia also varied significantly between generally mild infections in pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus), and heavy ones in C. 'taenia'. In most cases the infections with trypanosomes were asymptomatic. Cases of co-infection with species of Trypanoplasma Laveran et Mesnil, 1901 were documented for five out of eight examined host species. Molecular analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences revealed that four hosts, namely northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus, freshwater bream, spined loach and European perch, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, were simultaneously infected with two different trypanosome species. Our findings advocate the view that to avoid the risk posed by mixed infections, subsequent molecular taxonomic studies should be performed on clonal lines derived from laboratory cultures of fish trypanosomes.

  2. Concentrations of 17 elements in muscle, gills, liver and gonads of five economically important fish species from the Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhardt M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Danube River in the vicinity of the city of Belgrade receives large amounts of untreated or poorly treated communal and industrial waste waters. The aim of this study was to assess elemental accumulation patterns in a number of economically important fish species in this area that belong to different trophic levels. Concentrations of 17 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were assessed in liver, muscle, gills and gonads of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, freshwater bream (Abramis brama, white bream (Blicca bjoerkna, common carp (Cyprinus carpio and wels catfish (Silurus glanis from the Danube River in Serbia by the use of ICP-OES. Silver carp specimens were differentiated from the other four species by high concentrations of Al and Fe in the liver. Common carp specimens were differentiated by high concentrations of Zn in gills, muscle and liver. Distribution of elements among different tissues had a consistent pattern among the species. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, As, Zn, Cu and Fe in muscle were at acceptable levels for human consumption, while concentrations of Fe and Zn were above maximum acceptable concentrations in liver and gonads.

  3. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  4. Gill monogenean communities on three commercially important sparid fish in Omani waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilha Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of polyopisthocotylean monogeneans on the gills of three commercially important species of sparid caught in Omani coastal waters close to the city port of Muscat were determined and compared. Throughout May 2012 to April 2013, infections on bi-weekly samples of the soldier seabream, Argyrops filamentosus (Valenciennes, 1830, the king soldier seabream, Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål, 1775, and, the silver seabream, Rhabdosargus sabra were evaluated. From a total of 200 specimens (standard length of 26–52 cm, caught by line angling or by traps, at least three species of gill monogenean, namely Omanicotyle [Bivagina] heterospina, Heteromicrocotyla sp. and Microcotyle sp., were commonly encountered. Silver bream, which was infected by all three monogeneans, bore the highest infections (100% prevalence; mean intensity of 20.14 ± 0.92 parasites fish-1, whilst the soldier bream, which was infected only by O. heterospina had the lowest levels of infection (of the three sparids with 63.8% prevalence; mean intensity 5.8 ± 0.17 parasites fish-1. Comments on the distribution of monogeneans on each host are provided but to what extent this is influenced by water current speeds passing through the buccal and opercular cavities, gill morphology, parasite size, and / or the morphology and efficiency of the parasite’s attachment apparatus requires establishing and forms the basis of ongoing investigations.

  5. Study of fisheries from fluvio-marine Danube Delta: Matita-Merhei and Rosu-Puiu lake complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CERNISENCU Irina

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The average commercial fish catch decreased from 1,379 tons, in Matita-Merhei complex of lakes and 787 tones in Rosu-Puiu complex of lakes (average catch of 1963-1974 period, to 307 tons, respectively 401 tons average catch of 1992 – 2004 period. In this period piscivorous species like pike, wels catfish, European perch declined and the non-piscivorous species like gibel carp, bream, roach and white bream became dominant. According with the last years state of the fish stocks its estimated that in Rosu-Puiu lakes a sustainable yield of 350 tons could be fished while in Matita – Merhei lakes, approximately 270 tons. The administration of the stocks on the durable principles and implementation of the correct strategy it decisively depends on the quality data concerning the catch size. The lack or unreliable records led to the underestimation or overestimation of some parameters with negative results on the current state and the exploitation of the stocks. The essential error source in stock estimation of both lake complexes is represented by the unrecorded catches of the legal family subsistence quota, black markets and poaching. The real data is very important for accurate assessment of the fish stock. Improvement of the quality of the catch statistics and monitoring of fishing effort are required for sustainable management of Danube delta fisheries.

  6. Study of inland fisheries from Danube Delta - Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CERNISENCU Irina

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The average commercial fish catch decreased from about 12000 tons (1967 year, in Danube Delta lakes to around 3000 tons in the last years. In this period piscivorous species like pike, wels catfish, european perch declined and the non-piscivorous species like gibel carp, bream, roach and white bream became dominant. According with the last years state of the fish stocks its estimated that in Danube Delta lakes a sustainable yield of about 6000 tons could be fished. The administration of the stocks on the durable principles and implementation of the correct strategy it decisively depends on the quality data concerning the catch size. The lack or unreliable records led to the underestimation or overestimation of some parameters with negative results about the current state and theexploitation of the stocks. The essential error source in stock estimation of lake Complexes is represented by the unrecorded catches of the legal family subsistence quota, black markets and poaching. The real data is very important for accurate assessment of the fish stock. Improvement of the quality of the catch statistics and monitoring of fishing effort are required for sustainable management of Danube delta fisheries.

  7. Biota monitoring and the Water Framework Directive-can normalization overcome shortcomings in sampling strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliedner, Annette; Rüdel, Heinz; Teubner, Diana; Buchmeier, Georgia; Lowis, Jaqueline; Heiss, Christiane; Wellmitz, Jörg; Koschorreck, Jan

    2016-11-01

    We compare the results of different monitoring programs regarding spatial and temporal trends of priority hazardous substances of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Fish monitoring data for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mercury (Hg), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) sampled in German freshwaters between the mid-1990s and 2014 were evaluated according to the recommendations of the 2014 adopted WFD guidance document on biota monitoring, i.e., normalization to 5 % lipid content (HCB) or 26 % dry mass (Hg, PFOS) and adjustment to trophic level (TL) 4. Data of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) (annual pooled samples of bream) were compared to monitoring data of the German federal states (FS), which refer to individual fish of different species. Significant decreasing trends (p < 0.01) were detected for Hg in bream (Abramis brama) sampled by both, the ESB and the FS between 1993 and 2013 but not for FS samples comprising different fish species. Data for HCB and PFOS were more heterogeneous due to a smaller database and gave no consistent results. Obviously, normalization could not compensate differences in sampling strategies. The results suggest that the data treatment procedure proposed in the guidance document has shortcomings and emphasize the importance of highly standardized sampling programs in trend monitoring or whenever results between sites have to be compared.

  8. POP levels in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and edible fish from the eastern Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Serkan; Pazi, Idil

    2017-01-01

    Organochlorinated pesticides and Aroclors were measured in the muscle of two edible fish species (gray mullet, sea bream) and blue crab, collected from eastern Mediterranean coast in 2013. The concentration of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and Aroclors in biota samples which were collected at six sites ranged from 1.0-8.6 and 9-47.5 ng g -1 wet weight, respectively. Total DDT concentrations in seafood samples were compared to tolerance level established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA); the concentrations were detected below the tolerence level. Health risk assessment was conducted related to the consumption of chemically contaminated seafood. The estimated daily intake of OCPs calculated by using the estimated daily fish consumption in Turkey was far below the acceptable daily intake as established by FAO/WHO. Our data indicated that consumption of blue crab, gray mullet, and sea bream collected from the Mediterranean coast of Turkey could pose "no risk" for human health in terms of OCPs.

  9. Preliminary investigation of perfluoroalkyl substances in exploited fishes of two contaminated estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew D; Johnson, Daniel D

    2016-10-15

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are being increasingly detected in a range of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, often resulting from the use of legacy fire-fighting foams. This study conducted an initial investigation of the concentrations of PFASs in the commercially and recreationally exploited species Dusky Flathead, Mud Crab, School Prawn, Sea Mullet, Yellowfin Bream, Eastern King Prawn and Sand Whiting, across two contaminated estuaries. All samples contained perfluoro-n-octane sulfonate (PFOS) except four Yellowfin Bream samples (two from each estuary). Perfluoro-n-octanoic acid (PFOA) was detected only in School Prawn samples from Fullerton Cove, while perfluoro-n-hexane sulfonate (PFHxS) was detected in prawn muscle and in fish liver samples from both estuaries. This study presents one of the first surveys of PFAS in a range of edible saltwater fish and crustaceans in Australia, and these baseline levels of contamination will prove useful for informing future surveys of these emerging contaminants. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of acid and alkaline solubilization on the properties of surimi based film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thummanoon Prodpran

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of acid and alkaline solubilizing processes on the properties of the protein based film from threadfin bream surimi was investigated. Surimi films prepared from both processes had the similar light transmission, tensile strength (TS and elongation at break (EAB (P<0.05. However, film with alkaline process had slightly lower water vapor permeability (WVP, compared to that prepared by acid solubilizing process. The protein concentration in the film-forming solution directly affected the properties of the film. Increase in protein concentration resulted in an increase in TS, EAB as well as WVP. The film prepared by acid solubilizing process had an increase in yellowish color as evidenced by the continuous increase in b* and E* values during the storage at r oom temperature. The acid and alkali solubilizing processes caused the degradation of muscle protein in surimi, especially with increasing exposure time. Therefore, solubilizing process had the influence on the properties of the protein film from threadfin bream surimi.

  11. Fish positions relative to neighbours modulate the hydrodynamic advantages of schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    ) and Paolo Domenici (CNR, Italy) Schooling behaviour is a widespread phenomenon shared by a large number of fish species. One of the most common benefits of swimming in a school is the hydrodynamic and energetic advantage obtained by its members. Fish occupying non-frontal positions can benefit from the flow...... generated by the caudal movement of fish swimming in the front. While previous work has demonstrated that trailing fish show a lower tail beat frequency (TBF) than leading fish , the extent to which schooling provides hydrodynamic advantages compared to swimming alone has not been quantified. We quantified...... this by filming individual grey mullet Liza aurata when swimming alone (n=20) and the same fish when swimming in a school (n=20; eight fish per school, with one focal fish in each school) at three swimming speeds in a swim-tunnel. TBF was measured in focal fish swimming to the side of a neighbour, using a range...

  12. Dispersant use as a response to oil spills: toxicological effects on fish cardiac performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Lefrançois, Christel; Imbert, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    Dispersant use is a controversial technique used to respond to oil spills in nearshore areas. In order to assess the toxicity of this technique, this study evaluated the cardiac toxicological effects on juvenile golden grey mullets Liza aurata exposed for 48 h to either dispersant alone, chemically dispersed oil, mechanically dispersed oil, the water-soluble fraction of oil or a control condition. Following exposure, the positive inotropic effects of adrenaline were assessed in order to evaluate a potential impairment on the cardiac performance. The results revealed an impairment of the positive inotropic effects of adrenaline for all the contaminants (single dispersant, dispersed and undispersed oil, water-soluble fraction of oil). This suggests that: (1) cardiac performance is a valuable parameter to study the physiopathological effects of dispersed oil; (2) dispersant application is likely to impair cardiac performance.

  13. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Thomas Y.; Tirsgaard, B.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is predicted to affect the distribution and abundance of aquatic ectotherms owing to increasing constraints on organismal physiology, in particular involving the metabolic scope (MS) available for performance and fitness. The oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance...... performance. Our results suggest that without accounting for anaerobic metabolism within the MS, studies involving the OCLTT hypothesis could overestimate the metabolic scope available for sustainable activities and the ability of individuals and species to cope with climate change...... 24.3 and 26.1% in S. aurata and P. reticulata, respectively. These data highlight the importance of taking anaerobic metabolism into account when assessing effects of environmental variation on the MS, because the fraction where anaerobic metabolism occurs is a poor indicator of sustainable aerobic...

  14. Anchoring novel molecular biomarker responses to traditional responses in fish exposed to environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Patricia [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Pacheco, Mario [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Lourdes Pereira, M. [CICECO and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Mendo, Sonia [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rotchell, Jeanette M., E-mail: J.Rotchell@sussex.ac.u [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    The responses of Dicentrarchus labrax and Liza aurata to aquatic pollution were assessed in a contaminated coastal lagoon, using both traditional and novel biomarkers combined. DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, was higher in both fish species from the contaminated sites, whereas levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression were not significantly altered. The liver histopathological analysis also revealed significant lesions in fish from contaminated sites. Alterations in ras and xpf genes were analysed and additional pollutant-responsive genes were identified. While no alterations were found in ras gene, a downregulation of xpf gene was observed in D. labrax from a contaminated site. Suppression subtractive hybridization applied to D. labrax collected at a contaminated site, revealed altered expression in genes involved in energy metabolism, immune system activity and antioxidant response. The approach and results reported herein demonstrate the utility of anchoring traditional biomarker responses alongside novel biomarker responses. - Novel molecular biomarkers of aquatic environmental contamination in fish.

  15. “Sacred scarab” in jewelry of Ancient Egypt: the symbol interpretation problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada V. Prokopovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The image of the Sacred scarab, like any other fact of culture, should be considered only in the context of certain circumstances, which involve the approach choice: viewing as either a sign or a symbol. In those cases where the scarab image stands as a symbol, while interpreting this one it should be taken into account the cultural context, which, as relevant studies show, can never be reduced to a simple interpretation scheme “Scarab — Dorbeetle — Sun symbol”. In that connection suggested is a hypothesis, according to which the image of the Sacred scarab as a symbol is divided into two, at least, concepts: a “Sunny Beetle”, to mean the beetle species Cetonia aurata (or any other similar, and a “Beetle-Demiurge”, to mean the dorbeetle.

  16. Mueller-matrix ellipsometry studies of optically active structures in scarab beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwin H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of multilayers, photonic crystals, metamaterials and other artificial materials has promoted the use of spectroscopic, variable angle, generalized and Mueller-matrix ellipsometry. Naturally occurring structures may show even higher complexity than artificial structures but with a more narrow range of constituent materials. Fascinating reflection properties result from intricate photonic structures in, for instance, the wing scales and cuticles of insects. Currently there is a large interest to explore such functional supramolecular architectures for exploitation in nanotechnology. In this study, Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied in the spectral range of 250 to 1000 nm to investigate optical response and structures of the cuticle of Scarab beetles of the Cetoniinae subfamily. The cuticle of Cetonia aurata (the rose chafer, la cétoine dorée is green with a metallic appearance and reflects left-handed circular/elliptically polarized light. It has been suggested that the polarization of this metallic gloss is caused by a helical structure in the chitinous cuticle. We find that the polarization effect is limited to the narrow spectral range 470-550 nm whereas for shorter or longer wavelengths the reflection properties are similar to those from a near-dielectric material. Model calculations and parameterization of the nanostructure employing a heliocoidal structure are discussed. As a comparison the polarization effects from light reflected from two other beetles will be presented. Coptomia laevis has a similar appearance as Cetonia aurata but has very different polarization properties. The golden Plusiotis argentiola has very interesting properties showing both left and right-handed polarization depending on incidence angle and wavelength.

  17. Determination of heavy metals in muscle tissue of six fish species with different feeding habits from the Danube River, Belgrade-public health and environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Dragoljub A; Marković, Radmila V; Teodorović, Vlado B; Šefer, Dragan S; Krstić, Milena P; Radulović, Stamen B; Ivanović Ćirić, Jelena S; Janjić, Jelena M; Baltić, Milan Ž

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of heavy metals/metalloids (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Fe, Zn, As) in the muscle tissue of fish from the Danube River (two locations: Zemun and Grocka). For the purpose of heavy metal determination in fish muscle, 120 samples of six different fish species, Prussian carp, barbel, bream, carp, pike perch, and catfish were collected. For determining heavy metals, we used microwave oven digestion and atomic absorption spectrometer methods. The highest average content of Pb (0.084 ± 0.004 mg kg(-1)), Cd (0.082 ± 0.003 mg kg(-1)), Hg (0.466 ± 0.006 mg kg(-1)), and As (0.333 ± 0.007 mg kg(-1)) was found in the muscle of carp (an omnivorous fish) from Grocka, while the highest average level of Fe (13.60 ± 0.03 mg kg(-1)) was deposited in bream (also omnivorous) from Zemun. Also, the average Cu level (1.62 ± 0.13 mg kg(-1)) was the highest in catfish muscle (a carnivorous fish) from Grocka, while the highest Zn content (11.16 ± 0.17 mg kg(-1)) was determined in muscle of Prussian carp (an omnivorous fish) from Zemun. The highest content of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, and Zn, respectively) in muscle of the six different types of fish from both locations was symmetrically arranged by species (catfish, barbel, and Prussian carp, respectively). Concentrations of Pb, Hg, and As in the Danube River fish muscle were under the maximum residual levels prescribed by the European Union (EU) and the maximum allowed concentrations (MAC) for Serbia. On the other hand, in all fish muscle from both locations (Zemun and Grocka), higher concentrations of Cd than prescribed (MAC) were found, with the exception of bream and pike perch.

  18. Recent advances in studies on photosynthetic microorganisms and photobioreactors. ; Production of useful carotenoids using minute algae. Hikari gosei biseibutsu no kino kaihatsu to foto baioriakuta. ; Bisai sorui ni yoru yuyo karotenoido no seisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Tsuji, Y. (Higashimaru Shoyu Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan)); Kakizono, T.; Nagai, S. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-11-25

    Astaxanthin (3,3[prime]-dihydroxy-[beta],[beta]-carotene-4,4[prime]-dione) is a red carotenoid dye present in aquatic organisms such as crustacea and fish, and has a close relationship with the manifestation of colors of the bodies and meat of these organisms. Astaxanthin is currently used as a color-enhancing agent for cultivated fish such as red sea bream, rainbow trout, and salmon. Recently, astaxanthin has been found to be a much stronger antioxidant than [beta]-carotene or [alpha]-tocophenol, and its application to foods and pharmaceuticals is expected. In this article, studies by the authors on Haematococcus pluvialis, one of the most promising microorganisms as a source of producing astaxanthin, are described as an example of production of useful carotenoids using minute algae, and are compared with Dunaliella, as a [beta]-carotene producing microorganism, which is already produced commercially. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Biochemical characteristics of four marine fish skins in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Kwon; Jin, Young-Guk; Rha, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seon-Jae; Hwang, Jae-Ho

    2014-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the fish skins of four industrial species: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). There is high domestic demand in Korea for farming of these fish for human consumption. Crude protein contents in the skin of these fish ranged from 73% to 94% by dry weight; this was in part due to a high content of the structural protein, collagen. Among the four species, olive flounder had the thickest dermal and epidermal layers in the dorsal skin. This species was also associated with the highest extraction ratio of acid-soluble collagen. We also examined whether fish skin could be a cost-effective alternative to current fish meal sources. Our analysis indicates that, when supplemented with additional fish oils and essential amino acids, fish skin is a viable alternative for fish meal formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Quest for “Authenticity”. Three performances of a Bach’s fugue compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Morais Ribeiro de Sousa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is meant as a contribution to the general issue of authenticity in musical performances, an issue often debated at a rarefied, speculative level, by introducing a comparison between three case studies consisting of the performative choices in three renown recordings of performances of Bach’s Fugue BWV 1000: two on the classical guitar (Andrés Segovia and Julian Bream and one on the lute (Hopkinson Smith. This approach allows us to pursue in greater detail the tacit aesthetic and ontological underpinnings of such options. Finally, I use the conceptual apparatus gathered to argue that, generally 1 there are no good reasons to believe that a “historicist” approach, per se, will add aesthetic value to a performance and, in particular 2 it is perfectly adequate to use the modern classical guitar in performing Bach’s works.

  1. New chromosome characteristics of the monozoic tapeworm Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea

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    Bombarová M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype of a caryophyllidean tapeworm Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781 from the freshwater bream Abramis brama (L. caught in the Slovak part of the River Tisa, was described and originally inspected for amount of heterochromatin and its chromosome localization. The chromosome set comprised nine metacentric and one submetacentric (No. 3 pairs (2n = 20. The chromosomes were up to 12.0 ± 2.5 μm long and the mean total length of haploid genome (TLC reached 80.6 μm that represents one of the highest yet recorded values among tapeworms. C-banding and staining with fl uorescent dyes DAPI and YOYO1 revealed a distinct banding pattern explicitly on chromosomes with centromeric bright heterochromatin bands present on all 10 chromosome pairs; no pair showed any interstitial heterochromatin. A complete course of spermatocyte meiosis and dynamics of nucleolus formation and degradation during meiotic division was described.

  2. Particle size distribution in ground biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koglin, D; Backhaus, F; Schladot, J D

    1997-05-01

    Modern trace and retrospective analysis of Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) samples require surplus material prepared and characterized as reference materials. Before the biological samples could be analyzed and stored for long periods at cryogenic temperatures, the materials have to be pre-crushed. As a second step, a milling and homogenization procedure has to follow. For this preparation, a grinding device is cooled with liquid nitrogen to a temperature of -190 degrees C. It is a significant condition for homogeneous samples that at least 90% of the particles should be smaller than 200 microns. In the German ESB the particle size distribution of the processed material is determined by means of a laser particle sizer. The decrease of particle sizes of deer liver and bream muscles after different grinding procedures as well as the consequences of ultrasonic treatment of the sample before particle size measurements have been investigated.

  3. Update on Fish Disease Situation in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.

    2012-01-01

    (Thunnus thynnus) and amberjack (Seriola dumerilii) for which some breeding/reproduction plans have been attempted by some hatcheries. The farming of sea bass and sea bream is affected by the presence of several important diseases. Firstly considering Bacterial diseases, Marine Flexibacteriosis, caused...... the appearance of the clinical disease has been recorded also in the wild. Lymphocystis disease (LCD) represents an important disease not for its pathogenicity but for the interferences with strict production plans of farm. Finally, considering parasites, over than “old” protozoans (Cryptocarion irritans...... main pathological scenarios are present. Farms with low water temperature (mainly located in the mountains) can be more affected and damaged by viral diseases (i.e. viral haemorrhagic septicaemia VHS) which is one of the most important problem. Rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) is responsible...

  4. Use of a wire scanner for monitoring residual gas ionization in Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility 20 keV∕u proton∕deuteron low energy beam transport beam line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainas, B; Eliyahu, I; Weissman, L; Berkovits, D

    2012-02-01

    The ion source end of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility accelerator consists of a proton∕deuteron ECR ion source and a low energy beam transport (LEBT) beam line. An observed reduction of the radio frequency quadrupole transmission with increase of the LEBT current prompted additional study of the LEBT beam properties. Numerous measurements have been made with the LEBT bream profiler wire biased by a variable voltage. Current-voltage characteristics in presence of the proton beam were measured even when the wire was far out of the beam. The current-voltage characteristic in this case strongly resembles an asymmetric diodelike characteristic, which is typical of Langmuir probes monitoring plasma. The measurement of biased wire currents, outside the beam, enables us to estimate the effective charge density in vacuum.

  5. Modelling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Mediterranean fish species from aquaculture production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar, Araceli; Costa, Jean Carlos Correia Peres; Posada-Izquierdo, Guiomar D; Valero, Antonio; Zurera, Gonzalo; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando

    2018-02-05

    Over the last couple of decades, several studies have evaluated growth dynamics of L. monocytogenes in lightly processed and ready-to-eat (RTE) fishery products mostly consumed in Nordic European countries. Other fish species from aquaculture production are of special interest since their relevant consumption patterns and added value in Mediterranean countries, such as sea bream and sea bass. In the present study, the growth of L. monocytogenes was evaluated in fish-based juice (FBJ) by means of optical density (OD) measurements in a temperature range 2-20 °C under different atmosphere conditions (i.e. reduced oxygen and aerobic). The Baranyi and Roberts model was used to estimate the maximum growth rate (μ max ) from the observed growth curves. The effect of storage temperature on μ max was modelled using the Ratkowsky square root model. The developed models were validated using experimental growth data for L. monocytogenes in sea bream and sea bass fillets stored under static and dynamic temperature conditions. Overall, models developed in FBJ provided fail-safe predictions for L. monocytogenes growth. For the model generated under reduced oxygen conditions, bias and accuracy factor for growth rate predictions were 1.15 and 1.25, respectively, showing good performance to adequately predict L. monocytogenes growth in Mediterranean fish products. The present study provides validated predictive models for L. monocytogenes growth in Mediterranean fish species to be used in microbial risk assessment and shelf-life studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Competitive relationship between members of the Gobiidae family and other fish species of waters of Pridneprovye region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Khobot

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the species’ composition of Gobiidae, their quantitative and qualitative parameters in the coastal zone of the Pridneproovye water bodies. The structural and functional features of organization of coastal Gobies groups in the explored territory have been investigated, as well as characteristics of spatial arrangement of Gobiidae family representatives in water bodies and rivers and their role in the coastal groups of fishes. In the waters of Dnipropetrovsk region there were recorded 8 species of the Gobies family: round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814, big-headed goby N. kessleri (Gunter, 1861, monkey goby N. fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814, goad goby N. gymnotrachelus (Kessler, 1857, toad goby Mesogobius batrachocephalus (Pallas, 1814, tube-nosed goby Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pallas, 1814, starry goby Benthophilus stellatus (Sauvage, 1874, Brauner’s tadpole goby Benthophiloides brauneri (Beling et Iljin, 1927. The gobies are quickly settled in various water bodies. The highest numbers of Gobiidae were registered in Dneprovsky water basin – 113.8 specimens/100 m2. The dominant among the Gobiidae is monkey goby, and subdominant is round goby. The main food competitor of monkey goby are juveniles of commercial fish. In Samara river the index of trophic niche overlap between goby and roach reaches 0.95, between goby and silver bream – 0.91, between goby and crucian carp – 0.88, between goby and rudd – 0.87, between goby and common bream – 0.62. The number and biomass indicators in Samara river have fallen due to trophic competition between new aggressive fish species – pumpkinseed and Gobiidae. In the Ingulets river the total overlap of trophic niches is observed between N. fluviatilis and black-striped pipefish (1.0, almost complete overlap is recorded between monkey goby and pumpkinseed (0.97. It is found that native species of Dnipropetrovsk region (including commercial species undergo intense trophic

  7. Mercury, Fatty Acids Content and Lipid Quality Indexes in Muscles of Freshwater and Marine Fish on the Polish Market. Risk Assessment of Fish Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Łuczyńska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury content and fatty acids in muscles of Perca fluviatilis L. (European perch, Leuciscus idus L. (ide, Cyprinus carpio L. (European or common carp, Oncorhynchus mykiss Walb. (rainbow trout, Platichthys flesus L. (European flounder. and Clupea harengus L. (bream from the Polish market were investigated. The total mercury was processed with AAS. The fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentration of mercury in muscles varied from 0.006 to 0.138 mg/kg and decreased as follows: perch ≈ ide > flounder > herring ≈ bream ≈ rainbow trout > carp (p ≤ 0.05. There were only significant positive correlations between body weight and mercury content in muscle tissue of carp (r = 0.878, flounder (r = 0.925 and herring (r = 0.982 (p ≤ 0.05. The atherogenic index (AI, thrombogenicity index (TI and flesh-lipid quality index (FLQ were calculated as follows 0.33–0.70 (IA, 0.16–0.31 (IT and 13.01–33.22 (FLQ. Hypocholesterolemic (OFA and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (DFA in muscles of fish ranged from 18.26 to 23.01 and from 73.91 to 78.46, respectively. In most cases, there were not significant correlations between size (body weight and total length and fatty acids in the muscles of the examined fish (p > 0.05. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ values were below 1, which shows that there is no non-carcinogenic health risk to the consumer by consuming the examined fish.

  8. Biomarker responses and PAH ratios in fish inhabiting an estuarine urban waterway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rafael Mendonça; Sadauskas-Henrique, Helen; de Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Val, Adalberto Luis; Nice, Helen Elizabeth; Gagnon, Marthe Monique

    2017-10-01

    Many cities worldwide are established adjacent to estuaries and their catchments resulting in estuarine contamination due to intense anthropogenic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate if fish living in an estuarine urban waterway were affected by contamination, via the measurement of a suite of biomarkers of fish health. Black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri) were sampled in a small urban embayment and a suite of biomarkers of fish health measured. These were condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), hepatic EROD activity, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biliary metabolites, serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (s-SDH) and branchial enzymes cytochrome C oxidase (CCO), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities. The biomarkers of exposure EROD activity, and pyrene- and B(a)P-type biliary metabolites confirmed current or recent exposure of the fish and that fish were metabolizing contaminants. Relative to a reference site, LSI was higher in fish collected in the urban inlet as was the metabolic enzyme LDH activity. CF, GSI, s-SDH, CCO, and naphthalene-type metabolites were at similar levels in the urban inlet relative to the reference site. PAH biliary metabolite ratios of high-molecular-weight to low-molecular-weight suggest that fish from the urban inlet were exposed to pyrogenic PAHs, likely from legacy contamination and road runoff entering the embayment. Similarly, the sediment PAH ratios and the freshness indices suggested legacy contamination of a pyrogenic source, likely originating from the adjacent historic gasworks site and a degree of contamination of petrogenic nature entering the inlet via storm water discharge. Biomarkers of exposure and effect confirmed that black bream collected in the Claisebrook Cove inlet, Western Australia, are currently exposed to contamination and are experiencing metabolic perturbations not observed in fish collected at a nearby reference site. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Kudoa iwatai and two novel Kudoa spp., K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), from daily consumed marine fish in western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukane, Yuuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2011-04-01

    Infection of marine fish by certain myxosporean species of the genus Kudoa results in unsightly cyst formation in the trunk muscle or post-mortem myoliquefaction, causing a great economic loss to aquaculture industries, capture fisheries, and fish dealers. In addition, consumers encountering unsightly Kudoa cysts in fish fillets believe them to be unknown foreign materials acquired during processing. To identify prevalent Kudoa spp. encountered in daily life by the Japanese population, fresh fish slices (sashimi) or fish fillets with whitish spots were collected during a 7-month period (May to December 2008) at local markets in the city of Yamaguchi, western Japan. Kudoa cysts were found in three Japanese seaperches (Lateolabrax japonicus), two black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii), two Japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), and one albacore (Thunnus alalunga). Kudoa iwatai was identified in all the examined Japanese seaperch and black sea bream from Japan's Inland Sea, as assessed by morphology and genetic analysis of the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). Kudoa trachuri n. sp. from two Japanese jack mackerel fished in the Japanese Sea off Nagasaki and Kudoa thunni n. sp. from one albacore fished in the Pacific Ocean had a spore, which was semiquadrate in shape in apical views and ovoid in lateral views, with four equal shell valves and drop-like polar capsules. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these three Kudoa species had different types of small projections at the apex of each valve. The 18S and 28S rDNA sequences of K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. were found to be closely related to those of Kudoa crumena; however, these sequences were distinct in each of the species, which additionally exhibited different morphological features.

  10. Long-term patterns in estuarine fish growth across two climatically divergent regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubleday, Zoë A; Izzo, Christopher; Haddy, James A; Lyle, Jeremy M; Ye, Qifeng; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2015-12-01

    Long-term ecological datasets are vital for investigating how species respond to changes in their environment, yet there is a critical lack of such datasets from aquatic systems. We developed otolith growth 'chronologies' to reconstruct the growth history of a temperate estuarine fish species, black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri). Chronologies represented two regions in south-east Australia: South Australia, characterised by a relatively warm, dry climate, and Tasmania, characterised by a relatively cool, wet climate. Using a mixed modelling approach, we related inter-annual growth variation to air temperature, rainfall, freshwater inflow (South Australia only), and El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Otolith chronologies provided a continuous record of growth over a 13- and 21-year period for fish from South Australia and Tasmania, respectively. Even though fish from Tasmania were sourced across multiple estuaries, they showed higher levels of growth synchronicity across years, and greater year-to-year growth variation, than fish from South Australia, which were sourced from a single, large estuary. Growth in Tasmanian fish declined markedly over the time period studied and was negatively correlated to temperature. In contrast, growth in South Australian fish was positively correlated to both temperature and rainfall. The stark contrast between the two regions suggests that Tasmanian black bream populations are more responsive to regional scale environmental variation and may be more vulnerable to global warming. This study highlights the importance of examining species response to climate change at the intra-specific level and further validates the emerging use of growth chronologies for generating long-term ecological data in aquatic systems.

  11. Fish remnants from the excavations of the Bronze Age barrow near Maryanskoe village (Dnepropetrovsk region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Kovalchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bronze Age mound (2.5–2.3 kya BC is located near the Maryanskoe village (Apostolovskyi district, Dnepropetrovsk region and was excavated in 1953. The results of determination of the fish remnants, which were found during the excavation, are presented in the paper. Eleven species belonging to 9 genera, 5 families and 5 orders (Acipenseriformes, Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, Esociformes, Perciformes were identified: russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt et Ratzeburg, 1833, stellate sturgeon A. stellatus Pallas, 1771, common ide Idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758, common roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758, pontic roach R. frisii (Nordmann, 1840, common bream Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758, common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758, european catfish Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758, northern pike Esox lucius (Linnaeus, 1758, and zander Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758. Most of them are quite common in the Dnieper river basin. It was found that carp fishes predominate in the number of species. Most of the bone remnants in the collection belong to zander, catfish and pike, while common roach, pontic roach and common bream are identified by the few bones. This may indicate a different role of these species in the diet of the local population. The ratio of skeletal elements in the collection is the evidence of the fish cutting on the site. Body length and weight was reconstructed for 64 fish specimens. It was found that they were mature and small-sized, except for catfish, pike and perch. Taking into account the characteristics of the funeral rituals of the Yamna culture population, fish bones from the mound near Maryanskoe can be remnants of the parting meal.

  12. Profitability of Small-Scale Fisheries in Elmina, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Okyere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve sustainable fishing livelihoods in coastal communities, data on profitability of small-scale fisheries relative to fish species caught and gear types used by fishermen is required as part of a broader fisheries management strategy. This study was undertaken with this in mind. Interviews were conducted among 60 fishermen between February and March 2010. Economic assessment of small-scale fishing activities were done using questionnaires based on direct market pricing and contingent valuation methods. The results indicate that highly profitable fish species include Epinephelus aeneus, Sparus caeruleostictus, Dentex angolensis and Lutjanus goreensis valued at US$2.97, US$2.87, US$2.85 and US$2.63 per kilogram respectively. The less profitable species include Dasyatis margarita, Caranx crysos and Sardinella aurita valued at US$0.34, US$0.66 and US$ 0.85 per kilogram respectively. Although Sardinella aurita was among the less valuable fish species, it was the main species driving profits for the fishermen due to its high share volume among the fish catches. Findings from this study suggest high rates of exploitation, in that stocks generally cannot provide for increased economic return in the face of increased investment. This is a clear indicator that the open-access nature of Ghanaian fisheries is not sustainable, and management reform is well overdue.

  13. Effects of an artificial reef system on demersal nekton assemblages in Xiangshan Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yazhou; Lin, Nan; Yuan, Xingwei; Jiao, Haifeng; Shentu, Jikang; Li, Shengfa

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, an artificial reef system was deployed in Xiangshan Bay, China, to enhance its fishery resources. To determine the effect of the artificial reef system on the demersal nekton assemblages, a beforeafter- control-impact study design was applied. Comparisons of assemblages from impact and control habitats revealed that the assemblage in the impact area had a gradual response to reef deployment. The assemblages in the impact and control areas changed in different ways after reef deployment. During the study period, total biomass, species richness and average body weight in the control area remained relatively stable, whereas there were significant increases in these indicators in the impact area. Responses to the reefs differed among nekton species, inducing assemblage succession in the reefs post-deployment. Sparus macrocephalus and Cynoglossus abbreviatus benefited most from reef deployment. Conversely, smallsized shrimp Palaemon gravieri showed a progressive decrease in biomass following reef deployment. Overall, the artificial reef system diversified the demersal nekton assemblage, enhanced the total biomass, and increased the proportion of large-sized species.

  14. Studies on Leaf Venation in Selected Taxa of the Genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badron, Ummu Hani; Talip, Noraini; Mohamad, Abdul Latiff; Affenddi, Affina Eliya Aznal; Juhari, Amirul Aiman Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    A study on the variation of leaf venation patterns was conducted on 21 taxa of the genus Ficus in Peninsular Malaysia. The results showed the existence of eight leaf venation patterns based on veinlets, the ultimate marginal and areolar venation. The majority of species, such as F. annulata, F. benghalensis, F. benjamina, F. deltoidea var. angustifolia, F. deltoidea var. kunstleri, F. depressa, F. elastica, F. hispida, F. microcarpa, F. religiosa, F. tinctoria, F. ucinata and F. vasculosa, show tri-veinlets. The others exhibit the following: bi-veinlets in F. aurata and F. heteropleura; uni-veinlets in F. lepicarpa, F. schwarzii and F. superba; and simple veinlets in F. aurantiacea and F. fulva. F. sagittata presents no veinlets for areolar venation. The presence of tracheid or swollen veins at the centre of the lamina and the presence of cystolith cells and trichomes are common anatomical characteristics that could assist in group classification of the studied species. Variations in leaf venation patterns are not only valuable in identifying a taxon group, but can also be used to differentiate between species in the genus Ficus.

  15. No evidence for behavioral responses to circularly polarized light in four scarab beetle species with circularly polarizing exocuticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Hegedüs, Ramón; Jósvai, Júlia; Tóth, Miklós; Kertész, Krisztián; Biró, László Péter; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

    2012-02-28

    The strongest known circular polarization of biotic origin is the left-circularly polarized (LCP) light reflected from the metallic shiny exocuticle of certain beetles of the family Scarabaeidae. This phenomenon has been discovered by Michelson in 1911. Although since 1955 it has been known that the human eye perceives a visual illusion when stimulated by circularly polarized (CP) light, it was discovered only recently that a stomatopod shrimp is able to perceive circular polarization. It is pertinent to suppose that scarab beetles reflecting LCP light in an optical environment (vegetation) being deficient in CP signals may also perceive circular polarization and use it to find each other (mate/conspecifics) as until now it has been believed. We tested this hypothesis in six choice experiments with several hundred individuals of four scarab species: Anomala dubia, Anomala vitis (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae), and Cetonia aurata, Potosia cuprea (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae), all possessing left-circularly polarizing exocuticle. From the results of our experiments we conclude that the studied four scarab species are not attracted to CP light when feeding or looking for mate or conspecifics. We demonstrated that the light reflected by host plants of the investigated scarabs is circularly unpolarized. Our results finally solve a puzzle raised over one hundred years ago, when Michaelson discovered that scarab beetles reflect circularly polarized light. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acid phosphatase activity in liver macrophage aggregates as a marker for pollution-induced immunomodulation of the non-specific immune response in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeg, Katja

    2003-10-01

    The activity of acid phosphatase in liver macrophage aggregates (MA-AP) of different fish species was used as a marker for a pollution-induced modulation of the digestive capacity of phagocytes, since functions of the non-specific immune response play a central role in the maintenance of animals' health. Based upon the investigation of more than 900 individual flounders (Platichthys flesus) and mullets (Liza aurata), natural variations, gender-specific differences and pollution-induced alterations in AP activity are demonstrated in this study. MA-AP activity was dependent on temperature and season but, nevertheless, distinctions between differently polluted areas were visible in all sampling campaigns with lowest MA-AP activity in fish from the polluted areas of the German Bight and the Israeli coast of the Mediterranean Sea. For organochlorine contaminants, as well as for mercury and copper, a significant correlation could be observed between residue concentrations in fish tissues and MA-AP activity. In all cases, except mercury which showed a positive correlation, AP activity was suppressed in animals with a high contaminant burden. MA-AP activity turned out to give reliable and consistent results for a quantification of immunomodulation in both fish species.

  17. [Frost-resistance of subtropical evergreen woody plants: an evaluation based on plant functional traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi-Lu; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Yue; Xie, Yi-Ming; Wang, Liang-Yan; Yan, En-Rong

    2012-12-01

    Evaluating the frost-resistance of evergreen woody plants is of significance in guiding the species selection in forest management in subtropical region. In this paper, an investigation was made on the functional traits (including specific leaf area, stem wood density, leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf relative electrical conductance, and twig wood density) of 64 common evergreen broad-leaved and coniferous woody plant species in the Ningbo region of Zhejiang Province, East China, after a severe snowstorm in early 2008, aimed to select the evergreen woody plants with high ability of freeze-tolerance, and to establish a related evaluation system. By using a hierarchy analysis approach, the weight values of the functional traits of each species were determined, and an index system for evaluating the plants tolerance ability against freeze and mechanical damage was established. Based on this system, 23 evergreen plant species with high tolerance ability against freeze and mechanical damage, such as Cyclobalanopsis gilva, Cyclobalanopsis nubium, Neolitsea aurata, and Vacciniuim mandarinorum, were selected. In the meantime, on the basis of the ordering with each of the functional traits, the ordering of the tolerance ability of the 64 plant species against freeze and mechanical damage was made, and a list for the frost-resistance ability of the subtropical evergreen woody plant species in Ningbo region was constituted.

  18. Revisión taxonómica del género Pseudocyphellaria Vain. (Lobariaceae-Ascomycetes liquenizados para Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forero Enrique

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la revisión taxonómica del género Pseudocyphellaria (Ascomycetes liqenizados para Colombia. El género Pseudocyphellaria Vain., con cerca de 110 especies en el mundo, hace parte de la familia Lobariaceae, una
    familia de líquenes de distribución cosmopolita, con mayor número de especies en la región austral. Para Colombia,
    con este estudio, se reconocen seis especies (P. aurata (Ach. Vain., P. crocata (L. Vain., P. intricata (Del. Vain., P. arvidssonii D. Galloway, P. clathrata (De Not. Malme, y P. encoensis R. Sant., de las cuales tres, P. arvidssonii D. Galloway, P. clathrata (De Not. Malme, y P. encoensis R. Sant., constituyen nuevos registros para el país. De igual manera, se presentan descripciones morfoanatómicas, complementadas con datos de pruebas químicas con K, P, C, KC y cromatografías en capa fina de las especies encontradas, así como, comentarios de datos ecológicos y de distribución geográfica. Se incluye una clave genérica ilustrada que permite el fácil reconocimiento del género dentro de la familia Lobariaceae y una clave ilustrada para las especies de Pseudocyphellaria que crecen en Colombia.

  19. Molecular Evolution of Multiple Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase (AANAT in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Zilberman-Peled

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA to arylalkylamines, including indolethylamines and phenylethylamines. Multiple aanats are present in teleost fish as a result of whole genome and gene duplications. Fish aanat1a and aanat2 paralogs display different patterns of tissue expression and encode proteins with different substrate preference: AANAT1a is expressed in the retina, and acetylates both indolethylamines and phenylethylamines; while AANAT2 is expressed in the pineal gland, and preferentially acetylates indolethylamines. The two enzymes are therefore thought to serve different roles. Here, the molecular changes that led to their specialization were studied by investigating the structure-function relationships of AANATs in the gilthead seabream (sb, Sperus aurata. Acetylation activity of reciprocal mutated enzymes pointed to specific residues that contribute to substrate specificity of the enzymes. Inhibition tests followed by complementary analyses of the predicted three-dimensional models of the enzymes, suggested that both phenylethylamines and indolethylamines bind to the catalytic pocket of both enzymes. These results suggest that substrate selectivity of AANAT1a and AANAT2 is determined by the positioning of the substrate within the catalytic pocket, and its accessibility to catalysis. This illustrates the evolutionary process by which enzymes encoded by duplicated genes acquire different activities and play different biological roles.

  20. Census of Cnidaria (Medusozoa) and Ctenophora from South American marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Otto M P; Miranda, Thaís P; Araujo, Enilma M; Ayón, Patricia; Cedeño-Posso, Cristina M; Cepeda-Mercado, Amancay A; Córdova, Pablo; Cunha, Amanda F; Genzano, Gabriel N; Haddad, Maria Angélica; Mianzan, Hermes W; Migotto, Alvaro E; Miranda, Lucília S; Morandini, André C; Nagata, Renato M; Nascimento, Karine B; Júnior, Miodeli Nogueira; Palma, Sergio; Quiñones, Javier; Rodriguez, Carolina S; Scarabino, Fabrizio; Schiariti, Agustín; Stampar, Sérgio N; Tronolone, Valquíria B; Marques, Antonio C

    2016-11-17

    We have compiled available records in the literature for medusozoan cnidarians and ctenophores of South America. New records of species are also included. Each entry (i.e., identified species or still as yet not determined species referred to as "sp." in the literature) includes a synonymy list for South America, taxonomical remarks, notes on habit, and information on geographical occurrence. We have listed 800 unique determined species, in 958 morphotype entries: 5 cubozoans, 905 hydrozoans, 25 scyphozoans, 3 staurozoans, and 20 ctenophores. Concerning nomenclatural and taxonomical decisions, two authors of this census (Miranda, T.P. & Marques, A.C.) propose Podocoryna quitus as a nomen novum for the junior homonym Hydractinia reticulata (Fraser, 1938a); Euphysa monotentaculata Zamponi, 1983b as a new junior synonym of Euphysa aurata Forbes, 1848; and Plumularia spiralis Milstein, 1976 as a new junior synonym of Plumularia setacea (Linnaeus, 1758). Finally, we also reassign Plumularia oligopyxis Kirchenpauer, 1876 as Kirchenpaueria oligopyxis (Kirchenpauer, 1876) and Sertularella margaritacea Allman, 1885 as Symplectoscyphus margaritaceus (Allman, 1885).

  1. Trophic shift in young-of-the-year Mugilidae during salt-marsh colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, B; Richard, P; Guillou, G; Blanchard, G F

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the trophic shift of young-of-the-year (YOY) thinlip grey mullet Liza ramada and golden grey mullet Liza aurata during their recruitment in a salt marsh located on the European Atlantic Ocean coast. Stable-isotope signatures (δ(13) C and δ(15) N) of the fishes followed a pattern, having enrichments in (13) C and (15) N with increasing fork length (LF ): δ(13) C in fishes  30 mm δ(13) C ranged from -15.8 to -12.7‰, closer to the level in salt-marsh food resources. Large differences between the δ(15) N values of mugilids and those of food sources (6·0‰ on average) showed that YOY are secondary consumers, similar to older individuals, when feeding in the salt marsh. YOY mugilids shift from browsing on pelagic prey to grazing on benthic resources from the salt marsh before reaching 30 mm LF. The results highlight the role of European salt marshes as nurseries for juvenile mugilids. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. The Prevalence and Pathogenicity of the “Anchor Worm” (Lernea spp, Phylum Arthropoda within the Finfish Inhabiting the Danube Delta Area

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    Marius Hangan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted as a series of cross-sectional epidemiological studies. It started in the 2003 and ended in 2008, having as sample sites the Sontea-Fortuna, Gorgova-Uzlina, Dunavat-Dranov and Razim-Sinoie lakes. The aim of the research was to assess the distribution and the pathogenicity of the Lernaea copepod among the inhabiting finfish populations, in various seasons of the time period. Lernaea spp was found in ctenopharyngodon idella, cyprinus carpio, liza aurata and liza haematocheila, only in two out of the four sampled complex of lakes, Razim-Sinoie and Dunavat-Dranov. The highest prevalence of the parasite was recorded in the autumns and at the beginning of the springs. The frequency of the parasitism was highest in the C. idella captured in the Dunavat-Dranov complex lakes (86.29%. The lesions caused by the copepod were mainly localized on the eye balls, the tegmentum and on the fins, where hemorrhagic and proliferative processes, as well as an overall increase in tegmentum mucus secretion, were noticed.

  3. Long-term recovery patterns and limited spillover of large predatory fish in a Mediterranean MPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rubies, Antoni; Hereu, Bernat; Zabala, Mikel

    2013-01-01

    Based on 19 y of visual census data from the Medes Islands MPA (NW Mediterranean), this study analyzes the carrying capacity (K) and population recovery time of six species of fish strongly affected by harvesting pressure along the Mediterranean coast. Three of these species (Epinephelus marginatus, Diplodus cervinus and Dicentrachus labrax) have practically reached carrying capacity in the Medes Islands MPA, while others are still approaching population stabilization (Sciaena umbra) or are still increasing in biomass (Dentex dentex). The one exception to these trends is S. aurata, which tended to decrease inside the MPA, probably due to fishing just outside its borders. These results confirm that fish populations may require decadal time scales to recover from exploitation, both in terms of total abundance (21 to 29 y to exceed 95% K) as well as total biomass (25 to 35 y), and that rates of recovery differ between species (13 to 31 y). The recovery and saturation observed within the no-take zone contrasts with results obtained in the partially protected buffer area and the peripheral area open for fishing, which show much lower biomass values. In general, the spillover from the MPA is very moderate, and its effects extend only to the partially protected area.

  4. Long-term recovery patterns and limited spillover of large predatory fish in a Mediterranean MPA.

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    Antoni García-Rubies

    Full Text Available Based on 19 y of visual census data from the Medes Islands MPA (NW Mediterranean, this study analyzes the carrying capacity (K and population recovery time of six species of fish strongly affected by harvesting pressure along the Mediterranean coast. Three of these species (Epinephelus marginatus, Diplodus cervinus and Dicentrachus labrax have practically reached carrying capacity in the Medes Islands MPA, while others are still approaching population stabilization (Sciaena umbra or are still increasing in biomass (Dentex dentex. The one exception to these trends is S. aurata, which tended to decrease inside the MPA, probably due to fishing just outside its borders. These results confirm that fish populations may require decadal time scales to recover from exploitation, both in terms of total abundance (21 to 29 y to exceed 95% K as well as total biomass (25 to 35 y, and that rates of recovery differ between species (13 to 31 y. The recovery and saturation observed within the no-take zone contrasts with results obtained in the partially protected buffer area and the peripheral area open for fishing, which show much lower biomass values. In general, the spillover from the MPA is very moderate, and its effects extend only to the partially protected area.

  5. COMMERCIAL FISH HARVEST IN INLAND WATER BODIES OF GERMANY (A REVIEW

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    А. Didenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze scientific and statistical sources on commercial fishery in inland water bodies of Germany. To summarize German experience and identify specific features of this sector. Findings. Commercial fishery in Germany is carried out on 30% (≈250 000 hectares of inland water bodies of Germany. The main fishing regions are prealpine lakes in Bavaria, Lake Constance, lakes in Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania federal states as well as lakes and rivers of Brandenburg and Berlin. Commercial fishing on rivers usually has a local importance and is practiced in regions with poorly developed industry. There were 670 commercial fishing organizations in 2014, where 932 people were employed. Each fishing license owner is allowed deploying simultaneously a clearly defined number of fishing gears depending on season. In addition, fishing nets are regulated not only based on their mesh size and length, but also height and the minimum thread diameter. The cardinal difference of German inland fishing is the absence of the periods of total ban on commercial fishing. There are only ban periods for fishing on certain fish species during their spawning seasons. These periods differ for federal states and are listed in the relevant regional fishing rules. The total fish catch in inland waters of Germany by commercial fishermen in 2014 was 3132 tons, much lower than the catches of anglers who caught 18 450 tons at the same year. Most of fish were caught by fishing organizations in the Brandenburg Federal State. Average fish productivity in 2014 was approx. 13 kg/ha (ranging from 10 to 20 kg/ha. Whitefish was the dominant species in catches in the Lake Constance and prealpine lakes of Bavaria, while cyprinids (roach, bream, silver bream, blue bream, etc. dominated in Northern Germany. The profit of commercial fish catch in 2014 was about 12.5 million euros. Among numerous activities aimed at preserving commercial fish populations, Germans

  6. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN FISH OF THE KILIYA DELTA OF THE DANUBE (2003–2005

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    Yu. Sytnik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Identification and analysis of the content of organochlorine pesticides (OCP in organs and tissues of benthivorous and predatory fish species of the Kiliya delta of the Danube (Eastern mouth and their comparison with previous years. Methodology. The analysis of the samples of aquatic organisms for the content of residual organochlorine pesticides was carried out by gas-liquid chromatography (GLH based on a unified methodology. The chromatographic analysis was carried out on the gas chromatograph "Color 5" with electron capture detector at the Institute of Hydrobiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Findings. The effect of stable organochlorine pesticides on aquatic organisms is characterized by marked persistence in the environment and by high ability for migration and accumulation on different levels of food chains in aquatic ecosystems. The continuous presence of OCP in all investigated organs and tissues of selected species with the presence of a certain amount of fat and consequently, the fixation of residual organochlorine pesticides. Among benthivorous fishes, the content of OCP in organs and tissues (total is as follows: vimba → roach → wild carp → bream → gibel carp. Among the predators: asp → perch → European catfish → pikeperch. Originality. Recently, a significant number of scientists all around the world returns to the problem of the accumulation and distribution (redistribution of OCP in the components of aquatic ecosystems. This is associated with certain threats to the environment and human health, that could lead to negative consequences as a result of the consumption of fish as the highest trophic level in fresh waters of Ukraine. Practical value. The obtained data indicate that the major commercial fish species of the Kiliya delta of the Danube river contains residual quantities of pesticides. This indicates to the need for continuous hygienic and toxicological monitoring of fish caught

  7. Assessment of organochlorine hydrocarbons transformation in contaminated agricultural products and foodstuffs under gamma-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, T. V.; Polyakova, L. P.; Oudalova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of an estimation of organochlorinated pollutants transformation (particularly organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)) under gamma-irradiation has become important in connection with radiation technologies application in the food industry. According to earlier researches, small doses of OCP lead to serious damages of an organism, comparable with damages from high doses. Among radiolysis products of OCP in model solutions various substances on a structure have been found out. Though of trace concentration of each of them, in sum with the initial pesticides residue they make up significant of mass contamination (as shown earlier up to 90% from initial OCP). In this work fish samples (bream) containing OCPs (15.20 ng/g of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and 87.10 ng/g of DDT and its metabolites), as well as PCB (18.51 ng/g) were studied. The minced fish was irradiated at dose of 10 kGy with dose rate of 1.35 Gy/sec. Then, by methods of gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), it was found that the OCPs degradation varied from 3 up to 61% and the PCB degradation - 24-52%. Significant complication of chemical composition was shown comparing to the primary biological sample contamination. As a result of fish irradiation, secondary pollution appeared that included residues of primary organochlorine hydrocarbons and their radiation-induced metabolites. Among the investigated OCPs the most stable proved to be alfa-hexachlorocyclohexane (alfa-HCH), the least stable - DDT which corresponds to the previous findings about the radiation stability of OCPs in model solutions. Mass spectra of the irradiated samples of minced bream showed the presence of radiation metabolites of OCPs, that had also been found at irradiation of model solutions of 2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)-1-chlorethylene (DDMU), DDD and 1a, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e-pentahlorcyclohexane. There was revealed a decomposition product formed during the

  8. Comparative genomics reveals that a fish pathogenic bacterium Edwardsiella tarda has acquired the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) through horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoji; Takano, Tomokazu; Yasuike, Motoshige; Sakai, Takamitsu; Matsuyama, Tomomasa; Sano, Motohiko

    2013-09-22

    Edwardsiella tarda is an enterobacterium which causes edwardsiellosis, a fatal disease of cultured fishes such as red sea bream, eel, and flounder. Preventing the occurrence of E. tarda infection has thus been an important issue in aquaculture. E. tarda has been isolated from other animals and from many environments; however, the relationship between the genotype and evolutionary process of this pathogen is not fully understood. To clarify this relationship, we sequenced and compared the genomes of pathogenic and non-pathogenic E. tarda strains isolated from fish, human, and eel pond using next-generation sequencing technology. Eight strains of E. tarda were sequenced with high accuracy (>99.9%) with coverages from 50- to 400-fold. The obtained reads were mapped to a public reference genome. By comparing single nucleotide and insertion/deletion polymorphisms, we found that an attenuated strain of E. tarda had a loss-of-function mutation in a gene related to the type III secretion system (T3SS), suggesting that this gene is involved in the virulence of E. tarda. A comprehensive gene comparison indicated that fish pathogenic strains possessed a type VI secretion system (T6SS) and pilus assembly genes in addition to the T3SS. Moreover, we found that an E. tarda strain isolated from red sea bream harbored two pathogenicity islands of T3SS and T6SS, which were absent in other strains. In particular, this T3SS was homologous to the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) in enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Evolutionary analysis suggested that this locus, here named Et-LEE (E. tarda LEE), was introgressed into the E. tarda genome through horizontal transfer. We found significant differences in the presence/absence of virulence-related genes among E. tarda strains, reflecting their evolutionary relationship. In particular, a single genotype previously proposed for fish-pathogenic strains may be further divided into two subgroups. Furthermore, the

  9. Treatment of fish-parasites: 7. Effects of sym. triazinone (toltrazuril) on developmental stages of Myxobolus sp. Bütschli, 1882 (myxosporea, myxozoa): A light and electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmahl, G; Mehlhorn, H; Taraschewski, H

    1989-09-15

    In research for chemotherapy of fish parasitized by myxosporeans toltrazuril(1) was tested in vivo against Myxobolus sp., parasitizing the connective tissue in gills of the bream, Abramis brama. Naturally infected breams were incubated at 20°C in water containing 0, 5, 10 or 20 μg toltrazuril/ml or the pure solvent for 4 or 2 h, respectively. After replacing the fish into fresh water, they were sacrificed on day 2 after the treatment and the pseudocysts were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the drug caused severe damages in all developmental stages of Myxobolus sp. except for the mature spores. Starting with a dose of 5 ug/ml and 4 h exposure, a destruction of the mitochondria and a decrease in the number of ribosomes were observed in the uni- and multicellular stages. In sporoblasts while developing the polar capsules the perinuclear space was enlarged in most of the specimens. The karyoplasms were more electron lucent compared to those of untreated controls. A focal lysis of the karyoplasm was observed in early pansporoblasts (characterized by primordia of the polar tubes). Treatment with 10 μ/ml for 4 h had more pronounced effects. The shape of these unicellular and multicellular stages was, however, not changed after treatment with 5 or 10 μg toltrazuril for 4 h, whereas 20 μg toltrazuril/ml for 2 h altered the surface of both stages and led to considerable degenerations of the cytoplasm. In premature pansporoblasts an extrusion of the polar capsules (leaving the capsulogenic cells) was caused when incubated in 20 μm toltrazuril/ml. The pure solvent had no effects on developmental stages of Myxobolus sp.. From these experiments it is suggested that chemotherapy against Myxobolus sp. should be accomplished by bathing the fish in aerated containers with 10 μg toltrazuril/ml for 4 h. This treatment will decrease considerably the output of spores. However, since the mature spores are not affected, the treatment has to

  10. Variations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in various marine organisms from Western English Channel: contribution of {sup 210}Po to the radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connan, O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratoire de Radioecologie de Cherbourg-Octeville, IRSN/DEI/SECRE/LRC, Rue Max Pol Fouchet, 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France)], E-mail: olivier.connan@irsn.fr; Germain, P.; Solier, L.; Gouret, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratoire de Radioecologie de Cherbourg-Octeville, IRSN/DEI/SECRE/LRC, Rue Max Pol Fouchet, 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France)

    2007-10-15

    Measurements of {sup 210}Po were carried out in various marine matrices (mussels, oysters, seaweed, fish, and abalones) and in seawater at several points along the French coast, over a period of 2 years (2003-2005). These measurements contribute to a better knowledge of this element, since few recent data exist for the French coast. Marked seasonal variations have been revealed in some species and there are differences according to the way of life of these species. Activities in mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) are similar and varying between 90 and 600 Bq kg{sup -1} (d.w.). Activities in macroalgae (Fucus serratus) are lowest, between 4 and 16 Bq kg{sup -1} (d.w.). In oyster, abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) and fish (Solea solea, Sparus sp.), the strongest activities are measured in the digestive glands, the gills and the gonads. {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb ratios in all cases have values of more than one for all species. From a significant number of measurements, CFs were calculated for seaweed (between 4.6 x 10{sup 3} and 5.0 x 10{sup 3}) and for molluscs, with highest CFs (>10{sup 5}) found for the digestive gland and gills of the oysters, the digestive gland of the abalones and the liver of fish. Finally, the activities measured have made it possible to estimate the internal dose from chronic exposure due to {sup 210}Po received by the marine organisms (0.05 {mu}G h{sup -1} for macroalgae, between 0.70 and 1.5 {mu}G h{sup -1} for mussels and oyster), and the contribution of seafood to the dose received by humans (46-129 {mu}Sv y{sup -1})

  11. Occurrence and Intensity of Anisakid Nematode Larvae in Some Commercially Important Fish Species in Persian Gulf

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    Maryam DADAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anisakid nematodes are common parasites of fish, mammals, fish-eating birds, and reptiles with a worldwide distribution, causing diseases in human, fish and important economic losses.Methods: A preliminary epidemiological study was carried out on Anisakid nematodes larvae in some commercially important fish species to evaluate the anisakid nematode larvae from greater lizardfish, (Saurida tumbil, Japanese thread fin bream (Nemipterus japonicus, crocodile longtom (Tylosurus crocodilus crocodiles and longfin trevally (Carangoides armatus from the Persian Gulf of Iran.Result: The collected larvae were identified mainly as the third larval stage (L3 of Hysterothylacium larval type A, B and C, Anisakis sp., Raphidascaris sp., Pseudoterranova sp. and Philometra sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae. The prevalence of Anisakid larvae infection of examined fishes was 97.2% in N. japonicus, 90.3% in S. tumbil, 20.5% in crocodile longtom and 5.5% in longfin trevally. Anisakis type III for the first time was different from Anisakis type I and Anisakis type II.Discussion: Zoonotic anisakids by high prevalence in edible fish could be a health hazard for people. So health practices should be considered in these areas.

  12. Two anisakid nematodes from marine fishes off New Caledonia, including Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) nemipteri n. sp. from Nemipterus furcosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2005-10-01

    One new and one known species of the ascaridoid family Anisakidae are reported from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of New Caledonia: Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) nemipteri n. sp. from the intestine of the forked-tailed threadfin bream Nemipterus furcosus (Nemipteridae, Perciformes) and Hysterothylacium cenaticum (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) from the intestine of the striped marlin Tetrapturus audax (Istiophoridae, Perciformes). R. nemipteri is characterised mainly by the shape (wider than long) of the lips, the length of the spicules (225-399 microm, which represent 2.7-4.2% of the body length), the number (22-33) of caudal pre-anal papillae, the position of the vulva (at 16-20% of the body length), and the presence of cuticular spines on the tip of the female tail. Specimens of H. cenaticum from New Caledonia generally exhibited smaller body measurements than those originally described from Australian waters; the deirids and eggs are described for the first time. Maricostula Bruce and Cannon, 1989 is considered a junior synonym of Hysterothylacium, to which three species are transferred as H. cenaticum (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) n. comb., H. makairi (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) n. comb. and H. tetrapteri (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) n. comb.

  13. Time trends in fish populations in metropolitan France: insights from national monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, N; Beaulaton, L; Dembski, S

    2011-12-01

    Using the electrofishing database of the French National Agency for Water and Aquatic Environment (Onema), the time trends of 48 freshwater fish taxa at 590 sites monitored for at least 8 years from 1990 to 2009 were investigated. The results demonstrated that species richness increased steadily from the beginning of the monitoring period. This is congruent with the finding that the number of species displaying a significant increase in spatial distribution or abundance was greater than those showing a significant decrease. Some species, however, had declined both in occurrence and abundance, e.g. tench Tinca tinca, common bream Abramis brama, brown trout Salmo trutta and European eel Anguilla anguilla. The species showing the most spectacular colonization were non-native, e.g. topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva, wels catfish Silurus glanis and asp Aspius aspius. The time trends in population density were related to the maximal body size, habitat requirement, occurrence and abundance and the status (i.e. native or exotic) but not to the spawning temperature. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND ITS CHANGES ESTIMATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF TATARSTAN REPUBLIC NATURAL RESERVED FOND OBJECTS

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    G. R. Valeeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Environment quality estimation and its probable changes in the presence of anthropogenous influence on the Tatarstan republic natural reserved fond objects with fluctuating asymmetry method on different species of organisms was carried out.Methods. Gathering of scientific material was carried out at the 2012-2013 years period at the natural reserved fond objects territory – Tatarstan republic state natural complex wildlife areas. For land ecosystems estimation the morphometric parameters of birch leafs was used, for water ecosystems characteristic – the morphometric parameters of most ordinary species of fish (small fry, golden crucian, bream and amphibians (pond and lake frog. Morphometric measurements results of indicator organisms was statistically processed, fluctuating asymmetry parameter was calculated, according received results the state of ecosystems was estimated.Results. The state of some especially protected natural areas at the Tatarstan republic was estimated. Applicability of fluctuating asymmetry parameter for complex ecosystem estimation was proved. Received results can be used as a matter for ecological risk estimation methodic developing for Tatarstan republic territory.Main conclusions. The investigated areas ecological status was estimated as “relatively normal”. The fluctuating asymmetry parameter in similar conditions for phytoindicator was higher than for zooindicators Results analysis was shown the need of using different indicators for complex characteristic of environmental quality.

  15. Long-term phyto-, ornitho- and ichthyophenological time-series analyses in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahas, Rein

    This study analyzes a long-term phenological time series for the impact assessment of climate changes on Estonian nature and for the methodological study of the possible limitations of using phenological time series for climate trend analyses. These limiting factors can influence the results of studies more than the real impact of climate changes, which may have a much smaller numeric value. The 132-year series of the arrival of the skylark (Alauda arvensis) and the white wagtail (Motacilla alba), the 78-year series of the blossoming of the wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), the bird cherry (Padus racemosa), apple trees (Malus domestica) and lilacs (Syringa vulgaris), and the 44-year series of the spawning of pike (Esox lucius) and bream (Abramis brama) were studied at three selected observation points in Estonia. The study of the phenological time series shows that Estonian springs have, on the basis of the database, advanced 8 days on average over the last 80-year period; the last 40-year period has warmed even faster.

  16. Development of intermediate foodstuff derived from freshwater fish in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xichang; Fukuda, Yutaka; Chen, Shunsheng; Yokoyama, Masahito; Cheng, Yudong; Yuan, Chunhong; Qu, Yinghong; Sakaguchi, Morihiko

    2005-07-01

    According to the three-dimensional contour maps showing the gel-forming properties of surimi derived from freshwater fish, 8 species of surimi were classified into two types. The V-valley type surimi (silver carp, big-head carp, Chinese snake head and blunt snout bream) shows easy setting, low resistance to gel collapse, high enhancement ability with two-step heating, and narrow optimum heating temperature and time area, which are of the same characteristics as the wall-eye pollack surimi. In contrast, the Plateau type surimi (tilapia, grass carp, mud carp and common carp) exhibits difficult setting, high resistance to gel collapse, no enhancement ability with two-step heating, and wide optimum heating temperature and time area. There are seasonal changes of gelling properties of silver carp surimi, and the setting ability of surimi gel is higher in winter and lower in summer. The marine fish meat gels and the freshwater fish meat gels have the same acceptability for inland Chinese according to the sensory evaluation results. A slight increase in sensory scorings of kamaboko gels occurred when the extract from walleye pollack muscle was added, especially in the odor scoring of silver carp kamaboko gels.

  17. Risk of acute toxicity for fish during aluminium application to hardwater lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauer, Gerlinde; Teien, Hans-Christian

    2010-09-01

    To assess the risk of aluminium (Al) toxicity during the restoration of the eutrophic lake Tiefwarensee by hypolimnetic addition of NaAl(OH)(4)-solution (aluminate) the generally limnological monitoring was accompanied by fractionation of Al in water and using Al accumulation on fish gills as bioindicator. The concentration of reactive Al species in the alkaline water (pH 8) peaked at 2mgL(-1) in parts of the anoxic hypolimnion and was 0.088+/-0.053mgL(-1) (n=70) in the epilimnion during the five years of treatment. During an Al treatment cycle in summer 2003, perches showed significant Al accumulation on gills (100microg Al g(-1) dw) whereas roaches, breams and silver carps remained unaffected. Thus, the Al toxicity towards several fish species seems to be low, although the concentration of reactive Al in the lake water increased by a factor of 2. However, high Al toxicity due to lake treatment with aluminate could not be excluded, as high Al-gill concentration was observed. An Al balance two years after the treatment indicates complete export of the added Al into the sediment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Convergent evolution of SWS2 opsin facilitates adaptive radiation of threespine stickleback into different light environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Marques

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeated adaptation to a new environment often leads to convergent phenotypic changes whose underlying genetic mechanisms are rarely known. Here, we study adaptation of color vision in threespine stickleback during the repeated postglacial colonization of clearwater and blackwater lakes in the Haida Gwaii archipelago. We use whole genomes from 16 clearwater and 12 blackwater populations, and a selection experiment, in which stickleback were transplanted from a blackwater lake into an uninhabited clearwater pond and resampled after 19 y to test for selection on cone opsin genes. Patterns of haplotype homozygosity, genetic diversity, site frequency spectra, and allele-frequency change support a selective sweep centered on the adjacent blue- and red-light sensitive opsins SWS2 and LWS. The haplotype under selection carries seven amino acid changes in SWS2, including two changes known to cause a red-shift in light absorption, and is favored in blackwater lakes but disfavored in the clearwater habitat of the transplant population. Remarkably, the same red-shifting amino acid changes occurred after the duplication of SWS2 198 million years ago, in the ancestor of most spiny-rayed fish. Two distantly related fish species, bluefin killifish and black bream, express these old paralogs divergently in black- and clearwater habitats, while sticklebacks lost one paralog. Our study thus shows that convergent adaptation to the same environment can involve the same genetic changes on very different evolutionary time scales by reevolving lost mutations and reusing them repeatedly from standing genetic variation.

  19. Occurence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. in retail fish samples in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas Onmaz, Nurhan; Abay, Secil; Karadal, Fulden; Hizlisoy, Harun; Telli, Nihat; Al, Serhat

    2015-01-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxins, as well as Salmonella spp. and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates from fish samples. A total of 100 fish samples were analysed consisting of 30 anchovy, 35 trout and 35 sea bream. The presence of SEs was detected using ELISA and its genes confirmed by mPCR. Also, S. aureus and Salmonella spp. were detected in 9 (9%) and 5 (5%) samples, respectively. None of the S. aureus isolates had SEs and SEs genes. The resistance rates of the S. aureus isolates to erythromycin, tetracycline, and penicillin G were found to be 33% while Salmonella spp. isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin and neomycine in 20%, 20% and 80%, respectively of the samples. It is of utmost important for public health that retail fish markets need to use hygienic practices in handling and processing operations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Variation in the population demographics of Scolopsis bilineatus in response to predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A. E.; Kingsford, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Predatory fishes play critical roles in the trophodynamics of coral reefs, and the biomass of predatory fish can be a strong determinant of the structure of reef fish assemblages. In this study, we used variations in predator biomass between management zones on the Great Barrier Reef to examine how predators influence the biomass, mortality, condition, and reproductive potential of a common prey species Scolopsis bilineatus (bridled monocle bream; Nemipteridae). Despite no numerical differences in biomass or mortality, we found significant differences in a variety of demographic traits for S. bilineatus between multiple areas of high and low predator biomass. The size-at-age, condition, and reproductive potential of fish were reduced in marine reserves where predator biomass was high. The response of fish to predators was highly sex dependent; females suffered the greatest reductions in condition and reproductive potential. This study supports the notion that predators can play important roles in regulating prey dynamics and emphasises the importance of understanding top-down control by predators when considering fisheries management techniques and conservation strategies.

  1. Strategies for Obtaining Obsidian in Pre-European Contact Era New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Mark D.; Carpenter, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological evidence of people's choices regarding how they supply themselves with obsidian through direct access and different types of exchanges gives us insight in to mobility, social networks, and property rights in the distant past. Here we use collections of obsidian artefacts that date to a period of endemic warfare among Maori during New Zealand's Late Period (1500–1769 A.D.) to determine what strategies people engaged in to obtain obsidian, namely (1) collecting raw material directly from a natural source, (2) informal trade and exchange, and (3) formal trade and exchange. These deposits represent a good cross-section of Late Period archaeology, including primary working of raw material at a natural source (Helena Bay), undefended sites where people discarded rubbish and worked obsidian (Bream Head), and a heavily fortified site (Mt. Wellington). We find that most of the obsidian described here was likely obtained directly from natural sources, especially those located on off-shore islands within about 60–70 km of sites. A smaller amount comes from blocks of material transported from an off-shore island a greater distance away, called Mayor Island, in a formal trade and exchange network. This study demonstrates the value of conducting tandem lithic technology and geochemical sourcing studies to understand how people create and maintain social networks during periods of warfare. PMID:24416213

  2. Vol. 4 in the series: Site profiles of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons - cause-oriented monitoring in aquatic media; Pestizide aus der Reihe der persistenten chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffe in Gewaessern der Rhein-Region - Ergebnisse nachhaltiger Steuerungen von Wirtschaft und Politik. Bd. 4 der Reihe: Standortprofile persistenter chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe - ursachenorientiertes Monitoring in aquatischen Medien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, E.; Kettrup, A.; Bergheim, W.; Wenzel, S.

    2003-07-01

    Evaluating the analytical data of DDT and its metabolites, the isomers of HCH as well as (sometimes) of aldrin and dieldrin in surface water, suspended matter, eels, breams and roaches from the rivers Rhine, Neckar, Kocher, Enz, Main (upto km 360), Weschnitz, Modau, Schwarzbach, Hengstbach, Grundbach, Nidda, Rodau, Kinzig, Werra, Diemel, Lahn, Nahe, Mosel, Sauer, Saar, Ahr, Kyll, Sieg and Laacher See distance profiles (partly from Konstanz till Markermeer) and time series (partly from 1984-2001) were elaborated. The primary data come from about 15 mainly regional investigation departments, the IKSR and the Environmental Specimen Bank. The chemical enterprises in Rheinfelden, Grenzach, Ludwigshafen, Lampertheim, Gernsheim, Darmstadt, Hoechst, Kelsterbach, Offenbach, Ingelheim, Loelsdorf, Leverkusen, Elberfeld, Krefeld-Uerdingen and Huels could partly be made transparent by the course of the sDDT and sHCH values and the profiles of the constituents and isomers, resp., in the distance profiles (especially from the river Rhine) mainly from 1990/92. The corresponding graph for the year 2000 shows that there is no longer a human and ecotoxicological relevance of the compounds to be expected. (orig.)

  3. Assessing Proteinase K Resistance of Fish Prion Proteins in a Scrapie-Infected Mouse Neuroblastoma Cell Line

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    Evgenia Salta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The key event in prion pathogenesis is the structural conversion of the normal cellular protein, PrPC, into an aberrant and partially proteinase K resistant isoform, PrPSc. Since the minimum requirement for a prion disease phenotype is the expression of endogenous PrP in the host, species carrying orthologue prion genes, such as fish, could in theory support prion pathogenesis. Our previous work has demonstrated the development of abnormal protein deposition in sea bream brain, following oral challenge of the fish with natural prion infectious material. In this study, we used a prion-infected mouse neuroblastoma cell line for the expression of three different mature fish PrP proteins and the evaluation of the resistance of the exogenously expressed proteins to proteinase K treatment (PK, as an indicator of a possible prion conversion. No evidence of resistance to PK was detected for any of the studied recombinant proteins. Although not indicative of an absolute inability of the fish PrPs to structurally convert to pathogenic isoforms, the absence of PK-resistance may be due to supramolecular and conformational differences between the mammalian and piscine PrPs.

  4. Repeated Fish Removal to Restore Lakes: Case Study of Lake Væng, Denmark—Two Biomanipulations during 30 Years of Monitoring

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    Martin Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomanipulation by fish removal has been used in many shallow lakes as a method to improve lake water quality. Here, we present and analyse 30 years of chemical and biological data from the shallow and 16 ha large Lake Væng, Denmark, which has been biomanipulated twice with a 20-year interval by removing roach (Rutilus rutilus and bream (Abramis brama. After both biomanipulations, Lake Væng shifted from a turbid, phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear, water macrophyte-dominated state. Chlorophyll a was reduced from 60–80 μg·L−1 to 10–30 μg·L−1 and the coverage of submerged macrophytes, dominated by Elodea canadensis, increased from <0.1% to 70%–80%. Mean summer total phosphorus was reduced from about 0.12 to 0.07 mg·L−1 and total nitrogen decreased from 1.0 to 0.4 mg·L−1. On a seasonal scale, phosphorus and chlorophyll concentrations changed from a summer maximum during turbid conditions to a winter maximum under clear conditions. The future of Lake Væng is uncertain and a relatively high phosphorus loading via the groundwater, and the accumulation of a mobile P pool in the sediment make it likely that the lake eventually will return to turbid conditions. Repeated fish removals might be a relevant management strategy to apply in shallow lakes with a relatively high external nutrient loading.

  5. Detection and molecular characterization of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus from major ornamental fish breeding states in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, K; Shariff, M; Omar, A R; Hair-Bejo, M; Ong, B L

    2014-07-01

    'Gold standard' OIE reference PCR assay was utilized to detect the presence of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) in freshwater ornamental fish from Malaysia. From total of 210 ornamental fish samples representing 14 species, ISKNV was detected in 36 samples representing 5 fish species. All positive cases did not show any clinical signs of ISKNV. Three restriction enzymes analyses showed that the fish were infected by identical strains of the same virus species within Megalocytivirus genus. Major capsid protein (MCP) genes of 10 ISKNV strains were sequenced and compared with 9 other reference nucleotide sequences acquired from GenBank. Sequence analysis of MCP gene showed that all strains detected in this study were closely related to the reference ISKNV with nucleotide sequence identity that was ranging from 99.8% to 100%. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of MCP gene revealed that viruses from genus Megalocytivirus can be divided into three genotypes: genotype 1 include reference ISKNV and all other strains that were detected in this study, genotype 2 include viruses closely related to red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV), and genotype 3 include viruses closely related turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Molecular diagnosis of Pseudoterranova decipiens s.s in human, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Royant, Maude; Lemoine, Jean-Philippe; Pfaff, Alexander W; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Yera, Hélène; Fréalle, Emilie; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Merino-Espinosa, Gema; Gómez-Mateos, Magdalena; Martin-Sanchez, Joaquina; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2017-06-06

    Anisakis and Pseudoterranova are the main genera involved in human infections caused by nematodes of the Anisakidae family. Species identification is complicated due to the lack of differential morphological characteristics at the larval stage, thus requiring molecular differentiation. Pseudoterranova larvae ingested through raw fish are spontaneously eliminated in most cases, but mechanical removal by means of endoscopy might be required. To date, only very few cases of Pseudoterranova infection have been reported in France. A 19-year-old woman from Northeastern France detected, while brushing her teeth, a larva exiting through her mouth. The patient who presented with headache, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps reported having eaten baked cod. The worm was a fourth-stage larva with a size of 22 × 0.9 mm, and molecular biology identified it as Pseudoterranova decipiens sensu stricto (s. s.). In a second P. decipiens infection case, occurring a few months later, a worm exited through the patient's nose after she had eaten raw sea bream. These two cases demonstrate that Pseudoterranova infection is not uncommon among French patients. Therefore, molecular techniques should be more widely applied for a better characterization of anisakidosis epidemiology in France.

  7. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

  8. Effects of mesh size and escape gaps on discarding in an Australian giant mud crab (Scylla serrata trap fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt K Broadhurst

    Full Text Available In response to concerns over excessive discarding from Australian recreational round traps (with four funnel entrances used to target giant mud crabs, Scylla serrata, an experiment was done to assess the independent and cumulative utility of paired, bottom-located horizontal escape gaps (46×120 mm and increasing mesh size (from 51 to 101 mm. Compared to conventional traps comprising 51-mm mesh throughout, those with the same mesh size and escape gaps caught significantly fewer (by 95% undersize (<85 mm carapace length--CL crabs while maintaining legal catches. Traps made from 101-mm mesh (but with the same funnel entrances as conventional designs and with and without escape gaps similarly retained fewer undersize crabs and also yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis (the key bycatch species by up to 94%, but there were concomitant reductions in fishing power for legal sizes of S. serrata. Although there were no immediate mortalities among any discarded crabs, there was a greater bias towards wounding among post molts than late inter-molts and less damage to individuals in the 101-mm conventional than 51-mm conventional traps (without escape gaps. The results support retrospectively fitting escape gaps in conventional S. serrata traps as a means for reducing discarding, but additional work is required to determine appropriate mesh sizes/configurations that maximize species and size selectivity.

  9. Geographic, genetic and life-history variability in a sex-changing fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Benvenuto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sequential hermaphroditism, commonly referred to as sex change or sex reversal, is a striking phenomenon in mating-system evolution and the most remarkable example of sexual plasticity. Among vertebrates, it is specific to teleosts. Some fish species reproduce initially as females and then change into males (protogynous hermaphrodites or vice versa (protandrous hermaphrodites. The white sea bream, Diplodus sargus, exhibits a high degree of sexual plasticity: populations have been reported to be gonochoristic, protandrous or digynic (with primary females, derived from intersexual juveniles, and secondary females, derived from males. We analysed populations collected from eight different locations across the species distribution range (between the Mediterranean and the North-Eastern Atlantic. These populations are characterized by different degrees of connectivity, spatial demographics and life histories. Using individual-based analyses, we linked the genetic structure of each specimen with environmental heterogeneity, life-history traits and reproductive modes. Our aim is to gather a better understanding of the variation in reproductive life-history strategies in this sexually plastic species. Diplodus sargus is a valuable candidate organism to investigate sequential hermaphroditism and it also has a commercial value. The application of population genetics tools against the background of life-history theory can bring valuable insights for the management of marine resources. The geographical patterns of sex change (and of age- and size-at-sex change linked with population genetics can be pivotal for both theoretical investigations and conservation and management plans in marine areas.

  10. Effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on protein oxidation and textural properties of fish mince (Pagrosomus major) during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiantian; Li, Zhenxing; Yuan, Fangzhou; Lin, Hong; Pavase, Tushar Ramesh

    2017-03-01

    Frozen storage of minced fish is currently one of the most important techniques to maintain its functional properties. However, some deterioration does occur during frozen storage and cause quality loss. The effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on lipid and protein oxidation and textural properties of red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) during 90 days of frozen storage at -18 °C were investigated. All added antioxidants at 1 g kg-1 resulted in significantly lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) compared to the control during the 45 days of frozen storage. The antioxidants were also effective in retarding protein oxidation concerning to total sulfhydryl content and protein carbonyl content. Brown seaweed polyphenols and α-tocopherol significantly retarded the inactivation of Ca2+ -ATPase activity during the first 45 days, whereas ascorbic acid had no such effect. The antioxidant activity showed either an invariable or decrease trend after 45 days storage. Adding antioxidants had a significant effect on the breaking force of the gels during the frozen storage period. These results indicate that brown seaweed polyphenols and α-tocopherol can be used to prevent oxidative reactions and thus maintain the structure of the gel formed by fish mince during frozen storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Genetic manipulations in aquaculture: a review of stock improvement by classical and modern technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulata, G

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the extent to which the genetic technologies are implemented by the aquaculture industry. The review shows that some of the modern genetic technologies are already extensively applied by the diverse aquaculture industries, though not to the same extent for all important aquacultured species (according to FAO 1998 figures). Some species (common carp, Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, channel catfish, Nile tilapia, and the Pacific oyster) received concentrated breeding efforts, while other major cultured species (Chinese and Indian carps and the giant tiger shrimp) received, so far, relatively limited attention, and a few species (Yesso scallop, blue mussel, white Amur bream, and milkfish) have, apparently, not been genetically improved at all. Most of the genetically improved strains reaching the aquaculture industry were developed through traditional selective breeding (selection, crossbreeding, and hybridization). Emerging, more modern technologies for genetic manipulation seem to take 10-20 years from being established experimentally until applications affect the industry. Thus, chromosome-set and sex manipulations started to affect the industry during the 1980's and 1990's. DNA marker technology and gene manipulations have yet hardly affected the industry. The former have not matured yet, but hold much promise. The latter could have affected the industry already had it not been restricted by public concern.

  12. Morphological plasticity and phylogeny in a monogenean parasite transferring between wild and reared fish populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Mladineo

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that disease interactions between cultured and wild fish occur repeatedly, although reported cases have mainly relied just on the observation of similar symptoms in affected populations. Whether there is an explicit pathogen transfer between fish stocks, or each develops its own pathogen population, has been insufficiently studied and rarely supported by molecular tools. In this study, we used population dynamics and genetic structure of the monogenean Furnestinia echeneis in reared and neighbouring wild sea bream to indicate pathogen transfer, characterized by the phenotypic plasticity of the parasite attachment apparatus and the lack of phylogenetic differentiation. The observed pattern of genetic variation inferred by nuclear DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1 and mtDNA cytochrome C oxidase 1 (COI, between parasite populations is most likely caused by a recent shared demographic history like a reduced species area in the last glacial period. In spite of such recent expansion that populations underwent, F. echeneis shows differentiation in haptor morphometry as an adaptive trait in closely related populations at the aquaculture site. This suggests that differentiation in morphology may occur relatively rapidly in this species and that adaptive forces, not the speciation process, drives this monogenean parasitation. On the other hand, the observed phylogenetic inertia suggests a low to moderate gene flow (based on F ST between parasites in cultured and wild fish, evidencing for the first time the transfer of pathogens at the aquaculture site inferred by a molecular tool.

  13. Experimental infection of several fish species with the causative agent of Kuchijirosho (snout ulcer disease) derived from the tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyadai, T; Kitamura, S I; Uwaoku, H; Tahara, D

    2001-12-05

    Kuchijirosho (snout ulcer disease) is a fatal epidemic disease which affects the tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes, a commercial fish species in Japan and Korea. To assess the possibility that non-tiger puffer fish can serve as reservoirs of infection, 5 fish species were challenged by infection with the extracts of Kuchijirosho-affected brains from cultured tiger puffer: grass puffer T. niphobles, fine-patterned puffer T. poecilonotus, panther puffer T. pardalis, red sea bream Pagrus major, and black rockfish Sebastes schlegeli. When slightly irritated, all these species, especially the puffer fish, exhibited typical signs of Kuchijirosho, i.e., erratic swimming, biting together and bellying out (swelling of belly), as generally observed in tiger puffers affected by Kuchijirosho. Although the mortalities of the 2 non-puffer species were lower, injection of the extracts prepared from the brains of both inoculated fish into tiger puffer resulted in death, indicating that the inoculated fish used in this experiment have the potential to be infected with the Kuchijirosho agent. Condensations of nuclei or chromatin in the large nerve cells, which is a major characteristic of Kuchijirosho, were histopathologically observed to some extent in the brains of all kinds of puffer fish species infected. These findings suggest that the virus can spread horizontally among wild and cultured puffers and even among fishes belonging to different orders.

  14. [Infection rates of mollusks and fishes with the larval stages of Trematoda of the family Opisthorchidae in the Yaroslavl Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodozhnikova, N M

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of the infection rates of mollusks of the family Bythiniidae (Bithynia tentaculata, Opisthorchophorus troscheli) and fishes with the larval stages of Opisthorchidae in different districts of the Yaroslavl Region. A total of 3,708 mollusks from the water reservoirs of different types (small rivers, lakes, ponds, and canals) were examined in the Nekouzsky, Yaroslavsky, and Pereslavsky Districts of the Yaroslavl Region in 1989 to 1999. Opisthorchis cercarias were found in 7 of the 10 studied water reservoirs. The total rate of infection of mollusks with all types with Trematoda partenitas and cercarias in different water reservoirs averaged 18.5 +/- 3.5% for Bithynia tentaculata and 19.1 +/- 4.1% for Opisthorchophorus troscheli. Trematoda metacercarias of the family Opisthorchidae were revealed in roaches, ides, verkhovkas, silver breams, and chubs in four different water reservoirs (small rivers and a lake) of the region. Pseudamphistomum truncates, Opisthorchis felineus, and Metorchis xanthosomus were present among the metacercarias found. It is concluded that there may be sporadic cases of Opisthorchis infection in wild and domestic animals and humans in the Yaroslavl Region.

  15. Interactive drivers of activity in a free-ranging estuarine predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Taylor

    Full Text Available Animal activity patterns evolve as an optimal balance between energy use, energy acquisition, and predation risk, so understanding how animals partition activity relative to extrinsic environmental fluctuations is central to understanding their ecology, biology and physiology. Here we use accelerometry to examine the degree to which activity patterns of an estuarine teleost predator are driven by a series of rhythmic and arrhythmic environmental fluctuations. We implanted free-ranging bream Acanthopagrus australis with acoustic transmitters that measured bi-axial acceleration and pressure (depth, and simultaneously monitored a series of environmental variables (photosynthetically active radiation, tidal height, temperature, turbidity, and lunar phase for a period of approximately four months. Linear modeling showed an interaction between fish activity, light level and tidal height; with activity rates also negatively correlated with fish depth. These patterns highlight the relatively-complex trade-offs that are required to persist in highly variable environments. This study demonstrates how novel acoustic sensor tags can reveal interactive links between environmental cycles and animal behavior.

  16. STATE POLICY FUNDAMENTALS IN FORMATION OF A NATIONAL STANDARD OF "GREEN CONSTRUCTION" FOR ASSESSMENT OF ITEMS OF REAL PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolchigin Mikhail Aleksandrovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the problem of implementation of principles of "green construction" in the Russian Federation. Despite the availability of the appropriate legislation in the field of environmental safety of construction, there are no legal, social, or economic incentives that may boost development of "green" technologies. Until recently, fundamentals of the state policy in the field of environmental protection of real estate development have not succeeded in motivating market players to implement advanced green technologies. However, recently, the government has begun motivating the construction industry towards the use of "green" technologies. The first activity is aimed at improving the legislation and updating the international voluntary certification according to BREAM and LEED standards. The result is the acceptance of the National Green Building Standard for real estate valuation that will open up new opportunities and prospects to the participants of the construction market. However, at the initial phase of implementation of "Fundamentals of the State Policy in the Field of Environmental Development of the Russian Federation", government authorities should provide their support to proponents of green buildings, including financial inflows.

  17. Aquaculture in Sicily: the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Modica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture in Sicily, represented almost exclusively by seabass and sea bream production, together with capture fishery, plays a significant role in the regional economy. On a national basis, the regional production covers about 20% of Italian euryha- line fish production. Fingerling supply is guaranteed by the two hatcheries present on the Island. Twelve floating cage farms and two inshore farms annually produce about 4,000 t of fish. A small extensive production arises from the storage basins of the salt work of Trapani. This niche production could represent an opportunity to realize a new distinctive organic aquaculture, preferred by the consumers respect to intensive produced fish, that could con- tribute to promote the Territory. Two bluefin tuna fattening farms produce about 1,300 t of sashimi grade tuna annually. The aquaculture sector in Sicily faces the same problems of the Italian and Mediterranean sectors. However, Sicily is considered a Convergence Region by the European Union Cohesion Policy and is legible for special funding. The operational program 2007/2013 “European Fishery Found” will be an effective instrument to stimulate investment and technological innovation and to promote sustainable development of fisher- ies and aquaculture in the Region.

  18. A comparative epizootiologic study of the two fish-pathogenic serovars of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouz, B; Llorens, A; Valiente, E; Amaro, C

    2010-05-01

    Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is subdivided into two main serovars, serovar E, able to infect fish and humans, and serovar A, only virulent for fish. Serovar E emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of a haemorrhagic septicaemia (warm-water vibriosis) affecting eels cultured in brackish water. Serovar A emerged in 2000 in freshwater-cultured eels vaccinated against serovar E, causing warm-water vibriosis with fish showing a haemorrhagic intestine as the main differential sign. The aim of the present work was to compare the disease caused by both serovars in terms of transmission routes, portals of entry and host range. Results of bath, patch-contact and oral-anal challenges demonstrated that both serovars spread through water and infect healthy eels, serovar A entering mainly by the anus and serovar E by the gills. The course of the disease under laboratory conditions was similar for both serovars in terms of transmission and dependence of degree of virulence on water parameters (temperature and salinity). However, the decrease in degree of virulence in fresh water was significantly greater in serovar E than in serovar A. Finally, both serovars proved pathogenic for tilapia, sea bass and rainbow trout, but not for sea bream, with significant differences in degree of virulence only in rainbow trout. In conclusion, serovar A seems to represent a new antigenic form of V. vulnificus biotype 2 with an unusual portal of entry and is better adapted to fresh water than serovar E.

  19. Development of DNA diagnostic methods for the detection of new fish iridoviral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, T; Tsujimura, K; Shirahata, S; Oda, H; Noguchi, T; Kusuda, R; Sato, N; Kimura, S; Katakura, Y; Murakami, H

    1997-01-01

    A new disease of epidemic proportions caused by fish viruses within the Iridoviridae family inflicts serious damage on red sea breams (Pagrus major) and striped jack (Caranx delicatissimus) populations grown in aquacultures in Japan. A partial segment of the fish iridoviral DNA was directly amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with synthetic primers designed from well conserved nucleotide sequences between the frog virus 3 (Ranavirus) and the silkworm iridescent virus type 6. The deduced amino acid sequence from the nucleotide sequence of the PCR fragment demonstrates a high correlation with a partial sequence from the frog virus 3. Using the PCR method with specific primers, we could detect three of four different known types of fish iridoviruses in diseased fishes. To construct more reliable detection methods specific for this viral family, DNA fragments which can specifically hybridize with all of the four known iridoviridae viral DNAs were screened from the genomic library of one iridoviridae strain. The hybridization assay, using a specific fragment which contains regions which are highly homologous with a characterized partial sequence from the frog virus 3, proved to be a reliable diagnostic tool for fish iridoviral diseases.

  20. The molecular epidemiology of iridovirus in Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) and dwarf gourami (Colisa lalia) from distant biogeographical regions suggests a link between trade in ornamental fish and emerging iridoviral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Jeffrey; Lancaster, Malcolm; Deece, Kylie; Dhungyel, Om; Whittington, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Iridoviruses have emerged over 20 years to cause epizootics in finfish and amphibians in many countries. They may have originated in tropical Asia and spread through trade in farmed food fish or ornamental fish, but this has been difficult to prove. Consequently, MCP, ATPase and other viral genes were sequenced from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from farmed Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) that died during an epizootic in 2003 and from diseased gouramis that had been imported from Asia. There was almost complete homology (99.95%) over 4,527 bp between Murray cod iridovirus (MCIV) and an iridovirus (DGIV) present in dwarf gourami (Colisa lalia) that had died in aquarium shops in Australia in 2004, and very high homology with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) (99.9%). These viruses are most likely to be a single species within the genus Megalocytivirus and probably have a common geographic origin. Primers for genus-specific PCR and for rapid discrimination of MCIV/DGIV/ISKNV and red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV), a notifiable pathogen, were developed. These were used in a survey to determine that the prevalence of DGIV infection in diseased gourami in retail aquarium shops in Sydney was 22% (95% confidence limits 15-31%). The global trade in ornamental fish may facilitate the spread of Megalocytivirus and enable emergence of disease in new host species in distant biogeographic regions.

  1. Isolation and characterisation of two cDNAs encoding transglutaminase from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Clemens; Kileng, Øyvind; Jensen, Ingvill; Karki, Pralav; Eichacker, Lutz; Robertsen, Børre

    2014-01-01

    Two cDNAs encoding transglutaminase (TG) were identified in a subtractive cDNA library prepared from the head kidney of poly I:C stimulated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Full-length TG-1 and TG-2 cDNA were cloned from the head kidney by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence for TG-1 was 695 aa with an estimated molecular mass of 78.3 kDa, while TG-2 was a 698 aa protein with an estimated molecular mass of 78.8 kDa. The two proteins were named TG-1 and TG-2 and both possess transglutaminase/protease-like homologous domains (TGc) and full conservation of amino acids cysteine, histidine, and aspartate residues that form the catalytic triad. Sequence analysis showed high similarity (93.1%) with Alaska pollock TG, and the TGs were grouped together with TGs from chum salmon, Japanese flounder, Nile tilapia, and red sea bream in addition to Alaska pollock in phylogenetic analysis. Interestingly, they showed different tissue distribution with highest constitutive expression in reproductive and immunological organs, indicating important roles in these organs. Furthermore, the up-regulation of TG-1 and TG-2 in head kidney after stimulating Atlantic cod with poly I:C suggested a role of TGs in immune response in Atlantic cod. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential host utilisation by different life history stages of the fish ectoparasite Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter D; Harris, Jack E; van der Velde, Gerard; Bonga, Sjoerd E Wendelaar

    2008-06-01

    In this study we examine differences in the occurrence of life history stages of the destructive fish ectoparasite Argulus foliaceus (L., 1758) on eight fish species (stickleback, rudd, roach, gudgeon, bream, tench, crucian carp and common carp) sampled from a mixed-species recreational fishing lake on nine occasions during late spring and summer. Total numbers ofA. foliaceus, as well as the number of larval, juvenile and adult parasite stages, from each fish were recorded along with the fish species. Lice generally exhibited an aggregated distribution approximating a negative binomial distribution. Significant differences in the prevalence, intensity and intensity frequency distribution were observed between life history stages an