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Sample records for bream megalobrama amblycephala

  1. Ontogeny expression of ghrelin, neuropeptide Y and cholecystokinin in blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala.

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    Ping, H-C; Feng, K; Zhang, G-R; Wei, K-J; Zou, G-W; Wang, W-M

    2014-04-01

    Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) all have important roles in the regulation of feeding in fish and mammals. To better understand the role of the three peptides in appetite regulation in the early developmental stages of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), partial cDNA sequences of ghrelin, NPY and CCK genes were cloned. And then, real-time quantitative PCR and RT-PCR were used to detect and quantify the mRNA expressions of these genes from zygotes to larvae of 50 days after hatching (DAH). Ghrelin, NPY and CCK were all expressed throughout the embryonic and larval development stages, and the expression levels were higher in larval stages than in embryonic stages. Ghrelin and NPY mRNA expressions were upregulated at 1, 3, 5 DAH, while CCK mRNA expression was reduced significantly at 3 DAH. The mRNA expression levels of three genes in larvae varied significantly until 30 DAH. In adult fish, all three peptides were detected to be expressed in brain and several peripheral tissues. Ghrelin mRNA was mainly expressed in the intestine, whereas NPY and CCK mRNAs were mainly expressed in the brain. Taken together, these results indicate that ghrelin, NPY and CCK may have roles in early development and participate in the regulation of feeding of larvae in blunt snout bream and will be helpful for further investigation into feed intake regulation in adults of this species.

  2. A Comprehensive Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns in Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Based on RNA-Seq Data

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    Xiaoke Duan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala is an important fish species for its delicacy and high economic value in China. Codon usage analysis could be helpful to understand its codon biology, mRNA translation and vertebrate evolution. Based on RNA-Seq data for M. amblycephala, high-frequency codons (CUG, AGA, GUG, CAG and GAG, as well as low-frequency ones (NUA and NCG codons were identified. A total of 724 high-frequency codon pairs were observed. Meanwhile, 14 preferred and 199 avoided neighboring codon pairs were also identified, but bias was almost not shown with one or more intervening codons inserted between the same pairs. Codon usage bias in the regions close to start and stop codons indicated apparent heterogeneity, which even occurs in the flanking nucleotide sequence. Codon usage bias (RSCU and SCUO was related to GC3 (GC content of 3rd nucleotide in codon bias. Six GO (Gene ontology categories and the number of methylation targets were influenced by GC3. Codon usage patterns comparison among 23 vertebrates showed species specificities by using GC contents, codon usage and codon context analysis. This work provided new insights into fish biology and new information for breeding projects.

  3. Identification of MicroRNA for Intermuscular Bone Development in Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala

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    Shi-Ming Wan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermuscular bone (IB, which occurs only in the myosepta of the lower teleosts, is attracting more attention of researchers due to its particular development and lack of genetic information. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are emerging as important regulators for biological processes. In the present study, miRNAs from IBs and connective tissue (CT; encircled IBs from six-month-old Megalobrama amblycephala were characterized and compared. The results revealed the sequences and expression levels of 218 known miRNA genes (belonging to 97 families. Of these miRNAs, 44 known microRNA sequences exhibited significant expression differences between the two libraries, with 24 and 20 differentially-expressed miRNAs exhibiting higher expression in the CT and IBs libraries, respectively. The expressions of 11 miRNAs were selected to validate in nine tissues. Among the high-ranked predicted gene targets, differentiation, cell cycle, metabolism, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation were implicated. The pathway analysis of differentially-expressed miRNAs indicated that they were abundantly involved in regulating the development and differentiation of IBs and CT. This study characterized the miRNA for IBs of teleosts for the first time, which provides an opportunity for further understanding of miRNA function in the regulation of IB development.

  4. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 genes in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

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    Liang, Tao; Ji, Wei; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Wei, Kai-Jian; Feng, Ke; Wang, Wei-Min; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 are widespread in fish and extremely important components of the host innate immune system. In this study, full-length cDNAs of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 were cloned and sequenced from blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala. The open reading frames (ORF) of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 genes encode putative peptides of 94 and 92 amino acids, which possess eight and four conserved cysteine residues, respectively. The homologous identities of deduced amino acid sequences show that the LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 of blunt snout bream share considerable similarity with those of grass carp. The mRNA expressions of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 were detectable at different early developmental stages of blunt snout bream and varied with embryonic and larval growth. LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 were expressed in a wide range of adult tissues, with the highest expression levels in the liver and midgut, respectively. Bacterial challenge experiments showed that the levels of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 mRNA expression were up-regulated in the liver, spleen, gill and brain of juvenile blunt snout bream. These results indicate that the LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 may play important roles in early development of embryos and fry, and may contribute to the defense against the pathogenic bacterial invasion. This study will further our understanding of the function of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 and the molecular mechanism of innate immunity in teleosts.

  5. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) Infected by Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Cui, Lei; Hu, Hongtao; Wei, Wei; Wang, Weimin; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that play key roles in regulation of various biological processes. In order to better understand the biological significance of miRNAs in the context of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Megalobrama amblycephala, small RNA libraries obtained from fish liver at 0 (non-infection), 4, and 24 h post infection (poi) were sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 11,244,207, 9,212,958, and 7,939,157 clean reads were obtained from these three RNA libraries, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis identified 171 conserved miRNAs and 62 putative novel miRNAs. The existence of ten randomly selected novel miRNAs was validated by RT-PCR. Pairwise comparison suggested that 61 and 44 miRNAs were differentially expressed at 4 and 24 h poi, respectively. Furthermore, the expression profiles of nine randomly selected miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. MicroRNA target prediction, gene ontology (GO) annotation, and Kyoto Encylopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis indicated that a variety of biological pathways could be affected by A. hydrophila infection. Additionally, transferrin (TF) and transferrin receptor (TFR) genes were confirmed to be direct targets of miR-375. These results will expand our knowledge of the role of miRNAs in the immune response of M. amblycephala to A. hydrophila infection, and facilitate the development of effective strategies against A. hydrophila infection in M. amblycephala. PMID:27898025

  6. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Infected by Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Lei Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that play key roles in regulation of various biological processes. In order to better understand the biological significance of miRNAs in the context of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Megalobrama amblycephala, small RNA libraries obtained from fish liver at 0 (non-infection, 4, and 24 h post infection (poi were sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 11,244,207, 9,212,958, and 7,939,157 clean reads were obtained from these three RNA libraries, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis identified 171 conserved miRNAs and 62 putative novel miRNAs. The existence of ten randomly selected novel miRNAs was validated by RT-PCR. Pairwise comparison suggested that 61 and 44 miRNAs were differentially expressed at 4 and 24 h poi, respectively. Furthermore, the expression profiles of nine randomly selected miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. MicroRNA target prediction, gene ontology (GO annotation, and Kyoto Encylopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis indicated that a variety of biological pathways could be affected by A. hydrophila infection. Additionally, transferrin (TF and transferrin receptor (TFR genes were confirmed to be direct targets of miR-375. These results will expand our knowledge of the role of miRNAs in the immune response of M. amblycephala to A. hydrophila infection, and facilitate the development of effective strategies against A. hydrophila infection in M. amblycephala.

  7. Genetic diversity of and differentiation among five populations of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala revealed by SRAP markers: implications for conservation and management.

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    Wei Ji

    Full Text Available The blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala is an important freshwater aquaculture fish throughout China. Because of widespread introductions of this species to many regions, the genetic diversity of wild and natural populations is now threatened. In the present study, SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers were used to assess genetic diversity of blunt snout bream. Three natural populations (Liangzi Lake, Poyang Lake and Yuni Lake, one cultured population (Nanxian and one genetic strain ('Pujiang No. 1' of blunt snout bream were screened with 88 SRAP primer combinations, of which 13 primer pairs produced stable and reproducible amplification patterns. In total, 172 bands were produced, of which 132 bands were polymorphic. Nei's gene diversity (h and Shannon's information index (I values provided evidence of differences in genetic diversity among the five populations (Poyang Lake>Liangzi Lake>Nanxian>'Pujiang No. 1'>Yuni Lake. Based on cluster analysis conducted on genetic distance values, the five blunt snout bream populations were divided into three groups, Poyang Lake and Liangzi Lake (natural populations, Nanxian and 'Pujiang No. 1' (cultured population and genetically selected strain, and Yuni Lake (natural population. Significant genetic differentiation was found among the five populations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, with more genetic divergence existing among populations (55.49%, than within populations (44.51%. This molecular marker technique is a simple and efficient method to quantify genetic diversity within and among fish populations, and is employed here to help manage and conserve germplasm variability of blunt snout bream and to support the ongoing selective breeding programme for this fish.

  8. Molecular cloning, tissue expression of gene Muc2 in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala and regulation after re-feeding

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    Xue, Chunyu; Xi, Bingwen; Ren, Mingchun; Dong, Jingjing; Xie, Jun; Xu, Pao

    2015-03-01

    Mucins are important components of mucus, which form a natural, physical, biochemical and semipermeable mucosal layer on the epidermis of fish gills, skin, and the gastrointestinal tract. As the first step towards characterizing the function of Muc2, we cloned a partial Megalobrama amblycephala Muc2 cDNA of 2 175 bp, and analyzed its tissue-specific expression pattern by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The obtained sequence comprised 41 bp 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), 2 134 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 711 amino acids. BLAST searching and phylogenetic analysis showed that the predicted protein contained several common secreted mucin-module domains (VWD-C8-TIL-VWD-C8) and had high homology with mucins from other vertebrates. Among four candidate reference genes ( β- Actin, RPI13α, RPII, 18S) for the qPCR, RPII was chosen as an appropriate reference gene because of its lowest variation in different tissues. M. amblycephala Muc2 was mainly expressed in the intestine, in the order (highest to lowest) middle-intestine > fore-intestine > hind-intestine. Muc2 was expressed relatively poorly in other organs (brain, liver, kidney, spleen, skin and gill). Furthermore, after 20-days of starvation, M. amblycephala Muc2 expressions after refeeding for 0 h, 3 h, 16 h, 3 d, and 10 d were significantly decreased in the three intestinal segments ( P<0.05) at 16 h, and were then upregulated to near the initial level at 10 d.

  9. The effect of exposure to a high-fat diet on microRNA expression in the liver of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala.

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    Dingdong Zhang

    Full Text Available Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala are susceptible to hepatic steatosis when maintained in modern intensive culture systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs in diet-induced hepatic steatosis in this species. MiRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, are involved in diverse biological processes, including lipid metabolism. Deep sequencing of hepatic small RNA libraries from blunt snout bream fed normal-fat and high-fat diets identified 202 (193 known and 9 novel miRNAs, of which 12 were differentially expressed between the normal-fat and high-fat diet groups. Quantitative stem-loop reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed the upregulation of miR-30c and miR-30e-3p and the downregulation of miR-145 and miR-15a-5p in high-fat diet-fed fish. Bioinformatics tools were used to predict the targets of these verified miRNAs and to explore potential downstream gene ontology biological process categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Six putative lipid metabolism-related target genes (fetuin-B, Cyp7a1, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2, 3-oxoacid CoA transferase 1b, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, and fatty-acid synthase were identified as having potential important roles in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis in blunt snout bream. The results presented here are a foundation for future studies of miRNA-controlled lipid metabolism regulatory networks in blunt snout bream.

  10. Molecular cloning and expression of toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4) in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

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    Lai, Ruifang; Liu, Han; Jakovlić, Ivan; Zhan, Fanbin; Wei, Jin; Yang, Pinhong; Wang, Weimin

    2016-06-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in teleost innate immune system. In this study, Megalobrama amblycephala (ma) tlr4 gene was cloned, its putative polypeptide product characterized, and expression analysed. Matlr4 cDNA is 2862 bp long, with an open reading frame of 2364 bp encoding 787 amino acids. MaTlr4 is a typical TLR protein, including the extracellular part with nine leucine-rich repeat motifs, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain. MaTlr4 has the highest level of identity (94%) and similarity (97%) with the grass carp Tlr4.2 homolog. This was also corroborated by the phylogenetic analysis, which placed MaTlr4 in a cluster with other cyprinid homologs. Matlr4 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues and during all sampled developmental stages. The observed peak in matlr4 mRNA expression during gastrula and somite stages is in good agreement with its proposed role in the development of the neural system. Temporal expression patterns of matlr4 and maMyD88 mRNAs and proteins were analyzed in liver, spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney and intestine after Aeromonas hydrophila infection. And mRNA expression varied between different time-points. Both MaTlr4 and MaMyD88 protein expressions at 12 hpi were significantly enhanced in head kidney and intestine. These results indicate that matlr4 is involved in the immune response in M. amblycephala, and that it is indeed a functional homologue of tlr4s described in other animal species.

  11. Effects of berberine on the growth and immune performance in response to ammonia stress and high-fat dietary in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

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    Chen, Qing-Qing; Liu, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Man; Dai, Yong-Jun; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Xu, Wei-Na

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to figure out the effects of berberine on growth performance, immunity, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fed with high-fat diet. 320 fish (80.00 ± 0.90 g) were divided randomly into four trial groups (each with four replicates) and fed with 4 diets (normal diet, normal diet with 50 mg/kg berberine, high-fat diet, high-fat diet with 50 mg/kg berberine), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, ammonia stress test was carried out for 5 days. The result showed the growth performance, immune parameters including plasm acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, lysozyme (LYZ) activities and alternative complement C3 and C4 contents were suppressed in fish fed with high-fat diets but improved in berberine diets compared with control (normal diet). Hepatopancreas oxidative status, the malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and lipid peroxide (LPO) were increased significantly (P Berberine could slow the progression of the oxidative stress induced by high-fat through increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and total sulfydryl (T-SH) levels of fish. And the hepatocyte apoptosis in the high-fat group could also be alleviated by berberine. After the ammonia stress test, the accumulative mortality was extremely (P berberine compared to other groups. It was concluded berberine as a functional feed additive significantly inhibited the progression of oxidative stress, reduced the apoptosis and enhanced the immunity of fish fed with high-fat diet.

  12. Effects of dietary pantothenic acid on growth, intestinal function, anti-oxidative status and fatty acids synthesis of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

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    Yu Qian

    Full Text Available Four groups of juvenile Megalobrama amblycephala were fed three times daily with six semi-purified diets containing 3.39 (PA unsupplied diet, 10.54, 19.28, 31.04, 48.38 and 59.72 mg kg(-1 calcium D-pantothenate. The results showed that survival rate, final weight, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen retention efficiency all increased significantly (P<0.01 as dietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 19.28 mg kg(-1, whereas the opposite was true for feed conversion ratio. Whole-body crude protein increased as dietary PA levels increased, while the opposite pattern was found for the crude lipid content. Intestinal α-amylase, lipase, protease, Na+-K+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were all elevated in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic catalase activities improved with increases in dietary PA, while the opposite was true for malondialdehyde contents. The liver PA concentration and coenzyme A content rose significantly (P<0.01, up to 31.04 mg kg(-1, with increasing dietary PA levels and then plateaued. The percentage of hepatic saturated fatty acids increased significantly (P<0.01 as dietary PA levels increased, while the percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA decreased as dietary PA increased. Fish fed diets containing 19.28 and 31.04 mg kg(-1 PA exhibited higher (P<0.01 docosahexaenoic acid and PUFA percentages in muscle than those fed with other diets. The expression of the gene encoding pantothenate kinase was significantly up-regulated (P<0.01 in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic Acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, fatty acid synthetase, stearoyl regulatory element-binding protein 1 and X receptor α genes all increased significantly (P<0.01 as dietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 31.04 mg kg(-1. Based on broken-line regression analyses of weight gain, liver CoA concentrations and PA contents against dietary PA levels, the optimal

  13. Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala): cDNA cloning, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes responding to fasting and refeeding.

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    Ji, Wei; Ping, Hai-Chao; Wei, Kai-Jian; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Shi, Ze-Chao; Yang, Rui-Bin; Zou, Gui-Wei; Wang, Wei-Min

    2015-11-01

    Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Yih, 1955) is an endemic freshwater fish in China for which the endocrine mechanism of regulation of feeding has never been examined. Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) play important roles in the regulation of fish feeding. In this study, full-length cDNAs of ghrelin, NPY and CCK were cloned and analyzed from blunt snout bream. Both the ghrelin and NPY genes of blunt snout bream had the same amino acid sequences as grass carp, and CCK also shared considerable similarity with that of grass carp. The three genes were expressed in a wide range of adult tissues, with the highest expression levels of ghrelin in the hindgut, NPY in the hypothalamus and CCK in the pituitary, respectively. Starvation challenge experiments showed that the expression levels of ghrelin and NPY mRNA increased in brain and intestine after starvation, and the expression levels of CCK decreased after starvation. Refeeding could bring the expression levels of the three genes back to the control levels. These results indicated that the feeding behavior of blunt snout bream was regulated by the potential correlative actions of ghrelin, NPY and CCK, which contributed to the defense against starvation. This study will further our understanding of the function of ghrelin, NPY and CCK and the molecular mechanism of feeding regulation in teleosts.

  14. OPTIMAL DIETARY PYRIDOXINE REQUIREMENT OF JUVENILE BLUNT SNOUT BREAM, MEGALOBRAMA AMBLYCEPHALA%团头鲂幼鱼吡哆醇适宜需求量的研究

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    王莹; 李向飞; 张微微; 徐维娜; 刘文斌

    2013-01-01

    试验采用单因素试验设计,以饲料中吡哆醇浓度为影响因素,研究了团头鲂幼鱼的适宜吡哆醇需求量。试验共配置了7组等氮等能的半纯化饲料,其吡哆醇的实际含量分别为0、1.04、1.99、4.07、5.91、7.96和9.22 mg/kg。选用840尾[均重:(6.81±0.17) g]团头鲂幼鱼,随机分为7组,每组4重复,每重复30尾鱼,日投饵3次,养殖期为8周。结果表明,当饲料中吡哆醇含量由0升高至5.91 mg/kg时,团头鲂的增重率、特定生长率、饲料利用率、成活率、蛋白效率比和氮保留率均得到显著改善(P0.05)。饲料中的吡哆醇含量显著影响团头鲂的肝体比(P0.05)。当饲料吡哆醇含量由0升高至5.91 mg/kg时,肝脏谷草转氨酶和谷丙转氨酶活性以及吡哆醇含量均显著升高(P0.05)。以肝脏中的谷丙和谷草转氨酶活性以及吡哆醇含量为评价指标,拟合折线模型得到团头鲂幼鱼的适宜吡哆醇的需求量为4.17-5.02 mg/kg。%This study was conducted to determine the optimal dietary pyridoxine requirement of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Eight hundred and forty fishes [average initial weight:(6.81±0.17) g] were fed with seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing different pyridoxine levels (0, 1.04, 1.99, 4.07, 5.91, 7.96 and 9.22 mg/kg) 3 times daily for 8 weeks, respectively. Each diet was tested in four replicates, and each replicate had 30 fishes. Weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate, protein efficiency ratio (PER) and nitrogen retention efficiency (NRE) were all increased significantly (P0.05). No significant difference (P>0.05) was observed both in condition factor and dressout percentage among all the treatments, while hepatosomatic index was significantly (P0.05) with further increase of pyridoxine levels. On the basis of the broken-line analysis of hepatic GOT and GPT activities and liver

  15. Molecular cloning, immunohistochemical localization, characterization and expression analysis of caspase-8 from the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) exposed to ammonia.

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    Sun, Shengming; Ge, Xianping; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Wuxiao; Zhang, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Caspase-8 is an initiator caspase that plays a crucial role in some cases of apoptosis by extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Caspase-8 structure and function have been extensively studied in mammals, but in fish the characterization of that initiator caspase is still scarce. In this study, we isolated the caspase-8 gene from Megalobrama amblycephala, one of the most important industrial aquatic animals in China using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The 2034 bp full-length M. amblycephala caspase-8 cDNA sequence contained an ORF of 1467 bp encoding a polypeptide of 489 amino acid residues, a 5'-UTR of 102 bp and a 3'-UTR of 462 bp. The caspase-8 amino acid sequences contained two highly conservative death effector domains (DEDs) at N-terminal, the caspase family domains P20 and P10, caspase-8 active-site pentapeptide and potential aspartic acid cleavage sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that M. amblycephala caspase-8 were clustered with the caspase-8 from other vertebrate. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that caspase-8 transcripts were detected in liver after exposure to ammonia. Meanwhile using Western blot analysis, caspase-8 cleaved fragment was detected and significant alteration of procaspase-8 level was found with the same ammonia treatment condition. Furthermore, the result of immunohistochemical detection showed that remarkable changes of immunopositive staining were observed after ammonia treatment. Accordingly, the results signify that caspase-8 of fish may play an essential role in ammonia induced apoptosis.

  16. Infection kinetics of Aeromonas hydrophila in the blunt-snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala%嗜水气单胞菌在浸泡感染团头鲂的组织动态分布

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    陆春云; 谢骏; 习丙文; 梁利国; 夏飞; 潘良坤

    2015-01-01

    利用具有绿色荧光蛋白基因标记的嗜水气单胞菌(WJ-8GFP)对团头鲂(Megalobrama amblycephala)进行浸泡攻毒试验,探究温度对浸泡感染后嗜水气单胞菌在团头鲂各组织分布的影响。实验设立A组(水温25℃), B组(水温32℃), C组(水温25℃),其中 C组为对照组。用菌株 WJ-8GFP对实验组 A、B进行浸泡攻毒,试验组 C不进行攻毒处理,攻毒后分别于2h、4h、8h、12h、24h采集各组鱼血液、脾、肾、鳃、肠道、肌肉,培养法统计分析各组织器官上的荧光细菌数量。实验结果显示,在各取样时间段实验组 A(25℃)和实验组B(32℃)团头鲂各组织在均能检测到荧光嗜水气单胞菌,对照组未检测到嗜水气单胞菌;最高菌量出现在鳃,且鳃上嗜水气单胞菌数量显著大于其他组织(P<0.05),其次是脾、肾;组织内的菌量随时间大体呈现先上升后下降的趋势; B实验组中各组织菌量显著大于 A 实验组(P<0.05)。研究结果表明,鳃是嗜水气单胞菌浸泡感染团头鲂的主要组织器官,与25℃相比较,在水温32℃时团头鲂被嗜水气单胞菌感染的风险更高。%Fish disease has become an increasingly prominent problem in aquaculture development and causes severe economic damage to fisheries. Aeromonas hydrophila is an important fish pathogen that causes hemor-rhaging and septicemia in many cultured fishes. The infection kinetics of A. hydrophila in blunt-snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala were investigated with a strain, A. hydrophila WJ-8, that was transformed with a plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein (pEGFPuv-Kar). The purpose of this investigation was to fully eluci-date the pathogenesis of septicemia in blunt-snout bream and provide basic data on pathogenic factors of A. hy-drophila. Fish were divided into three experimental groups: group A, water temperature 25℃; group B, water temperature 32℃;and group C (control group), water

  17. UTILIZATION OF CHOLINE IN DIFFERENT LEVELS AND DIETARY CHOLINE AVAILABILITY VALUES IN SEVEN COMMON FEED INGREDIENTS FOR JUVENILE BLUNT SNOUT BREAM,MEGALOBRAMA AMBLYCEPHALA%团头鲂幼鱼对不同浓度胆碱的利用率及7种常见饲料原料中胆碱生物学效价的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 蒋广震; 刘文斌; 钱妤; 朱杰

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate dietary choline availability values in juvenile blunt snout breamMegalobrama amblycephala, an 8-week feeding trial was conducted with seven common feed ingredients. Choline chloride was fortified to the basal diet that contained 310 g/kg diet from vitamin-free casein and gelatin to formulate four purified diets containing 0, 1030, 1230 and 1430 mg/kg choline, respectively. These four purified diets were used to generate a standard curve to evaluate choline availability in seven diets containing the following common feed ingredients: fish meal (FM), soybean meal (SBM), rapeseed meal (RSM), cottonseed meal (CSM), wheat middling (WM), wheat bran (WB) and rice bran (RB). The choline in seven diets was 1230 mg/kg including 1030 mg/kg choline chloride. Three groups ofMegalobrama am-blycephala with initial average weight (3.5±0.1) g were fed randomly with each diet in a flow-through system. Our re-sults indicated that weight gain and liver choline concentration were significantly increased for higher dietary choline levels (P 0.05);在同一胆碱水平(1230 mg/kg)的条件下,原料组的增长率均高于对照组;团头鲂幼鱼对鱼粉、豆粕、菜粕、棉粕、次粉、麸皮和米糠的胆碱生物学效价分别为87.42%、112.54%、76.84%、98.00%、95.91%、43.88%、91.5%。分析可知,团头鲂生产饲料中尚需要额外添加氯化胆碱方能满足其对胆碱的需要,实际添加量与饲料所使用的原料有关。

  18. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial control region in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Liangguo; Liu, Shaojun; Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Yun

    2010-06-01

    The entire sequences of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA control region (CR) and portions of its flanking genes in the red crucian carp (RC) and blunt snout bream (BSB) as well as their polyploid hybrids (3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB) were determined and subjected to a comparative analysis. The mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species ranged from 923 to 937 bp in length, they had the same flanking gene arrangement as other vertebrates and the pattern of nucleotide substitution bias was also similar to that in other vertebrates. Our data are consistent with the viewpoint of three domains [extended terminal associated sequence (ETAS domain), central conserved sequence block domain and conserved sequence block (CSB) domain] within the mtDNA-CR of mammals. On the basis our comparative analysis of the mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species, we were able to identify the consensus sequences of functional conserved units, including the ETAS, CSB-F, CSB-D, CSB-E, CSB1, CSB2 and CSB3 and putative promoter. The percentage of variable nucleotide positions (41.98%) in the central domain was lower than those in the ETAS and conserved domain (71.70 and 47.12%, respectively), suggesting that the central domain was the most conserved part of the mtDNA-CR. These results provide useful and important information for the further study of mtDNA-CR structure in fish. The sequence similarities of mtDNA-CR among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective female parents were higher than those among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective male parents, providing the direct evidence of stringent maternal inheritance of mtDNA-CR in the 3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB hybrids.

  19. 团头鲂幼鱼饲料中α-亚麻酸、亚油酸的适宜含量%Optimal Dietary α-Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid Contents of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) Fingerlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚林杰; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 许凡; 刘猛; 刘汉超; 董娇娇; 陈科全; 黄雨薇

    2015-01-01

    在半纯化饲料配方的基础上,分别设计6个α-亚麻酸含量(0.02%、0.55%、1.08%、1.60%、2.13%、2.65%)、6个亚油酸含量(0.86%、1.29%、1.73%、2.16%、2.59%、3.03%),以亚麻籽油、玉米油、棕榈油调节饲料中α-亚麻酸、亚油酸的含量,配制等氮等能(粗蛋白质含量为30.09%,粗脂肪含量为6.87%)的12种半纯化试验饲料,探讨团头鲂幼鱼[初始均重为(59.5±0.5) g]饲料中α-亚麻酸、亚油酸的适宜含量。养殖试验分为α-亚麻酸和亚油酸试验2部分,均设6组,每组4个重复,每个重复20尾,养殖周期为85 d。结果表明:在α-亚麻酸试验中,依据回归方程计算得到,在饲料α-亚麻酸含量分别为1.32%、1.33%时,团头鲂幼鱼具有最大的特定生长率和最小的饲料系数;0.02%组的脏体指数显著低于除1.08%组外的其他各组( P0.05);0.02%组血清总胆固醇、甘油三酯含量显著高于0.55%、1.08%组(P0.05);1.29%组血清总胆固醇含量显著高于1.73%组(P0.05)。以特定生长率、饲料系数作为主要评价指标,结合部分血清生化指标和形体指标,得到适合团头鲂幼鱼快速生长、维持鱼体正常健康的饲料中适宜的亚麻酸、亚油酸含量分别为1.32%~1.33%、2.02%~2.03%。%This experiment was conducted to estimate the optimal dietary α-linolenic acid ( LNA) and linoleic acid ( LA ) contents of blunt snout bream ( Megalobrama amblycephala ) fingerlings [ intial average body weight of (59.5±0.5) g]. The flax seed oil, corn oil and palm oil were used as lipid sources to regulate dieta-ry LNA and LA contents, a total of 6 gradients of LNA content such as 0. 02%, 0. 55%, 1. 08%, 1. 60%, 2.13% and 2. 65%, and 6 gradients of LA content such as 0. 86%, 1. 29%, 1. 73%, 2. 16%, 2. 59% and 3.03% were designed. Twelve isonitrogenous and isoenergetic semi-purified experimental diets ( crude protein content was 30.09%, and lipid content was 6.87%) were formulated. The feeding trial included 2

  20. Effects of dietary linoleic and linolenic acid levels on growth, body composition and digestive enzyme activities in juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala%饲料中亚油酸和亚麻酸含量对团头鲂幼鱼生长、体成分和消化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王煜恒; 刘文斌; 王会聪; 陈军; 骆桂兰; 邢军

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala with initial body weight of (0. 80±0. 02) g were randomly allotted into 36 tanks at a rate of 20 fish per tank and fed nine purified diets containing three linoleic acid (LA) levels (0. 5%, 1. 0% and 1. 5%) and three α-linolenic acid(ALA) levels (0. 5%, 0. 9% and 1. 3%) with tetraplication at water temperature of (27±3)℃ for 8 weeks. Weight gain, specific growth rate and protein ef-ficiency ratio were shown to be increased first and then decreased significantly with increase in dietary LA and ALA levels(P0 . 05 ) . The fish fed the diet containing 1. 3% ALA had significantly higher condition factor ( CF) than the other fish fed the diets containing ALA(P0.05); LA为1.0%组的鱼体肥满度显著高于其他两个LA组(P0.05); LA为0.5%组的肠道脂肪酶和蛋白酶活性显著低于其他两个LA组(P0.05)。研究表明,团头鲂幼鱼对 LA、 ALA 的需要量分别为1.0%~1.5%和0.5%~0.9%,当饲料中添加1.09%的LA和0.84%的ALA时,团头鲂幼鱼生长较好,各项生理机能指标正常。

  1. The fertility of the hybrid lineage derived from female Megalobrama amblycephala × male Culter alburnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Kang, Xuewei; Xie, Lihua; Qin, Qinbo; He, Zhoulin; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhang, Chun; Zhao, Rurong; Wang, Jun; Luo, Kaikun; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2014-12-10

    Distant hybridization can combine together the genomes of different species, which leads to changes of the offspring in phenotypes and genotypes. In this study, we successfully establish a fertile hybrid lineage by intergeneric hybridization of female blunt snout bream (BSB, Megalobrama amblycephala) × male topmouth culter (TC, Culter alburnus) and investigate some important biological traits of this lineage including the morphological traits, chromosomal number, karyotype, DNA content, gonadal development, egg and milt yield, sperm shape and density, fertilization rate and early survival rate. The results show that: (1) the diploid and triploid hybrids coexist in F1 and only diploid hybrids are found in F2, in which the diploid hybrids of F1 and F2 possess 48 chromosomes with one chromosome set of BSB and one chromosome set of TC, and the triploid hybrids of F1 possess 72 chromosomes with two chromosome sets of BSB and one chromosome set of TC. (2) All the tested males and females of the diploid F1 and F2 hybrids have the normal gonadal development and produce mature sperm and egg, respectively, which are fertilized with each other to form F2 and F3 hybrids, respectively, and finally form a diploid hybrid lineage (F1-F3). (3) The good fertility of the F1 and F2 hybrids of female BSB × male TC potentially provides reproductive base to make the hybrid lineage propagate from one generation to another. The formation of the hybrid lineage (F1-F3) also provides an ideal model to research the reproductive rules of distant hybrid progeny.

  2. Molecular characterization and expression patterns of myogenin in compensatory growth of Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kecheng; Chen, Liping; Zhao, Jinkun; Wang, Huijuan; Wang, Weimin; Li, Zhong; Wang, Huanling

    2014-04-01

    Myogenin (myog) is a muscle-specific basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that plays an essential role in regulating skeletal muscle development and growth. To investigate molecular characterization of myog and the effect of starvation/refeeding on the gene expression, we isolated the myog cDNA sequence and analyzed the expression patterns using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in Megalobrama amblycephala. Sequence analysis indicated that M. amblycephala myog shared an analogous structure with the highly conserved His/Cys-rich, bHLH and C-terminal helix III domains with other vertebrates. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree showed that M. amblycephala myog had the highest identity with the homologues of Ctenopharyngodon idella and Cyprinus carpio. Spatio-temporal expression patterns revealed that myog mRNA levels at the segmentation period and 12 h post-hatching (hph) were significantly higher than at other development stages (Pgrowth possibly occurred in M. amblycephala; meanwhile, the relative somatic growth rate after refeeding was also dramatically higher than the control group. In addition, the myog expression decreased during 21days of starvation and then exhibited a strong rebound effect after 7days of refeeding and subsequently declined gradually to the control level by 21days of refeeding.

  3. Microsatellite Development for an Endangered Bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Teleostei, Cyprinidae Using 454 Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuogang Peng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Megalobrama pellegrini is an endemic fish species found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. This species has become endangered due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and overfishing. However, the available genetic data for this species is limited. Here, we developed 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the M. pellegrini genome using next-generation sequencing techniques. A total of 257,497 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on 454 GS-FLX titanium platforms and 49,811 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 404 bp; 24,522 (49.2% sequences contained microsatellite repeats. Of the 53 loci screened, 33 were amplified successfully and 26 were polymorphic. The genetic diversity in M. pellegrini was moderate, with an average of 3.08 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. In addition, we tested cross-species amplification for all 33 loci in four additional breams: M. amblycephala, M. skolkovii, M. terminalis, and Sinibrama wui. The cross-species amplification showed a significant high level of transferability (79%–97%, which might be due to their dramatically close genetic relationships. The polymorphic microsatellites developed in the current study will not only contribute to further conservation genetic studies and parentage analyses of this endangered species, but also facilitate future work on the other closely related species.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA analysis on genetic variation of wild, domesticated, and genetically selected populations of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)%团头鲂野生、驯养、选育3类遗传生态群体遗传变异的线粒体DNA分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐首杰; 李思发; 蔡完其

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of three genetic-ecological populations ["Pujiang No.1"selected strain F7(PJ), two domesticated populations(HX, GA) as well as four wild populations(LZ, YN, SS,JL)]of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) were analyzed by using combined nucleotide sequences of control region and CO I gene of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA).The results showed that: (1) Sixty-four haplotypes were defined in analyzed seven populations, in which no haplotype was shared among populations.(2) The haplotype diversity(Hd), number of variable sites, nucleotide diversity(π) and average number of nucleotide differences(K) were 0.857-0.943, 31-40, 0.275%-0.461% and 4.043-6.800, respectively in four wild populations.The four corresponding parameters were 0.714-0.800, 18-21, 0.122%-0.175% and 1.800-2.586, respectively in two domesticated populations, which were lower than those in the four wild populations.Likewise, those parameters were 0.843, 23, 0.193% and 2.843, respectively in genetically selected strain F7, which were lower than those in the four wild populations but higher than those in two domesticated populations.The above four genetic diversity parameters showed the same trend of change among seven populations.(3) For the seven populations studied,average genetic distance between populations ranged from 0.000 6 to 0.003 5.The pairwise FST value between populations ranged from 0.010 9 to 0.133 1.For pairwise FST value between populations, P value of permutation test were significant(P<0.05) between GA, HX and PJ populations, but no significant P value(P>0.05) were detected between four wild populations.The results indicated that distinct living environments (natural waters and closed fishponds) and artificial selection( strictly and orderly scientific breeding) had a strong impact on the population genetic structure, making difference in genetic variability and genetic differentiation between different types of genetic

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of liver antioxidant mechanisms in Megalobrama amblycephala stimulated with dietary emodin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changyou; Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Ge, Xianping; Zhao, Zhenxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Huimin; Ren, Mingchun; Zhou, Qunlan; Miao, Linghong; Xu, Pao; Lin, Yan

    2017-01-13

    Oxidative stress is a toxicological endpoint that correlates with the nutrition status of fish through cellular damage, inflammation, and apoptosis. In order to understand the antioxidant mechanism induced by dietary emodin in Megalobrama amblycephala liver, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed to investigate the proteome alteration under emodin administration. 27 altered protein spots were separated under 30 mg kg(-1) emodin stimulation based on 2-DE, and were all successfully identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF, representing 17 unique proteins. These proteins were functionally classified into antioxidant, metabolism, cytoskeleton, chaperone, signal transduction and cofactor groups. Network interaction and Gene Ontology annotation indicated 10 unique proteins were closely related to antioxidation and directly regulated by each other. Compared with the control group, administration of 30 mg kg(-1) emodin significantly increased the antioxidant-related mRNA expressions of GPx1, GSTm and HSP70, but decreased the mRNA expressions of GAPDH and Sord, which was consistent with the protein expression. Nevertheless, Pgk1 and Aldh8a1 were up- and down-regulated, and ALDOB was down- and up-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. These results revealed that the altered proteins enhanced antioxidation via complex regulatory mechanisms, and 30 mg kg(-1) emodin was a suitable immunostimulant for M. amblycephala.

  6. Morphological analysis and muscle-associated gene expression during different muscle growth phases of Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, K C; Yu, D H; Zhao, J K; Wang, W M; Wang, H L

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle growth is regulated by both positive and negative factors, such as myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and myostatin (MSTN), and involves both hyperplasia and hypertrophy. In the present study, morphological changes during muscle development in Megalobrama amblycephala were characterized and gene expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis in juvenile [60, 90, 120, and 180 days post-hatching (dph)] and adult fish. Our results show that during muscle development, the frequency of muscle fibers with a diameter muscles, with a concomitant increase in the frequency of >30 μm fibers in red muscle and >50 μm fibers in white muscle. At 90-120 dph, the ratio of hyperplastic to hypertrophic areas in red and white muscles increased, but later decreased at 120-180 dph. The effect of hypertrophy was significantly larger than hyperplasia during these phases. qRT-PCR indicated MRF and MSTN (MSTNa and MSTNb) genes had similar expression patterns that peaked at 120 dph, with the exception of MSTNa. This new information on the molecular regulation of muscle growth and rapid growth phases will be of value to the cultivation of M. amblycephala.

  7. Expression Patterns and Functional Novelty of Ribonuclease 1 in Herbivorous Megalobrama amblycephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ribonuclease 1 (RNase1 is an important digestive enzyme that has been used to study the molecular evolutionary and plant-feeding adaptation of mammals. However, the expression patterns and potential biological function of RNase1 in herbivorous fish is not known. Here, we identified RNase1 from five fish species and illuminated the functional diversification and expression of RNase1 in herbivorous Megalobrama amblycephala. The five identified fish RNase1 genes all have the signature motifs of the RNase A superfamily. No expression of Ma-RNase1 was detected in early developmental stages but a weak expression was detected at 120 and 144 hours post-fertilization (hpf. Ma-RNase1 was only expressed in the liver and heart of one-year-old fish but strongly expressed in the liver, spleen, gut, kidney and testis of two-year-old fish. Moreover, the immunostaining localized RNase1 production to multiple tissues of two-year-old fish. A biological functional analysis of the recombinant protein demonstrated that M. amblycephala RNase1 had a relatively strong ribonuclease activity at its optimal pH 6.1, which is consistent with the pH of its intestinal microenvironment. Collectively, these results clearly show that Ma-RNase1 protein has ribonuclease activity and the expression patterns of Ma-RNase1 are dramatically different in one year and two-year-old fish, suggesting the functional differentiation during fish growing.

  8. Molecular characterization of carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA in Megalobrama amblycephala and effects on its expression of feeding status and dietary lipid and berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kang-Le; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Wang, Li-Na; Xu, Wei-Na; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I, EC 2.3.1.21) controls the main regulatory step of fatty acid oxidation, and hence studies of its molecular characterization are useful to understand lipid metabolism in cultured fish. Here, a full-length cDNA coding CPT I was cloned from liver of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. This cDNA obtained covered 2499bp with an open reading frame of 2181bp encoding 726 amino acids. This CPT I mRNA predominantly expressed in heart and white muscle, while little in eye and spleen. The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of sequence alignments among several vertebrate species suggests that this blunt snout bream CPT I sequence belongs to the CPT IA family. In order to investigate the characterization of CPT IA mRNA expression, post-prandial experiment and feeding trial were conducted. The results showed that CPT IA mRNA expression was unchanged from 2 to 12h, and then significantly increased at 24h post-feeding in liver and heart. Berberine, an alkaloid, was identified as a promising lipid-lowering drug. In order to elucidate the effect of berberine on CPT I expression, fish were fed for 8 weeks with three diets (low-fat diet (LFD, 5% fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 15% fat), and berberine-supplemented diet (BSD, 15% fat). The results showed that HFD could decrease the expression of CPT IA and PPARα, while BSD increased those expressions.

  9. 抗应激制剂对运输团头鲂血清生化和肝脏抗氧化指标的影响%Effects of Anti-stress Agents on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Hepatic Antioxidant Parameters in Wuchang Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) during Long-distance Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周传朋; 刘波; 谢骏; 戈贤平; 徐跑; 王可宝; 周群兰; 潘良坤; 陈汝丽

    2014-01-01

    The serum cortisol (COR) ,levels of 3 ,5 ,3′ - triiodothyronine (T3) ,complement 3 (C3) , complement 4 (C4) ,hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) ,activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) ,and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were determined in Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) with initial body weight of (600 ± 12) g held in 1m3 tanks of 750 fish fed the diets containing 20 mg/L vitamin C , glutamine or anti-stress compund (anti-stress agents ) (without addition as control group ) during long-distance transportation period of 0 h ,4 h ,8 h ,and 12 h to evaluate the effect of anti-stress agents on the serum biochemical parameters and hepatic antioxidant abilities during the long-distance transportation period .The results showed that the anti-stress agents led to significantly (Pglutamine>anti-stress compound .%研究了在运输中添加维生素C,谷氨酰胺和抗应激复合物对团头鲂血清生化指标和肝脏抗氧化指标的影响,探讨团头鲂运输后高死亡率的原因以及维生素C、谷氨酰胺和抗应激复合物对运输应激的缓解作用。在运输团头鲂0、4、8、12 h后,分别采集团头鲂血液和肝脏样品,测定了血清皮质醇、三碘甲腺原氨酸、补体3、补体4、肝脏丙二醛含量、超氧化物歧化酶活力、总抗氧化能力等指标。试验结果表明,经过4 h后,与对照组相比,维生素C组血清皮质醇和肝脏丙二醛的含量显著降低(P<0.05);抗应激复合物组血清补体3和补体4含量显著升高(P<0.05);维生素C组、谷氨酰胺和抗应激复合物组肝脏超氧化物歧化酶活性显著提高(P<0.05);维生素C组和谷氨酰胺组肝脏总抗氧化能力分别显著升高(P<0.05)。经过8 h ,与对照组相比,维生素C组、谷氨酰胺组和抗应激复合物组血清皮质醇含量显著降低(P<0.05);维生素C组和抗应激复合物组血清补体3含量分别显著升高(P<0.05)

  10. Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of IGF-I from Triangular Bream(Megalobrama terminalis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Fu-dan; LIU Hong-yun

    2004-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor Ⅰ(IGF-Ⅰ)gene of triangular bream(Megalobrama terminalis)(GenBank No.AY247412)(Tb)was cloned for the first time from liver by RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequence analysis showed the Tb IGF-Ⅰ cDNA consisted of 486 nucleotides and encoded 117 amino acids including B,C,A,D and E five domains. Analysis of E-domain indicated that cloned Tb IGF-Ⅰ belonged to IGF-Ⅰ Ea-2 subtype. Identity analysis showed the IGF-Ⅰ nucleotide sequence shared 99.8% homology with bluntnose bream,88.8% with grass Carp,85.8% with common carp; the pre-IGF-Ⅰ amine acid sequence shared 99.4% with bluntnose bream,88.8% with grass carp,85.4% homology with common carp. In the Cyprinus Carpio,the higher homology of nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence in IGF-Ⅰshowed that the closer relationship the fishes have. These results could provide basic data for the research on Tb germplasm and the development and utilization of biological feed additives.

  11. 不同蛋白质和脂肪水平对1龄团头鲂生长性能和体组成的影响%EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PROTEIN AND LIPID LEVELS ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF BLUNT SNOUT BREAM (MEGALOBRAMA AMBLYCEPHALA) YEARLINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋阳阳; 李向飞; 刘文斌; 吴阳; 李贵锋; 朱浩

    2012-01-01

    试验采用3×3因子设计,探讨了饲料中不同蛋白质和脂肪水平对1龄团头鲂[均重:(50.37±1.27)g]生长性能和体组成的影响.试验设3个蛋白质水平(25%、30%和35%)和3个脂肪水平(3%、6%和9%),共配制9组饲料.试验鱼饲养于网箱(规格为2 m×1 m×1 m)中,每天投喂3次,试验期为8周.结果表明:蛋白质和脂肪之间无交互作用存在(P>0.05).蛋白质和脂肪水平对存活率无显著影响(P>0.05).增重率、特定生长率和饵料系数显著受蛋白质和脂肪水平影响(P<0.05).其中,25%蛋白组的增重率及特定生长率显著低于其他蛋白组(P<0.05),而6%脂肪组显著高于其他脂肪组(P<0.01).尽管35%蛋白6%脂肪组的饵料系数最低,但与除了25%蛋白3%脂肪和25%蛋白9%脂肪这两组外的其他组相比,差异均不显著(P>0.05).蛋白效率比和氮保留率随蛋白质水平的升高显著降低(P<0.05).此外,蛋白效率比显著受脂肪水平的影响(P<0.05),以6%组最高.能量保留率随脂肪水平的升高显著升高(P<0.05).鱼体肥满度随蛋白质和脂肪水平的升高显著升高(P<0.05).腹脂率和肝体比随脂肪水平的升高显著升高(P<0.05),而受蛋白质水平的影响较小(P>0.05).蛋白质水平对全鱼、胴体和肝脏的组成均无显著影响(P>0.05).脂肪水平对全鱼水分、脂肪和能量有极显著影响(P<0.01),其中,全鱼水分含量随脂肪水平的升高显著降低(P<0.01),而脂肪和能量含量则显著升高(P<0.01).胴体和肝脏水分、脂肪含量的变化趋势与全鱼基本一致.以上结果表明,1龄团头鲂的适宜蛋白质和脂肪水平分别为30%和6%,适宜蛋能比为18.21 g/MJ.%A 3×3 factorial design was used to determine effect of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth performance and body composition of blunt snout bream yearlings (average initial weight of 50.37±1.27 g). Nine experimental diets were

  12. Growth differentiation factor 9 of Megalobrama amblycephala: molecular characterization and expression analysis during the development of early embryos and growing ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun Xiao; Wei, Xin Lan; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Li Ping; Wang, Wei Min; Li, Jun Yan; Wang, Huan Ling

    2014-02-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factorβ superfamily and plays an essential role during follicle maturation in mammals. In the present study, the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of gdf9 was obtained from Megalobrama amblycephala. The cDNA sequence is 2,061 bp in length with an open reading frame of 1,287 bp encoding 428 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shared identities of about 42-86 % with the homologues of other vertebrates. During the early development of embryos, the gdf9 mRNA was detected in zygote with significantly high level and declined sharply by 47 and 87 % at 4 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and 6 hpf and even to an undetectable level through advancing stages. Expression analysis based on quantitative real-time PCR revealed that gdf9 mRNA was mainly expressed in ovary, but much lower levels were also found in some nonovarian tissues. Within the follicle, gdf9 mRNA was localized both in the oocytes and the follicle layer cells by in situ hybridization. During the ovarian cycle, gdf9 mRNA significantly decreased after the previtellogenic stage and became to increase again after the fully grown stage. The results imply that Gdf9 may play critical physiological functions in M. amblycephala early embryonic development and reproduction.

  13. 团头鲂肌间骨发育的形态学观察%DEVELOPMENTAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL OBSERVATION OF INTERMUSCULAR BONES IN MEGALOBRAMA AMBLYCEPHALA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万世明; 易少奎; 仲嘉; 王卫民; 蒋恩明; 陈柏湘; 高泽霞

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the emergent periods and morphogenesis of Megalobrama amblycephala intermuscular bones, the modified bone clearing and X-ray transmission methods were conducted to study the number, morphology, distribu-tion and length of intermuscular bone of M. amblycephala with different sizes. The results showed that initial inter-muscular bones were ossified at 20 days post hatching (dph) with the body length of 1.33 cm, which first appeared in the tail and then turned toward the head. When the fries were 40 dph with the body length of 2.36 cm, all the intermuscular bones were basically appeared. The average number of intermuscular bones of M. amblycephala was 119 with the range from 108 to 129. The number of intermuscular bones in both body sides was not absolutely equal, although the number of each side was quite close. There were more intermuscular bones in the front dorsal part than rear part, and the number of intermuscular bones was almost equal in rear dorsal and rear abdominal parts. There were 6 kinds of intermuscular bones, including “1” “卜” “y”, one-end-multifork, two-end-multifork, and “(” types. Various types of intermuscular bones were evolved from the“1”shape, and more complex shapes were formed in the front part of body. The length of intermuscular bones in front dorsal part was significantly longer than that in tail part (P<0.05), while the intermuscular bones in the front abdominal part were shorter than others. The length of intermuscular bones of M. amblycephala was positively related with the body weight and body length. The emergence and differentiation of intermuscular bones was more related to the body size than to the age in M. amblycephala. The result from this study will contribute to under-stand the molecular mechanisms of intermuscular bone occurrence and development, the research on the inhibition of the intermuscular bone ossification as well as the breeding of M. amblycephala without intermuscular bone.%研

  14. The interspecific hybridization in four freshwater bream Megalobrama sp%鲂属4种鱼类种间杂交的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大龙; 杜睿; 聂竹兰; 杨振华; 罗伟; 易少奎; 高泽霞; 王卫民; 陈柏湘

    2014-01-01

    Ministry of AgricultureWild broodstocks of Megalobrama amblycephala( T) collected from Langzi Lake in Ezhou, Hubei Province, M. terminalis ( S) collected from Qiantang River original seed farm in Zhejiang Prov-ince, M. hoffmanni ( H) collected from Longxi River in Luzhou, Sichuan Province, and M. pellegrini ( G) in Zhao-qing Xijiang, Guangdong Province were used for a variety of hybrids and inbred as follows:T♀×T♂, T♀×H♂, T♀×S♂, T♀×G♂, S♀×S♂, S♀×T♂, S♀×G♂, H♀×H♂, and H♀×T♂. Fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival rate were relatively high in the hydrids, in which the larvae were reared for 45 days, indicating that it was possible to conduct hybridization within Megalobrama sp. , especially the hydrids reciprocal crossed be-tween M. amblycephala and M. pellegrini showing heterosis in both body length and body weight, not in the body height. No heterosis was found in the reciprocal crossed hybrid between M. amblycephala and M. terminalis. It is uncertain that there is heterosis in the reciprocal crosses between M. erminalis and M. hoffmanni.%利用湖北鄂州梁子湖的团头鲂Megalobrama amblycephala ( T)、浙江钱塘江原种场的三角鲂Magalo-brama terminalis ( S)、四川泸州龙溪河的厚颌鲂Megalobrama pellegrini ( H)、广东西江肇庆的广东鲂Mega-lobrama hoffmanni ( G)野生亲鱼进行多种杂交组合与自交,所有杂交与自交组合为T意×T裔、 T意×H裔、T意×S裔、 T意×G裔、 S意×S裔、 S意×T裔、 S意×G裔、 H意×H裔、 H意×T裔,将各组合受精卵在室内同一水泥池不同孵化桶内孵化,并将各组合子代培育45日龄。结果表明:所有组合的受精率、孵化率和成活率均相对较高,初步证明鲂属种间杂交具有可行性;团头鲂与厚颌鲂正反交子代除体高杂种优势不明显外,体长与体质量均表现出杂种优势;团头鲂与三角鲂正反交子代的体长、体质量、体高均未

  15. Mitochondrial Genome Variation after Hybridization and Differences in the First and Second Generation Hybrids of Bream Fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Zhuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Hybridization plays an important role in fish breeding. Bream fishes contribute a lot to aquaculture in China due to their economically valuable characteristics and the present study included five bream species, Megalobrama amblycephala, Megalobrama skolkovii, Megalobrama pellegrini, Megalobrama terminalis and Parabramis pekinensis. As maternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome (mitogenome involves species specific regulation, we aimed to investigate in which way the inheritance of mitogenome is affected by hybridization in these fish species. With complete mitogenomes of 7 hybrid groups of bream species being firstly reported in the present study, a comparative analysis of 17 mitogenomes was conducted, including representatives of these 5 bream species, 6 first generation hybrids and 6 second generation hybrids. The results showed that these 17 mitogenomes shared the same gene arrangement, and had similar gene size and base composition. According to the phylogenetic analyses, all mitogenomes of the hybrids were consistent with a maternal inheritance. However, a certain number of variable sites were detected in all F1 hybrid groups compared to their female parents, especially in the group of M. terminalis (♀ × M. amblycephala (♂ (MT×MA, with a total of 86 variable sites between MT×MA and its female parent. Among the mitogenomes genes, the protein-coding gene nd5 displayed the highest variability. The number of variation sites was found to be related to phylogenetic relationship of the parents: the closer they are, the lower amount of variation sites their hybrids have. The second generation hybrids showed less mitogenome variation than that of first generation hybrids. The non-synonymous and synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS were calculated between all the hybrids with their own female parents and the results indicated that most PCGs were under negative selection.

  16. 团头鲂对8种非常规饲料原料中营养物质的表观消化率%Apparent digestibility of eight unconventional feed ingredients for Megalobrama amblycephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雪姣; 梁丹妮; 刘文斌; 夏薇; 鲁康乐

    2011-01-01

    以0.5%的三氧化二铬(Cr2O3)为指示剂,由70%基础日粮和30%试验原料组成试验日粮研究了团头鲂对膨化羽毛粉、酶解羽毛粉、血粉蛹粉、玉米蛋白粉、玉米、碎米和大麦8种饲料原料的干物质、粗蛋白、粗脂肪、氨基酸、总磷能的表观消化率.试验鱼[平均体质量(250.83-12.12)g]养殖于室内水族箱中(3.0mx0.8mx0.8m),分别投喂相应的试验饲料1周后采用自排法收粪.结果表明:8种饲料原料的干物质、粗蛋白、粗脂肪、总氨基酸、总磷及总能的表观消化率的范围分别是68.07%-92.69%、81.54%-92.75%、84.82%-103.44%、63.07%-95.56%、41.48%-97.55%、68.91%-97.81%.其中各项营养物质的表观消化率均以玉米蛋白粉最高;4种动物蛋白原料中以蚕蛹粉中营养物质表观消化率最高,血粉次之;除粗脂肪外,酶解羽毛粉的消化率均高于膨化羽毛粉;3种能量饲料中,以大麦的蛋白及氨基酸表观消化率最高,但干物质、粗脂肪及能量的表观消化率均显著低于玉米和碎米.由此可见,玉米蛋白粉和蚕蛹粉分别可作为团头鲂优质的植物蛋白源和动物蛋白源,血粉、羽毛粉可搭配其他饲料少量使用.玉米和碎米能值较高,可作为团头鲂的主要能量饲料,大麦由于氨基酸组成较好,也可适量使用.%The apparent digestibility(AD) for dry matter, protein, crude fat,amino acids,phosphorus and energy of eight feed ingredients for bluntnose black bream Megalobrama amblycephala Yih were determined. The feed ingredients included expanded feather meal,enzyme feather meal,blood meal,silkworm pupa,corn gluten meal,broken rice,corn,and barley grain. Test diets consisted of 70% reference diet and 30% test feed ingredients, and added 0. 5% Cr2O3 as an indicator. The fish averaging (250. 83 ±2.12) g were reared in indoor aquarium tank (3. 0 mx0.8 mx0.8 m), and fecal samples were collected by abdominal pressure method after one week. The results showed

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions ofMegalobrama amblycephala culture pond ecosystems during sun drying of pond%团头鲂池塘养殖生态系统晒塘阶段温室气体排放通量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱林; 朱浩; 车轩; 刘晃; 刘兴国; 时旭; 杨家朋; 王小冬; 顾兆俊; 程果锋

    2016-01-01

    为探讨团头鲂池塘养殖生态系统晒塘阶段温室气体的排放规律及综合增温潜势,采用静态暗箱——气相色谱法对团头鲂池塘养殖生态系统晒塘阶段温室气体(CO2,CH4,N2O)的排放进行原位测定。结果显示,团头鲂池塘养殖生态系统晒塘阶段均表现为CO2,CH4和N2O的排放源,其中CO2排放通量达(86.72±12.46) g/m2,CH4排放量达(2.01±0.34) g/m2,N2O排放量达(7.44±0.98) mg/m2;在100 a的时间尺度上,团头鲂池塘养殖生态系统在晒塘阶段综合增温潜势为(157.28±24.31) g/m2,团头鲂池塘养殖生态系统温室气体减排空间较大。%Global warming and ozone depletion caused by greenhouse gases are currently two major global environmental issues. While China's freshwater aquaculture production has long been ranked first in the world, greenhouse gas emissions from freshwater ponds becomes an important source of China's greenhouse gas emissions. But the research on greenhouse gas emission in freshwater aquaculture ecosystem is limited. In order to investigate greenhouse gas emissions and comprehensive global warming potential ofMegalobrama amblycephala culture pond ecosystems during pond basked, we used the static opaque chamber-GC techniques to conduct anin situ determination of greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) of Megalobrama amblycephala culture pond ecosystems. The results showed that the CO2 fluxes measured in every 15 days were (2652.46±325.36), (2313.82±245.14), (1456.42±124.67) and (1373.27±167.39) mg/(m2·d) respectively for the air temperature of 8.9, 7.2, 5.8 and 6℃, at the ponds during sampling. The potential of hydrogen at the ponds during the sampling at each temperature was (7.73±0.26), (8.26±0.35), (7.75±0.37) and (7.68±0.48), respectively. The total organic carbon at the ponds for each sampling was (3.61±0.43), (3.32±0.17), (3.16±0.31) and (3.23±0.27), respectively. The redox potential for each sampling was

  18. Isolation,Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test of Bacteria from Intestine in Megalobrama amblycephala%团头鲂肠道细菌的分离鉴定与药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜秉秉; 吕爱军; 骆伟洁; 胡秀彩

    2010-01-01

    从团头鲂(Megalobrama amblycepnala)肠道中分离纯化到4株细菌,菌株编号为MA1~4,通过细菌镜检及培养结果表明,均为革兰氏阴性直杆状菌,在LB培养基上生长;4株细菌氧化酶试验为阴性、过氧化氢酶试验为阳性、半固体动力阳性,不能利用棉子糖、山梨醇、木糖等多种糖类,产H2S、VP试验和葡萄糖酸盐利用试验为阴性;采用数值编码鉴定,MA1为鲶鱼爱德华氏菌(Edwardsiella ictaluri),MA2为摩氏摩根氏菌(Morganella morganii),MA3为嗜线虫致病杆菌(Xenorhabdus nematophilua),MA4为弗氏志贺菌(Shigella flexneri).进一步进行药敏试验分析显示,4株菌耐药率分别为52.2%、69.6%、95.7%、100%,均对阿奇霉素、红霉素、洁霉素、氯洁霉素、灭滴灵、头孢噻吩、先锋霉素Ⅳ、复方新诺明和甲氧咔啶具有耐药性;对利福平、氯霉素、头孢孟多、先锋必素、氧哌嗪青霉素、氨苄青霉素、庆大霉素、卡那霉素和四环素等药物敏感性不同.该研究结果对探明鱼类肠道菌群、养殖水体微生态和疾病防治具有重要参考价值.

  19. INTERSPECIFIC PHYLOGENESIS AND INTRASPECIFIC GENETIC DIFFERENCES OF GENUS MEGALOBRAMA: BLUNTNOSE BLACK BREAM (M.AMBLYCEPHALA), GUANGDONG BLACK BREAM (M.HOFFMANNI) AND BLACK BREAM (M.TERMINALIS)%鲂属团头鲂、三角鲂及广东鲂种间遗传关系及种内遗传差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思发; 朱泽闻; 邹曙明; 赵金良; 蔡完其

    2002-01-01

    采用形态判别、同工酶分析和RAPD分析相结合的方法,从3个层次研究分析了鲂属团头鲂、三角鲂和广东鲂的种间亲缘关系和种内遗传差异.结果表明: (1) 3种鲂在形态可数性状上差异不显著,而可量性状与框架分析揭示团头鲂与三角鲂亲缘关系较近,它们同广东鲂差异较大;(2) 团头鲂和三角鲂均具有MDH同工酶的s-Mdh-D位点,而广东鲂未见,引物S11 扩增的结果在3种鲂间均显示种的特异性,这些同工酶谱带和DNA扩增带可作为3种鲂的种间分子标记;(3) 3种鲂种间亲缘关系在三个研究层面上相互吻合:即广东鲂与团头鲂、三角鲂差异较大,亲缘关系较远,而三角鲂和团头鲂之间差异小,亲缘关系较近;(4) 同工酶和RAPD分析揭示,三角鲂种内遗传多样性显著地高于广东鲂和团头鲂.

  20. Induction of gynogenesis in red crucian carp using spermatozoa of blunt snout bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuandong; LIU Yun; TAO Min; LIU Shaojun; ZHANG Chun; DUAN Wei; SHEN Jiamin; WANG Jing; ZENG Chen; LONG Yu

    2007-01-01

    Gynogenetic diploid was induced in red crucian carp (RCC) ( Carassius auratus Red Variety) eggs using UV-irradiated spermatozoa from blunt snout bream (B) (Megalobrama amblycephala ) or from mirror carp (C) (Cyprinus carpio. L). Spermatozoa were genetically inactivated by an appropriate UV dosage, and then the maternal DNA was duplicated with cold shock at 0-4 ℃. When using the spermatozoa of B, the fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival at first feeding were 52.6 ± 3.0 %, 23.6 ± 4.1 % and 15.7 ± 3.4 %, respectively, and the survival at first feeding was significantly higher than that ( 11.3 ± 2.2 % ) when using the spermatozoa of C (Cyprinus carpio. L). According to the morphological characteristics, the chromosome number and the degree of gonadal development, gynogenetic RCC could be distinguished from the control hybrids of RCC♀ × B ♂ . The individuals with red body color, 100 chromosomes and normal gonadal development were successful gynogenetic RCC, while the individuals with 124 or 148 chromosomes and delayed gonadal development were hybrids of (RCC × B). The triploid hybrids (RCC × B) (2 years old) were sterile, but the tetraploid hybrids (RCC × B) were sexually mature age of two. In the present study, compared to the spermatozoa of C, the advantages of spermatozoa of B as the activation source were that could increase the survival at first feeding of gynogenetic individuals and simplify the confirmation of gynogenetic status, which suggested that the spermof B was an effective activation source for inducing gynogenesis in crucian carp.

  1. Comparative analysis and evolutionary significance of the HMG1 gene in crucian carp,blunt snout bream,and their polyploid progeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Liu; Zhen Liu; Shaojun Liu; Liangguo Liu; Cuiping You; Lin Chen; Huan Zhong; Yun Liu

    2009-01-01

    The full-length mRNA of the high mobility group protein 1 coding gene (HMG1) was obtained by RACE-PCR from red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.),blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala),and their triploid and tetraploid progeny.The sequence contained an open reading frame of 579 nucleotides coding for 193 amino acids.The nucleotide identity of HMG1 was higher between the tetraploid hybrid and the maternal red crucian carp (99%) than between the tetraploid hybrid and the paternal blunt snout bream (97%).The nucleotide identity between the triploid hybrids and each parent (95%) was lower than that between the parents (98%).The protein identity between the tetraploid hybrid and each parent (100%) was higher than that between the triploid hybrid and each parent (97%).Our results suggest that interspecific hybridization generates a shock to the HMG1 gene in triploid hybrids,causing divergence of nucleotides.The HMG1 protein of the tetraploid hybrids was consistent with that of its parents,which reduced the barrier of cross incompatibility between alleles,providing the basis for the bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids forming a new polyploid species in nature.The secondary and tertiary structures of the HMG1 protein contain eight helices,three switches,two DNA-binding domains in the N-terminus,and a long acidic tail in the C-terminus.Together,these data suggest that the HMG1 protein plays a role of protein-DNA interactions,facilitating various DNA-dependent activities in the nucleus.We also investigated the phylogeny of fish,amphibian,reptilian,bird,and mammalian HMG1 proteins.Our results suggest that HMG1 is an ancestral protein that has been highly conserved.These data provide clues as to how interspecific hybridization may form polyploid hybrids.

  2. Garlic Bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:One whole bream weighing about750g,100g garlic,3g salt,15g cookingwine,2g pepper,3g MSG,5g sugar,10g soy sauce,5g sesame oil,optionalamount of clear stock,minced scallionand ginger root and 1000g cooking oil(actual consumption only 100g).Method:1.Clean the bream,slit open bothsides,then smear over the soy sauceand soak for a while.2.Heat the wok and add in cookingoil.Put in the bream when the oil is80% hot.Fry the fish until it turnsgolden yellow.Remove.leaving someoil in the wok.3.Stir-fry the scallion and ginger until

  3. 不同孔径筛片粉碎团头鲂饲料对其加工性状、鱼体生长和消化酶活性的影响%Effects of Different Mill Screen Mesh Sizes on Feed Processing Characteristics, Growth and Digestive Enzyme Activity of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温超; 吴萍; 刘文斌; 周岩民

    2011-01-01

    The test aimed to compare the effects of four plant protein raw materials - general cottonseed meal (CCM) ,high - protein cottonseed meal ( HCM), degossypolled cottonseed meal (DCM) and sunflower seed meal (SSM) ,as well as two different feed processing methods on the growth rate,feed efficiency,shape,internal organs index and body compositions of grass carp quantitatively under the same condition. With basically consistent levels of protein 29% and fat 3. 5% ,every material was designed with low and high dose levels,each feed formula had two feed processing methods and there were 16 experimental groups in all. The experiment lasted for 56 d in a net cage of cement pool. The average body weight of grass carps was (39.4 ± 1.8) g. The results showed that: (1) the effects of four plant protein raw materials on the specific growth rate (SGR) , viscera/body ratio ( VBR) ,body composition and spleen/body ratio (SBR) of grass carp showed significant difference (P 0.05 ) ; (2) two dose levels of the same protein material had no significant differences on the SGR,FCR,PER and physical indicators (P >0.05) of grass carps,but crude protein content and crude lipid content of the whole fish and muscle had significant differences (P 0.05). The results also showed that adding GCM,HCM,DCM and SSM in the diets of grass carp could improve feed efficiency and got good breeding effect; the amounts of GCM, HCM,DCM and SSM should be controlled between 22% ~ 32% , 20% ~ 28% , 18. 5% ~ 26. 5% and 15. 5% ~ 22.5% respectively, and there was no obvious difference on the growth of grass carp used four plant protein materials (P >0.05) in this range; hard pellet feed was superior to the extruded pellet feed on growth and feed efficiency.%将团头鲂饲料原料用锤片式粉碎机在3种不同孔径(0.8、1.0、1.2 mm)的筛片下进行粉碎然后制成颗粒料,并选用450尾团头鲂随机分为3组,每组5个重复,分别饲喂上述3种饲料,研究不同孔径筛片粉碎团头鲂饲料对其加工性状、鱼体生长和消化酶活性的影响.结果表明,筛片孔径与粉碎机产量呈正相关,与单位产量电耗呈负相关,1.2mm孔径组的饲料硬度显著或极显著低于另两组,0.8mm孔径组饲料溶失率显著低于1.0mm孔径组(P<0.05),0.8mm孔径组饲料淀粉糊化度极显著高于另两组(P<0.01);1.0mm孔径组的团头鲂增重和增重率均高于另两组,但差异不显著(P>0.05),其特定生长率显著高于0.8mm孔径组(P<0.05),0.8mm孔径组的肥满度显著高于1.2mm孔径组(P<0.05);各组肝体比、肠道相对长度和消化酶活性无显著差异.综合比较,团头鲂饲料采用1.0mm孔径的筛片粉碎较好.

  4. Leptin Genes in Blunt Snout Bream: Cloning, Phylogeny and Expression Correlated to Gonads Development

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    Honghao Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the leptin related genes expression patterns and their possible function during the gonadal development in fish, the cDNA and genomic sequences of leptin, leptin receptor (leptinR, and leptin receptor overlapping transcript like-1 (leprotl1 were cloned and their expression levels were quantified in the different gonadal development stages of Megalobrama amblycephala. The results showed that the full length cDNA sequences of leptin, leptinR and leprotl1 were 953, 3432 and 1676 bp, coding 168, 1082, and 131 amino acid polypeptides, and the genomic sequences were 1836, 28,528 and 5480 bp, which respectively had 3, 15 and 4 exons, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that three genes were relatively conserved in fish species. Quantitative real-time PCR results showed that the three genes were ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues during the different gonadal development stages. The leptin and leptinR took part in the onset of puberty, especially in female M. amblycephala, by increasing the expression levels in brain during the stage I to III of ovary. The expression levels of leptin and leptinR had significant differences between male and female in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis tissues (p < 0.05. The leptinR had the same variation tendency with leptin, but the opposite changes of expression levels were found in leprotl1, which may resist the expression of leptinR for inhibiting the function of leptin in target organ. These findings revealed details about the possible role of these genes in regulating gonadal maturation in fish species.

  5. Apparent digestibility of proteins, amino acids and phosphorus of seven feed ingredients for bluntnose black bream%团头鲂对7种饲料的蛋白质、氨基酸及磷的表观消化率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雪姣; 梁丹妮; 刘文斌; 蒋广震; 王晶晶

    2011-01-01

    The apparent digestibility(AD) of dry matter, protein, amino acids and phosphorus of seven feed ingredients for bluntnose black bream( Megalobrama amblycephala Yih ) were determined by using 0.5%Cr2O3 as an indicator. The test diets consisted of 70% basal diet and 30% test feed ingredients, including fish meal, meat and bone meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles(DDGS) and rapeseed meal. The fish averaging (296.54±1.71) g were reared in indoor aquarium tanks(3.0 m ×0.8 m ×0.8 m), and the fecal samples were collected by abdominal pressure method after five weeks. The results showed that apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein, amino acids and phosphorus of seven feed ingredients were 53.65%-77.48%,78.66%-93.63%, 80.12%-94.83% and 3.21%-48.02%, respectively. Among the seven feed ingredients, the highest apparent digestibility of protein and total amino acids was in rapeseed meal; then the apparent digestibility of fish meal was close to that of peanut meal and soybean meal; and the lowest was in meat and bone meal. Apparent digestibility of phosphorus was the highest in DDGS, and the lowest in rapeseed meal and meat and bone meal,and others were 11.81%-29.10%. In conclusion, rapeseed meal, soybean meal, peanut meal can be used as high quality plant protein source to serve as alternative fishmeal for bluntnose black bream in production. The apparent digestibility of protein of DDGS was higher than that of meat and bone meal, and the apparent digestibility of phosphorus was the highest in seven feed ingredients. Therefore, DDGS can be used as a high quality fish feed ingredient.[Journal of Fishery Sciences of China, 2011, 18(1): 119-126]%本实验以0.5%的三氧化二铬(Cr2O3)为指示剂,研究分别以鱼粉、肉骨粉、豆粕、花生粕、棉粕、酒精糟及其残液干燥物(DDGS)和菜粕作为蛋白饲料,将这7种饲料原料与基础日粮按照3:7的比例组成实

  6. Filter-feeding in common bream (Abramis brama), white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and roach (Rutilus rutilus); structures, functions and ecological significance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den C.

    1993-01-01

    bream
    In this thesis the retention mechanism of the branchial sieve of three sympatric cyprinid fish species, the common bream (Abramis brama), the white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and the roach (Rutilus rutilus) , is studied. In eutrophic lakes zooplankton is an im

  7. State of bream populations in reconstructed water bodies of Moldova

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    Adrian USATYI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Bream, Abramis brama L., is a key species in fish communities of Moldovian Rivers and a main component of bottom food chains of river and lake ecosystems. With the reconstruction of water bodies, mainly for hydroelectric power stations needs, the ecological conditions changed substantially, which results in modifications in population state of biota. The negative effects of water bodies’ reconstruction upon population status of bream in several Moldovian Rivers and reservoirs were studied. These effects manifest in detrimental changes in bream growth, age composition and reproductive success. The conclusion is made that the economical gain after the regulation of large and middle-size rivers is opposed by the negative impact upon fish community as a whole, as well as upon the ecology of individual species as applied to the indicator species Abramis brama.

  8. On the feeding of the biology of the bream (Abramis brama)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboezem, W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes some studies on feeding mechanisms in common bream, Abramis brama (L., 1758), living in eutrophic waters of the Netherlands. Different feeding modes and the present ideas on the particle retention mechanism in bream are discussed. Particles, mainly zooplankton, retained in the

  9. Characterizing the transcriptome of yellow-cheek carp (Elopichthys bambusa) enables evolutionary analyses within endemic East Asian Cyprinidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ming; Guo, Baocheng; Ma, Xufa

    2014-09-01

    The identification of genes that may be responsible for the divergence of closely related species is one of the central goals of evolutionary biology. The species of endemic East Asian Cyprinidae diverged less than 8millionyears ago, and the morphological differences among these species are great. However, the genetic basis of their divergence remains unknown. In this report, we investigated the transcriptome of one endemic East Asian cyprinid - the yellow-cheek carp Elopichthys bambusa. A comparison with the publicly available transcriptomes of other endemic East Asian cyprinids, including the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and blunt-nose black bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), revealed a number of candidate adaptive genes in each species, such as zona pellucida glycoprotein 2 in E. bambusa and zebrafish vitelline envelope protein in M. amblycephala. An enrichment test showed the enrichment of some specific gene ontology (GO) terms for these putatively adaptive genes. Taken together, our work is the first step toward elucidating the genes that may be related to the divergence of endemic East Asian Cyprinidae, and these genes identified as being probably under positive selection should be good candidates for subsequent evolutionary and functional studies.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF FISHING ON THE AGE STRUCTURE OF BREAM (ABRAMIS BRAMA OF THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Pilipеnko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the dynamics of the age structure of the Lower Dnieper population of bream (Abramis brama under increased pressure fishing is carried out. The data on the dynamics of indicators of the middle-weighted age of bream catches in the last ten years are determined.

  11. THE CONTENT OF SOME COMPONENTS OF METABOLISM IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF BREAM ABRAMIS BRAMA (L.

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    Ekaterina Flerova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Physiological condition is one of the most important characteristic used for evaluating single individuals, populations and fish stocks in general. The data on a number of physiological indicators of bream the Gorky water reservoir were presented. Amount of moisture, dry matter in the muscular tissue was determined of using two-stage determination of total moisture. Simple lipids were determined by extraction with petroleum-ether. The analysis of the results suggests that the indices of water, dry matter and simple lipids content in muscular tissue of mature males, females and juvenile individuals of bream were close. Decrease of water amount in the muscle tissue, increase of dry matter end lipids takes place along with bream ageing.

  12. A survey on osmoregulatory potential of Bream, Abramis brama (Berg, 1949 fry for restocking management programs

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    Reza Asgari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bream (Abramis brama, Berg, 1949; Family: Cyprinidae is commercially valuable fish in the Caspian Sea fishing industry. Iranian Fisheries Organization annually produces and release up to 19 million Bream fries size for recruiting of this species. Its fries are mostly released into the Anzali wetland with 4 ppt salinity. Meanwhile, they sometimes are released into Sefidrood River (0.5 ppt, Sefidrood River estuary (8 ppt and directly into the Caspian Sea (12 ppt. To determine whether these alternative locations are suitable for release, sixty fingerling size Bream (0.5±0.13 g b.w. were exposed to four salinity levels of these locations i.e. 0.5, 4, 8 and 12 ppt, for 120 hrs. The results displayed that accumulated mortality rate was significantly lower in exposed fish to 4 ppt (PPP

  13. Aquaporin 1a expression in gill, intestine and kidney of the euryhaline silver sea bream

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    Eddie E Deane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic salinity acclimation, abrupt salinity transfer and cortisol administration on aquaporin 1 (AQP1 expression in gill, intestine and kidney of silver sea bream (Sparus sarba. An AQP1a cDNA was cloned and found to share 83 – 96 % amino acid sequence identity with AQP1 genes from several fish species. Tissue distribution studies of AQP1a mRNA demonstrated that it was expressed in gill, liver, intestine, rectum, kidney, heart, urinary bladder and whole blood. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to measure AQP1a transcript abundance in sea bream that were acclimated to salinity conditions of 0, 6, 12, 33, 50 and 70ppt for 1 month. The abundance of gill AQP1a transcript was highest in sea bream acclimated to 0ppt whereas no differences were found among 0 – 50ppt groups. For intestine, the highest AQP1a transcript amounts were found in sea bream acclimated to 12 and 70ppt whereas the transcript abundance of kidney AQP1a was found to be unchanged amongst the different salinity groups. To investigate the effects of acute salinity alterations on AQP1a expression, sea bream were abruptly transferred from 33ppt to 6ppt. For intestine AQP1a levels were altered at different times, post transfer, but remained unchanged in gill and kidney. To study the effects of cortisol on AQP1a expression, sea bream were administered a single dose of cortisol followed by a 3 day acclimation to either 33ppt or 6ppt. The findings from this experiment demonstrated that cortisol administration resulted in alterations of AQP1a transcript in gill and intestine but not in kidney.

  14. Impact of fish species on levels of lead accumulation in the meat of common bream (Abramis brama L., white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L. and common bleak (Alburnus alburnus L. from the Vistula River (Poland

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    Magdalena STANEK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the concentration of lead in the meat of common bream (Abramis brama L., white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L. and common bleak (Alburnus alburnus L.. The experimental fish were obtained in natural condition from Vistula River, located within Toru., near wastewater treatment plant. The study involved 60 individuals of freshwater fish caught in autumn. Analyses were carried out on 10 individuals of common bream, 20 white bream and 30 individuals of common bleak. The muscles samples for analyses were taken from the large side muscle of fish body above the lateral line. There were chosen for analyses individuals with similar biometric measurements. Due to a relatively low amounts of meat obtained from white bream and common bleak, the material from individuals of similar body length was combined (about 2-3 pieces. Pb concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer Solaar 939 QZ, ATI Unicam. Analyses of variance (test post hoc -Tukey test indicated that the mean value of lead was the highest in the meat of common bream (0.086 ƒĘgEg-1 wet weight and the lowest in the meat of white bream (0.075 ƒĘgEg-1 wet weight. There were no statistical significant differences in the lead content between the analyzed fish species (at p< 0.05. Analysis of correlation indicated a negative and statistical significant correlation between the fish body length and Pb concentration.

  15. Ontogeny of the immune system in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhizhong; He, Tao; Li, Jun; Gao, Tianxiang

    2013-09-01

    Histogenesis of the immune system and specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus from fertilization to 50 days after hatching (DAH). The pronephric tubule primordium developed in the embryo, 14 h 30 min post fertilization. The spleen anlage was observed between the swim bladder and the intestine at 5 DAH, and the thymus was formed as a paired structure under the pharyngeal epithelium above the gill arch at 10 DAH. The order of the immune organs becoming lymphoid was the pronephric kidney (10 DAH), thymus (15 DAH) and spleen (21 DAH). As the embryo developed, the specific activity of SOD gradually increased until hatching, but subsequently SOD activity continuously decreased to a minimum at 14 DAH. After the spleen became lymphoid, the specific activity of SOD was relatively stable. It is suggested that the immaturity of the lymphoid organs and low specific activity of SOD was the cause of the high mortality of fingerlings 12 to 16 DAH.

  16. Characterization of eight microsatellite markers in the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, L; Infante, C; Ponce, M; Crespo, A; Zuasti, E; Funes, V; Catanese, G; Manchado, M

    2008-11-01

    The white sea bream, Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae), is a species with a high commercial importance in Mediterranean aquaculture. There is currently little information available about the genetic characteristics of cultured populations. In this survey, we have developed eight polymorphic microsatellites for the white sea bream using an enriched genome library protocol. All of them were polymorphic in the 67 individuals tested, 32 of which were wild specimens, and 35 were individuals from a captive F(1) broodstock. These markers can potentially be useful tools for use in population genetic studies.

  17. Biological characteristics of silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna in commercial fishery in the Kyiv reservoir

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    I. Zakharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The determination and analysis of main biological characteristics of silver bream from the point of view of the formation and exploitation of its commercial stock in the Kyiv reservoir. Methodology. The work is based the results of monitoring field studies carried out on the Kyiv reservoir during 2012–2014. Ichthyological materials were collected from standard commercial gill nets with mesh sizes of 30–80 mm, which were set in different habitats and depths of the reservoir. Collection and processing of samples was carried out using conventional ichthyological methods adapted for the Dnieper reservoirs. Findings. According to the data of monitoring gill nets, silver bream population in 2014 was composed of 10 age groups. The majority of their population (70.8% in catches was composed of age-5 to age-7 fish, i.e. the number of modal classes increased due to the right wing of the older age groups. The frequency distribution of silver bream had a shape of a curve with wide, however broken (due to the reduction in age-5 fish peak and gradual decrease. Age-length properties, fatness parameters and condition factor of silver bream in the Kiev reservoir during last years remained on the stable high level indicating on favorable fattening conditions and forming the ichthyomass of this species. At the present time, silver bream of the Kyiv reservoir formed a commercial stock with such qualitative and quantitative characteristics, which allow exploiting it in the mode of traditional commercial harvest and specialized harvest of silver bream concentrations with the use of gill nets with mesh sizes of 50, 60 mm. Originality. We obtained and analyzed the new data on the current state of silver bream (Blіcca bjoerkna in Kyiv reservoir as an important element of commercial fish production. Practical Value. The results of the work allows increasing qualitative and quantitative characteristics of silver bream catches and will be used for the

  18. Morphometric indices of the bream (Abramis brama in the Kremenchuk reservoir

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    D. S. Khrystenko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the long-term resultant action of complex of existing factors on the morphometric indices of the bream (Abramis brama L. in the Kremenchuk reservoir. The breams with the best exterior indices were fished by traditional fishing net during more than 40 years. This fact resulted in the survival of individuals with certain direction of variability and conduces to the change of an average index to particular value. As a result of the research, functional accordance of the morphometric indices with the environmental conditions was ascertained.

  19. 武昌鱼脂肪酸的气相色谱-质谱分析%Study on fatty acids of Megalobrama amnblycephala by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Composition and contents of fatty acid in Megalobrama amnblycephala was analyzed .The fatty oil was extracted by Bligh-Dyer method and esterified by sodium hydroxide-methanol ,and the fatty acids methanol esters were separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry .The results showed that 5 kinds of saturated fatty acids (28.46%) and 9 kinds of unsaturated fatty acids (71.27%) were identified in Mega-lobrama amnblycephala.%为了研究武昌鱼中脂肪酸的组成及含量,采用Bligh-Dyer提取法对样品中脂肪油进行提取,甲酯化后利用气相色谱-质谱联用仪进行分析测定.结果发现从武昌鱼中鉴定出14种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸5种,相对百分含量占总检出量的28.46%;不饱和脂肪酸9种,相对百分含量占总检出量的71.27%.

  20. Taurine supplemented plant protein based diets with alternative lipid sources for juvenile sea bream, sparus aurata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lipid sources were evaluated as fish oil replacements in fishmeal free, plant protein based diets for juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. A twelve week feeding study was undertaken to examine the performance of fish fed the diets with different sources of essential fatty acids (canola o...

  1. Dietary keto-acid feed-back on pituitary activity in gilthead sea bream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarz, Antoni; Costa, Rita; Harrison, Adrian Paul;

    2010-01-01

    The influence of a daily oral dose of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG, 0.1 g/kg body weight), an intermediate metabolite in the Krebs cycle and a dietary additive, on the pituitary proteome of gilthead sea bream was determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). A high-resolution map of the sea...

  2. Variability of morphological characteristics of bream Abramis brama in water basins of upper Volga region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on variability of morphological readings of bream in the Rybinsk reservoir, and also in the system of reservoirs and water-currents (lake Galichskoe – river Kostroma – river Sot’ – the Kostroma expansion – Gorki reservoir were generalized.

  3. Melatonin synthesis under calcium constraint in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Kulczkowska, E.; Kalamarz, H.; Guerreiro, P.M.G.; Flik, G.

    2008-01-01

    Brain or blood plasma melatonin was analysed as a measure for pineal melatonin production in sea bream. Access to calcium was limited by diluting the seawater to 2.5‰ and removing calcium from the diet or by prolonged feeding of vitamin D-deficient diet. Interactions/relations between melatonin and

  4. Genomic characterization, expression analysis, and antimicrobial function of a glyrichin homologue from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Wan, Qiang; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Bathige, S D N K; Lim, Bong-Soo; Jung, Hyung-Bok; Lee, Jehee; Whang, Ilson

    2013-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are important innate effector molecules, playing a vital role in antimicrobial immunity in all species. Glyrichin is a transmembrane protein and an antibacterial peptide, exerting its functions against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, cDNA and a BAC clone harboring the glyrichin gene were identified from rock bream and characterized. Genomic characterization showed that the OfGlyrichin gene exhibited a 3 exon-2 intron structure. OfGlyrichin is a 79-amino-acid protein with a transmembrane domain at (22)GFMMGFAVGMAAGAMFGTFSCLR(44). Pairwise and multiple sequence alignments showed high identity and conservation with mammalian orthologues. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship with fish species. Higher levels of OfGlyrichin transcripts were detected in the liver from healthy rock bream which were induced by immunogens like lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C, rock bream irido virus, Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus iniae. The synthetic peptide (pOf19) showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, E. tarda, and S. iniae. Analysis of the bacterial morphological features after pOf19 peptide treatment showed breakage of the cell membrane, affirming that antibacterial function is accomplished through membrane lysis. The pOf19 peptide also showed antiviral activity against RBIV infection. The high conservation of the genomic structure and protein, together with the antimicrobial roles of OfGlyrichin, provide evidence for the evolutionary existence of this protein playing a vital role in innate immune defense in rock bream.

  5. Induced artificial androgenesis in common tench, Tinca tinca (L., using common carp and common bream eggs

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    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents artificial induction using tench eggs, Tinca tinca (L., of androgenetic origin. The oocytes taken from common bream, Abramis brama (L. and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. were genetically inactivated using UV irradiation and then inseminated using tench spermatozoa. Androgenetic origin (haploid or diploid embryos was checked using a recessive colour (blond and morphological markers. The percentage of hatched embryos in all experimental groups was much lower than in the control groups. All haploid embryos showed morphological abnormalities, which were recorded as haploid syndrome (stunted body, poorly formed retina, etc.. The optimal dose of UV irradiation of common bream and common carp eggs was 3456 J m–2. At this dose, almost 100% of haploid embryos were produced at a hatching rate of over 6%. Lower UV-ray doses affected abnormal embryo development. The highest yield of tench androgenesis (about 2% was noted when eggs were exposed to thermal shock 30 min after egg activation.

  6. FRESHNESS QUALITY OF GILTHEAD SEA BREAM (Sparus aurata REARED UNDER DIFFERENT FARMING CONDITIONS

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    P. Fagioli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensory and physico-chemical freshness indices (QI score, Torrymeter readings, pH and WHC were evaluated in gilthead sea bream of commercial size reared in Italy in: land based facilities (recirculation systems, lagoons and net-cages. Fish were stored under ice for 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 16 days: at each sampling time analyses were performed to determine the evolution of each freshness index within sea bream sources. Significant differences emerged among farming conditions following the application of the Quality Index Method. Torrymeter readings gradually decreased with the number of days of ice storage. pH values remained practically constant over the 16 days of storage. For WHC the effect of both time of storage and farming conditions was statistically significant.

  7. Characterization data of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) IGF-I receptors (IGF-IRa/Rb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Emilio J; Azizi, Sheida; Salmerón, Cristina; Chan, Shu Jin; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-03-01

    In this data article we describe the coding sequence of two IGF-IR paralogues (IGF-IRa and IGF-IRb) obtained from gilthead sea bream embryos. The putative protein architecture (domains and other important motifs) was determined and, amino acid sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis of both receptors together with IGF-IR orthologues from different vertebrates was performed. Additionally, a semi-quantitative conventional PCR was done to analyze the mRNA expression of both receptors in different tissues of gilthead sea bream. These data will assist in further physiological studies in this species. In this sense, the expression of both receptors during ontogeny in muscle as well as the differential effects of IGF-I and IGF-II on their regulation during in vitro myogenesis has been recently studied (doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.11.011; [1]).

  8. Characterization data of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata IGF-I receptors (IGF-IRa/Rb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio J. Vélez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this data article we describe the coding sequence of two IGF-IR paralogues (IGF-IRa and IGF-IRb obtained from gilthead sea bream embryos. The putative protein architecture (domains and other important motifs was determined and, amino acid sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis of both receptors together with IGF-IR orthologues from different vertebrates was performed. Additionally, a semi-quantitative conventional PCR was done to analyze the mRNA expression of both receptors in different tissues of gilthead sea bream. These data will assist in further physiological studies in this species. In this sense, the expression of both receptors during ontogeny in muscle as well as the differential effects of IGF-I and IGF-II on their regulation during in vitro myogenesis has been recently studied (doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.11.011; [1].

  9. Variability in growth and condition of juvenile common two-banded sea bream (Diplodus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, Patrícia Nunes, 1980-

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Ecologia Marinha). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 The objective of this study was to assess the variability in condition for juvenile common two-banded sea bream Diplodus vulgaris in nursery areas of the main Portuguese estuaries using several individual condition indices. Estuaries and coastal lagoons play an important role for juveniles of marine fish because they offer areas with high availability of food, high water temperature and lower...

  10. Biomonitoring of estrogenic exposure and identification of responsible compounds in bream from Dutch surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Corine J; Booij, Petra; van der Valk, Karin M; van Bodegom, Peter M; van den Ende, Frank; Gerritsen, Anton A M; Lamoree, Marja H; Legler, Juliette; Brouwer, Abraham

    2007-05-01

    The exposure to and effects of estrogenic compounds in male breams from Dutch freshwater locations were investigated. Ovotestis was observed infrequently (maximum frequency 16%). However, plasma vitellogenin (VTG) concentration was elevated highly at some locations. Estrogenic activities in male bream plasma, liver, and in gastrointestinal content were measured in the estrogen-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (ER-CALUX) assay. Plasma concentrations of vitellogenin correlated very well with the estrogenic activities in gastrointestinal content. The ER-CALUX activity in gastrointestinal content thus could provide a biomarker for recent exposure to estrogenic compounds, and the gastrointestinal content was chosen as investigative matrix for the toxicity identification and evaluation ([TIE]; bioassay-directed fractionation) of estrogenic compounds in bream. The approach consisted of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of gastrointestinal content extract, directed by ER-CALUX and followed by gas chromatography analysis. The estrogenic hormones 17beta-estradiol and its metabolite estrone were identified as major contributors to the activity at all locations (except the reference location), independent of the presence or absence of a known source of estrogenic activity, such as a sewage treatment plant. Chemical screening showed the presence of other pollutants, such as a lower chlorinated dioxin and the disinfectants clorophene and triclosan. However, these compounds did not have high estrogenic potencies and their concentrations were not high enough to contribute significantly to the observed estrogenic activity.

  11. Determination of some quality properties of marinated sea bream (Sparus Aurata L., 1758 during cold storage

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    Gülderen Kurt Kaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the effect of sea bream (Sparus aurata marinated some quality properties during cold storage. The fillets of fish were immersed into brine including 3.5% acetic acid 11% salt in the ratio of 1: 1.5 (fish: marinate brine for marination process. After the process of ripening, samples were grouped into two and packed in plastic containers; one being plain (in sunflower oil and the other being sauced (sauced prepared with sunflower oil. During storage, sensory, crude protein, lipid, dry matter and crude ash, TBA, TVB-N, TMA-N and peroxide analyses were done periodically. According to results of 200 days of storage, TVB-N values of sea bream marinates packaged as plain and sauced were 15.86/14.89 mg/100g, TBA 7.06/7.99 mg MA/kg, TMA-N 2.97/3.12, mg/100g, the value of peroxide was 7.23/7.45 meq/kg respectively. According to chemical and sensory analyses results obtained in the study; it was concluded that sea bream marinates packaged as plain and sauced can be stored in +4 °C for 200 days.

  12. Effect of ivermectin on the liver of gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata: a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varó, I; Rigos, G; Navarro, J C; del Ramo, J; Calduch-Giner, J; Hernández, A; Pertusa, J; Torreblanca, A

    2010-07-01

    Gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata is the most commercialized Mediterranean aquacultured fish species. Ivermectin has recently (experimentally) started to be used to control ectoparasitic infestations in Mediterranean cultured marine fish. The potential hepatotoxicity of ivermectin was investigated in gilthead sea bream juveniles (35g) following oral administration at the recommended dose of 0.2 mgkg(-1) fish for 10d. Difference Gel Electrophoresis Technology (DIGE) was used to study the effect of this treatment in gilthead sea bream liver protein profile under routine culture conditions. The 2D-DIGE protein maps obtained were analyzed using the DeCyder 6.5 software. The results obtained showed significant changes in the expression of 36 proteins respect to the control group. Among these proteins, six increased in abundance, and 30 decreased. Spot showing differential expression respect to the control were analyzed by mass spectrometry and database search, which resulted in three positive identifications corresponding to hepatic proteins involved in lipid metabolism (apoA-I), oxidative stress responses and energy generation (beta-globin, ATP synthase subunit beta). These proteins have not been previously associated to invermectin effect.

  13. A Comparative BAC map for the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Heiner; Sarropoulou, Elena; Tine, Mbaye; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Reinhardt, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the first comparative BAC map of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), a highly valuated marine aquaculture fish species in the Mediterranean. High-throughput end sequencing of a BAC library yielded 92,468 reads (60.6  Mbp). Comparative mapping was achieved by anchoring BAC end sequences to the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) genome. BACs that were consistently ordered along the stickleback chromosomes accounted for 14,265 clones. A fraction of 5,249 BACs constituted a minimal tiling path that covers 73.5% of the stickleback chromosomes and 70.2% of the genes that have been annotated. The N50 size of 1,485 "BACtigs" consisting of redundant BACs is 337,253 bp. The largest BACtig covers 2.15 Mbp in the stickleback genome. According to the insert size distribution of mapped BACs the sea bream genome is 1.71-fold larger than the stickleback genome. These results represent a valuable tool to researchers in the field and may support future projects to elucidate the whole sea bream genome.

  14. A Comparative BAC Map for the Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Kuhl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first comparative BAC map of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, a highly valuated marine aquaculture fish species in the Mediterranean. High-throughput end sequencing of a BAC library yielded 92,468 reads (60.6 Mbp. Comparative mapping was achieved by anchoring BAC end sequences to the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus genome. BACs that were consistently ordered along the stickleback chromosomes accounted for 14,265 clones. A fraction of 5,249 BACs constituted a minimal tiling path that covers 73.5% of the stickleback chromosomes and 70.2% of the genes that have been annotated. The N50 size of 1,485 “BACtigs” consisting of redundant BACs is 337,253 bp. The largest BACtig covers 2.15 Mbp in the stickleback genome. According to the insert size distribution of mapped BACs the sea bream genome is 1.71-fold larger than the stickleback genome. These results represent a valuable tool to researchers in the field and may support future projects to elucidate the whole sea bream genome.

  15. Recombinant thioredoxin 1 protein: the immune-adjuvant effect of Streptococcus iniae and its safety in rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Won; Shim, Sang Hee; Lee, Jung-Ho; Jeong, Ji-Min; Park, Chan-Il

    2014-08-01

    Adjuvant is an immune enhancer commonly used during vaccination to enhance the host immune response. In the present study, we analysed the recombinant protein produced from rock bream thioredoxin 1 cDNA (rRbTRx1). To verify the immune-stimulatory effect of this recombinant protein, changes in the expression level of several genes were investigated using the cDNA microarray chips in rock bream peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with rRbTRx1. Furthermore, the immune responses of rock bream to Streptococcus iniae FKC (formalin-killed cell) vaccination alone or in combination with recombinant proteins were analysed after an experimental challenge with living S. iniae. Microarray analysis showed that 237 unique genes were upregulated more than two-fold after rRbTRx1 stimulation. Serum agglutination titres were relatively low; however, the FKC vaccine still conferred protection against S. iniae. Moreover, the adverse effects showed no statistically significant difference between fish injected with a concentration and non-injected fish. After experimental challenge to the rock bream by injection with living bacteria (S. iniae), the relative percent survival in the vaccinated groups with FKC + rRbTRx1 was significantly higher than that of the vaccinated groups with FKC alone, which were 85.9% and 68.2%, respectively. This indicated that the recombinant protein as an adjuvant showed synergism with the injected vaccine in rock bream.

  16. Cultivation of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 in low salinity inland brackish geothermal water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Appelbaum

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the course of attempting to culture gilthead sea bream in inland brackish geothermal water, indoor and outdoor research studies have been ongoing from early 2006 at the "Bengis Centre for Desert Aquaculture" of the Institutes for Desert Research in Israel, some of which are described below. Gilthead sea bream fingerlings with an average weight of 19 g were acclimated to and reared for 56 days in brackish water of three salinities: 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 ppt collected from three different locations. At the salinity of 3.5 ppt the fish grew best (P Artemia nauplii plus larval dry feed and were grown in brackish water of 2.6 ppt salinity for 8 weeks reaching a weight gain of 92% at a survival rate of 83%. The control groups at sea water (39 ppt reached at the same time a weight gain of 95% at a survival rate of 98%. In a further study gilthead sea bream juveniles with an average weight of 2.24 g were reared in brackish water with a salinity of 3.6 ppt for 8 weeks and received salt added diets of 4% and 6%. Compared with the control diet with no salt added, both salt rich diets significantly improved the fingerlings growth and survival rates as well as the feed conversion ratio. The 6% salt rich diet promoted fish weight gain by 560% which was the best performance (P <0.05 followed by 448% weight gain with the 4% salt rich diet while the lowest performance with a weight gain of only 360% was obtained with the control (no salt added diet. The next study with higher levels of salt added diets showed that gilthead sea bream post larvae with an average weight of 0.58 g reared in brackish geothermal water of 2.9 ppt salinity for 10 weeks grew best (P < 0.05 obtaining a weight gain of 778% with the highest survival rate of 88% when fed a diet containing 12% salt. In the studies with the salt rich diets, the salt incorporated was obtained by the evaporation of brine produced during the process of desalination of the brackish geothermal water from the same

  17. The changes of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in sea bream (Sparus aurata) during irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkan, Nuray [Faculty of Fisheries, Department of the Seafood Processing and Quality Control, Istanbul University, Ordu, Cad. No. 200, 34470 Laleli/Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: nurerkan@istanbul.edu.tr; Ozden, Ozkan [Faculty of Fisheries, Department of the Seafood Processing and Quality Control, Istanbul University, Ordu, Cad. No. 200, 34470 Laleli/Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozden@istanbul.edu.tr

    2007-10-15

    Aqua cultured fish (sea bream) were irradiated by Cobalt-60 at commercial irradiation facility at dose of 2.5 and 5 kGy at 2-4 deg. C. The proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid composition changes of irradiated aqua cultured sea bream (Sparus aurata) of Aegean Sea were investigated. Total saturated (28.01%) and total monounsaturated (28.42%) fatty acid contents of non-irradiated decreased content of 27.69-27.97% for 2.5 kGy irradiated groups and increased content of 28.33-28.56% for 5 kGy irradiated groups after irradiation process. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid content for irradiated samples was lower than that of non-irradiated samples. Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, arginine, alanine, tyrosine, cystine, tryptophan, lysine and proline contents for 2.5 and 5 kGy irradiated sea bream are significantly different (p<0.05)

  18. Molecular and biometric characterization of natural bream × roach hybrids population in the Dobczyce Reservoir (S Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej K Konopiński

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural hybrids of leuciscine cyprinids were investigated in a medium-sized submontane reservoir (49°52'N, 20°03'E, altitude 270 m in the Carpathian part of the Vistula basin. The material included 380 hybrid specimens (TL: 24.0–39.8 cm, SL: 19.0–31.7 cm, W: 134–714 g collected in 2006–2013. To detect their ancestry, genotypes of the 327 putative hybrids were compared to reference genotypes of 85 roaches, 115 common breams, 18 rudds, and 99 silver breams. Individuals were typed in 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci (Dubut et al. 2009, while species specific amplification of a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was used to detect maternal origin of hybrids (Wyatt et al. 2006. Few individuals with traces of rudd and silver bream ancestry were excluded from the study. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA suggests bias towards bream maternal origin, with only 22 individuals (6,7% with roach mitochondrial DNA. The analyzed set of hybrids was composed mostly of first generation bream × roach hybrids. Only 7 individuals (2,1% showed a sign of backcrossing to bream, however, this finding has to be confirmed by analysis of further loci as it might result from presence of null alleles in roach. F2 generation hybrids were not detected. Biometric investigation of collected specimens comprised of selected morphometric (body height, and lengths of head, trunk, and tail and meristic characters (counts of scales in lateral line and soft rays in anal fin of individuals of different maternal origin. As all the analyzed differences between these categories of specimens appeared insignificant, the investigated population of hybrids may be regarded morphologically uniform.

  19. INDUCTION,PURIFICATION AND ELECTROPHORETIC COMPARISON OF VITELLOGENIN FROM TWO CYPRINID FISH SPECIES:CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) AND WUCHANGFISH (MEGALOBRAMA AMBLYCEPHALA YIH)%鲤和团头鲂幼鱼卵黄蛋白原的诱导、纯化及电泳比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁勇; 徐盈; 杨方星; 王剑伟

    2002-01-01

    采用腹腔注射人工雌激素17α-乙炔基雌二醇(17α-ethinyloestradiol, EE2)的方法,在鲤幼鱼和团头鲂幼鱼体内诱导生成卵黄蛋白原;并结合利用阴离子交换介质 DEAE-Sephrarose CL-6B 和液相层析技术分离纯化了诱导后的鲤幼鱼和团头鲂幼鱼血浆中的卵黄蛋白原;SDS-PAGE 电泳结果表明所分离的两种鲤科鱼类卵黄蛋白原其亚基的分子量分别为170KD 和150KD.

  20. Comparison of volatiles of cultured and wild sea bream (Sparus aurata) during storage in ice by dynamic headspace analysis/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Taylor, K D Anthony; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2005-04-06

    Cultured and wild sea bream were compared for differences in their volatile components over a 23 day storage period in ice. A total of 60 compounds in cultured and 78 compounds in wild sea bream were tentatively identified (in addition to this, there were 23 unknowns in cultured and 29 unknowns in wild sea bream volatiles). These included aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, aromatics, terpenes, furans, sulfur-containing compounds, an acid, and miscellaneous compounds. Although selection of best fish is a subjective matter, more aldehydes, ketones, aromatics, and terpenes were found in wild sea bream as compared to that of its cultured counterpart. Both sea bream samples exhibited complex volatile profiles over the entire storage period. The combination of several classes of volatile compounds, dependent upon their concentrations and odor thresholds, is responsible for the distinctive and unique flavor of fresh cultured and wild sea bream. Relative concentrations of several compounds (trimethylamine, piperidine, methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-penten-3-ol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and acetic acid) increased continually throughout the storage period, and these may have the potential to be used as indicators of sea bream quality.

  1. Radiometric analysis of farmed fish (sea bass, gilthead bream, and rainbow trout) from Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, A; López-Pérez, M; Karlsson, L; Hernández, F; Rubio, C; Hernández-Armas, J; Hardisson, A

    2009-09-01

    This study analyzed the content of gamma-emitting radionuclides in fish farmed on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The fish species included in this study were sea bass, gilthead bream, and rainbow trout. The first two species are produced in offshore enclosures, while the third is produced in a freshwater fish farm. All measurements were performed using two high-purity germanium gamma-ray detectors. The content of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the fodder used to feed the different species of farmed fish studied was also determined. The following nuclides were often detected in the analyzed samples: 137Cs, 40K, 235U, 228Ac, 214Bi, 208Tl, 212Pb, and 214Pb. As a complement to this analysis, 210Po concentrations in two fish samples were determined by alpha spectrometry. The nuclide presenting the highest concentration was, as expected, the naturally occurring 40K, with an average concentration of 0.13 +/- 0.01 Bq/g (wet weight) (Bq/gww) in gilthead bream and sea bass and 0.12 +/- 0.01 Bq/gww in rainbow trout. The 235U concentrations determined in the same fish species were 0.6 +/- 0.5, 0.8 +/- 0.7, and 1.6 +/- 1.0 mBq/gww, respectively. This nuclide is seldom reported in fish samples. The concentrations of 137Cs (the only artificial nuclide determined in this study) in gilthead bream and sea bass were 0.026 +/- 0.006 and 0.044 +/- 0.01 mBq/gww, respectively. In addition to the radiometric analysis, the contribution of the analyzed nuclides to the effective dose from the mean daily intake of the fish was calculated. The calculated contribution, in terms of dose per person, produced by intake of the analyzed fish was 0.8 microSv/year. This value does not represent a significant risk to the local population.

  2. Glycemic and insulin responses in white sea bream Diplodus sargus, after intraperitoneal administration of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, P; Peres, H; Pousão-Ferreira, P; Sanchez-Gurmaches, J; Navarro, I; Gutiérrez, J; Oliva-Teles, A

    2012-06-01

    A glucose tolerance test was performed in white sea bream Diplodus sargus, juveniles to evaluate the effect of a glucose load on plasma glucose, insulin, triacylglyceride levels, and on liver glycogen storage in order to study the capability of glucose utilization by this species. After being fasted for 48 h, fish were intraperitoneally injected with either 1 g of glucose per kg body weight or a saline solution. Plasma glucose rose from a basal level of 4 to a peak of 18-19 mmol l(-1), 2-4 h after glucose injection and fish exhibited hyperglycemia for 9 h. An insulin peak (from 0.5 to 0.8 ng ml(-1)) was observed 2-6 h after glucose injection, and basal value was attained within 9 h. Liver glycogen peaked 6-12 h after the glucose load and thereafter decreased to the basal value which was attained 24 h after injection. Plasma triacylglycerides in glucose-injected fish were only significantly higher than the basal value 12 h after injection. Glucose-injected fish generally showed lower plasma triacylglyceride levels than control fish. Our results indicate that under these experimental conditions, glucose acts as an insulin secretagogue in white sea bream juveniles. Moreover, insulin may have contributed to restoring basal plasma glucose levels by enhancing glucose uptake in the liver. Further studies are needed to corroborate the lipolytic action of glucose. Clearance of glucose from the blood stream was fast, comparatively to other species, indicating that white sea bream has a good capability of glucose utilization.

  3. Aspects on respiratory physiology of cultured Sea bream, Sparidentex hasta (Valenciennes 1830, Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Zainal

    2016-06-01

    The fish regulatory ability to withstand declining oxygen concentration in the water was limited. A typical steep straight line relationship was found between oxygen consumption rate and oxygen concentration indicating a non regulatory ability and extreme in-tolerance to hypoxia. Therefore, the fish is considered as oxy-conformer, i.e., unable to continue metabolism at anaerobic condition. Correlation between minimum (basic oxygen consumption rate and body weight was of non-linear form. The present study provides comparative data to base on for further prospective related studies on juvenile Sea bream and other fish species.

  4. Fast skeletal muscle transcriptome of the Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata determined by next generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia de la serrana Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. occurs around the Mediterranean and along Eastern Atlantic coasts from Great Britain to Senegal. It is tolerant of a wide range of temperatures and salinities and is often found in brackish coastal lagoons and estuarine areas, particularly early in its life cycle. Gilthead sea bream are extensively cultivated in the Mediterranean with an annual production of 125,000 metric tonnes. Here we present a de novo assembly of the fast skeletal muscle transcriptome of gilthead sea bream using 454 reads and identify gene paralogues, splice variants and microsatellite repeats. An annotated transcriptome of the skeletal muscle will facilitate understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of traits linked to production in this economically important species. Results Around 2.7 million reads of mRNA sequence data were generated from the fast myotomal of adult fish (~2 kg and juvenile fish (~0.09 kg that had been either fed to satiation, fasted for 3-5d or transferred to low (11°C or high (33°C temperatures for 3-5d. Newbler v2.5 assembly resulted in 43,461 isotigs >100 bp. The number of sequences annotated by searching protein and gene ontology databases was 10,465. The average coverage of the annotated isotigs was x40 containing 5655 unique gene IDs and 785 full-length cDNAs coding for proteins containing 58–1536 amino acids. The v2.5 assembly was found to be of good quality based on validation using 200 full-length cDNAs from GenBank. Annotated isotigs from the reference transcriptome were attributable to 344 KEGG pathway maps. We identified 26 gene paralogues (20 of them teleost-specific and 43 splice variants, of which 12 had functional domains missing that were likely to affect their biological function. Many key transcription factors, signaling molecules and structural proteins necessary for myogenesis and muscle growth have been identified. Physiological status affected the

  5. Differences in the exploitation of bream in three shallow lake systems and their relation to water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, E.H.R.R.; Van Nes, E.H.; Mooij, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY1. The development of bream populations, water transparency, chlorophyll-a concentration, extent of submerged vegetation and densities of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, were analysed in three shallow eutrophic lake systems subject to different fish management. 2. In Lake Veluwemeer,

  6. Differences in the exploitation of bream in three shallow lake systems and their relation to water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, E.H.R.R.; Nes, van E.H.; Mooij, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    1. The development of bream populations, water transparency, chlorophyll-a concentration, extent of submerged vegetation and densities of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, were analysed in three shallow eutrophic lake systems subject to different fish management. 2. In Lake Veluwemeer, the bre

  7. Relationship between liver PCB content and biochemical and morphometric measures in bream (Abramis brama) from Rybinsk Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillitt, D.E.; Zajicek, J.L. [NBS, Columbia, MO (United States); Chuiko, G.M.; Flerov, B.A.; Stepanova, V.M.; Zhelnin, Y.Y.; Pod`gornaya, V.A. [IBIW, Borok (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    PCBs are widely distributed in aquatic environments throughout the world, due to local contamination and global transport. However, little is known of the local distribution of PCBs in Rybinsk Reservoir, Russia. The Rybinsk Reservoir, constructed in the 1940`s, is the largest artificial waterbody in Europe (4,550 km{sup 2}) and provides drinking water for cities in the surrounding area. Industrialization in Cherepovetz, a city at the northeastern portion of the reservoir including the largest metallurgical facility in Europe, has resulted in chemical contamination of the reservoir. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of PCB contamination in Bream taken from six locations in the reservoir and to compare the chemical analyses with biochemical and morphometric indicators of fish health. Concentrations of PCBs ranged from non-detected to 3.4 ug/g of liver, with the greatest concentrations found in fish taken near the industrialized area. The pattern of the PCB congeners in the livers of Bream taken near Cherepovetz closely resembled that of the standard Aroclor 1254. PCB content was negatively correlated with protein content and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in Bream liver. Other morphometric factors and biochemical measures varied among locations, but were unrelated to concentrations of PCBs in the livers of Bream.

  8. The analysis of the pharyngeal-sieve mechanism and the efficiency of food intake in the bream (Abramis brama, Cyprinidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboezem, W.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanism and the selectivity of food intake in bream ( Abramis brama ). It is a compilation of six articles which have been published (or will soon be published) in international journals.In the first chapter, diets and feeding modes in cyprinid fishes are described

  9. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of hyaluronan binding protein 2 (HABP2) in red sea bream Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Asami; Wang, Yajun; Bae, Inwoo; Cao, Min-Jie; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Hara, Kenji

    2013-08-01

    Previously we have isolated a novel gelatinolytic serine proteinase, named G1, from the muscle and the plasma of red sea bream. In order to clarify the structure and function of G1, we cloned the full-length cDNA of G1 from the hepatopancreas of red sea bream. G1 cDNA encoded 633 amino acids with a secretory signal sequence at N-terminus, three epidermal growth factor-like domains, a kringle domain, and a trypsin-like serine protease domain. The active site residues of a serine proteinase were conserved in the serine protease domain of G1. The tissue distributions of the mRNA and gelatinolytic activity of G1 were investigated using RT-PCR and gelatin zymography, respectively. Its activity was detected in various tissues while the mRNA of it was strongly expressed in the hepatopancreas. These results suggest that G1 is synthesized in hepatopancreas and carried to the muscle, kidney, heart and ovary via the bloodstream in the red sea bream. The enzyme has a similar domain structure and tissue distribution to those of human hyaluronan binding protein 2 (HABP2) engaged in the extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. Thus, it is suggested that G1 is identified as HABP2 and is possibly involved in ECM proteolysis of red sea bream.

  10. Development of PCR method for detecting Kudoa iwatai (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Chan-Hyeok; Do, Jeung-Wan; Nam, U-Hwa; Kim, Wi-Sik; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2017-02-01

    We developed a PCR assay targeting the 28S rDNA of Kudoa iwatai (Multivalvulida: Myxozoa) and investigated the prevalence of infection in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus, which is commercially an important aquaculture species in Korea, with this assay. Detection limit of the PCR assay was 2.5 fg/μl with plasmid DNA and 8.6 × 10(3) spores/ml with purified spores, respectively. This PCR assay did not amplify DNA of other Kudoa species (Kudoa septempunctata, Kudoa lateolabracis, Kudoa thyrsites) tested. Sliced muscles of whole body from 318 rock bream (wild and cultured) were examined by this PCR assay and also with the naked eyes. All of the wild fish did not produce amplicons nor did harbor visible Kudoa cysts (0/70). Three of the cultured fish were PCR-positive and also harbored visible Kudoa cysts (3/248, 1.2%). The sequences of amplicons (574 bp) were 100% identical with those of the K. iwatai already registered in Genbank. When the visceral organs of these three fish were examined, visible cysts were not found, but one stomach sample was found to be PCR-positive. There was no difference in the prevalence of infection estimated by PCR assay and the presence of visible Kudoa cysts in our samples. This is thought to be because the development of K. iwatai is already completed and only mature Kudoa cysts existed in our samples.

  11. Evaluation of sea bream (Sparus aurata) shelf life using an optoelectronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragozá, Patricia; Fuentes, Ana; Fernández-Segovia, Isabel; Vivancos, José-Luis; Rizo, Arantxa; Ros-Lis, José V; Barat, José M; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2013-06-01

    A new optoelectronic nose for the shelf-life assessment of fresh sea bream in cold storage has been developed. The chromogenic array used eight sensing materials (based on aluminium oxide and silica gel) containing pH indicators, Lewis acids and an oxidation-reduction indicator. The colour changes of the sensor array were characteristic of sea bream spoilage. Colour modulations were measured on day 0 and for the samples held in cold storage for 2, 4, 7, 9 and 11 days. Determination of moisture content, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), drip loss, ATP-related compounds and K(1)-value and microbial (mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae) analyses were carried out on the same days. The changes in the chromogenic arrays data were processed by statistical analysis (PCA). Moreover, PLS statistical studies allowed the creation of models to correlate the chromogenic data with concentrations of mesophilic and Enterobacteriaceae. The results suggest the feasibility of this system to help develop optoelectronic noses for fish freshness monitoring.

  12. Vegetable oils affect the composition of lipoproteins in sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Maria José; Torstensen, Bente E; Robaina, Lidia; Montero, Daniel; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the dietary fatty acid profile on the lipoprotein composition in sea bream fed different vegetable oils. Six experimental diets were formulated combining fish oil with three vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed) in order to obtain 60-80 % (w/w) fish-oil replacement. VLDL, LDL and HDL in plasma samples were obtained by sequential centrifugal flotation. The lipid class, protein content and fatty acid composition of each lipoprotein fraction were analysed. HDL was the predominant lipoprotein in sea bream plasma containing the highest proportion of protein (34 %) and phosphatidylcholine. LDL presented a high content of cholesterol, whereas triacylglycerol comprised a larger proportion of VLDL. The lipid class of the lipoprotein fractions was affected by the dietary vegetable oils. Thus, a high dietary inclusion of soyabean and linseed oil (80 %) increased the cholesterol in HDL and LDL in comparison to fish oil. Similarly, the triacylglycerol concentration of VLDL was increased in fish fed 80 % soyabean and linseed oils owing to the low n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content of these diets. Lipoprotein fatty acid composition easily responded to dietary fatty acid composition. VLDL was the fraction more affected by dietary fatty acid, followed by LDL and HDL. The n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content increased in the order VLDL less than LDL and less than HDL, regardless of dietary vegetable oils.

  13. Effect of guar gum on glucose and lipid metabolism in white sea bream Diplodus sargus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, P; Pousão-Ferreira, P; Salmerón, C; Capilla, E; Navarro, I; Gutiérrez, J; Oliva-Teles, A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of soluble non-starch polysaccharide (guar gum) on white sea bream Diplodus sargus, glucose and lipid metabolism. A control diet was formulated to contain 40 % crude protein, 14 % crude lipids and 35 % pregelatinized maize starch, and three other diets were formulated similar to the control diet except for guar gum, which was included at 4 % (diet GG4), 8 % (diet GG8) or 12 % (diet GG12). Diets were fed to the fish for 9 weeks on a pair-feeding scheme. Guar gum had no effect on growth performance, feed efficiency, glycaemia, cholesterolaemia and plasma triacylglyceride levels. Hepatic glucokinase and pyruvate kinase activities, liver glycogen content and liver insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression were not affected by dietary guar gum, while fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity was lower in fish fed guar gum-supplemented diets. Hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was higher in fish fed diets GG4 and GG8 than in the control group. Overall, data suggest that in contrast to mammals guar gum had no effect on white sea bream glucose utilization and in lowering plasma cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels. However, it seems to contribute to lower endogenous glucose production.

  14. Growth-promoting effects of sustained swimming in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Josefina; Moya, A; Millán-Cubillo, A; Vélez, E J; Capilla, E; Pérez-Sánchez, J; Gutiérrez, J; Fernández-Borrás, J

    2015-12-01

    Fish growth is strongly influenced by environmental and nutritional factors and changing culture conditions can help optimize it. The importance of early-life experience on the muscle phenotype later in life is well known. Here, we study the effects of 5 weeks of moderate and sustained swimming activity (5 BL s(-1)) in gilthead sea bream during early development. We analysed growth and body indexes, plasma IGF-I and GH levels, feed conversion, composition [proximate and isotopic ((15)N/(13)C)] and metabolic key enzymes (COX, CS, LDH, HOAD, HK, ALAT, ASAT) of white muscle. Moderate and continuous exercise in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream increased plasma IGF-I, whereas it reduced plasma GH. Under these conditions, growth rate improved without any modification to feed intake through an increase in muscle mass and a reduction in mesenteric fat deposits. There were no changes in the content and turnover of muscle proteins and lipid reserves. Glycogen stores were maintained, but glycogen turnover was higher in white muscle of exercised fish. A lower LDH/CS ratio demonstrated an improvement in the aerobic capacity of white muscle, while a reduction in the COX/CS ratio possibly indicated a functional adaptation of mitochondria to adjust to the tissue-specific energy demand and metabolic fuel availability in exercised fish. We discuss the synergistic effects of dietary nutrients and sustained exercise on the different mitochondrial responses.

  15. Transcriptome analysis reveals positive selection on the divergent between topmouth culter and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li; Tan, Xing-Jun; Xiong, Ya-Feng; Xu, Kang; Zhou, Yi; Zhong, Huan; Liu, Yun; Hong, Yun-Han; Liu, Shao-Jun

    2014-12-01

    The topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis) is a predatory cyprinid fish that distributes widely in the East Asia. Here we report the liver transcriptome in this organism as a model of predatory fish. Sequencing of 5 Gb raw reads led to 27,741 unigenes and produced 11,131 annotatable genes. A total of 7093 (63.7%) genes were found to have putative functions by gene ontology analysis. Importantly, a blast search revealed 4033 culter genes that were orthologous to the zebrafish. Extracted from 38 candidate positive selection genes, 4 genes exhibit strong positive selection based on the ratio of nonsynonymous (Ka) to synonymous substitutions (Ks). In addition, the four genes also indicated the strong positive selection by comparing them between blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) and zebrafish. These genes were involved in activator of gene expression, metabolic processes and development. The transcriptome variation may be reflective of natural selection in the early life history of Cyprinidae. Based on Ks ratios, date of the separation between topmouth culter and zebrafish is approximately 64 million years ago. We conclude that natural selection acts in diversifying the genomes between topmouth culter and zebrafish.

  16. Inheritance of the complete mitochondrial genomes in three different ploidy fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, C-P; Zhao, R-R; Hu, J; Liu, S-J; Tao, M; Zhang, C; Chen, Y-B; Qin, Q-B; Xiao, J; Duan, W; Liu, Y

    2014-01-01

    Diploid natural gynogenetic goldfish (2nGRCG), triploid hybrids (3nRB) and tetraploid hybrids (4nRB) are generated by distant hybridization of red common goldfish (RCG, Carassius auratus red var.) and blunt snout bream (BSB, Megalobrama amblycephala). In the present study, we obtained the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the hybrid offspring and compared them with the homologous sequences of RCG and BSB. All mtDNA sequences of these hybrids were 16,580bp in length, and the genes number, size, and order were quite similar to that of RCG. Genetic analysis revealed that the mtDNA sequences of these hybrids had high similarity (>99%) and low divergence (hybridization and polyploidization. Moreover, clade separation of hybrid offspring from their paternal BSB in the phylogenetic tree implies that phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA is incomplete for elucidating the true relationships between different species, particularly when they have undergone hybridization or allopolyploidization. Our study provides significant information for both evolution and genetic studies of mtDNA for hybrid species and allopolyploidization species.

  17. First description of programmed cell death10 (PDCD10) in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Potential relations to the regulation of apoptosis by several pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Won; Jeong, Ji-Min; Bae, Jin-Sol; Cho, Dong-Hee; Jung, Sung Hee; Hwang, Jee-Youn; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong; Seo, Jung Soo; Baeck, Gun-Wook; Park, Chan-Il

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized programmed cell death10 (PDCD10), which is known to be related to apoptosis, from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). The full-length rock bream PDCD10 (RbPDCD10) cDNA (1459 bp) contains an open reading frame of 633 bp that encodes 210 amino acids. Furthermore, multiple alignments revealed that the six of the α-helix bundles were well conserved among the other PDCD10 sequences tested. RbPDCD10 was significantly expressed in the liver, RBC (red blood cell), gill, intestine, trunk kidney and spleen. RbPDCD10 gene expression was also examined in several tissues, including the kidney, spleen, liver, and gill, under bacterial and viral challenges. Generally, all of the examined tissues from the fish that were infected with Edwardsiella tarda and the red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) exhibited significant up-regulations of RbPDCD10 expression compared to the controls. However, RbPDCD10 expression exhibited dramatic down-regulations in all of the examined tissues following injections of Streptococcus iniae, which is major bacterial pathogen that is responsible for mass mortality in rock bream. Our results revealed that rock bream PDCD10 may be involved in the apoptotic regulation of rock bream immune responses.

  18. Effects of water temperature on mortality in Megalocytivirus-infected rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck et Schlegel) and development of protective immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M H; Jung, S J; Vinay, T N; Nikapitiya, C; Kim, J O; Lee, J H; Lee, J; Oh, M J

    2015-08-01

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) causes huge losses, especially in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus. Rock bream injected with RBIV and held at 29, 26, 23 or 20 °C had 100% mortality. Conversely, all infected fish held at 17 °C survived even after the temperature was progressively increased to 26 °C at 100 dpi. Rock bream exposed to virus and held for 2, 4 and 7 days at 23/26 °C before the temperature was reduced to 17 °C had mortality rates of 26.6/73.2%, 66.6/100% and 93.4/100%, respectively, through 100 dpi. When surviving fish had the water temperature increased from 17 to 26 °C at 100 dpi, they did not exhibit signs of disease and had low virus copy numbers (below 10(3)). To investigate the development of a protective immune, rock bream were infected with RBIV and held at 23 °C before shifting the water temperature to 17 °C at 4 dpi. All injected fish survived until 120 dpi. While 100% of the previously unexposed fish died, 80.2% of the previously infected fish survived. When the survivors were rechallenged again at 160 dpi, no further mortality occurred. The high survival rate of fish following rechallenge with RBIV indicates that protective immunity was established in the surviving rock bream.

  19. Adipogenic Gene Expression in Gilthead Sea Bream Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Different Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, Cristina; Riera-Heredia, Natàlia; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, adipogenesis has become an emerging field of study in aquaculture due to the relevance of the adipose tissue in many physiological processes and its connection with the endocrine system. In this sense, recent studies have translated into the establishment of preadipocyte culture models from several fish species, sometimes lacking information on the mRNA levels of adipogenic genes. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the gene expression profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) primary cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from different origin (adipose tissue and vertebra bone) during adipogenesis. Both cell types differentiated into adipocyte-like cells, accumulating lipids inside their cytoplasm. Adipocyte differentiation of MSCs from adipose tissue resulted in downregulation of several adipocyte-related genes (such as lpl, hsl, pparα, pparγ and gapdh2) at day 4, gapdh1 at day 8, and fas and pparβ at day 12. In contrast, differences in lxrα mRNA expression were not observed, while g6pdh levels increased during adipocyte maturation. Gapdh and Pparγ protein levels were also detected in preadipocyte cultures; however, only the former increased its expression during adipogenesis. Moreover, differentiation of bone-derived cells into adipocytes also resulted in the downregulation of several adipocyte gene markers, such as fas and g6pdh at day 10 and hsl, pparβ, and lxrα at day 15. On the other hand, the osteogenic genes fib1a, mgp, and op remained stable, but an increase in runx2 expression at day 20 was observed. In summary, the present study demonstrates that gilthead sea bream MSCs, from both adipose tissue and bone, differentiate into adipocyte-like cells, although revealed some kind of species- and cell lineage-specific regulation with regards to gene expression. Present data also provide novel insights into some of the potential key genes controlling adipogenesis in gilthead sea bream that can help to better

  20. Adipogenic gene expression in gilthead sea bream mesenchymal stem cells from different origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salmerón

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, adipogenesis has become an emerging field of study in aquaculture due to the relevance of the adipose tissue in many physiological processes and its connection with the endocrine system. In this sense, recent studies have translated into the establishment of preadipocyte culture models from several fish species, lacking sometimes information on the mRNA levels of adipogenic genes. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the gene expression profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata primary cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from different origin (adipose tissue and vertebra bone during adipogenesis. Both cell types differentiated into adipocyte-like cells accumulating lipids inside their cytoplasm. Adipocyte differentiation of MSCs from adipose tissue resulted in down-regulation of several adipocyte-related genes (such as lpl, hsl, pparα, pparγ and gapdh2 at day 4, gapdh1 at day 8, and fas and pparβ at day 12. In contrast, differences in lxrα mRNA expression were not observed, while g6pdh levels increased during adipocyte maturation. Gapdh and Pparγ protein levels were also detected in preadipocyte cultures; however, only the former increased its expression during adipogenesis. Moreover, differentiation of bone-derived cells into adipocytes also resulted in the down-regulation of several adipocyte gene markers such as fas and g6pdh at day 10 and hsl, pparβ and lxrα at day 15. On the other hand, the osteogenic genes fib1a, mgp and op remained stable, but an increase in runx2 expression at day 20 was observed. In summary, the present study demonstrates that gilthead sea bream MSCs from both adipose tissue and bone differentiate into adipocyte-like cells, although revealed some kind of species- and cell lineage-specific regulation with regards to gene expression. Present data also provide novel insights into some of the potential key genes controlling adipogenesis in gilthead sea bream that can help to

  1. Age and Growth Characteristics of Crimson Sea Bream Paragyrops edita Tanaka in Beibu Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Gang; FENG Bo; LU Huosheng; ZHU Junfeng

    2008-01-01

    Age and growth characteristics of crimson sea bream Paragyrops edita Tanaka in Beibu Gulf were studied through bot-tom trawling and gillnet fleets fishing from July 2006 to December 2007.A total number of 1155 individuals,ranging from 49 to 249mmin standard length was examined.The age of the fish was determined from sagittal otoliths.One year growth was made up of onetranslucent and one opaque zone.A maximum likelihood estimation procedure was used to fit the Von Bertalanffy,Logistic andGompertz growth functions to the length-at-age data.ARSS indicated that there were no significant differences in growth betweensexes in the three growth models (P>0.05),and the Von Bertalanffy growth function L=292.8{1-exp[-0.167(t+1.116)]} was se-lected as the most appropriate growth model according to Akaike's information criterion (AIC).

  2. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON CHROMOSOMES OF INDUCED TRIPLOID IN THE RED SEA BREAM, PAGROSOMUS MAJOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Triploidy red sea bream were induced by cold-shock techniques (0-3℃) in Qingdao in April 1994, May 1995 and May 1996. Normal diploidy and triploidy chromosome metaphases were produced by chromosome spreads from the gastrula. Counts of 104 chromosome metaphases of normal diploid showed each of them consisted of 2 acrocentric (st) and 46 telocentric (t) chromosomes. Based on the relative lengths and arm ratios, the 48 chromosomes were matched into 24 pairs. Counts of 107 chromosome metaphases of induced triploid showed that each metaphase consisted of 3 acrocentric (st) and 69 telocentric (t) chromosomes. The 72 chromosomes were easily matched into three sets of chromosomes, based on the relative lengths and arm ratios.

  3. Evaluation of the possible transmission of BSE and scrapie to gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Salta

    Full Text Available In transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting many species, the key event in disease pathogenesis is the accumulation of an abnormal conformational isoform (PrP(Sc of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP(C. While the precise mechanism of the PrP(C to PrP(Sc conversion is not understood, it is clear that host PrP(C expression is a prerequisite for effective infectious prion propagation. Although there have been many studies on TSEs in mammalian species, little is known about TSE pathogenesis in fish. Here we show that while gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata orally challenged with brain homogenates prepared either from a BSE infected cow or from scrapie infected sheep developed no clinical prion disease, the brains of TSE-fed fish sampled two years after challenge did show signs of neurodegeneration and accumulation of deposits that reacted positively with antibodies raised against sea bream PrP. The control groups, fed with brains from uninfected animals, showed no such signs. Remarkably, the deposits developed much more rapidly and extensively in fish inoculated with BSE-infected material than in the ones challenged with the scrapie-infected brain homogenate, with numerous deposits being proteinase K-resistant. These plaque-like aggregates exhibited congophilia and birefringence in polarized light, consistent with an amyloid-like component. The neurodegeneration and abnormal deposition in the brains of fish challenged with prion, especially BSE, raises concerns about the potential risk to public health. As fish aquaculture is an economically important industry providing high protein nutrition for humans and other mammalian species, the prospect of farmed fish being contaminated with infectious mammalian PrP(Sc, or of a prion disease developing in farmed fish is alarming and requires further evaluation.

  4. Evaluation of the possible transmission of BSE and scrapie to gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salta, Evgenia; Panagiotidis, Cynthia; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Petrakis, Spyros; Eleftheriadis, Eleftherios; Arapoglou, Fotis; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Nicolaou, Anna; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Krey, Grigorios; Sklaviadis, Theodoros

    2009-07-28

    In transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting many species, the key event in disease pathogenesis is the accumulation of an abnormal conformational isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). While the precise mechanism of the PrP(C) to PrP(Sc) conversion is not understood, it is clear that host PrP(C) expression is a prerequisite for effective infectious prion propagation. Although there have been many studies on TSEs in mammalian species, little is known about TSE pathogenesis in fish. Here we show that while gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) orally challenged with brain homogenates prepared either from a BSE infected cow or from scrapie infected sheep developed no clinical prion disease, the brains of TSE-fed fish sampled two years after challenge did show signs of neurodegeneration and accumulation of deposits that reacted positively with antibodies raised against sea bream PrP. The control groups, fed with brains from uninfected animals, showed no such signs. Remarkably, the deposits developed much more rapidly and extensively in fish inoculated with BSE-infected material than in the ones challenged with the scrapie-infected brain homogenate, with numerous deposits being proteinase K-resistant. These plaque-like aggregates exhibited congophilia and birefringence in polarized light, consistent with an amyloid-like component. The neurodegeneration and abnormal deposition in the brains of fish challenged with prion, especially BSE, raises concerns about the potential risk to public health. As fish aquaculture is an economically important industry providing high protein nutrition for humans and other mammalian species, the prospect of farmed fish being contaminated with infectious mammalian PrP(Sc), or of a prion disease developing in farmed fish is alarming and requires further evaluation.

  5. Effects of sustained exercise on GH-IGFs axis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Emilio J; Azizi, Sheida; Millán-Cubillo, Antonio; Fernández-Borràs, Jaume; Blasco, Josefina; Chan, Shu Jin; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-02-15

    The endocrine system regulates growth mainly through the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) axis and, although exercise promotes growth, little is known about its modulation of these factors. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 wk of moderate sustained swimming on the GH-IGFs axis in gilthead sea bream fingerlings. Plasma IGF-I/GH ratio and tissue gene expression of total IGF-I and three splice variants, IGF-II, three IGF binding proteins, two GH receptors, two IGF-I receptors, and the downstream molecules were analyzed. Fish under exercise (EX) grew more than control fish (CT), had a higher plasma IGF-I/GH ratio, and showed increased hepatic IGF-I expression (mainly IGF-Ia). Total IGF-I expression levels were similar in the anterior and caudal muscles; however, IGF-Ic expression increased with exercise, suggesting that this splice variant may be the most sensitive to mechanical action. Moreover, IGFBP-5b and IGF-II increased in the anterior and caudal muscles, respectively, supporting enhanced muscle growth. Furthermore, in EX fish, hepatic IGF-IRb was reduced together with both GHRs; GHR-II was also reduced in anterior muscle, while GHR-I showed higher expression in the two muscle regions, indicating tissue-dependent differences and responses to exercise. Exercise also increased gene and protein expression of target of rapamycin (TOR), suggesting enhanced muscle protein synthesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that moderate sustained activity may be used to increase the plasma IGF-I/GH ratio and to potentiate growth in farmed gilthead sea bream, modulating the gene expression of different members of the GH-IGFs axis (i.e., IGF-Ic, IGF-II, IGFBP-5b, GHR-I, and TOR).

  6. Suppression of aromatase activity in populations of bream (Abramis brama) from the river Elbe, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Markus; Sanderson, J Thomas; Karbe, Ludwig

    2007-01-01

    Aromatase activity was determined in brain and gonads of wild bream collected along the river Elbe, Germany, and correlated with other endocrine and reproductive endpoints such as plasma sex steroid concentrations, secondary sex characteristics (STI), plasma vitellogenin, gonad size (GSI), and maturation stages of germ cells (MS) that were reported for the same fish in a previous study. Furthermore, regional patterns of aromatase activity were correlated to a number of environmental factors such as exposure to environmental contaminants and parasitism. While aromatase activity was not detectable in the gonads of male and female fish with the assay used, fish of both genders revealed relatively great brain enzyme activities. As for most of the endocrine and reproductive parameters, with the exception of plasma testosterone (T), aromatase activities were significantly less in fish from a river stretch characterized by elevated exposures to organic contaminants and metals. Brain aromatase activity was positively and significantly correlated with plasma estradiol (E2) and MS in females, and showed a similar trend with plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and STI in males. No comparable trend occurred for T. This decrease of the reproductively relevant hormones 11KT and E2 may be indicative of a disruption of the last step in sex hormone synthesis, a hypothesis that was supported for E2 by the strong (R2=0.78, p<0.05) linear regression between aromatase activity and E2 in female bream. It is also hypothesized that the effects on brain aromatase activity were likely to be related to the disruption of other reproductive parameters including sexual maturity and expression of secondary sex characteristics. Although a number of factors such as exposure to pollutants and prevalence of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis correlated with the suppression of aromatase activity, the exact causes for the regional decrease in brain aromatase activity remain unclear due to inconsistencies

  7. Demographic and genetic structures of white sea bream populations (Diplodus sargus, Linnaeus, 1758) inside and outside a Mediterranean marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenfant, Philippe

    2003-08-01

    We studied the white sea bream (Diplodus sargus), a protandrous hermaphroditic fish, in two protected and unprotected areas in southwestern France. We observed a significant difference in the demographic structure between the two areas. Females were present in two different age distributions inside and outside the marine reserve with younger females outside. This suggests plasticity in the age of sexual inversion in the case of an exploited population. Genetic differentiation was weak and apparent at only one locus of 26 surveyed (FST = 0.007, p = 0.04). Our data suggest that gene flow between the two areas is important, or the separation between the two sites is recent. Our data on the white sea bream show that fishes inside and outside the marine reserve are very similar genetically, which means that the 'reserve effect' is truly a demographic one, not the result of genetic differences.

  8. Diel activity and variability in habitat use of white sea bream in a temperate marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Manfredi; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Badalamenti, Fabio; Guidetti, Paolo; Starr, Richard M; Giacalone, Vincenzo Maximiliano; Di Franco, Antonio; D'Anna, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Fish populations are often comprised of individuals that use habitats and associated resources in different ways. We placed sonic transmitters in, and tracked movements of, white sea bream (Diplodus sargus sargus) in the no-take zone of a Mediterranean marine protected area: the Torre Guaceto marine protected area, (Adriatic Sea, Italy). Tagged fish displayed three types of diel activity patterns in three different habitats: sand, rocky reefs and "matte" of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Individuals were more active during the day than at night. Overall, white sea bream displayed a remarkable behavioural plasticity in habitat use. Our results indicate that the observed behavioural plasticity in the marine protected area could be the result of multiple ecological and environmental drivers such as size, sex and increased intra-specific competition. Our findings support the view that habitat diversity helps support high densities of fishes.

  9. First record of red filament threadfin bream, Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1830) (Perciformes, Nemipteridae),from Chinese waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Ping; WU Renxie; LIU Jing

    2011-01-01

    We collected five specimens of threadfin bream from Beihai,Guangxi,China in March 2010.These were subsequently identified as red filament threadfin bream Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes,1830),being the first record of this species from Chinese waters.N.marginatus is distinguished by the following characteristics:lower border of eye lies above a line from tip of snout to upper base of pectoral fin; mouth oblique,maxillary extending to lower anterior border of pupil; teeth in jaws in several rows,pointed; upper jaw with 3 to 5 pairs of small recurved canines; suborbital with straight lower edge and rounded posterior edge; pectoral fins extending to between level of anus and origin of anal fin; pelvic fins reaching to the first or second anal rays; caudal fm forked,upper lobe tails into a short reddish filament; dorsal fin bluish with a yellow margin distally and a broad yellow median band which subdivides posteriorly into 3 small bands.

  10. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Cathepsin B and L cysteine proteases from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Ilson; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Youngdeuk; Kim, Yucheol; Lee, Sukkyoung; Oh, Chulhong; Jung, Sung-Ju; Oh, Myung-Joo; Choi, Cheol Young; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Se-Jae; Lee, Jehee

    2011-03-01

    Cathepsins are lysosomal cysteine proteases of the papain family that play an important role in intracellular protein degradation and turn over within the lysosomal system. In the present study, full-length sequences of cathepsin B (RbCathepsin B) and L (RbCathepsin L) were identified after transcriptome sequencing of rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus mixed tissue cDNA. Cathepsin B was composed of 330 amino acid residues with 36 kDa predicted molecular mass. RbCathepsin L contained 336 amino acid residues encoding for a 38 kDa predicted molecular mass protein. The sequencing analysis results showed that both cathepsin B and L contain the characteristic papain family cysteine protease signature and active sites for the eukaryotic thiol proteases of cysteine, asparagine and histidine. In addition, RbCathepsin L contained EF hand Ca(2+) binding and cathepsin propeptide inhibitor domains. The rock bream cathepsin B and L showed the highest amino acid identity of 90 and 95% to Lutjanus argentimaculatus cathepsin B and Lates calcarifer cathepsin L, respectively. By phylogenetic analysis, cathepsin B and L exhibited a high degree of evolutionary relationship to respective cathepsin family members of the papain superfamily. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis results confirmed that the expression of cathepsin B and L genes was constitutive in all examined tissues isolated from un-induced rock bream. Moreover, activation of RbCathepsin B and L mRNA was observed in both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Edwardsiella tarda challenged liver and blood cells, indicating a role of immune response in rock bream.

  11. Dietary differences are reflected on the gut prokaryotic community structure of wild and commercially reared sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormas, Konstantinos A; Meziti, Alexandra; Mente, Eleni; Frentzos, Athanasios

    2014-10-01

    We compared the gut prokaryotic communities in wild, organically-, and conventionally reared sea bream (Sparus aurata) individuals. Gut microbial communities were identified using tag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. There were distinct prokaryotic communities in the three different fish nutritional treatments, with the bacteria dominating over the Archaea. Most of the Bacteria belonged to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The number of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was reduced from the wild to the conventionally reared fish, implying a response of the gut microorganisms to the supplied food and possibly alterations in food assimilation. The dominant bacterial OTU in all examined fish was closely related to the genus Diaphorobacter. This is the first time that a member of the β-Proteobacteria, which dominate in freshwaters, are so important in a marine fish gut. In total the majority of the few Archaea OTUs found, were related to methane metabolism. The inferred physiological roles of the dominant prokaryotes are related to the metabolism of carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds. This study showed the responsive feature of the sea bream gut prokaryotic communities to their diets and also the differences of the conventional in comparison to the organic and wild sea bream gut microbiota.

  12. Effects of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on lipid metabolism of gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Peres, Helena; Rubio, Vera Cruz; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2013-06-01

    A growth trial was performed with gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata) to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on fish performance and lipid metabolism. For that purpose, four diets were formulated: a fish meal-based diet (Control) and diets identical to the control diet but supplemented with 2.9 % white tea (Tea), 0.3 % methionine (Met) or 2.9 % white tea plus 0.3 % methionine (Tea + Met). Growth performance and feed efficiency parameters, whole-body and liver composition, plasma metabolites concentration and liver glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) activities were determined. Feed intake was higher in fish fed methionine-supplemented diets, whereas this parameter and growth was decreased in fish fed white tea supplementation. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were not affected by diet composition. Plasma HDL cholesterol and total lipids concentration were higher in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Whole-body lipid, plasma glucose, liver glycogen concentration and liver G6PDH, ME and FAS activities were lower in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Results of the present study indicate that methionine seems to act as a feed attractant in diets for sea bream juveniles. Additionally, white tea is an important modulator of lipid metabolism in sea bream juveniles.

  13. Partial replacement of fish meal by T-Iso in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata juveniles diets

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    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of microalga Isochrysis sp. T-Iso in partial substitution of fish meal and the study of the effects on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata perform- ances and chemical composition of fillets. The results show that the microalga T-Iso nutrients support growth better than control diets, and the chemical composition of sea bream fillets also meets the needs of consumers for healthy diets. T-Iso resulted highly digestible, and support the best perform- ances of fish fed on 70% alga diet probably due to its high protein efficiency in comparison to other diets. The presence of a high quantity of cyclic isoprenoid could explain this high efficiency of T-Iso. Gilthead sea bream fed on 70% T-Iso showed fillets with a low level of protein and a high level of fat; moreover, their somatic indexes were higher than those of fish fed other diets. Highest percentage T- Iso diet showed the highest amount of the sum of saturated fatty acids, mainly due to myristate and palmitate. On the contrary, the sum of polyunsaturated decreases, mainly because of the reduction of EPA and DHA amounts. If the mass production economical problems are solved, T-Iso will represent a good solution in partial substitution of fish meal.

  14. Comparison of genetic variation of wild and farmed Bream (Abramis brama orientalis; berg, 1905 using microsatellite markers

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    Zeinab Hosseinnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bream (Abramis brama orientalis is one of the most commercially valuable fish in the Caspian Sea. The aim of this study was to compare levels of genetic polymorphism between wild and farmed Bream populations using seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was investigated by studying samples collected from two regions; Chaboksar and the Artificial Propagation Center of Guilan province. Allele frequency was found to have declined in wild and cultured fish due to inbreeding and genetic drift. Significant population differentiation (Fst was observed between wild and farmed populations, which could be explained by the low number of alleles in two populations. Significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were found at more loci. Beyond the null alleles' hypothesis, heterozygote deficiency may have arisen due to inbreeding. Both populations showed lowest genetic diversity according to the number of alleles and genotypes per each locus. This approach was carried out for the first time and could provide information regarding the genetic variability of farmed and wild abramis brama fish using microsatellite markers. Results could be used for the management and conservation of artificial Bream propagation programs.

  15. Supplementation with imuno-2865® in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758): Effects on hematological and antioxidant parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Župan, Ivan; Tkalčić, Suzana; Šarić, Tomislav; Čož-Rakovac, Rozalindra; Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Topić-Popović, Natalija; Kardum, Matko; Kanski, Danijel; Ljubić, Blanka Beer; Matijatko, Vesna; Poljičak-Milas, Nina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of IMUNO-2865(®) on hematological and antioxidative parameters in sea bream. Total of 640 sea bream were fed with diets containing 0 (Group 1), 1 (Group 2), 10 (Group 3) and 25 (Group 4) g of IMUNO-2865(®) kg(-1) feed during 90 days. Samples were taken each month and three months after the supplementation. A significant heterophils increase was observed in group 4 compared to group 1 after two months, and an increase in monocytes number was observed in group 4 compared to the other groups after one month. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) were significantly increased in groups 3 and 4 compared to the control group three months into the experiment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased in group 4 compared to the control group from day 60 until the end of the experiment, and in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control after three months. Based on the differences in the cellular immunity and oxidative stress parameters, with an overall absence of mortality, the results of this study suggest that the use of IMUNO-2865(®) in aquaculture is safe and possess a cumulative immunostimulatory effect on sea bream.

  16. UTILIZATION OF CORN GLUTEN MEAL AS A PROTEIN SOURCE IN DIETS FOR GILTHEAD SEA BREAM (Sparus aurata L. JUVENILES

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    Murat Yiğit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of corn gluten meal (CGM was evaluated as a partial fish meal (FM substitute in practical diets for gilthead sea bream juveniles. Four test diets (isonitrogenous and isoca¬loric, 52% protein and 10% lipid, 19 kJ/g diet containing increasing levels of CGM were for¬mulated to replace anchovy meal at levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. Triplicate groups of ju¬venile sea bream (initial body weight of 1.5 g were reared in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS over 45 days at 18±2°C. Fish fed a diet containing 10% of CGM showed com¬parable growth performance similar to the control diet containing FM as the sole protein source. No mortality was observed in all treatment groups. Dietary CGM inclusion levels of 20% and 30% showed lower growth performance, feed utilization, and protein efficiency com¬pared to the control and the 10% CGM inclusion diets. However these values were not signifi¬cantly different among fish fed the CGM10 and CGM20 diets. Economical analyses also con¬firmed the growth related experimental results in terms of best profit obtained with the 10% CGM inclusion diet. Results in the present study showed that CGM alone without any amino acid supplements can substitute FM up to 10% with no adverse effects on growth performance, feed utilization, or economical inputs in gilthead sea bream juveniles.

  17. The testis and ovary transcriptomes of the rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus: A bony fish with a unique neo Y chromosome

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    Dongdong Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus is considerably one of the most economically important marine fish in East Asia and has a unique neo-Y chromosome system that is a good model to study the sex determination and differentiation in fish. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the testis and ovary tissues of rock bream. A total of 40,004,378 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406649 and 53,108,992 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406648 high quality reads were obtained from testis and ovary RNA sequencing, respectively, and 60,421 contigs (with average length of 1301 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 14,036 contigs that show gender-enriched expressional profile with either testis-enriched (237 contigs or ovary-enriched (581 contigs with RPKM >100. There are 237 male- and 582 female-abundant expressed genes that show sex dimorphic expression. We hope that the gonad transcriptome and those gender-enriched transcripts of rock bream can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of teleost gonad tissue and give useful information in fish gonad development.

  18. Effect of n-3 HUFA levels in rotifers and Artemia on growth and survival of larval black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Li, Kuiran; Huang, Bingxin; Chen, Xiaolin

    2004-12-01

    Requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was studied using rotifers and Artemia at various levels of n-3 HUFA. Five treatments with rotifers and Artemia differing in n-3 HUFA were prepared by enriching them with various oil emulsions. Results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influence fish n-3 HUFA levels and are essential for growth and survival of black sea bream larvae. The results also indicated that the incorporation of n-3HUFA TG (triacylglycerols) into tissues of larval black sea bream was more effective from natural fish oil in comparison with n-3 HUFA fatty acid ethyl esters from ethyl-esterified oil.

  19. Effect of n-3 HUFA levels in rotifers and Artemia on growth and survival of larval black sea bream (Sparus macrocephalus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingke; LI Kuiran; HUANG Bingxin; CHEN Xiaolin

    2004-01-01

    Requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black sea bream (Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was studied using rotifers and Artemia at various levels of n-3 HUFA. Five treatments with rotifers and Artemia differing in n-3 HUFA were prepared by enriching them with various oil emulsions. Results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influence fish n-3 HUFA levels and are essential for growth and survival of black sea bream larvae. The results also indicated that the incorporation of n-3HUFA TG (triacylglycerols) into tissues of larval black sea bream was more effective from natural fish oil in comparison with n-3 HUFA fatty acid ethyl esters from ethyl-esterified oil.

  20. Studies on the phosphorus requirement and proper calcium/phosphorus ratio in the diet of the black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Li, Maotang; Wang, Keling; Wang, Xincheng; Liu, Jianking

    1993-06-01

    An expriment on the phosphorus requirement and the proper Ca/P ratio in the diet of the black sea bream using the phosphorus gradient method (with casein as basic diet, sodium dihydrogen phosphate as source of phosphorus, and calcium lactate as source of calcium) showed that growth was greatly affected by the diet's phosphorus content and Ca/P ratio. Inadequate phosphorus in the diet resulted in slow growth and poor food conversion ratio (FCR). Analyses of the fish body showed it contained a high level of lipid but a low level of moisture, ash, calcium and phosphorus. The optimal values of phosphorus and Ca/P ratio in the black sea bream diet are 0.68% and 1∶2 respectively. Phosphorus in excess of this optimum value resulted in slow growth or even death. The results of this experiment clearly indicated that phosphorus is the principal mineral additive affecting black sea bream growth.

  1. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on lipogenesis and lipolysis in black sea bream, Acanthopagrus schlegeli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Hong; OM Ahamd Daud; YOSHIMATSU Takao; UMINO Testuya; NAKAGAWA Heisuke; FURUHASHI Makoto; SAKAMOTO Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Hatchery-reared juvenile black sea breams are characterized by a low level of highly unsaturated fatty acids in their bodies, as compared with wild fish. To assess the effect of docosahaxaenoic acid (DHA) on lipogenic and lipolysis enzymes, one-year fish were reared on a casein-based purified diet and a DHA fortified diet (1.5% DHA ethyl ester/kg diet) for 60 d, followed with a period of 55 d for starvation. Dietary DHA was effectively incorporated into the fish body. Fortification of DHA depressed activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase as lipogenic enzymes in the hepatopancreas and intraperitoneal fat body. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase as lipolysis enzyme in the hepatopancreas was active in the DHA fortified fish. Starvation after feeding experiment induced increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity in both control and DHA fortified fish and the activity remained higher in the DHA fortified fish, while the monoenes were selectively consumed prior to highly unsaturated fatty acids. These results indicated that dietary DHA depressed lipogenesis and activated lipolysis.

  2. Metallothionein (MT: a good biomarker in marine sentinel species like sea bream (Sparus aurata

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    Rigers Bakiu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review presents an overview of the significance of the use of molecular biomarkers as diagnostic and prognostic tools for marine pollution monitoring. In order to assess the impact of highly persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB, polychlorinated dibenzo–dioxins (PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzo–furans (PCDF, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, tributyltin (TBT and other toxic metals on the marine ecosystem a suite of biomarkers are being extensively used worldwide. Among the various types of biomarkers, like cytochrome P4501A induction, DNA integrity, and acetylcholinesterase activity, metallothionein induction represents an excellent biomarker. MTs are induced by toxic metals such as Cd, Hg, and Cu by chelation through cysteine residues and are used in both vertebrates and invertebrates as a biomarker of metal exposure. Sea bream is sentinel fish of its native sandy costal habitat as it is widely distributed throughout the entire Mediterranean Sea. Many studies, which results are further shown in this paper, has proposed metallothionein as a biomarker of heavy metal exposure in Sparus aurata. Recently MT expression profiles have been used as perfect diagnostic instruments to determine the physiological impact of aquaculture systems in S. aurata. All these knowledge could be very helpful to improve fish productivity and the aquaculture production system quality

  3. The impact of an oil spill on organs of bream Abramis brama in the Po River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giari, L; Dezfuli, B S; Lanzoni, M; Castaldelli, G

    2012-03-01

    An oil spill into the River Lambro occurred on 23 February 2010 and reached the Po River the following day. Breams captured here on 1 March 2010, along with a sample from a control site, were examined by light and electron microscopy. The main affected organs were skin and gill with slight or no damage to liver, kidney, and intestine. The gills exhibited lamellar aneurisms, fusion of secondary lamellae, edema with epithelial lifting, mucous cell hypertrophy, and mucus hypersecretion. Significantly higher mucous cell density was observed in the skin of exposed fish. Histochemical staining revealed that acid glycoconjugates were prevalent in epidermal mucous cells in the exposed Abramis brama, whereas neutral and mixed glycoconjugates were dominant in the control fish. Rodlet cells were significantly more abundant in the kidney of exposed fish and showed ultrastructural differences compared to controls. These histopathologic effects were indicators of chemical stress due to exposure to oil. The present study is one of the first which explores the acute effects of this incident and makes part of a few reports focused on freshwater oil spill.

  4. Moon phase influences the diet of southern Ray's bream Brama australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, P L; Forman, J S; Dunn, M R

    2013-04-01

    Diet composition of the southern Ray's bream Brama australis was examined from stomach contents of 399 specimens sampled by bottom trawl on Chatham Rise to the east of South Island, New Zealand, over 3 years. Prey items were predominantly mesopelagic fishes and crustaceans. Multivariate analysis indicated that moon phase explained more of the diet variability than any other predictor examined. It appears likely that diet composition is influenced by a combination of changes in both tidal flows and illumination. Different combinations of prey were consumed by B. australis at different times of the lunar cycle. An influence of moon phase on feeding by fishes has rarely been reported, but it is likely that moon phase influences the diets of other species that specialize in mesopelagic prey. The most important prey group by mass for B. australis was Myctophidae (primarily Lampanyctodes hectoris), followed by Stomiiformes (primarily Maurolicus australis) and shrimps (Sergestes spp). An ontogenetic shift in diet was observed, from numerical dominance by small crustaceans including amphipods and euphausiids (with some fishes) in smaller (mass 1440 g) B. australis.

  5. Second generation genetic linkage map for the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigenopoulos, Costas S; Louro, Bruno; Chatziplis, Dimitrios; Lagnel, Jacques; Vogiatzi, Emmanouella; Loukovitis, Dimitrios; Franch, Rafaella; Sarropoulou, Elena; Power, Deborah M; Patarnello, Tomaso; Mylonas, Constantinos C; Magoulas, Antonios; Bargelloni, Luca; Canario, Adelino; Kotoulas, Georgios

    2014-12-01

    An updated second linkage map was constructed for the gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L., a fish species of great economic importance for the Mediterranean aquaculture industry. In contrast to the first linkage map which mainly consisted of genomic microsatellites (SSRs), the new linkage map is highly enriched with SSRs found in Expressed Sequence Tags (EST-SSRs), which greatly facilitates comparative mapping with other teleosts. The new map consists of 321 genetic markers in 27 linkage groups (LGs): 232 genomic microsatellites, 85 EST-SSRs and 4 SNPs; of those, 13 markers were linked to LGs but were not ordered. Eleven markers (5 SSRs, 5 EST-SSRs and 1 SNP) are not assigned to any LG. The total length of the sex-averaged map is 1769.7cM, 42% longer than the previously published one, and the number of markers in each LG ranges from 2 to 30. The inter-marker distance varies from 0 to 75.6cM, with an average of 5.75cM. The male and female maps have a length of 1349.2 and 2172.1cM, respectively, and the average distance between markers is 4.38 and 7.05cM, respectively. Comparative mapping with the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus acuulatus) chromosomes and scaffolds showed conserved synteny with 132 S. aurata markers (42.9% of those mapped) having a hit on the stickleback genome.

  6. PREVALENCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO SPP. ISOLATED ON AQUACULTURED GILTHEAD SEA BREAM

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    C. Scarano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp isolated from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata farmed on sea cages and to identify and characterize the pathogen by molecular techniques. Eighty fish were collected from two hatcheries located on the North-Est Sardinian Mediterranean coast, and microbiological analysis were performed on different body parts such as skin, gills, muscle and intestinal tract. Subsequently 100 pure colonies with typical morphology and phenotypic characteristics were selected and submitted to the molecular identification. The analysis on the prevalence of Vibrio spp showed the effect of the hatchery rearing system (P<0.001, of the date of sampling (P<0.001, and of the body part (P<0.001. All the strains selected were confirmed to be members of the genus Vibrio spp by the molecular method/techinique/identification, whereas the rpoA gene sequence analyses allowed to identify 89 strains belonging to the species Vibrio harveyi, 6 to V. diabolicus, 2 to V. parahaemolyticus and 1 to V. mediterranei.

  7. Insulin, IGF-I, and muscle MAPK pathway responses after sustained exercise and their contribution to growth and lipid metabolism regulation in gilthead sea bream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gurmaches, J; Cruz-Garcia, L; Ibarz, A; Fernández-Borrás, J; Blasco, J; Gutiérrez, J; Navarro, I

    2013-10-01

    Herein, we studied whether sustained exercise positively affects growth of gilthead sea bream by alterations in a) plasma concentrations of insulin and IGF-I, b) signaling pathways in muscle, or c) regulation of lipid metabolism. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of moderated swimming (1.5 body lengths per second; BL/s) on the circulating concentrations of insulin and IGF-I, morphometric parameters, and expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in gilthead sea bream (80-90 g BW). Exercise increased the specific growth rate (P exercised fish (P = 0.037), suggesting a role for this endocrine factor in the control of muscular growth and metabolic homeostasis during swimming. The observed decrease in plasma insulin concentrations (P = 0.016) could favor the mobilization of tissue reserves in exercised fish. In this sense, the increase in liver fatty acid content (P = 0.041) and the changes in expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors PPARα (P = 0.017) and PPARγ (P = 0.033) indicated a hepatic lipid mobilization. Concentration of glycogen in both white and red muscles was decreased (P = 0.021 and P = 0.017, respectively) in exercised (n = 12) relative to control (n = 12) gilthead sea bream, whereas concentrations of glucose (P = 0.016) and lactate (P = 0.0007) were decreased only in red muscle, indicating the use of these substrates. No changes in the glucose transporter and in lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression were found in any of the tissues studied. Exercised sea bream had decreased content of PPARβ mRNA in white and red muscle relative to control sea bream expression (P = 0.001 and P = 0.049, respectively). Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was significantly down-regulated in both white and red muscles of exercised sea bream (P = 0.0374 and P = 0.0371, respectively). Tumor necrosis factor-α expression of white muscle was down-regulated in exercised gilthead sea bream (P = 0.045). Collectively, these results contribute

  8. IGF-I and amino acids effects through TOR signaling on proliferation and differentiation of gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Emilio J; Lutfi, Esmail; Jiménez-Amilburu, Vanesa; Riera-Codina, Miquel; Capilla, Encarnación; Navarro, Isabel; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscle growth and development is controlled by nutritional (amino acids, AA) as well as hormonal factors (insulin-like growth factor, IGF-I); however, how its interaction modulates muscle mass in fish is not clearly elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development of gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes to describe the effects of AA and IGF-I on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) expression, as well as on the transduction pathways involved in its signaling (TOR/AKT). Our results showed that AA and IGF-I separately increased the number of PCNA-positive cells and, together produced a synergistic effect. Furthermore, AA and IGF-I, combined or separately, increased significantly Myogenin protein expression, whereas MyoD was not affected. These results indicate a role for these factors in myocyte proliferation and differentiation. At the mRNA level, AA significantly enhanced PCNA expression, but no effects were observed on the expression of the MRFs or AKT2 and FOXO3 upon treatment. Nonetheless, we demonstrated for the first time in gilthead sea bream that AA significantly increased the gene expression of TOR and its downstream effectors 4EBP1 and 70S6K, with IGF-I having a supporting role on 4EBP1 up-regulation. Moreover, AA and IGF-I also activated TOR and AKT by phosphorylation, respectively, being this activation decreased by specific inhibitors. In summary, the present study demonstrates the importance of TOR signaling on the stimulatory role of AA and IGF-I in gilthead sea bream myogenesis and contributes to better understand the potential regulation of muscle growth and development in fish.

  9. Toxicity of short-term copper exposure to early life stages of red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liang; Huang, Wei; Liu, Jinhu; Ye, Zhenjiang; Dou, Shuozeng

    2010-09-01

    Acute (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 mg Cu/L) and chronic (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12 mg Cu/L) toxicity tests of Cu with embryonic and larval red sea bream, Pagrus major, were carried out to investigate their biological responses to Cu exposure in static water at 18 +/- 1 degrees C (dissolved organic carbon, 1.8 +/- 0.65 mg C/L; hardness, 6,183 +/- 360 mg CaCO3/L; salinity, 33 +/- 1 per thousand). The 24- and 48-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) values of Cu for embryos were 0.23 and 0.15 mg/L, whereas the 48-, 72-, and 96-h LC50 values for larvae were 0.52, 0.19, and 0.13 mg/L, respectively, suggesting that embryos were more sensitive to Cu toxicity than larvae. Copper exposures at > or =0.06 mg concentrations caused low hatching success, a delay in the time to hatching of embryos, and reductions in the growth and yolk absorption of the larvae, whereas high mortality and morphological malformations occurred in the embryos and larvae at > or =0.08 mg/L concentrations. Copper concentration did not significantly affect the heart rate of the embryos, but it significantly decreased the heart rate of the newly hatched larvae when the Cu concentration was > or =0.08 mg/L, suggesting that Cu at high concentrations could induce heartbeat disturbances in red sea bream more easily at the larval stage than at the embryonic stage. Hatching success, time to hatching, growth rate, morphological abnormality, yolk absorption, and heart rate were Cu concentration-dependent and could be effective endpoints for evaluating Cu toxicity to the early life stages of red sea bream in nature.

  10. Occurrence and potential transfer of mycotoxins in gilthead sea bream and Atlantic salmon by use of novel alternative feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Beltrán, Eduardo; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Silva, Joana; Karalazos, Vasileios; Hernández, Félix; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2015-06-01

    Plant ingredients and processed animal proteins (PAP) are suitable alternative feedstuffs for fish feeds in aquaculture practice, although their use can introduce contaminants that are not previously associated with marine salmon and gilthead sea bream farming. Mycotoxins are well known natural contaminants in plant feed material, although they also could be present on PAPs after fungi growth during storage. The present study surveyed commercially available plant ingredients (19) and PAP (19) for a wide range of mycotoxins (18) according to the EU regulations. PAP showed only minor levels of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1 and the mycotoxin carry-over from feeds to fillets of farmed Atlantic salmon and gilthead sea bream (two main species of European aquaculture) was performed with plant ingredient based diets. Deoxynivalenol was the most prevalent mycotoxin in wheat, wheat gluten and corn gluten cereals with levels ranging from 17 to 814 and μg kg(-1), followed by fumonisins in corn products (range 11.1-4901 μg kg(-1) for fumonisin B1+B2+B3). Overall mycotoxin levels in fish feeds reflected the feed ingredient composition and the level of contaminant in each feed ingredient. In all cases the studied ingredients and feeds showed levels of mycotoxins below maximum residue limits established by the Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC. Following these guidelines no mycotoxin carry-over was found from feeds to edible fillets of salmonids and a typically marine fish, such as gilthead sea bream. As far we know, this is the first report of mycotoxin surveillance in farmed fish species.

  11. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Liu

    Full Text Available Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These

  12. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  13. PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs in breams (Abraims brama) from German rivers. Results from the German Environmental Specimen Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeter-Kermani, C. [Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin (Germany); Herrmann, T.; Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany); Stachel, B. [Wasserguetestelle Elbe der Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    In July 2002 a new regulation of the European Commission came into force setting maximum permitted values for PCDD/Fs in food. Until the end of 2004 these limit values have to be verified with current monitoring data, especially in regard to the integration of dioxin-like PCBs in this regulation. It is well known that fish accumulate lypophilic substances to a high degree from their aquatic surroundings so that fish and fish products are an important source of human intake of dioxins. Several studies have been published recently regarding the contamination of marine fish species with PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs, but less is known about the contamination of fresh water fish with these substances. To bridge this gap, the German environmental specimen bank (ESB) analyzed archived bream muscle samples for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs. Breams are widely distributed in Europe and often used as a monitoring organism for fresh water and sediment contamination because of their small migration radius. As adult breams feed mainly on benthic invertebrates they are permanently in direct contact with the sediments. Although bream is less consumed at least in Germany the here presented results might facilitate general statements regarding the contamination of other fresh water fish species with PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs.

  14. Trace elements and metals in farmed sea bass and gilthead bream from Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Jalilli, A; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hernández, F; Melón, E; Burgos, A; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of metals (Ca, K, Na, Mg) and trace metals (Ni, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd) in two fish species (gilthead bream [Sparus aurata] and sea bass [Dicentrarchus labrax]) collected from fish farms located along the coast of Tenerife Island. Ca, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas Pb, Cd, and Ni were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn contents were 3.09, 0.59, 0.18, and 8.11 mg/kg (wet weight) in S. aurata and 3.20, 0.76, 0.24, and 10.11 mg/kg (wet weight) in D. labrax, respectively. In D. labrax, Ca, K, Na, and Mg levels were 1,955, 2,787, 699.7, and 279.2 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively; in S. aurata, they were 934.7, 3,515, 532.8, and 262.8 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively. The Pb level in S. aurata was 7.28 ± 3.64 μg/kg (wet weight) and, in D. labrax, 4.42 ± 1.56 μg/kg (wet weight). Mean Cd concentrations were 3.33 ± 3.93 and 1.36 ± 1.53 μg/kg (wet weight) for D. labrax and S. aurata, respectively. All Pb and Cd levels measured were well below the accepted European Commission limits, 300 and 50 μg/kg for lead and cadmium, respectively.

  15. Mercury levels and trends (1993-2009) in bream (Abramis brama L.) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from German surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepom, Peter; Irmer, Ulrich; Wellmitz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Mercury concentrations have been analysed in bream (Abramis brama L.) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) collected at 17 freshwater sites in Germany from 1993-2009 and 1994-2009, respectively, within the German Environmental Specimen programme. Mercury concentrations in bream ranged from 21 to 881 ng g(-1) wet weight with lowest concentrations found at the reference site Lake Belau and highest in fish from the river Elbe and its tributaries. Statistical analysis revealed site-specific differences and significant decreasing temporal trends in mercury concentrations at most of the sampling sites. The decrease in mercury levels in bream was most pronounced in fish from the river Elbe and its tributary Mulde, while in fish from the river Saale mercury levels increased. Temporal trends seem to level off in recent years. Mercury concentrations in zebra mussels were much lower than those in bream according to their lower trophic position and varied by one order of magnitude from 4.1 to 42 ng g(-1) wet weight (33-336 ng g(-1) dry weight). For zebra mussels, trend analyses were performed for seven sampling sites at the rivers Saar and Elbe of which three showed significant downward trends. There was a significant correlation of the geometric mean concentrations in bream and zebra mussel over the entire study period at each sampling site (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.892, p=0.00002). A comparison of the concentrations in bream with the environmental quality standard (EQS) of 20 ng g(-1) wet weight set for mercury in biota by the EU showed that not a single result was in compliance with this limit value, not even those from the reference site. Current mercury levels in bream from German rivers exceed the EQS by a factor 4.5-20. Thus, piscivorous top predators are still at risk of secondary poisoning by mercury exposure via the food chain. It was suggested focusing monitoring of mercury in forage fish (trophic level 3 or 4) for compliance checking with the EQS for

  16. Dynamics of the content of H2O, Na, K, Ca and Mg in the eggs of bream,Abramis brama L. in natural conditions and under stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Martemyanov

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the dynamics of H2O, Na, K, Ca and Mg content in the oocytes of bream, Abramis brama observed in prespawning period on breeding ground and in reply to catching, transportation and subsequent remaining of spawners in a cage. Methods: For research on the dynamics of H2O and cations content in the oocytes of bream females,Abramis brama in the course of eggs transition from maturity Stage IV to Stage V, fishes were caught from breeding ground in the coastal zone of the Volga Reach of the Rybinsk reservoir at the Vereteya Station. For studying the influence of stress, the bream (76 individuals) were caught from breeding ground by hauling the seine during 15 min. Capture, sorting and transportation for 3 h to the ponds were the stress factors. Samples of oocytes from 6–8 fishes were taken immediately after capturing, then two more were taken during transportation. Later fishes were removed from the cage in certain time intervals. Concentration of Na and K in the dissolved samples of oocytes was measured by the spectrometer (Flapho-4, Carl Zeiss, Iena, Germany) and content of Ca and Mg was measured by atomic-absorption spectrometer-1 (the same producer). Results: In natural conditions before spawning in the course of maturation of oocytes from maturity Stage IV to V, H2O content in the ovicells of bream has increased by 3.3% and concentration of Na, K, Ca and Mg has decreased by 24.9%, 38.1%, 56.2% and 65.7%, accordingly. Stress caused by capturing, transportation and the subsequent remaining of bream spawners in a cage did not change parameters of water-salt exchange of the oocytes. Conclusions: In natural conditions before spawning, the maturation of oocytes of bream from maturity Stage IV to V take place. Stress caused by capturing, transportation and the subsequent remaining of bream spawners in a cage prevents the transition of eggs from maturity Stage IV to V. It is suggested that in order to develop optimal technique stimulating oocytes

  17. Dynamics of the content of H2O, Na, K, Ca and Mg in the eggs of bream, Abramis brama L. in natural conditions and under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Martemyanov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the dynamics of H2O, Na, K, Ca and Mg content in the oocytes of bream, Abramis brama observed in prespawning period on breeding ground and in reply to catching, transportation and subsequent remaining of spawners in a cage. Methods: For research on the dynamics of H2O and cations content in the oocytes of bream females, Abramis brama in the course of eggs transition from maturity Stage IV to Stage V, fishes were caught from breeding ground in the coastal zone of the Volga Reach of the Rybinsk reservoir at the Vereteya Station. For studying the influence of stress, the bream (76 individuals were caught from breeding ground by hauling the seine during 15 min. Capture, sorting and transportation for 3 h to the ponds were the stress factors. Samples of oocytes from 6–8 fishes were taken immediately after capturing, then two more were taken during transportation. Later fishes were removed from the cage in certain time intervals. Concentration of Na and K in the dissolved samples of oocytes was measured by the spectrometer (Flapho-4, Carl Zeiss, Iena, Germany and content of Ca and Mg was measured by atomic-absorption spectrometer-1 (the same producer. Results: In natural conditions before spawning in the course of maturation of oocytes from maturity Stage IV to V, H2O content in the ovicells of bream has increased by 3.3% and concentration of Na, K, Ca and Mg has decreased by 24.9%, 38.1%, 56.2% and 65.7%, accordingly. Stress caused by capturing, transportation and the subsequent remaining of bream spawners in a cage did not change parameters of water-salt exchange of the oocytes. Conclusions: In natural conditions before spawning, the maturation of oocytes of bream from maturity Stage IV to V take place. Stress caused by capturing, transportation and the subsequent remaining of bream spawners in a cage prevents the transition of eggs from maturity Stage IV to V. It is suggested that in order to develop optimal technique

  18. Prebiotics effect on immune and hepatic oxidative status and gut morphology of white sea bream (Diplodus sargus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Inês; Couto, Ana; Machado, Marina; Castro, Carolina; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Enes, Paula

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS), xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on immune and hepatic oxidative status, and gut morphology of white sea bream juveniles. Four diets were formulated: a control diet with fish meal (FM) and plant feedstuffs (PF) (30FM:70PF) and three test diets similar to the control but supplemented with 1% of scFOS, XOS or GOS. Dietary prebiotic incorporation did not affect total blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood indices or differential white blood cell counts. Fish fed GOS had lower ACH50 and nitric oxide than fish fed control diet. XOS enhanced immune status through the increase in alternative complement pathway (ACH50), lysozyme and total immunoglobulin. The higher activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in fish fed FOS compared to the other dietary groups was the only related antioxidant enzyme affected by prebiotics in the liver. GOS ameliorated the precocious adverse effects of PF based diet on gut histomorphology, as denoted by the lower incidence of histological alterations in fish fed GOS for 15 days. In conclusion, XOS and GOS at 1% might have potential to be used as prebiotics in white sea bream juveniles.

  19. Labeling and label free shotgun proteomics approaches to characterize muscle tissue from farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesana, Susy; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; La Barbera, Giorgia; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    The proteome characterization of fish muscle tissues, together with the relative expression of each individual protein, provides knowledge on the biochemical response of the organisms and allows to assess the effect of different types of feeding, growth site and nutritional quality of the investigated species. This type of study is usually performed by gel-based proteomics approaches, however shotgun proteomics can serve as well, reducing analysis time and improving sample high-throughput. In this work, a shotgun proteomics method was thus developed and then applied to the characterization of gilthead sea bream edible muscle. The sarcoplasmic protein fraction was extracted, in-solution digested by trypsin and finally analyzed by nanoHPLC high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Two different quantification strategies were also tested. One was based on chemical dimethyl labeling and the other one on label free quantification. A comparison between these two analytical workflows was performed, to evaluate their individual performance in the analysis of fish samples and assess the differences induced by farming practice on the final commercial product with respect to wild gilthead sea bream. Quantitative differences were detected, and the most relevant one regarded the common fish allergen parvalbumin, found overexpressed in farmed fish samples.

  20. Establishment of rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus embryo (RoBE-4) cells with cytolytic infection of red seabream iridovirus (RSIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, So-Young; Nishizawa, Toyohiko

    2016-12-01

    Red seabream iridovirus (RSIV) is a member of genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae. RSIV infection causes significant economic losses of marine-fishes in East Asian countries. Grunt fin (GF) cell line has been commonly used for culturing RSIV. However, it is not suitable for definite evaluation of infectivity titer of RSIV because cells infected with RSIV are not completely cytolysed. Thus, we established a new cell line, RoBE-4, from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) eyed-egg embryos in this study. Morphologically, RoBE-4 cells were fibroblastic-like. They have been stably grown over two-years with 60 passages using Leibovitz's L-15 medium containing 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum. RoBE-4 cells infected with RSIV exhibited cytopathic effects (CPE) with cell rounding. They were cytolysed completely after ≥2 weeks of culture. Numerous RSIV particles with icosahedral morphology of approximately 122nm in diameter were observed in cytoplasmic area of infected RoBE-4 cells. The RSIV-suceptibility and amount of extracellular RSIV released by RoBE-4 cells were 100-fold higher than those by GF cells. RSIV cultured with RoBE-4 cells was highly virulent to rock bream in infection experiments. Therefore, using RoBE-4 cells instead of GF cells will enable accurate and sensitive measurement of RSIV infectivity. In addition, RoBE-4 cells might be used to produce RSIV vaccine in the future with significant reduction in cost.

  1. Survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila in sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets packaged under enriched CO(2) modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provincial, Laura; Guillén, Elena; Alonso, Verónica; Gil, Mario; Roncalés, Pedro; Beltrán, José A

    2013-08-16

    The ability to survive of two pathogens (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila) spread over sea bream fillets packaged under different modified atmospheres (MAPs) was studied at 0°C and 4°C under refrigerated storage. The atmospheres used were 60% CO2/40% N2, 70% CO2/30% N2 and 80% CO2/20% N2 and a control batch packaged in air. Head space gas analyses, microbial counts and confirming test of pathogenic bacteria were carried out during 16days. The results obtained showed that all the modified atmospheres studied were effective to reduce the microbial load of sea bream fillets when compared with air packaged samples although small differences were found among MAPs. Temperature storage was the main factor to reduce microbial growth. V. parahaemolyticus was unable to grow at both temperatures, 0°C and 4°C (except air batches) while A. hydrophila showed significant growth at 4°C and microbial inactivation at 0°C.

  2. Probiotics as an environment-friendly approach to enhance red sea bream, Pagrus major growth, immune response and oxidative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; El-Sabagh, Mabrouk; Esteban, M Angeles; Zaineldin, Amr I

    2016-10-01

    A usual strategy in modern aquaculture to combat production bottlenecks associated with intensification is preventive health care through the use of consumer and environment-friendly alternatives including probiotics. The current study evaluates the influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), a lyophilized probiotic bacterium, on health status and performance of red sea bream (Pagrus major). Probiotics were incorporated in the diets at four different concentrations: 0 (control diet, LR0), 10(2) (LR1), 10(4) (LR2) and 10(6) (LR3) cells g(-1) and diets were administered to the fish for a period of 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, final body weight, body weight gain, specific growth rate, protease activity, protein digestibility, Lactobacillus sp. intestinal count, and superoxide dismutase were significantly higher in all probiotic-fed groups (P probiotic supplementations being the effects dose-dependent. All growth, feed utilization, immune and oxidative parameters were significantly improved following probiotic administration. Present results revealed that L. rhamnosus is a promising probiotic candidate employed to help red sea bream protect themselves, thus promoting safe farming that would be less dependent on chemotherapy against infectious diseases.

  3. Effects of natural and synthetic estrogens and various environmental contaminants on vitellogenesis in fish primary hepatocytes: comparison of bream (Abramis brama) and carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankouhi, T Rouhani; Sanderson, J T; van Holsteijn, I; van Leeuwen, C; Vethaak, A D; van den Berg, M

    2004-09-01

    Interaction of environmental estrogens with the estrogen receptor (ER) has been shown in various fish species. Our objective was to compare the sensitivity of bream (Abramis brama) to (xeno-)estrogens with that of the carp (Cyprinus carpio), by measuring the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), ethynylestradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), methoxychlor (MXCL), and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB126, PCB118), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin (TCDD), and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PCDF) on vitellogenesis in primary hepatocytes. Comparing the EC50 values in bream hepatocytes: EE2 (0.1-0.2 microM) estrogenic potency of E2 and E1, indicating interspecies differences. Exposure to BPA, NP, MXCL, and HAHs did not or only weakly induce vitellogenesis. Bream hepatocytes coexposed to E2 and TCDD, PCB126 or PCDF showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of E2-induced vitellogenesis. IC50 (concentration of a compound that elicits 50% inhibition of E2-induced vitellogenesis) values determined in bream were: TCDD (0.02-0.09 nM) estrogenic response. IC50 values and benchmark-concentration for TCDD and PCB126 in bream and carp hepatocytes were in the same range, indicating similar sensitivity to these compounds. Due to their anti-estrogenic capacity with benchmark-concentrations in the pM range TCDD, PCDF, and PCB126 may form a potential hazard for the reproductive success of fish species by inhibition of vitellogenesis.

  4. 鄱阳湖、梁子湖、淤泥湖团头鲂苗种生产性能比较试验%A comparative experiment on performance traits of bluntnose black bream (Megalo brama amblycephala Yih) fry and fingerlings in Poyang Lake, Liangzi Lake and Yuni Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道印; 欧阳敏

    1999-01-01

    我们于1997年3月9日至13日分别从湖北鄂州市武昌鱼原种场和公安县淤泥湖渔场两地引进团头鲂亲本各30组,鄱阳湖团头鲂来源于与鄱阳湖水系相通的天然大沙湖种质资源库.将三个不同水域的团头鲂在江西省鄱阳湖团头鲂原种场经短期强化培育进行人工养殖,得到试验用水花鱼苗,将不同水域团头鲂F1代水花至夏花阶段为同水体用水花网片分格培育,夏花冬片阶段分单养和混养两种对比试验方式进行.其结果为:水花至夏花阶段鄱阳湖、梁子湖、淤泥湖团头鲂的成活率依次为73.25%、70%、65.5%;夏花至冬片鱼种阶段各水域团头鲂F1代成活率无明显差异,其个体增肉倍数与群体增肉倍数依次为鄱阳湖团头鲂〉淤泥湖团头鲂〉梁子湖团头鲂.

  5. Development temperature has persistent effects on muscle growth responses in gilthead sea bream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia de la serrana

    Full Text Available Initially we characterised growth responses to altered nutritional input at the transcriptional and tissue levels in the fast skeletal muscle of juvenile gilthead sea bream. Fish reared at 21-22°C (range were fed a commercial diet at 3% body mass d(-1 (non-satiation feeding, NSF for 4 weeks, fasted for 4d (F and then fed to satiation (SF for 21d. 13 out of 34 genes investigated showed consistent patterns of regulation between nutritional states. Fasting was associated with a 20-fold increase in MAFbx, and a 5-fold increase in Six1 and WASp expression, which returned to NSF levels within 16h of SF. Refeeding to satiation was associated with a rapid (<24 h 12 to 17-fold increase in UNC45, Hsp70 and Hsp90α transcripts coding for molecular chaperones associated with unfolded protein response pathways. The growth factors FGF6 and IGF1 increased 6.0 and 4.5-fold within 16 h and 24 h of refeeding respectively. The average growth in diameter of fast muscle fibres was checked with fasting and significant fibre hypertrophy was only observed after 13d and 21d SF. To investigate developmental plasticity in growth responses we used the same experimental protocol with fish reared at either 17.5-18.5°C (range (LT or 21-22°C (range (HT to metamorphosis and then transferred to 21-22°C. There were persistent effects of development temperature on muscle growth patterns with 20% more fibres of lower average diameter in LT than HT group of similar body size. Altering the nutritional input to the muscle to stimulate growth revealed cryptic changes in the expression of UNC45 and Hsp90α with higher transcript abundance in the LT than HT groups, whereas there were no differences in the expression of MAFbx and Six1. It was concluded that myogenesis and gene expression patterns during growth are not fixed, but can be modified by temperature during the early stages of the life cycle.

  6. Population dynamics of Japanese threadfin bream Nemipterus japonicus from Pakistani waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KALHORO Muhsan Ali; LIU Qun; MEMON Khadim Hussain; CHANG Mohammad Saleem; ZHANG Kui

    2014-01-01

    Japanese threadfin bream Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) is among the most abundant and commer-cially important species in Pakistan. From the coast of Pakistan, four demersal trawl surveys in October-November 2009 and May-June, August, October and November in 2010 were carried out. The purpose of this study is to estimate the population dynamics and status of the stock of the N. japonicus from Pakistani waters based on the research trawl surveys from the research area. The data consist of n=784 length-weight pairs and n=7 530 length frequency with the maximum length and weight of 29 cm and 358 g respectively. The length frequency data were analyzed using ELEFAN method in FiSAT computer package. The param-eters of length and weight relationship were b=2.778, a=0.032 and R2=0.973. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth function parameters were L∞=30.45 cm, K=0.270 year-1. Based on length-converted catch curve anal-ysis the total mortality (Z) during this study was estimated at 0.960 year-1. The natural mortality coefficient (M) was 0.74 year-1 using Pauly’s equation (the annual average sea surface temperature was 27°C), therefore, the fishing mortality coefficients (F) were 0.22 year-1. The yield per recruit analysis indicated that when tc was 2, Fmax was estimated at 1.2 and F0.1 at 1.1. When tc was 1, Fmax was estimated at 0.95 and F0.1 at 0.8. Because current age at first capture is about 1 year and Fcurrent was 0.22, Fcurrent is smaller than F0.1 and Fmax, which indicated that the fishery is about in a safe condition. When using Gulland (1971) biological reference point, Fopt was equals to M (0.74). The current fishing mortality rate of 0.22 was smaller than the target bio-logical reference point.

  7. 团头鲂饲料磷需要量%Phosphorus Requirement of Bluntnose Black Bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉超; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 姚林杰; 陈科全; 黄雨薇; 龚志

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲料中不同磷水平对团头鲂生长性能及体组成不同部位中磷含量的影响,以确定团头鲂饲料中磷的需要量。选取480尾平均初始体重为35 g的团头鲂为试验对象,随机分为6个试验组,每组4个重复,每个重复20尾,试验期为85 d。采用半纯化饲料,以磷酸二氢钙为磷源,设置磷水平为3.8、6.9、10.1、13.2、16.4、19.5 g/kg共6个梯度的试验饲料。结果表明:1)团头鲂试验中饲料磷水平为13.2 g/kg的试验组增重率显著高于其他各组( P 0.05),且磷水平为3.8 g/kg试验组全鱼粗灰分含量显著低于其他组(P0 . 05 ) , and the ash content in experimental group with 3 . 8 g/kg phosphorus was significantly lower than that in other groups ( P<0 . 05 );3 ) with dietary phosphor-us level increasing, phosphorus content in whole body, vertebra, opercle and scale was significantly increased (P<0. 05). Dietary phosphorus level had significant effects on phosphorus content in whole body, muscle, vertebra, opercle and scale (P <0. 05). In conclusion, under the conditions of this experiment, not only growth performance, but also contents of phosphorus in whole body and tissues are affected by dietary phos-phorus level. Quadratic model analysis results show that the optimum dietary phosphorus requirements for max-imum growth of bluntnose black bream is 12. 98~13. 18 g/kg.

  8. Proximate Composition, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Attributes of Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and Emperor Sea Bream (Lethrinus spp. Fillets Sold on Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Nicoleta Boițeanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The variety of seafood on the European market has considerably increased in recent years. This study presents data to the main nutritional values and the sensory properties of two exotic fish species, mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and emperor sea bream (Lethrinus spp., sold on retail market in Germany. Information on the quality of frozen and glazed fillets is still missing, but is important to characterize these products. This also includes details on the substances added to increase the water-binding ability. Aims: The paper aims to assess the quality of exotic fish fillets sold on the German market, through the evaluation of physical and chemical parameters, microbiological quality and sensory attributes. Materials and methods: 10 samples of each fish species were analysed after homogenisation to determine the following parameters:  pH-value (with a pH meter; water (gravimetrically; ash (in  a muffle furnace at 550 °C; salt (NaCl; by auto-titration; fat (by a modified Smedes method; protein (with a LECO TruSpecN based on the principles of the Dumas combustion method; total phosphorus content (photometrically; total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, using the EU reference method; total viable bacteria count (TVC and specific fish spoiling bacteria (SSO (by decimal dilutions method. The sensory assessments were done with cooked and fried fillets by a panel consisting of 6 specialists, using a descriptive method. Results: Lipid, ash and salt contents of mahi-mahi were comparable to the emperor sea bream values. Due to low lipid content, both species can be classified as lean species. The protein amount of emperor sea bream was significantly higher compared to mahi-mahi and many other common fish species. In mahi-mahi samples, slightly higher values of total phosphates content were found. The pH values of emperor sea bream were in a normal range for fresh fish, whereas in mahi-mahi significantly higher values were determined which

  9. GROWTH PROMOTION OF RED SEA BREAM, PAGROSOMUS MAJOR, BY ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF RECOMBINANT EEL AND SALMON GROWTH HORMONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant eel GH and yeast containing chinook salmon growth hormone (reGH and rcsGH) were incorporated into gelatin and sodium alginate (reGH-GS and rcsGH-GS) or polymer matrix (reGH-HP55) to protect the hormone from proteolytic cleavage in the stomach. The diets containing reGH-GS, rcsGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and free-reGH or uncoated-rcsGH were administered to red sea bream. Feeding of reGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and rcsGH-GS diets resulted in significant increases in body weight and fork length over those of controls. These results strongly suggest that gelatin and sodium alginate as well as polymer matrix protected the hormone from proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract to allow the bioactive hormone to enter the circulation and eventually stimulate fish growth.

  10. GROWTH PROMOTION OF RED SEA BREAM, PAGROSOMUS MAJOR, BY ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF RECOMBINANT EEL AND SALMON GROWTH HORMONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐迎利; 苗宏志; 刘振辉; 邓勇; 兰山; 王尧; 张培军; 徐斌; 麦康森

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant eel GH and yeast containing chinook salmon growth hormone (reGHand rcsGH) were incorporated into gelatin and sodium alginate (reGH-GS and rcsGH-GS) or polymer ma-trix (reGH-HP55) to protect the hormone from proteolytic cleavage in the stomach. The diets containin greGH-GS, rcsGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and free-reGH or uncoated-rcsGH were administered to red sea bream. Feeding of reGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and rcsGH-GS diets resulted in significant increases in body weight and fork length over those of controls. These results strongly suggest that gelatin and sodium algi-nate as well as polymer matrix protected the hormone from proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract to allow the bioactive hormone to enter the circulation and eventually stimulato fish growth.

  11. Characterization and endocrine regulation of proliferation and differentiation of primary cultured preadipocytes from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, C; Acerete, L; Gutiérrez, J; Navarro, I; Capilla, E

    2013-07-01

    A preadipocyte primary cell culture was established to gain knowledge about adipose tissue development in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), one of the most extensively produced marine aquaculture species in the Mediterranean. The preadipocytes obtained from the stromal-vascular cell fraction of adipose tissue proliferated in culture, reaching confluence around day 8. At that time, the addition of an adipogenic medium promoted differentiation of the cells into mature adipocytes, which showed an enlarged cytoplasm filled with lipid droplets. First, cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed under control and adipogenic conditions during culture development. Next, the effects of insulin, GH, and IGF-I on cell proliferation were evaluated at day 8. All peptides significantly stimulated proliferation of the cells after 48 h of incubation (P differentiation when added to growth medium were studied at day 11, after 3 d of induction with adipogenic medium. The results showed that IGF-I is more potent than insulin enhancing differentiation (P product in aquaculture.

  12. Identification of a myeloperoxidase-like ortholog from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), deciphering its transcriptional responses to induced pathogen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Whang, Ilson; Nam, Bo-Hye; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2015-08-01

    Myeloperoxidases (MPOs) are heme-linked oxidative stress-generating enzymes found abundantly in azurophilic granules of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Mature MPOs act as potent antimicrobial agents by producing hypohalous acids using hydrogen peroxide and halide ions as substrates. These acids can readily oxidize reactive groups of biomolecules on invading microbes. In this study, we identified and characterized a homolog of MPO from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), designated as RbMPO. We analyzed the RbMPO gene for its basal expression level in physiologically important tissues and for transcriptional changes under different pathogenic stress conditions. The complete coding sequence of RbMPO consisted of 2652 nucleotides encoding an 884 amino acid sequence with a predicted molecular mass of 99.7 kDa. Our in silico analysis confirmed the typical MPO domain arrangement in RbMPO, including the propeptide, large chain and heavy chain, along with the heme peroxidase signature. Intriguingly, a C1q domain was also identified in the C-terminal region of the derived amino acid sequence. Most of the known functionally important residues of MPOs are found to be well conserved in RbMPO, showing a close evolutionary relationship with other teleostan MPOs, particularly with that of mandarin fish. RbMPO exhibited a ubiquitous basal expression in physiologically relevant tissues, with particularly high expression levels in blood cells. Basal transcript levels of RbMPO in gill and spleen tissues were found to change upon different pathogen or pathogen-derived mitogen stimulation, with detectable inductive responses. Together, these data suggest the potential involvement of RbMPO in the innate immune response in rock bream.

  13. Potential use of high levels of vegetal proteins in diets for market-sized gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Ortiz, Raquel; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; Márquez, Lorenzo; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Jover-Cerdá, Miguel; Tomás-Vidal, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The effect of partial or total dietary substitution of fishmeal (FM) by vegetal protein sources on growth and feed efficiency was carried out in on-growing gilthead sea bream (mean initial weight 131 g). The Control diet (FM 100) contained FM as the primary protein source, while in Diets FM 25 and FM 0 the FM protein was replaced at 75% and 100%, respectively, by a vegetable protein mixture consisting of wheat gluten, soybean meal, rapeseed meal and crystalline amino acids. Diets FM 25 and FM 0 also contained krill meal at 47 g/kg in order to improve palatability. At the end of the trial (after 158 d), fish survival was above 90%. Final weight and the specific growth rate were statistically lower in fish fed the Control diet (361 g and 0.64%/d), compared with 390-396 g and 0.69-0.70%/d after feeding vegetal diets. No significant differences were found regarding feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The digestibility of protein and amino acids (determined with chromium oxide as indicator) was similar in all diets. The blood parameters were not significantly affected by treatments. The activity of trypsin and pepsin was significantly reduced after feeding Diet FM 0. In the distal intestine, the villi length in fish fed Diet FM 25 was significantly longer and the intestine of the fish fed the FM 100 diet showed a smaller number of goblet cells. In conclusion, a total FM substitution by a vegetal mix supplemented with synthetic amino acids in on-growing sea bream is feasible.

  14. Preliminary Investigation on the Use of Allyi Isothiocyanate to Increase the Shelf-Life of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus Aurata) Fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Crinò, Chiara; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against fish spoilage bacteria (specific spoilage organisms; SSOs) as well as its possible use in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets to extend their shelf-life. In this regard, in vitro tests are carried out in order to evaluate the inhibitory activity of AITC and its vapours on several strains of SSOs. The AITC effect on the shelf-life of sea bream fillets was made by putting them in plastic trays hermetically closed with the addition AITC. Microbiological and sensorial evaluations were made on fish fillets during storage. Treated fillets maintained microbial populations at a significantly lower level compared with the control samples during storage, showing better sensorial characteristics. Therefore, the use of AITC's vapours seems to be a new and interesting alternative way to increase fish product shelf-life.

  15. Chlorinated hydrocarbons- (CHC) and PCDD/F-levels in sediments and breams (Abramis brama) from the river Elbe (contribution to the German Environmental Specimen Banking)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxynos, K. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Institut fuer Oekologische Chemie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Schramm, K.W. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Institut fuer Oekologische Chemie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Marth, P. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Institut fuer Oekologische Chemie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Schmitzer, J. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Institut fuer Oekologische Chemie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Kettrup, A. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Institut fuer Oekologische Chemie, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons have been determined in sediments and breams (Abramis brama) from different locations along the river Elbe, starting from the border to the Czech Republic down-stream up to Cumlosen (river km 470), near the frontier of the former German Democratic Republic. High levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) have been found in sediments. HCB, DDT-metabolites and octachlorostyrene (OCS) have been the most dominant compounds in bream, especially fish from eastern sampling sites have been heavily contaminated. Furthermore, sediments from 1991-1993 have been analysed to determine polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F). The CHC-burden of the river Elbe declines downstream, whereas the PCDD/F-content increases in that direction. (orig.)

  16. ANTILISTERIAL ACTYVITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM GILTHEAD BREAMS AND SEA BASSES FILLETS PACKAGED MAP AGAINST PRIMITIVE STRAINS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    OpenAIRE

    M. Barile; A. Mormile; R Mercogliano; N. Murru

    2011-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis typically caused by ready-to-eat processed food that have a refrigerated shelf-life, but lightly preserved fish products also belong to a high-risk category. Aim of the work was to evaluate antimicrobial activity linked bacteriocin-producing of LAB isolated from gilthead breams and sea basses fillets packaged in modified atmospheres. Fifty-five LAB strains were screened against 21 strains of Listeria monocytogenes, 1 Listeria innocu...

  17. First molecular cloning and gene expression analysis of teleost CD42 (glycoprotein Ib beta chain) GPIb-IX-V subunit from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji-Min; Kim, Ju-Won; Kim, Do-Hyung; Park, Chan-Il

    2015-04-01

    CD42 is a platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib that plays a key role in haemostasis and thrombin-induced platelet activation. Here, we report the molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the CD42c gene from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). Rock bream CD42 (RbCD42c) gene expression profiles were determined after infection with Streptococcus iniae, Edwardsiella tarda and red seabream iridovirus (RSIV). The full-length RbCD42c cDNA contained an open reading frame of 624 bp encoding 207 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequences of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-N terminal and LRR-C terminal were conserved between fish and mammals. RbCD42c was highly expressed in red blood cells, spleen, gill, liver and kidney of healthy rock bream. The RbCD42c gene was not significantly up- or downregulated after E. tarda exposure. However, RbCD42c gene expression was upregulated in kidney, spleen and gill after S. iniae infection. RbCD42c was upregulated in spleen, liver and gill, but downregulated in kidney 24 and 48 h after RSIV infection. These results suggest that RbCD42c has different expression patterns after infection with bacterial or viral pathogens. This gene may be directly involved in haemostasis.

  18. Activity of R(+) limonene on the maximum growth rate of fish spoilage organisms and related effects on shelf-life prolongation of fresh gilthead sea bream fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2016-11-21

    R(+)limonene (LMN) is the major aromatic compound in essential oils obtained from oranges, grapefruits, and lemons. The improvement of preservation techniques to reduce the growth and activity of spoilage microorganisms in foods is crucial to increase their shelf life and to reduce the losses due to spoilage. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of LMN on the shelf life of fish fillets. Its effectiveness was preliminarily investigated in vitro against 60 strains of Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs) and then on gilt-head sea bream fillets stored at 2±0.5°C for 15days under vacuum. LMN showed a good inhibitory effect against tested SSOs strains. On gilt-head sea bream fillets, LMN inhibited the growth SSOs effectively, and its use resulted in a shelf-life extension of ca. 6-9days of treated fillets, compared to the control samples. The LMN addition in Sparus aurata fillets giving a distinctive smell and like-lemon taste to fish fillets that resulted pleasant to panellists. Its use contributed to a considerable reduction of fish spoilage given that the fillets treated with LMN were still sensory acceptable after 15days of storage. LMN may be used as an effective antimicrobial system to reduce the microbial growth and to improve the shelf life of fresh gilt-head sea bream fillets.

  19. Dietary glutamine supplementation effects on amino acid metabolism, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity and antioxidant response of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, F; Castro, C; Rufino-Palomares, E; Ordóñez-Grande, B; Gallardo, M A; Oliva-Teles, A; Peres, H

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate dietary glutamine supplementation effects on gilthead sea bream performance, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity, hepatic and intestinal glutamine metabolism and oxidative status. For that purpose gilthead sea bream juveniles (mean weight 13.0g) were fed four isolipidic (18% lipid) and isonitrogenous (43% protein) diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% glutamine for 6weeks. Fish performance, body composition and intestinal nutrient absorption capacity were not affected by dietary glutamine levels. Hepatic and intestinal glutaminase (GlNase), glutamine synthetase (GSase), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were also unaffected by dietary glutamine supplementation. In the intestine GlNase activity was higher and GSase/GlNase ratio was two-fold lower than in the liver, suggesting a higher use of glutamine for energy production by the intestine than by the liver. The liver showed higher catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, while the intestine presented higher glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and oxidised glutathione content, which seems to reveal a higher glutathione dependency of the intestinal antioxidant response. Total and reduced glutathione contents in liver and intestine and superoxide dismutase activity in the intestine were enhanced by dietary glutamine, though lipid peroxidation values were not affected. Overall, differences between liver and intestine glutamine metabolism and antioxidant response were identified and the potential of dietary glutamine supplementation to gilthead sea bream's antioxidant response was elucidated.

  20. PTHrP regulates water absorption and aquaporin expression in the intestine of the marine sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edison S M; Gregório, Sílvia F; Canário, Adelino V M; Power, Deborah M; Fuentes, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Water ingestion by drinking is fundamental for ion homeostasis in marine fish. However, the fluid ingested requires processing to allow net water absorption in the intestine. The formation of luminal carbonate aggregates impacts on calcium homeostasis and requires epithelial HCO3(-) secretion to enable water absorption. In light of its endocrine importance in calcium handling and the indication of involvement in HCO3(-) secretion the present study was designed to expose the role of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in HCO3(-) secretion, water absorption and the regulation of aqp1 gene expression in the anterior intestine of the sea bream. HCO3(-) secretion rapidly decreased when PTHrP(1-34) was added to anterior intestine of the sea bream mounted in Ussing chambers. The effect achieved a maximum inhibition of 60% of basal secretion rates, showing a threshold effective dose of 0.1 ng ml(-1) compatible with reported plasma values of PTHrP. When applied in combination with the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (SQ 22.536, 100 μmol l(-1)) or the phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 10 μmol l(-1)) the effect of PTHrP(1-34) on HCO3(-) secretion was reduced by about 50% in both cases. In parallel, bulk water absorption measured in intestinal sacs was sensitive to inhibition by PTHrP. The inhibitory action conforms to a typical dose-response curve in the range of 0.1-1000 ng ml(-1), achieves a maximal effect of 60-65% inhibition from basal rates and shows threshold significant effects at hormone levels of 0.1 ng ml(-1). The action of PTHrP in water absorption was completely abolished in the presence of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (SQ 22.536, 100 μmol l(-1)) and was insensitive to the phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 10 μmol l(-1)). In vivo injections of PTHrP(1-34) or the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) evoked respectively, a significant decrease or increase of aqp1ab, but not aqp1a. Overall the present results suggest that PTHrP acts as a key

  1. Skin Mucus of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.). Protein Mapping and Regulation in Chronically Stressed Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Terova, Genciana; Simó-Mirabet, Paula; Rimoldi, Simona; Folkedal, Ole; Calduch-Giner, Josep A.; Olsen, Rolf E.; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna

    2017-01-01

    The skin mucus of gilthead sea bream was mapped by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry using a quadrupole time-of-flight mass analyzer. More than 2,000 proteins were identified with a protein score filter of 30. The identified proteins were represented in 418 canonical pathways of the Ingenuity Pathway software. After filtering by canonical pathway overlapping, the retained proteins were clustered in three groups. The mitochondrial cluster contained 59 proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction. The second cluster contained 79 proteins related to antigen presentation and protein ubiquitination pathways. The third cluster contained 257 proteins where proteins related to protein synthesis, cellular assembly, and epithelial integrity were over-represented. The latter group also included acute phase response signaling. In parallel, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis methodology identified six proteins spots of different protein abundance when comparing unstressed fish with chronically stressed fish in an experimental model that mimicked daily farming activities. The major changes were associated with a higher abundance of cytokeratin 8 in the skin mucus proteome of stressed fish, which was confirmed by immunoblotting. Thus, the increased abundance of markers of skin epithelial turnover results in a promising indicator of chronic stress in fish. PMID:28210224

  2. Cholecystokinin in white sea bream: molecular cloning, regional expression, and immunohistochemical localization in the gut after feeding and fasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Micale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The peptide hormone cholecystokinin (CCK, secreted by the midgut, plays a key role in digestive physiology of vertebrates including teleosts, by stimulating pancreatic secretion, gut motility, and gallbladder contraction, as well as by delaying gastric emptying. Moreover, CCK is involved in the regulation of food intake and satiation. Secretion of CCK by the hindgut is controversial, and its biological activity remains to be elucidated. The present paper addresses the regional distribution of intestinal CCK in the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus, as well as the possible involvement of hindgut CCK in digestive processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Full-lengths mRNAs encoding two CCK isoforms (CCK-1 and CCK-2 were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. CCK gene and protein expression levels in the different gut segments were measured 3 h and 72 h after feeding, by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Moreover, endocrine CCK cells were immunoistochemically detected. Fasting induced a significant decrease in CCK-2 in all intestinal segments, including the hindgut. On the other hand, no significant difference was induced by fasting on hindgut CCK-1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrated two CCK isoforms in the hindgut of D.sargus, one of which (CCK-2 may be involved in the feedback control of uncompleted digestive processes. On the other hand, a functional role alternative to regulation of digestive processes may be inferred for D.sargus CCK-1, since its expression was unaffected by feeding or fasting.

  3. Skin mucus proteome of gilthead sea bream: A non-invasive method to screen for welfare indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanahuja, Ignasi; Ibarz, Antoni

    2015-10-01

    In teleosts, the skin mucus is the first physical barrier against physical and chemical attacks. It contains components related to metabolism, environmental influences and nutritional status. Here, we study mucus and composition based on a proteome map of soluble epidermal mucus proteins obtained by 2D-electrophoresis in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. Over 1300 spots were recorded and the 100 most abundant were further analysed by LC-MS/MS and identified by database retrieval; we also established the related specific biological processes by Gene Ontology enrichment. Sixty-two different proteins were identified and classified in 12 GO-groups and into three main functions: structural, metabolic and protection-related. Several of the proteins can be used as targets to determine fish physiological status: actins and keratins, and especially their catabolic products, in the structural functional group; glycolytic enzymes and ubiquitin/proteasome-related proteins in the metabolic functional group; and heat shock proteins, transferrin and hemopexins, in the protection-related group. This study analyses fish mucus, a potential non-invasive tool for characterising fish status, beyond defence capacities, and we postulate some putative candidates for future studies along similar lines.

  4. Significant population genetic structure detected in the rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844) inferred from fluorescent-AFLP analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongshuang; Ma, Daoyuan; Xu, Shihong; Liu, Qinghua; Wang, Yanfeng; Xiao, Zhizhong; Li, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Oplegnathus fasciatus (rock bream) is a commercial rocky reef fish species in East Asia that has been considered for aquaculture. We estimated the population genetic diversity and population structure of the species along the coastal waters of China using fluorescent-amplified fragment length polymorphisms technology. Using 53 individuals from three populations and four pairs of selective primers, we amplified 1 264 bands, 98.73% of which were polymorphic. The Zhoushan population showed the highest Nei's genetic diversity and Shannon genetic diversity. The results of analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 59.55% of genetic variation existed among populations and 40.45% occurred within populations, which indicated that a significant population genetic structure existed in the species. The pairwise fixation index F st ranged from 0.20 to 0.63 and were significant after sequential Bonferroni correction. The topology of an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean tree showed two significant genealogical branches corresponding to the sampling locations of North and South China. The AMOVA and STRUCTURE analyses suggested that the O. fasciatus populations examined should comprise two stocks.

  5. Characterization of the cellular damage induced by Aflatoxin B1 in sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Crescenzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. is one of the most intensively farmed fish spe- cies in the Mediterranean, greatly studied for the relevant economic value, although its sensitivity to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 has to be investigated, yet. The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro evalua- tion of cytotoxic potential of AFB1 on S. aurata hepatocytes in order to grade the range of AFB1 toxicity, and the boundary between acute and long-term toxicity. Primary monolayer cultures of hepatocytes from S. aurata juveniles were treated with a wide range of concentrations from 5x103 ng/ml to 2x10 2x10-5 ng/ml of AFB1 for a different period of exposure (24, 48, 72 hours. The cytotoxic activity was characterized by MTT reduction assay. After each exposition hepatocytes were examined for morphologic alterations and apoptosis induction. AFB1 exposure significantly reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-depend- ent manner. Dose-response curves obtained after 24, 48 and 72 hrs revealed that prolonged exposure times lead to a significant increase of the toxicpotencyofAFB toxic potency of AFB AFB1. Ourresultsdemonstratethat Our results demonstrate that S. aurata hepatocytes are highly sensitive to AFB1 exposure. Such scientific findings could provide new insights to investigate the real impact of aflatoxin on marine farmed fish.

  6. Modulation of leukocytic populations of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) by the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa: Myxosporea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estensoro, Itziar; Mulero, Iván; Redondo, María J; Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar; Mulero, Victoriano; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna

    2014-03-01

    SUMMARY The cellular mucosal and systemic effectors of gilthead sea bream (GSB) (Sparus aurata) involved in the acute immune response to the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei were studied in fish experimentally infected by the anal route. In the intestinal inflammatory infiltrates and in lymphohaematopoietic organs (head kidney and spleen) of parasitized fish, the number of plasma cells, B cells (IgM immunoreactive) and mast cells (histamine immunoreactive) were significantly higher, whereas the number of acidophilic granulocytes (G7 immunoreactive) decreased, compared with non-parasitized and unexposed fish. These differences were stronger at the posterior intestine, the main target of the parasite, and no differences were found in the thymus. In non-parasitized GSB, the percentage of splenic surface occupied by melanomacrophage centres was significantly higher. These results suggest that the cellular response of GSB to E. leei includes proliferation of leukocytes in lymphohaematopoietic organs and recruitment into intestines via blood circulation involving elements of innate and adaptive immunity. Acidophilic granulocytes and mast cells presented opposite patterns of response to the parasite infection, with an overall depletion of the former and an increased amount of the latter. Some differences between both cell types were also detected in regard to their granule density and cell morphology.

  7. Suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) and macroarray techniques reveal differential gene expression profiles in brain of sea bream infected with nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dios, S; Poisa-Beiro, L; Figueras, A; Novoa, B

    2007-03-01

    Despite of the impact that viruses have on aquatic organisms, relatively little is known on how fish fight against these infections. In this work, the brain gene expression pattern of sea bream (Sparus aurata) in response to nodavirus infection was investigated. We used the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method to generate a subtracted cDNA library enriched with gene transcripts differentially expressed after 1 day post-infection. Some of the ESTs from the infected tissues fell in gene categories related to stress and immune responses. For the reverse library (ESTs expressed in controls compared with infected tissues) the most abundant transcripts were of ribosomal and mitochondrial nature. Several ESTs potentially induced by virus exposure were selected for in vivo expression studies. We observed a clear difference in expression between infected and control samples for two candidate genes, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 7 interacting protein, which seems to play an important role in apoptosis and the interferon induced protein with helicase C domain 1 (mda-5) that contributes to apoptosis and regulates the type I IFN production, a key molecule of the antiviral innate response in most organisms.

  8. Skin Mucus of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.). Protein Mapping and Regulation in Chronically Stressed Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Terova, Genciana; Simó-Mirabet, Paula; Rimoldi, Simona; Folkedal, Ole; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Olsen, Rolf E; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna

    2017-01-01

    The skin mucus of gilthead sea bream was mapped by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry using a quadrupole time-of-flight mass analyzer. More than 2,000 proteins were identified with a protein score filter of 30. The identified proteins were represented in 418 canonical pathways of the Ingenuity Pathway software. After filtering by canonical pathway overlapping, the retained proteins were clustered in three groups. The mitochondrial cluster contained 59 proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction. The second cluster contained 79 proteins related to antigen presentation and protein ubiquitination pathways. The third cluster contained 257 proteins where proteins related to protein synthesis, cellular assembly, and epithelial integrity were over-represented. The latter group also included acute phase response signaling. In parallel, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis methodology identified six proteins spots of different protein abundance when comparing unstressed fish with chronically stressed fish in an experimental model that mimicked daily farming activities. The major changes were associated with a higher abundance of cytokeratin 8 in the skin mucus proteome of stressed fish, which was confirmed by immunoblotting. Thus, the increased abundance of markers of skin epithelial turnover results in a promising indicator of chronic stress in fish.

  9. Untargeted metabolomics approach for unraveling robust biomarkers of nutritional status in fasted gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Gil-Solsona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A metabolomic study has been performed to identify sensitive and robust biomarkers of malnutrition in farmed fish, using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata as a model. The metabolomic fingerprinting of serum from fasted fish was assessed by means of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. More than 15,000 different m/z ions were detected and Partial Least Squares–Discriminant analysis allowed a clear differentiation between the two experimental groups (fed and 10-day fasted fish with more than 90% of total variance explained by the two first components. The most significant metabolites (up to 45 were elucidated on the basis of their tandem mass spectra with a broad representation of amino acids, oligopeptides, urea cycle metabolites, L-carnitine-related metabolites, glutathione-related metabolites, fatty acids, lysophosphatidic acids, phosphatidylcholines as well as biotin- and noradrenaline-related metabolites. This untargeted approach highlighted important adaptive responses in energy and oxidative metabolism, contributing to identify robust and nutritionally-regulated biomarkers of health and metabolic condition that will serve to assess the welfare status of farmed fish.

  10. Water absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine of the sea bream are regulated by transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclase stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edison S M; Gregório, Sílvia F; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M; Fuentes, Juan

    2012-12-01

    In the marine fish intestine luminal, HCO₃⁻ can remove divalent ions (calcium and magnesium) by precipitation in the form of carbonate aggregates. The process of epithelial HCO₃⁻ secretion is under endocrine control, therefore, in this study we aimed to characterize the involvement of transmembrane (tmACs) and soluble (sACs) adenylyl cyclases on the regulation of bicarbonate secretion (BCS) and water absorption in the intestine of the sea bream (Sparus aurata). We observed that all sections of sea bream intestine are able to secrete bicarbonate as measured by pH-Stat in Ussing chambers. In addition, gut sac preparations reveal net water absorption in all segments of the intestine, with significantly higher absorption rates in the anterior intestine that in the rectum. BCS and water absorption are positively correlated in all regions of the sea bream intestinal tract. Furthermore, stimulation of tmACs (10 μM FK + 500 μM IBMX) causes a significant decrease in BCS, bulk water absorption and short circuit current (Isc) in a region dependent manner. In turn, stimulation of sACs with elevated HCO₃⁻ results in a significant increase in BCS, and bulk water absorption in the anterior intestine, an action completely reversed by the sAC inhibitor KH7 (200 μM). Overall, the results reveal a functional relationship between BCS and water absorption in marine fish intestine and modulation by tmACs and sAC. In light of the present observations, it is hypothesized that the endocrine effects on intestinal BCS and water absorption mediated by tmACs are locally and reciprocally modulated by the action of sACs in the fish enterocyte, thus fine-tuning the process of carbonate aggregate production in the intestinal lumen.

  11. Characterisation and expression of calpain family members in relation to nutritional status, diet composition and flesh texture in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salmerón

    Full Text Available Calpains are non-lysosomal calcium-activated neutral proteases involved in a wide range of cellular processes including muscle proteolysis linked to post-mortem flesh softening. The aims of this study were (a to characterise several members of the calpain system in gilthead sea bream and (b to examine their expression in relation to nutritional status and muscle tenderisation. We identified the complete open reading frame of gilthead sea bream calpains1-3, sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapn3, and two paralogs of the calpain small subunit1, sacapns1a and sacapns1b. Proteins showed 63-90% sequence identity compared with sequences from mammals and other teleost fishes, and the characteristic domain structure of vertebrate calpains. Transcripts of sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapns1a and sacapns1b had a wide tissue distribution, whereas sacapn3 was almost exclusively detected in skeletal muscle. Next, we assessed transcript expression in skeletal muscle following alteration of nutritional status by (a fasting and re-feeding or (b feeding four experimental diets with different carbohydrate-to-protein ratios. Fasting significantly reduced plasma glucose and increased free fatty acids and triglycerides, together with a significant increase in sacapns1b expression. Following 7 days of re-feeding, plasma parameters returned to fed values and sacapn1, sacapn2, sacapns1a and sacapns1b expression was significantly reduced. Furthermore, an increase in dietary carbohydrate content (11 to 39% diminished growth but increased muscle texture, which showed a significant correlation with decreased sacapn1 and sacapns1a expression, whilst the other calpains remained unaffected. This study has demonstrated that calpain expression is modulated by nutritional status and diet composition in gilthead sea bream, and that the expression of several calpain members is correlated with muscle texture, indicating their potential use as molecular markers for flesh quality in aquaculture production.

  12. PRL and GH synthesis and release from the sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) pituitary gland in vitro in response to osmotic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Juan; Brinca, Lilia; Guerreiro, Pedro M; Power, Deborah M

    2010-08-01

    The endocrine factors prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) are believed to have counteracting effects in the adaption of fish to changes in environmental salinity. In order to further investigate this interaction sea bream were challenged with full seawater (SW) or freshwater (FW) for 7 days and the response of pituitary glands cultured in vitro to an osmotic challenge (230, 275 and 320 mOsm/kg) was assessed. In vitro PRL secretion from pituitaries of SW-adapted fish was unaltered in response to an osmotic challenge, while GH secretion increased in the lowest osmolality (230 mOsm/kg). In contrast, both GH and PRL secretion by pituitaries from FW challenged fish was significantly increased (pPRL content and de novo synthesised and released PRL were significantly increased (pPRL secretion was not different from SW animals. GH pituitary content decreased in FW animals while total secretion and secretion of de novo synthesised protein were significantly increased (pPRL and GH increased 3- and 2-fold, respectively. Despite the increase in PRL expression, no increase in total PRL secretion occurred and although in gills a 2-fold increase in the osmoregulatory marker, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was detected, profound haemodilution and a cumulative mortality of 40% occurred in sea bream placed in FW. Taken together the results suggest that the sea bream pituitary gland fails to respond appropriately to the osmotic challenge caused by low salinity and the physiological response evoked in vivo is not enough to allow this species to withstand and adapt to FW.

  13. Dietary Lipid and Carbohydrate Interactions: Implications on Lipid and Glucose Absorption, Transport in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Basto, Ana; Larroquet, Laurence; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-06-01

    A digestibility trial was performed with gilthead sea bream juveniles (IBW = 72 g) fed four diets differing in lipid source (fish oil, FO; or a blend of vegetable oil, VO) and starch content (0 %, CH-; or 20 %, CH+) to evaluate the potential interactive effects between carbohydrates and VO on the processes involved in digestion, absorption and transport of lipids and glucose. In fish fed VO diets a decrease in lipid digestibility and in cholesterol (C), High Density Lipoprotein(HDL)-C and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-C (only in CH+ group) were recorded. Contrarily, dietary starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia and time related alterations on serum triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipid (PL) and C concentrations. Fish fed a CH+ diet presented lower serum TAG than CH- group at 6 h post-feeding, and the reverse was observed at 12 h post-feeding for TAG and PL. Lower serum C and PL at 6 h post-feeding were recorded only in VOCH+ group. No differences between groups were observed in hepatic and intestinal transcript levels of proteins involved in lipid transport and hydrolysis (FABP, DGAT, GPAT, MTP, LPL, LCAT). Lower transcript levels of proteins related to lipid transport (ApoB, ApoA1, FABP2) were observed in the intestine of fish fed the CH+ diet, but remained unchanged in the liver. Overall, transcriptional mechanisms involved in lipid transport and absorption were not linked to changes in lipid serum and digestibility. Dietary starch affected lipid absorption and transport, probably due to a delay in lipid absorption. This study suggests that a combination of dietary VO and starch may negatively affect cholesterol absorption and transport.

  14. CYTOTOXICITY AND GENOTOXICITY OF POLYETHYLENIMINE AND NICKEL CHLORIDE IN RED SEA BREAM (Pagrosomus major) FIN CELL LINE RSBF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华荣; 张士璀

    2002-01-01

    A continuous marine fish cell line RSBF (i.e. Red Sea Bream Fin) w as utilized to screen the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of polyethylenimine (PEI) and nickel chloride (NiCl2) in this study on the deleterious effects of aquatic genotoxins on fish. At the 0.01 to 1 μg/ml concentration tested, PEI had acute toxicity to the treated RSBF cells (IC50 =1.12, 0.92, 0.88 and 0.64 μg/ml PEI for time 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after treatment, respectively ) and markedly inhibited their proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. At the 0.001 to 5 μ mol/L concentration tested, NiCl2 posed no acute toxicity but significantly stimulated their growt h (107%-214% of control). Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to detect the genotoxic effects of PEI and NiCl2 by comparing the RAPD banding patterns of t he control and treated cells. RAPD analysis indicated that at the concentrations tested, PEI w as more genotoxic than NiCl2 to RSBF cells; that there was a slight dose-dep endent response in the genotoxic effect of PEI but not NiCl2; and that RAPD technique might provide a sensitive, non -specific genotoxic endpoint. And the potent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of PEI on fish cells sho wed that we should be cautious in utilizing it as gene vector in fish gene transfer and human gene therapy.

  15. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of polyethylenimine and nickel chloride in red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major) fin cell line RSBF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua-Rong; Zhang, Shi-Cui

    2002-12-01

    A continuous marine fish cell line RSBF (i. c. Red Sea Bream Fin) was utilized to screen the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of polyethylenimine (PEI) and nickel chloride (NiCl2) in this study on the deleterious effects of aquatic genotoxins on fish. At the 0.01 to 1 μg/ml concentration tested, PEI had acute toxicity to the treated RSBF cells (IC50=1.12, 0.92, 0.88 and 0.64 μg/ml PEI for time 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after treatment, respectively) and markedly inhibited their proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. At the 0.001 to 5 μmol/L concentration tested, NiCl2 posed no acute toxicity but significantly stimulated their growth (107% 214% of control). Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to detect the genotoxic effects of PEI and NiCl2 by comparing the RAPD banding patterns of the control and treated cells. RAPD analysis indicated that at the concentrations tested, PEI was more genotoxic than NiCl2 to RSBF cells; that there was a slight dose-dependent response in the genotoxic effect of PEI but not NiCl2; and that RAPD technique might provide a sensitive, non-specific genotoxic endpoint. And the potent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of PEI on fish cells showed that we should be cautious in utilizing it as gene, vector in fish gene transfer and human gene therapy.

  16. Identification of Vibrio harveyi as a causative bacterium for a tail rot disease of sea bream Sparus aurata from research hatchery in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, S; Maharajan, A; Chatterjee, S; Hunter, S A; Chowdhury, N; Hinenoya, A; Asakura, M; Yamasaki, S

    2010-10-20

    A bacterial disease was reported from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) within a hatchery environment in Malta. Symptoms included complete erosion of tail, infection in the eye, mucous secretion and frequent mortality. A total of 540 strains were initially isolated in marine agar from different infected body parts and culture water sources. Subsequently 100 isolates were randomly selected, identified biochemically and all were found to be Vibrio harveyi-related organisms; finally from 100 isolates a total of 13 numbers were randomly selected and accurately identified as V. harveyi by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCR. Ribotyping of these strains with HindIII revealed total of six clusters. In vivo challenge study with representative isolates from each cluster proved two clusters each were highly pathogenic, moderately pathogenic and non-pathogenic. All 13 isolates were positive for hemolysin gene, a potential virulence factor. Further analysis revealed probably a single copy of this gene was encoded in all isolates, although not in the same locus in the genome. Although V. harveyi was reported to be an important pathogen for many aquatic organisms, to our knowledge this might be the first report of disease caused by V. harveyi and their systematic study in the sea bream hatchery from Malta.

  17. Changes in adipocyte cell size, gene expression of lipid metabolism markers, and lipolytic responses induced by dietary fish oil replacement in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Garcia, Lourdes; Sánchez-Gurmaches, Joan; Bouraoui, Lamia; Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Navarro, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) substitution by 66% vegetable oils in a diet with already 75% vegetable protein (66VO) on adipose tissue lipid metabolism of gilthead sea bream were analysed after a 14-month feeding trial. In the last 3 months of the experiment, a FO diet was administrated to a 66VO group (group 66VO/FO) as a finishing diet. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity was measured in adipose tissue and adipocyte size, and HSL, lipoprotein lipase and liver X receptor gene expression in isolated adipocytes, on which lipolysis and glucose uptake experiments were also performed. Lipolysis was measured after incubation with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), linoleic acid, and two conjugated linoleic acid isomers. Glucose uptake was analysed after TNFα or insulin administration. Our results show that FO replacement increased lipolytic activity and adipocyte cell size. The higher proportion of large cells observed in the 66VO group could be involved in their observed lower response to fatty acid treatments and lower insulin sensitivity. The 66VO/FO group showed a moderate return to the FO conditions. Therefore, FO replacement can affect the morphology and metabolism of gilthead sea bream adipocytes which could potentially affect other organs such as the liver.

  18. Effect of seasonal variation in seawater dissolved mercury concentrations on mercury accumulation in the muscle of red sea bream (Pagrus major) held in Minamata Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Akito; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Kindaichi, Michiaki; Sonoda, Ikuko; Koyama, Jiro

    2013-09-01

    Japanese stingfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) and Bambooleaf wrasse (Pseudolabrus japonicas) are monitored annually for mercury pollution in Minamata Bay, Japan. The average total mercury concentration in the muscle of these two species in Minamata Bay was 0.36 mg kg(-1) wet weight and 0.20 kg(-1) wet weigh, respectively, between 2008 and 2010. This is higher than levels elsewhere in Japan (0.125 mg kg(-1) wet weight and 0.038 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively). The FDA (2001) and EPA (2004) suggested that a proportion of mercury accumulated in fish is derived from seawater. We reared young red sea bream (Pagrus major) over a 2-year period in Minamata Bay and Nagashima (control) to evaluate the uptake of mercury from seawater and dietary sources. Fish were fed a synthesized diet that did not contain mercury. There was no difference in mercury accumulation in the muscle of red sea bream between Minamata Bay and Nagashima. Thus, our results suggest that the majority of mercury accumulated in fish muscle is not from seawater.

  19. A proto-type galectin-2 from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Molecular, genomic, and expression analysis, and recognition of microbial pathogens by recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulasitha, William Shanthakumar; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Wan, Qiang; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kang, Tae-Wook; Lee, Jehee

    2017-01-25

    A β-galactoside binding lectin, designated as galectin-2, was identified and characterized from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (OfGal-2). The cDNA of OfGal-2 comprised of 692 bp with a coding sequence of 396 bp, encoding a putative polypeptide of 131 amino acids. Gene structure analysis of OfGal-2 revealed a four exon-three intron organization. A single carbohydrate-binding domain containing all seven important residues for carbohydrate binding was located in the third exon, which formed a carbohydrate-binding pocket. Homology screening and sequence analysis demonstrated that OfGal-2 is an evolutionarily conserved proto-type galectin. OfGal-2 transcripts were detected in several healthy fish tissues, with the highest level observed in the intestine, followed by the liver. The expression of OfGal-2 was elevated upon the injection of various mitogenic stimulants and pathogens in a time-dependent manner. Upregulated expression in the liver after tissue injury suggested its role as a damage-associated molecular pattern. Recombinant OfGal-2 protein had hemagglutinating potential and possessed affinity towards lactose and galactose. Moreover, the recombinant protein agglutinated and bound potential pathogenic bacteria and a ciliate. The results of this study indicate that the galectin-2 from rock bream has a potential role in immunity, particularly in the recognition of invading pathogens.

  20. Changes in intestinal morphology and microbiota caused by dietary administration of inulin and Bacillus subtilis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezuela, Rebeca; Fumanal, Milena; Tapia-Paniagua, Silvana Teresa; Meseguer, José; Moriñigo, Miguel Ángel; Esteban, Ma Ángeles

    2013-05-01

    Changes produced in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) intestinal morphology and microbiota caused by dietary administration of inulin and Bacillus subtilis have been studied. Gilthead sea bream specimens were fed diets containing 0 (control), inulin (10 g kg(-1)), B. subtilis (10(7) cfu g(-1)), or B. subtilis + inulin (10(7) cfu g(-1) + 10 g kg(-1)) for four weeks. Curiously, fish fed the experimental diets (inulin, B. subtilis, or B. subtilis + inulin) showed the same morphological alterations when studied by light and electron microscopy, while significant differences in the signs of intestinal damage were detected by the morphometric study. All of the observed alterations were present only in the gut mucosa, and intestinal morphometric study revealed no effect of inulin or B. subtilis on the intestinal absorptive area. Furthermore, experimental diets cause important alterations in the intestinal microbiota by significantly decreasing bacterial diversity, as demonstrated by the specific richness, Shannon, and range-weighted richness indices. The observed alterations demonstrate that fish fed experimental diets had different signs of gut oedema and inflammation that could compromise their body homeostasis, which is mainly maintained by the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study regarding the implications of the use of synbiotics (conjunction of probiotics and prebiotics) on fish gut morphology and microbiota.

  1. Evaluation of the fishery status for King Soldier Bream Argyrops spinifer in Pakistan using the software CEDA and ASPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Aamir Mahmood; Liu, Qun; Memon, Khadim Hussain; Baloch, Wazir Ali; Memon, Asfandyar; Baset, Abdul

    2015-07-01

    Catch and effort data were analyzed to estimate the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of King Soldier Bream, Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål, 1775, Family: Sparidae), and to evaluate the present status of the fish stocks exploited in Pakistani waters. The catch and effort data for the 25-years period 1985-2009 were analyzed using two computer software packages, CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) and ASPIC (a surplus production model incorporating covariates). The maximum catch of 3 458 t was observed in 1988 and the minimum catch of 1 324 t in 2005, while the average annual catch of A. spinifer over the 25 years was 2 500 t. The surplus production models of Fox, Schaefer, and Pella Tomlinson under three error assumptions of normal, log-normal and gamma are in the CEDA package and the two surplus models of Fox and logistic are in the ASPIC package. In CEDA, the MSY was estimated by applying the initial proportion (IP) of 0.8, because the starting catch was approximately 80% of the maximum catch. Except for gamma, because gamma showed maximization failures, the estimated results of MSY using CEDA with the Fox surplus production model and two error assumptions, were 1 692.08 t ( R 2=0.572) and 1 694.09 t ( R 2=0.606), respectively, and from the Schaefer and the Pella Tomlinson models with two error assumptions were 2 390.95 t ( R 2=0.563), and 2 380.06 t ( R 2=0.605), respectively. The MSY estimated by the Fox model was conservatively compared to the Schaefer and Pella Tomlinson models. The MSY values from Schaefer and Pella Tomlinson models were the same. The computed values of MSY using the ASPIC computer software program with the two surplus production models of Fox and logistic were 1 498 t ( R 2=0.917), and 2 488 t ( R 2=0.897) respectively. The estimated values of MSY using CEDA were about 1 700-2 400 t and the values from ASPIC were 1 500-2 500 t. The estimates output by the CEDA and the ASPIC packages indicate that the stock is overfished, and needs some

  2. Marine teleost ortholog of catalase from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): molecular perspectives from genomic organization to enzymatic behavior with respect to its potent antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Premachandra, H K A; Whang, Ilson; Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Kim, Eunmi; Lim, Bong-Soo; Jung, Hyung-Bok; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2013-10-01

    Catalases are well known antioxidant enzymes that can mainly dismutate hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen in order to prevent oxidative stress. The complete genomic DNA (gDNA) sequence of the catalase gene from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) was identified from our custom-constructed BAC genomic DNA library and designated as RbCat. RbCat consists of 13 exons, separated by 12 introns, within a 13,722-bp gDNA sequence. The complete cDNA sequence (3303 bp) of RbCat is comprised of a 1581-bp coding region, encoding a peptide of 527 amino acids (aa) in length, with a predicted molecular mass of 60 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.34. The anticipated promoter region of RbCat contains several transcription factor-binding sites, including sites that bind with immune- and antioxidant-responsive signaling molecules, suggesting its substantial transcriptional regulation. RbCat resembles the typical catalase family signature, i.e., it is composed of the catalase proximal active site motif along with a catalase proximal heme-ligand signature motif and shares great homology with its fish counterparts. According to multiple sequence alignment, functionally important amino acids present in RbCat were thoroughly conserved among its vertebrate counterparts. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RbCat evolved from a vertebrate origin, and further positioned it in the fish clade. Recombinant RbCat had noticeable peroxidase activity against its substrate, hydrogen peroxide, in a dose-dependent manner. However, it demonstrated substantial peroxidase activity within a broad range of temperatures and pH values. Constitutive RbCat mRNA expression of different magnitudes was detected in a tissue-specific manner, suggesting its diverse role in physiology with respect to the tissue type. Moreover, immune challenge experiments using Edwardsiella tarda and rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) as live pathogens and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid and lipopolysaccharide as mitogens

  3. Dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-09-01

    Our study explored the dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (AMP-0.1), 0.2% (AMP-0.2), 0.4% (AMP-0.4) and 0.8% (AMP-0.8) purified AMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The results indicated that dietary AMP supplements tended to improve growth performances. One of the best ones was found in diet group AMP-0.2, followed by diet groups AMP-0.1, AMP-0.4 and AMP-0.8. The Apparent digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein and lipid) also improved by AMP supplementation and the significantly highest dry matter digestibility was observed in diet group AMP-0.2. Fish fed diet groups AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 had significantly higher peroxidase and bactericidal activities than fish fed the control diet. Nitro-blue-tetrazolium (NBT) activity was found to be significantly (P AMP-0.4 and AMP-0.8. Total serum protein, lysozyme activity and agglutination antibody titer were also increased (P > 0.05) by dietary supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with AMP supplementation. Moreover, the fish fed AMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 showed the least oxidative stress condition. Finally it is concluded that, dietary AMP supplementation enhanced the growth, digestibility, immune response and stress resistance of red sea bream. The regression analysis revealed that a dietary AMP supplementation between 0.2 and 0.4% supported weight gain and lysozyme activity as a marker of immune functions for red sea bream, which is also inline with the most of the growth and health performance parameters of fish under present experimental conditions.

  4. Molecular aspects, genomic arrangement and immune responsive mRNA expression profiles of two CXC chemokine receptor homologs (CXCR1 and CXCR2) from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Wan, Qiang; Revathy, Kasthuri Saranya; Whang, Ilson; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Seokryel; Park, Myoung-Ae; Lee, Jehee

    2014-09-01

    The CXCR1 and CXCR2 are the prototypical receptors and are the only known receptors for mammalian ELR+ (Glu-Leu-Arg) CXC chemokines, including CXCL8 (interleukin 8). These receptors transduce the ELR+ chemokine signals and operate the downstream signaling pathways in inflammation and innate immunity. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of CXCR1 and CXCR2 genes from rock bream fish (OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2) at the molecular level. The cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of the OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2 were identified from a transcriptome library and a custom-constructed BAC library, respectively. Both OfCXCR genes consisted of two exons, separated by an intron. The 5'-flanking regions of OfCXCR genes possessed multiple putative transcription factor binding sites related to immune response. The coding sequences of OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2 encoded putative peptides of 355 and 360 amino acids (aa), respectively. The deduced aa sequences of OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2 comprised of a G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) family 1 profile with a GPCR signature and a DRY motif. In addition, seven conserved transmembrane regions were predicted in both OfCXCRs. While our multiple alignment study revealed the functionally significant conserved elements of the OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2, phylogeny analyses further confirmed their position in teleost sub clade, in which they manifested an evolutionary relatedness with other fish counterparts. Based on comparative analyses, teleost CXC chemokine receptors appear to be distinct from their non-fish orthologs in terms of evolution (both CXCR1 and CXCR2) and genomic organization (CXCR2). Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) detected the transcripts of OfCXCR1 and OfCXCR2 in eleven examined tissues, with higher levels in head kidney, kidney and spleen highlighting their crucial importance in immunity. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) with concanavalin A (Con A) resulted in modulation of OfCXCR2 transcription, but not

  5. A gene-based radiation hybrid map of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata refines and exploits conserved synteny with Tetraodon nigroviridis

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    Tsalavouta Matina

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative teleost studies are of great interest since they are important in aquaculture and in evolutionary issues. Comparing genomes of fully sequenced model fish species with those of farmed fish species through comparative mapping offers shortcuts for quantitative trait loci (QTL detections and for studying genome evolution through the identification of regions of conserved synteny in teleosts. Here a comparative mapping study is presented by radiation hybrid (RH mapping genes of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata, a non-model teleost fish of commercial and evolutionary interest, as it represents the worldwide distributed species-rich family of Sparidae. Results An additional 74 microsatellite markers and 428 gene-based markers appropriate for comparative mapping studies were mapped on the existing RH map of Sparus aurata. The anchoring of the RH map to the genetic linkage map resulted in 24 groups matching the karyotype of Sparus aurata. Homologous sequences to Tetraodon were identified for 301 of the gene-based markers positioned on the RH map of Sparus aurata. Comparison between Sparus aurata RH groups and Tetraodon chromosomes (karyotype of Tetraodon consists of 21 chromosomes in this study reveals an unambiguous one-to-one relationship suggesting that three Tetraodon chromosomes correspond to six Sparus aurata radiation hybrid groups. The exploitation of this conserved synteny relationship is furthermore demonstrated by in silico mapping of gilthead sea bream expressed sequence tags (EST that give a significant similarity hit to Tetraodon. Conclusion The addition of primarily gene-based markers increased substantially the density of the existing RH map and facilitated comparative analysis. The anchoring of this gene-based radiation hybrid map to the genome maps of model species broadened the pool of candidate genes that mainly control growth, disease resistance, sex determination and reversal, reproduction as well

  6. Comparison among Different Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata Farming Systems: Activity of Intestinal and Hepatic Enzymes and 13C-NMR Analysis of Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Zonno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate differences in general health and nutritional values of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, the effects of semi-intensive, land-based tanks and sea-cages intensive rearing systems were investigated, and results compared with captured wild fish. The physiological state was determined by measuring the activity of three different intestinal digestive enzymes: alkaline phosphatase (ALP, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP and maltase; and the activity of the hepatic ALP. Also, the hepatic content in protein, cholesterol, and lipid were assessed. 13C-NMR analysis for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the lipid fraction extracted from fish muscles for semiintensive and land based tanks intensive systems was performed. The lipid fraction composition showed small but significant differences in the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio, with the semi-intensive characterized by higher monounsaturated and lower saturated fatty acid content with respect to land based tanks intensive rearing system.

  7. Effects of cadmium, naphthalene, and DDVP on gut carbohydrases activity in bream (Abramis brama L. ) and Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus Peters)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovanova, I.L.; Chuiko, G.M.; Pavlov, D.F. (Institute of the Biology of Inland Waters, Borok (Russian Federation))

    1994-03-01

    Previous research has shown that sublethal concentrations of cadmium, naphthalene and dichlorvos (DDVP) decreased growth rates in bream and Mozambique tilapia. One of the factors known to affect fish growth is the activity of gut digestive enzymes such as of lipases, proteases, carbohydrases. We assumed that toxicant-induced inhibition of the digestive enzyme activity and, consequently, the impaired digestion of food may contribute to the reduction of growth in fish exposed to toxicants. However, the influence of toxicants on digestive enzyme activities is poorly studied. The contribution of toxicant-induced changes of digestive enzymes activity to growth rate retardation in exposed fish remains unknown. The goal of this study was to examine the influence of an organophosphorus insecticide DDVP, a polyaromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene, and a metal cadmium on fish gut carbohydrase (CH) activity. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Predicting Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata Freshness by a Novel Combined Technique of 3D Imaging and SW-NIR Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Ivorra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A technique that combines the spatial resolution of a 3D structured-light (SL imaging system with the spectral analysis of a hyperspectral short-wave near infrared system was developed for freshness predictions of gilthead sea bream on the first storage days (Days 0–6. This novel approach allows the hyperspectral analysis of very specific fish areas, which provides more information for freshness estimations. The SL system obtains a 3D reconstruction of fish, and an automatic method locates gilthead’s pupils and irises. Once these regions are positioned, the hyperspectral camera acquires spectral information and a multivariate statistical study is done. The best region is the pupil with an R2 of 0.92 and an RMSE of 0.651 for predictions. We conclude that the combination of 3D technology with the hyperspectral analysis offers plenty of potential and is a very promising technique to non destructively predict gilthead freshness.

  9. Expression Analysis of Lily Type Lectin Isotypes in the Rock Bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus: in the Tissue, Developmental Stage and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Mee; Yang, In Jung; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Noh, Gyeong Eon; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Kil

    2016-12-01

    Lectins belong to the pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) class and play important roles in the recognition and elimination of pathogens via the innate immune system. Recently, it was reported that lily-type lectin-1 is involved when a pathogen attacks in the early immune response of fish. However, this study is limited to information that the lectin is involved in the innate immune response against viral infection. In the present study, the lily-type lectin-2 and -3 of Oplegnathus fasciatus (OfLTL-2 and 3) have been presented to be included B-lectin domain and two D-mannose binding sites in the amino acid sequence that an important feature for the fundamental structure. To investigate the functional properties of OfLTLs, the tissue distribution in the healthy rock bream and temporal expression during early developmental stage analysis are performed using quantitative real-time PCR. OfLTL-2 and 3 are predominantly expressed in the liver and skin, but rarely expressed in other organ. Also, the transcripts of OfLTLs are not expressed during the early developmental stage but its transcripts are increased after immune-related organs which are fully formed. In the challenge experiment with RBIV (rock bream iridovirus), the expression of OfLTLs was increased much more strongly in the late response than the early, unlike previously known. These results suggest that OfLTLs are specifically expressed in the immune-related tissues when those organs are fully formed and it can be inferred that the more intensively involved in the second half to the virus infection.

  10. Effects of dietary tert-butylhydroquinone on domoic acid metabolism and transcription of detoxification-related liver genes in red sea bream Pagrus major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shan; LIANG XuFang; SHEN Dan; ZHANG WenBing; MAI KangSen

    2013-01-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neuroexcitatory amino acid that is produced by Pseudo-nitzschia during harmful algal blooms (HAB).Accumulation of DA can be transferred through food chain and cause neuronal damage in marine animal and in human.Like other algal toxins,DA was suggested to increase the oxidative stress and increase the detoxification-related gene expression in fish.The widely used food antioxidant,tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ),was known to induce a wide range of antioxidative potentials such as elevation of the glutathione levels and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs),via the activation of antioxidant response elements (AREs).In this study,the influences of dietary tBHQ on domoic acid (DA) metabolism and detoxification-related gene transcription were investigated both in vivo and in vitro.Oral administration of tBHQ resulted in significant decreases of DA accumulation of liver tissues in which red sea bream were fed with a single dose of 10 mg DA and 100 mg tBHQ per kg body weight per fish.Real-time PCR further revealed that the mRNA levels of AHR/ARNT/CYP1A1/GSTA1/GSTR were up-regulated in the above liver tissues at 72 h post tBHQ treatment.In consistence,tBHQ exposure also resulted in increased mRNA transcription of GSTA1,GSTA2 and GSTR in cultured red sea bream hepatocytes.Collectively,our findings in this research suggested that the dietary intake of tBHQ accelerated DA metabolism in fish,through mechanisms involving altered transcription of detoxificationrelated liver genes.

  11. Physiological response, blood chemistry profile and mucus secretion of red sea bream (Pagrus major) fed diets supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus under low salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; El-Sabagh, Mabrouk; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Wang, Wei-Long; Yukun, Zhang; Olivier, Adissin

    2017-02-01

    Environmental stressors caused by inadequate aquaculture management strategies suppress the immune response of fish and make them more susceptible to diseases. Therefore, efforts have been made to relieve stress in fish by using various functional feed additives in the diet, including probiotics. The present work evaluates the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) on physiological stress response, blood chemistry and mucus secretion of red sea bream (Pagrus major) under low salinity stress. Fish were fed four diets supplemented with LR at [0 (LR0), 1 × 10(2) (LR1), 1 × 10(4) (LR2) and 1 × 10(6) (LR3) cells g(-1)] for 56 days. Before stress, blood cortisol, urea nitrogen (BUN) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05), whereas plasma glucose and triglyceride (TG) of fish-fed LR2 and LR3 diets were significantly lower (P salinity stress test, plasma cortisol, glucose, T-CHO and TG contents in all groups showed an increased trend significantly (P salinity stress (P > 0.05). In addition, the fish that received LR-supplemented diets showed significantly higher tolerance against low salinity stress than the fish-fed LR-free diet (P < 0.05). The physiological status and the detected immune responses, including total plasma protein and mucus myeloperoxidase activity in red sea bream, will provide a more comprehensive outlook of the effects of probiotics to relieve stress in fish.

  12. Induction of Gynogenesis in Japanese Crucian Carp (Carassius cuvieri)%人工诱导雌核发育日本白鲫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙远东; 张纯; 刘少军; 陶敏; 曾琛; 刘筠

    2006-01-01

    Diploid gynogenesis was induced in Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri) eggs using UV-irradiated genetically inactive spermatozoa from mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) or blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), with or without cold shock. The optimal radiation dosage was 4 200 mJ/cm2 and 3 600 mJ/cm2 for mirror carp and blunt snout bream sperm, respectively.At this dosage and without cold shock, the yields were (32.4±3.3)% vs. (33.8±1.4)% gynogenetic haploids and (0.7±0.3)% vs.(0.5±0.3)% hybrid diploids, respectively. At the optimal UV dosage but with cold shock (2 min after fertilization, 0-4℃ for 40 min), the hatching rates were (27.8±2.1)% and (29.4 ±3.3)%, respectively. From hatching to feeding, (15.7±3.4)% and (23.6±4.1)% normal gynogenetic diploids were recorded, respectively. Survival of normal gynogenetic diploids was 56% out of the hatched fry when using irradiated spermatozoa of mirror carp, which was lower than that (up to 80%) when using irradiated spermatozoa of blunt snout bream. This indicated that the sperm of blunt snout bream, with distant genetic relation to the maternal Japanese crucian carp, was more effective than that of mirror carp to induce diploid gynogenesis. The nature of the gynogenetic progeny was identified with external appearance, chromosome number and gonad structure. The presence of only females in gynogenetic progeny probably suggested XX genotype in the female Japanese crucian carp. The gynogenetic diploids have potential values such as faster growth and stronger disease resistance than the normal Japanese crucian carp. All gynogenetic progeny possessed 100 chromosomes whereas all J × B crosses were triploid with 124 chromosomes. The formation of the new triploid hybrids in J × B crosses may be usefulin aquaculture.%分别用遗传失活的散鳞镜鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)、团头鲂(Megalobrama amblycephala)精子诱导日本白鲫(Carassiuscuvieri)进行雌核发育.未经冷休克处理,用UV照射过

  13. 太湖鱼类放流增殖的有效数量和合理结构%Fish stocking quantities and structures of the fishery resources enhancement in Lake Taihu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊; 谷孝鸿; 王小林; 吴林坤; 陈非洲; 曹萍; 刘家驹; 张宪中

    2012-01-01

    根据2006-2007年太湖生物资源调查,估算出太湖浮游植物、浮游动物、底栖动物和水生植物总渔产潜力约为78494 t.太湖实施以渔改水的生物调控措施,应加大鲢、鳙放流数量和放流规格,在提高鱼产量的同时对抑制太湖蓝藻水华能起到积极作用;推算每年放流鳙约1000×104尾,鲢约300×104尾,规格为20尾/kg为宜.草鱼、团头鲂、青鱼、鲤等要在保护太湖水草和底栖动物资源和生物多样性前提下适当放流,每年宜放流草鱼150×104尾,团头鲂165×104尾,青鱼8×104 ~ 10×104尾,鲤夏花2500×104尾.而对调控鱼类结构小型化、单一化具有重要作用的肉食性鱼类翘嘴铂建议加大放流量,年放流量可扩大至500×104尾左右,在调控的同时提高湖泊渔业附加值.%According to the investigations of biological resources in Lake Taihu during 2006 -2007, we calculated that total fishery yield potential of phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and aquatic macrophytes in Lake Taihu was about 78494 t. In order to increase fish yields and inhibit cyanobacteria bloom in Lake Taihu, stocking number of silver carp (Hypohthalmichlhys molitrix Richardson) and bighead carpi Aristichthys nobilis Cuvier) should be increased to 10 million and 3 million tails, respectively, and the specification should be 20 tails per kilogram. To protect resources of aquatic macrophytes and zoobenthos, the reasonable stocking number of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus Cuvier), blunt snout bream ( Megalobrama amblycephala Yih) , black carp (Mylopharyngodan piceus Richardson) and common carp( Cyprinidae carpio Linnaeus) should be 1. 5 million, 1.65 million, 80 -100 thousand and 25 million tails,respectively. As topmouth cutler such as cutler albumus could play important roles in controlling miniaturization and singleness of fishery structure and increase added-value of fishery economy, its stocking quantity should be increased to S million tails.

  14. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (♀)×common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (♂), and RCC (2n=100) (♀)×blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (♂) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×CC (♂), bisexual fertile F3–F18 allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×BSB (♂), different ploidy fishes were obtained, including

  15. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ShaoJun

    2010-04-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (male), and RCC (2n=100) (female) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (male) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (female) x CC (male), bisexual fertile F(3)-F(18) allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (female) x BSB (male), different ploidy fishes were

  16. Aquatic biota as potential biological indicators of the contamination, bioaccumulation and health risks caused by organochlorine pesticides in a large, shallow Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Yan; He, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic biota have long been recognized as bioindicators of the contamination caused by hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in aquatic environments. The primary purpose of the present study is to identify which species of aquatic biota are the most sensitive to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs...... to OCPs and may serve as the most effective bioindicators for monitoring OCP contamination in the water and suspended solids of Lake Chaohu. Megalobrama amblycephala, which contained the highest wet weight mean OCP concentration, is the most sensitive OCP indicator and can be used to assess the human...

  17. Cytochrome b gene reveals panmixia among Japanese Threadfin Bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) populations along the coasts of Peninsular Malaysia and provides evidence of a cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong-Chiun; Ahmad, Abu Talib; Nuruddin, Ahmad Adnan; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated genetic differentiation among ten presumed Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus populations along the coast of Peninsular Malaysia based on the partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (982 bp). Genetic divergences (Kimura-2 parameter) ranged from 0.5% to 0.8% among nine of the ten populations while these nine populations were 4.4% to 4.6% diverged from the Kuala Besar population located at the Northeast coast. The constructed Neighbour Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees based on haplotypes showed the Kuala Besar population forming an isolated cluster. The Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) of the ten populations a priori assigned into four regions, revealed that most of the variation occurred within population with a fairly low but significant level of regional differentiation (FST = 0.07, p 0.05 and FCT = 0.07, p population. p Value after Bonferroni correction revealed that only pairwise FST values involving the Kuala Besar population with the other nine populations were significant. Thus, this study revealed that the N. japonicus populations off Peninsular Malaysia were panmictic. However, the Kuala Besar population, although morphologically identical was composed of a genetically discrete taxon from the rest. These findings are important contributions in formulating sustainable fishery management policies for this important fishery in Peninsular Malaysia.

  18. Comparative study of the metal accumulation in Hysterothalycium reliquens (nematode) and Paraphilometroides nemipteri (nematode) as compared with their doubly infected host, Nemipterus peronii (Notched threadfin bream).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhar, Roshan; Shazili, Noor Azhar; Harrison, Faizah Shaharom

    2014-10-01

    In February 2013, forty-seven Notched threadfin bream, the Nemipterus peronii, were sampled from the eastern coastal waters of the South China Sea. The concentration of various elements, namely cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), Lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and Zinc (Zn) were analyzed in the liver, muscle, and kidney organs of the host, as well as in their parasites Hysterothalycium reliquens (nematode) and the Paraphilometroides nemipteri (nematode), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The former group of parasites showed highest accumulation capacity for Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Ni, and Zn while the latter group had high accumulation potential of As, Hg, Cd, Al, Pb, and Sr. The divergence in heavy-metal accumulation profiles of both nematodes is linked with the specificity of microhabitats, cuticle morphology, and interspecific competition. The outcome of this study indicates that both parasite models can be used for biomonitoring of metal pollution in marine ecosystems.

  19. ANTILISTERIAL ACTYVITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM GILTHEAD BREAMS AND SEA BASSES FILLETS PACKAGED MAP AGAINST PRIMITIVE STRAINS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barile

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis typically caused by ready-to-eat processed food that have a refrigerated shelf-life, but lightly preserved fish products also belong to a high-risk category. Aim of the work was to evaluate antimicrobial activity linked bacteriocin-producing of LAB isolated from gilthead breams and sea basses fillets packaged in modified atmospheres. Fifty-five LAB strains were screened against 21 strains of Listeria monocytogenes, 1 Listeria innocua held in the culture collection of Department of Zootechnical Sciences and Food Ispection (SIA and submitted to antagonistic activity using the spot on lawn and the agar well diffusion assay. Lactococcus lactis sub. lactis Sa31 was able to produce bacteriocin in agar and different broth medium. The bacteriocin man31 showed sensitivity to trypsin, pronase E and papain, inactivation at temperatures ≥ 100°C, bactericidal mode of action and antilisterial act, rapidly. The bacteriocin man31 caused a reduction of L. monocytogenes ½ c growth about log10 > 3 UFC/ml, when was applied on indicator strain at 20,480 AU/ml concentration, in vitro.

  20. Vessel noise pollution as a human threat to fish: assessment of the stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Monica; Filiciotto, Francesco; Maricchiolo, Giulia; Genovese, Lucrezia; Quinci, Enza Maria; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Vazzana, Mirella; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the effects of boat noise pollution on the stress indices of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758). To assess the stress response in these fish, biometric values and plasma parameters such as ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity were analysed. After acclimatization of the animals, the experiment was carried out in a tank fitted with underwater speakers where the fish were exposed to sound treatments (in duplicate) consisting of: 10 days of no sound (control treatment; the animals were only exposed to the experimental tank's background noise) and 10 days of noise derived from original recordings of motor boats, including recreational boats, hydrofoil, fishing boat and ferry boat (vessel noise treatment). The exposure to noise produced significant variations in almost all the plasma parameters assessed, but no differences were observed in weights and fork lengths. A PERMANOVA analysis highlighted significantly increased values (p pollutant. Finally, these experimental studies could represent part of the science that is able to improve the quality of the policies related to management plans for maritime spaces (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 56/2008 CE) that are aimed at stemming this pollutant phenomenon.

  1. The effect of sea bream (Sparus aurata) broodstock and larval vaccination on the susceptibility by Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida and on the humoral immune parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, A; Bakopoulos, V; Leonardos, I; Dimitriadis, G J

    2005-10-01

    Sea bream broodstock were immunised 1 or 2 months before spawning with a novel photobacteriosis vaccine. Sixty-seven-day-old larvae (mean weight 22.3 mg) originating from immunised and non-immunised parents were experimentally infected with the Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida (Phdp). Larvae from immunised fish showed delayed onset and lower mortality (66.67%) compared with larvae from control fish (80%). Eighty-nine-day-old larvae (mean weight 162.2 mg) from both groups were bath vaccinated with Phdp and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and larval samples were collected for measurement of humoral parameters. Larvae vaccinated with Phdp and LPS showed significantly higher anti-protease activity, lysozyme activity and total immunoglobulin compared to the controls. One-hundred-and-twenty-day-old larvae (mean weight 297.85 mg) from both parental groups were challenged with (LD70) virulent Phdp bacterial cells. Vaccinated larvae from both groups showed significantly less mortality compared to the respective controls. The RPS values of larvae from immunised parents vaccinated with Phdp and LPS was 95.83% and 72.22%, respectively. The RPS values of larvae from non-immunised parents vaccinated with Phdp and LPS was 62.5% and 70.83%, respectively. Results are discussed with respect to the beneficial effect of broodstock immunisation prior to spawning and the immunisation of larvae on their survival against photobacteriosis.

  2. Chromosomal mapping of microsatellite repeats in the rock bream fish Oplegnathus fasciatus, with emphasis of their distribution in the neo-Y chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongdong; Lou, Bao; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello

    2013-03-19

    Despite the theoretical and experimental progress, our understanding on sex chromosome differentiation is still diagrammatic. The accumulation of repetitive DNA sequences is believed to occur in early stages of such differentiation. As fish species present a wide range of sex chromosome systems they are excellent models to examine the differentiation of these chromosomes. In the present study, the chromosomal distribution of 9 mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide microsatellites were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybrization (FISH) in rock bream fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus), which is characterized by an X1X2Y sex chromosome system. Generally, the males and females exhibited the same autosomal pattern of distribution for a specific microsatellite probe. The male specific Y chromosome displays a specific amount of distinct microsatellites repeats along both arms. However, the accumulation of these repetitive sequences was not accompanied by a huge heterochromatinization process. The present data provide new insights into the chromosomal constitution of the multiple sex chromosomes and allow further investigations on the true role of the microsatellite repeats in the differentiation process of this sex system.

  3. Effects of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus or/and Lactococcus lactis on the growth, gut microbiota and immune responses of red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; El Basuini, Mohammed F; Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Nhu, Truong H; Dossou, Serge; Moss, Amina S

    2016-02-01

    Pagrus major fingerlings (3·29 ± 0·02 g) were fed with basal diet (control) supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactococcus lactis (LL), and L. rhamnosus + L. lactis (LR + LL) at 10(6) cell g(-1) feed for 56 days. Feeding a mixture of LR and LL significantly increased feed utilization (FER and PER), intestine lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, plasma total protein, alternative complement pathway (ACP), peroxidase, and mucus secretion compared with the other groups (P growth performance (Fn wt, WG, and SGR) and protein digestibility than the groups fed an individual LR or the control diet. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased in LR and LR + LL groups when compared with the other groups. Moreover, the fish fed LR or LL had better improvement (P growth, feed utilization, body protein and lipid contents, digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein, and lipid), protease activity, total intestine and LAB counts, hematocrit, total plasma protein, biological antioxidant potential, ACP, serum and mucus LZY and bactericidal activities, peroxidase, SOD, and mucus secretion than the control group. Interestingly, fish fed diets with LR + LL showed significantly lower total cholesterol and triglycerides when compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). These data strongly suggest that a mixture of LR and LL probiotics may serve as a healthy immunostimulating feed additive in red sea bream aquaculture.

  4. Chemometric analysis of fatty acids profile of bream (Abramis brama, ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua and perch (Perca fluviatilis meat from Lake Gopło and Włocławski Dam Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumila Kupcewicz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 18 fatty acid profiles have been determined in 63 samples of muscles from three freshwater fish species: bream, ruffe and perch by gas chromatography method. The fish were collected in natural condition from two reservoirs located in central Poland: Lake Gopło and Włocławski Reservoir. A chemometric study with the use of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, principal component (PCA and stepwise linear discrimination analysis (LDA was applied to characterize, classify and differentiate collected samples. The chemometric techniques by using fatty acids content as descriptors allow clearly distinguish 6 groups according to fish species and their geographical origin.

  5. Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2013-04-14

    The effect of ration size on muscle fatty acid (FA) composition and mRNA expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism have been addressed in juveniles of gilthead sea bream fed a practical diet over the course of an 11-week trial. The experimental setup included three feeding levels: (i) full ration until visual satiety, (ii) 70 % of satiation and (iii) 70 % of satiation with the last 2 weeks at the maintenance ration. Feed restriction reduced lipid content of whole body by 30 % and that of fillet by 50 %. In this scenario, the FA composition of fillet TAG was not altered by ration size, whereas that of phospholipids was largely modified with a higher retention of arachidonic acid and DHA. The mRNA transcript levels of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and FA desaturase 2 were not regulated by ration size in the present experimental model. In contrast, mRNA levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturases were markedly down-regulated by feed restriction. An opposite trend was found for a muscle-specific lipoprotein lipase, which is exclusive of fish lineage. Several upstream regulatory transcriptions were also assessed, although nutritionally mediated changes in mRNA transcripts were almost reduced to PPARα and β, which might act in a counter-regulatory way on lipolysis and lipogenic pathways. This gene expression pattern contributes to the construction of a panel of biomarkers to direct marine fish production towards muscle lean phenotypes with increased retentions of long-chain PUFA.

  6. Extending Immunological Profiling in the Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata, by Enriched cDNA Library Analysis, Microarray Design and Initial Studies upon the Inflammatory Response to PAMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Boltaña

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the development and validation of an enriched oligonucleotide-microarray platform for Sparus aurata (SAQ to provide a platform for transcriptomic studies in this species. A transcriptome database was constructed by assembly of gilthead sea bream sequences derived from public repositories of mRNA together with reads from a large collection of expressed sequence tags (EST from two extensive targeted cDNA libraries characterizing mRNA transcripts regulated by both bacterial and viral challenge. The developed microarray was further validated by analysing monocyte/macrophage activation profiles after challenge with two Gram-negative bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs; lipopolysaccharide (LPS and peptidoglycan (PGN. Of the approximately 10,000 EST sequenced, we obtained a total of 6837 EST longer than 100 nt, with 3778 and 3059 EST obtained from the bacterial-primed and from the viral-primed cDNA libraries, respectively. Functional classification of contigs from the bacterial- and viral-primed cDNA libraries by Gene Ontology (GO showed that the top five represented categories were equally represented in the two libraries: metabolism (approximately 24% of the total number of contigs, carrier proteins/membrane transport (approximately 15%, effectors/modulators and cell communication (approximately 11%, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism (approximately 7.5% and intracellular transducers/signal transduction (approximately 5%. Transcriptome analyses using this enriched oligonucleotide platform identified differential shifts in the response to PGN and LPS in macrophage-like cells, highlighting responsive gene-cassettes tightly related to PAMP host recognition. As observed in other fish species, PGN is a powerful activator of the inflammatory response in S. aurata macrophage-like cells. We have developed and validated an oligonucleotide microarray (SAQ that provides a platform enriched for the study

  7. Extending Immunological Profiling in the Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata, by Enriched cDNA Library Analysis, Microarray Design and Initial Studies upon the Inflammatory Response to PAMPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Castellana, Barbara; Goetz, Giles; Tort, Lluis; Teles, Mariana; Mulero, Victor; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Goetz, Frederick W.; Gallardo-Escarate, Cristian; Planas, Josep V.; Mackenzie, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of an enriched oligonucleotide-microarray platform for Sparus aurata (SAQ) to provide a platform for transcriptomic studies in this species. A transcriptome database was constructed by assembly of gilthead sea bream sequences derived from public repositories of mRNA together with reads from a large collection of expressed sequence tags (EST) from two extensive targeted cDNA libraries characterizing mRNA transcripts regulated by both bacterial and viral challenge. The developed microarray was further validated by analysing monocyte/macrophage activation profiles after challenge with two Gram-negative bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs; lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PGN)). Of the approximately 10,000 EST sequenced, we obtained a total of 6837 EST longer than 100 nt, with 3778 and 3059 EST obtained from the bacterial-primed and from the viral-primed cDNA libraries, respectively. Functional classification of contigs from the bacterial- and viral-primed cDNA libraries by Gene Ontology (GO) showed that the top five represented categories were equally represented in the two libraries: metabolism (approximately 24% of the total number of contigs), carrier proteins/membrane transport (approximately 15%), effectors/modulators and cell communication (approximately 11%), nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism (approximately 7.5%) and intracellular transducers/signal transduction (approximately 5%). Transcriptome analyses using this enriched oligonucleotide platform identified differential shifts in the response to PGN and LPS in macrophage-like cells, highlighting responsive gene-cassettes tightly related to PAMP host recognition. As observed in other fish species, PGN is a powerful activator of the inflammatory response in S. aurata macrophage-like cells. We have developed and validated an oligonucleotide microarray (SAQ) that provides a platform enriched for the study of gene

  8. The Taxonomic Status of Japanese Threadfin BreamNemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Perciformes:Nemipteridae) with a Redescription of this Species from the South China Sea Based on Morphology and DNA Barcodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Ping; SHA Zhongli; Paul DN HEBERT; Barry RUSSELL

    2015-01-01

    Because of its importance as a food source,Nemipterus japonicus(Bloch, 1791) (Nemipteridae) or Japanese threadfin bream is the best studied of these taxa, and numerous investigations have examined its fisheries, its biology and biochemistry. De-spite such intensive work, the taxonomic status ofN. japonicushas never been seriously questioned and itis regarded as a common species, widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific Ocean. In fact, Bloch’s description of the type specimen ofN. ja-ponicus has ambiguous collection data and lacks a designation for the type locality, though it is probably Java. In this paper, DNA barcode results based on COI gene support the existence of two geographically separated lineages of the Japanese threadfin bream, both being an Indian Ocean and western Pacific lineage, with 2.7% sequence divergence, and the results indicate a possible existing of some cryptic species. The two lineages also possess a diagnostic difference in their belly color, with specimens in the South China Sea having a silver belly, while those from the Indian Ocean isolate specimen have a yellow coloration. Based upon new collections from the South China Sea, this species from the western Pacific is morphologically redescribed and its details of DNA barcode diver-sity are shown for the future investigations.

  9. A Novel Approach to Limit Chemical Deterioration of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fillets: Coating with Electrospun Nanofibers as Characterized by Molecular, Thermal, and Microstructural Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Zafer; Sengor, Gulgun F Unal; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2017-03-27

    Coating of sea bream fillets with thymol loaded chitosan based electrospun nanofibers (TLCN) and chitosan based nanafibers (CN) has been presented a novel approach to delay chemical deterioration. We assessed CN and TLCN with respect of scanting of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), trimethylamine (TMA), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) deterioration during cold storage condition. Electrospinning process was applied to obtain TLCN and CN. Both of nanofibers obtained from biopolymer and bioactive material were cylindrical, smooth, beadless. Thermal, molecular, zeta potential (ZP), and surface properties of the groups were investigated, revealing that CN indicated molecular interactions with thymol in nanofibers, reduce in physical properties of these structures, thermal decomposition (an alteration in mass of CN and TLCN at temperatures below 190 °C, corresponding to 20.53% and 19.97%, respectively) and also dispersion stabilities (ζ potential) of CN and TLCN were determined 33.68 ± 3.35 and 21.85 ± 1.96 mV, respectively. TVBN and TMA stability analyses demonstrated that CN and TLCN were both effective in delaying chemical deterioration of fish fillets, furthermore TLCN was more effective against chemical deterioration. TBA analyses results of fish fillets indicated that CN and TLCN delayed rancidity in fish meat as compared to control group samples. The presented study results suggested that coating of the sea bream fillets with CN and TLCN would be a promising approach to delay the chemical deterioration of fish fillets.

  10. 黑鲷幼鱼赖氨酸需求量的研究%Study on Lysine Requirement of Juvenile Black Sea Bream(Sparus macrocephalus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永正; 周凡; 邵庆均; 许梓荣

    2009-01-01

    选用初体重(9.13±0.09)g的黑鲷(Sparus macrocephalus)幼鱼360尾随机分为6组,每组3个重复,每个重复20尾,分别投饲赖氨酸水平实测值为2.08%、2.52%、2.88%、3.25%、3.68%和4.05%的等氮等能日粮.试验期为8周,观察日粮赖氨酸对黑鲷生长性能,体组成以及消化能力的影响,并确定其适宜的赖氨酸需求量.结果表明,当饲料中的赖氨酸水平从2.08%上升到3.25%,黑鲷的增重率和特定生长率随着饲料赖氨酸水平升高而升高(P0.05).饲料赖氨酸水平从2.08%上升到3.25%,蛋白质沉积率有显著提高(P0.05).肝脏总必需氨基酸和赖氨酸含量随着饲料赖氨酸水平升高而增加,但是在赖氨酸添加水平最高组这两个指标均有所降低(P0.05).赖氨酸含量为3.25%时,干物质和蛋白质的表观消化率最高,而脂肪消化率的最高值出现在3.68%赖氨酸的饲料组.试验结果还表明,黑鲷幼鱼胃、前肠和中肠的蛋白酶活性变化趋势基本一致.随着饲料中赖氨酸水平的增加而升高(P0.05).使用曲线模型,根据试验黑鲷幼鱼的增重率同饲料中赖氨酸水平的相关性得出其赖氨酸需要量为3.28%,占饲料蛋白质的8.63%.%An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of lysine on growth performance, body com-position, digestive ability and determine the quantitative lysine requirement of juvenile black sea bream (Sparus macrocepha-lus). Three hundred and sixty fish with initial body weight of (9.13 ± 0.09) g were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates each and 20 fish in each replicate. Six treatments were fed with 6 iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets contai-ning 6 levels of lysine (2.08%, 2.52%, 2.88%, 3.25%, 3.68% and 4.05%). The results showed that, weight gain ratio (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with the level of dietary lysine increased to 3.25% from 2.08% (P0.05). The protein efficiency ratio (PER) increased significantly

  11. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and Microelements in Silver Bream (Brama brama L.), Northern Pike (Esox lucius L.), Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) From Tisza River, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrbac, Snežana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in liver, gills, gonads, and brain of four ecologically different fish species in Serbia: piscivorous northern pike, benthivorous sterlet and silver bream, and omnivorous common carp. Fish were caught at four sites along the stretch of the River Tisza in the Pannonian part of Serbia during October 2010. Results revealed that heavy metals and microelements with the highest values in fish samples were Fe, Al, and Zn. The highest concentration of heavy metals and microelements was recorded in omnivorous common carp, and organs that most intensively accumulated the greatest number of metals were liver and gills, whereas the locality did not exert a marked impact on level of bioaccumulation.

  12. Effects of dietary energy density and digestible protein:energy ratio on de novo lipid synthesis from dietary protein in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    was applied to quantify the 13C enrichment of whole-body lipid from dietary DP. Between 18·6 and 22·4% of the carbon derived from protein was recovered in the lipid fraction of the fish, and between 21·6 and 30·3% of the total lipid deposited could be attributed to dietary protein. DP retention...... was significantly improved by reductions in dietary DP:DE ratio, while the opposite was true for apparent digestible lipid retention. Both overall DE retention and whole-body proximate composition of whole fish were largely unaffected by dietary treatments, while feed conversion ratios were significantly improved...... with increasing dietary energy density. The present study suggests that gilthead sea bream efficiently utilises dietary nutrients over a wide range of DP:DE ratios and energy densities. In addition, they appear to endeavour a certain body energy status rather than maximising growth, which in the present trial...

  13. 条石鲷(Oplegnathus fasciatus)心脏早期发育的组织学观察%ONTOGENY OF THE HEART OF ROCK BREAM OPLEGNATHUS FASCIATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何滔; 肖志忠; 刘清华; 李军

    2012-01-01

    Based on the histological observation under optical microscope, we studied the ontogeny of the heart of rock bream Oplegnathusfasciatus at (24 _+ 1.0)~C. At 13h 30min postfertilization, the heart primordium, an ellipsoidal tube de- rived from the mesoderm, appears in the ventral side of the midbrain. It consists of I-YSL exteriorly and a stuff of spindle cells interiorly. At 20h 30min post-fertilization, the heart is beginning to beat and the blood starts to circulate through a closed set of channels. At hatching, the heart appeared as a straight tube lying anterior to the coelom of rock bream. At 2 DAH (days after hatching), the heart was differentiated into four parts: sinous venosus, atrium, ventricle and bulbous arte-riosus. At 3 DAH, the atrioventricular and semilunar valves were formed. At 6 DAH, the sinoatial valve was developed and the trabeculae in the ventricle appeared. At 12 DAH, the blood cells in the heart increased sharply. At 27 DAH, the trabeculae were appeared in the atrium, and the heart of rock bream was developed completely.%应用石蜡切片技术和显微测量法,对条石鲷心脏的早期发生、分化和形成过程进行了连续观察。结果表明,在水温(24±1.0)℃的条件下,心脏原基在受精后13h30min出现于中部脑的腹面,其外部由卵黄多核层包围,内部则为扁平细胞所填充;受精后20h30min,心脏开始搏动,可见血细胞:初孵仔鱼心脏呈直管状,位于体腔前端;2日龄(days after hatching,DAH),心脏分化成静脉窦、心耳(心房)、心室和动脉球四个部分;3日龄,耳室瓣和半月瓣形成;6日龄,窦耳瓣和心小室形成:12日龄,心脏内血细胞的数量急剧增加,血流量显著加大;27日龄,心耳内形成小梁结构,心脏发育完善。

  14. Transient up- and down-regulation of expression of myosin light chain 2 and myostatin mRNA mark the changes from stratified hyperplasia to muscle fiber hypertrophy in larvae of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Stella; Alami-Durante, Hélène; Power, Deborah M; Sarropoulou, Elena; Mamuris, Zissis; Moutou, Katerina A

    2016-02-01

    Hyperplasia and hypertrophy are the two mechanisms by which muscle develops and grows. We study these two mechanisms, during the early development of white muscle in Sparus aurata, by means of histology and the expression of structural and regulatory genes. A clear stage of stratified hyperplasia was identified early in the development of gilthead sea bream but ceased by 35 dph when hypertrophy took over. Mosaic recruitment of new white fibers began as soon as 60 dph. The genes mlc2a and mlc2b were expressed at various levels during the main phases of hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The genes myog and mlc2a were significantly up-regulated during the intensive stratified formation of new fibers and their expression was significantly correlated. Expression of mstn1 and igf1 increased at 35 dph, appeared to regulate the hyperplasia-to-hypertrophy transition, and may have stimulated the expression of mlc2a, mlc2b and col1a1 at the onset of mosaic hyperplasia. The up-regulation of mstn1 at transitional phases in muscle development indicates a dual regulatory role of myostatin in fish larval muscle growth.

  15. Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - pollutant monitoring of the Elbe river using breams (Abramis brama L.). A classification system; Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - Schadstoffueberwachung der Elbe mit der Fischart Brassen (Abramis brama L.). Ein Klassifizierungssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, H.J. [Hydrobiologische Untersuchungen und Gutachten (HUuG), Tangstedt (Germany); Gaumert, T.; Reincke, H. [Wasserguetestelle Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    In 1979-1980, breams caught between Schnackenburg and Glueckstadt were analyzed for heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. After the German unification, the analyses were extended to further sections of the river. The report presents the results. [German] In den Jahren 1979-1980 wurden Brassen zwischen Schnackenburg und Glueckstadt fuer eine gezielte Analyse auf verschiedene Schwermetalle und Chlorkohlenwasserstoffe gefangen. Vorrangiges Ziel der damaligen ARGE-ELBE-Untersuchung war die Eignung des Weissfisches als Bioindikator zur Darstellung der Schadstoffbelastung in der Elbe. Nach der Wiedervereinigung wurde ein weiteres Sondermessprogramm mit dem Brassen durchgefuehrt. Der Brassen wurde an 10 Fangplaetzen im bundesdeutschen Elbelaengsschnitt 1994 befischt: An zwei Stationen in der Oberen Elbe, an drei Fangstellen in der Mittelelbe und an fuenf Fangorten in der Tideelbe. Die Befunde wurden hinsichtlich regionaler Belastung und Vermarktungsfaehigkeit dargestellt. In dem vorliegenden Bericht werden ausnahmslos die Schadstoffgehalte der Brassenfaenge der Elbe des Jahres 1994 ausgewertet. Zur Festlegung der Hintergrundbelastung (Referenzstandard) des Bewertungssystems wurden Brassen aus voraussichtlich gering belasteten Gewaessern beruecksichtigt. Ziel der Datenauswertung ist eine Klassifizierung, welche die regionalspezifische Kontamination im Muskelfleisch der Elbe-Brassen widerspiegelt. (orig.)

  16. 条石鲷视觉器官早期发育的组织学观察%Histological observation of eye ontogeny in rock bream larvae (Oplegnathus fasciatus )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何滔; 肖志忠; 刘清华; 马道远; 徐世宏; 肖永双; 李军

    2012-01-01

    应用石蜡切片技术和显微测量法,对条石鲷(Oplegnathusfasciatus)视觉器官的早期发生、分化和形成过程进行了连续观察。结果显示:在水温24℃±1.0℃的条件下,受精后10.5h,视杯出现;受精后15.5h,晶状体形成;受精后22h,在脉络膜裂口处出现角膜;2日龄,巩膜和脉络膜形成;3日龄,虹膜出现:6日龄,视网膜分化完全,由色素层、视锥视杆层、外界膜、外核层、外网状层、内核层、内网状层、神经节细胞层、神经纤维层和内界膜组成;13日龄,角膜分化完全,由外向内依次为复层扁平上皮、前弹性膜、纤维层、后弹性膜和肉皮层;21日龄,虹膜完全分化,由内向外依次为色素层、后缘层、基质层、前缘层和内皮层。此时条石鲷眼的各个部分(巩膜、脉络膜、视网膜、晶状体、虹膜、角膜)均发育完善。%Based on the histological observation under optical microscope, we studied the ontogeny of eyes in rock bream. The results showed that at 24℃±1.0℃, the optic vesicle appeared at 10.5 h after fertilization, and the lens was visible at 15.5 h after fertilization. As the choroid fissures widened, the cornea was developed in the site at 22 h after fertilization. At 2 DAH (days after hatching), the choroid and sclera were formed, and the iris was present at 3 DAH. At 6 DAH, the retina was well developed and consisted of pigment epithelium, rods and cones layer, external limiting membrane, outer nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, inner plexiform layer, ganglion cell layer, nerve fibre layer and internal limiting membrane. At 13 DAH, the cornea was well differentiated, and consisted of stratified squamous epithelium, lamina elastica anterior, fibre layer, lamina elastica porterior and en- dothelium. At 21 DAH, the iris was well developed and consisted of pigment layer, iris posterior, stroma, iris anterior and

  17. 真鲷虹彩病毒实时定量PCR检测方法的建立与应用%Development and application of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of red-sea bream iridovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉然; 岳志芹; 谭乐义; 刘荭; 赵巍; 梁成珠; 史秀杰; 徐彪; 朱来华; 何俊强

    2011-01-01

    以真鲷虹彩病毒(Red-sea bream iridovirus,RSIV)主要衣壳蛋白(Major capsid protein,MCP)的基因保守片段为靶序列,利用Primer Express 3.0软件设计定量PCR引物,建立了RSIV的SYBR Green I实时定量PCR检测方法.将RSIV MCP基因连接pMD18-T载体,构建重组质粒,经过梯度稀释后作为标准品,根据标准品拷贝数(X)与Ct值的关系绘制了标准曲线,为Ct=-3.184 1gX+40.270,相关系数R2=0.996 9.熔解曲线分析表明,定量PCR产物的Tm值为82.5℃.该方法的检测限为2.20×102拷贝/反应,对流行性造血器官坏死病毒、淋巴囊肿病毒、蛙病毒3、甲鱼虹彩病毒都没有扩增反应,具有特异性.利用该方法对84批海水鱼类(石鲽、大菱鲆、鲈鱼)进行检测,其中5批鱼样品感染RSIV,并利用标准曲线对病毒含量进行了定量分析.%A sensitive and specific SYBR Green Ⅰ real-time PCR assay for the detection of red-sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) was established.The real-time PCR primers were designed according to the conserved region of major capsid protein (MCP) gene by using Primer Express 3.0 software.The RSIV MCP gene was inserted into pMD18-T vector to construct the recombinant plasmid.The resulted plasmid was serially diluted and used as the standards.The relationship between plasmid copy number(X)and Ct value was described as a standard curve: Ct=-3.184 lgX+40.270(with an R2 value of 0.996 9).The detection limit of the assay was 2.20×102 virus copies per reaction.The assay showed specificity and could not be amplified with RSIV and epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), frog virus 3 (FV 3) ,or soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV).The Tm of the specific product was obtained as 82.5 ℃ through the melting curve analysis.This assay was applied in detecting whether the sea fish samples (stone flounder, turbot, and weever) of 84 batches were infected by RSIV.It was found that the samples of 5 batches presented positive

  18. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A; Steffensen, John F

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (U sus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in U sus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (U opt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between U crit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced U crit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between U sus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between U sus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high U sus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between U sus and U opt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming

  19. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Christian Svendsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata, both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: 1 gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e. burst-assisted swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC; 2 variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit correlates with metabolic scope (MS or anaerobic capacity (i.e. maximum EPOC; 3 there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus and minimum cost of transport (COTmin; and 4 variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e. the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance travelled. Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e. EPOC increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg-1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis, a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and optimum

  20. Optimization of capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for species analysis of metallothionein-like proteins extracted from liver tissues of Elbe-bream and Roe deer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proefrock, Daniel; Prange, Andreas E-mail: andreas.prange@gkss.de; Schaumloeffel, Dirk; Ruck, Wolfgang

    2003-08-15

    Species analysis of metallothionein-like proteins (MLP) in liver tissues from Elbe-Bream (Abramis brama L.) and Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) using capillary electrophoresis (CE) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection is described. In order to allow systematic development of the method, commercially available metallothionein (MT) preparations of rabbit liver were used. Optimum separation efficiency was obtained by investigating the influence of parameters such as voltage, capillary temperature, buffer concentration, buffer pH and the use of different buffer systems. Instrumental parameters such as CE capillary position, interface adjustment and contamination problems are also discussed. Separation was performed using uncoated fused silica capillaries with 75 {mu}m i.d. and 70 cm length. The optimum conditions were found to be: Separation voltage 30 kV, positive polarity, capillary temperature 288.15 K and a buffer concentration of 100 mmol l{sup -1} Tricine-NH{sub 3} adjusted to pH 7.2. Sample preparation was performed so as to minimize oxidation and heavy metal contamination of the samples. The high molecular mass protein matrix was reduced by acetonitrile precipitation. For commercial MT preparations the relative standard deviations (R.S.D) in the retention times were 0.9% for MT-1 and 1.9% for MT-2; the R.S.D.'s in the peak areas were less than 6% for MT-1 and 16% for MT-2, respectively. Under optimized conditions the MLPs in the real samples could be separated efficiently in less than 10 min. By comparison with the migration times of commercially available MT preparations, two of the observed peaks could be assigned to MT-1 and MT-2.

  1. 乌伦古湖欧鳊四种年龄鉴定材料的比较分析%Comparative studies on four calcified structures for age determination of common bream Abramis brama in Ulungur Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡少迪; 沈建忠; 马徐发; 李鸿; 刘其根; 刘军; 朱湘强

    2015-01-01

    This study described the morphology and annulus characteristics , and analyzed the consistency of age interpre -tations from four hard tissues (lapillus, scale, cleithrum, operculum) for age determination of common bream Abramis brama in Ulungur Lake, in Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region , China.The agreement of age readings between two times by the same reader on the cross-sectioned lapillus is the highest (90.5%, n =221), followed by the plane sectioned la-pillus (84.5%, n =171), cleithrum (83.7%, n =178), operculum (80.7%, n =176).And scales have the lowest agreement of age readings (74.2%, n =221).The agreement of age readings between the cross -sectioned lapilla and plane sectioned lapilla is the highest (83.6%, n =110).The next is the agreement between the cross -sectioned lapilla and cleithra (71.2%, n =73) and the following is that between the cross -sectioned lapilla and scales (62.4%, n =101).The opercula have the lowest agreement (30.0%, n =73) with the cross-sectioned lapilla.So, cleithra, scales and opercula may underestimate the ages of elderly individuals .In short, the lapillus is the best age determination materi -al, and the cross-section method is more appropriate.Scales, cleithra and opercula are not suitable for determining the a -ges of older individuals of common bream .%对新疆乌伦古湖欧鳊(Abramis brama)耳石、鳞片、匙骨、鳃盖骨等四种年龄鉴定材料的形态和年龄特征进行了描述,并对其年龄读数的一致性进行了比较分析。结果显示:3龄以下个体鳞片年轮标志多为普通切割型,3龄以后年轮显示为碎裂切割和疏密切割,高龄个体鳞片外围有年轮缺失的现象;微耳石磨片在透射光下呈明暗相间的轮纹;匙骨中心区域透明,年轮不清晰,外侧年轮清晰,但高龄个体外侧有年轮缺失的现象;鳃盖骨中心部分较厚,年轮不易观察。同一观察者2次读龄年龄读数吻合率中,耳石

  2. Development of Real-Time PCR Assay for the Detection of Red Sea Bream Iridovirus (RSIV)%一种真鲷虹彩病毒实时荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旻; 景宏丽; 方珍珍; 高隆英; 江育林; 林祥梅

    2011-01-01

    Red sea bream iridovirus(RSIV) is a pathogen causing high mortalities of red sea bream(Pagrosomus major) and more than 30 other species of culture marine fish belongs mainly to the orders Perciformes and Pleuronectiformes.So the red sea bream iridovirus disease had been in diseases list by OIE(World Organisation for Animal Health).At genetic level,RSIV cannot been distinguished from Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus(ISKNV) which is the representative species of Megalocytivir and both of them could be detected by PCR using same primers.A number of diagnostic methods on detection of RSIV are used in Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animal diseases,such as the histopathological observation of smears or tissue sections,IFAT using a MAb,and polymerase chain reactions(PCR).In order to establish a high efficient and reliable diagnostic method,a Real-time PCR assay for detection of RSIV was developed in this paper.The primers and TaqMan probes were designed according to the conserved regions of major capsid protein(MCP) gene of ISKNV.And the MCP gene was ligated into the pGEM-T plasmid vector to prepare of recombinant plasmid pGEM-T/RSIV as positive control.The Real-time PCR was carried out with viral DNA template in a 25-μL reaction mixture under the conditions of 45 cycles of denaturation(95 ℃ for 30 s),annealing(60 ℃ for 30 s).A good linear correlation was demonstrated in the standard curve for the Real-time PCR assay at the range of 102-106 copies of recombinant plasmid pGEM-T/RSIV template.The slope of standard curve was-3.496,correlation coefficient was 0.991,and efficiency was 93.2%.The detection limit of this Real-time PCR assay was 100 copies of viral gene segment(in pGEM-T/RSIV),and there was no cross reaction with other 6 aquatic viruses such as Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis(EHNV),Softshell turtle iridovirus(STIV) and Tiger frog virus(TFV) etc.In contrast,the cell culture method for

  3. 贵州省鱼类外来种调查%Survey on the exotic species of fishes in Guizhou province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑忠龙; 侯秀发; 周江

    2013-01-01

    During July of 2007 to April of 2013,the result of the survey on the fishes composition in Guizhou province showed that there were 11 exotic species in the natural rivers of Guizhou,and belonged to 6 orders,6 famlies and 11 genus; such as:Polyodon spathula,Mylopharyngodon piceus,Ctenopryngodon idellus,Megalobrama amblycephala,Aristichthys nobilis,Hypophtl michthys molitrix,Ietalurus Punetaus,Protosalanx hyalocroaniah,Micropterus salmoides,Oreochromis nilotica ♂ × O.mossambica ♀,Gambusia affinis.%于2007年7月至2013年4月,通过对贵州省境内鱼类物种组种调查中,共发现外来种鱼类11种,隶属6目6科11属,分别为:匙吻鲟Polyodon spathula、青鱼Mylopharyngodon piceus、草鱼Ctenopryngodon idellus、团头鲂Megalobrama amblycephala、鳙Aristichthys nobilis、鲢Hypophtl michthys molitrix、斑点叉尾鮰letalurus Punetaus、大银鱼Protosalanx hyalocroaniah、加州鲈Micropterus salmoides、罗非鱼Oreochromis nilotica♂×O.mossambica ♀、食蚊鱼Gambusia affinis.

  4. 3种滤料生物滤器的挂膜与黑鲷幼鱼循环水养殖效果%Biofilm cultivation with three stuffings and their effect on the growth of young black sea bream, Sparus macrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 曲克明; 朱建新; 王海增; 崔正国; 夏斌

    2012-01-01

    young black sea bream, Sparus macrocephalus. We tested the effect of using microbial water purified agents as a strain for three different kinds of fillers (pottery ring, elastic brush, and biochemical cotton fiber) during biofilm cultivation. The bio-film maturation time for the three fillers was 25, 32, and 28 d, respectively. Our results suggested that maintaining high dissolved oxygen concentrations, changing the water, and adding nutrients and NaCOs promoted the growth and propagation of nitrifying bacteria. Conversely, NO2-N concentrations cannot be held at high levels for an extended period because ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and nitrifying bacteria require dissolved oxygen and alkalinity for survival. Young black sea bream grew well in the simple recirculating aquaculture system. After 40 d feeding, the mean body weight and feed conversion rate of black sea bream in the three experimental groups differed significantly from that in the control group (P95%. The activity of serum LSZ and liver SOD was significantly higher in the experimental groups than the control group (P<0.05). Similarly, the quantity and diversity of digestive tract flora was significantly higher in the experimental groups than the control group. We identified several different kinds of beneficial bacteria in the three experimental groups, relative to the control. Our results suggest that these beneficial bacteria are dominant, and thus inhibited the survival of pathogenic bacteria. During circulation of the water, the beneficial bacteria are able to enter the fish body during respiration and ingestion, thereby enhancing the nonspecific immunity of the fish. Our results suggest that different filter materials have different bio-film maturation times under the same operating conditions. A recirculating aquaculture system can not only improve fish growth, but also enhance their immune performance.

  5. 世界自然遗产预选地施秉鱼类物种组成%Fish species composition in Shibing of Guizhou, Southwest China, a candidate World Heritage Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘赟; 侯秀发; 周江

    2013-01-01

    通过对贵州省中国南方喀斯特第二批世界自然遗产提名预选地施秉县的鱼类物种组成进行调查,共采集到鱼类46种,隶属于7目15科39属,其中鲤形目(Cypriniformes) 有28种,占本次调查的61%.在物种组成上,土著鱼类是该区域河流的主体,有40种,占87%;外来鱼类有6种,约占13%.其中外来入侵物种有食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis);大银鱼(Protosalanx hyalocroaniah属于人工放养;从人工养殖地逃逸到野外的鱼类有4种,分别为草鱼(Ctenopryngodon idellus)、鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)、鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)和团头鲂(Megalobrama amblycephala).%As a karst area of southern China,the Shibing in Guizhou Province is a second-batch candidate site nominated for the list of World Heritage Sites.In this paper,a three-year survey was conducted on the fish species composition in Shibing.A total of 46 species of freshwater fishes were collected,belonging to 39 genera,15 families,and 7 orders,among which,Cypriniformes had 28 species,accounting for 61% of the total.In species composition,native fishes dominated,with 40 species and occupying 87% of the total,whereas alien species had 6 species,occupying 13% of the total,and including 1 known invasive species (Gambusia affinis) and 5 artificial feeding species (Protosalanx hyalocroaniah,Ctenopryngodon idellus,Hypophthalmichthys molitrix,Aristichthys nobilis,and Megalobrama amblycephala).

  6. Effects of replacing monocalcium phosphate with phytase on growth and phosphorus utilization in black sea bream, Acanthopagrus schlegelii%中性植酸酶替代磷酸二氢钙对黑鲷生长和磷利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐树德; 王树启; 游翠红; 张敏智; 张婷; 杜红方; 史宝军

    2014-01-01

    coefficients (ADCs) of crude protein and phosphorus increased when fish were fed with the diets in which MCP was replaced by phytase. Additionally, phosphorus discharge was significantly reduced in fish fed diets in which MCP was replaced by phytase. Our results suggest that the dietary phosphorus requirement for meeting normal growth in black sea bream is≥0.51%. MCP can partially be replaced by phytase without affecting the growth of black sea bream. A diet containing 200 mg/kg phytase is equivalent to 1%MCP. The partial substitution of MCP by phytase not only reduces inorganic phosphorus addition to the surrounding waters, but also improves use of phosphorus in the feed.%以鱼粉、豆粕、菜粕等为蛋白原料设计配方,磷酸二氢钙的添加量分别为1.5%、1.0%、0.5%和0(对应的饲料组为P1.5、PP1.0、PP0.5和PP0组),其中PP1.0、PP0.5和PP0组中均添加200 mg/kg的中性植酸酶,开展为期8周的黑鲷(Acanthopagrus schlegelii)养殖实验,以探讨中性植酸酶替代磷酸二氢钙对黑鲷生长和磷利用的影响。结果显示,黑鲷摄食实验饲料8周后,各组间成活率无显著差异(P>0.05);摄食饲料PP1.0、PP0.5和对照组(P1.5组)实验鱼的增重率无显著差异(P>0.05),但均显著高于 PP0处理组,饲料系数则显著低于 PP0处理组(P0.05)。添加植酸酶的各组鱼磷的表观消化率均显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。随着磷酸二氢钙添加量的降低,黑鲷对干物质和蛋白质的表观消化率呈升高的趋势,当饲料中磷酸二氢钙的添加量降到0时,黑鲷对干物质和蛋白质的表观消化率显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。以上结果说明,在本研究配方下,黑鲷正常生长对饲料有效磷的需求量≥0.51%;磷酸二氢钙可部分被植酸酶替代,当黑鲷饲料中含有20%鱼粉、32%豆粕和12%菜粕,且植酸酶添加量为200 mg/kg时,与饲料中添加1%的磷酸二氢钙相当;在不影响黑鲷生长的前提下,植

  7. 条石鲷鳃的组织发育及鳃上钠钾三磷酸腺苷酶活性的早期变化%Ontogeny of the gill and Na+, K+-ATPase activity of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何滔; 肖志忠; 刘清华; 李军

    2013-01-01

    Based on the histological observations under optical microscope, we studied the ontogeny of the gill of rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus at (24 ± 1. 0) ℃. At hatching, gill anlage was visible in the pharyngeal region. On 2 DAH(Day After Hatching) , as the branchial cavity was formed, four pairs of gill arches were evident and some muscular fibres were observed in gill arches. The blood cells were visible in the vascular structures of gills on 3 DAH, and the primordial filaments first appeared in the second and third arches, then in the first and fourth arches on 4 DAH. The primordial lamellae were first formed in the filaments of the second and third gill arches on 6 DAH,then in the first and fourth arches on 7 DAH. On 6 DAH,the pseudobranch anlage was observed as a paired structure lied by the anterior branchial cavity and the lamellae in the pseudobranch were visible on 7 DAH. The chloride cells were first arranged in the base of the lamellae on 7 DAH,then also in the base of filaments on 8 DAH. The pavement cells were visible in the branchial epithelium on 8 DAH and the pillar cells were developed to delimit the vascular structures of lamellae on 9 DAH. On 10 DAH,the mucous cells were seen in the lamellae of pseudobranch. From 14 DAH forward,the filaments and lamellae of gills increased in number and length prominently and the gill of larvae was similar to that of juvenile fish. The specific activity of Na+ ,K+ -ATPase increased from cleavage period (0.712 ±0.400)U/g to segmentation period(2. 315 ±0. 515)U/g,and then decreased progressively to a low level until 9 DAH( 1. 389 +0. 734)U/g. Subsequently,the activity increased. After 12 DAH,it decreased to the minimum at (0. 246 ±0. 126)U/g on 14 DAH. Then the activity increased rapidly and reached the maximum at(4.731 ±0. 309) U/g on 18 DAH. From 20 DAH, the specific activity of Na+ ,K + -ATPase reached a relatively stable level until 50 DAH ( 3. 667 ± 0. 633 ) U/g. The change of Na+ , K + -ATPase activity

  8. Application of Constructed Wetlands on Wastewater Treatment for Aquaculture Ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gu; WU Zhenbin; CHENG Shuiping; LIANG Wei; HE Feng; FU Guiping; ZHONG Fei

    2007-01-01

    A group of constructed wetlands (CWs) were applied to the recirculating aquaculture system. This study assessed the performance of CWs in treating the aquaculture wastewater, examined the water quality condition of aquaculture ponds and the growth and the survival rate of "target" species(Ictalurus punctatus and Megalobrama amblycephala). The results showed that CWs were effective on reducing the concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, at 70.5%), total suspended solids (TSS, at 81.9%),chlorophyll a (Chl-a, at 91.9%), ammonium (NH4+, at 61.5%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N, at 68.0%). Effect of CWs on phosphate (PO43- -P) removal was relatively lower (at 20.0%). The concentrations of BOD5, TSS, Chl-a, NH4+ and TN, TP in the recirculating culture pond were significantly lower than that in the control pond( p < 0.05 ). CWs could help to increase total yield, survival rate of the "target" species and significantly decrease feed conversion ratio ( p < 0.05 ).

  9. Toxicity of harmful cyanobacterial blooms to bream and roach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchet, Isabelle; Cadel-Six, Sabrina; Djediat, Chakib; Marie, Benjamin; Bernard, Cécile; Puiseux-Dao, Simone; Krys, Sophie; Edery, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are facing increasing environmental pressures, leading to an increasing frequency of cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (cHABs) that have emerged as a worldwide concern due to their growing frequency and their potential toxicity to the fauna that threatens the functioning of ecosystems. Cyanobacterial blooms raise concerns due to the fact that several strains produce potent bioactive or toxic secondary metabolites, such as the microcystins (MCs), which are hepatotoxic to vertebrates. These strains of cyanobacteria may be potentially toxic to fish via gastrointestinal ingestion and also by direct absorption of the toxin MC from the water. The purpose of our study was to investigate toxic effects observed in fish taken from several lakes in the Ile-de-France region, where MCs-producing blooms occur. This study comprises histological studies and the measurement of MC concentrations in various organs. The histological findings are similar to those obtained following laboratory exposure of medaka fish to MCs: hepatic lesions predominate and include cell lysis and cell detachment. MC concentrations in the organs revealed that accumulation was particularly high in the digestive tract and the liver, which are known to be classical targets of MCs. In contrast concentrations were very low in the muscles. Differences in the accumulation of MC variants produced by blooms indicate that in order to more precisely evaluate the toxic potential of a specific bloom it is necessary not only to consider the concentration of toxins, but also the variants produced.

  10. Reproductive biology and spawning habitats of Megalobrama pellegrini, an endemic fish in upper-reaches of Yangtze River basin%厚颌鲂(Megalobrama pellegrini)的繁殖生物学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文静; 王剑伟; 谢从新; 谭德清

    2007-01-01

    从长江上游一级支流龙溪河收集了1382尾厚颌鲂开展繁殖生物学研究.结果表明,厚颌鲂繁殖期为4~7月份,盛期为4~5月份,在繁殖季节可借第二性征辨别性别.繁殖群体主要由2、3龄个体组成,总性比♀∶♂=1∶1.83.厚颌鲂2龄初次性成熟(♀∶75%;♂∶94.7%),3龄个体全部成熟.最小性成熟雌性全长189.0mm,体长158.0mm,体重72.1g,成熟系数2.7%;雄性全长179.0mm,体长149.0mm,体重57.1g,成熟系数2.2%.厚颌鲂绝对怀卵量为(59587.22±59018)粒,相对怀卵量为(212.64±89.50)粒/g或(230.96±137.63)粒/mm,绝对怀卵量和相对怀卵量均在5龄大幅增长.比较繁殖力以3龄组最高,2、4、5龄组相近.集群繁殖需要18℃以上水温和其他一些生态因子刺激,亲鱼追逐约1h左右产卵.

  11. Discriminant classification of different fish-species backscattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiao; Xu, Feng; Liu, Yin; Zhang, Chun

    2012-11-01

    The complex structure of fish and multispecies composition complicate the analysis of acoustic data. Consequently, it is difficult to obtain a highly accurate rate of classification by using current approaches. This paper introduces two discriminating methods: the adaptive segmentation temporal centroid method and the wavelet packet multi-scale information entropy method. To verify and compare these two methods, an ex situ experiment has been performed with three kinds of fish: Crucian carp (Carassius auratus), Yellow-headed catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and Bluntnose black bream (Megalobrama amblycephale). The backscattering signals of these fishes are obtained. Then the temporal centroid in the divided sub-segmentation of the backscattering envelope is calculated, and the multi-scale information entropy of the wavelet packet decomposition in different frequency bands is extracted. Finally, three kinds of fish are successfully classified by using a BP neural network. The result shows that the adaptive segmentation temporal centroid method is 4% more accurate than the wavelet packet multi-scale information entropy method.

  12. Effects of dietary nutrient composition on de novo lipogenesis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn

    (using diets otherwise iso-DP and iso-DE). The apparent retention of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were positively related to dietary starch level (and negatively related to dietary lipid level), exceeding 100% in fish fed high starch diets. These findings...

  13. Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infection in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): Immune-related studies

    OpenAIRE

    Estensoro Atienza, Itziar

    2013-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral estudia diversos aspectos de la enteromixosis de la dorada, relacionados principalmente con la transmisión y la caracterización del parásito, con los factores que afectan a su establecimiento en el hospedador y a la interacción parásito-hospedador, y con la respuesta inmunitaria inducida por el parásito. En primer lugar, se desarrolló un nuevo método de transmisión de E. leei, que mejora los resultados obtenidos por los hasta ahora disponibles. El parásito se tr...

  14. Effects of commercial fishery on the bream population and the expansion of Chara aspera in Lake Veluwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, E.H.R.R.; Meijer, M.L.; Nes, van E.H.; Berg, van den M.S.

    2004-01-01

    The fish community in the shallow Lake Veluwe (3400 ha) has recently changed in composition. The total biomass of fish decreased to ca. 35% of the original biomass. The change in fish biomass followed the introduction of a commercial fishery and was in its turn followed by a rapid expansion of macro

  15. Structure of spawning population of the bream Abramis brama in water bodies of the Dniprovsko-Orelsky nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Bondarev

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The population state of important food fish Abramis brama L. in the Dniprovsko-Orelsky Nature Reserve is under consideration . Basic population parameters of the species have been studied. Assessment of modern state and determination of perspectives of further existence of the roach in the Reserve’s basins have been done.

  16. Glycogenesis and de novo lipid synthesis from dietary starch in juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    the metabolic fate of dietary starch, 0·7% wheat starch was replaced with isotope-labelled starch (.98% 13C). Fish were fed the experimental diets for three consecutive 10 d periods, and isotope ratio MS was applied to quantify 13C enrichment of liver and whole-body glycogen and lipid pools over the three...... feeding periods. Glycogenesis originating from dietary starch accounted for up to 68·8 and 38·8% of the liver and whole-body glycogen pools, respectively, while up to 16·7% of the liver lipid could be attributed to dietary starch. Between 5 and 8% of dietary starch carbon was recovered in whole-body lipid......, and estimated deposition rates of de novo synthesised lipid originating from starch ranged from 18·7 to 123·7 mg/kg biomass per d. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect growth, feed performance or body composition of the fish, while the hepatosomatic index and glycogen content of whole fish and livers...

  17. Sedative effect of 2-phenoxyethanol and essential oil of Lippia alba on stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Cândida; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; de Lima Silva, Lenise; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2015-12-01

    The anesthetic efficacy of the essential oil of Lippia alba (EOLA) in Sparus aurata was evaluated by induction and recovery times of anesthesia. After, specimens were exposed to anesthetics low concentrations for 4h, under nonstress or stress conditions. Range 100-300 μL L(-1) EOLA induced anesthesia. Plasmatic cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality enhanced after EOLA exposure in the undisturbed (UF) and stressed fish (SF). Lower corticotropin-releasing hormone binding-protein expression occurred in SF/EOLA compared with 2-PHE/stress combination or to EOLA/undisturbed conditions. Stress processes reduced prolactin (PRL) expression in the control fish, while UF exhibited reduced PRL levels after exposure to both anesthetics. Proopiomelanocortin (POMCa) mRNA was higher after 2-PHE exposure in SF compared to control; POMCb expression was higher in SF/EOLA in contrast to control and UF/EOLA conditions. Thus, EOLA was an effective anesthetic, but it was unable to prevent a stress response in S. aurata; while 2-PHE is advisable to sedate S. aurata without causing stress, but it was not effective at preventing a stress response in the present work.

  18. Immunocytochemical identification and localization of APUD cells in the gut of seven stomachless teleost fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Sheng Pan; Zhi Ping Fang; Ya Xin Zhao

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the cell types, localization,distribution density and morphology of APUD cells in the intestinal mucosa of stomachless teleost fishes.METHOD By using the peroxidaseantiperoxidase complex ( PAP )immunocytochemical staining technique the identification, localization and morphology of immunoreactive (IR) endocrine cells seattered in the intestinal mucosa of grass carp ( Cyenopharyngodon idellus ), black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus ) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio ) were investigated with 20 kinds of antisera prepared against mammalian peptide hormones of APUD cells, and likewise by using avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC)method those of silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ), bighead (Aristichthys nobilis ), silver crucian carp (Carassius gibelio ) and bluntnose black bream ( Megalobrama amblyocephala ) were also studied with 5 different antisera. The replacement of the first antiserum by phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was employed as a control. IR endocrine cells were counted with a square-mesh ocular micrometer from 10 fields selected randomly in every section of each part of the intestine specimen. The average number of IR endocrine cells per mm2 was counted to quantify their distribution density.RESULT Gastrin (GAS)-, Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)-, glucagon (GLU)-, glucagon-like immunoreactants ( GLI )-, bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP)-, leucine-enkephalin (ENK)-and substance P (SP)-IR endocrine cells were found in the gut of grass carp, black carp and common carp, and somatostatin ( SOM )-IR endocrine cells were only seen in common carp.GAS-, GIP- and GLU-IR endocrine cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of silver carp,bighead, silver crucian carp and bluntnose black bream. Most of IR endocrine cells had the higher distribution density in the foregut and midgut,and were longer in shape. They had a long apical cytoplasmic process extended to the gut lumen and a basal process extended to adjacent cells or basement membrane and

  19. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF DISTRIBUTING AND ACCUMULATION Of HEAVY METALS ARE IN ORGANISMS Of THE FISHES BENTOPHAGES Of KREMENCHUG STORAGE POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Melnik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of heavy metals is investigational in organs and fabrics of the fishes bentophages - bream (Abramis brama L., roach (Rutilus rutilus L. and white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L. of the Kremenchug storage pool. It is set that after maintenance of heavy metals in organs and fabrics in the direction of increase of their concentration it is possible to present such row: bream < white bream < roach.

  20. Neuroglial cells in long-term primary cultures from the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.: new functional in vitro model from bony fish brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Centoducati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroglia has been historically considered the “glue” of the nervous system, as the ancient Greek name suggests, being simply referred as non-neuronal cells, with supporting functions for neurons in the CNS of mammalian and lower vertebrates. All around the world, approximately 283 cell lines were obtained from fish, yet none of these was from the brain of Sparus aurata, neither in cell lines nor as primary culture. Here we describe a novel in vitro reproducible neuroglial marine model for establishing primary neuroglial cell cultures, by dissociating the whole brain of seabream juveniles. We showed that proliferating neural stem cells produced alongside three generating lineages, such as neuronal precursor cells, astroglial precursor cells and oligodendroglia precursor cells, which developed respectively neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The radial glia, finely described by morphological studies and immunochemical antigen expression, showed a peculiar spatial distribution, giving rise simultaneously both to astrocytes and neuronal precursors within a highly proliferative assemblate. Radial glia cells were assessed by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and vimentin reactivity, astrocytes by GFAP, neurons by the neuron-specific markers for ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1 and intermediate filament associated protein (NF, whereas myelinating oligodendrocytes were immunostained with anti-myelin basic protein (MBP and anti-O4. Our findings suggest that seabream neuroglial cells gain in 3-4 weeks of culturing proliferation, neuroglial differentiation, and oligodendrocyte maturation with myelination, thus disclosing on the possibility that mixed neuroglial cultures can accelerate the maturation of oligodendrocytes and the regeneration of CNS injury in fish.

  1. Feeding ecology of the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus cadenati (Perciformes: Sparidae) and the ballan wrasse, Labrus bergylta (Perciformes: Labridae), from Faial Island – Azores

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Copyright © 2005 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved To make a first approach in the assessment of the sea urchin predators in the Azores, the diet of white seabream (Diplodus sargus) and ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta), were studied by the analyses of their stomach contents. The white seabream is a diurnal omnivore, feeding on algae, sea-urchins, worms, gastropods and amphipods, while ballan wrasse fed mainly on echinoderms (sea-urchins), gastropods and decapods. Both species tended...

  2. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) regulates prolactin, growth hormone, and IGF-1 receptor expression in the pituitary gland of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed-Geba, Khaled; Martos-Sitcha, J A; Galal-Khallaf, A; Mancera, J M; Martínez-Rodríguez, G

    2016-02-01

    The role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on regulation of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) as well as the possible involvement of IGF-1 receptor subtype a (IGF-1Ra) mRNA was assessed in juvenile specimens of Sparus aurata. IGF-1Ra was successfully cloned, and active receptor domains were localized in its mRNA precursor. Also, phylogenetic analysis of the protein sequence indicated a closer proximity to IGF-1Ra isoform found in zebrafish and other teleosts, than to the isoform IGF-1Rb. The most abundant presence of IGF-1Ra mRNA was detected in white muscle, whereas head kidney showed the lowest gene expression among 24 different studied tissues. Pituitaries of juvenile specimens of S. aurata were incubated in vitro with different doses of IGF-1 (0, 1, 100, and 1000 ng mL(-1)) during a period of 10 h. Total RNA with a high quality could be obtained from these pituitaries. PRL mRNA expression significantly increased with increasing IGF-1 doses. Similarly, IGF-1Ra mRNA increased its expression in response to IGF-1. However, GH mRNA levels decreased in a dose-dependent manner after IGF-1 treatment. The contradictory responses of GH and PRL expressions to IGF-1 in our experiment are possibly mediated by IGF-1Ra presence on the somatotrophs and prolactotrophs. The increase in IGF-1Ra mRNA levels may be related to the proper activation of the PI3-K/Akt signal transduction pathways which are normally involved in GH and PRL regulation.

  3. Influence of time, storage temperature and freeze/thaw cycles on the activity of digestive enzymes from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyev, Mikhail; Gisbert, Enric

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we tested the effects of long-term storage (2 years) at -20 °C and short-term storage (several hours) in ice and freeze/thaw cycles on the activities of pancreatic, gastric and intestinal (brush border and cytosolic) digestive enzymes in a teleost fish species. The results revealed a significant lose in activity of pancreatic (trypsin, chymotrypsin, total alkaline proteases and α-amylase) and intestinal cytosolic (leucine-alanine peptidase) enzymes between 140 and 270 days of storage at -20 °C, whereas in contrast, the activity of all the assayed brush border enzymes remained constant during the first 2 years of storage at -20 °C. During short-term storage conditions, the most stable enzymes assayed were those of the enterocytes of the brush border, which did not show any change in activity after being held for 5 h in ice. Five freezing and thawing cycles did not affect the activity of the intestinal brush border enzymes and the cytosolic ones, whereas the activity of trypsin, α-amylase and bile-salt-activated lipase was significantly affected by the number of freezing and thawing cycles. No changes in pepsin activity were found in samples exposed to 1 and 2 freezing and thawing cycles.

  4. Estimates of heritability and genetic correlation for body length and resistance to fish pasteurellosis in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonello, J.; Massault, C.; Francha, R.; Haley, C.S.; Pellizzari, C.; Bovo, G.; Atarnello, Th.; Koning, de D.J.; Bargelloni, L.

    2009-01-01

    Fish pasteurellosis is an infectious disease that affects several fish species living in marine temperate waters. Its causative agent is the Gram-negative bacterium Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp). Fish pasteurellosis represents a serious health problem for the majority of intensive

  5. 翘嘴鳊及其亲本肌肉营养成分分析%Muscle nutrients of the backcross progeny of female diploid F1 hybrid (blunt snout bream × topmouth culter) × male blunt snout bream and its parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何周玲; 刘少军; 肖军; 胡方舟; 文明; 叶利海; 张纯; 徐康; 陶敏

    2014-01-01

    为研究新型杂交鱼翘嘴鳊(二倍体鲂鲌F1♀×团头鲂♂)的肌肉营养价值,实验运用生化方法测定和分析了翘嘴鳊、翘嘴红鲌、团头鲂、二倍体鲂鲌F1(团头鲂早×翘嘴红鲌♂)的肌肉营养成分,包括这些样品的水分、脂肪、蛋白质和灰分含量,以及脂肪酸组成和氨基酸组成.结果表明,翘嘴鳊与其原始亲本相比具有较高的蛋白质和较低的碳水化合物含量;脂肪酸分析发现翘嘴鳊的不饱和脂肪酸,尤其是油酸、DHA等含量显著高于其原始父母本和其他有关鱼类(P<0.05);翘嘴鳊肌肉中具有较高呈味氨基酸比例,该比例高于其父母本的相应比例.研究表明,翘嘴鳊是一种营养价值高、口感好的优质鱼类.

  6. Evaluation of cytotoxic compounds in different organs of the sea bream Sarpa salpa as related to phytoplankton consumption: an in vitro study in human liver cell lines HepG2 and WRL68.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Hamza, Asma; Van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2012-09-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the cytotoxic effects of not-yet identified compounds present in organ extracts of Sarpa salpa, collected in autumn, the period with a peak in health problems. In addition, we studied the cytotoxicity of extracts of epiphytes found in the stomach content of S. salpa collected in summer and of epiphytes collected from the sea in the Sfax area at the end of spring. We tested these fractions in two human hepatic cell lines: HepG2 and WRL68. We observed a significant loss of viable cells when HepG2 cells were exposed for 72 h to acetone extracts of livers of S. salpa at a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml protein. Proteins extracted from brain or muscle did not significantly induce cell death at the studied concentrations (≤10 mg/ml). There was a significant loss of viable cells when treated with liver extract of S. salpa dissolved in DMSO. Extracts of epiphytes collected in late spring showed a cytotoxic effect in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, we observed a significantly decreased cell viability of HepG2 at a dilution (1/40) of epiphyte extracts from stomach contents of two fish we had collected. The cytotoxic effect of the observed epiphyte extracts confirms the transfer of toxins originating from toxic dinoflagellates which live in epiphyte on the Posidonia oceanica leaves to fish organs by grazing. Hence, the liver of this fish can cause a threat to human health and consumption should for this reason be dissuaded.

  7. Phytoplankton Community Structure and Its Relationship to Water Quality Parameters in a Compound Aquaculture System%复合养殖系统中浮游植物群落结构及其与水环境因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐; 李冰; 孙盛明; 王林; 张明明; 朱健

    2015-01-01

    With the development of intensive aquaculture and high-density breeding,the excessive input of forage leads to the deterioration of pond water quality and disease outbreaks occur frequently in the cultured animals. Meanwhile,aquacultural wastewater was being discharged directly into the aquatic environment without treatment. A new,more ecological,culturing method,the integrated pond aquaculture-constructed wetland system,improves the quality of the products while conserving water resources and effectively treating the aquacultural wastewater.In this research,a modern integrated system was studied,consisting of a constructed wetland (0.045 hm2 )and a cul-ture pond (0.33 hm2 ).In the system,Megalobrama amblycephala fingerlings (33 000 ind /hm2 )with a small number of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix(3 750 ind/hm2 ),Aristichthy nobilis (900 ind /hm2 ),Carassius auratus gibelio (3 750 ind /hm2 )and Ctenopharyngodon idellus (150 ind /hm2 )were mix-cultured in the pond.The wastewater was filtered and purified through the constructed wetland and recirculated back to the pond.The finger-lings were fed on an artificial diet four times daily.The constructed wetland began operation in July,2014 and the wetland plants were harvested in December.From August to November 2014,we investigated the community struc-ture of phytoplankton in the pond when the constructed wetland was fully functioning.The relationship between phytoplankton community structure and water quality parameters was analyzed by redundancy analysis (RDA). Three sample sites were selected in the culture pond and the water samples were collected near the end of each month for determination of water physicochemical parameters including T,pH,DO,TN,TP,NH3-N and NO -2 -N. Phytoplankton samples for qualitative analysis were collected with a No.25 plankton net.1 L water samples for quantitative phytoplankton analysis were collected at 0.5 m below the surface using a glass water sampler and 15 mL Lugol′s solution was added

  8. Severe fish mortality associated with 'red tide' observed in the sea off Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A; George, M; Narvekar, P.V.; Jayakumar, D.A; Shailaja, M; Sardessai, S.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Shenoy, D.M; Naik, H.; Maheswaran, P.A.; KrishnaKumari, L.; Rajesh, G.; Sudhir, A.K.; Binu, M.S.

    Severe fish mortality associated with the "red tide" phenomenon caused by Noctiluca blooms was observed in the sea off Cochin, Kerala, India at depths less than 40 m. The dead fish, almost entirely comprised of the threadfin bream (Nemipterus...

  9. The Formation of the Polyploid Hybrids From Different Subfamily Fish Crossings and Its Evolutionary Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaojun; Qin, Qinbo; Xiao, Jun; Lu, Wenting; Shen, Jiamin; Li, Wei; Liu, Jifang; Duan, Wei; Zhang, Chun; Tao, De Min; Zhao, Rurong; Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Yun

    2007-01-01

    This study provides genetic evidences at the chromosome, DNA content, DNA fragment and sequence, and morphological levels to support the successful establishment of the polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp × blunt snout bream, which belonged to a different subfamily of fish (Cyprininae subfamily and Cultrinae subfamily) in the catalog. We successfully obtained the sterile triploid hybrids and bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (RCC) (♀) × blunt snout bream (BSB) (♂) as w...

  10. Cholesterol content in meat of some Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragić L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine cholesterol content in meat of five Cyprinidae species: white bream (Bllica bjoerkna L, carp bream (Abramis brama L, baltic vimba (Vimba vimba carinata Pallas, zope (Abramis balerus L and crucian carp (Carassius carassius gibelio Bloch from the river Danube. Cholesterol content was examined in the function of season factor and individual weight. Cholesterol concentration in meat of white bream carp bream, baltic vimba, zope and crucian carp is on average level below 20 mg/100 g of meat, which makes meat of these fish species nutritively very valuable. Cholesterol content is variable during the season. Its concentration in meat and in lipids is lowest during spring, during summer it increases and during autumn decreases, except in meat of white bream. Body weight has influence on cholesterol content when its concentration is expressed as % of cholesterol in lipids. Its content in lipids decreases with increasing of individual weight, except in meat of carp bream.

  11. 梯级水坝胁迫下东江鱼类产卵场现状分析%The status of fish spawning ground in the East River with cascade dams' duress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭细畅; 李跃飞; 李新辉; 李捷; 王超

    2012-01-01

    River it is necessary to look into the status of fish spawning ground, especially with cascade dams' duress. From March to October, 2010, we studied taxonomic composition and daily variation of fish larvae abundance from a survey in the Cuzhu section of East River over a period of 8 months, and collected 26 species (or genera). The fish larval samples were numerically dominated by four species, Gobies (Gobiidae) 63.0% , Barbel Chub (Squalwbarus curriculus) 16.8% , Tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) 9.1% , and Mandarin (Siniperca kneri) 2.0% . These four species accounted for 91.5% of total numbers. During the sampling period, the total fish larvae abundance was estimated as 1.14 billion. When compared with historical records from the 1930s' and the currently condition of fish larvae in the West River, there are obvious degradation in the fish larvae community in East River, which means no migratory species and irregular response to the hydrological variation. It comes to the conclusion that the cascade dams blocked the fish migration and caused the disappearing of some spawning grounds. Our results clearly show that Tilapia larvae outbreak in the East River, which is very dangerous to the ecology safety. We also conclude that construction of cascade dams makes the East River more habitable for Tilapia. For the purpose of protecting ecosystem , we recommend that more Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and Black Guangdong Bream (Megalobrama terminalis) be released to the East River and possibly constructions of fish passage be considered.

  12. Morphological recognition of artificial F1 hybrids between three common European cyprinid species:Rutilus rutilus,Blicca bjoerkna and Abramis brama%三种普通欧洲鲤科鱼类(拟鲤、粗鳞鳊和欧鳊)人工杂交F1代形态学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. NZAU MATONDO; M. OVIDIO; P. PONCIN; P. VANDEWALLE; J.C. PHILIPPART

    2008-01-01

    对反交试验获得的18个月的拟鲤、粗鳞鳊和欧鳊F1代进行了鉴定.对不同于拟鲤、粗鳞鳊和欧鳊三种鱼的可量和可数形态特征分析表明,拟鲤×欧鳊和拟鲤×粗鳞鳊杂交种比粗鳞鳊×欧鳊杂交种与它们的双亲更容易区分.拟鲤杂交种间具有很多形态上的相似性,例如,上侧虹膜在拟鲤为红色,杂交种则介于双亲之间.在粗鳞鳊×欧鳊杂交种中也可以观察到居间类型.拟鲤×粗鳞鳊和拟鲤×欧鳊各自的杂交种可以通过眼睛的大小、较少的侧线鳞数和2行咽喉齿等特征相区分.粗鳞鳊×欧鳊杂交种与另外两个杂交种相比,具有更多的臀鳍分支鳍条数和一个中央具一黑线的虹斑.三个种进行杂交再获得的互交种通常不易区分.%The F1 hybrids of roach Rutilus rutilus, silver bream Blicca bjoerkna, and common bream Abramis brama from experimental reciprocal cross-breedings were identified at 18 months of age in relation to the parental species. The morphological analysis, including quantitative (plastic and meristic) and nonmetric features differing in the roach, the silver bream and the common bream, revealed that roach×common bream and roach×silver bream hybrids were easier to distinguish from their parents than silver bream×common bream hybrids. These roach hybrids had many morphological similarities such as the upper iris coloured in red as in the roach, and they were morphologically intermediate to the two parents. This contrasted with the silver bream×common bream hybrids, in which intermediate characteristics were also observed, but with some parental variants. Roach×silver bream hybrids were distinguishable from roach×common bream hybrids by its large eye, its lower scale numbers along the lateral line and its two rows of pharyngeal teeth. Silver bream×common bream hybrids, compared to the two other types of hybrids studied, had higher anal fin soft ray numbers and a clear eye iris with a median

  13. 超高压协同温度处理武昌鱼茶香鱼肠的制备方法及其风味测定%Optimization of Combined Ultrahigh Pressure and Thermal Treatment for Production of Blunt-Snout Bream Sausage with Added Matcha and Analysis of Its Volatile Flavor Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚校兰; 李丛胜; 路彦霞; 姜海强

    2014-01-01

    利用超高压和温度协同处理武昌鱼,生产高品质武昌鱼茶香味鱼肠.通过响应面试验得出,当加压压力410.52 MPa、加压温度41.07℃、加压时间14.91 min时,鱼肠具有良好物性.同时,还对鱼肠的风味进行了检测,通过气相色谱-质谱联用测定了鱼肠样品中的挥发性风味物质.结果表明,传统加热处理和超高压热处理都有利于香气物质的产生,而超高压热处理后再进行热处理不利于香气物质的产生.

  14. NUTRITIONAL REGULATION OF LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE GENE EXPRESSION AND VISCERAL FAT DEPOSITION IN RED SEA BREAM (PAGRUS MAJOR)%真鲷(Pagrus major)脂蛋白脂肪酶基因表达与内脏脂肪蓄积营养调控定量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁旭方; 白俊杰; 劳海华; 李贵生; 周天鸿; Hiroshi Y. Ogata

    2003-01-01

    采用竞争性PCR方法,进行4种营养状况对真鲷脂蛋白脂肪酶(LPL)基因mRNA表达水平与内脏脂肪蓄积影响的定量研究.结果表明,真鲷LPL基因在肝脏存在营养诱导性表达,饥饿、高脂食物均是其表达诱导因子;在腹腔肠系膜脂肪组织存在组成性表达,其表达水平受摄食状态的影响,但饲料脂肪水平却不起作用.当真鲷喂食高脂食物时,诱导产生的大量肝脏LPL将为肝脏提供更多的来源于食物的游离脂肪酸,使肝脏有可能出现营养诱导性脂肪蓄积,但真鲷腹腔肠系膜脂肪组织LPL基因表达水平未出现适应性变化,其腹腔肠系膜脂肪组织将不可能作为营养诱导性蓄脂器官.由于上述营养状况对真鲷体重、腹脂指数、肝指数均没有产生显著性影响,说明真鲷具有在不同营养状况下与哺乳类相似的维持其内脏脂肪蓄积稳定的代谢机制,推测真鲷应存在某种在功能上与哺乳类相似的肥胖基因.

  15. 肉骨粉和大豆分离蛋白替代鱼粉对黑鲷幼鱼消化性能及血清指标的影响%Effects of replacing fish meal with mixture of meat and bone meal and soy protein isolate on digestive function and serum biochemistry parameters of juvenile black sea bream, Acanthopagrus schlegelii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎慧; 华颖; 陆静; 邵庆均

    2014-01-01

    肉骨粉和大豆分离蛋白以1∶1比例混合,分别替代0 (CK)、15% (T1)、30% (T2)、45% (T3)、60% (T4)和75% (T5)鱼粉,配制6种等氮等能饲料,替代组添加包膜必需蛋氨酸、赖氨酸和精氨酸,使这3种氨基酸水平与CK组一致,每组3个重复,每个重复20尾黑鲷幼鱼,探讨肉骨粉和大豆分离蛋白替代鱼粉对黑鲷幼鱼消化性能及血清生化指标的影响.结果表明:当混合蛋白替代比例超过60%时,胃蛋白酶活性显著降低,而幽门、前肠及中肠胰蛋白酶活性无显著变化.胃和中肠肌层厚度随混合蛋白替代比例的增加而显著降低.干物质和粗蛋白消化率随混合蛋白替代比例的增加而显著降低.血清总蛋白、葡萄糖和三酰甘油含量随混合蛋白替代比例的增加均无显著变化,而总胆固醇则显著降低.血清谷草转氨酶和谷丙转氨酶活性随混合蛋白替代比例的增加而显著增大.结果提示黑鲷幼鱼饲料中以1∶1比例混合肉骨粉和大豆分离蛋白可替代45%鱼粉而不影响其消化性能与生理健康.

  16. Hybridisation between two cyprinid fishes in a novel habitat: genetics, morphology and life-history traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffrey Joe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential role hybridisation in adaptive radiation and the evolution of new lineages has received much recent attention. Hybridisation between roach (Rutilus rutilus L. and bream (Abramis brama L. is well documented throughout Europe, however hybrids in Ireland occur at an unprecedented frequency, often exceeding that of both parental species. Utilising an integrated approach, which incorporates geometric morphometrics, life history and molecular genetic analyses we identify the levels and processes of hybridisation present, while also determining the direction of hybridisation, through the analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Results The presence of F2 hybrids was found to be unlikely from the studied populations, although significant levels of backcrossing, involving both parental taxa was observed in some lakes. Hybridisation represents a viable conduit for introgression of genes between roach and bream. The vast majority of hybrids in all populations studied exhibited bream mitochondrial DNA, indicating that bream are maternal in the majority of crosses. Conclusions The success of roach × bream hybrids in Ireland is not due to a successful self reproducing lineage. The potential causes of widespread hybridisation between both species, along with the considerations regarding the role of hybridisation in evolution and conservation, are also discussed.

  17. Otolith microchemistry: Insights into bioavailable pollutants in a man-made, urban inlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronis, Christina; Evans, Noreen J; McDonald, Bradley J; Nice, Helen E; Gagnon, Marthe Monique

    2017-02-23

    Black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri) were collected from an artificial inlet, Claisebrook Cove, Western Australia. Claisebrook Cove is adjacent to an historic contaminated site that was remediated during the 1990s. It was later identified as a priority area due to elevated levels of sediment contaminants including Zn, Cu, and Pb. Black bream were collected from this cove in 2005 and 2012 and their otoliths were analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry of the most recent growth zone. Levels of Zn and Mn, which are metabolically regulated, did not correlate with sediment contamination. However, reduction in sediment Cu levels over time coincided with reduced Cu otolith levels from 2005 to 2012. Results indicate that the elemental composition of the marginal edge of Black bream otoliths can identify bioavailable contaminants in an urban estuary and, with monitoring, can be utilized to establish long-term trends.

  18. [Characterization of the intestinal digestive glycosidases in plankton- and benthos-feeding species of the fish genus Ballerus (Cyprinidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovanova, I L; Filippov, A A; Bolotovskiĭ, A A; Levin, B A

    2015-01-01

    The activity of hydrolases (maltase, saccharase, amylolytic activity) in the intestinal mucosa of the plankton-feeding zope Ballerus ballerus and the benthos-feeding white-eye bream Ballerus sapa was investigated. The temperature characteristics of maltase hydrolysis (T(opt) and E(act)) are similar in both species. The lower K(m) of maltase hydrolysis in the white-eye bream reflects a higher enzyme/substrate affinity and indicates a more effective carbohydrate hydrolysis in the benthos-versus plankton-feeding species. The glycosidase activity in the white-eye bream is twice as high as in the zope. This may be due not only to different feeding spectra and biochemical food contents but also to the differences in thyroid status of species under consideration.

  19. A dot immunobinding assay (DIA) to detect the exotoxin produced by the pathogenic bacteria of the vibriosis in marine cage-cultured Pagrus major%海水养殖真鲷弧菌病病原菌外毒素的点酶法检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴后波; 潘金培

    2003-01-01

    Vibriosis, caused by Vibrio mimicus, became a major cause of serious economic losses in the farming of red sea bream along the coast of southern China. It has been demonstrated that the pathogenicity of V. mimicus for red sea bream is due to the production of a heat-labile exotoxin. In the present paper, a dot immunobinding assay (DIA) to detect the toxin produced by V. mimicus was developed. The lowest concentration of the toxin the DIA could detect was 0. 025/μg·mL-1 The DIA could detect the toxin in the supernatant of liver and spleen of the diseased red sea bream Pagrus major, even if the supernatant was diluted by 1000 times. It was concluded that the DIA would be useful for rapid and effective detection of the toxin in large samples.

  20. Eléments pour l'identification des restes crâniens des poissons dulçaquicoles de Belgique et du Nord de la France. 2. Cypriniformes

    OpenAIRE

    Libois, Roland; Hallet, Catherine

    1988-01-01

    Outline drawings of the most typical skull bones of 23 Cypriniformes species (dentary, maxillary, pharyngeal bone) are presented. The main distinctive morphological features are summarized into identification keys. Biometrical relationships also computed for eigth common species (Gudgeon, Bleak, Rudd, Roach, Common bream, Carp, Tench and the Stone loach). Peer reviewed

  1. Estimating spawning habitat availability in flooded areas of the river Waal, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Ruizeveld de Winter, A.C.; Straatsma, M.W.; Brink, N.G.M.; Leeuw, de J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fish spawning habitat availability in the river Waal is significantly influenced by seasonal and annual variations in discharge. In this paper we develop habitat suitability models, based on a literature survey of spawning preferences of the commonly occurring species roach (Rutilus rutilus), bream

  2. Update on Fish Disease Situation in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation we provide a general overview of the aquatic animal health issues related to the aquaculture sector and wild environment in Italy in 2011. Considering saltwater species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) are still the most widely...

  3. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Tirsgaard, B.; Michaelsen, Thomas Y.;

    2016-01-01

    , the methodology rarely accounts for anaerobic metabolism within the MS. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), this study tested for trade-offs (i) between aerobic and anaerobic components of locomotor performance; and (ii) between the corresponding components...

  4. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.;

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady...

  5. Match or mismatch: the influence of phenology on size-dependent life history and divergence in population structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherding, Jost; Beeck, Peter; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Scharf, Werner R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary 1. In gape-limited predators, body size asymmetries determine the outcome of predator-prey interactions. Due to ontogenetic changes in body size, the intensity of intra- and interspecific interactions may change rapidly between the match situation of a predator-prey system and the mismatch situation in which competition, including competition with the prey, dominates. 2. Based on a physiologically structured population model using the European perch (Perca fluviatilis), analysis was performed on how prey density (bream, Abramis brama), initial size differences in the young-of-the-year (YOY) age cohort of the predator, and phenology (time-gap in hatching of predator and prey) influence the size structure of the predator cohort. 3. In relation to the seasonality of reproduction, the match situation of the predator-prey system occurred when perch hatched earlier than bream and when no gape-size limitations existed, leading to decreased size divergence in the predator age cohort. Decreased size divergence was also found when bream hatched much earlier than perch, preventing perch predation on bream occurring, which, in turn, increased the competitive interaction of the perch with bream for the common prey, zooplankton; i.e. the mismatch situation in which also the mean size of the age cohort of the predator decreased. 4. In between the total match and the mismatch, however, only the largest individuals of the perch age cohort were able to prey on the bream, while smaller conspecifics got trapped in competition with each other and with bream for zooplankton, leading to enlarged differences in growth that increased size divergence. 5. The modelling results were combined with 7 years of field data in a lake, where large differences in the length-frequency distribution of YOY perch were observed after their first summer. These field data corroborate that phenology and prey density per predator are important mechanisms in determining size differences within the YOY

  6. Biomass and abundance biases in European standard gillnet sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmejkal, Marek; Ricard, Daniel; Prchalová, Marie; Říha, Milan; Muška, Milan; Blabolil, Petr; Čech, Martin; Vašek, Mojmír; Jůza, Tomáš; Monteoliva Herreras, Agustín; Encina, Lourdes; Peterka, Jiří; Kubečka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The European Standard EN 14757 recommends gillnet mesh sizes that range from 5 to 55mm (knot-to-knot) for the standard monitoring of fish assemblages and suggests adding gillnets with larger mesh sizes if necessary. Our research showed that the recommended range of mesh sizes did not provide a representative picture of fish sizes for larger species that commonly occur in continental Europe. We developed a novel, large mesh gillnet which consists of mesh sizes 70, 90, 110 and 135mm (knot to knot, 10m panels) and assessed its added value for monitoring purposes. From selectivity curves obtained by sampling with single mesh size gillnets (11 mesh sizes 6 - 55mm) and large mesh gillnets, we identified the threshold length of bream (Abramis brama) above which this widespread large species was underestimated by European standard gillnet catches. We tested the European Standard gillnet by comparing its size composition with that obtained during concurrent pelagic trawling and purse seining in a cyprinid-dominated reservoir and found that the European Standard underestimated fish larger than 292mm by 26 times. The inclusion of large mesh gillnets in the sampling design removed this underestimation. We analysed the length-age relationship of bream in the Římov Reservoir, and concluded that catches of bream larger than 292mm and older than five years were seriously underrepresented in European Standard gillnet catches. The Římov Reservoir is a typical cyprinid-dominated water body where the biomass of bream > 292mm formed 70% of the pelagic trawl and purse seine catch. The species-specific relationships between the large mesh gillnet catch and European Standard catch suggested that the presence of carp (Cyprinus carpio), European catfish (Silurus glanis), tench (Tinca tinca) or bream warrants the use of both gillnet types. We suggest extending the gillnet series in the European Standard to avoid misinterpretation of fish community biomass estimates.

  7. Biomass and abundance biases in European standard gillnet sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Šmejkal

    Full Text Available The European Standard EN 14757 recommends gillnet mesh sizes that range from 5 to 55mm (knot-to-knot for the standard monitoring of fish assemblages and suggests adding gillnets with larger mesh sizes if necessary. Our research showed that the recommended range of mesh sizes did not provide a representative picture of fish sizes for larger species that commonly occur in continental Europe. We developed a novel, large mesh gillnet which consists of mesh sizes 70, 90, 110 and 135mm (knot to knot, 10m panels and assessed its added value for monitoring purposes. From selectivity curves obtained by sampling with single mesh size gillnets (11 mesh sizes 6 - 55mm and large mesh gillnets, we identified the threshold length of bream (Abramis brama above which this widespread large species was underestimated by European standard gillnet catches. We tested the European Standard gillnet by comparing its size composition with that obtained during concurrent pelagic trawling and purse seining in a cyprinid-dominated reservoir and found that the European Standard underestimated fish larger than 292mm by 26 times. The inclusion of large mesh gillnets in the sampling design removed this underestimation. We analysed the length-age relationship of bream in the Římov Reservoir, and concluded that catches of bream larger than 292mm and older than five years were seriously underrepresented in European Standard gillnet catches. The Římov Reservoir is a typical cyprinid-dominated water body where the biomass of bream > 292mm formed 70% of the pelagic trawl and purse seine catch. The species-specific relationships between the large mesh gillnet catch and European Standard catch suggested that the presence of carp (Cyprinus carpio, European catfish (Silurus glanis, tench (Tinca tinca or bream warrants the use of both gillnet types. We suggest extending the gillnet series in the European Standard to avoid misinterpretation of fish community biomass estimates.

  8. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jepsen, Niels; Baktoft, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tags to explore species-and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm) in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama) and perch...... (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging...... of fish in Lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear...

  9. Physiological and ecological factors influencing the radiocaesium contamination of fish species from Kiev reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulikov, A.O. [A.N. Severtzov Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Ecology of Animals, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-23

    The monitoring of {sup 137}Cs contamination of fish from the northern part of the Kiev reservoir between 1987 and 1992 indicated systematic differences in the long-term average contamination levels of different species, which are closely related to their trophic levels. The average contamination of the predatory species: perch (Perca fluviatilis) and pike (Esox lucius) were roughly factors of 6.3 and 4.4 respectively, higher than those of the nonpredatory species: bream (Abramis brama), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophothalmus). For tench (Tinca tinca) and goldfish (Carassius sp.), this factor is 2. The solution of the caesium balance equation in fish obtained for equilibrium conditions, which is applicable to the long-term contamination, provides some explanations for these accumulation differences between the species with respect to influences by different ecological and physiological factors.

  10. Commercial and game fish from the Dąbie lake (Poland and their infection of Paracoenogonimus ovatus (Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Anna Linowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Paracoenogonimus ovatus is the parasite that infest wide definitive host range (predator birds and at least two intermediate hosts: molluscs (Viviparus viviparus, V. fasciatus and freshwater fish from eastern and central Europe. The larvae of the parasite (metacercariae go to the muscle and connective tissue, and at high intensity of infection to the internal organs and brain of fish. A total of 128 fishes were caught in autumn 2009 and 2014, by fishing boats operating in Lake Dąbie, which is one of the largest lakes in Poland. The species selected reflect the species structure of commercial and recreational catches. They were roach, bream, silver bream, crucian carp (Cyprinidae, ruffe, perch, zander (Percidae and pike (Esocidae. The fish were filleted, and the skinned muscle was compressed under a trichinoscope, what allowed to see and count metacercariae in the tissues. To facilitate parasite isolation from the cysts, the muscle tissues were subjected to a 0.1 % solution of activated pepsin and 5 % citric acid at a temperature of 20ºC. The free larvae were measured and identified under an Olympus BX 50 microscope coupled with a camera running AxioVs40 V 4.8.2.0 software. Metacercariae are grouped primarily at depths ranging from just beneath the skin to about 50% of fillet thickness. The infection prevalence of P. ovatus metacercariae in the fish analyzed was 78,5%. The density of infection per gram of muscle tissue mass in the fish infected was 8.85 (from 1 to 84 metacercariae. The highest density was noted in roach, bream and white bream (17.09, 11.14 and 9.58, respectively. Metacercariae occurred singly in pike, parasites were not found in the muscles of crucian carp, ruffe, and perch examined. The reason for such differences in infection is the availability and composition of food, as well as the behavior of the fish examined.

  11. Identification of estrogenic compounds in fish bile using bioassay-directed fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Corine J; Van Oostveen, Annemiek M; Brouwer, Abraham; Lamoree, Marja H; Legler, Juliette

    2004-12-01

    Conjugates of estrogenic chemicals, endogenous as well as xenobiotic, are mainly excreted via bile into the intestine. Therefore, measurement of estrogenic activity in bile yields useful information about an organism's internal exposure to (xeno-)estrogens. Although previous studies in The Netherlands have reported estrogenic activity in male fish bile, the contribution of natural hormones and xenobiotic substances to this activity is unknown. To identify compounds responsible for estrogenic activity in fish bile, we developed a bioassay-directed fractionation method for estrogenic chemicals. In this approach, the in vitro reporter gene assay ER-CALUX (Estrogen Responsive Chemical Activated Luciferase Gene Expression) was used to assess estrogenic activity in deconjugated bile samples and to direct RP-HPLC fractionation and chemical analysis (by GC-MS) of estrogenic compounds. The method was applied to bile from male breams (Abramis brama) collected at three locations in The Netherlands. At one of these locations, the River Dommel, extremely high levels of plasma vitellogenin and a high incidence of intersex gonads in these male breams have previously been observed, indicating the exposure to estrogens. In this study, the natural hormones 17beta-estradiol, estrone, and estriol accounted for the majority of estrogenic activity in male bream bile. At the River Dommel, the synthetic contraceptive pill component ethynylestradiol was found in effective concentrations as well. The detected natural and synthetic hormones may be responsible forthe estrogenic effects observed in wild bream from this location. Furthermore, a large number of xenobiotic chemicals was detected at relatively high levels in bile, including triclosan, chloroxylenol, and clorophene. Although chloroxylenol was shown for the first time to be weakly estrogenic, these compounds did not contribute significantly to the estrogenic activity observed.

  12. Update on Fish Disease Situation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation we provide a general overview of the aquatic animal health issues related to the aquaculture sector and wild environment in Italy in 2011.Considering saltwater species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) are still the most widely farmed species, nevertheless some “new” candidates are employed often.The first two species represents more than 95% of the total production while the remaining is obtained by different promising candid...

  13. Progress in live food production and use in fish and shellfish hatcheries

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgeloos, P

    1998-01-01

    Different species of microalgae, the rotifer, Brachionus spp., and the brine shrimp, Artemia spp., are essential live food in the farming of several species of molluscs (e.g. oyster, clam, scallop), crustaceans (e.g. marine shrimp, freshwater prawn, crabs) and fish (e.g. bass, bream, grouper, turbot, flounder, halibut, ayu). A brief overview is given of the latest developments in their production and use in industrial hatcheries.

  14. A notable Ichthyological find in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U de V. Pienaar

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available A notable ichthyological find has been made in the Kruger National Park with the recording, during April 1970, of a specimen of the marine fish, Acanthopagrus berda Forskal near the confluence of the Crocodile and Komati Rivers. This is the first record of the River or Mud Bream within the fresh water river system of the Transvaal and also the furthest point inland that this fish has been collected.

  15. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE EVIDENCE OF VIRUS INFECTION IN CULTURED MARINE FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Electron microscope investigation on the red sea bream (Pagrosomus major), bastard halibut (Paralichthys olivaceus) and stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus) in North China revealed virus infection in the bodies of the dead and diseased fish. These viruses included the lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), parvovirus, globular virus, and a kind of baculavirus which was not discovered and reported before and is now tentatively named baculavirus of stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus).

  16. Plasma biomarkers in fish provide evidence for endocrine modulation in the Elbe River, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Markus; Tyler, Charles R; Hoffmann, Mervée; Maddix, Sue; Karbe, Ludwig

    2002-06-01

    Blood plasma samples were collected from wild bream (Abramis brama L.) in the Elbe River, Germany, and analyzed for the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (VTG), a biomarker for estrogen exposure, and the sex steroids 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), testosterone (T), and 17beta-estradiol (E2) to investigate for evidence of endocrine modulation. In addition, the gonadal status and the prominence of spawning tubercles were investigated. Nine riverine sites were investigated on the Elbe that were influenced by different sources of endocrine-active substances. Bream were collected from a lake that received no domestic or industrial discharges as a control. Plasma VTG concentrations were significantly higher in male bream from the Czech border to the middle Elbe, with the highest concentrations in fish sampled at the locations near Magdeburg and downstream of Dresden (between 20 and 100 times higher than in the controls), regions that are characterized by high levels of effluent discharges into the river. Following the Elbe from this site to the sea, the concentrations of plasma VTG in males were lower than at Meissen but were still elevated above the controls. 11KT and E2 titers showed suppressions in their normal concentrations at some locations (those receiving the greatest industrial discharges). There were reciprocal relationships between inhibitory effects on gonadal growth, maturation, and plasma sex steroids and exposure to pollutants, such as organotins, pesticides, or metals. However, there was no single chemical that alone could explain the observed inhibitory effects on sexual development. The results indicate that the endocrine system in wild bream is disrupted in stretches of the Elbe River.

  17. Influence of dietary carbohydrate level on endocrine status and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in the marine fish Sparus sarba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L Y; Woo, Norman Y S

    2012-04-01

    Silver sea bream, Sparus sarba, were fed two diets of different carbohydrate levels (2 and 20% dextrin) for 4 weeks, and the effects on organ indices, liver composition, serum metabolite and hormone levels and gene expression profile of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in the liver were investigated. By using real-time PCR, mRNA expression levels of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes including glucokinase (GK, glycolysis), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, gluconeogenesis), glycogen synthase (GS, glycogenesis), glycogen phosphorylase (GP, glycogenolysis) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, pentose phosphate pathway) in liver of sea bream have been examined, and it was found that high dietary carbohydrate level increased mRNA level of GK but decreased mRNA levels of G6Pase and GP. However, mRNA levels of GS and G6PDH were not significantly influenced by dietary carbohydrate. Silver sea bream fed high dietary carbohydrate had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), liver glycogen and protein, but there were no significant changes in gonadosomatic index (GSI), serum glucose and protein level, as well as liver lipid and moisture level. Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transcript abundance were assayed by real-time PCR, and it was found that both parameters remained unchanged in fish fed different dietary carbohydrate levels. Serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) were not significantly affected by dietary carbohydrate levels, but lower serum cortisol level was found in fish fed high dietary carbohydrate level. These results suggest that silver sea bream is able to adapt to a diet with high carbohydrate content (up to 20% dextrin), the consumption of which would lead to fundamental re-organization of carbohydrate metabolism resulting in hepatic glycogen deposition.

  18. Study on food preservation by irradiation of agricultural and marine products from Cheju island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.H.; Choung, C.C.; Cho, H.O. (Jeju Univ. (Republic of Korea))

    1984-01-01

    Salted dry yellow sea bream were vaccum packed in a plastic bags and irradiated at differents levels (0,0.5,1.0,1.5, and 2.0 Mrad) using sup(60)Co source. The irradiated samples were stored at room temperature 5degC. Physical and chemical properties were examined during storage. The total bacterial count was depressed according to level of irradiation applied. It was noted that cold storage after irradiation was more effective than room temperature. TMA contents slowly increased with higher dosage rates up to 1.5 Mrad but there was a gradual decrease of TMA at the 2.0 Mrad level. It was observed that there was a rapid decrease of TMAO 20 days after irradiation irrespective of storage temperature. The reduction of total nitrogen content was highest in the control but to a lesser degree when irradiation was applied. VBN content increased in all treatments 30 days after irradiation but it was also noted that there was a tendency toward depression of VBN by irradiation. The shelf life of salted dry sea bream was extended by 20 days with irradiation plus room temperature, and by 40 days with irradiation plus cold storage. To extend shelf life of salted dry sea bream, the most effective dosage rate was 1.0 Mrad based on tenderness, bacterial count and rancidity.

  19. Profenofos residues in wild fish from cotton-growing areas of New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Chapman, J C

    2001-01-01

    The organophosphorus (OP) pesticide profenofos (O-4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate) is used heavily in cotton-growing areas of eastern Australia toward the end of the growing season. European carp (Cyprinus carpio), bony bream (Nematalosa erebi), and mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were collected from the cotton-growing areas around Wee Waa, New South Wales, to determine the relationship between profenofos residues and acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity in wild fish. Profenofos concentrations in water, sediment, and fish tissue reflected its general level of use; levels in March 1994 were significantly higher than in 1993 and generally decreased in May, 6 wk after cessation of spraying. Residues in carp and bony bream generally correlated with concentrations in water and sediment, although residues in fish tend to persist longer at some sites. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was a useful indicator of profenofos exposure within a season, particularly if linked with residue measurements. Bony bream and gravid female mosquitofish recovered AChE levels more slowly than carp or nongravid mosquitofish. Recovery in creeks was generally more rapid than in lagoons.

  20. Trophic interaction between topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva and the co-occurring species during summer in the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didenko A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topmouth gudgeon, Pseudorasbora parva is the most common invasive fish in Europe, which can compete with the juveniles of valuable commercial fishes. The goal of this work is to study the diet of topmouth gudgeon and trophic relationships with some native fishes inhabiting the littoral zone of the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir. The obtained relatively low values of diet overlaps between topmouth gudgeon and other co-occurring cyprinids such as juvenile roach, Rutilus rutilus; silver bream, Blicca bjoerkna; rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus; Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and bleak, Abramis brama, indicate that it is not a serious food competitor for them, especially commercially valuable ones. On the contrary, high diet overlaps were observed among some native cyprinids such as juvenile roach, silver bream, rudd, and bleak. The major prey items of topmouth gudgeon were Chydorus sphaericus and chironomids, whereas other cyprinids selected Bosmina spp. This peculiarity may be due to different vertical distributions of these fish in the littoral zone of the reservoir, where topmouth gudgeon inhabit near-bottom water layers, where they preyed on near-bottom and benthic zooplankters and chironomids, while juvenile roach, silver bream, rudd, and juvenile and adult bleak live in higher water layers, where they preyed on pelagic zooplankton.

  1. Who Is Who: An Anomalous Predator-Prey Role Exchange between Cyprinids and Perch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Vejřík

    Full Text Available Piscivory in cyprinids (Cyprinidae is extremely rare. Specifically, common bream (Abramis brama and common carp (Cyprinus carpio are zooplanktivorous fish in deep lentic waters. Nevertheless, we observed predation by these two cyprinids under natural conditions in the Vír Reservoir, Czech Republic. We conducted diet analysis for cyprinids caught by trawling and gillnets and the large amount of young-of-the-year (YOY perch (Perca fluviatilis, with sizes of 37-52 mm standard length, were found in their digestive tracts. In 2010, a large amount of YOY perch caused a significant decrease in Daphnia spp. size and abundance in the reservoir. Hence, a food deficit was induced for the cyprinids, apparent also from the poor nutritional condition of common bream which was much worse than the condition of those in similar reservoirs. Common carp and common bream shifted to forced piscivory, and they utilized the YOY perch as an alternative food source. In contrast, smaller species, such as roach (Rutilus rutilus and bleak (Alburnus alburnus, widely utilized planktonic cyanobacteria. In the following year, YOY perch occurred in significantly lower numbers and conversely, Daphnia spp. size and abundance were significantly higher. The forced piscivory was not observed. Our results indicate a switch to forced piscivory by cyprinids, which was caused by a shortage of their natural food source. Moreover, this phenomenon presents an effective mechanism for reduction in the numbers of YOY perch, ensuring the stability of the ecosystem.

  2. Fish fauna of the lower reaches of the River Drava and surrounding marshland habitats near Donji Miholjac (Eastern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ćaleta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field research of ichthyofauna of the lower reaches of the River Drava near Donji Miholjac was made during 2006 using fishing nets and electrofisher. Additional data was collected from the local anglers to present all caught species in this area. Sampling was conducted on all types of water habitats including side arms, artificial channels, backwater arms and the main river channel. A total of 44 fish species were reported. Six species were documented from the catch of local anglers. The family Cyprinidae is represented by 24 species, Percidae by 4, Cobitidae by 3, Gobiidae and Centrarchidae by 2, while the remaining families were represented by 1 species. The most abundant species in this part of the River Drava is roach (Rutilus rutilus. The largest part of total biomass belongs to bream (Abramis brama. Other important species according to abundance in the examined area are: bitterling (Rhodeus amarus, European perch (Perca fluviatilis, silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna and common bleak (Alburnus alburnus. According to the ichthyofauna composition, the explored area is classified as a typical bream zone which is characteristic for the lower part of the river.

  3. Status and future perspectives of vaccines for industrialised fin-fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudeseth, Bjørn Erik; Wiulsrød, Rune; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Lindmo, Karine; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Bordevik, Marianne; Steine, Nils; Klevan, Are; Gravningen, Kjersti

    2013-12-01

    Fin fish farming is developing from extensive to intensive high industrial scale production. Production of fish in high-density growth conditions requires effective vaccines in order to control persistent and emerging diseases. Vaccines can also have significant positive impact on the reduced usage of antibiotics. This was demonstrated when vaccines were introduced in Norway for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the late eighties and early nineties, resulting in a rapid decline of antibiotics consumption. The present review will focus on current vaccine applications for farmed industrialized fish species such as Atlantic salmon, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), cod (Gadus morhua), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), great amberjack (Seriola dumerili), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), japanese flounder (Paralichythys olivaceus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), red sea bream (Pagrus major), rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), seven band grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus), striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This paper will review the current use of licensed vaccines in fin fish farming and describe vaccine administration regimes including immersion, oral and injection vaccination. Future trends for inactivated-, live attenuated - and DNA - vaccines will also be discussed.

  4. Predator diversity and density affect levels of predation upon strongly interactive species in temperate rocky reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    Indirect effects of predators in the classic trophic cascade theory involve the effects of basal species (e.g. primary producers) mediated by predation upon strongly interactive consumers (e.g. grazers). The diversity and density of predators, and the way in which they interact, determine whether and how the effects of different predators on prey combine. Intraguild predation, for instance, was observed to dampen the effects of predators on prey in many ecosystems. In marine systems, species at high trophic levels are particularly susceptible to extinction (at least functionally). The loss of such species, which is mainly attributed to human activities (mostly fishing), is presently decreasing the diversity of marine predators in many areas of the world. Experimental studies that manipulate predator diversity and investigate the effects of this on strongly interactive consumers (i.e. those potentially capable of causing community-wide effects) in marine systems are scant, especially in the rocky sublittoral. I established an experiment that utilised cage enclosures to test whether the diversity and density of fish predators (two sea breams and two wrasses) would affect predation upon juvenile and adult sea urchins, the most important grazers in Mediterranean sublittoral rocky reefs. Changes in species identity (with sea breams producing major effects) and density of predators affected predation upon sea urchins more than changes in species richness per se. Predation upon adult sea urchins decreased in the presence of multiple predators, probably due to interference competition between sea breams and wrasses. This study suggests that factors that influence both fish predator diversity and density in Mediterranean rocky reefs (e.g. fishing and climate change) may have the potential to affect the predators' ability to control sea urchin population density, with possible repercussions for the whole benthic community structure.

  5. Adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs in eight species of adult and developing teleosts: morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi Milano, E; Basari, F; Chimenti, C

    1997-12-01

    Morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry of the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs (adrenal glands) of the following developing and adult teleosts were examined: Salmoniformes-Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo trutta fario (brown trout), Coregonus lavaretus (white fish); Cyprinodontiformes-Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish). Perciformes-Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass), Sparus aurata (sea bream), Diplodus sargus (white bream), Oblada melanura (saddled bream). The anatomical relationships of the gland with the renal system and venous vessels were also noted. In adults of all species steroidogenic and catecholaminergic chromaffin cells were found in the head kidney, which is pronephric in origin and subsequently transformed into a hematopoietic lymphatic organ. In Perciformes, chromaffin cells are distributed around the anterior and posterior cardinal veins and ducts of Cuvier; in Salmoniformes, around the posterior cardinal veins and in the hematopoietic tissue; and in G. affinis, around the ducts of Cuvier and posterior cardinal veins, while a few are visible also around the sinus venosus. In Perciformes and Salmoniformes, numerous chromaffin cells are also present in the posterior kidney, derived from the opisthonephros, in contact with the caudal vein. Steroidogenic cells are always confined to the head kidney. During development chromaffin and steroidogenic cells appear early after hatching in the pronephric kidney, at the level of the ducts of Cuvier and of the cephalic part of the posterior cardinal veins. Later, chromaffin cells in Perciformes reach the anterior cardinal veins, and subsequently, in both Perciformes and Salmoniformes, they reach the developing posterior kidney. Their localization along the posterior kidney is still in progress about 4 months after hatching and is completed about a year after hatching. These findings support the concept that the structure of the adrenal gland in teleosts is intermediate between that of the

  6. Concentration of mercury in muscles of predatory and non-predatory fish from lake Pluszne (Poland

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    Łuczyńska Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study examined the concentration of total mercury and correlation coefficients between fish size or FCF (condition factor and the content of Hg in muscle tissue of six freshwater fish: bream (Abramis brama L., roach (Rutilus rutilus L., whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L., vendace (Coregonus albula L., perch (Perca fluviatilis L., and pike (Esox lucius L.. Material and Methods: The fish were caught from the Lake Pluszne located in the Olsztyn Lake District (Poland. Mercury was analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry using Milestone DMA-80 (with dual-cell. Results: The content of the element in the muscles of the examined fish was as follows: pike (0.197 mg/kg ≈ perch (0.173 mg/kg > vendace (0.114 mg/kg ≈ roach (0.095 mg/kg and roach ≈ whitefish (0.065 mg/kg, and whitefish ≈ bream (0.042 mg/kg (p ≤ 0.05. In all cases, the content of mercury correlated positively with the body weight and total length of the fish. Only the correlation coefficients between mercury concentration and weight or length of bream were slightly higher (0.979 and 0.977 respectively, p ≤ 0.001. The length and weight relationship of the fish was also determined. Conclusion: The results showed that the levels of mercury were lower than the maximum acceptable limit established by the Commission Regulation (EC No 629/2008 of 2 July 2008. Thus, they are safe from consumer health point of view.

  7. Morphological polymorphism in tapeworms: redescription of Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) and characterisation of its morphotypes from different fish hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Oros, Mikuláš; Barčák, Daniel; Miklisová, Dana; Kirin, Diana; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-02-01

    Recent morphological and molecular data have shown that one of the most common parasites of freshwater fish in the Palaearctic Region, the cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Eucestoda: Caryophyllidea), is highly polymorphic. Five distinct morphotypes of C. laticeps, largely corresponding to different fish hosts and representing separate, yet closely related genetic lineages, have been recognised and they are characterised in the present paper. Morphotype 1 from breams, Abramis brama (L.) (type-host) and Ballerus spp., corresponds to the original Taenia laticeps Pallas, 1781 and its neotype (paragenophore ex A. brama in Russia) is designated. This morphotype is characterised by a slender body and flabellate scolex. Morphotype 2 was found in the Macedonian vimba Vimba melanops (Heckel) and the vimba bream V. vimba (L.); it is typified by a more robust body, with most anterior extent of the vitelline follicles near the scolex and the cirrus-sac situated more anteriorly than in other morphotypes. Morphotype 3 is represented by worms from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. that possess a cuneicrispitate scolex (having the form of a wedge with shallow indentations on anterior margin). Morphotype 4 from the common nase Chondrostoma nasus (L.) has a large, robust body and a wide scolex with numerous superficial grooves (wrinkles) in its anterior part. Morphotype 5 is represented by worms from the white-eye bream Ballerus sapa (Pallas); its typical characteristics are a festoon-like anterior margin of the scolex, the absence of vitelline follicles posterior to the cirrus-sac and the absence of a well-developed internal seminal vesicle. Discriminant analysis of 15 morphometric variables readily separated Morphotypes 3, 4 and 5 and confirmed the key discriminating power of traits related to the reproductive system, especially the terminal reproductive organs. Morphological polymorphism and the genetic divergence of different morphotypes of C. laticeps correspond

  8. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

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    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  9. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.;

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady...... to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3...

  10. Megalocytiviruses

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    Kazuhiro Nakajima

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Megalocytivirus, represented by red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV, the first identified and one of the best characterized megalocytiviruses, Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, the type species of the genus, and numerous other isolates, is the newest genus within the family Iridoviridae. Viruses within this genus are causative agents of severe disease accompanied by high mortality in multiple species of marine and freshwater fish. To date outbreaks of megalocytivirus-induced disease have occurred primarily in south-east Asia and Japan, but infections have been detected in Australia and North America following the importation of infected ornamental fish. The first outbreak of megalocytiviral disease was recorded in cultured red sea bream (Pagrus major in Japan in 1990 and was designated red sea bream iridovirus disease (RSIVD. Following infection fish became lethargic and exhibited severe anemia, petechiae of the gills, and enlargement of the spleen. Although RSIV was identified as an iridovirus, sequence analyses of RSIV genes revealed that the virus did not belong to any of the four known genera within the family Iridoviridae. Thus a new, fifth genus was established and designated Megalocytivirus to reflect the characteristic presence of enlarged basophilic cells within infected organs. Indirect immunofluorescence tests employing recently generated monoclonal antibodies and PCR assays are currently used in the rapid diagnosis of RSIVD. For disease control, a formalin-killed vaccine was developed and is now commercially available in Japan for several fish species. Following the identification of RSIV, markedly similar viruses such as infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, dwarf gourami iridovirus (DGIV, turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV, Taiwan grouper iridovirus (TGIV, and rock bream iridovirus (RBIV were isolated in East and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analyses of the major capsid protein (MCP and

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOZYME PATTERN AND MORPHOLOGY OF THREE MARINE FISH CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华荣; 张士璀; 李红岩; 童裳亮; 相建海

    2002-01-01

    Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i. e., Hounder Gill) from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i. e. , Sea Perch Heart) from sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these three cell lines and their corresponding tissues of origin were investigated and compared. The results showed: (1) No difference was found in the LDH isozyme patterns of FG and flounder gill tissue. However, the LDH isozyme patterns of SPH and RSBF were significantly different from their corresponding tissues of origin; (2) LDH isozyme patterns of FG, SPH and RSBF were markedly different from each other and could serve as genetic markers for species identification and detection of cross contamination. Morphological change analysis of these three cell lines in comparison to their original tissues indicated that FG cells still appeared epithelioid without morphological transformation. However, morphological changes were found in SPH and RSBF compared to their original tissues. Therefore, the cellular morphology was still plastic in the relatively stable culture conditions, and it was possible that change of LDH patterns wasrelated to morphological changes of fish cells in vitro.

  12. Hepcidin gene expression induced in the developmental stages of fish upon exposure to Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Jian; Bo, Jun; Yang, Ming; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Wang, Xin-Hong; Chen, Fang-Yi; Yuan, Jian-Jun

    2009-04-01

    Hepcidin is known to be expressed in fish with bacterial challenge and iron overload. Here we first report the hepcidin expression induced in the developmental stages from embryo to fry of red sea bream (Pagarus major) and in juvenile black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegelii B.) upon continuous waterborne exposure to BaP. The gene expression of CYP1A1 and IgL (immunoglobulin light chain) were both measured. Expression of the Pagarus major hepcidin gene (PM-hepc) was increased in post hatch fry at 24 h and 120 h exposure to BaP at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 microg/l, respectively. The gene expression pattern was comparable to that of CYP1A1 but different from that of IgL. In addition, a high number of AS-hepc2 transcripts (Acanthopagrus schlegelii B. hepcidin gene) were detected in the liver upon exposure to 1.0 microg/l BaP. This study demonstrates that hepcidin gene expression is significantly induced in BaP-exposed red sea bream and black porgy.

  13. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in five species of fish from three sites in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Doush, Inaam

    2002-06-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrmetroic (GC-MS) method was developed to measure six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 54 fish samples. Five fish species highly consumed by the local population (shrimps, Emperors, Rabbitfish, Doublebar Bream and Greasy Grouper) were selected from three different sites on the Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia where agricultural, municipal and petroleum industry activities take place. Variations in PAH levels among the three sites were not significant. Total concentrations of PAHs benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene ranged from non-detectable to 44.9 microg kg(-1). In this study, concentrations of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and total PAHs greater than the acceptable tolerance limit (1 microg kg(-1)) were found in 68.5, 40.7, 51.9 and 83.3% of the fish samples, respectively. PAH contents in fish vary considerably with species; Doublebar bream contain the highest while shrimps contain the lowest. This pilot study clearly shows that the consumption of fish could be a source of exposure of the local population to PAHs. Since there is a consensus on the substantial contribution of PAHs to cancer in humans, it would be interesting to conduct further research in order to determine the magnitude of the problem along other coastal regions of Saudi Arabia.

  14. Bioaccumulation of six PCB indicator congeners in a heavily polluted water reservoir in Eastern Slovakia: tissue-specific distribution in fish and their parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázová, Tímea; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of six indicator PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) were measured in several organs and adipose tissue of a freshwater predatory fishes (European perch, northern pike, pike perch, wels catfish) as well as in nonpredators (common carp, freshwater bream, goldfish, white bream) and in acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii from the water reservoir Zemplínska šírava (Eastern Slovakia), which is considered to be one of the most PCB-contaminated places in Europe. Concentration of PCBs was determined by capillary gas chromatography in samples from May to September 2009. The two-way main-effect ANOVA confirmed that feeding habits of fish (P kidney, brain, and adipose tissue of their host. About 20 times lower amount of PCBs was detected in the liver and almost 3 times in muscles of infected perch. Data on PCB accumulation in perch infected with acanthocephalans demonstrated a decline of PCB values in all organs as well as in adipose tissue compared to noninfected fish. About 20 times lower amount of PCBs was detected in the liver and almost 3 times in muscles of infected perch. Present results could indicate that some parasitic organisms may influence positively their hosts in PCB-contaminated environment.

  15. In vitro biomonitoring in polar extracts of solid phase matrices reveals the presence of unknown compounds with estrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, J; Leonards, P; Spenkelink, A; Murk, A J

    2003-01-01

    Determination of estrogenic activity has so far mainly concentrated on the assessment of compounds in surface water and effluent. This study is one of the first to biomonitor (xeno-)estrogens in sediment, suspended particulate matter and aquatic organisms. The relatively polar acetone extracts from these solid phase matrices do not contain the well-known estrogenic compounds such as hormones, alkylphenols and phthalates. An in vitro 'estrogen receptor-mediated chemical activated luciferase gene expression' (ER-CALUX) assay was applied to samples from various locations in the Netherlands. Estrogenic activity measured in polar fractions of particulate matter and sediment extracts ranged from below detection limit to up to 4.5 pmol estradiol equivalents (EEQ)/g dry weight. Estrogenic activity in freshwater river sediments was up to five times higher compared to sediments from large lakes and coastal locations. Tissue extracts EEQs were determined in bream (Abramis brama), flounder (Platichthysflesus), freshwater mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and marine mussels (Mytilus edulis). The highest biota EEQ levels were found in the freshwater zebra mussel (30 pmol EEQ/g lipid). One sample site showed greatly elevated EEQs in sediment and biota, which correlated with effects found in the wild populations of bream. The EEQ activity of the unknown compounds in the polar fraction mostly was much higher than the calculated EEQ levels based on known estrogens in the non-polar fraction (previously published data).

  16. POP levels in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and edible fish from the eastern Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Serkan; Pazi, Idil

    2017-01-01

    Organochlorinated pesticides and Aroclors were measured in the muscle of two edible fish species (gray mullet, sea bream) and blue crab, collected from eastern Mediterranean coast in 2013. The concentration of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and Aroclors in biota samples which were collected at six sites ranged from 1.0-8.6 and 9-47.5 ng g(-1) wet weight, respectively. Total DDT concentrations in seafood samples were compared to tolerance level established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA); the concentrations were detected below the tolerence level. Health risk assessment was conducted related to the consumption of chemically contaminated seafood. The estimated daily intake of OCPs calculated by using the estimated daily fish consumption in Turkey was far below the acceptable daily intake as established by FAO/WHO. Our data indicated that consumption of blue crab, gray mullet, and sea bream collected from the Mediterranean coast of Turkey could pose "no risk" for human health in terms of OCPs.

  17. Marine genetic swamping: hybrids replace an obligately estuarine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David G; Gray, Charles A; West, Ronald J; Ayre, David J

    2010-02-01

    Populations of obligately estuarine taxa are potentially small and isolated and may lack genetic variation and display regional differentiation as a result of drift and inbreeding. Hybridization with a wide-ranging marine congener should introduce genetic variation and reduce the effects of inbreeding depression and genetic drift. However, high levels of hybridization can cause demographic and genetic swamping. In southeastern Australia hybridization occurs between obligately estuarine Black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri) and migratory marine Yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus australis). Here, we surveyed genetic variation at eight microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region of juvenile fish from five coastal lagoons (including temporal replication in two lagoons) (total n = 970) to determine the frequency and persistence of hybridization, and its likely consequence for the estuarine restricted A. butcheri. Of 688 juvenile fish genotyped 95% were either A. australis (347) or hybrids (309); only 5% (32) were A. butcheri. Most hybrids were later generation hybrids or A. butcheri backcrosses, which are likely multi-generational residents within lagoons. Far greater proportions of hybrid juveniles were found within two lagoons that are generally closed to the ocean (>90% hybrid fish within generally closed lagoons vs. 12-27% in permanently or intermittently open lagoons). In both lagoons, this was consistent across multiple cohorts of fish [79-97% hybrid fish (n = 282)]. Hybridization and introgression represent a major threat to the persistence of A. butcheri and have yet to be investigated for large numbers of estuarine taxa.

  18. Taurine and fish development: insights for the aquaculture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture industry is limited by incomplete knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, it is believed that dietary taurine deficiencies may be particularly critical for fish larvae. The reasons include the high taurine levels found during egg and yolk-sac stages of fish, suggesting that taurine may be of pivotal importance for larval development. Moreover, unlike aquaculture feeds, natural preys of fish larvae contain high taurine levels, and dietary taurine supplementation has been shown to increase larval growth in several fish species. This study aimed to further explore the physiological role of taurine during fish development. Firstly, the effect of dietary taurine supplementation was assessed on growth of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae and growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Secondly, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) was characterised by qPCR in sole larvae and juveniles. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not increase sea bream growth. However, dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased sole larval growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid retention. Metamorphosis was also shown to be an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in sole tissues, while evidence for an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine was found in sole at least from juvenile stage. Taken together, our studies showed that the dependence of dietary taurine supplementation differs among fish species and that taurine has a vital role during the ontogenetic development of flatfish, an extremely valuable group targeted for aquaculture production.

  19. Sex change and effective population size: implications for population genetic studies in marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, I; Chopelet, J; Waples, R S; Mann, B Q; Mariani, S

    2016-10-01

    Large variance in reproductive success is the primary factor that reduces effective population size (Ne) in natural populations. In sequentially hermaphroditic (sex-changing) fish, the sex ratio is typically skewed and biased towards the 'first' sex, while reproductive success increases considerably after sex change. Therefore, sex-changing fish populations are theoretically expected to have lower Ne than gonochorists (separate sexes), assuming all other parameters are essentially equal. In this study, we estimate Ne from genetic data collected from two ecologically similar species living along the eastern coast of South Africa: one gonochoristic, the 'santer' sea bream Cheimerius nufar, and one protogynous (female-first) sex changer, the 'slinger' sea bream Chrysoblephus puniceus. For both species, no evidence of genetic structuring, nor significant variation in genetic diversity, was found in the study area. Estimates of contemporary Ne were significantly lower in the protogynous species, but the same pattern was not apparent over historical timescales. Overall, our results show that sequential hermaphroditism may affect Ne differently over varying time frames, and that demographic signatures inferred from genetic markers with different inheritance modes also need to be interpreted cautiously, in relation to sex-changing life histories.

  20. Concentrations of metals and trace elements in different tissues of nine fish species from the Međuvršje reservoir (West Morava River Basin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đikanović Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Element concentrations in selected fish species from different trophic levels were analyzed. The following fish species were analyzed: common nase (Chondrostoma nasus, roach (Rutilus rutilus, freshwater bream (Abramis brama, barbel (Barbus barbus, Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio,chub (Squalius cephalus, European perch (Perca fluviatilis, wels catfish (Silurus glanisand northern pike (Esox lucius. Fish were collected from the Međuvršje Reservoir (West Morava River Basin, western Serbia during 2012, and samples of liver, muscle and gills were analyzed for As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The liver and gills had the highest measured element concentrations, with Cu, Zn, Fe and Sr being the most prominent. The bioaccumulation of metals was species-specific, with the accumulation exhibiting the following trends: Prussian carp > northern pike > freshwater bream > European perch > chub > common nase > barbell > roach > wels catfish; Li>Pb>Zn>Cu>Fe>Ba>Mn>Sr>Cr>As>Mo>Ni>B, in all examined species; for Co, Cd and Hg, the bioaccumulation factor (BAF was 0. Results of this study point to the tissue-specific differences in element concentrations, and to distinct differences between fish species regarding the accumulation patterns: common nase, with the highest accumulation observed in the liver, and Prussian carp, with the highest accumulation observed in the gills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173045 i br. 37009

  1. Concentrations of 17 elements in muscle, gills, liver and gonads of five economically important fish species from the Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhardt M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Danube River in the vicinity of the city of Belgrade receives large amounts of untreated or poorly treated communal and industrial waste waters. The aim of this study was to assess elemental accumulation patterns in a number of economically important fish species in this area that belong to different trophic levels. Concentrations of 17 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were assessed in liver, muscle, gills and gonads of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, freshwater bream (Abramis brama, white bream (Blicca bjoerkna, common carp (Cyprinus carpio and wels catfish (Silurus glanis from the Danube River in Serbia by the use of ICP-OES. Silver carp specimens were differentiated from the other four species by high concentrations of Al and Fe in the liver. Common carp specimens were differentiated by high concentrations of Zn in gills, muscle and liver. Distribution of elements among different tissues had a consistent pattern among the species. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, As, Zn, Cu and Fe in muscle were at acceptable levels for human consumption, while concentrations of Fe and Zn were above maximum acceptable concentrations in liver and gonads.

  2. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Skov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder tags to explore species- and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus, common bream (Abramis brama and perch (Perca fluviatilis. In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging of fish in lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear to be the most vulnerable of the three species and based on a comparison with mortality estimates from lakes without significant avian predation, this study suggest that predation from cormorants can induce age/size truncation in lake Viborg, leaving very few larger perch in the lake. This truncation reduces the likelihood of anglers catching a large perch and may also influence lower trophic levels in the lake and thus turbidity as large piscivorous perch often play an important structuring role in lake ecosystem functioning.

  3. Contamination of Omnivorous Freshwater Fish Species and Sediments by Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niewiadowska Alicja

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were determined in 158 muscle samples of bream (Abramis brama and roach (Rutilus rutilus, and 84 samples of sediments collected from 10 river and lake sampling sites in 2011 and 2012. The concentrations of DDTs (p,p’-DDT, o,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, and p,p’-DDD, HCH isomers (a-, ß-, and y-HCH, HCB, and PCBs (six indicator PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180 were determined using the capillary gas chromatography. The mean concentrations of DDTs in bream and roach were in the range of 11.2-654 and 4.5-121 ug/kg wet weight respectively, and PCBs were in the range of 1.3-75.9 and 1.1-112 ug/kg wet weight, respectively. Mean concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in sediments were 0.5-270 ug/kg dry weight and ⋋0.1-2.2 ug/kg dry weight respectively. The study showed clear spatial differences in the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish and sediments from different aquatic ecosystems. The highest levels of contaminants were detected in fish and sediments from the Vistula River in vicinity of Cracow. The possible risk to the fish meat consumers and ecological risk were evaluated.

  4. The role of the Environmental Specimen Bank in environmental monitoring: The example of CHC in selected matrices; Die Rolle der Umweltprobenbank in der Umweltueberwachung am Beispiel von chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen in ausgewaehlten Matrizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marth, P.; Kettrup, A. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie]|[Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Umweltanalytik; Schramm, K.W.; Henkelmann, B.; Wolf, A.; Oxynos, K.; Schmitzer, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1999-03-01

    For precautionary environmental protection the Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) has been successfully established as a permanent environmental surveillance tool in Germany. The presented monitoring results on chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) show very clearly the effects of political decisions and can be used for the identification of pollutant sources. The CHC burden of breams (Abramis brama) from five German rivers (Elbe, Rhein, Saar, Mulde, Saale) gives an current overview of the pollution situation of different limnic ecosystems in Germany. A calculation model about the distribution of organic pollutants between different tissues offers the possibility to predict concentrations in liver and muscle of breams. Legislative emission restrictions have led to a significant decrease of dioxin levels in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs between 1988-1996. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Umweltprobenbank des Bundes hat sich im Rahmen der Oekologischen Umweltbeobachtung zu einem wichtigen und permanenten Instrument der Umweltpolitik entwickelt. Neben der Langzeitkonservierung fuer zukuenftige Forschungsaufgaben wird am Beispiel der chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffe demonstriert, dass das durchgefuehrte Monitoring-Programm als Nachweis fuer die Effektivitaet gesetzlicher Massnahmen und zur Identifizierung von Schadstoffeintragsquellen genutzt werden kann. Der vorliegende Beitrag vermittelt am Beispiel der Brassen (Abramis brama) als Akkumulationsindikator einen aktuellen und raeumlich differenzierten Ueberblick ueber die chlororganische Belastungssituation bundesdeutscher Gewaesser (Elbe, Rhein, Saar, Mulde, Saale). Betrachtungen zur Verteilung organischer Chemikalien zwischen Gewebetypen von Brassen zeigen, dass sich die Verteilung der Schadstoffkonzentrationen in Leber und Muskel mit einem geringen Fehler errechnen laesst. Die Dioxingehalte von Silbermoeweneiern (Larus argentatus) belegen, dass die Belastung durch strengere Emissionsgrenzwerte seit Beginn der neunziger Jahre

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabonomic profiling using tO2PLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirwan, Gemma M., E-mail: gemma.kirwan@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, City Campus, Vic 3001 (Australia); Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Hancock, Timothy [Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Hassell, Kathryn [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Vic 3083 (Australia); Niere, Julie O. [Department of Chemistry, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, City Campus, Vic 3001 (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Vic 3083 (Australia); Goto, Susumu [Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Adams, Michael J. [Department of Chemistry, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, City Campus, Vic 3001 (Australia)

    2013-06-05

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Transposition of O2PLS input matrix (tO2PLS) to analyze metabonomics data. •tO2PLS specific components describe features that separate and define sample groups. •Application of tO2PLS to a {sup 1}H NMR metabonomics study of black bream fish. -- Abstract: Blood plasma collected from adult fish (black bream, Sparidae) exposed to a dose of 5 mg kg{sup −1} 17β-estradiol underwent metabonomic profiling using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). An extension of the orthogonal 2 projection to latent structure (O2PLS) analysis, tO2PLS, was proposed and utilized to classify changes between the control and experimental metabolic profiles. As a bidirectional modeling tool, O2PLS examines the (variable) commonality between two different data blocks, and extracts the joint correlations as well as the unique variations present within each data block. tO2PLS is a proposed matrix transposition of O2PLS to allow for commonality between experiments (spectral profiles) to be observed, rather than between sample variables. tO2PLS analysis highlighted two potential biomarkers, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and choline, that distinguish between control and 17β-estradiol exposed fish. This study presents an alternative way of examining spectroscopic (metabolite) data, providing a method for the visual assessment of similarities and differences between control and experimental spectral features in large data sets.

  6. Effect of acid and alkaline solubilization on the properties of surimi based film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thummanoon Prodpran

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of acid and alkaline solubilizing processes on the properties of the protein based film from threadfin bream surimi was investigated. Surimi films prepared from both processes had the similar light transmission, tensile strength (TS and elongation at break (EAB (P<0.05. However, film with alkaline process had slightly lower water vapor permeability (WVP, compared to that prepared by acid solubilizing process. The protein concentration in the film-forming solution directly affected the properties of the film. Increase in protein concentration resulted in an increase in TS, EAB as well as WVP. The film prepared by acid solubilizing process had an increase in yellowish color as evidenced by the continuous increase in b* and E* values during the storage at r oom temperature. The acid and alkali solubilizing processes caused the degradation of muscle protein in surimi, especially with increasing exposure time. Therefore, solubilizing process had the influence on the properties of the protein film from threadfin bream surimi.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOZYME PATTERN AND MORPHOLOGY OF THREE MARINE FISH CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华荣; 张士璀; 李红岩; 童裳亮; 相建海

    2002-01-01

    Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i.e. , Flounder Gill) from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i.e., Sea Perch Heart) fro m sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red se a bream (Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is ozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these three cell lines and their corresponding tissues of origin were investigated and compared. The results sho wed: (1) No difference was found in the LDH isozyme patterns of FG and flounder gill tissue. However, the LDH isozyme patterns of SPH and RSBF were significantly different from their cor responding tissues of origin; (2) LDH isozyme patterns of FG, SPH and RSBF were markedly di fferent from each other and could serve as genetic markers for species identification and de tection of cross contamination. Morphological change analysis of these three cell lines in compa rison to their original tissues indicated that FG cells still appeared epithelioid without mor phological transformation. However, morphological changes were found in SPH and RSBF compa red to their original tissues. Therefore, the cellular morphology was still plastic in the relatively stable culture conditions, and it was possible that change of LDH patterns was related to morphological changes of fish cells in vitro.

  8. Single-laboratory validation study of rapid analysis method for multi-class veterinary drugs in milk, fish and shellfish by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Takayuki; Nagano, Chieko; Kanda, Maki; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Tsuneo; Kanai, Setsuko; Matsushima, Yoko; Tateishi, Yukinari; Sasamoto, Takeo; Takano, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    A method of rapid analysis of multi-class residual veterinary drugs in milk, fish and shellfish was validated in accordance with Japanese guidelines for the validation of analytical methods for residual agricultural chemicals in food. Using LC-MS/MS, 43 multi-class veterinary drugs, including sulfonamides, quinolones, coccidiostats and antiparasites, could be analyzed in one injection. Analytes were extracted from samples with two kinds of solvent, acetonitrile containing 1 vol% formic acid and anhydrous acetonitrile, and salted out with 4.0 g of magnesium sulfate, 1.5 g of trisodium citrate and 2.0 g of sodium chloride. This method was assessed by performing recovery tests in retail milk and 4 kinds of fresh cultured fish and shellfish (salmon, tiger shrimp, red sea bream and bastard halibut) spiked with the 43 target analytes at the levels of 10 and 100 μg/kg. Using this method, 40 out of 43 drugs satisfied the guideline criteria in milk, 37 drugs in salmon, 42 drugs in tiger shrimp, 41 drugs in red sea bream and 39 drugs in bastard halibut.

  9. Absence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and infectious hemorrhagic necrosis virus (INHV) in a Tunisian fish farm: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, N; Hammami, S

    2012-01-01

    Beyond the obvious problems related to the sustainable management of wild stocks, current fish farming practices in the Mediterranean area entail important environmental risks and potential outbreaks of fish diseases linked to massive translocations across regional boundaries. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) are well-known fish diseases caused by the VHSV and IHNV viruses, and positive cases are subject to obligatory reporting to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). In August 2004, the OIE published the first record of a VHS outbreak in a sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) aquaculture facility on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. However, D. labrax is not considered as a susceptible host species for viral hemorrhagic septicaemia according to OIE's International Aquatic Animal Health Code (2009) and VHSV was not previously reported in the Mediterranean. In this sense and given the high risk of disease translocation associated with farmed fish in marine aquaculture, the present study was aimed at investigating the presence of VHSV and IHNV in stocks of sea bass and sea bream (Sparus aurata) reared inside a Tunisian coastal fish farm. Cell culture, IFAT and RT-PCR were applied to screen for both VHSV and IHNV in 69 pooled samples of sea bass and 24 pooled samples of sea bream. All three techniques showed the absence of both viruses within fish at the selected site.

  10. Heavy metal and trace elements in various fish samples from Sir Dam Lake, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğrul, Ozlem; Erbilir, Feryal

    2007-07-01

    Achanthobrama marmid (thorn-bream) (n:24), Chondrostoma regium (nose-carp) (n:33) and Silurus glanis (wels) (n:21), and Cyprinus carpio (carp) (n:30) were collected from Sir Dam Lake in Kahramanmaraş Province. The iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the total of 108 fish samples by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The concentrations of heavy metals were expressed as mg kg(-1) wet weight of tissue. The mean Fe and Mn levels of muscle and gill of C. carpio were 0.8-5.71 and 0.30-1.96, respectively. The mean of the Fe and Mn levels of muscle and gill of A. marmid were 1.22, 5.07 and 0.38, 0.85 mg kg(-1), respectively. The ranges of mean concentrations of Fe and Mn levels in muscle and gill of C. regium were 0.91, 5.61 and 0.27, 3.42 mg kg(-1), respectively. The mean value of Fe in S. glanis gill was 1.03, which of Mn was 0.17 mg kg(-1). Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, and Pb were not detected in the muscle of S. glanis. The mean values for Co in muscle of thorn-bream, carp, and nose-carp were 0.005, 0.01, 0.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. Nickel values in the muscle were ranged between 0.38 and 1.93 in thorn-bream, 0.06 and 1.34 in carp, 0.14 and 1.89 in nose-carp, in that order. The mean Pb levels of muscle and gill of A. marmid were 0.14 and 0.29 mg kg(-1), respectively. The mean values of Pb concentration of muscle and gill for C. carpio were 0.13 and 0.50 mg kg(-1), respectively. In C. regium mean values for Pb in muscle and gill were 0.06 and 0.06 mg kg(-1), respectively. The mean value of Pb in S. glanis gill was 0.42, ranged between 0.0-0.92 mg kg(-1).

  11. Biochemical characteristics of four marine fish skins in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Kwon; Jin, Young-Guk; Rha, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seon-Jae; Hwang, Jae-Ho

    2014-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the fish skins of four industrial species: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). There is high domestic demand in Korea for farming of these fish for human consumption. Crude protein contents in the skin of these fish ranged from 73% to 94% by dry weight; this was in part due to a high content of the structural protein, collagen. Among the four species, olive flounder had the thickest dermal and epidermal layers in the dorsal skin. This species was also associated with the highest extraction ratio of acid-soluble collagen. We also examined whether fish skin could be a cost-effective alternative to current fish meal sources. Our analysis indicates that, when supplemented with additional fish oils and essential amino acids, fish skin is a viable alternative for fish meal formulations.

  12. [Heterozygosity and selective value: the case of the marine fish, Diplodus sargus (Linné, 1758)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenfant, Philippe

    2002-03-01

    A total of 842 white sea bream (Diplodus sargus), sampled in Banyuls-sur-Mer, were analysed to test 'genotype-phenotype' relationship for various characters related to the fitness. The results show significant differences (MLH and FIS) for the age according to the sex between females carrying out and not carrying out sexual inversion. This suggests an overdominance for old females and a genetic sex determination. The individuals laying very early during the period of reproduction are also differentiated from the individuals reproducing later in the season. These results suggest either a stable calendar of laying in time separating the individuals genetically reproducing precociously from the others and this by differential selection and/or genetic drift either a Wahlund effect among cohorts.

  13. Classification accuracy of algorithms for blood chemistry data for three aquaculture-affected marine fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coz-Rakovac, R; Topic Popovic, N; Smuc, T; Strunjak-Perovic, I; Jadan, M

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was determination and discrimination of biochemical data among three aquaculture-affected marine fish species (sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax; sea bream, Sparus aurata L., and mullet, Mugil spp.) based on machine-learning methods. The approach relying on machine-learning methods gives more usable classification solutions and provides better insight into the collected data. So far, these new methods have been applied to the problem of discrimination of blood chemistry data with respect to season and feed of a single species. This is the first time these classification algorithms have been used as a framework for rapid differentiation among three fish species. Among the machine-learning methods used, decision trees provided the clearest model, which correctly classified 210 samples or 85.71%, and incorrectly classified 35 samples or 14.29% and clearly identified three investigated species from their biochemical traits.

  14. FAST Real Time PCR for control of intra-species recycling in aquaculture feed, focused to the most relevant fish species farmed in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espiñeira, Montserrat; Vieites, Juan M

    2016-08-01

    Recent regulations in animal feed composition prohibit intra-species recycling, the recycling of one given animal species to the same species, in order to avoid potential safety risks to human and animal health. These regulations have generated the need of their control in aquaculture by effective and specific analytical techniques. To date, most studies of species identification and detection in feedstuffs are focused on land species, but few studies are focused on species composition in fish feed. The present work describes five methodologies based in Real Time PCR for detection of the most relevant fish species farmed in Europe: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata); sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax); turbot (Scophthalmus maximus); rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss); and salmon (Salmo salar), in order to guarantee the intra-species recycling regulation in aquaculture feedstuffs.

  15. Reducing antibiotic use in marine larviculture by probiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; D'Alvise, Paul; Grotkjær, Torben

    2014-01-01

    to the industry.Vaccines are not effective at the larval stages and antibiotics are used for disease control, although thereare serious concerns about development of bacterial antibiotic resistance and its transfer to humanpathogenic bacteria. There is a strong need for development of non-antibiotic disease...... control strategies,especially at the larval stages.The objective of our work is to reduce the need for antibiotics in marine larviculture by developingprobiotic strategies; probiotics being defined by WHO as “live microbial cultures that excert a beneficialeffect on the host”. Rearing of marine larvae...... pathogen control at the very beginning of the production chain in aprophylactic strategy.We collaborate with several aquaculture industries rearing turbot, sea-bass, sea-bream, oysters andflounder. We have at these sites isolated bacteria that are capable of antagonising fish larvae pathogensand...

  16. Equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls in River Elbe sediments – Linking bioaccumulation in fish to sediment contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Antoni, Catherine; Möhlenkamp, Christel;

    2015-01-01

    with the sediment (Clip⇔sed) by multiplying concentrations in the equilibrium sampling polymer with lipid to polymer partition coefficients. We have applied silicone coated glass jars for equilibrium sampling of seven ‘indicator’ polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment samples from ten locations along...... the River Elbe to measure Cfree of PCBs and their Clip⇔sed. For three sites, we then related Clip⇔sed to lipid-normalized PCB concentrations (Cbio,lip) that were determined independently by the German Environmental Specimen Bank in common bream, a fish species living in close contact with the sediment: (1......) In all cases, Cbio,lip were below Clip⇔sed, (2) there was proportionality between the two parameters with high R2 values (0.92–1.00) and (3) the slopes of the linear regressions were very similar between the three stations (0.297; 0.327;0.390). These results confirm the close link between PCB...

  17. Protein removal from fish mince washwater using ohmic heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobsak Kanjanapongkul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A static ohmic heating system was developed to remove protein from fish mince (threadfin bream washwatercollected from a surimi production plant in order to improve water quality. The samples were heated under different electricfield strengths (EFS, 20, 25, and 30 V/cm until reaching the desired temperature (50, 60, and 70oC, and further held at thattemperature for a certain time (0, 15, and 30 minutes. Heating the samples to 70oC resulted in a better protein removal whencompared to 50 and 60oC. After heating to 70oC, the samples were centrifuged. The analysis of the supernatant obtained showsthe reduction of protein, COD, BOD, TS, and TDS to 42%, 25%, 23%, 44%, and 61%, respectively. The electrical conductivityof the samples showed a linear relationship with temperature and the temperature demonstrated a parabolic relationshipwith heating time. EFS and holding time have no significant effect on protein removal.

  18. Occurence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. in retail fish samples in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas Onmaz, Nurhan; Abay, Secil; Karadal, Fulden; Hizlisoy, Harun; Telli, Nihat; Al, Serhat

    2015-01-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxins, as well as Salmonella spp. and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates from fish samples. A total of 100 fish samples were analysed consisting of 30 anchovy, 35 trout and 35 sea bream. The presence of SEs was detected using ELISA and its genes confirmed by mPCR. Also, S. aureus and Salmonella spp. were detected in 9 (9%) and 5 (5%) samples, respectively. None of the S. aureus isolates had SEs and SEs genes. The resistance rates of the S. aureus isolates to erythromycin, tetracycline, and penicillin G were found to be 33% while Salmonella spp. isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin and neomycine in 20%, 20% and 80%, respectively of the samples. It is of utmost important for public health that retail fish markets need to use hygienic practices in handling and processing operations.

  19. Evaluation of monitoring data of the German Environmental Specimen Bank using the Hasse diagram technique; Bewertung von Monitoringdaten der Umweltprobenbank des Bundes mit der Hasse-Diagramm-Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, D. [Umweltbundesamt, Fachgebiet II 1.4-S, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Environment Ministry the Federal Environmental Agency operates the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB), which targets are to record and evaluate pollution data of selected ecological systems. Scope of the present study is to check the possibilities of the Hasse diagram technique (HDT) for the assessment of ESB data, mainly with regard to evaluations and conclusions. Xenobiotic body burden in Bream musculature (Abramis brama); measured in 1997, was exemplary used to answer these questions. Focus was put on ecosystemic assessment. The results clearly show that HDT is a valuable method for the graphical display, interpretation and comparative evaluation of pollution data, HDT visualises data qualitatively and in summary. Additionally, differences between pollution patterns are revealed, which suggest different contamination processes and entries. An ecosystemic approach of assessment is achieved by simultaneous consideration of different xenobiotics. (orig.)

  20. CHARACTERISTICS AND NEW DATA OF RIVER ILOVA ICHTHYOFAUNA (CENTRAL CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Jelić

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available During the research 28 species of freshwater fish were found, belonging to 10 families. Most numerous family was Cyprinidae (18 species, followed by Percidae (3 species and Cobitidae (2 species. Results showed that the most abundant in species were spirlin (Alburnoides bipunctatus (17.4%, common roach (Rutilus rutilus (15.7% and prussian carp (Carassius gibelio (12.8%. And in the terms of total fish weight, highest represented were asp (Aspius aspius (28.9%, bream (Abramis brama (18.7% and pike (Esox lucius (11.4%. Presence of four new fish species has been confirmed in Ilova River: bullhead (Cottus gobio, trout (Salmo trutta, danube whitefinned gudgeon (Romanogobio vladykovi and tench (Tinca tinca.

  1. MNEMIOPSIS LEIDYI IMPACT ON SOME TROPHICAL CHAINS OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. KAMAKIN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of monitoring investigations over the past 10 years are presented concerning the distribution of a new species-invader in the Caspian Sea, Mnemiopsis leidyi. The spatial distribution of its population is shown during the period of its maximal development in August-September. The influence of that gelatinous invader on different levels of the trophic pyramid is described to show the cause of qualitative and quantitative decline in the nutritive base both of plankton feeders (Caspian kilka, shads and mollusk-eating fish (roach, sea bream and common carp, to estimate the level and reveal the trend of ecosystem development in the Caspian Sea in the near future.

  2. Recent advances in studies on photosynthetic microorganisms and photobioreactors. ; Production of useful carotenoids using minute algae. Hikari gosei biseibutsu no kino kaihatsu to foto baioriakuta. ; Bisai sorui ni yoru yuyo karotenoido no seisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Tsuji, Y. (Higashimaru Shoyu Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan)); Kakizono, T.; Nagai, S. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-11-25

    Astaxanthin (3,3[prime]-dihydroxy-[beta],[beta]-carotene-4,4[prime]-dione) is a red carotenoid dye present in aquatic organisms such as crustacea and fish, and has a close relationship with the manifestation of colors of the bodies and meat of these organisms. Astaxanthin is currently used as a color-enhancing agent for cultivated fish such as red sea bream, rainbow trout, and salmon. Recently, astaxanthin has been found to be a much stronger antioxidant than [beta]-carotene or [alpha]-tocophenol, and its application to foods and pharmaceuticals is expected. In this article, studies by the authors on Haematococcus pluvialis, one of the most promising microorganisms as a source of producing astaxanthin, are described as an example of production of useful carotenoids using minute algae, and are compared with Dunaliella, as a [beta]-carotene producing microorganism, which is already produced commercially. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Metazoan parasites of Brama australis from southern Chile: a tool for stock discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M E; Espinola, J F; Ñacari, L A

    2016-03-01

    The metazoan parasites of 403 specimens of the southern ray's bream Brama australis from three localities in southern Chile (Lebu 36° 70' S; 73° 40' W, Calbuco 41° 50' S; 73° 08' W and Punta Arenas 53° 10' S; 70° 50' W) were recorded. More than 23 400 parasite specimens belonging to 12 taxa were registered. Metazoan parasites were dominated by the copepod Hatschekia conifera, constituting 97% of the total number of parasites; the larval cestode Hepatoxylon trichiuri was the second most important parasite (2·1% of the total number of parasites). The remaining 10 species constituted parasites. Parasitological evidence, based on univariate and multivariate analysis, does not support the existence of discrete stocks in the studied zone.

  4. Measurement of single-fish target strength in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guobao; LI Yongzhen; CHEN Pimao; ZHANG Jun; FANG Lichen; LI Nana

    2012-01-01

    We measured the target strength (TS) of three commercial fish species:whitespotted spinefoot (Siganus canaliculatus),black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegelii),and creek red bream (Lutjanus argentimaculatus),in the South China Sea.The TS of caged or tethered fish (n=76 total) was measured using a Simrad EY60 portable scientific echosounder at 120 kHz.We evaluated the relationship between TS and total length (TL,cm) for the three species.This is the first attempt to use split-beam acoustics to measure single-fish TS in the South China Sea by Chinese researchers.Our results will improve the accuracy and precision of acoustic abundance estimates of commercially important species and further the development of underwater acoustic survey techniques in fisheries in the South China Sea.

  5. NPY and sbGnRH gene expression in juvenile and adult male Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus Expressão gênica do NPY e do sbGnRH em machos juvenis e adultos de linguado Paralichthys orbignyanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Farias Campos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate neuropeptide Y (NPY and sea bream gonadotropin-release hormone (sbGnRH gene expression in juvenile and adult males of Brazilian flounder. Hypothalamuses from fish were sampled for total RNA extraction. After cDNA synthesis, real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression. NPY showed approximately 2-fold increases in their mRNA levels while sbGnRH showed 3-fold increases in adult fish. These results suggest that these peptides could be involved on hypothalamic regulation of Brazilian flounder sexual maturation.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a expressão gênica do neuropeptídeo Y (NPY e da variante sea bream do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofinas (sbGnRH em linguados machos juvenis e adultos. O hipotálamo foi isolado para a extração de RNA total. Após a síntese de cDNA, a PCR em tempo real foi usada para avaliar a expressão gênica. Foi observado um aumento de aproximadamente duas vezes nos níveis de NPY e de aproximadamente três vezes nos níveis de sbGnRH nos peixes adultos. Esses resultados demonstram que estes peptídeos podem estar envolvidos na regulação, via hipotálamo, da maturação sexual no linguado.

  6. Spatial variation in elemental composition of otoliths of three species of fish (family Sparidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillanders, B. M.; Kingsford, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Determining the nursery habitat of fishes that have moved from estuarine nursery habitats is difficult. The elemental fingerprints of otoliths of three species of sparids were determined to investigate their utility as a natural tag of the nursery habitat. Juvenile Pagrus auratus (snapper), Rhabdosargus sarba (tarwhine) and Acanthopagrus australis (bream) were collected from two sites in each of 15, six and three estuaries, respectively, and their otoliths analysed by solution-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Significant differences in otolith chemistry were found for all three species of juveniles collected from different estuaries. The same patterns among estuaries were not seen for all species, although it was not possible to sample the same sites within an estuary for all species. For bream, significant differences in otolith chemistry were found among all three estuaries, whereas for tarwhine the six estuaries were separated into three groups. For snapper, a number of estuaries could be separated, but there was some overlap for other estuaries. All three species were collected from the same site within one estuary and their otoliths analysed. Significant differences were found among species, but the implication of this finding remains unclear as the three species show differences in microhabitat use and may also differ in age. Because the elemental fingerprints of juveniles vary among estuaries or groups of estuaries, the nursery or recruitment estuary of adult fish could now be determined by analysing the juvenile region of adult otoliths. Thus, connectivity between estuaries and open coastal populations could be determined. Such information will have major implications for fisheries management because it will provide information on the distance that fish have moved from their recruitment estuary and the number of estuaries that contribute to each adult population.

  7. Competitive relationship between members of the Gobiidae family and other fish species of waters of Pridneprovye region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Khobot

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the species’ composition of Gobiidae, their quantitative and qualitative parameters in the coastal zone of the Pridneproovye water bodies. The structural and functional features of organization of coastal Gobies groups in the explored territory have been investigated, as well as characteristics of spatial arrangement of Gobiidae family representatives in water bodies and rivers and their role in the coastal groups of fishes. In the waters of Dnipropetrovsk region there were recorded 8 species of the Gobies family: round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814, big-headed goby N. kessleri (Gunter, 1861, monkey goby N. fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814, goad goby N. gymnotrachelus (Kessler, 1857, toad goby Mesogobius batrachocephalus (Pallas, 1814, tube-nosed goby Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pallas, 1814, starry goby Benthophilus stellatus (Sauvage, 1874, Brauner’s tadpole goby Benthophiloides brauneri (Beling et Iljin, 1927. The gobies are quickly settled in various water bodies. The highest numbers of Gobiidae were registered in Dneprovsky water basin – 113.8 specimens/100 m2. The dominant among the Gobiidae is monkey goby, and subdominant is round goby. The main food competitor of monkey goby are juveniles of commercial fish. In Samara river the index of trophic niche overlap between goby and roach reaches 0.95, between goby and silver bream – 0.91, between goby and crucian carp – 0.88, between goby and rudd – 0.87, between goby and common bream – 0.62. The number and biomass indicators in Samara river have fallen due to trophic competition between new aggressive fish species – pumpkinseed and Gobiidae. In the Ingulets river the total overlap of trophic niches is observed between N. fluviatilis and black-striped pipefish (1.0, almost complete overlap is recorded between monkey goby and pumpkinseed (0.97. It is found that native species of Dnipropetrovsk region (including commercial species undergo intense trophic

  8. Maternal inheritance in polyploid fish inferred from mitochondrial ATPase genes analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinpeng Yan; Xinhong Guo; Shaojun Liu; Jun Xiao; Zhen Liu; Yubao Chen; Yun Liu

    2009-01-01

    The sequences of the ATPase8/6 genes for the triploid, tetraploid and pentaploid hybrids as well as for their male parent blunt snout bream were determined. In order to examine mitochondrial maternal inheritance, the sequences were subjected to a comparative sequence analysis with the homologous sequences of red crucian carp, their female parent, and zebrafish as the outgroup. Base compo-sition and variation as well as the divergences based on nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid sequences were calculated. Phy-logenetic trees were also constructed with maximum parsimony (MP), minimum evolution (ME), neighbor joining (NJ) and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) algorithms in MEGA 3.1. The results showed that most nucleotide sub-stitutions occurred at the third codon position of the two genes and thus represented synonymous mutations. The nucleotide sequence divergences of the ATPase8/6 genes ranged from 0.0% to 21.6% among ingroup samples (three types of polyploids and their parents), and 27.0-28.2% between their ingroup and the outgroup samples. All the polyploids were considerably closer in sequence relationship to the female parent red crucian carp (0.0-3.3%) compared to their male parent blunt snout bream (21.0-21.6%). The phylogenetic trees also showed a similar result. In conclusion, the mitochondrial ATPase8/6 genes of artificial polyploid fish stringently indicated maternal inheritance. Our results also suggested that the ATPase8/6 genes are valuable genetic markers to track genealogies and variations in the progenies of the hybrids.

  9. The formation of the polyploid hybrids from different subfamily fish crossings and its evolutionary significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaojun; Qin, Qinbo; Xiao, Jun; Lu, Wenting; Shen, Jiamin; Li, Wei; Liu, Jifang; Duan, Wei; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Zhao, Rurong; Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Yun

    2007-06-01

    This study provides genetic evidences at the chromosome, DNA content, DNA fragment and sequence, and morphological levels to support the successful establishment of the polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp x blunt snout bream, which belonged to a different subfamily of fish (Cyprininae subfamily and Cultrinae subfamily) in the catalog. We successfully obtained the sterile triploid hybrids and bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (RCC) (female symbol) x blunt snout bream (BSB) (male symbol) as well as their pentaploid hybrids. The triploid hybrids possessed 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from BSB; the tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets from BSB. The females of tetraploid hybrids produced unreduced tetraploid eggs that were fertilized with the haploid sperm of BSB to generate pentaploid hybrids with 172 chromosomes with three sets from BSB and two sets from RCC. The ploidy levels of triploid, tetraploid, and pentaploid hybrids were confirmed by counting chromosomal number, forming chromosomal karyotype, and measuring DNA content and erythrocyte nuclear volume. The similar and different DNA fragments were PCR amplified and sequenced in triploid, tetraploid hybrids, and their parents, indicating their molecular genetic relationship and genetic markers. In addition, this study also presents results about the phenotypes and feeding habits of polyploid hybrids and discusses the formation mechanism of the polyploid hybrids. It is the first report on the formation of the triploid, tetraploid, and pentaploid hybrids by crossing parents with a different chromosome number in vertebrates. The formation of the polyploid hybrids is potentially interesting in both evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  10. Fish remnants from the excavations of the Bronze Age barrow near Maryanskoe village (Dnepropetrovsk region, Ukraine

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    O. M. Kovalchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bronze Age mound (2.5–2.3 kya BC is located near the Maryanskoe village (Apostolovskyi district, Dnepropetrovsk region and was excavated in 1953. The results of determination of the fish remnants, which were found during the excavation, are presented in the paper. Eleven species belonging to 9 genera, 5 families and 5 orders (Acipenseriformes, Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, Esociformes, Perciformes were identified: russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt et Ratzeburg, 1833, stellate sturgeon A. stellatus Pallas, 1771, common ide Idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758, common roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758, pontic roach R. frisii (Nordmann, 1840, common bream Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758, common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758, european catfish Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758, northern pike Esox lucius (Linnaeus, 1758, and zander Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758. Most of them are quite common in the Dnieper river basin. It was found that carp fishes predominate in the number of species. Most of the bone remnants in the collection belong to zander, catfish and pike, while common roach, pontic roach and common bream are identified by the few bones. This may indicate a different role of these species in the diet of the local population. The ratio of skeletal elements in the collection is the evidence of the fish cutting on the site. Body length and weight was reconstructed for 64 fish specimens. It was found that they were mature and small-sized, except for catfish, pike and perch. Taking into account the characteristics of the funeral rituals of the Yamna culture population, fish bones from the mound near Maryanskoe can be remnants of the parting meal.

  11. Assessment of Heavy-Metal Pollution in Sediments and Tilapia Fish Species in Kafue River of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbewe, Gezile; Mutondo, Moola; Maseka, Kenneth; Sichilongo, Kwenga

    2016-10-01

    We report results from an evaluation of the levels of heavy metals, i.e., copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), and iron (Fe) in sediment and tilapia fish samples from a wide stretch of the Kafue river of Zambia. In sediment samples, the highest Pb and Fe concentrations were recorded at Hippo Dam, i.e., 36.2 ± 0.1 mg/kg dw and 733 ± 37 mg/kg dw at Kafue Town, respectively. Other notably high metal concentrations in sediment were Cr at Kafue Bridge (42.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg dw [dw]), Cu at Mpongwe (233 ± 5 mg/kg dw), and Mn at Kafue Town (133 ± 1 mg/kg dw); it was highest at Ithezi Tezhi Dam at 166 ± 1 mg/kg d. Three fish species, i.e., three-spot bream Tilapia andersonii, red-breasted bream T. rendalli, and nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated for levels of the seven metals. The concentrations of the metals in these fish species afforded estimation of the biota sediment-accumulation factor, which is the ratio of the concentration of the metal in liver to that in the sediment. The coefficients of condition (K) values, which give an indication of the health of the fish, were also estimated. The K values ranged from 2.5 ± 0.5 to 5.1 ± 0.6 in all of the three fish species. Partial least squares analysis showed that heavy metals are generally sequestered evenly in all of the parts of all of the three fish species except for elevated levels of Mn, Cd, and Pb in the liver samples.

  12. Identification, Phylogeny, and Function of fabp2 Paralogs in Two Non-Model Teleost Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitetzidou, Elisavet; Chatzifotis, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Efthimia; Sarropoulou, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein (IFABP or FABP2) is a cytosolic transporter of long-chain fatty acids, which is mainly expressed in cells of intestinal tissue. Fatty acids in teleosts are an important source of energy for growth, reproduction, and swimming and a main ingredient in the yolk sac of embryos and larvae. The fabp2 paralogs, fabp2a and fabp2b, were identified for 26 teleost fish species including the paralogs for the two non-model teleost fish species, namely the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Despite the high similarity of fabp2 paralogs, as well as the identical organization in four exons, paralogs were mapped to different chromosomes/linkage groups supporting the hypothesis that the identified transcripts are true paralogs originating from a single ancestor gene after genome duplication. This was also confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using fabp2 sequences of 26 teleosts and by synteny analysis carried out with ten teleosts. Differential expression analysis of the gilthead sea bream and European sea bass fabp2 paralogs in the intestine after fasting and refeeding experiment further revealed their altered implication in metabolism. Additional expression studies in seven developmental stages of the two species detected fabp2 paralogs relatively early in the embryonic development as well as possible complementary or separated roles of the paralogs. The identification and characterization of the two fabp2 paralogs will contribute significantly to the understanding of the fabp2 evolution as well as of the divergences in fatty acid metabolism.

  13. Temporal Patterns of Larval Fish Occurrence in a Large Subtropical River.

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    Fangmin Shuai

    Full Text Available Knowledge of temporal patterns of larval fish occurrence is limited in south China, despite its ecological importance. This research examines the annual and seasonal patterns of fish larval presence in the large subtropical Pearl River. Data is based on samples collected every two days, from 2006 to 2013. In total, 45 taxa representing 13 families and eight orders were sampled. The dominant larval family was Cyprinidae, accounting for 27 taxa. Squaliobarbus curriculus was the most abundant species, followed by Megalobrama terminalis, Xenocypris davidi, Cirrhinus molitorella, Hemiculter leuscisculus and Squalidus argentatus. Fish larvae abundances varied significantly throughout the seasons (multivariate analyses: Cluster, SIMPROF and ANOSIM. The greatest numbers occurred between May and September, peaking from June through August, which corresponds to the reproductive season. In this study, redundancy analysis was used to describe the relationship between fish larval abundance and associated environmental factors. Mean water temperature, river discharge, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature and precipitation play important roles in larval occurrence patterns. According to seasonal variations, fish larvae occurrence is mainly affected by water temperature. It was also noted that the occurrence of Salanx reevesii and Cyprinus carpio larvae is associated with higher dissolved oxygen (DO concentrations, higher atmospheric pressure and lower water temperatures which occur in the spring. On the other hand, M. terminalis, X. davidi, and C. molitorella are associated with high precipitation, high river discharge, low atmospheric pressure and low DO concentrations which featured during the summer months. S. curriculus also peaks in the summer and is associated with peak water temperatures and minimum NH3-N concentrations. Rhinogobius giurinus occur when higher atmospheric pressure, lower precipitation and lower river discharges occur in the autumn

  14. COMMERCIAL FISH HARVEST IN INLAND WATER BODIES OF GERMANY (A REVIEW

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    А. Didenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze scientific and statistical sources on commercial fishery in inland water bodies of Germany. To summarize German experience and identify specific features of this sector. Findings. Commercial fishery in Germany is carried out on 30% (≈250 000 hectares of inland water bodies of Germany. The main fishing regions are prealpine lakes in Bavaria, Lake Constance, lakes in Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania federal states as well as lakes and rivers of Brandenburg and Berlin. Commercial fishing on rivers usually has a local importance and is practiced in regions with poorly developed industry. There were 670 commercial fishing organizations in 2014, where 932 people were employed. Each fishing license owner is allowed deploying simultaneously a clearly defined number of fishing gears depending on season. In addition, fishing nets are regulated not only based on their mesh size and length, but also height and the minimum thread diameter. The cardinal difference of German inland fishing is the absence of the periods of total ban on commercial fishing. There are only ban periods for fishing on certain fish species during their spawning seasons. These periods differ for federal states and are listed in the relevant regional fishing rules. The total fish catch in inland waters of Germany by commercial fishermen in 2014 was 3132 tons, much lower than the catches of anglers who caught 18 450 tons at the same year. Most of fish were caught by fishing organizations in the Brandenburg Federal State. Average fish productivity in 2014 was approx. 13 kg/ha (ranging from 10 to 20 kg/ha. Whitefish was the dominant species in catches in the Lake Constance and prealpine lakes of Bavaria, while cyprinids (roach, bream, silver bream, blue bream, etc. dominated in Northern Germany. The profit of commercial fish catch in 2014 was about 12.5 million euros. Among numerous activities aimed at preserving commercial fish populations, Germans

  15. Persistence of duplicated PAC1 receptors in the teleost, Sparus auratus

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    Clark Melody S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Duplicated genes are common in vertebrate genomes. Their persistence is assumed to be either a consequence of gain of novel function (neofunctionalisation or partitioning of the function of the ancestral molecule (sub-functionalisation. Surprisingly few studies have evaluated the extent of such modifications despite the numerous duplicated receptor and ligand genes identified in vertebrate genomes to date. In order to study the importance of function in the maintenance of duplicated genes, sea bream (Sparus auratus PAC1 receptors, sequence homologues of the mammalian receptor specific for PACAP (Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, were studied. These receptors belong to family 2 GPCRs and most of their members are duplicated in teleosts although the reason why both persist in the genome is unknown. Results: Duplicate sea bream PACAP receptor genes (sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, members of family 2 GPCRs, were isolated and share 77% amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR with specific primers for each gene revealed that they have a differential tissue distribution which overlaps with the distribution of the single mammalian receptor. Furthermore, in common with mammals, the teleost genes undergo alternative splicing and a PAC1Ahop1 isoform has been characterised. Duplicated orthologous receptors have also been identified in other teleost genomes and their distribution profile suggests that function may be species specific. Functional analysis of the paralogue sbPAC1s in Cos7 cells revealed that they are strongly stimulated in the presence of mammalian PACAP27 and PACAP38 and far less with VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide. The sbPAC1 receptors are equally stimulated (LOGEC50 values for maximal cAMP production in the presence of PACAP27 (-8.74 ± 0.29 M and -9.15 ± 0.21 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0.05 and PACAP38 (-8.54 ± 0.18 M and -8.92 ± 0.24 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0

  16. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN FISH OF THE KILIYA DELTA OF THE DANUBE (2003–2005

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    Yu. Sytnik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Identification and analysis of the content of organochlorine pesticides (OCP in organs and tissues of benthivorous and predatory fish species of the Kiliya delta of the Danube (Eastern mouth and their comparison with previous years. Methodology. The analysis of the samples of aquatic organisms for the content of residual organochlorine pesticides was carried out by gas-liquid chromatography (GLH based on a unified methodology. The chromatographic analysis was carried out on the gas chromatograph "Color 5" with electron capture detector at the Institute of Hydrobiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Findings. The effect of stable organochlorine pesticides on aquatic organisms is characterized by marked persistence in the environment and by high ability for migration and accumulation on different levels of food chains in aquatic ecosystems. The continuous presence of OCP in all investigated organs and tissues of selected species with the presence of a certain amount of fat and consequently, the fixation of residual organochlorine pesticides. Among benthivorous fishes, the content of OCP in organs and tissues (total is as follows: vimba → roach → wild carp → bream → gibel carp. Among the predators: asp → perch → European catfish → pikeperch. Originality. Recently, a significant number of scientists all around the world returns to the problem of the accumulation and distribution (redistribution of OCP in the components of aquatic ecosystems. This is associated with certain threats to the environment and human health, that could lead to negative consequences as a result of the consumption of fish as the highest trophic level in fresh waters of Ukraine. Practical value. The obtained data indicate that the major commercial fish species of the Kiliya delta of the Danube river contains residual quantities of pesticides. This indicates to the need for continuous hygienic and toxicological monitoring of fish caught

  17. Assessment of organochlorine hydrocarbons transformation in contaminated agricultural products and foodstuffs under gamma-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel’nikova, T. V.; Polyakova, L. P.; Oudalova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of an estimation of organochlorinated pollutants transformation (particularly organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)) under gamma-irradiation has become important in connection with radiation technologies application in the food industry. According to earlier researches, small doses of OCP lead to serious damages of an organism, comparable with damages from high doses. Among radiolysis products of OCP in model solutions various substances on a structure have been found out. Though of trace concentration of each of them, in sum with the initial pesticides residue they make up significant of mass contamination (as shown earlier up to 90% from initial OCP). In this work fish samples (bream) containing OCPs (15.20 ng/g of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and 87.10 ng/g of DDT and its metabolites), as well as PCB (18.51 ng/g) were studied. The minced fish was irradiated at dose of 10 kGy with dose rate of 1.35 Gy/sec. Then, by methods of gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), it was found that the OCPs degradation varied from 3 up to 61% and the PCB degradation – 24-52%. Significant complication of chemical composition was shown comparing to the primary biological sample contamination. As a result of fish irradiation, secondary pollution appeared that included residues of primary organochlorine hydrocarbons and their radiation-induced metabolites. Among the investigated OCPs the most stable proved to be alfa-hexachlorocyclohexane (alfa-HCH), the least stable – DDT which corresponds to the previous findings about the radiation stability of OCPs in model solutions. Mass spectra of the irradiated samples of minced bream showed the presence of radiation metabolites of OCPs, that had also been found at irradiation of model solutions of 2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)-1-chlorethylene (DDMU), DDD and 1a, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e-pentahlorcyclohexane. There was revealed a decomposition product formed during

  18. (90)Sr in fish from the southern Baltic Sea, coastal lagoons and freshwater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Tamara; Saniewski, Michał; Suplińska, Maria; Rubel, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Activity concentrations of radioactive (90)Sr were studied in four fish species: herring, flounder, sprat and cod caught in the southern Baltic Sea in two periods: 2005-2009 and 2013-2014. The study included also perch from the coastal lagoons - Vistula Lagoon and Szczcin Lagoon and a freshwater lake - Żarnowieckie Lake as well as additional lake species: pike and bream. (90)Sr activity concentrations were compared in relation to species and to particular tissue: muscle, whole fish (eviscerated) and bones. In 2014, in the Baltic, the maximal (90)Sr concentrations were found in fishbones: herring - 0.39 Bq kg(-1) w.w., cod - 0.48 Bq kg(-1) w.w., and flounder - 0.54 Bq kg(-1) w.w. In the whole fish the maximal concentrations were found in flounder - 0.16 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and cod - 0.15 Bq kg(-1) w.w., while in herring - 0.022 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and sprat - 0.026 Bq kg(-1) w.w. they stayed at lower level. Relatively high (90)Sr concentrations were detected in whole fish from freshwater Lake Żarnowieckie: perch - 0.054 Bq kg(-1) w.w., pike - 0.062 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and bream - 0.140 Bq kg(-1) w.w. Concentration ratio (CR) determined for particular fish tissues and for whole eviscerated fish in relation to (90)Sr concentrations in seawater and lake water were showing significant variability unlike the corresponding (137)Cs concentration ratios which are stable and specific for fish species. The study corroborates with the conviction of the growing role of (90)Sr in the overall radioactivity in the southern Baltic Sea as compared to (137)Cs.

  19. Preliminary Study on the in vitro and in vivo Effects of Asparagopsis taxiformis Bioactive Phycoderivates on Teleosts

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    Fabio Marino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several compounds from marine organisms have been studied for their potential use in aquaculture. Among the red algae, Asparagopsis taxiformis is considered one of the most promising species for the production of bioactive metabolites with numerous proposed applications. Here, the in vitro antibacterial activity, the easy handling and the absence of adverse effects on marine fish species are reported. Depending on the seasonal period of sampling, ethanol extracts of A. taxiformis exhibited significantly different inhibitory activity against fish pathogenic bacteria. The extract obtained in late spring showed strong antibacterial activity against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, Vibrio alginolyticus, and V. vulnificus, and moderate activity against Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, P. damselae subsp. piscicida, V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. Sea bass and gilthead sea bream were fed with pellets supplied with algae and algal extracts. The absence of undesired effects was demonstrated. Hematological and biochemical investigations allowed to confirm that the whole alga and its extracts could be proposed for a future application in aquaculture.

  20. Preliminary report on the levels of elements in four fish species from the Arabian Gulf of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Saleh, Iman; Shinwari, Neptune

    2002-08-01

    This manuscript presents preliminary information on the concentrations of heavy metals: cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium and arsenic in 66 fish samples of four different species collected from three different sites on the Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia where there are agricultural, municipality and petroleum industrial activities. Fish species; highly consumed by the local population were selected: Emperors, Rabbitfish, Doublebar-bream and Greasy-grouper to ascertain the fish quality for human consumption. The concentration of metals was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA). The average mean concentrations (ng/g wet wt.) of cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium and arsenic in fish tissues were as follows: 4.6 +/- 7.2, 20.0 +/- 20.8, 60.6 +/- 63.2, 73.6 +/- 27.1 and 42.7 +/- 17.4 ng/g wet wt. respectively. The concentration of metals was significantly affected by the sampling site and fish species. In Maniefa site, the concentrations of all tested metals were higher than in Al-Dammam and Dareen sites with the exception of nickel where no significant differences were found. Levels of cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium and arsenic varied depending on the fish species. The concentration of metals was below the maximum allowed limit by the Saudi and international legislations for fish human consumption permissible limit.

  1. Isolation and cDNA cloning of somatolactin in rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayson, F G; de Jesus, E G; Amemiya, Y; Moriyama, S; Hirano, T; Kawauchi, H

    1999-08-01

    We report the isolation and cDNA cloning of somatolactin (SL) from rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus. Rabbitfish SL was isolated from an alkaline extract of the pituitary glands by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. SL was monitored by immunoblotting with flounder SL antiserum. The preparation (yield: 0.86 mg/g wet tissues) contained two immunoreactive bands of 24 and 28 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Overlapping partial cDNA clones corresponding to teleost SLs were amplified by PCR from single-strand cDNA from pituitary glands. Excluding the poly(A) tail, rabbitfish SL cDNA is 1605 bp long. It contains a 693-bp open reading frame encoding a signal peptide of 24 amino acids (aa) and a mature protein of 207 aa. Rabbitfish SL has two possible N-glycosylation sites at positions 11 and 121 and seven half Cys residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shows over 80% identity with those of advanced teleosts like sea bream, red drum, and flounder, 76% with the salmonids, 57% with the eel, and 46% with the goldfish SL.

  2. Geographic, genetic and life-history variability in a sex-changing fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Benvenuto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sequential hermaphroditism, commonly referred to as sex change or sex reversal, is a striking phenomenon in mating-system evolution and the most remarkable example of sexual plasticity. Among vertebrates, it is specific to teleosts. Some fish species reproduce initially as females and then change into males (protogynous hermaphrodites or vice versa (protandrous hermaphrodites. The white sea bream, Diplodus sargus, exhibits a high degree of sexual plasticity: populations have been reported to be gonochoristic, protandrous or digynic (with primary females, derived from intersexual juveniles, and secondary females, derived from males. We analysed populations collected from eight different locations across the species distribution range (between the Mediterranean and the North-Eastern Atlantic. These populations are characterized by different degrees of connectivity, spatial demographics and life histories. Using individual-based analyses, we linked the genetic structure of each specimen with environmental heterogeneity, life-history traits and reproductive modes. Our aim is to gather a better understanding of the variation in reproductive life-history strategies in this sexually plastic species. Diplodus sargus is a valuable candidate organism to investigate sequential hermaphroditism and it also has a commercial value. The application of population genetics tools against the background of life-history theory can bring valuable insights for the management of marine resources. The geographical patterns of sex change (and of age- and size-at-sex change linked with population genetics can be pivotal for both theoretical investigations and conservation and management plans in marine areas.

  3. Biological measurement of estrogenic activity in urine and bile conjugates with the in vitro ER-CALUX reporter gene assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, Juliette; Jonas, Arjen; Lahr, Joost; Vethaak, A Dick; Brouwer, Abraham; Murk, Albertinka J

    2002-03-01

    Although estrogens are excreted as biologically inactive conjugates, they can be reconverted to an active form, possibly by bacteria. A simple method was developed to deconjugate estrogen metabolites present in human urine and fish bile back to active estrogens by enzymatic hydrolysis with beta-glucuronidase or live Escherichia coli cells. Deconjugated extracts were tested for estrogenic activity in the in vitro stable estrogen receptor-mediated chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (ER-CALUX) assay. Estrogen glucuronides in urine obtained from human males and females were effectively converted to active forms after incubation with beta-glucuronidase or E. coli. The highest estrogenic activity was found in deconjugated metabolites from urine of a pregnant woman, in which levels up to 3,000 nmol estradiol equivalents per liter of urine were found after overnight incubation of urine with E. coli. Bile sampled from male bream and flounder from various freshwater and marine locations was also deconjugated and a good correlation was found between high biliary estrogenic activity and elevated levels of xenoestrogenic activity in surface water as well as in plasma vitellogenin. Therefore, the measurement of deconjugated bile could form a useful (indirect) biomarker for internal dose of xenoestrogens in male fish.

  4. Applications of self-organizing maps for ecomorphological investigations through early ontogeny of fish.

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    Tommaso Russo

    Full Text Available We propose a new graphical approach to the analysis of multi-temporal morphological and ecological data concerning the life history of fish, which can typically serves models in ecomorphological investigations because they often undergo significant ontogenetic changes. These changes can be very complex and difficult to describe, so that visualization, abstraction and interpretation of the underlying relationships are often impeded. Therefore, classic ecomorphological analyses of covariation between morphology and ecology, performed by means of multivariate techniques, may result in non-exhaustive models. The Self Organizing map (SOM is a new, effective approach for pursuing this aim. In this paper, lateral outlines of larval stages of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus were recorded and broken down using by means of Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA. Gut contents of the same specimens were also collected and analyzed. Then, shape and trophic habits data were examined by SOM, which allows both a powerful visualization of shape changes and an easy comparison with trophic habit data, via their superimposition onto the trained SOM. Thus, the SOM provides a direct visual approach for matching morphological and ecological changes during fish ontogenesis. This method could be used as a tool to extract and investigate relationships between shape and other sinecological or environmental variables, which cannot be taken into account simultaneously using conventional statistical methods.

  5. Identification and Characterization of GH Receptor and Serum GH-binding Protein in Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong LIAO; Shang-Quan ZHU

    2004-01-01

    Chinese sturgeon, a kind of cartilage ganoid, has a history of over one billion years and it is called the living fossil of aquatic biology since it keeps some evolutionary trace. Here, we characterized the growth hormone receptor (GHR) and serum growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) of Chinese sturgeon. It was shown that GHR was expressed in various tissues, mainly in hepatic, kidney and intestine tissues. GHR on the hepatic membrane has high and specific affinity for bream GH (brGH) and Scatchard analysis of the binding data showed a single class of high affinity binding site with an association constant Ka of 3.1×109 M-1. A specific band around 94 kD was detected by SDS-PAGE in cross-linking studies of membrane receptors. After incubation of Chinese sturgeon serum with 125I-brGH, a 125I-brGH-GHBP complex was identified by Sephadex G-75, indicating that in the serum exists GHBP specially binding to brGH.

  6. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sausage formulated with surimi powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Palestina; Huda, Nurul; Yang, Tajul Aris

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P sausages. The water holding capacity, and emulsion stability of SP100 were significantly lower (P sausage did not differ with that of control in the term of color, odor, or oiliness scored by panelists. The drying process impacted the texture properties of surimi when it was used in fish sausage. However, the use of surimi powder in fish sausage formulation is still accepted since the TPA values of SP100 and SP50 were still within the textural range of Malaysian commercial fish sausages.

  7. Development of a simple ecosystem model and its application to fish farms at Hazamaura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Joji; Hirano, Tadahiko; Horiguchi, Fumio

    Fish farms often cause environmental degradation to the surrounding aquatic areas when they operate for a long time. In this study, a simple numerical model was developed to evaluate the water quality (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dissolved oxygen) of fish farms. This model consisted of a conventional ecosystem model with an added "cultured fish" component. This model was applied to represent the material cycling in a red sea bream culture at Hazamaura, Gokasho Bay, Japan.The analysis was carried out on the basis of field data collected from 1986-1989. In order to verify the model, the simulated concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved oxygen were compared to observed concentrations. The simulated results were in good agreement with the observational data for the whole year. In the simulated nitrogen and dissolved oxygen cycle, we found that the factors causing water pollution (eutrophication, anoxia, etc.) were: excretion by the cultured fishes, river load and benthic regeneration in summer, an increase in organic substances from feed scraps and an increase in dissolved inorganic nitrogen through mineralization in winter.

  8. Repeated Fish Removal to Restore Lakes: Case Study of Lake Væng, Denmark—Two Biomanipulations during 30 Years of Monitoring

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    Martin Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomanipulation by fish removal has been used in many shallow lakes as a method to improve lake water quality. Here, we present and analyse 30 years of chemical and biological data from the shallow and 16 ha large Lake Væng, Denmark, which has been biomanipulated twice with a 20-year interval by removing roach (Rutilus rutilus and bream (Abramis brama. After both biomanipulations, Lake Væng shifted from a turbid, phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear, water macrophyte-dominated state. Chlorophyll a was reduced from 60–80 μg·L−1 to 10–30 μg·L−1 and the coverage of submerged macrophytes, dominated by Elodea canadensis, increased from <0.1% to 70%–80%. Mean summer total phosphorus was reduced from about 0.12 to 0.07 mg·L−1 and total nitrogen decreased from 1.0 to 0.4 mg·L−1. On a seasonal scale, phosphorus and chlorophyll concentrations changed from a summer maximum during turbid conditions to a winter maximum under clear conditions. The future of Lake Væng is uncertain and a relatively high phosphorus loading via the groundwater, and the accumulation of a mobile P pool in the sediment make it likely that the lake eventually will return to turbid conditions. Repeated fish removals might be a relevant management strategy to apply in shallow lakes with a relatively high external nutrient loading.

  9. STATE POLICY FUNDAMENTALS IN FORMATION OF A NATIONAL STANDARD OF "GREEN CONSTRUCTION" FOR ASSESSMENT OF ITEMS OF REAL PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolchigin Mikhail Aleksandrovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the problem of implementation of principles of "green construction" in the Russian Federation. Despite the availability of the appropriate legislation in the field of environmental safety of construction, there are no legal, social, or economic incentives that may boost development of "green" technologies. Until recently, fundamentals of the state policy in the field of environmental protection of real estate development have not succeeded in motivating market players to implement advanced green technologies. However, recently, the government has begun motivating the construction industry towards the use of "green" technologies. The first activity is aimed at improving the legislation and updating the international voluntary certification according to BREAM and LEED standards. The result is the acceptance of the National Green Building Standard for real estate valuation that will open up new opportunities and prospects to the participants of the construction market. However, at the initial phase of implementation of "Fundamentals of the State Policy in the Field of Environmental Development of the Russian Federation", government authorities should provide their support to proponents of green buildings, including financial inflows.

  10. Toxic Metals in Pelagic, Benthic and Demersal Fish Species from Mediterranean FAO Zone 37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccari, Clara; Cicero, Nicola; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Vella, Antonio; Macaluso, Andrea; Naccari, Francesco; Dugo, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    Fish represents a nutrient-rich food but, at the same time, is one of the most important contributor to the dietary intake of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to assess residual levels of Pb, Cd and Hg in different species, caught from FAO zones 37 1.3 and 37 2.2, particularly small pelagic, benthic and demersal fishes. The results obtained showed the absence of toxic metal in fishes from FAO zone 37 1.3. Relating to FAO zone 37 2.2, instead, in all samples we observed the absence of Pb, small concentrations of Cd (0.081±0.022 mg/kg) and higher Hg residual levels (0.252±0.033 mg/kg). Particularly, the trend of Cd contamination was similar in all species whereas Hg showed high levels in demersal, intermediate in pelagic and low in benthic species. However, only Cd concentrations exceed the MRL in mackerel, mullet, sea-bream fishes, according to Regulation CE n. 629/2008 and n. 488/2014.

  11. Spatial distribution of Dactylogyrus wunderi Bychowsky on gills of Abramis brama orientalis Berg (Leuciscinae) in Irtysh River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Cuilan; Yue, Cheng; Yao, Weijian; Yin, Jianguo; Jiao, Li; Zhu, Mengying; Jia, Shu'an; Wang, Na; Wang, Xin

    2013-09-01

    The spatial distribution of the monogenean Dactylogyrus wunderi Bychowsky, 1931 on the gill filaments of the bream Abramis brama orientalis Berg (Leuciscinae) inhabiting the Irtysh River of Xinjiang, China was investigated from June to July 2012. D. wunderi was identified by sequencing a fragment of its ITS rDNA region. Sixty-five fish were examined, with 55% testing positive for monogenean infection. The prevalence of the parasite in the left and right gill arches was 46% and 48%, respectively. In fish with a large body length, the prevalence of the parasite and the infection intensity did not significantly differ between the right and left gill arches but both were slightly higher in the former. Among the three size groups of fish (small, medium and large) the prevalence and the intensity of infection were lowest in fish with small body lengths. The distribution of the monogenean population in the host gills showed an aggregate distribution, with little change in the degree of aggregation, suggesting that most hosts were either not or only slightly infected by D. wunderi and that the parasite infected only a few hosts. In addition, differences in D. wunderi infections between gill arches of A. brama orientalis were not significant ( P>0.05).

  12. Changes in lipid class and fatty acid composition during development in white seabream (Diplodus sargus) eggs and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Juana Rosa; Almansa, Eduardo; Jérez, Salvador; Bolaños, Ana; Felipe, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Antonio

    2004-10-01

    To establish the changes which occur during embryogenesis and early larvae development, eggs, yolk-sac larvae (one day old larvae) and absorbed yolk-sac larvae (three day old larvae) of white sea bream were examined for lipid class and fatty acid composition. The development was characterized by a decrease in all lipid classes with the exception of phosphatidylserine (PS) and fatty free acids (FFA) which increased, and sphingomyelin (SM) which remained unchanged. The changes observed in lipid class content and the decrease in fatty acids in total lipid (TL) reflect the utilization and mobilization of lipids during both embryogenesis and early larvae development. Fluctuations in the relative composition of fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine (PC) during development suggest a selective bulk uptake and catabolism of fatty acids in this lipid class. Unlike PC, catabolism of triacylglycerol (TG) fatty acid appears to be non-selective. During development, the decrease in levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3, DHA) in total lipid denotes their utilization as energy substrate by Diplodus sargus larvae.

  13. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Franco

    Full Text Available Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment. Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

  14. Diplodus sargus interrenal-pituitary response: chemical communication in stressed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivotto, Ike; Mosconi, Gilberto; Maradonna, Francesca; Cardinali, Marco; Carnevali, Oliana

    2002-06-01

    In the present study the response of white sea-bream (Diplodus sargus), used as experimental model, to different stocking densities was tested to assess whether the induced stress conditions were able to activate a chemical communication. Once a good recovery was evident, six days after capture and transportation, experiments started to evaluate eventual changes in cortisol plasma levels as well as in both plasma and pituitary alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) levels. These studies demonstrated that a low stocking density (2.5kg/1000L) is not deleterious for this species while a higher one (10kg/1000L) induces the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI). Thus, in these fish were evident both a significant increase of cortisol plasma levels and a significant decrease of alpha-MSH pituitary levels, while no significant changes were detected in alpha-MSH plasma concentrations. The most relevant result reported in this study, for the first time in marine species, is the presence of a chemical communication among stressed fish. It also should be noted that the data obtained from cortisol and alpha-MSH detections strongly indicate a gender specificity of this chemical signal.

  15. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

  16. Population dynamics of two diplectanid species (Monogenea) parasitising sparid hosts (Sparidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre, Yilmaz; Emre, Nesrin; Aydogdu, Ali; Bušelić, Ivana; Smales, Lesley R; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-03-01

    Economically important sparid fish species, gilthead (Sparus aurata) and white seabream (Diplodus sargus) (Sparidae) are frequently parasitised by diplectanid monogeneans, known to induce severe losses in farming conditions. We have analysed population dynamic of two diplectanid species, Lamellodiscus echeneis and Lamellodiscus ignoratus (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) collected from two bream species in the Beymelek Lagoon (southwest coast of Turkey), comparing it between different host variables (fish size, age and sex) in order to have insight in parasites' ecology, important for managing parasitosis in the intensive aquaculture system. In seabream (N = 127), L. echeneis prevalence was 46.5 % (exact 95 % confidence limits 38.90-54.14), mean abundance 5.64 (bootstrap 95 % confidence limits 4.20-7.65) and mean intensity 12.14 (bootstrap 95 % confidence limits 9.49-15.59). In white seabream (N = 102), L. ignoratus prevalence was 24.5 % (exact 95 % confidence limits 16.53-34.03), mean abundance 1.73 (bootstrap 95 % confidence limits 0.98-3.21) and mean intensity 7.04 (bootstrap 95 % confidence limits 4.60-11.40). Parasites' parameters differed only between seasons in both hosts and between age categories in gilthead, but not in white seabream.

  17. Interactive drivers of activity in a free-ranging estuarine predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Taylor

    Full Text Available Animal activity patterns evolve as an optimal balance between energy use, energy acquisition, and predation risk, so understanding how animals partition activity relative to extrinsic environmental fluctuations is central to understanding their ecology, biology and physiology. Here we use accelerometry to examine the degree to which activity patterns of an estuarine teleost predator are driven by a series of rhythmic and arrhythmic environmental fluctuations. We implanted free-ranging bream Acanthopagrus australis with acoustic transmitters that measured bi-axial acceleration and pressure (depth, and simultaneously monitored a series of environmental variables (photosynthetically active radiation, tidal height, temperature, turbidity, and lunar phase for a period of approximately four months. Linear modeling showed an interaction between fish activity, light level and tidal height; with activity rates also negatively correlated with fish depth. These patterns highlight the relatively-complex trade-offs that are required to persist in highly variable environments. This study demonstrates how novel acoustic sensor tags can reveal interactive links between environmental cycles and animal behavior.

  18. THE RESPONSE OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE AND FISH ASSEMBLAGES TO HUMAN IMPACT ALONG THE LOWER STRETCH OF THE RIVERS MORAVA AND DYJE (DANUBE RIVER BASIN, CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Adámek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The lower Morava and Dyje rivers belong among the large lowland rivers on the southeast of the Czech Republic flowing into the Danube 69 km downstream of their confluence. Despite their high nature value and environment protection, both rivers suffered from heavy pollution from the sixties to the eighties of the last century. Significant improvement of their water quality during the last two decades resulted in the partial recovery of former assemblages of both benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. Recently, altogether 262 and 137 taxa of macrozoobenthos were recorded at the Dyje and Morava rivers, respectively. In the River Dyje, 3 and 21 non-native and threatened (according to IUCN categories invertebrate species, respectively, were ascertained, whilst in the River Morava their numbers were 2 and 10, respectively. The fish assemblage consisted of 23 and 24 species, respectively, plus one hybrid in each of the rivers, bleak being by far the most abundant fish. In the sections under study, several rare and/or protected species were also recorded. Two of them, ide (Leuciscus idus and burbot (Lota lota belong among vulnerable fish species and four others, white-eye bream (Abramis sapa, striped ruffe (Gymnocephalus schraetser, streber (Zingel streber and zingel (Zingel zingel, are considered as critically endangered species. Currently, both lower stretches of the rivers Morava and Dyje have been heavily invaded by round goby, Neogobius melanostomus.

  19. Characterization of the De Novo Biosynthetic Enzyme of Platelet Activating Factor, DDT-Insensitive Cholinephosphotransferase, of Human Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Basilios Tsoupras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activating factor (PAF, a potent inflammatory mediator, is implicated in several proinflammatory/inflammatory diseases such as glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, atherosclerosis, cancer, allergy, and diabetes. PAF can be produced by several renal cells under appropriate stimuli and it is thought to be implicated in renal diseases. The aim of this study is the characterization of DTT-insensitive cholinephosphotransferase (PAF-CPT of human mesangial cell (HMC, the main regulatory enzyme of PAF de novo biosynthetic pathway. Microsomal fractions of mesangial cells were isolated and enzymatic activity and kinetic parameters were determined by TLC and in vitro biological test in rabbit washed platelets. The effect of bovine serum albumin (BSA, dithiothreitol (DTT, divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+, EDTA, and various chemicals on the activity of PAF-CPT of HMC was also studied. Moreover, preliminary in vitro tests have been performed with several anti-inflammatory factors such as drugs (simvastatin, IFNa, rupatadine, tinzaparin, and salicylic acid and bioactive compounds of Mediterranean diet (resveratrol and lipids of olive oil, olive pomace, sea bass “Dicentrarchus labrax,” and gilthead sea bream “Sparus aurata”. The results indicated that the above compounds can influence PAF-CPT activity of HMC.

  20. Comparison of heavy metal concentration of some marine fishes from Black and Aegean Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makedonski Lubomir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Major part of healthy human diet consist of marine fish and seafood products. And it is not surprising that there are numerous studies based on metal accumulation in various fish species. Fish may also be used for heavy metal monitoring programs of marine environments due to their easy sampling, sample preparation and chemical analysis. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, manganese, zinc, iron, chromium, total mercury and total arsenic were determined in edible part of two commercially valuable fish Greek aquaculture species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata purchased from Bulgarian market during 2011. The concentration of metals was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. The concentration of the heavy metals in examined fish species ranged as follow: Pb 0.008 - 0.013; Cd 0.0017 - 0.022; Ni 0.007 - 0.012; Cu 0.054 - 0.115; Mn 0.043 - 0.09; Zn 0.14 - 0.15; Fe 0.17 - 0.19; Cr 0.05 - 0.07; Hg 0.11 - 0.13; As 1.6 - 1.8 mg kg-1 wet weight, respectively.

  1. Time trends in fish populations in metropolitan France: insights from national monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, N; Beaulaton, L; Dembski, S

    2011-12-01

    Using the electrofishing database of the French National Agency for Water and Aquatic Environment (Onema), the time trends of 48 freshwater fish taxa at 590 sites monitored for at least 8 years from 1990 to 2009 were investigated. The results demonstrated that species richness increased steadily from the beginning of the monitoring period. This is congruent with the finding that the number of species displaying a significant increase in spatial distribution or abundance was greater than those showing a significant decrease. Some species, however, had declined both in occurrence and abundance, e.g. tench Tinca tinca, common bream Abramis brama, brown trout Salmo trutta and European eel Anguilla anguilla. The species showing the most spectacular colonization were non-native, e.g. topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva, wels catfish Silurus glanis and asp Aspius aspius. The time trends in population density were related to the maximal body size, habitat requirement, occurrence and abundance and the status (i.e. native or exotic) but not to the spawning temperature.

  2. Culture of marine sponges with potential applications in Aquaculture and Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M F Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the sponges were collected from the sea bottom in the surrounding areas of Peniche (central western coast of Portugal, by scuba diving. They were sealed in plastic zip bags during transportation to the surface and laboratory, to avoid air contact, which they are not able to endure. They were maintained in a closed water circulation system, transplanted into artificial substrates of plastic and fed every two days, with a mixed solution of microalgae Nanochloropsis salina culture and faeces of gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata. As this species is susceptible to the light, half of the tanks of the culture system were protected with a black cloth and the other half were submitted to an acclimation process to this factor, in order for them to be used in aquariophilia. The sponges dimension and weight were assessed. The establishment of an efficient culture strategy will allow to use sponges as ornamental organism, as well as a diet for other interesting commercial species (also potentially as probiotics, or even as source of extracts for different biotechnology fields.

  3. Preliminarily comparison of nutritional composition of some fresh and processed seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberoumand, Ali

    2012-10-01

    Processing made fish less susceptible to spoilage. Fish are rich in protein content but the protein content is reduced with processing gave a better result when long-time preservation was carried out. Aim of this study was comparison of proximate analysis of some fresh and processed seafoods. Raw materials and processed seafoods (canned mackerel tuna, frozen Sea-Bream and Pressed caviar) were obtained from different firms and analyzed. Analysis carried out according AOAC methods. Moisture, protein and fat values of tuna fish were estimated to be 51, 23.9 and 21.4%, respectively. In this study, moisture content of pressed caviar was 36%, protein content was 34.4% and fat content was 16.7%, carbohydrate and energy values were 4.9% and 316 kcal/100 g, respectively. Pressed and smoked seafoods contained lower amount of moisture but higher amounts of the other components than raw materials (p canning with water, all processing technologies decreased the moisture content but increased energy values (p foods that was produced in Iran. Since fishes are consumed as a major protein source in food, it is very important that the protein content should not be compromised during table preparation.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF CRUDE RECOMBINANT VIRAL PROTEIN VACCINES AGAINST GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV ON HUMPBACK GROUPER (Cromileptes altivelis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Mahardika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Megalocytivirus cause serious mass mortality in marine fish in South East Asian countries. The aim of this study was to produce recombinant of GSDIV capsid protein and its protection to humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis against grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV. A major capsid protein (MCP was selected for use as a crude subunit vaccines. This gene target (MCP was inserted to the protein expression system vector of pET SUMO and cloned in cells bacteria Escherichia coli strain BL-21. The MCP was succeded to be induced using 1 mM of IPTG. Results of protein analysis using MALDI TOF-TOF indicated that the MCP has measurement of 49.566 kDa with PI index of 6.00, and contained 453 amino acids. BLAST homology analysis exhibited that the amino acid sequence of the MCP showed high similarity with MCP of Red Sea Bream Iridovirus (RSIV. E. coli expressing MCP protein was inactivated using 0.03% formalin overnight and washed using PBS. The inactivated E. coli as a crude subunit vaccine was then injected intramuscularly to humpback grouper juveniles. Subsequently, the juveniles were challenged tested with GSDIV. The juveniles vaccinated with the MCP recombinant bacteria showed significantly higher survival rates than control those vaccinated with PBS. Thus, the MCP fusion protein is considered as a potential vaccine against GSDIV infections in grouper.

  5. Increased sensitivity in PCR detection of tdh-positive Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood with purified template DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara-Kudo, Y; Kasuga, Y; Kiuchi, A; Horisaka, T; Kawasumi, T; Kumagai, S

    2003-09-01

    PCR is an important method for the detection of thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh)-positive (pathogenic hemolysin-producing) strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood because tdh-negative (nonpathogenic) V. parahaemolyticus strains often contaminate seafood and interfere with the direct isolation of tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus. In this study, the use of PCR to detect the tdh gene of V. parahaemolyticus in various seafoods artificially contaminated with tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus was examined. PCR was inhibited by substances in oysters, squid, mackerel, and yellowtail but not by cod, sea bream, scallop, short-necked clam, and shrimp. To improve detection, DNA was purified by either the silica membrane method, the glass fiber method, or the magnetic separation method, and the purified DNA was used as the PCR primer template. For all samples, the use of the silica membrane method and the glass fiber method increased detection sensitivity. The results of this study demonstrate that the use of properly purified template DNA for PCR markedly increases the effectiveness of the method in detecting pathogenic tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus in contaminated seafood.

  6. Presence of lactobacilli in the intestinal content of freshwater fish from a river and from a farm with a recirculation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucio, Adolfo; Hartemink, Ralf; Schrama, Johan W; Verreth, Johan; Rombouts, Frans M

    2006-08-01

    Lactobacilli are Gram-positive and catalase negative rods commonly found in lactic acid fermented foods and in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds. Few studies have described lactobacilli in freshwater fish. We analysed the presence of lactobacilli in the intestines of young and adult freshwater fish inhabiting a river environment and from fish reared in an aquaculture unit with a water recirculation system. Various species of lactobacilli were present in relatively high number in the intestines of edible fresh water fish from the river, especially in the warm season but in low numbers in the cold season. Lactobacilli were scarcely found in the intestines of edible farmed fish reared in a recirculation system in warm water. Lactobacilli are reported for the first time from the intestines of wild European eel, perch, rudd, ruffe, bleak, silver bream, chub, somnul and farmed African catfish. The two first fishes, and the last one are highly valuable species for fisheries and aquaculture. Additionally, improved methods for storage and bacteriological analysis of fish intestinal content are described. The natural presence of lactic acid bacteria in fish may be of great interest in producing fermented fish products worldwide.

  7. Sea Cucumber: New source of Protein for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vaz Pratas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture, probably the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 percent of the world's food fish consumed by humans, and this share is expected to increase further to meet future demand. Sea cucumbers are considered highly marketable product and this has resulted in an increasing overfishing of natural sea cucumber stocks. Nevertheless, these resources are almost unexploited in the Mediterranean region. Many species of holothurians have been recognized as an alternative source of first quality protein and considered a putative functional food, like hypocholesterolemic proprieties and contain many other bioactive compounds. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine and compare the protein content of two sea cucumber species, Holothuria forskali and Stichopus regalis. The Kjeldahl method was used to determine the crude protein through the measurement of nitrogen amount in each sample. The obtained results demonstrated that both species contain high protein levels, with higher results for S. regalis, which revealed values between 19,1% and 20,4%. H. forskali showed a protein level among 12,1% and 15,4%. Holothurian protein levels reveal great potential for human consumption. Those resources can be used as a partial substitute of fish meal (eg. sea bream nutrition, either to intern market as well as for exportation to Asian countries. Sea cucumber farming could have lucrative potential in the Mediterranean, converting sea cucumbers into aquaculture value-added products bringing to this region profitable economic benefits.

  8. The improved PCR of the fstA (ferric siderophore receptor) gene differentiates the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from other Aeromonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Figueras, María José

    2013-10-25

    The members of the genus Aeromonas are autochthonous of aquatic ecosystems and several species have been associated to septicaemia, ulcerative and haemorrhagic diseases in fish, causing significant mortality in both wild and farmed, freshwater and marine fish species. The species Aeromonas salmonicida is generally recognized as the most important fish pathogen responsible for epidemic outbreaks of furunculosis in salmonids, also being able to produce infections in other cultured fish such as turbot, halibut, sea bream or goldfish. New species, i.e. Aeromonas aquariorum, Aeromonas tecta and Aeromonas piscicola, have recently been discovered and isolated from diseased fish. The species A. piscicola and Aeromonas bestiarum are practically impossible to differentiate phenotypically and genetically (when using the 16S rRNA gene) from each other and from A. salmonicida. In the present study, two previously described PCR protocols, based on the fstA and gyrB genes, for the specific detection of A. salmonicida were re-evaluated with the type strains of all Aeromonas species and with a set of A. piscicola and A. bestiarum strains. Contrary to what had been published previously it was demonstrated that the gyrB-PCR is not specific for A. salmonicida because of cross-reactions with other Aeromonas species. However, in agreement with previous results, A. salmonicida was detected on the basis of the fstA-PCR, for which an improved protocol was proposed.

  9. Determination of sulfur and selected trace elements in metallothionein-like proteins using capillary electrophoresis hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with an octopole reaction cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proefrock, Daniel; Leonhard, Peter; Prange, Andreas [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max Planck Strasse, 21502, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    The determination of sulfur in biologically relevant samples such as metalloproteins is described. The analytical methodology used is based on robust on-line coupling between capillary electrophoresis (CE) and octopole reaction cell inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ORC-ICP-MS). Polyatomic ions that form in the plasma and interfere with the determination of S at mass 32 are minimised by addition of xenon to the collision cell. The method has been applied to the separation and simultaneous element-specific detection of sulfur, cadmium, copper, and zinc in commercially available metallothionein preparations (MT) and metallothionein-like proteins (MLP) extracted from liver samples of bream (Abramis brama L.) caught in the river Elbe, Germany. Instrumental detection limits have been calculated according to the German standard procedure DIN 32645 for the determination of sulfur and some simultaneously measured trace elements in aqueous solution. For sulfur detection limits down to 1.3 {mu}g L{sup -1} ({sup 34}S) and 3.2 {mu}g L{sup -1} ({sup 32}S) were derived. For the other trace elements determined simultaneously detection limits ranging from 300 ng L{sup -1} ({sup 58}Ni) to 500 ng L{sup -1} ({sup 66}Zn, {sup 55}Mn) were achieved. For quantification of sulfur and cadmium in a commercially available MT preparation under hyphenated conditions the use of external calibration is suggested. Finally, the need for proper sample-preparation technique will be discussed. (orig.)

  10. The Distribution of Posthodiplostomum Cuticola and Rossicotrema Donicum in Scardinius Erythrophthalmus and Hypophtalmichthys Molitrix Stemming from the Danube Delta

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    Cristiana Diaconescu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the pathogenicity of Posthodiplostomum cuticola and Rossicotrema donicum digenean infestations within freshwater fish populations, in the Gorgova – Uzlina, Dunavat – Dranov and Razim – Sinoie natural complexes. The so-called “Black spot disease” caused by the metacercarial infestation was diagnosed in 5 out of 11 studied freshwater fish species: rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus, silver carp (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix, zarte (Vimba vimba, bream (Abramis brama and European perch (Perca fluviatilis. The metacercariae were found mostly on the surface of the body (on fins, scales and skin, but also in the mouth, gills, eye sockets and even within the muscle, underneath the skin. Additionally, prevalence of the disease was estimated in rudd and silver carp during a 6-year study period. It resulted a maximum prevalence of 33.44% in the silver carp caught in Dunavat – Dranov (during the 5th year of the study and a minimum prevalence of 22.81% in the rudd caught in Gorgova – Uzlina (during the 6th year of the study.

  11. Histopathology of feral fish from a PCB-contaminated freshwater lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, Kari; Ritola, Ossi; Huuskonen, Sirpa E.; Lindstroem-Seppae, Pirjo [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Physiology; Myers, Mark S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (United States). National Marine Fisheries Service

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential toxic effects of chronic sublethal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure on feral fish, using histopathology as an endpoint. Histopathological study of bream (Abramis brama) and asp (Aspius aspius) living in a PCB-polluted freshwater lake revealed abnormal cellular changes in the renal corpuscle of both species. Dilation of glomerular capillaries (DGC), mesangial edema (ME), an adhesion between visceral and parietal layers of Bowman's capsule (ABC), and filling of Bowman's space (FBS), were highly prevalent features in lake fish. The prevalence of each of these lesions was significantly lower, or totally absent in fish caught from reference locations. Cellular alterations in liver, gill, gonads, spleen, and intestine were all linked to seasonal changes. The results suggest that some of the observed histopathological changes in renal glomeruli, particularly DGC and ME, could possibly indicate a prolonged chemical stress caused by PCBs and related compounds. It is also possible that chronic PCB exposure may have suppressed and weakened the immuno systems of exposed fish making them more vulnerable to secondary parasitic infection.

  12. Vol. 4 in the series: Site profiles of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons - cause-oriented monitoring in aquatic media; Pestizide aus der Reihe der persistenten chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffe in Gewaessern der Rhein-Region - Ergebnisse nachhaltiger Steuerungen von Wirtschaft und Politik. Bd. 4 der Reihe: Standortprofile persistenter chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe - ursachenorientiertes Monitoring in aquatischen Medien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, E.; Kettrup, A.; Bergheim, W.; Wenzel, S.

    2003-07-01

    Evaluating the analytical data of DDT and its metabolites, the isomers of HCH as well as (sometimes) of aldrin and dieldrin in surface water, suspended matter, eels, breams and roaches from the rivers Rhine, Neckar, Kocher, Enz, Main (upto km 360), Weschnitz, Modau, Schwarzbach, Hengstbach, Grundbach, Nidda, Rodau, Kinzig, Werra, Diemel, Lahn, Nahe, Mosel, Sauer, Saar, Ahr, Kyll, Sieg and Laacher See distance profiles (partly from Konstanz till Markermeer) and time series (partly from 1984-2001) were elaborated. The primary data come from about 15 mainly regional investigation departments, the IKSR and the Environmental Specimen Bank. The chemical enterprises in Rheinfelden, Grenzach, Ludwigshafen, Lampertheim, Gernsheim, Darmstadt, Hoechst, Kelsterbach, Offenbach, Ingelheim, Loelsdorf, Leverkusen, Elberfeld, Krefeld-Uerdingen and Huels could partly be made transparent by the course of the sDDT and sHCH values and the profiles of the constituents and isomers, resp., in the distance profiles (especially from the river Rhine) mainly from 1990/92. The corresponding graph for the year 2000 shows that there is no longer a human and ecotoxicological relevance of the compounds to be expected. (orig.)

  13. Ruffe (Gymnocephalus Cernuus L. Growth and Diet in Lake Dusia (Southern Lithuania

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    Pilinkovskij Andrej

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus (L., is considered to be a food competitor with many commercially valuable fishes such as bream, Abramis brama (L., roach, Rutilus rutilus (L., pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (L., and perch, Perca fluviatilis L. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the fish community structure of Lake Dusia and the population parameters (morphometry, age, growth, diet of ruffe as one of the prevailing fish species in the lake. The fish community of Lake Dusia was dominated by ruffe, perch, and roach. The ruffe population constituted 64.1% of the fish community of the lake in relative abundance and 36.8% in biomass. An analysis of the ruffe diet revealed that Gammaridae and Chironomidae were the principal components in all age-classes. The ruffe population was comprised mainly of individuals 3+ and 4+ years of age. The mean total length (TL of ruffe was 13.39 ± 1.79 cm (minimum-maximum: 6.12-19.93 cm. The growth in length calculated using the von Bertalanffy equation was Lt = 21.3[1-e-a161(t-0,335]. Ruffe growth rates were found to slow as the fish aged. Ruffe growth variations were linked to population density, fish community structure in the water body, abundance of invertebrates (zooplankton and zoobenthos, and type of water body.

  14. Mobile platform for fish migration upstream from the discharge sill situated near Dacia bridge on Crișul Repede River

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    Răzvan VOICU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal connectivity represent the way in which organisms move the energy and material exchanges located throughout the water. Fragmentation the longitudinal connectivity of watercourses caused by dams or other hydrotechnical constructions represent a major impact on sediment transport, hydrological regime, downstream moving and biota migration. The hydromorphological elements (river continuity, as well as chemical, biological, physicochemical elements characterize the ecological status of rivers. Migratory fish species: nase (Chondrostoma nasus - protected by Bern Convention - Appendix III, barbel (Barbus barbus - rare species, protected Habitats Directive (Annex V, annex 4A of Low nr.462 and Red List of RBDD and Freshwater bream (Abramis brama - protected by Bern Convention (Appendix III are blocked by the hydrotechnical constructions (discharge sills, dams located across the watercourse Crișul Repede River. One of the important think of this system is the gravitational fall of water. This solution will lead to the restoration of the longitudinal connection of the Crișul Repede River in the Oradea City, near Dacia Bridge. Romania is part of the European Union and it has the obligation to implement the provisions of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, transposed into Romanian legislation by the Water Law 107/1996 as supplemented and amended (Act 310/2004.

  15. Strategies for obtaining obsidian in pre-European contact era New Zealand.

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    Mark D McCoy

    Full Text Available Archaeological evidence of people's choices regarding how they supply themselves with obsidian through direct access and different types of exchanges gives us insight in to mobility, social networks, and property rights in the distant past. Here we use collections of obsidian artefacts that date to a period of endemic warfare among Maori during New Zealand's Late Period (1500-1769 A.D. to determine what strategies people engaged in to obtain obsidian, namely (1 collecting raw material directly from a natural source, (2 informal trade and exchange, and (3 formal trade and exchange. These deposits represent a good cross-section of Late Period archaeology, including primary working of raw material at a natural source (Helena Bay, undefended sites where people discarded rubbish and worked obsidian (Bream Head, and a heavily fortified site (Mt. Wellington. We find that most of the obsidian described here was likely obtained directly from natural sources, especially those located on off-shore islands within about 60-70 km of sites. A smaller amount comes from blocks of material transported from an off-shore island a greater distance away, called Mayor Island, in a formal trade and exchange network. This study demonstrates the value of conducting tandem lithic technology and geochemical sourcing studies to understand how people create and maintain social networks during periods of warfare.

  16. Genetic diversity of three geographical populations of Pagrosomus major revealed by RAPD analysis%3个不同地理群体真鲷遗传变异的RAPD分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江世贵; 杨慧荣; 苏天凤; 龚世园

    2004-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD) technique was applied to assess the genetic variations among inter- and intra-population of three wild stocks (24 individuals) in Red Sea Bream from Jiaozhou Gulf (Qingdao), Taiwan Strait (Xiamen)and Beibu Gulf( Hainan). Under predetermined optimal reaction conditions,amplifications with 31 random primers selected from 60 gave 216 reproducible and stable fragments ranging from 200 to 2500bp. There were 176 polymorphic fragments. Based on the RAPD data, the genetic distances of intrapopulation for Jiaozhou Gulf, Taiwan Strait and Beibu Gulf wild stocks were 0.1350, 0.1056, and 0.1151,and similarities were 0.8650, 0.8944, and 0.8849. The genetic distances of interpopulation were 0.1645, 0.1413,and 0.1073. The maximum occurred between Jiaozhou Gulf and Beibu Gulf, the minimum did between Talwan Strait and Beibu Gulf. This showed there were high genetic diversity among inter- and intrapopulation. With the methods of UPGMA and NJ in MEGA2.1 on the basis of genetic distances, the results showed the populations of Talwan Strait and Beibu Gulf assembled one branch first, then did Jiaozhou Gulf. Both results were accordant.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND ITS CHANGES ESTIMATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF TATARSTAN REPUBLIC NATURAL RESERVED FOND OBJECTS

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    G. R. Valeeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Environment quality estimation and its probable changes in the presence of anthropogenous influence on the Tatarstan republic natural reserved fond objects with fluctuating asymmetry method on different species of organisms was carried out.Methods. Gathering of scientific material was carried out at the 2012-2013 years period at the natural reserved fond objects territory – Tatarstan republic state natural complex wildlife areas. For land ecosystems estimation the morphometric parameters of birch leafs was used, for water ecosystems characteristic – the morphometric parameters of most ordinary species of fish (small fry, golden crucian, bream and amphibians (pond and lake frog. Morphometric measurements results of indicator organisms was statistically processed, fluctuating asymmetry parameter was calculated, according received results the state of ecosystems was estimated.Results. The state of some especially protected natural areas at the Tatarstan republic was estimated. Applicability of fluctuating asymmetry parameter for complex ecosystem estimation was proved. Received results can be used as a matter for ecological risk estimation methodic developing for Tatarstan republic territory.Main conclusions. The investigated areas ecological status was estimated as “relatively normal”. The fluctuating asymmetry parameter in similar conditions for phytoindicator was higher than for zooindicators Results analysis was shown the need of using different indicators for complex characteristic of environmental quality.

  18. Diet of the White-Tailed Eagle During the Breeding Season in the Polesski State Radiation-Ecological Reserve, Belarus

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    Valeri V. Yurko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data on the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla collected during breeding seasons of 2006–2015 in the Polesski State Radiation-Ecological Reserve. The data included 127 records of prey remains belonging to 27 species of vertebrates collected in and under the nests. We discovered that the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle mainly consists of vertebrates of three classes: fishes (Pisces 48.1 %, birds (Aves 41.7 % and mammals (Mammalia 10.2 %. At the present, the main prey species in the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle in the breeding season are: Bream (Abramis brama – 22.0 %, Black Stork (Ciconia nigra – 12.6 %, Northern Pike (Esox lucius – 10.2 %, Wild Boar (Sus scrofa – 7.1 %, White Stork (Ciconia ciconia – 6.3 %, Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos – 5.5 % and Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra – 5.5 %. Together these species makes up 69.2 % or 2/3 of the diet of this raptor. We also established that cannibalism is a character feature of the local population of White-Tailed Eagle, and its proportion is 2.4 %.

  19. Occurrence and Intensity of Anisakid Nematode Larvae in Some Commercially Important Fish Species in Persian Gulf

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    Maryam DADAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anisakid nematodes are common parasites of fish, mammals, fish-eating birds, and reptiles with a worldwide distribution, causing diseases in human, fish and important economic losses.Methods: A preliminary epidemiological study was carried out on Anisakid nematodes larvae in some commercially important fish species to evaluate the anisakid nematode larvae from greater lizardfish, (Saurida tumbil, Japanese thread fin bream (Nemipterus japonicus, crocodile longtom (Tylosurus crocodilus crocodiles and longfin trevally (Carangoides armatus from the Persian Gulf of Iran.Result: The collected larvae were identified mainly as the third larval stage (L3 of Hysterothylacium larval type A, B and C, Anisakis sp., Raphidascaris sp., Pseudoterranova sp. and Philometra sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae. The prevalence of Anisakid larvae infection of examined fishes was 97.2% in N. japonicus, 90.3% in S. tumbil, 20.5% in crocodile longtom and 5.5% in longfin trevally. Anisakis type III for the first time was different from Anisakis type I and Anisakis type II.Discussion: Zoonotic anisakids by high prevalence in edible fish could be a health hazard for people. So health practices should be considered in these areas.

  20. Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of lymphocystis disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Yue, Zhiqin; Liu, Hong; Liang, Chengzhu; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zhao, Yuran; Chen, Xiao; Xiao, Xizhi; Chen, Changfu

    2010-02-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV). A set of five specific primers, two inner and two outer primers and a loop primer, were designed on the basis of the major capsid protein gene of LCDV. The reaction time and temperatures were optimized for 60 min at 63 degrees C, respectively. LAMP amplification products were detected by a ladder-like appearance on agarose gel electrophoresis or a naked-eye inspection of a color change in the reaction tube by addition of SYBR Green I. The assay was specific for LCDV, and there was no cross-reactivity with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or six other Iridoviridae viruses (epizootic hematopoietic necrosis virus, EHNV; tiger frog virus, TFV; Bohle iridovirus, BIV; soft-shelled turtle iridovirus, STIV; infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus, ISKNV; red sea bream iridovirus, RSIV). The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 15 fg, which was similar to that of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 10-fold higher than the conventional PCR. The LAMP assay was evaluated using 109 clinical samples, and the results indicated the suitability and simplicity of the test as a rapid, field diagnostic tool for detection of LCDV. The LCDV LAMP assay has potential for early diagnosis of LCDV infection.

  1. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (December, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BILECENOGLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.

  2. Assessing proteinase K resistance of fish prion proteins in a scrapie-infected mouse neuroblastoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salta, Evgenia; Kanata, Eirini; Ouzounis, Christos A; Gilch, Sabine; Schätzl, Hermann; Sklaviadis, Theodoros

    2014-11-13

    The key event in prion pathogenesis is the structural conversion of the normal cellular protein, PrP(C), into an aberrant and partially proteinase K resistant isoform, PrP(Sc). Since the minimum requirement for a prion disease phenotype is the expression of endogenous PrP in the host, species carrying orthologue prion genes, such as fish, could in theory support prion pathogenesis. Our previous work has demonstrated the development of abnormal protein deposition in sea bream brain, following oral challenge of the fish with natural prion infectious material. In this study, we used a prion-infected mouse neuroblastoma cell line for the expression of three different mature fish PrP proteins and the evaluation of the resistance of the exogenously expressed proteins to proteinase K treatment (PK), as an indicator of a possible prion conversion. No evidence of resistance to PK was detected for any of the studied recombinant proteins. Although not indicative of an absolute inability of the fish PrPs to structurally convert to pathogenic isoforms, the absence of PK-resistance may be due to supramolecular and conformational differences between the mammalian and piscine PrPs.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabonomic profiling using tO2PLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Gemma M; Hancock, Timothy; Hassell, Kathryn; Niere, Julie O; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Goto, Susumu; Adams, Michael J

    2013-06-05

    Blood plasma collected from adult fish (black bream, Sparidae) exposed to a dose of 5 mg kg(-1) 17β-estradiol underwent metabonomic profiling using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). An extension of the orthogonal 2 projection to latent structure (O2PLS) analysis, tO2PLS, was proposed and utilized to classify changes between the control and experimental metabolic profiles. As a bidirectional modeling tool, O2PLS examines the (variable) commonality between two different data blocks, and extracts the joint correlations as well as the unique variations present within each data block. tO2PLS is a proposed matrix transposition of O2PLS to allow for commonality between experiments (spectral profiles) to be observed, rather than between sample variables. tO2PLS analysis highlighted two potential biomarkers, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and choline, that distinguish between control and 17β-estradiol exposed fish. This study presents an alternative way of examining spectroscopic (metabolite) data, providing a method for the visual assessment of similarities and differences between control and experimental spectral features in large data sets.

  4. Bisphenol A content in fish caught in two different sites of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, L; Bianco, M; Viggiano, E; Zollo, F; Bencivenga, U; Sica, V; Monaco, G; Portaccio, M; Diano, N; Colonna, A; Lepore, M; Canciglia, P; Mita, D G

    2011-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor (ED) that is abundant in the environment because of its extensive use in human-manufactured products. In this study, the BPA concentration was measured in the muscle and liver of five edible fish, characterized by different habitat and habits, caught in two different sites of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy). Our results show that: (i) fish livers are about 2.5 times more polluted than muscle; (ii) fish caught in the Gulf of Naples are more polluted than those from the Latium coasts, ranging from 1.2-fold more for White Bream to 6.6-fold for Grey Mullet; and (iii) the percentages of fish found to be BPA-polluted in the Gulf of Naples ranged from 73% (for Bass) to 90% (for Mullet), while the Latium fish range from 60% (for Bass) to 90% (for Mullet). These data indicate that consumers of fish caught in the Gulf of Naples are at a greater risk for BPA-induced endocrine pathologies compared to those who consume fish caught along the Latium coasts.

  5. ASTAXANTHIN: A POTENTIAL CAROTENOID

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    Jyotika Dhankhar et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin, a member of the carotenoid family, is a dark-red pigment which is the main carotenoid found in the marine world of algae and aquatic animals. Astaxanthin, is present in many types of seafood, including salmon, trout, red sea bream, shrimp and lobster, as well as in birds such as flamingo and quail. Synthetic Astaxanthin dominates the world market but recent interest in natural sources of the pigment has increased substantially. Common sources of natural Astaxanthin, are the green algae haematococcus pluvialis, the red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, as well as crustacean byproducts. Astaxanthin possesses unusual antioxidant property which has caused a surge in the nutraceutical market of the encapsulated products. Numerous studies have shown that astaxanthin has potential health-promoting effects in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as cancers, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, eye diseases, skin diseases, exercise-induced fatigue, male infertility, and renal failure. In this article, the currently available scientific literature regarding the most significant activities of astaxanthin is reviewed.

  6. Effects of mesh size and escape gaps on discarding in an Australian giant mud crab (Scylla serrata trap fishery.

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    Matt K Broadhurst

    Full Text Available In response to concerns over excessive discarding from Australian recreational round traps (with four funnel entrances used to target giant mud crabs, Scylla serrata, an experiment was done to assess the independent and cumulative utility of paired, bottom-located horizontal escape gaps (46×120 mm and increasing mesh size (from 51 to 101 mm. Compared to conventional traps comprising 51-mm mesh throughout, those with the same mesh size and escape gaps caught significantly fewer (by 95% undersize (<85 mm carapace length--CL crabs while maintaining legal catches. Traps made from 101-mm mesh (but with the same funnel entrances as conventional designs and with and without escape gaps similarly retained fewer undersize crabs and also yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis (the key bycatch species by up to 94%, but there were concomitant reductions in fishing power for legal sizes of S. serrata. Although there were no immediate mortalities among any discarded crabs, there was a greater bias towards wounding among post molts than late inter-molts and less damage to individuals in the 101-mm conventional than 51-mm conventional traps (without escape gaps. The results support retrospectively fitting escape gaps in conventional S. serrata traps as a means for reducing discarding, but additional work is required to determine appropriate mesh sizes/configurations that maximize species and size selectivity.

  7. Development of Intermediate Foodstuff Derived from Freshwater Fish in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xichang; Yutaka Fukuda; CHEN Shunsheng; Masahito Yokoyama; CHENG Yudong; YUAN Chunhong; QU Yinghong; Morihiko Sakaguchi

    2005-01-01

    According to the three-dimensional contour maps showing the gel-forming properties of surimi derived from freshwater fish, 8 species of surimi were classified into two types. The V-valley type surimi (silver carp, big-head carp, Chinese snake head and blunt snout bream) shows easy setting, low resistance to gel collapse, high enhancement ability with two-step heating, and narrow optimum heating temperature and time area, which are of the same characteristics as the walleye pollack surimi. In contrast, the Plateau type surimi (tilapia, grass carp, mud carp and common carp) exhibits difficult setting, high resistance to gel collapse, no enhancement ability with two-step heating, and wide optimum heating temperature and time area. There are seasonal changes of gelling properties of silver carp surimi, and the setting ability of surimi gel is higher in winter and lower in summer. The marine fish meat gels and the freshwater fish meat gels have the same acceptability for inland Chinese according to the sensory evaluation results. A slight increase in sensory scorings of kamaboko gels occurred when the extract from walleye pollack muscle was added, especially in the odor scoring of silver carp kamaboko gels.

  8. Discovery of novel biopreservation agents with inhibitory effects on growth of food-borne pathogens and their application to seafood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahad, Ouissal Bourouni; El Bour, Monia; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Barros-Velàzquez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Selection of protective cultures is relevant in order to biopreserve and improve the functional safety of food products, mainly through inhibition of spoilage and/or pathogenic bacteria. Accordingly, the present study investigated potential applications of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the biopreservation of fish and shellfish products. For this purpose, a collection of 84 LAB strains isolated from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) was identified and characterized for their inhibitory activities against the most relevant seafood-spoilage and pathogenic bacteria potentially present in commercial products. The bioactive strains belonged to the genus Enterococcus and exhibited inhibition against Carnobacterium sp, Bacillus sp, Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio anguillarum. Treatment of cell-free extracts of the LAB strains with proteases revealed the proteinaceous nature of the inhibition. Interestingly, the cell-free extracts containing bacteriocins remained 100% active after treatment up to 100 °C for 30 min or 121 °C for 15 min. Molecular analysis led to identification of the bacteriocins investigated, including enterocins A, B, L50 and P. All of these proteins demonstrated remarkable anti-Listeria activity and were found to be heat-resistant small class IIa bacteriocins. The results presented in this work open the way for potential applications of these LAB strains to the biopreservation of minimally-processed seafood products.

  9. Cloning and expression analysis of nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor 1 (Ls-NCCRP1) from red snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia; Wei, Shina; Wang, Bei; Huang, Yucong; Tang, Jufen; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2013-09-01

    It is well known that nonspecific cytotoxic cells (NCCs) are kinds of natural killer cell mediated innate immune responses in teleosts. The nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor protein 1 (NCCRP-1) is an important cell surface protein on NCC, which serves crucial functions in target cell recognition and cytotoxicity activation. In the present study, a nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor protein NCCRP-1 (Ls-NCCRP1) was cloned from red snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus. The Ls-NCCRP1 cDNA is composed of 986bp with a 43bp of 5'-UTR, 702bp open reading frame (ORF) and 241bp 3'-UTR, encoding a polypeptide of 233 amino acids (GenBank accession no: ADK32635). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Ls-NCCRP1 showed highest similarity to sea bream NCCRP-1. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that Ls-NCCRP1 had relatively high expression level in the head kidney, spleen and liver. After Vibrio alginolyticus infection, transcripts of Ls-NCCRP1 increased and reached its peak at 4h p.i. These results indicated that Ls-NCCRP1 may play an important role in innate immune response to bacteria.

  10. Variation in the population demographics of Scolopsis bilineatus in response to predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A. E.; Kingsford, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Predatory fishes play critical roles in the trophodynamics of coral reefs, and the biomass of predatory fish can be a strong determinant of the structure of reef fish assemblages. In this study, we used variations in predator biomass between management zones on the Great Barrier Reef to examine how predators influence the biomass, mortality, condition, and reproductive potential of a common prey species Scolopsis bilineatus (bridled monocle bream; Nemipteridae). Despite no numerical differences in biomass or mortality, we found significant differences in a variety of demographic traits for S. bilineatus between multiple areas of high and low predator biomass. The size-at-age, condition, and reproductive potential of fish were reduced in marine reserves where predator biomass was high. The response of fish to predators was highly sex dependent; females suffered the greatest reductions in condition and reproductive potential. This study supports the notion that predators can play important roles in regulating prey dynamics and emphasises the importance of understanding top-down control by predators when considering fisheries management techniques and conservation strategies.

  11. Stable isotopes as tracers of residency for fish on inshore coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jean P.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Fry, Brian; Connolly, Rod M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the migratory movements of fish between habitats is an important priority for fisheries management. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotopes were used to evaluate the degree of movement and residency for five fish species collected from coral reefs in Queensland, Australia. Isotope values of fish were measured and compared between slow-turnover muscle tissue and fast-turnover liver tissue, with isotopic agreement between liver and muscle generally indicating resident animals, and relatively low C isotope values in muscle indicating migrants. Three fish species, rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), painted sweetlips (Diagramma labiosum) and Guenther's wrasse (Pseudolabrus guentheri) showed relatively consistent carbon isotope values between muscle and liver tissue as expected for resident populations. One quarter of bream (Acanthopagrus australis) individuals showed much lower δ13C values in muscle than liver. These low values diverged from the -10 to -15‰ values of residents and were more similar to the -20‰ values of fish collected from coastal riverine habitats, the presumed migration source. Moses perch (Lutjanus russelli) also showed substantial differences between muscle and liver C isotopes for about a quarter of individuals, but the overall higher C values of these individuals indicated they may have switched diets within island habitats rather than migrating. Our results were consistent with previous studies of fish residency and indicate that measuring stable isotopes in multiple tissues provides a useful methodology for characterizing fish residency in inshore areas.

  12. Correlation Among the Contents in Five Kinds of Freshwater Fish, Fish Intake, Mercury in Cord Blood and in Fetal Hair in Wujiang%吴江地区5种淡水鱼含汞量测定及食鱼与脐血汞、胎发汞的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永琴; 吕弘道; 郭俊良; 陈梅竹; 苏海兰

    2011-01-01

    目的 测定吴江地区经常食用的5种淡水鱼含汞量,分析孕期食鱼频率与脐血汞和胎发汞的相关性,从而对孕期控制鱼类摄入量提出相应建议.方法 一年中分四个季度对鳊鱼、鲫鱼、鲢鱼、鲈鱼和黑鱼这5种淡水鱼的背部肌肉和近腹鳍脂肪组织进行含汞量测定,对同期入院分娩的产妇进行食鱼频率问卷调查,所分娩新生儿进行脐血汞和胎发汞测定.结果 5种淡水鱼背部肌肉含汞量(ng/g)依次为8.71±1.92、17.83±1.73、26.14±1.49、31.83 +2.03、35.18±1.75,鳊鱼<鲫鱼<鲢鱼<鲈鱼<黑鱼,差异有高度统计学意义(均P<0.01);腹脂肪含汞量由小到大依次为18.21±1.61(鲫鱼)、19.09±3.14(鳊鱼)、30.67±1.70(黑鱼)、30.83±1.48(鲈鱼)、48.86±2.06(鲢鱼),差异有高度统计学意义(均P<0.01).鳊鱼、鲢鱼腹脂肪含汞量明显高于背肌肉(均P<0.05).孕期每周食淡水鱼或海鱼3次以上者脐血汞、胎发汞含量明显高于每周食鱼1~2次者(P<0.05).结论 吴江地区5种淡水鱼组织含汞量低于中国国家食品鱼类卫生标准,但因甲基汞影响胎儿神经系统发育,对于特殊敏感人群的孕期妇女,建议每周食鱼频率不宜超过2次,且应选择食用组织含汞量少的鱼类,避免食用腹部富含脂肪的组织.%Objective To research the mercury contents of five kinds of freshwater fish in Wujiang and to analyze the correlation among the frequency of fish intake during pregnancy and mercury in cord blood and mercury in fetal hair, and to make appropriate recommendations for controlling fish intake during pregnancy. Methods The mercury contents were determined in the muscles of back and fatty tissue near ventral fin from five kinds of freshwater fish in Wujiang I. E. Bream, crucian carp, silver carp, perch and blackfish in every quarter. At the same time, puerperants in hospital were investigated on the intake frequency of fish by using questionaries, and

  13. Isolation and characterisation of two cDNAs encoding transglutaminase from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Clemens; Kileng, Øyvind; Jensen, Ingvill; Karki, Pralav; Eichacker, Lutz; Robertsen, Børre

    2014-01-01

    Two cDNAs encoding transglutaminase (TG) were identified in a subtractive cDNA library prepared from the head kidney of poly I:C stimulated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Full-length TG-1 and TG-2 cDNA were cloned from the head kidney by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence for TG-1 was 695 aa with an estimated molecular mass of 78.3 kDa, while TG-2 was a 698 aa protein with an estimated molecular mass of 78.8 kDa. The two proteins were named TG-1 and TG-2 and both possess transglutaminase/protease-like homologous domains (TGc) and full conservation of amino acids cysteine, histidine, and aspartate residues that form the catalytic triad. Sequence analysis showed high similarity (93.1%) with Alaska pollock TG, and the TGs were grouped together with TGs from chum salmon, Japanese flounder, Nile tilapia, and red sea bream in addition to Alaska pollock in phylogenetic analysis. Interestingly, they showed different tissue distribution with highest constitutive expression in reproductive and immunological organs, indicating important roles in these organs. Furthermore, the up-regulation of TG-1 and TG-2 in head kidney after stimulating Atlantic cod with poly I:C suggested a role of TGs in immune response in Atlantic cod.

  14. Smart chemical sensors using ZnO semiconducting thin films for freshness detection of foods and beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanto, Hidehito; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Dougami, Naganori; Habara, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kusano, Eiji; Kinbara, Akira; Douguchi, Yoshiteru

    1998-07-01

    The sensitivity of the chemical sensor, based on the resistance change of Al2O3-doped and SnO2-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al and ZnO:SnO2) thin film, is studied for exposure to various gases. It is found that the ZnO:Al and ZnO:Sn thin film chemical sensor has a high sensitivity and excellent selectivity for amine (TMA and DMA) gas and ethanol gas, respectively. The ZnO:Al (5.0 wt%) thin film chemical sensor which exhibit a high sensitivity for exposure to odors from rotten sea foods, such as salmon, sea bream, oyster, squid and sardine, responds to the freshness change of these sea foods. The ZnO:SnO2 (78 wt%) thin film chemical sensor which exhibit a high sensitivity for exposure to aroma from alcohols, such as wine, Japanese sake, and whisky, responds to the freshness change of these alcohols.

  15. Role of peptidases of the intestinal microflora and prey in temperature adaptations of the digestive system in planktivorous and benthivorous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'mina, V V; Skvortsova, E G; Shalygin, M V; Kovalenko, K E

    2015-12-01

    Many fish enzymatic systems possess limited adaptations to low temperature; however, little data are available to judge whether enzymes of fish prey and intestinal microbiota can mitigate this deficiency. In this study, the activity of serine peptidases (casein-lytic, mainly trypsin and hemoglobin-lytic, mainly chymotrypsin) of intestinal mucosa, chyme and intestinal microflora in four species of planktivorous (blue bream) and benthivorous (roach, crucian carp, perch) was investigated across a wide temperature range (0-70 °C) to identify adaptations to low temperature. At 0 °C, the relative activity of peptidases of intestinal mucosa (microflora (5-12.6%) is considerably less than that of chyme peptidases (up to 40% of maximal activity). The level of peptidase relative activity in crucian carp intestinal microflora was 45% of maximal activity. The shape of t°-function curves of chyme peptidase also differs in fish from different biotopes. Fish from the littoral group are characterized by a higher degree of adaptation of chyme casein-lytic peptidases to functioning at low temperatures as compared to fish from the pelagic group. The role of intestinal microbiota and prey peptidases in digestive system adaptations of planktivorous and benthivorous fish to low temperatures is discussed.

  16. Complete genome sequence of a Megalocytivirus (family Iridoviridae associated with turbot mortality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bing

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV causes serious systemic diseases with high mortality in the cultured turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. We here sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of TRBIV, which was identified in Shandong province, China. Results The genome of TRBIV is a linear double-stranded DNA of 110,104 base pairs, comprising 55% G + C. Total 115 open reading frames were identified, encoding polypeptides ranging from 40 to 1168 amino acids. Amino acid sequences analysis revealed that 39 of the 115 potential gene products of TRBIV show significant homology to other iridovirus proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes indicated that TRBIV is closely related to infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, rock bream iridovirus (RBIV, orange-spotted grouper iridovirus (OSGIV, and large yellow croaker iridovirus (LYCIV. The results indicated that TRBIV belongs to the genus Megalocytivirus (family Iridoviridae. Conclusions The determination of the genome of TRBIV will provide useful information for comparative study of Megalocytivirus and developing strategies to control outbreaks of TRBIV-induced disease.

  17. Bioaccumulation of mercury in muscle tissue of fish in the Elbe River (Czech Republic): multispecies monitoring study 1991-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, L; Svobodová, Z; Janousková, D; Vykusová, B; Jarkovský, J; Smíd, R; Pavlis, P

    2005-06-01

    The study monitored mercury (Hg) contamination of fish muscle tissue at 13 geographical sites that can be regarded as crucial points for an ecotoxicological assessment of the Czech Republic section of the Elbe River. The descriptive part of the study was primarily aimed at comparative evaluation of the Hg load during the period 1991-1996. The conclusions were supported by multivariate statistical analyses of the content of Hg in the muscle tissue of 1251 fish belonging to 23 species with four dominant indicator species: Perca fluviatilis (n=163), Abramis brama (n=173), Rutilus rutilus (n=148), and Leuciscus cephalus (n=166). Considering data from 3- to 5-year-old fish, significantly increased contamination was detected in typical predators compared to the other fish species in all sites (PElbe River environment. Multivariate multispecies analyses found the age of analyzed individuals and the feeding strategy of a given species as the most important, however mutually interactive, covariates for Hg accumulation in muscle tissue. The analyses revealed decreasing sensitivity of older predator individuals to differentiate highly and moderately contaminated sites. Benthophagous species mostly kept their discrimination capacity toward contaminated sites in all age categories, with the exception of bream that was rather linked to the pattern typical for predator species. The unclear position of omnivorous species, represented namely by roach, corresponded with their weak bioindicator power, mainly in the young age categories.

  18. Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in different fish from the river Elbe and its tributaries, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, B; Christoph, E-H; Götz, R; Herrmann, T; Krüger, F; Kühn, T; Lay, J; Löffler, J; Päpke, O; Reincke, H; Schröter-Kermani, C; Schwartz, R; Steeg, E; Stehr, D; Uhlig, S; Umlauf, G

    2007-09-05

    In a long-term program polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissue of eels (Anguilla anguilla), bream (Abramis brama), European chub (Leuciscus cephalus) and ide (Leuciscus idus) from the river Elbe and its tributaries Mulde and Saale. The variation of the PCDD/F and DL-PCB concentrations in all fish samples is very large, whereby the DL-PCBs predominate in comparison to the PCDD/Fs. In the eels, the concentrations (pg WHO-TEQ/g ww) for the PCDD/Fs lie in the range of 0.48-22 and for the DL-PCBs between 8.5 and 59. In the whitefish, the concentration range is 0.48-12 for the PCDD/Fs and 1.2-14 for the DL-PCBs. Statistical analysis using relative congener patterns for PCDD/Fs allow spatial correlations to be examined for sub-populations of eels and whitefish. The results are compared to the maximum levels laid down in the European Commission Regulation (EC) No. 466/2001 and the action levels of the European Commission Recommendation 2006/88/EC. Eels caught directly after the major flood in August 2002 as well as eels near Hamburg (years 1996 and 1998) show high concentration peaks. Compared to the eels whitefish is less contaminated with PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs.

  19. Brominated flame retardants and related chlorinated persistent organic pollutants in fish from river Elbe and its main tributary Vltava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajslová, Jana; Pulkrabová, Jana; Poustka, Jan; Cajka, Tomás; Randák, Tomás

    2007-10-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are widely used industrial chemicals, residues of which can be nowadays found in all environmental compartments. The widespread presence of BFRs in various environmental compartments and food chain is a consequence of both their broad application area and physico-chemical properties, such as resistance to degradation and high lipophilicity. Alike in the case of other halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), fish can be used as a bioindicator of aquatic environment pollution. In presented study, conducted in the year 2005, altogether 80 samples representing the most abundant fresh water fish species, viz. chub (Leuciscus cephalus), bream (Abramis brama), and perch (Perca fluviatilis) collected in 11 sampling sites located at Elbe and Vltava (Moldau) rivers were examined for levels of major BFRs. Without any exception, BFRs were detected in all fish samples. BDE 47 was the dominating congener in all fish species. This fact was not surprising, since it used to be the main component in various kinds of technical mixtures. With regard to relatively high levels of BDE 47 in fish tissue, as compared to other BFRs, and considering strong correlation with the total PBDEs content, simplified laboratory examination and, consequently, increased samples throughput can be obtained when only this congener is monitored. The potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS), to provide more comprehensive information on the bioaccumulating chemicals occurring in fish samples, has been demonstrated in this study.

  20. Bioaccumulation of HCH isomers in selected macroinvertebrates from the Elbe River: sources and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaříková, Kateřina; von Tümpling, Wolf; Bartels, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Sediments of the Elbe River have been extremely polluted by contaminants originating from previous large-scale hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) production and the application of γ-HCH (lindane) in its catchment in the second half of the twentieth century. In order to gain knowledge on bioaccumulation processes at lower trophic levels, field investigations of HCHs in macroinvertebrates were carried out along the longitudinal profile of the Elbe and tributary. Among the sites studied, concentrations in macroinvertebrates ranged within five orders of magnitude (0.01-100 μg/kg). In general, lower values of HCH isomers were observed at all Czech sites (mostly Elbe catchment, and these concentrations are decreasing over time to a lesser extent than γ-HCH. Higher HCH concentrations in sediments in the springtime are considered to be the result of erosion and transport processes during and after spring floods, and lower concentrations at sites downstream are thought to be caused by the time lapse involved in the transportation of contaminated particles from upstream. In addition, comparison with fish (bream) data from the literature revealed no increase in tissue concentrations between invertebrates and fish.

  1. Population genetic structure and body shape assessment of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Perciformes: Sparidae from the Buenos Aires coast of the Argentine Sea

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    Leonardo P. Porrini

    Full Text Available This study highlights the analysis of the morphological and genetic variation of the common sea bream Pagrus pagrus, and compares its two main areas of concentration: the northern (35ºS - 38ºS and the southern areas (39ºS - 41ºS of the Buenos Aires coast of the Argentine Sea. Body shape characterization presented two significantly different morphotypes (Wilks' Lambda=0.224, P<0.001. Northern individuals displayed a higher middle area while southern ones were smaller and their caudal peduncle was shorter. The northern and southern areas did not yield significant genetic differences either with the control region or the microsatellite loci, revealing that P. pagrus is not genetically structured. However, individuals from these areas should not be managed as a single group since they display distinct life history traits, responsible for morphological differentiation. The presence of two spawning areas with distinctive characteristics would define two stocks of P. pagrus from the Buenos Aires coast.

  2. NMR-based screening method for transglutaminases: rapid analysis of their substrate specificities and reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimba, Nobuhisa; Yokoyama, Kei-ichi; Suzuki, Ei-ichiro

    2002-03-13

    Incorporation of inter- or intramolecular covalent cross-links into food proteins with microbial transglutaminase (MTG) improves the physical and textural properties of many food proteins such as tofu, boiled fish paste, and sausage. Other transglutaminases (TGases) are expected to be used in the same way, and also to extend the scope of industrial applications to materials, drugs, and so on. The TGases have great diversity, not only in amino acid sequence and size, but also in their substrate specificities and catalytic activities, and therefore, it is quite difficult to estimate their reactivity. We have developed an NMR-based method using the enzymatic labeling technique (ELT) for simultaneous analysis of the substrate specificities and reaction rates of TGases. It is quite useful for comparing the existing TGases and for screening new TGases or TGases variants. This method has shown that MTG is superior for industrial use because of its lower substrate specificity compared with those of guinea pig liver transglutaminase (GTG) and red sea bream liver transglutaminase (FTG). We have also found that an MTG variant lacking an N-terminal aspartic acid residue has higher activity than that of the native enzyme.

  3. 珠江首次禁渔西江段鱼类资源声学跟踪监测分析%Acoustic monitoring on fish resources in Xijiang section of Pearl River during first closed fishing season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武智; 谭细畅; 李新辉; 汤勇

    2014-01-01

    2011年珠江开始实行禁渔期制度。该研究采用 Simrad EY60鱼探仪,分别于2010年5月19日和2011年5月22日对珠江西江段进行了走航式探测。结果显示,珠江禁渔期期间西江段鱼类资源密度增加,2010年和2011年鱼类平均密度分别为0.0513尾·m -3和0.1068尾·m -3,根据渔获物调查数据,推算增幅分别为广东鲂(Megalo-brama terminalis)47.85%、赤眼鳟(Squaliobarbus curriculus)18.54%、鲮(Cirrhina moitorella)10.87%和鳊(Parabra-mis pekinensis)6.25%;两年西江段深水区域鱼类密度均较大,尤其是水底结构为凹形区域,鱼类有明显的聚集现象;浅水区域且底部较平整的水域,鱼类分布分散且密度较低;垂直分布方面,鱼类主要分布4~10 m 中下层水层。珠江禁渔期的实施,在一定程度上保护了鱼类的产卵亲体繁殖,对鱼类资源数量的补充起到了增殖作用,同时在很大程度上护养了鱼类的自然生长,起到了资源增重作用。%Closed fishing season was initially implemented in Pearl River in 2011. We used a Simrad EY60 echo-sounder with 120 kHz split-beam transducer to survey the Xijiang section of Pearl River. The results show that during the closed season,the density of fish resources was increasing,and the average fish densities were 0. 051 3 ind·m - 3 and 0. 106 8 ind·m - 3 in 2010 and 2011,respec-tively. According to the data of catches,the increases were deduced as follows:Megalobrama terminalis 47. 85% ,Squaliobarbus cur-riculus 18. 54% ,Cirrhina moitorella 10. 87% and Parabramis pekinensis 6. 25%. The deep water had higher fish density than shallow water,especially that fish obviously aggregated in concave region. The fish mainly distributed at depth of 4 ~ 10 m. The implementa-tion of closed fishing season,to some extent,protects breeding of spawning stocks and supplements fish resources as well as mainte-nances natural growth of fishes.

  4. Spatial monitoring of heavy metals in the inland waters of Serbia: a multispecies approach based on commercial fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošković, Aleksandra; Dojčinović, Biljana; Kovačević, Simona; Radojković, Nataša; Radenković, Milena; Milošević, Djuradj; Simić, Vladica

    2016-05-01

    The study monitored the contamination of fish muscle tissue by elements Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn at 17 sampling sites, in order to assess the pollution status of the main rivers in Serbia. Of the six commercially important fish species included in the study (pikeperch Sander lucioperca, catfish Silurus glanis, bream Abramis brama, barbel Barbus barbus, chub Squalius cephalus, nase Chondrostoma nasus), the bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that benthivore bream and barbel and predatory catfish have the highest tendency toward the accumulation of elements. This study achieved its primary objective and produced a contamination map of Serbia as a basis for further research. The estimated metal pollution index (MPI) showed the Tisa River to be unaffected by direct pollution (with an MPI value of 0.31) and the West Morava and Pek rivers to be affected (with MPI values of 1.92 and 0.73 for the WM1 and WM2 sampling sites and 0.65 for the Pek sampling site). Over the past two decades, Serbia has not expanded its industrial activity, which has resulted in the barely noticeable anthropogenic input of heavy metals in the rivers close to industry, and the main rivers are mostly unaffected and slightly affected. We assumed that pollution by heavy metals in the 1990s was trapped in the sediment, thus showing an increased concentration of elements in the species that live and feed on the bottom. Hg concentrations exceeded the maximum permitted concentrations (MPCs) only in catfish samples (0.62 mg kg(-1)) from the Danube (D3 sampling site) and barbel (0.78 mg kg(-1)) from the West Morava (WM1 sampling site), while Cd concentrations exceeded the MPC in catfish samples (0.09 mg kg(-1)) from the Danube (D1 sampling site) and chub samples (0.1 mg kg(-1)) from the South Morava (SM2 sampling site). The average concentrations of Pb exceeded the MPC in chub and barbel samples (0.32 and 0.82 mg kg(-1), respectively) from the West Morava (WM1

  5. Utilization of desalinated b rackish water resi dues for cultivation of the m a rine fish species, Dicentrarchus labra x, Sparus aurata, and Sciaenops ocellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutaz A. Al - Qutob

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of brackish water residues from desalination units for fish mariculture inPalestine could represent an environmental friendly alternative of disposing brine water which could havean adverse effect on wild life. In this study, three juvenile marine fish species (Gilt-head bream S. aurata, European sea bass D. labrax, and red drum S. ocellatus with average weights of 0.7-4.9 g, wereacclimated and reared in brine brackish water residues collected from Jericho desalination units withsalinities of 6.5 ‰ and 11 ‰ diluted sea water as control for 3-7 months. Fish were fed 56 % richprotein diet. Brine brackish water contained high levels of CL-1 (3369 mgL-1, Na+1(3735 mgL-1, K+1(300mgL-1, SO4 -2 (716 mgL-1 with the divalent ions Mg+2 (57.3 mgL-1 and Ca+2 (276 mgL-1.Theexperimental well showed more than the maximum allowable concentration of Cr (14.49 μgL-1, Ag (5.3μgL-1 and Mn (27.88 μgL-1 for water quality of fisheries use. The sea bass with an average weight of0.76 g (at a salinity of 6.5 ‰ showed an acceptable growth performance parameters and reached apercentage weight gain (% WG of 6345.23 % and a survival rate of 77.5 % compared to control groupsat 11 ‰ that reached at the same time a % WG of 6543.78 % and a survival rate of 82 % after 30weeks. The red drum juveniles reached a % WG of 2661.6 % and 2673.92 % after 15 weeks at 6.5 ‰and 11 ‰ respectively while sea bream reached a % WG of 241.63 % and 772.44 % after 15 weeks at6.5 ‰ and 11 ‰ respectively. Survival rate was only 5 % at both salinities for the two species. In afurther study sea bass fingerlings with an average weight of 20.5 g were reared in brackish water of 6.5‰ salinity for 7 weeks and were fed superior fish meal with fish oil. They received diets of 2.1 %, 3.0%, and 4.0 % of body weight. Sea bass fingerlings which received diets of 2.1 %, had the highest FCE(0.82 and PER (1.46 with the lowest FCR (1.22. These results confirm that the most

  6. Alkylphenolic contaminants in the diet: Sparus aurata juveniles hepatic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, I; Gioacchini, G; Scorolli, A; Mita, D G; Carnevali, O; Mandich, A

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of endocrine disrupter chemicals can mimic steroid hormones causing adverse health effects. Nonylphenol (NP) and t-octhylphenol (t-OP) are man-made alkylphenolic environmental contaminants possessing controversial endocrine disruption properties. This study has investigated the effects of NP and t-OP enriched diets on hepatic tissue and biotransformation activities in the liver. To this aim, sea bream juveniles were fed with commercial diet enriched with three different doses of NP (NP1: 5mg/kg bw, NP2: 50mg/kg bw and NP3: 100mg/kg bw) or t-OP (t-OP1: 5mg/kg bw, t-OP2: 50mg/kg bw and t-OP3: 100mg/kg bw) for 21 days. A significant increase of the hepatosomatic index was observed in NP1 and t-OP1. Alteration of liver morphology was observed in both NP and t-OP exposed juveniles although the most altered endpoints were observed in t-OP2 with 100% of tissue degeneration. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was significantly inhibited by NP and t-OP (p<0.05), while catalase activity was significantly induced, at both doses. A different pattern of protein expression of different isoforms of both vitellogenin and zona radiata protein was evidenced within the treatments. In addition, a significant increase in the abundance of the stress induced heat shock protein 70 gene in the liver of t-OP2 fish and a significant increase in the abundance of the estrogen induced cathepsin D gene in the liver of NP1 and t-OP2 fish, were observed. Finally, estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) plasma levels and E2/T showed significantly different patterns in NP and t-OP exposed against control fish.

  7. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Thomas Y; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Wilson, Jonathan M; Jensen, Lasse F; Steffensen, John F; Pertoldi, Cino; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is predicted to affect the distribution and abundance of aquatic ectotherms owing to increasing constraints on organismal physiology, in particular involving the metabolic scope (MS) available for performance and fitness. The oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis prescribes MS as an overarching benchmark for fitness-related performance and assumes that any anaerobic contribution within the MS is insignificant. The MS is typically derived from respirometry by subtracting standard metabolic rate from the maximal metabolic rate; however, the methodology rarely accounts for anaerobic metabolism within the MS. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), this study tested for trade-offs (i) between aerobic and anaerobic components of locomotor performance; and (ii) between the corresponding components of the MS. Data collection involved measuring oxygen consumption rate at increasing swimming speeds, using the gait transition from steady to unsteady (burst-assisted) swimming to detect the onset of anaerobic metabolism. Results provided evidence of the locomotor performance trade-off, but only in S. aurata. In contrast, both species revealed significant negative correlations between aerobic and anaerobic components of the MS, indicating a trade-off where both components of the MS cannot be optimized simultaneously. Importantly, the fraction of the MS influenced by anaerobic metabolism was on average 24.3 and 26.1% in S. aurata and P. reticulata, respectively. These data highlight the importance of taking anaerobic metabolism into account when assessing effects of environmental variation on the MS, because the fraction where anaerobic metabolism occurs is a poor indicator of sustainable aerobic performance. Our results suggest that without accounting for anaerobic metabolism within the MS, studies involving the OCLTT hypothesis could overestimate the metabolic scope available for

  8. Comparative genomic analysis of the family Iridoviridae: re-annotating and defining the core set of iridovirus genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upton Chris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the family Iridoviridae can cause severe diseases resulting in significant economic and environmental losses. Very little is known about how iridoviruses cause disease in their host. In the present study, we describe the re-analysis of the Iridoviridae family of complex DNA viruses using a variety of comparative genomic tools to yield a greater consensus among the annotated sequences of its members. Results A series of genomic sequence comparisons were made among, and between the Ranavirus and Megalocytivirus genera in order to identify novel conserved ORFs. Of these two genera, the Megalocytivirus genomes required the greatest number of altered annotations. Prior to our re-analysis, the Megalocytivirus species orange-spotted grouper iridovirus and rock bream iridovirus shared 99% sequence identity, but only 82 out of 118 potential ORFs were annotated; in contrast, we predict that these species share an identical complement of genes. These annotation changes allowed the redefinition of the group of core genes shared by all iridoviruses. Seven new core genes were identified, bringing the total number to 26. Conclusion Our re-analysis of genomes within the Iridoviridae family provides a unifying framework to understand the biology of these viruses. Further re-defining the core set of iridovirus genes will continue to lead us to a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships between individual iridoviruses as well as giving us a much deeper understanding of iridovirus replication. In addition, this analysis will provide a better framework for characterizing and annotating currently unclassified iridoviruses.

  9. Spatial patterns of density at multiple life stages in protected and fished conditions: An example from a Mediterranean coastal fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, A.; Di Lorenzo, M.; Guidetti, P.

    2013-02-01

    Settlement and recruitment are well known to have critical influences on the demography of most marine fishes. Few studies have compared processes like larval supply, settlement and recruitment of fishes between protected (i.e. in marine protected areas, MPAs) and unprotected conditions and little information is available about the potential influence of early life history traits (e.g. pelagic larval duration, PLD) on these processes. In the present study, using the white sea bream Diplodus sargus sargus as a model species in the south-western Adriatic Sea, we investigated: 1) potential differences in the densities of adults, settlers, recruits and 1-YOs (one year old specimens) within an MPA and in unprotected areas, at multiple spatial scales; 2) the existence of local relationships between densities of adults (i.e. spawners), settlers, recruits and 1-YOs; and 3) the possible relationships between PLD and density of settlers. Both in 2009 and 2010 the density of settlers was higher at sites down-current to the MPA and showed a significant variability at the scale of sites (kms). Density of recruits only revealed variability among sites (both in 2009 and 2010), while density of 1-YOs was variable at the scale of sites and was higher in protected condition in 2011, but not in 2010. No significant relationships were found between the densities of adults, settlers, recruits and 1-YOs at the site scale, nor between PLD and the density of settlers. Results suggest a possible decoupling in space between the sequential life history stages of fish (from settlers to 1-YOs) due to dispersal (through sea currents or active fish movements). Further study may help better understand the actual contribution of MPAs to larval supply and recruitment in both MPAs and adjacent sites.

  10. Assessing dispersal patterns of fish propagules from an effective mediterranean marine protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Franco

    Full Text Available Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called 'recruitment subsidy', the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1 spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2 Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration and 3 a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices, suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings

  11. A new page on the road book of inorganic mercury in fish body - tissue distribution and elimination following waterborne exposure and post-exposure periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia; Raimundo, Joana; Barata, Marisa; Araújo, Olinda; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Canário, João; Almeida, Armando; Pacheco, Mário

    2015-03-01

    There are several aspects of inorganic mercury (iHg) toxicokinetics in fish that remain undeveloped despite its environmental ubiquity, bioaccumulation capacity and toxicity. Thus, this study presents new information on the uptake, distribution and accumulation of iHg following water contamination by adopting a novel set of body compartments (gills, eye wall, lens, blood, liver, brain and bile) of the white sea bream (Diplodus sargus) over 14 days of exposure. Realistic levels of iHg in water (2 μg L(-1)) were adopted in order to engender reliable conclusions in the assessment of fish health. A depuration phase of 28 days was also considered with the purpose of clarifying iHg elimination. It was found that iHg was accumulated faster in the gills (within 1 day), which also had the highest accumulated levels among all the target tissues/organs. Moreover, iHg increased gradually with exposure time in all the tissues/organs, except for the lens that showed relatively unaltered levels throughout the experiment. After 14 days of exposure, lower values of Hg were recorded in the brain/eye wall compared to the liver, which is probably related with the presence of blood-organ protection barriers, which limit iHg influx. iHg reached the brain earlier than the eye wall (3 and 7 days, respectively) and, hence, higher accumulated levels were recorded in the former. A depuration period of 28 days did not allow the total elimination of iHg in any of the tissues/organs. Despite this, iHg was substantially eliminated in the gills, blood and liver, whereas the brain and eye wall were not able to eliminate iHg within this timeframe. The brain and eye wall are more "refractory" structures with regard to iHg elimination, and this could represent a risk for wild fish populations.

  12. Assessing dispersal patterns of fish propagules from an effective mediterranean marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, José Martin; De Leo, Giulio A; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melià, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called 'recruitment subsidy', the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide

  13. Brain morphology and immunohistochemical localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Palmieri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the morphology of the diencephalic nuclei (likely involved in reproductive functions as well as on the distribution of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon and the diencephalon of the brain of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus by means of immunohistochemistry. Bluefin tuna has an encephalization quotient (QE similar to that of other large pelagic fish. Its brain exhibits well-developed optic tecta and corpus cerebelli. The diencephalic neuron cell bodies involved in reproductive functions are grouped in two main nuclei: the nucleus preopticus-periventricularis and the nucleus lateralis tuberis. The nucleus preopticus-periventricularis consists of the nucleus periventricularis and the nucleus preopticus consisting of a few sparse multipolar neurons in the rostral part and numerous cells closely packed and arranged in several layers in its aboral part. The nucleus lateralis tuberis is located in the ventral-lateral area of the diencephalon and is made up of a number of large multipolar neurones. Four different polyclonal primary antibodies against salmon (sGnRH, chicken (cGnRH-II (cGnRH-II 675, cGnRH-II 6 and sea bream (sbGnRH were employed in the immunohistochemical experiments. No immunoreactive structures were found with anti sbGnRH serum. sGnRH and cGnRH-II antisera revealed immunoreactivity in the perikarya of the olfactory bulbs, preopticus-periventricular nucleus, oculomotor nucleus and midbrain tegmentum. The nucleus lateralis tuberis showed immunostaining only with anti-sGnRH serum. Nerve fibres immunoreactive to cGnRH and sGnRH sera were found in the olfactory bulbs, olfactory nerve and neurohypophysis. The significance of the distribution of the GnRHimmunoreactive neuronal structures is discussed.

  14. Multiresidue determination of veterinary drugs in aquaculture fish samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Renata Pereira; Reyes, Rocío Cazorla; Romero-González, Roberto; Vidal, José Luis Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2012-05-01

    A simple, selective and fast multiresidue method was developed for the determination of 32 veterinary drug residues belonging to several families, in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The extraction was based on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) procedure, using as extraction solution a mixture of acetonitrile and methanol (75:25, v/v), and it reduces sample handling, increasing sample throughput in relation to current methodologies. The developed method was validated and mean recovery ranged from 69% to 125% (at 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/kg). Intra and interday precision, estimated as the same levels and expressed as relative standard deviation, RSD, were lower than 20% and 30%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were lower than 7.5 and 25 μg/kg, respectively, except for danofloxacin, oxytetracycline and tetracycline (LOD and LOQ of 15.0 and 50 μg/kg, respectively). Decision limit (CC(α)) and detection capability (CC(β)) were also calculated and ranged from 16.7 μg/kg (levamisole) to 605.0 (flumequine) μg/kg and from 23.5 μg/kg (levamisole) to 611.5 μg/kg (flumequine), respectively. The expanded uncertainty, U, was also evaluated ant it was below 25% at 100 μg/kg level, except for tetracycline (28%). Finally, the method was applied to ten samples obtained from local supermarkets in Almería (Spain) and traces of some compounds were detected.

  15. Short-term covariation of dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton photosynthesis in a coastal fish aquaculture site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takashi; Murata, Osamu; Furuya, Ken; Eguchi, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    The influence of phytoplankton photosynthesis (PP) on dissolved oxygen (DO) dynamics was evaluated in a red sea bream ( Pagrus major) aquaculture site. The surface PP was monitored continuously by a natural fluorescence sensor for 2-3 weeks during all seasons, except spring. In summer, when the daily PP was low during cloudy weather, DO at the surface markedly decreased below the critical level (5.7 mg O 2 L -1), which is needed for normal fish growth. However, on the subsequent clear day, active PP restored the DO back to above the critical level. In fall, under cloudy skies, the surface DO also decreased below the critical level and remained there, even when the subsequent days were clear. In winter, DO remained at high levels throughout the water column due to an active supply from the air and vertical mixing. Besides seasonal changes, surface DO showed a diel cycle with a minimum early in the morning and maximum in the evening. This diel cycle was also regulated by planktonic photosynthesis. This was most obvious and its amplitude was largest in summer, as PP was very high and thermal stratification prevented diffusion of DO from the surface to deeper water. The present study is the first detailed report on the close coupling of DO with PP in coastal waters, even under non-bloom conditions. Cloudy weather and early mornings were found to be the most critical periods in oxygen supply to cultured fish and other pelagic organisms in a fish culture site and other eutrophic coastal area.

  16. Site profiles of low-volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons - cause-oriented monitoring in aquatic media. Vol.2. Low-volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in surface water, sediments, suspended matter and fish of the Elbe river and its tributaries; Standortprofile schwerfluechtiger chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe (SCKW) - ursachenorientiertes Monitoring in aquatischen Medien. Bd. 2. SCKW in Oberflaechenwasser, Sediment, Schwebstoffen und Fischen aus der Elbe und Nebenfluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, E.; Kettrup, A.; Gebefuegi, I.; Martens, D.; Bergheim, W.; Wenzel, S.

    2001-07-01

    Evaluating the primary data from ARGE ELBE, LAU Halle/Saale and the Environmental Specimen Banking (Umweltprobenbank) as well from publications from the Czech Republic (CHMU) the concentrations of the following low volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons were established for surface water, sediment, breams and eels from the rivers Elbe, Schwarze Elster, Mulde and Saale partly from 1989 till 1999: DDT and its metabolites DDE and DDD, partly as 2,4'- and 4,4' isomers; HCH ({alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and {delta} isomers); chlorinated benzenes with 1-6 Cl atoms and octachlorostyrene. The data evaluated were drawn up into tables - comprehensive in a separate supplement, in short versions within the text - and consolidated into graphs. Aim of the paper was a cause-oriented monitoring. The by far most important emission sources, found from the distance and time profiles as well as from special assessments of the substance patterns, were chemical plants. (orig.) [German] Durch Auswertung von Primaerdaten der ARGE ELBE, des LAU Halle/Saale und der Umweltprobenbank sowie von Publikationen aus Tschechien (CHMU) wurden fuer Oberflaechenwasser, Sediment, Brassen/Bleien und Aale aus der Elbe, Schwarzen Elster, Mulde und Saale fuer die Jahre von z.T. 1989 bis 1999 die Konzentrationen der folgenden schwerfluechtigen Kohlenwasserstoffe (SCKW) ermittelt: DDT und seine Metabolite DDE und DDD, z.T. als 2,4'- und 4,4'-Isomere; HCH ({alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- und {delta}-Isomere); chlorierte Benzole mit 1-6 Cl-Atomen und Octachlorstyrol. Die ausgewerteten Daten wurden zu Tabellen - ausfuehrlich in einem gesonderten Tabellenanhang und verkuerzt im Textteil - zusammengestellt sowie zu Grafiken verdichtet. Ziel der Arbeit war ein ursachenorientiertes Monitoring. Als mit Abstand wesentlichste Emissionsquellen konnten anhand von Streckenprofilen und Zeitrastern sowie durch spezielle Auswertungen der Stoffmusterverteilungen Chemibetriebe ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  17. Effects of chronic cortisol administration on global expression of GR and the liver transcriptome in Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Mariana; Boltaña, Sebastian; Reyes-López, Felipe; Santos, Maria Ana; Mackenzie, Simon; Tort, Lluis

    2013-02-01

    The present work was designed to assess the effects of artificially increased high plasma cortisol levels induced by slow-release cortisol implants on the mRNA abundance of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in different organs of Sparus aurata (Gilthead sea bream), as well as to evaluate global transcriptional changes in the liver, using the Aquagenomics S. aurata oligo-nucleotide microarray technology. For that purpose, groups of fish were intraperitoneally injected with implants containing two different concentrations of cortisol (50 or 200 μg/g body weight). Blood and organs were sampled after 7 and 14 days of cortisol implantation. Only fish with 200 μg/g implants exhibited a significant rise in plasma cortisol. Thus, we evaluated the expression of the GR in different organs in these fish 7 and 14 days post-implantation. GR mRNA abundance was upregulated in head kidney and heart of fish at both sampling times. In liver and muscle, GR mRNA abundance was upregulated after 14 days, whereas in gills, the GR mRNA transcript was upregulated earlier, at day 7. These results suggest that increased plasma cortisol induced by a slow-release implant of cortisol mimics the overall effects of stress and affects the expression of GR mRNA in a time- and organ-specific manner. Data obtained with the Aquagenomics S. aurata oligo-nucleotide microarray allowed the identification of a total of 491 cortisol-responsive transcripts and highlight the strong intensity of transcriptional modulation in liver of fish implanted with cortisol after 7 days, in contrast to that observed at day 14. Transcriptional remodeling highlighted a significant activity in carbohydrate metabolism mainly in the gluconeogenic pathway linked to downregulation of inflammatory and immune response processes in implanted fish.

  18. Molecular Taxonomic Profiling of Bacterial Communities in a Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) Hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, Gianmaria; Castanho, Sara; Soares, Florbela; Ribeiro, Laura; Cox, Cymon J.; Mata, Leonardo; Costa, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    As wild fish stocks decline worldwide, land-based fish rearing is likely to be of increasing relevance to feeding future human generations. Little is known about the structure and role of microbial communities in fish aquaculture, particularly at larval developmental stages where the fish microbiome develops and host animals are most susceptible to disease. We employed next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S rRNA gene reads amplified from total community DNA to reveal the structure of bacterial communities in a gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) larviculture system. Early- (2 days after hatching) and late-stage (34 days after hatching) fish larvae presented remarkably divergent bacterial consortia, with the genera Pseudoalteromonas, Marinomonas, Acinetobacter, and Acidocella (besides several unclassified Alphaproteobacteria) dominating the former, and Actinobacillus, Streptococcus, Massilia, Paracoccus, and Pseudomonas being prevalent in the latter. A significant reduction in rearing-water bacterial diversity was observed during the larviculture trial, characterized by higher abundance of the Cryomorphaceae family (Bacteroidetes), known to populate microniches with high organic load, in late-stage rearing water in comparison with early-stage rearing-water. Furthermore, we observed the recruitment, into host tissues, of several bacterial phylotypes—including putative pathogens as well as mutualists—that were detected at negligible densities in rearing-water or in the live feed (i.e., rotifers and artemia). These results suggest that, besides host-driven selective forces, both the live feed and the surrounding rearing environment contribute to shaping the microbiome of farmed gilthead sea-bream larvae, and that a differential establishment of host-associated bacteria takes place during larval development. PMID:28261166

  19. Copper uptake kinetics and regulation in a marine fish after waterborne copper acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang Fei; Zhong Huan [AMCE and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [AMCE and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-09-14

    The uptake kinetics and regulation of copper in a marine predatory fish, the black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli after acclimation to waterborne Cu were examined, using radiotracer techniques. The dissolved Cu uptake followed a linear pattern during the time of exposure, and the calculated uptake rate constant was 6.24 L kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The efflux rate constant was 0.091 day{sup -1} following dietary uptake of Cu, and the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cu varied between 1.7% and 10.9% after the fish were fed with three types of prey (oysters, clams and brine shrimp). After the fish were acclimated at a nominal concentration of 50 {mu}g Cu L{sup -1} for 14 days, the Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constant did not change significantly, but the Cu body concentrations and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in fish tissues increased significantly. Subcellular Cu distributions were also modified. Significant MT induction was observed in response to increased Cu tissue concentrations, indicating that MT rather than the uptake kinetics may play a primary role in Cu regulation during waterborne Cu acclimation in this marine fish. Moreover, the high Cu efflux may also be important in Cu regulation during long-term exposure. Our modeling calculations indicated that dietary uptake was likely to be the main route for Cu bioaccumulation in the fish, and the relative contribution of waterborne and dietary uptake depended on the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and ingestion rate of fish.

  20. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Biota from the Brisbane River Estuary, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayal, S.; Connell, D. W.

    1995-05-01

    Six species of aquatic organisms from the Brisbane River estuarine system were sampled and their tissues analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These were the sea mullet, Mugil cephalus, bony bream, Nematolosa come, blue catfish, Arius graffei, mud crab, Scylla serrata, pelican, Pelecanus conspicillatus, and silver gull, Larus novaehollandiae. PAHs in the muscle (fish and birds) and soft (crab) tissue samples were isolated by first hydrolysing these samples and then solvent extraction followed by column chromatography. The compounds were then identified and quantified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The samples contained low levels of PAHs that ranged in molecular weight from 128 (naphthalene) to 252 (benzo[k]fluoranthene). The highest total PAH level of 195 ng g -1, wet weight, was recorded in mullet samples whereas the blue catfish samples yielded the lowest level of 43 ng g -1. Relative ratios of low molecular weight (≤3-rings) compounds to those with high molecular weights (≤4-rings) suggested a petroleum related origin for the PAHs detected in the organisms. Results indicated that significant biomagnification of PAHs in the estuarine ecosystem sampled is highly unlikely. Characteristics such as the trophic level and size/age were not significant factors in determining the corresponding tissue PAH levels in the fish and crab species. Tissue lipid content, however, was found to be a primary factor in determining the PAH concentrations in fish species. PAH levels recorded in the samples are comparable to those levels reported from similarly urbanized areas in other geographical locations.

  2. Assessing Dispersal Patterns of Fish Propagules from an Effective Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, José Martin; De Leo, Giulio A.; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melià, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called ‘recruitment subsidy’, the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide

  3. [Prognosis of dynamics and risk of exceeding permissible levels of 137Cs and 90Sr contents in fish in the Kiev Reservoir at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the radionuclide specific activity measurements made on 832 samples of fish in 2009-2011 and taking into account literature data, the parameters of the stochastic model have been derived to describe the 137Cs and 90Sr contents in typical commercial fish species in the Kiev Reservoir at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident, including: statistical variability, seasonal changes and monotonous long-term trends. At any fixed moment of the year the standard deviations of logarithms of the 137Cs and 90Sr specific activities in carnivorous and benthophage fish species do not reliably differ, making up at average 0.4. The maximum vari- ation of the 137Cs specific activity (a four-fold decrease from April to November) was observed in pike. The obtained values of the ecological half-life periods for 137Cs and 90Sr (1.3-14 years) in fish of the Kiev reservoir in 2002-2012 were significantly lower than both the radioactive decay periods and the estimates of the IAEA Chernobyl Forum. Based on the obtained model parameters, the dynamics of the 137Cs and 90Sr specific ac- tivities in main commercial fish of the Kiev reservoir has been described and the risk of exceeding the permis- sible levels of these radionuclides in fish at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident has been estimated. Now the risk of catching fish with the specific activities of 137Cs and 90Sr above the permissible levels (150 Bq/kg and 35 Bq/kg, respectively) does not exceed 10% (except perch in the spring spawning period that is banned for fishing in Ukraine). Corresponding risks for roach, white bream and rudd are less than 0.1%.

  4. Quantitative Determination of Fatty Acids in Marine Fish and Shellfish from Warm Water of Straits of Malacca for Nutraceutical Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurnadia Abd Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3. Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P<0.05 amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2–944.1 mg/100g wet sample of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S=0.58, a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω-3/ω-6=6.4, P/S=1.7, moonfish (highest ALA, ω-3/ω-6=1.9, P/S=1.0, and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω-3/ω-6=0.8, P/S=0.4 were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future.

  5. Retrospective monitoring of triclosan and methyl-triclosan in fish. Results from the German Environmental Specimen Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, W.; Ruedel, H.; Wenzel, A. [Fraunhofer IME, Schmallenberg (Germany); Schroeter-Kermani, C. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    During the last years there were several reports on the appearance of the biocides triclosan (TCS; 5- chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol; CAS No. 3380-34-5) and chlorophene (CP; 4-Chloro-2- (phenylmethyl)phenol; CAS No. 120-32-1) in the environment. TCS is used in numerous personal care products like toothpaste and soaps, but also in textiles and shoes. The current annual consumption in Germany is estimated to be 40 t (0.5 g per capita and year). During use large amounts of TCS and CP are disposed into waste water. Modern waste water treatment plants (WWTP) eliminate approximately 95 % of TCS, mainly by biodegradation and adsorption to sludge. It was observed that during waste water treatment methyl-triclosan (MTCS; 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)anisole; CAS No. 4640-01-1) is formed, probably due to microbial methylation. In a WWTP effluent up to 1 % MTCS in relation to TCS was detected. The environmental half-life of TCS is assumed to be low, mainly because it is susceptible to photodegradation at environmental pH levels while MTCS is stable under these conditions. The logPow values of 4.7 for TCS and 5.2 for MTCS (estimated with KowWin Vers. 1,67, respectively) indicate potential for bioaccumulation. Based in order to investigate the exposure of aquatic organisms towards CP, TCS and MTCS in Germany a retrospective monitoring of breams (Abramis brama) from representative rivers was initiated. Samples from the period 1994 to 2003 were taken from the archive of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) to evaluate temporal changes and regional differences of the occurrence of the target compounds.

  6. DEVELOPMENTAL STABILITY AND CYTOGENETIC HOMEOSTASIS OF FISH FAUNA OF THE SLUCH RIVER IN CURRENT CONDITIONS OF ANTHROPOGENIC STRESS

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    O. Bedunkova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the developmental stability and cytogenetic homeostasis of fish populations in the Sluch River in the watercourse areas subjected to anthropogenic stress of different intensities. Methodology. Studies of fish populations in the Sluch River were carried out within Berezne district of Rivne region. The condition of individual fish in the populations were evaluated integrally using morphological (evaluation of the stability of development based on the level of fluctuating asymmetry (FA and cytogenetic (micronucleus (MN test of peripheral blood erythrocytes of fish methods. The methods used allowed identifying the destabilization level of organism development, even in the cases when there is no direct disturbance of population homeostasis. Findings. The found FA levels reflect minor (initial deviations from the normal developmental processes of fish populations in in the studied watercourse areas. Especially significantly this is reflected in a high proportion of individuals with FA in the samples of roach (Rutilus rutilus, bleak (Alburnus alburnus, bream (Abramis brama and perch (Perca fluviatilis. An excess in the frequency of MN erythrocyte cells in roach and pike (Esox lucius blood relatively the level of spontaneous mutagenesis was observed in the cross section №2, which is exposed to sewage waters. The observed manifestation of degenerative processes in fish organisms at this stage can be evaluated as an increased reactivity of sensitive species to the presence of mutagenic agents in the composition of river pollution. The functioning of spawning populations gives reason to believe that the current level of human impact is not critical for the hydroecosystem. Originality. For the first time we obtained data on the stability of development and cytogenetic homeostasis of fish populations in the hydroecosystem of Rivne region in current conditions of anthropogenic stress. Practical value. The obtained results can be used for

  7. Marine reserves reestablish lost predatory interactions and cause community changes in rocky reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Paolo

    2006-06-01

    In the last decades, marine reserves have dramatically increased in number worldwide. Here I examined the potential of no-take marine reserves to reestablish lost predatory interactions and, in turn, cause community-wide changes in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Protected locations supported higher density and size of the most effective fish preying on sea urchins (the sea breams Diplodus sargus and D. vulgaris) than unprotected locations. Density of sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula) was lower at protected than at unprotected locations. Size structure of P. lividus was bimodal (a symptom of predation on medium-sized urchins) only at the protected locations. Coralline barrens were less extended at protected than at unprotected locations, whereas turf-forming and erect-branched algae showed an opposite pattern. Erect-unbranched and erect-calcified algae and conspicuous zoobenthic organisms did not show any pattern related to protection. Tethering experiments showed that predation impact on urchins was (1) higher at protected than at unprotected locations, (2) higher on P. lividus than on A. lixula, and (3) higher on medium-sized (2-3.5 cm test diameter) than large-sized (>3.5 cm) urchins. Sea urchins preyed on by fish in natural conditions were smaller at unprotected than at protected locations. The analysis of sea urchin remains found in Diplodus fish stomachs revealed that medium-sized P. lividus were the most frequently preyed upon urchins and that size range of consumed sea urchins expanded with increasing size of Diplodus fish. These results suggest that (1) depletion and size reduction of predatory fish caused by fishing alter patterns of predation on sea urchins, and that (2) fishing bans (e.g., within no-take marine reserves) may reestablish lost interactions among strongly interactive species in temperate rocky reefs with potential community-wide effects.

  8. Determination of essential elements (copper, manganese, selenium and zinc) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk and nutritional assessment and mercury-selenium balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, P; Hernández, A F; Pla, A; Femia, P; Navas-Acien, A; Gil, F

    2013-12-01

    Fish and shellfish are an important source not only of toxic heavy metals, but also of essential elements in the diet. In this study, levels of Cu, Mn, Se and Zn have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for essential elements content. The potential human health risks for the consumers and the nutritional value of the products analyzed were assessed. Furthermore, the mercury-selenium ratios and the selenium health benefit value (Se-HBVs) were calculated. The highest concentrations of Cu were found in crustaceans species (shrimp and prawn) as they have hemocyanin (a copper-containing protein) that functions as an oxygen-transport molecule. Mn levels were higher in canned bivalve molluscs, such as cockle and clam, and in fresh common sole. Concerning Se, two fresh predatory fish species (tuna and swordfish) presented the most remarkable concentrations of this element. The highest concentration of the essential metals analysed was found for Zn, especially in fresh and canned mussels. All the species analyzed showed beneficial Hg:Se ratios and Se-HBVs, except for the shark species (blue shark and cat shark) and gilt-head bream because of their high Hg levels and low Se content, respectively. Nevertheless, the biomagnification usually observed in hazardous metals such as Hg would not occur for the essential elements measured in predatory species. The estimated daily intakes of the elements studied represented very low percentages of their reference values, ranging from 0.1% (Se) to 3.9% (Cu) for person weighting 60 kg, so the intake of these elements through fish and shellfish would not pose any risk for the average consumer. Moreover, the contribution of fish and shellfish products to the recommended daily allowances and adequate intakes of these mineral elements ranges from 2.5% (Mn) to 25.4% (Se).

  9. Astaxanthin as a Medical Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Yamashita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAstaxanthin is a red pigment that belongs to the carotenoid family like β-carotene. And it’s found in seafood such as crustaceans: shrimp and crabs and fish: salmon and sea bream. Recently, astaxanthin has been reported to have antioxidant activity up to 100 times more potent than that of vitamin E against lipid peroxidation and about 40 times more potent than that of β-carotene on singlet oxygen quenching. Astaxanthin does not show any pro-oxidant activity and its main sight of action is on/in the cell membrane. Various important benefits to date have suggested for human health such as immunomodulation, anti-stress, anti-inflammation, LDL cholesterol oxidation suppression, enhanced skin health, improved semen quality, attenuating eye fatigue, sport performance and endurance, limiting exercised induced muscle damage, suppressing the development of life-style related diseases such as obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Nowadays, the research and demand for natural astaxanthin in human health application are explosively growing worldwide. Especially, the clinicians use the astaxanthin extracted from the microalgae, Haematotoccus pluvialis, as an add-on supplementation for the patients who are unsatisfied with the current medications or who can’t receive any medications because of their serious symptom. For example, the treatment enhances their daily activity levels or QOL in heart failure or benign prostatic hypertrophy/lower urinary tract symptom patients. Other studies and trials are under way on chronic diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, diabetes and CVD. We may call astaxanthin “a medical food” in the near future.Keywords: astaxanthin, medical food, Haematococcus, add-on supplementation

  10. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Thomas Y.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Jensen, Lasse F.; Steffensen, John F.; Pertoldi, Cino; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is predicted to affect the distribution and abundance of aquatic ectotherms owing to increasing constraints on organismal physiology, in particular involving the metabolic scope (MS) available for performance and fitness. The oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis prescribes MS as an overarching benchmark for fitness-related performance and assumes that any anaerobic contribution within the MS is insignificant. The MS is typically derived from respirometry by subtracting standard metabolic rate from the maximal metabolic rate; however, the methodology rarely accounts for anaerobic metabolism within the MS. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), this study tested for trade-offs (i) between aerobic and anaerobic components of locomotor performance; and (ii) between the corresponding components of the MS. Data collection involved measuring oxygen consumption rate at increasing swimming speeds, using the gait transition from steady to unsteady (burst-assisted) swimming to detect the onset of anaerobic metabolism. Results provided evidence of the locomotor performance trade-off, but only in S. aurata. In contrast, both species revealed significant negative correlations between aerobic and anaerobic components of the MS, indicating a trade-off where both components of the MS cannot be optimized simultaneously. Importantly, the fraction of the MS influenced by anaerobic metabolism was on average 24.3 and 26.1% in S. aurata and P. reticulata, respectively. These data highlight the importance of taking anaerobic metabolism into account when assessing effects of environmental variation on the MS, because the fraction where anaerobic metabolism occurs is a poor indicator of sustainable aerobic performance. Our results suggest that without accounting for anaerobic metabolism within the MS, studies involving the OCLTT hypothesis could overestimate the metabolic scope available for

  11. Metals in edible fish from Vistula River and Dead Vistula River channel, Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrzykowska, Barbara; Falandysz, Jerzy; Jarzyńska, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    Metals including Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were determined in muscle tissue of 12 fish species by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and cold vapour-atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS). Fish were collected from Vistula River at lower course and Dead Vistula River channel in south of Baltic Sea in Poland. The fish species examined include Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus), Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius), Bull-rout (Myoxocephalus scorpius), Tench (Tinca tinca), Bream (Abramis brama), Burbot (Lota lot), Perch (Perca perca), Roach (Rutilus rutilus), Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), Pikeperch (Stizostediun lucioperca), Brown salmon (Salmo trutta m. Trutta) and Eel (Anguilla anguilla). The median values of metal concentrations in fresh muscle tissue of 11 fish species varied as follows: Al < 0.5-60; Ba < 0.05-0.31; Ca 120-1800; Cd < 0.05-0.096; Co < 0.10; Cr < 0.10-0.50; Cu < 0.15-0.77; Fe 1.5-21; Hg 0.0058-0.65; K 1800-4200; Mg 130-560; Mn 0.12-0.59; Na 350-840; Ni < 0.2-0.31; Pb < 0.75; Sr 0.079-2.9; Zn 3.3-23 μg/g fresh weight. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) values calculated in this study for Cd and Hg from muscles of fish species collected from Vistula River were low in the range of 0.4 for Hg and 0.8 for Cd.

  12. Reconciling the role of organic matter pathways in aquatic food webs by measuring multiple tracers in individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Timothy D; Woods, Ryan; Marshall, Jonathan; Fawcetr, James; Lobegeiger, Jaye; Valdez, Dominic; Kainz, Martin J

    2015-12-01

    Few studies measure multiple ecological tracers in individual organisms, thus limiting our ability to differentiate among organic matter source pathways and understand consequences of dietary variation and the use of external subsidies in complex food webs. We combined two tracers, stable isotope (SI) ratios and fatty acids (FA), to investigate linkages among ecological compartments (water column, benthos, riparian zone) in food webs in waterholes of a dryland river network, the Border Rivers in southwestern Queensland, Australia. Comprehensive analyses of sources (plankton, periphyton, leaf litter, riparian grasses) and animals (benthic insects, mollusks, large crustaceans, fishes) for SI and FA showed that all three zones contribute to animal biomass, depending on species and life stage. Large fishes derived a subsidy from the riparian/floodplain zone, likely through the consumption of terrestrial and semi-aquatic insects and prawns that fed on detritivorous insects. Importantly, post-larval bony bream (Nematalosa erebi) and golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) were tightly connected to the water column, as evidenced by 13C-depleted, 15N-enriched isotope ratios and a high content of plankton-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; 20:53] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6003]). These observations were consistent with expectations from nutritional requirements of fish early life stages and habitat changes associated with maturity. These results highlight the importance of high-quality foods during early development of fishes, and show that attempting to attribute food-web production to a single source pathway overlooks important but often subtle subsidies that maintain viable populations. A complete understanding of food-web dynamics must consider both quantity and quality of different available organic matter sources. This understanding can be achieved with a combined SI and FA approach, but more controlled dietary studies are needed to

  13. In vivo virulence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss correlates inversely with in vitro Mx gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Irene; Collet, Bertrand; Pereira, Clarissa; Paley, Richard; van Aerle, Ronny; Stone, David; Taylor, Nick G H

    2016-05-01

    The in vitro replication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates from each VHSV genotype and the associated cellular host Mx gene expression were analysed. All the isolates were able to infect RTG-2 cells and induce increased Mx gene expression (generic assay detecting isoforms 1 and 3 [Mx1/3]). A trout pathogenic, genotype Ia isolate (J167), showing high replication in RTG-2 cells (by infective titre and N gene expression) induced lower Mx1/3 gene expression than observed in VHSV isolates known to be non-pathogenic to rainbow trout: 96-43/8, 96-43/10 (Ib); 1p49, 1p53 (II); and MI03 (IVb). Paired co-inoculation assays were analysed using equal number of plaque forming units per ml (PFU) of J167 (Ia genotype) with other less pathogenic VHSV genotypes. In these co-inoculations, the Mx1/3 gene expression was significantly lower than for the non-pathogenic isolate alone. Of the three rainbow trout Mx isoforms, J167 did not induce Mx1 up-regulation in RTG-2 or RTgill-W1 cells. Co-inoculating isolates resulted in greater inhibition of Mx in both rainbow trout cell lines studied. Up-regulation of sea bream Mx in SAF-1 cells induced by 96-43/8 was also lower in co-inoculation assays with J167. The RTG-P1 cell line, expressing luciferase under the control of the interferon-induced Mx rainbow trout gene promoter, showed low luciferase activity when inoculated with pathogenic strains: J167, DK-5131 (Ic), NO-A-163/68 (Id), TR-206239-1, TR-22207111 (Ie), 99-292 (IVa), and CA-NB00-01 (IVc). Co-inoculation assays showed a J167-dose dependent inhibition of the luciferase activity. The data suggest that virulent VHSV isolates may interfere in the interferon pathways, potentially determining higher pathogenicity.

  14. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lajus

    Full Text Available The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  15. A novel murrel Channa striatus mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase: gene silencing, SOD activity, superoxide anion production and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

    2014-12-01

    We have reported the molecular characterization including gene silencing, superoxide activity, superoxide anion production, gene expression and molecular characterization of a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mMnSOD) from striped murrel Channa striatus (named as CsmMnSOD). The CsmMnSOD polypeptide contains 225 amino acids with a molecular weight of 25 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.3. In the N-terminal region, CsmMnSOD carries a mitochondrial targeting sequence and a superoxide dismutases (SOD) Fe domain (28-109), and in C-terminal region, it carries another SOD Fe domain (114-220). The CsmMnSOD protein sequence shared significant similarity with its homolog of MnSOD from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (96%). The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CsmMnSOD fell in the clade of fish mMnSOD group. The monomeric structure of CsmMnSOD possesses 9 α-helices (52.4%), 3 β-sheets (8.8%) and 38.8% random coils. The highest gene expression was noticed in liver, and its expression was inducted with fungal (Aphanomyces invadans) and bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) infections. The gene silencing results show that the fish that received dsRNA exhibited significant (P superoxide anion production was determined by calculating the granular blood cell count during infection in murrel. It shows that the infection influenced the superoxide radical production which plays a major role in killing the pathogens. Overall, this study indicated the defense potentiality of CsmMnSOD; however, further research is necessary to explore its capability at protein level.

  16. Mucins as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in a fish-parasite model: transcriptional and functional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Pérez-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Mucins are O-glycosylated glycoproteins present on the apex of all wet-surfaced epithelia with a well-defined expression pattern, which is disrupted in response to a wide range of injuries or challenges. The aim of this study was to identify mucin gene sequences of gilthead sea bream (GSB, to determine its pattern of distribution in fish tissues and to analyse their transcriptional regulation by dietary and pathogenic factors. Exhaustive search of fish mucins was done in GSB after de novo assembly of next-generation sequencing data hosted in the IATS transcriptome database (www.nutrigroup-iats.org/seabreamdb. Six sequences, three categorized as putative membrane-bound mucins and three putative secreted-gel forming mucins, were identified. The transcriptional tissue screening revealed that Muc18 was the predominant mucin in skin, gills and stomach of GSB. In contrast, Muc19 was mostly found in the oesophagus and Muc13 was along the entire intestinal tract, although the posterior intestine exhibited a differential pattern with a high expression of an isoform that does not share a clear orthologous in mammals. This mucin was annotated as intestinal mucin (I-Muc. Its RNA expression was highly regulated by the nutritional background, whereas the other mucins, including Muc2 and Muc2-like, were expressed more constitutively and did not respond to high replacement of fish oil (FO by vegetable oils (VO in plant protein-based diets. After challenge with the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei, the expression of a number of mucins was decreased mainly in the posterior intestine of infected fish. But, interestingly, the highest down-regulation was observed for the I-Muc. Overall, the magnitude of the changes reflected the intensity and progression of the infection, making mucins and I-Muc, in particular, reliable markers of prognostic and diagnostic value of fish intestinal health.

  17. Equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls in River Elbe sediments--Linking bioaccumulation in fish to sediment contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Antoni, Catherine; Möhlenkamp, Christel; Claus, Evelyn; Reifferscheid, Georg; Heininger, Peter; Mayer, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Equilibrium sampling can be applied to measure freely dissolved concentrations (cfree) of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are considered effective concentrations for diffusive uptake and partitioning. It can also yield concentrations in lipids at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (clip⇌sed) by multiplying concentrations in the equilibrium sampling polymer with lipid to polymer partition coefficients. We have applied silicone coated glass jars for equilibrium sampling of seven 'indicator' polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment samples from ten locations along the River Elbe to measure cfree of PCBs and their clip⇌sed. For three sites, we then related clip⇌sed to lipid-normalized PCB concentrations (cbio,lip) that were determined independently by the German Environmental Specimen Bank in common bream, a fish species living in close contact with the sediment: (1) In all cases, cbio,lip were below clip⇌sed, (2) there was proportionality between the two parameters with high R(2) values (0.92-1.00) and (3) the slopes of the linear regressions were very similar between the three stations (0.297; 0.327; 0.390). These results confirm the close link between PCB bioaccumulation and the thermodynamic potential of sediment-associated HOCs for partitioning into lipids. This novel approach gives clearer and more consistent results compared to conventional approaches that are based on total concentrations in sediment and biota-sediment accumulation factors. We propose to apply equilibrium sampling for determining bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential of HOCs, since this technique can provide a thermodynamic basis for the risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments.

  18. Metabolism of sodium nifurstyrenate, a veterinary antimicrobial nitrofuran, in animals and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, K; Kitamura, S; Kato, M; Hiraoka, K

    1992-01-01

    Sodium nifursyrenate [beta-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-p-carboxystyrene sodium salt, NSA-Na] is an antibacterial nitrofuran which has been widely used for prevention and treatment of bacterial infections in fish in Japan. When NSA-Na was anaerobically incubated with rabbit liver cytosol and 2-hydroxypyrimidine, 1-(p-carboxyphenyl)-5-cyano-3-oxo-1,4-pentadiene (cyano-pentadienone), 1-(p-carboxyphenyl)-5-cyano-3-oxo-1-pentanone (cyano-pentanone), and 1-(p-carboxyphenyl)-5-cyano-3-pentanone (cyano-pentanone) were isolated and identified as the metabolites of the nitrofuran. In addition, when cyano-pentenone and cyano-pentanone were aerobically incubated with the liver preparation and NADPH, 1-(p-carboxyphenyl)-5-cyano-3-hydroxy-1-pentene (cyano-pentenol) and 1-(p-carboxyphenyl)-5-cyano-3-pentanol (cyano-pentanol) were also isolated and identified as the metabolites of the nitrofuran in its further metabolism, respectively. The anaerobic incubation of NSA-Na with rat liver cytosol and 2-hydroxypyrimidine resulted in the formation of cyano-pentadienone and cyano-pentanone. In this case, however, cyano-pentenone was not detectable. On the other hand, when NSA-Na was anaerobically incubated with sea bream liver cytosol and NADPH, the formation of cyano-pentenone, cyano-pentanone, and cyanopentenol, but not cyano-pentadienone, was observed. Furthermore, cyano-pentanone was metabolized to cyano-pentanol by the fish liver preparation with NADPH under aerobic conditions. When NSA-Na was given orally to rabbits, cyano-pentanone, cyano-pentenol, cyano-pentanol, and beta-(acetamido-2-furyl)-p-carboxystyrene (acetamidofuran) were identified as the urinary metabolites of the nitrofuran.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajus, Julia; Kraikovski, Alexei; Lajus, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th) centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th) century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th) century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th) century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  20. Molecular characterization of muscle-parasitizing didymozoid from a chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Okamoto, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    Didymozoids found in the muscles of marine fish are almost always damaged because they are usually found after being sliced. Therefore, identifying muscle-parasitizing didymozoids is difficult because of the difficulty in collecting non-damaged worms and observing their organs as key points for morphological identification. Moreover, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids are not easily found because they parasitize at the trunk muscles. Therefore, muscle-parasitizing didymozoid classification has not progressed because there are few opportunities to detect them. Our recent report was the first to describe the usefulness of sequencing analysis for discrimination among muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Recently, we found a didymozoid in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. The present study genetically compares the present isolate with other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. The present isolate differs markedly from the previously unidentified didymozoid from an Atlantic mackerel S. scombrus by phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA. It also differs from other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from other host species based on phylogenetic analyses of 18S, 28S rDNAs, and coxI loci. These results suggest that sequencing analysis is useful for the discrimination of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Combining the present data with earlier data for sequencing analysis, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from seven marine fish species were classified as seven species. We proposed appellations for six distinct muscle-parasitizing didymozoids for future analysis: sweetlips fish type from Diagramma pictum and Plectorhinchus cinctus, red sea bream type from Pagrus major, flying fish type from Cypselurus heterurus, Atlantic mackerel type from Scomber scombrus, chub mackerel type from S. japonicus, and purple rockcod type from Epinephelus cyanopodus.

  1. Tracking of deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Parimal; Wong, K. K.; Chong, Man N.

    2000-12-01

    Tracking of moving-objects in image sequences is needed for several video processing applications such as content-based coding, object oriented compression, object recognition and more recently for video object plane extraction in MPEG-4 coding. Tracking is a natural follow-up of motion-based segmentation. It is a fast and efficient method to achieve coherent motion segments along the temporal axis. Segmenting out moving objects for each and every frame in a video sequence is a computationally expensive approach. Thus, for better performance, semi-automatic segmentation is an acceptable compromise as automatic segmentation approaches rely heavily on prior assumptions. In semi-automatic segmentation approaches, motion-segmentation is performed only on the initial frame and the moving object is tracked in subsequent frames using tracking algorithms. In this paper, a new model for object tracking is proposed, where the image features -- edges, intensity pattern, object motion and initial keyed-in contour (by the user) form the prior and likelihood model of a Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) is used for the minimization of the global energy for the MRF model. The motion segment for each frame is initialized using the segment information from the previous frame. For the initial frame, the motion segment is obtained by manually keying in the object contour. The motion-segments obtained using the proposed model are coherent and accurate. Experimental results on tracking using the proposed algorithm for different sequences -- Bream, Alexis and Claire are presented in this paper. The results obtained are accurate and can be used for a variety of applications including MPEG-4 Video Object Plane (VOP) extraction.

  2. Antiparasitic and immunomodulatory effect of innovative treatments against Myxobolus sp. infection in Diplodus puntazzo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagouni, E; Athanassopoulou, F; Lytra, A; Komis, C; Dotsika, E

    2005-12-10

    The potential antiparasitic and immunomodulatory effect of three treatments against myxosporean parasites on the innate immune system of sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo) was investigated. Fish naturally infected with Myxobolus sp. (Bivalvulida/Platysporina), a histozoic parasite mainly affecting the renal interstitial tissue, were treated by oral administration of a combination of salinomycin with amprolium, Origanum essential oil or fumagillin in a small-scale field trial. Various leucocyte functions influenced by myxosporean infection were examined in order to determine treatment effects on leucocyte immunocompetence of treated fish. One month post treatment all drugs caused a significant decrease in prevalence and intensity of infection in comparison to untreated, infected fish. The effect was most prominent in salinomycin with amprolium treated fish, which 1-month post treatment contained either no cysts at all or a few spores free in melanomacrophage centres revealing almost total elimination of the parasite and the antiparasitic action of the treatment. There was no histopathological evidence of drug toxicity. Antiparasitic action was accompanied by a significant enhancement of phagocytic activity demonstrated by ingestion of large numbers of latex beads and the secretion of high levels of reactive nitrogen intermediates by phagocytes in vitro. Complete restoration of the diminished mitogenic responses and serum lysozyme secretion was also detected in salinomycin with amprolium-treated fish compared to untreated, infected fish. These data suggest that salilomycin with amprolium may be a promising treatment for myxosporean infections in intensively cultured warm-water fish, exhibiting action partially via the enhancement of host, innate immune functions and leading to parasite elimination.

  3. Immunological role of C4 CC chemokine-1 from snakehead murrel Channa striatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we have reported a cDNA sequence of C4 CC chemokine identified from snakehead murrel (also known as striped murrel) Channa striatus (named as CsCC-Chem-1) normalized cDNA library constructed by Genome Sequencing FLX™ Technology (GS-FLX™). CsCC-Chem-1 is 641 base pairs (bp) long that contain 438 bp open reading frame (ORF). The ORF encodes a polypeptide of 146 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15 kDa. The polypeptide contains a small cytokine domain at 30-88. The domain carries the CC motif at Cys(33)-Cys(34). In addition, CsCC-Chem-1 consists of another two cysteine residues at C(59) and C(73), which, together with C(33) and C(34), make CsCC-Chem-1 as a C4-CC chemokine. CsCC-Chem-1 also contains a 'TCCT' motif at 32-35 as CC signature motif; this new motif may represent new characteristic features, which may lead to some unknown function that needs to be further focused on. Phylogenitically, CsCC-Chem-1 clustered together with CC-Chem-1 from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus and European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Significantly (P<0.05) highest gene expression was noticed in spleen and is up-regulated upon fungus (Aphanomyces invadans), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila) and virus (poly I:C) infection at various time points. The gene expression results indicate the influence of CsCC-Chem-1 in the immune system of murrel. Overall, the gene expression study showed that the CsCC-Chem-1 is a capable gene to increase the cellular response against various microbial infections. Further, we cloned the coding sequence of CsCC-Chem-1 in pMAL vector and purified the recombinant protein to study the functional properties. The cell proliferation activity of recombinant CsCC-Chem-1 protein showed a significant metabolic activity in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the chemotaxis assay showed the capability of recombinant CsCC-Chem-1 protein which can induce the migration of spleen leukocytes in C. striatus. However, this remains to be verified

  4. Effects of Divalent Cations and Disulfide Bond Reducing Agents on Specific Binding of Growth Hormone to Liver Membrane Receptors from Snakehead Fish (Ophiocephalus argus, Cantor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xun; Zhang, Xin-Na; Zhu, Shang-Quan; Zheng, Han-Qi

    2000-01-01

    Divalent cations, Ca(2 ), Mg(2 ) and Mn(2 ) enhance the binding of bream growth hormone (brGH) to snakehead fish liver membrane, and their optimum concentration was found to be 8 12 mmol/L, at which Ca(2 ), Mg(2 ) and Mn(2 ) could increase, respectively, the specific binding to 230%, 180%, and 200%, compared with the binding in the absence of ions. The Eadie-Scatchard plot was used for the dynamic analysis of the Ca(2 ) binding site. A low affinity Ca(2 ) binding site was found in the GH-receptor complex with K(m)=0.384 mmol/L, and the affinity constant (K(a)) was increased from 1.045x10(9) L.mol(-1) to 1.295x10(9) L.mol(-1) by the addition of 10 mmol/L CaCl(2). The effects of disulfide bond reducing agents, DTT and ME, on (125)I-brGH binding to growth hormone receptor (GHR) on snakehead fish liver memebrane were also analyzed. The addition of 0.1 20 mmol/L DTT or 0.01% 1% ME to the radioreceptor assay system caused a significant dose dependent increase in the specific binding for (125)I-brGH. In the presence of 0.8 mmol/L DTT or 0.08% ME, the specific binding of (125)I-brGH was increased from 10.2% to 15.5% and 13.2% respectively, and the affinity constant was also increased from 1.265x10(9) L.mol(-1) to 2.185x10(9) L.mol(-1) and 1.625x10(9) L.mol(-1), respectively but no changes in the binding capacity were observed. Further studies showed that the effects of reductants on the specific binding of brGH were due in part to the ligand itself and in part to GHR. In addition, it was observed that one of the three disulfide bonds of brGH could be reduced by 0.8 mmol/L DTT.

  5. n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.

  6. Content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Latvian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V; Viksna, A

    2013-04-01

    Seventeen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) of the highest priority as well as twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissues of the following freshwater fish species sampled from eleven Latvian freshwater lakes: perch (Perca flavescens), carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla rostrata), bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and roach (Rutilus). To analyze the selected persistent organic pollutants in fish matrices, an optimization of EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A clean-up procedures was carried out, followed by validation of the analytical procedure according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1883/2006. The adopted analytical procedure was in compliance with requirements of the more recent Commission Regulation (EU) No 252/2012. Modifications of carbon column chromatography clean-up and separation steps were used for treatment of the fish samples. Other clean-up procedure stages were performed according to the methods EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A and involved gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as manual acidic silica and Florisil column chromatography for purification and fractionation of the samples. An isotope dilution method was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of individual congeners. Analytes of interest were separated and detected using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. The concentration of PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs in freshwater fish and eel samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.0 pg WHO(1998)-PCDD/PCDF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight. These levels are below the EU maximum permissible limits although calculation of the content of these compounds relative to the weight of fat shows contamination levels similar to those found in Baltic herring and sprats, that are known to be highly contaminated. A difference in congener pattern between the Baltic Sea fish and freshwater fish was detected

  7. Temporal stability of otolith elemental fingerprints discriminates among lagoon nursery habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournois, Jennifer; Ferraton, Franck; Velez, Laure; McKenzie, David J.; Aliaume, Catherine; Mercier, Lény; Darnaude, Audrey M.

    2013-10-01

    The chemical composition of fish otoliths reflects that of the water masses that they inhabit. Otolith elemental compositions can, therefore, be used as natural tags to discriminate among habitats. However, for retrospective habitat identification to be valid and reliable for any adult, irrespective of its age, significant differences in environmental conditions, and therefore otolith signatures, must be temporally stable within each habitat, otherwise connectivity studies have to be carried out by matching year-classes to the corresponding annual fingerprints. This study investigated how various different combinations of chemical elements in otoliths could distinguish, over three separate years, between four coastal lagoon habitats used annually as nurseries by gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). A series of nine elements were measured in otoliths of 301 S. aurata juveniles collected in the four lagoons in 2008, 2010 and 2011. Percentages of correct re-assignment of juveniles to their lagoon of origin were calculated with the Random Forest classification method, considering every possible combination of elements. This revealed both spatial and temporal variations in accuracy of habitat identification, with correct re-assignment to each lagoon ranging from 44 to 99% depending on the year and the lagoon. There were also annual differences in the combination of elements that provided the best discrimination among the lagoons. Despite this, when the data from the three years were pooled, a combination of eight elements (B, Ba, Cu, Li, Mg, Rb, Sr and Y) provided greater than 70% correct re-assignment to each single lagoon, with a multi-annual global accuracy of 79%. When considering the years separately, discrimination accuracy with these elemental fingerprints was above 90% for 2008 and 2010. It decreased to 61% in 2011, when unusually heavy rainfall occurred, which presumably reduced chemical differences among several of the

  8. Development and validation of a radioimmunoassay for fish insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and the effect of aquaculture related stressors on circulating IGF-I levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Anthony R; Upton, Zee; Stone, David; Thomas, Philip M; Soole, Kathleen L; Higgs, Naomi; Quinn, Kirsty; Carragher, John F

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a commercially available radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the detection of fish insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The assay was developed using recombinant barramundi IGF-I as antigen and recombinant tuna IGF-I as radiolabelled tracer and standard. Assay sensitivity was 0.15 ng/ml, inter-assay variation was 16% (n = 9) and intra-assay variation was 3% (n = 10). Cross reactivity of less than 0.01% was found with salmon insulin, salmon IGF-II and barramundi IGF-II, less than 0.5% with human IGF-I and less than 1% with human IGF-II. Parallel dose-response inhibition curves were shown for barramundi (Lates calcarifer), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), and seabream (Pagrus auratus) IGF-I. The assay was then used to measure stress related changes in different aquacultured fish species. Salt water acclimated Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar) bathed for 2 h in fresh water showed significantly lower IGF-I concentrations than control smolts two days after the bath (53.1 compared to 32.1 ng/ml), with levels of IGF-I also lower in smolts exhibiting stunted growth (stunts). Capture and confinement of wild tuna in sea-cages resulted in a significant decrease in IGF-I levels (28 ng/ml) when compared to tuna captured and sampled immediately (48 ng/ml), but had recovered to starting levels after 3 weeks (43 ng/ml). Handling and isolation in silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus) led to a gradual decline in IGF-I over a 12 h period (36-19 ng/ml) but showed signs of recovery by 24 h (24 ng/ml) and had recovered fully 72 h after treatment (40 ng/ml). A similar trial in black bream (Acanthopagrus butcherii) showed comparable results with IGF-I levels gradually decreasing (40-26 ng/ml) over 24 h, results that were mirrored by cortisol concentrations which increased during this time (1-26 ng/ml). In the studies presented here changes in IGF-I levels were not

  9. Mercury and nickel contents in fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Toth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our work was to identify the content of mercury and nickel in selected fish species. Consumers today are increasingly aware of the association between diet and health, and thus in Europe consume more and more fish. Fish is a valuable source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins, and fatty fish are also rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are normally considered to be beneficial to health. In our work we determined content of mercury and nickel harvested fish in particular were the following species: Common goldfish (Carassius auratus, L., Common roach (Rutilus rutilus, L. and Common bream (Abramis brama, L. Concentrations of mercury and nickel was analyzed and results evaluated according to current standards and compared to the values ​​established by the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the EU Commission Regulation no. 1881/2006, as well as in the EU Commission Regulation no. 420/2011 and no. 269/2008. In our research area we analysed 19 samples of fish muscle. Samples were taken from two water reservoirs – Golianovo and Vráble.  The highest mercury content was in sample Rutilus 1 - 0.052632 mg/kg. Lowest mercury content was in sample Abramis 2  - 0.010431 mg/kg. Largest nickel content was in meat of Abramis  - sample 2  - 0.78 mg/kg. Minimum content of nickel was in sample Carassius 1  - 0.11 mg/kg. We got out of the limit values ​​specified: Codex Alimentarius SR - Mercury 0.5 mg/kg and  Regulation of the EU Commission no. 1881/2006, no. 420/2011 and no. 629/2008. To optimize the protection of the population, it is necessary to continue to monitor the concentration of mercury in fish and fish products. Risk management strategy must focus on reducing potential exposure derived from consumption of fish. In particular, the definition of maximum levels for methylmercury, advising consumers and environmental activities oriented to reduce contamination.

  10. AVERAGE BIOLOGICAL INDICES OF THE MAJOR FISH SPECIES OF THE ZAPORIZHZHIA RESERVOIR AND OTHER FISHERY WATER BODIES OF DNEPROPETROVSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fedonenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate, analyze and summarize the biological indices of commercial fish species in the main fishery water bodies of Dnіpropetrovsk region for the last 10 years. Methodology. Field data were collected in the Zaporizhzhia reservoir during 2003 – 2013 using a standard set of monitoring fishing gears (gill nets with mesh size a=30–120 mm. Juvenile fish were caught in third decade of June - first decade of August using the juvenile fish beach seine with a length of 10 m. Processing of ichthyological materials was conducted according to generally accepted methods. Findings. When comparing the biological indices of fish in the Zaporіzhzhia reservoir with the data for the past decade reflected in the normative documents, we found significant changes in the population of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca and gibel carp (Carassius gibelio, which concern the average fish weight, fertility and the relative proportion of females in the spawning stock. Roach (Rutilus rutilus, perch (Perca fluviatilis, and gibel carp are characterized a reduced number of spawning events. The biological indices of bream (Abramis brama, common carp (Cyprinus, pike (Esox lucius and catfish (Silurus glanis populations remain virtually unchanged during the study period. As for biological indices of Black and Caspian Sea sprat, rudd, gobies and crayfish, the information on these species in the relevant regulatory documents is missing, so it is not possible to assess the dynamics of their changes. Due to an inventory of small fishery water bodies we received the information on the biological indicators of major species, which can also be used for updating the normative database. Originality. For the first time we summarized the characteristic of fish fauna in major fishery water bodies of Dnepropetrovsk region and analyzed main indices, which define the conditions of fish stock development and exploitation of aquatic living aquatic resources in fishery water bodies

  11. IMPORTANCE OF SHALLOW AREAS OF THE UPPER PART OF THE KANIV RESERVOIR IN THE MAINTENANCE OF ITS ICHTHYOFAUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gurbyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of the relative number of fish juveniles on biotopes of the upper part of the Kanev reservoir in the aspect of evaluation of these areas in general propagation of ichthyofauna. Methodology. The work is based on data of fish juvenile surveys conducted in the Kaniv reservoir during 2011—2013. Data collection and processing were performed according to generally accepted methods. Fish juveniles were caught using a beach seine made of mill gauze № 7, length 10 m, height 1 m. Relative number of fish juveniles on different sites has been calculated based on the areas of fish nursing biotopes under assumption of the constancy of catchability coefficients. Shannon-Weaver diversity index was used for comparing species diversity of the commercial ichthyofauna of different sites. Findings. The majority of the studied littoral sites of the upper part of the Kaniv reservoir were characterized by sufficiently high indices of biodiversity ― Shannon index values varied within 2,07—3,24 bit./ind. Twenty six species were recorded in the composition of the fish juvenile communities that was 80 % of total number of species in the reservoir. It was found that despite a decrease of the relative number of the juveniles of valuable commercial species compared to previous years, the upper part of the reservoir remains the major site for recruitment of commercial fish stock ― 70 % of bream (Abramis brama, tench (Tinca tinca, pike (Esox lucius, roach (Rutilus rutilus and wels (Vimba vimba of the Kaniv reservoir are reproduced here. Taking into account the especial value of the upper part in formation of the spawning fund of the reservoir, any hydroenhancement works here should be limited exclusively by navigable channel. Originality. For the first time we quantitatively evaluated (in spatial aspect the number of fish fauna recruitment in the Kanev reservoir under current state of spawning areas. Practical value. Results of the work will be

  12. THE STRUCTURE OF ANGLERS’ CATCHES AND THEIR PART IN TOTAL FISH CATCH ON THE KAKHOVKA RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maksimenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine species and weight composition of anglers’ catches and their part in the total fish catch on the Kakhovka reservoir. Methodology. The work is based on the ichthyological material obtained from the catches of anglers and commercial gill nets with mesh size of 36-120 mm during 2011-2013 in the upper and middle parts of the Kakhovka reservoir. Data collection and processing were carried out according to conventional methods. In total, during the study period, 7775 fish from 455 day anglers’ catches as well as 18165 fish from commercial catches for 6435 net-days have been analyzed. Statistical processing of the obtained data was performed in MS Excel. Findings. Twenty seven fish species (64% of reservoir fish fauna belonging to 7 families were observed in anglers’ catches (excluding fish caught by spearing on the Kakhovka reservoir. The estimated catch per one finished fishing trip in the study zone of the Kakhovka reservoir was 27.7 fish or 2.4 kg. Species diversity and amounts of anglers’ day catches varied depending on the fishing techniques used (from the boat or shore and fishing season (ice fishing or open water. Averaged day catch on the Kakhovka reservoir was within the range set by valid Fishing regulations excluding fishing from the boat, where some insignificant excess was observed (3 kg, however, 20.4% among the analyzed catches exceeded the daily allowable catch. The total anglers’ catch on the Kakhovka reservoir was 747 tons (3.5 kg/ha or 33% of the commercial one. Commercial and recreational fishing on the Kakhovka reservoir are based on the same the most abundant fish species: gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio, roach (Rutilus rutilus, bream (Abramis brama, pikeperch (Sander lucioperca. However, a significant part in anglers’ catches consists of species, which are exploited by commercial fishing in lower degree or are not exploited at all, including coarse and low value fish. This fact confirms

  13. Purification and Characterization of an Aminopeptidase with Highest Preference for Lysine from Paralichthys Olivaceus Skeletal Muscle%牙鲆肌肉赖氨酸氨肽酶的分离纯化与性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦; 蔡秋凤; 刘光明; 苏文金; 曹敏杰

    2012-01-01

    An aminopeptidase was purified from Paralichthys olivaceus skeletal muscle to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation and three column chromatographies, including DEAE -Sephacel, Phenyl -Sepharose, and DEAE -Sepharose Fast Flow. The molecular mass of the enzyme was approximately 100 ku. Optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 45 ℃ and 7.5, respectively. Metal-chelating agents such as EDTA, EGTA and 1,10-phenanthroline effectively inhibited the enzyme activity. Zn2+, Mn2+ and (or) Co2+ were quite possibly its metal cofactor(s), strongly suggesting the enzyme belong to metalloproteinase family. The enzyme purified in the present study was regarded as a lysine aminopeptidase (LysAP) according to its substrate specificity. Western blot analysis revealed that leucine aminopeptidase from red sea bream and LysAP from Paralichthys olivaceus have high homogeneity in amino acid sequences. Furthermore, LysAP distributes in tissues including skeletal muscle, heart, liver, spleen, stomach, kidney, gut and gill.%通过DEAE-Sephacel阴离子葡聚糖纤维素交换层析,Phenyl Sepharose 6-Fast Flow苯基葡聚糖凝胶疏水层析和DEAE Sepharose-Fast Flow阴离子葡聚糖凝胶交换层析,从牙鲆(Paralichthys olivaceus)肌肉中分离纯化得到1种赖氨酸氨肽酶,并对其生化性质进行研究.牙鲆赖氨酸氨肽酶的分子质量约为100 ku.该酶的最适温度45℃,最适pH 7.5,二价金属离子对酶活性有较大影响,EDTA和EGTA等金属螯合剂对其活性有抑制作用.该酶对荧光合成底物Lys-MCA分解作用最强,而对内肽酶对应的荧光底物没有分解作用.免疫印迹反应结果显示,该酶与鲤鱼肌肉中亮氨酸氨肽酶同源性较高,并在牙鲆多种器官中均有分布.

  14. Xenobiotic-contaminated diets affect hepatic lipid metabolism: Implications for liver steatosis in Sparus aurata juveniles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maradonna, F.; Nozzi, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Santangeli, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Traversi, I. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell’Ambiente e della Vita, Università di Genova, 16132 Genova (Italy); Gallo, P. [INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, 80055 Portici, Napoli (Italy); Fattore, E. [Dipartimento Ambiente e Salute, IRCCS–Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, 20156 Milano (Italy); Mita, D.G. [INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Mandich, A. [INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell’Ambiente e della Vita, Università di Genova, 16132 Genova (Italy); Carnevali, O., E-mail: o.carnevali@univpm.it [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); INBB Consorzio Interuniversitario di Biosistemi e Biostrutture, 00136 Roma (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Diets contaminated with NP, BPA, or t-OP affect lipid metabolism. • Xenobiotic-contaminated diets induce metabolic disorders. • Hepatic metabolic disorders may be related to environmental pollution. - Abstract: The metabolic effects induced by feed contaminated with a lower or a higher concentration of -nonylpnenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (t-OP) or bisphenol A (BPA), three environmental endocrine disruptors, were assessed in juvenile sea bream liver. Histological analysis demonstrated that all these three xenobiotics induced hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. These findings prompted analysis of the expression of the major molecules involved in lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (which is encoded by ppars), fatty acid synthase (encoded by fas), lipoprotein lipase (encoded by lpl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (encoded by hsl). The enzymes encoded by ppars and fas are in fact responsible for lipid accumulation, whereas lpl- and hsl- encoded proteins play a pivotal role in fat mobilization. The three xenobiotics modulated ppar mRNA expression: pparα mRNA expression was induced by the higher dose of each contaminant; pparβ mRNA expression was upregulated by the lower doses and in BPA2 fish ppary mRNA overexpression was induced by all pollutants. These data agreed with the lipid accumulation profiles documented by histology. Fas mRNA levels were modulated by the two NP doses and the higher BPA concentration. Lpl mRNA was significantly upregulated in all experimental groups except for BPA1 fish while hsl mRNA was significantly downregulated in all groups except for t-OP2 and BPA1 fish. The plasma concentrations of cortisol, the primary stress biomarker, were correlated with the levels of pepck mRNA level. This gene encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which is one of the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Pepck mRNA was significantly overexpressed in fish exposed to NP2 and both t-OP doses. Finally, the genes

  15. "Who's been feeding in my bed?" Benthivorous fish affect fluvial sediment transport - fact or fairy tale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Stephen; Pledger, Andrew; Smith, James; Toone, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Many species of fish are benthivorous - they forage for food in the river bed - and their foraging disturbs, displaces and sorts bed materials with implications for fluvial sediment transport. Flume experiments have confirmed that benthic foraging by Barbel (Barbus barbus (L.)) and Chub (Squalius cephalus (L.)) modifies the structure and topography of water-worked gravels, thereby increasing particle entrainment probabilities and the quantity of sediment mobilised during experimental high flows. Field experiments and observations have demonstrated the impact of foraging on patch-scale bed disturbance, gravel structure, grain displacements and grain-size sorting. Initial ex-situ experiments support the suggestion that in low gradient rivers, shoals of fish like Bream (Abramis brama (L.)) entrain fine bed sediments, adding a biotic surcharge to the suspended sediment flux and modifying bed topography. These results underpin a novel proposal: that there is an aggregate, cumulative effect of benthic foraging on fluvial sediment transport at larger scales, including at scales where the contribution to sediment movement and river channel behaviour generates management concerns. Evaluating this proposal is a long-term goal, which is based on two intermediate objectives: to develop deeper mechanistic understanding of foraging impacts and to establish the spatial and temporal extent of geomorphologically significant feeding behaviours in river systems. The latter is crucial because field data are currently limited to a single reach on one UK river. It is reasonable to hypothesise that foraging impacts are spatially and temporally widespread because obligate and opportunistic benthic feeding is common and fish feed throughout their life. However, the effectiveness of foraging as a geomorphological process is likely to vary with factors including substrate size, fish community composition, food availability, water temperature, river flows and seasonal changes in fish

  16. Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in providing scientific advice on the welfare of food producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serratosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The survey describes the work of the Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in the provision of scientific advice on the welfare of food producing animals including animal health and food safety aspects, where relevant, and on the impact of these scientific assessments on the EU regulatory framework. EFSA was created in 2002 with the mission to provide advice and scientific and technical support for the Community legislation and policies in all fields which have a direct or indirect impact on food and feed safety, plant health, environment and animal health and animal welfare. When providing objective and independent science-based advice, the risk assessment approach should be followed, whenever possible. The AHAW Panel of EFSA provides specific advices on risk factors related to animal diseases and welfare, mainly of food producing animals, including fish. According to EFSA’s remit, ethical, socio-economic, cultural and religious aspects are outside the scope of the EFSA’s assessments. Since 2004, the Animal Health and Welfare Panel of EFSA adopted a total of 21 scientific opinions on animal welfare. Animal diseases and food safety aspects have also been taken into account, where relevant. Animal welfare aspects have been considered in some scientific opinions on animal diseases (e.g. AI, FMD. The AHAW Panel is currently working on five scientific opinions on the welfare of dairy cows and on the welfare aspects of the stunning and killing of farmed fish for eight fish species (salmon, trout, carp, eel, tuna, sea bass, sea bream and turbot. The possible interactions and implications for food safety and animal disease have been considered, when relevant, in most of the AW scientific opinions, involving other areas of expertise in EFSA, like Biohazards, Contaminants and Plant Health. The final aim of EFSA’s scientific assessments on animal welfare is to support animal welfare EU legislation on the

  17. Suppression of RNAi by dsRNA-degrading RNaseIII enzymes of viruses in animals and plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Weinheimer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Certain RNA and DNA viruses that infect plants, insects, fish or poikilothermic animals encode Class 1 RNaseIII endoribonuclease-like proteins. dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease activity of the RNaseIII of rock bream iridovirus infecting fish and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt crinivirus (SPCSV infecting plants has been shown. Suppression of the host antiviral RNA interference (RNAi pathway has been documented with the RNaseIII of SPCSV and Heliothis virescens ascovirus infecting insects. Suppression of RNAi by the viral RNaseIIIs in non-host organisms of different kingdoms is not known. Here we expressed PPR3, the RNaseIII of Pike-perch iridovirus, in the non-hosts Nicotiana benthamiana (plant and Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode and found that it cleaves double-stranded small interfering RNA (ds-siRNA molecules that are pivotal in the host RNA interference (RNAi pathway and thereby suppresses RNAi in non-host tissues. In N. benthamiana, PPR3 enhanced accumulation of Tobacco rattle tobravirus RNA1 replicon lacking the 16K RNAi suppressor. Furthermore, PPR3 suppressed single-stranded RNA (ssRNA--mediated RNAi and rescued replication of Flock House virus RNA1 replicon lacking the B2 RNAi suppressor in C. elegans. Suppression of RNAi was debilitated with the catalytically compromised mutant PPR3-Ala. However, the RNaseIII (CSR3 produced by SPCSV, which cleaves ds-siRNA and counteracts antiviral RNAi in plants, failed to suppress ssRNA-mediated RNAi in C. elegans. In leaves of N. benthamiana, PPR3 suppressed RNAi induced by ssRNA and dsRNA and reversed silencing; CSR3, however, suppressed only RNAi induced by ssRNA and was unable to reverse silencing. Neither PPR3 nor CSR3 suppressed antisense-mediated RNAi in Drosophila melanogaster. These results show that the RNaseIII enzymes of RNA and DNA viruses suppress RNAi, which requires catalytic activities of RNaseIII. In contrast to other viral silencing suppression proteins, the RNaseIII enzymes are

  18. Chlorinated organic compounds in aquatic biological resources of the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubova O. L.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studying dependencies of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in the liver and muscles of the main commercial fish species of the Baltic Sea (sprat, herring, cod, flounder, the Vistula and the Curonian Bay (pike-perch, bream, roach on the fishing area, season and fish species have been considered. Determination of PCBs and pesticides has been carried out in accordance with MVI MN 2352–2005 "Method for simultaneous determination of residual amounts of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in fish and fish products by gas-liquid chromatography". Separation, identification and quantification have been performed by the gas chromatography Varian 3400 on the DB-1701 column, 30 m  0.25 mm  0.25 m, the column temperature 150–250 °C, the detector one – 300 °C. Identification and quantification have been performed by retention time of individual PCB congeners by the internal standard. The content of PCBs in liver of the Curonian and Vistula Bays fish is much lower than in liver of aquatic biological resources (ABR of the Baltic Sea. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are accumulated more intensively in liver of fish caught in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. β-HCH and γ-HCH prevail in the liver and muscle tissue of ABR samples as individual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs. The all three isomers of HCH are present in cod liver. Accumulation ratio in cod liver compared to that in the muscle tissue content reaches 7-8 units HCH for isomers, and for DDT and metabolites – 10-12 units. It has been proposed that the secondary admission of HCH in the aquatic environment and in ABG (delivery from sediments takes place. Organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor and aldrin are present in the Baltic Sea ABR in quantities below the detection limit used in the analysis methods. In spring and summer, there is an increased level of HCH and DDT in

  19. 养殖鱼邻苯二甲酸酯的含量分析%Analysis of Phthalic Acid Esters in Muscles Tissue of Cultured Fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲德岚; 桑佳陆; 任凯莉; 夏静芬

    2014-01-01

    目的:为了解宁波地区淡水养殖鱼PAEs污染情况。方法采用液液超声萃取-气质联用法对宁波6个不同养殖点5种淡水养殖鱼体内8种邻苯二甲酸酯含量进行分析。结果宁波地区养殖鱼主要受 DMP、 DEP、 DBP、 DEHP 和 DOP 污染,质量分数最高可达134.1、258.9、249.2、830.8和5029μg/kg;草鱼、鳊鱼、鳙鱼、鲫鱼和乌鳢邻苯二甲酸污染指数PPI分别为9.999、9.735、13.97、8.945和5.809μg/kg。结论宁波地区淡水养殖鱼鱼体邻苯二甲酸酯含量与养殖环境有关,与鱼种无关。%Objective The detection and quantification of eight phthalate esters -dimethyl phthalate ( DMP) , diethyl phthalate ( DEP ) , dibutyl phthalate ( DBP ) , diethylhexyl phthalate ( DEHP ) , diisopropyl phthalate (DIPP), dipropyl phthalate (DPP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), and dioctyl phthalate ( DOP) in the muscle tissues of cultured fishes in six fishponds of ningbo were carried out using liquid -liquid ultrasonic extraction -gas chromatography -mass spectrometry.Results The result showed that DIPP , DPP and BBP were not detected in the samples , and the highest concentration of DMP, DEP, DBP, DEHP and DOP in the fish species were 134.1, 258.9, 249.2, 830.8 and 5 029μg/kg.The phthalate pollution index (PPI) of Grass carp, bream, carp, crucian carp and black flower were 9.999, 9.735, 13.97, 8.945 and 5.809 μg/kg.Conclusions Double -factorial analysis of variance indicated that the differences in fish phthalate levels were not statistically significant at P <0.05 , but the culture environment was significant .

  20. 太湖流域水产品中羟基多溴联苯醚污染情况调查%Situation of hydroxy polybrominated diphenylethers contamination in aquatic of Taihu Lake basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚永青; 刘欣; 丁洪流; 纪丽君; 姚卫蓉; 陈英

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查太湖水域水产品中羟基多溴联苯醚(OH-PBDEs)的污染情况。方法首先建立测定水产品中OH-PBDEs的方法,之后分别测定了太湖流域中17种水产品和3种水生蔬菜中的OH-PBDEs。结果生活在中下层和泥层的水产品体内的OH-PBDEs含量(ND~3.3839 ng/g(干重))高于中上层的(ND~1.6169 ng/g(干重));动物水产体内的OH-PBDEs含量高于植物水产的;常见的鱼中草鱼、鳊鱼、花鲢和桂鱼体内的OH-PBDEs含量高于其他种类的鱼,且 OH-PBDEs 多数集中在内脏的内膜脏层。结论较系统地调查了太湖流域水产品中OH-PBDEs的污染情况。%Objective To investigate the contamination of OH-PBDEs in aquatic products of Taihu Lake. Methods A method for the determination of OH-PBDEs in aquatic products was established firstly, and then the concentration of OH-PBDEs in 17 kinds of aquatic products and 3 species of aquatic vegetables in the Taihu lake basin was measured. Results Fish living in the middle and lower layers and mud had higher levels of OH-PBDEs(ND~3.3839 ng/g(dw))than the upper’s(ND~1.6169 ng/g(dw)); there was higher level of OH-PBDEs in fish than plant. The concentration of OH-PBDEs in the grass carp, bream, bighead carp and siniperca chuatsi was higher than the other types of fish, and most OH-PBDEs was contained in the intima of the visceral. Conclusion The contamination of OH-PBDEs in aquatic products of Taihu Lake was surveyed systematically.

  1. Co-encapsulation of chrysophsin-1 and epirubicin in PEGylated liposomes circumvents multidrug resistance in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Li; Tu, Wei-Chen

    2015-12-05

    Chrysophsin-1, an amphipathic alpha-helical antimicrobial peptide, is isolated from the gills of the red sea bream and possesses different structure and mechanism(s) in comparison with traditional multidrug resistance (MDR) modulators. For the purpose of reducing off-target normal cell toxicity, it is rational to inc