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Sample records for breakup reactions

  1. Status of breakup reaction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies on breakup reactions with the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method are reviewed. The topics covered are: four-body breakup processes for 6He induced reaction, dynamical relativistic effects on Coulomb breakup, microscopic description of projectile breakup processes, description of ternary processes (new triple-α reaction rate) and new approach to inclusive breakup processes.

  2. Statistical theory of breakup reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose an alternative for Coupled-Channels calculations with loosely bound exotic nuclei (CDCC), based on the the Random Matrix Model of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions. The coupled channels equations are divided into two sets. The first set, described by the CDCC, and the other set treated with RMT. The resulting theory is a Statistical CDCC (CDCCs), able in principle to take into account many pseudo channels. (author)

  3. Statistical Theory of Breakup Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bertulani, Carlos A; Hussein, Mahir S

    2014-01-01

    We propose alternatives to coupled-channels calculations with loosely-bound exotic nuclei (CDCC), based on the the random matrix (RMT) and the optical background (OPM) models for the statistical theory of nuclear reactions. The coupled channels equations are divided into two sets. The first set, described by the CDCC, and the other set treated with RMT. The resulting theory is a Statistical CDCC (CDCC$_S$), able in principle to take into account many pseudo channels.

  4. Breakup fusion theory of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuum spectra of particles emitted in incomplete fusion reactions are one of the major interests in current nuclear reaction studies. Based on an idea of the so-called breakup fusion (BF) reaction, several authors derived closed formulas for the singles cross section of the particles that are emitted. There have been presented, however, two conflicting cross section formulas for the same BF reaction. For convenience, we shall call one of them the IAV (Ichimura, Austern and Vincent) and the other UT (Udagawa and Tamura) cross section formulas. In this work, the formulation of the UT cross section formula (prior-form) is presented, and the post-form version of the IAV cross section formula is evaluted for a few α- and d-induced reactions based on the exact finite range method. It is shown that the values thus calculated are larger by an order of magnitude as compared with the experimental cross sections for the α-induced reactions, while they are comparable with the experimental cross sections for the d-induced reactions. A possible origin of why such a large cross section is resulted in the case of α-induced reactions is also discussed. Polarization of the residual compound nucleus produced in breakup fusion reactions are calculated and compared with experiments. It is shown that the polarization is rather sensitive to the deflection angles of the strongly absortive partial waves and to obtain a good fit with the experimental data a l-dependent potential in the incident channel is needed in order to stress the lower partial waves

  5. Progress in all-order breakup reaction theories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Chatterjee

    2010-07-01

    Progress in breakup reaction theories, like the distorted wave Born approximation, the continuum discretized coupled channels method and the dynamical eikonal approximation, is brought into focus. The need to calculate exclusive reaction observables and the utility of benchmark tests as arbitrators of theoretical models are discussed.

  6. Significance Of Deuteron Breakup In A Halo Transfer Reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Yilmaz, M; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Gonul, Bulent

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the quasi-adiabatic approximations to the three-body wavefunction in breakup processes, clarifying the assumptions underlying the model. This suggests alternative approximation schemes. Using different theoretical three-body models, calculated differential cross section angular distributions for the Be-11(p,d) reaction,for which new preliminary data have been reported at 35 MeV, are presented. We show that calculations are sensitive to the inclusion of deuteron breakup and to the breakup model used, particularly if used to deduce absolute spectroscopic information on the 0{+} and 2{+} Be-10 core state parentages. There is also considerable sensitivity to the model used in calculations of the relative cross sections to the two states.

  7. Break-up stage restoration in multifragmentation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raduta, Ad.R. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France)]|[NIPNE, Bucharest-Magurele, POB-MG 6 (Romania); Bonnet, E.; Borderie, B.; Le Neindre, N.; Rivet, M.F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); Piantelli, S. [Dip. di Fisica e Sezione INFN, Universita di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Fi (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    In the case of Xe+Sn at 32 MeV/nucleon multifragmentation reaction break-up fragments are built-up from the experimentally detected ones using evaluations of light particle evaporation multiplicities which thus settle fragment internal excitation. Freeze-out characteristics are extracted from experimental kinetic energy spectra under the assumption of full decoupling between fragment formation and energy dissipated in different degrees of freedom. Thermal kinetic energy is determined uniquely while for freeze-out volume - collective energy a multiple solution is obtained. Coherence between the solutions of the break-up restoration algorithm and the predictions of a multifragmentation model with identical definition of primary fragments is regarded as a way to select the true value. The broad kinetic energy spectrum of {sup 3}He is consistent with break-up genesis of this isotope. (authors)

  8. Investigations of nuclear projectile break-up reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross sections for radiative capture of α-particles, deuterons and protons by light nuclei at very low relative energies are of particular importance for the understanding of the nucleosynthesis of chemical elements and for determining the relative elemental abundances in stellar burning processes at various astrophysical sites. As example we quote the reactions α+d → 6Li+γ, α+3He → 7Be+γ, or α+12C → 16O+γ. As an alternative to the direct experimental study of these processes we consider the inverse process, the photodisintegration, by means of the virtual photons provided by a nuclear Coulomb field: Z+a → Z+b+c. The radiative capture process b+c → a+γ is related to the inverse process, the photodisintegration γ+a → b+c by the detailed balance theorem. Except for the extreme case very close to the threshold the phase space favours the photodisintegration cross section as compared to the radiative capture. The Coulomb dissociation cross section proves to be enhanced due to the large virtual photon number, seen by the passing projectile, and the kinematics of the process leads to particular advantages for studies of the interaction of the two break-up fragments at small relative energies Ebc. The conditions of dedicated experimental investigations are discussed and demonstrated by recent experimental and theoretical studies of the break-up of 156 MeV 6Li projectiles. In addition, a brief review about general features of break-up processes of light ions in the field of atomic nuclei is given. (orig.)

  9. No-capture breakup and incomplete fusion reactions induced by stable weakly bound nucleus 9Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedi, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    The reactions including the stable weakly bound nucleus 9Be have been studied using the classical trajectory model accompanied with the experimental breakup function and the Aage-Winther interaction potential (AW95). In these calculations, the no-capture breakup and the incomplete fusion cross-sections as well as their competition at around the Coulomb barrier have been investigated. Our calculations showed that at a given far-Coulomb-barrier energy the incomplete fusion reaction in different distributions of angular momentum and energies can dominate the no-capture breakup reaction. This dominating process is reversed at the near-barrier energies.

  10. Investigation of the intermediate-energy deuteron breakup reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Udagawa-Tamura formalism is employed to calculate the proton singles both in the bound and unbound regions. Both the Elastic-Breakup (EB) and the Breakup-Fusion (BF) processes are considered to calculate the doubly-differential cross section for light and intermediate mass nuclei. The calculated spectra for 25 and 56 MeV deuterons reproduce the experimental spectra very well except for the spectra at large angle and at low energies, of the outgoing particle. Contributions due to precompound and evaporation processes are estimated to supplement the spectral results based on the Elastic-Breakup and Breakup-Fusion mechanisms. An extension of the model calculations to higher deuteron energies is being made to test the (EB + BF) model limitations. 5 refs., 1 fig

  11. PLATYPUS: a code for fusion and breakup in reactions induced by weakly-bound nuclei within a classical trajectory model with stochastic breakup

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Torres, Alexis

    2007-01-01

    A self-contained Fortran-90 program based on a classical trajectory model with stochastic breakup is presented, which should be a powerful tool for quantifying complete and incomplete fusion, and breakup in reactions induced by weakly-bound two-body projectiles near the Coulomb barrier. The code calculates complete and incomplete fusion cross sections and their angular momentum distribution, as well as breakup observables (angle, kinetic energy and relative energy distributions).

  12. A dynamical theory of incomplete fusion reactions: The breakup-fusion reaction approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dynamical theory of partial fusion reactions is presented, which may fill the gap between direct and compound nuclear reaction theories. With the new theory one can calculate partial fusion taking place in three-body (and many more) channels reached via direct reactions, e.g., breakup and knockout reactions. The authors present first the results for the cross section for such reactions, taking as an example breakup followed by fusion. They then discuss a physical picture which emerges from their theory, namely that the partial fusion reactions, particularly of the massive-transfer type, take place in a so-called deep peripheral region. It is also shown that the deep peripheral character of such processes diminishes as the mass of the fused system decreases, so that the reactions essentially evolve to the usual peripheral character. Finally, comparisons are made of results of numerical calculations with experimental data, taking as an example the /sup 159/Tb(/sup 14/N,α) reaction with E/sub lab/ = 95 MeV

  13. Final state interactions in electron induced trinucleon breakup reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents an exact analysis of the electromagnetic breakup process of a trinucleon system. The one-photon exchange mechanism is reviewed. The relevant components of the nuclear current are discussed and the off-shell one-body current matrix elements are derived to accommodate the evaluation of the trinucleon nuclear structure functions. The Faddeev equations are introduced. To facilitate the numerical evaluations the unitary pole expansion (UPE) is employed to describe a local S-wave spin-dependent interaction in a series of separable potential terms. The UPE convergence properties for the trinucleon bound state as well as for the N-N and N-d scattering observables are investigated. In view of the electromagnetic two-body and three-body breakup analysis the half off-shell wave functions for 3N→Nd and 3N→3N scattering are calculated. The nuclear structure functions of the electromagnetic two-body breakup structure functions of the electromagnetic two-body breakup processes are derived and exactly calculated. Results are presented and discussed for several kinetamic configurations. The nuclear response functions of the trinucleon breakup processes are calculated for a momentum transfer Q = 400 MeV/c. The results are compared with recent experimental data for the longitudinal and transverse response of both trinucleon systems. The three-body contributions to the response functions result from an essentially fourfold numerical integration of the invariant electromagnetic three-body breakup amplitude. A detailed derivation of this amplitude is presented and the treatment of the subsequent integration is discussed. An extension is formulated to include D-state components in the trinucleon bound state as well as in the disconnected final state components for the two-body breakup process. One kinematic situation is studied with the D-state extension. For the three-body breakup processes only the PWIA response is determined with the D-state component in the

  14. Approximations in fusion and breakup reactions induced by radioactive beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, W.H.Z.; Carlin Filho, N.; Hussein, M.S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Canto, L.F.; Donangelo, R. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lubian, J. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana (Cuba); Romanelli, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Montevideo (Uruguay). Inst. de Fisica

    2000-07-01

    Some commonly used approximations for complete fusion and breakup transmission coefficients in collisions of weakly bound projectiles at near barrier energies are assessed. We show that they strongly depend on the adopted classical trajectory and can be significantly improved with proper treatment of the incident and emergent currents in the WKB approximation. (author)

  15. Classical simulations of heavy-ion fusion reactions and weakly-bound projectile breakup reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Godre

    2014-05-01

    Heavy-ion collision simulations in various classical models are discussed. Heavy-ion reactions with spherical and deformed nuclei are simulated in a classical rigid-body dynamics (CRBD) model which takes into account the reorientation of the deformed projectile. It is found that the barrier parameters depend not only on the initial orientations of the deformed nucleus, but also on the collision energy and the moment of inertia of the deformed nucleus. Maximum reorientation effect occurs at near- and below-barrier energies for light deformed nuclei. Calculated fusion crosssections for 24Mg + 208Pb reaction are compared with a static-barrier-penetration model (SBPM) calculation to see the effect of reorientation. Heavy-ion reactions are also simulated in a 3-stage classical molecular dynamics (3S-CMD) model in which the rigid-body constraints are relaxed when the two nuclei are close to the barrier thus, taking into account all the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom in the same calculation. This model is extended to simulate heavy-ion reactions such as 6Li + 209Bi involving the weakly-bound projectile considered as a weakly-bound cluster of deuteron and 4He nuclei, thus, simulating a 3-body system in 3S-CMD model. All the essential features of breakup reactions, such as complete fusion, incomplete fusion, no-capture breakup and scattering are demonstrated.

  16. Recent Advances in Nuclear Reaction Theories for Weakly Bound Nuclei: Reexamining the Problem of Inclusive Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Antonio M.; Lei, Jin

    2016-05-01

    The problem of the calculation of inclusive breakup cross sections in nuclear reactions is reexamined. For that purpose, the theory proposed by Ichimura et al. (Phys Rev C 32:431, 1985) is revisited, both in its prior and post representations. We briefly outline the connection of this theory with that proposed by Udagawa and Tamura (Phys Rev C 24:1348, 1981) and apply both theories to the inclusive breakup of ^6Li on ^{209}Bi at near-barrier energies, comparing also with available data. The relative importance of elastic versus non-elastic breakup, as a function of the incident energy and of the projectile separation energy, is also investigated.

  17. Study of direct and sequential break-up reactions in 6Li+ 112Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6Li projectile while moving in the field of a target nucleus can not only dissociate into α+d but it can also first exchange a few nucleon with the target and then break up into two fragments. Identification of all these processes is important to understand the break-up mechanism of 6Li projectile and also to find the origin of the high yield of alpha particle production in such a reaction. In this paper, we present the exclusive measurement of breakup cross sections in 6Li+112Sn reaction exploring the above possibilities. Cross sections for both sequential as well as direct breakup are measured and compared with the theoretical calculations. The measured elastic scattering angular distributions were used as a constraint to the potential parameters that were used in the calculations to explain both elastic scattering and the breakup processes simultaneously

  18. Determining astrophysical three-body radiative capture reaction rates from inclusive Coulomb break-up measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, J.; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M.; Arias, J. M.; Gómez-Camacho, J.

    2016-04-01

    A relationship between the Coulomb inclusive break-up probability and the radiative capture reaction rate for weakly bound three-body systems is established. This direct link provides a robust procedure to estimate the reaction rate for nuclei of astrophysical interest by measuring inclusive break-up processes at different energies and angles. This might be an advantageous alternative to the determination of reaction rates from the measurement of B (E 1 ) distributions through exclusive Coulomb break-up experiments. In addition, it provides a reference to assess the validity of different theoretical approaches that have been used to calculate reaction rates. The procedure is applied to 11Li (9Li+n +n ) and 6He (4He+n +n ) three-body systems for which some data exist.

  19. Determining astrophysical three-body radiative capture reaction rates from inclusive Coulomb break-up measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Casal, J; Arias, J M; Gómez-Camacho, J

    2016-01-01

    A relationship between the Coulomb inclusive break-up probability and the radiative capture reaction rate for weakly-bound three-body systems is established. This direct link provides a robust procedure to estimate the reaction rate for nuclei of astrophysical interest by measuring inclusive break-up processes at different energies and angles. This might be an advantageous alternative to the determination of reaction rates from the measurement of $B(E1)$ distributions through exclusive Coulomb break-up experiments. In addition, it provides a reference to assess the validity of different theoretical approaches that have been used to calculate reaction rates. The procedure is applied to $^{11}$Li ($^{9}$Li+n+n) and $^6$He ($^{4}$He+n+n) three-body systems for which some data exist.

  20. Experimental study of non-capture breakup reactions at the TANDAR Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breakup reactions play a distinctive role among the processes that occur in nuclear collisions induced by weakly bound projectiles. The motivation for the study of these reactions recognizes various origins, that range from their usefulness as an indirect tool to determine cross sections of the corresponding inverse capture processes of astrophysical interest, to the questions that arise from their connection to other reaction channels such as complete and incomplete fusion. For the investigation of these and other aspects it is desirable to have a detailed experimental knowledge of the process and of the underlying mechanisms. In this talk we will review the details and main results of the experiments that are being carried on at the TANDAR Laboratory for the investigation of non-capture breakup reactions, i.e., those for which the breakup products manage to escape from being subsequently absorbed by the target-like nucleus. The measurements involve the coincident detection of the emitted light particles, from which one can obtain an unambiguous and complete characterization of the reaction by means of the identification of the fragment that undergoes breakup (either the projectile or a projectile-like transfer product) and the determination of the total Q value, relative energy of the breakup products, and the angular distribution of their emission in the relevant rest frame. We will describe the tools that are used for the discrimination of resonant processes from those presumably originated in the direct population of the continuum and the conditions for their application. The absolute differential and total cross sections of breakup reactions that have been obtained for 6Li + 144Sm will be presented and discussed, taking as a reference for comparison the corresponding cross sections of competing channels in the same system

  1. Numerical assessment of post-prior equivalence for inclusive breakup reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We address the problem of the post-prior equivalence in inclusive breakup reactions induced by weakly-bound nuclei. The problem is studied within the DWBA model of Ichimura, Austern, Vincent [Phys. Rev. C32, 431 (1985)]. The post and prior formulas obtained in this model are briefly recalled, and applied to several breakup reactions induced by deuterons and $^6$Li projectiles, to test their actual numerical equivalence. The different contributions of the prior-form formula are also discussed. A critical comparison with the prior-form distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) model of Udagawa and Tamura [Phys. Rev. C24, 1348 (1981)] is also provided.

  2. Reaction mechanism for the symmetric breakup of 24Mg following an interaction with 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the yield of the symmetric breakup of 24Mg as a function of beam energy are presented and compared with detailed calculations of the energy dependence. The 24Mg states seen in symmetric breakup agree with previously observed breakup states having spin and parities Jπ=4+,(6+),8+. The data allow the variations of yield for indivual states to be judged, as the beam energy is varied. The variation in the yield of the 4+ states is compared in detail with calculations assuming several possible compound nuclear or direct reaction mechanisms. It is concluded that a massive (12C) transfer or a simple statistical compound process are unlikely mechanisms, but that each of several other mechanisms is consistent with the data. ((orig.))

  3. Vector and tensor analysing powers in deuteron-proton breakup reactions at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Chiladze, D; Dymov, S; Glagolev, V; Hartmann, M; Hejny, V; Kacharava, A K; Keshelashvili, I; Khoukaz, A; Koch, H R; Komarov, V; Kulessa, P; Kulikov, A; Macharashvili, G; Maeda, Y; Mersmann, T; Merzliakov, S; Mikirtytchiants, S; Mussgiller, A; Nioradze, M; Ohm, H; Rathmann, F; Schleichert, R; Stein, H J; Ströher, H; Uzikov, Y; Wilkin, C; Yaschenko, S; Uzikov, Yu.

    2006-01-01

    Vector and tensor analysing powers of the d(pol)p->(pp)n (charge-exchange) and d(pol)p->(pn)p (non-charge-exchange) breakup reactions have been measured with the ANKE spectrometer at the COSY ring at a deuteron beam energy of 1170 MeV for small momentum transfers to the low excitation energy (pp) or (pn) systems. A quantitative understanding of the values of A_xx and A_yy for the charge-exchange reaction is provided by impulse approximation calculations. The data suggest that spin-flip isospin-flip transitions, which dominate the charge-exchange breakup of the deuteron, are also important in the non-charge-exchange reaction.

  4. Interplay of projectile breakup and target excitation in reactions induced by weakly-bound nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Ramos, M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we reexamine the extension of the CDCC formalism to include target excitation and apply it to a variety of reactions to study the effect of breakup on inelastic cross sections. We use a transformed oscillator basis to discretize the continuum of the projectiles in the different reactions and use the extended CDCC method developed in this work to solve the resulting coupled differential equations. A new code has been developed to perform the calculations. Reactions 58Ni(d, d) 58Ni*, 24Mg(d, d) 24Mg* , 144Sm( 6Li, 6Li) 144Sm* and 9Be( 6Li, 6Li) 9Be* are studied. Satisfactory agreement is found between experimental data and extended CDCC calculations. The studied CDCC method is proved to be an accurate tool to describe target excitation in reactions with weakly-bound nuclei. Moderate effects of breakup on inelastic observables are found for the reactions studied. Cross section magnitudes are not modified much, but angular distributions present smoothing when opposed to calculations without breakup.

  5. Coulomb dissociation and momentum distributions for 11Li → 9Li + n + n breakup reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momentum distributions for the 11Li → 9Li+n+n breakup reaction, generated by Coulomb dipole excitations, axe calculated in a 3-body model for 11Li. The relative momentum distribution of the two neutrons is in good agreement with recent 3-body coincidence measurements but the momentum distribution for the 9Li recoil and the decay energy spectrum are much narrower than observed. These discrepancies may be due to higher order dynamical effects which have been ignored

  6. Role of projectile breakup in {sup 6}He and {sup 6}Li induced fusion reactions around barrier energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Anju; Kharab, Rajesh, E-mail: kharabrajesh@rediffmail.com

    2015-09-15

    The influence of projectile breakup on fusion cross section for {sup 6}He + {sup 209}Bi, {sup 6}He + {sup 64}Zn, {sup 6}Li + {sup 209}Bi and {sup 6}Li + {sup 64}Zn reactions at near barrier energies is studied within the framework of quantum diffusion approach. The breakup does not affect the fusion induced by {sup 6}He, whereas a significant suppression for {sup 6}Li induced reaction is observed in below barrier energy region.

  7. Analysis of Coulomb breakup reactions of 19C on heavy targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coulomb breakup reactions 181Ta(19C, 18C+n)181Ta and 208Pb(19C, 18C+n)208Pb has been investigated at 88 A MeV and 67 A MeV beam energies respectively within the theoretical framework of eikonal approximation with a motive to estimate the relative contribution of higher order multipole transitions, especially of electric quadrupole and dipole-quadrupole interference terms. The results so obtained reflect the finite contribution of electric quadrupole terms at higher relative energies while the dipole-quadrupole interference terms show their presence through longitudinal momentum distribution of core. (author)

  8. Effect of the breakup process on the direct reaction with a 6Li projectile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the effect of the breakup process on the direct reaction (DR) for 6Li. In order to study this effect, we introduce the experimental and semiexperimental ratio factors Rexpt and Rth by using the semiexperimental and experimental α-production cross sections and DR cross sections. The average values of the ratio Rexpt (Rth) for the 6Li+208Pb and 6Li+209Bi systems are 0.90 (0.91) and 0.86 (0.85), respectively. From these results, it can be seen that the α-production cross sections are the main contribution to the DR cross sections.

  9. The two-proton halo nucleus 17Ne studied in high-energy nuclear breakup reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of highly-energetic (500 MeV) unstable 17Ne beams impinging on light targets in an experiment at the R3B-LAND complete-kinematics reaction setup at GSI. Focusing on the properties of beam-like 15O-p (=16F) systems produced in one-proton-removal reactions, we are presenting a comprehensive analysis of the s-/d-wave configuration mixing of the 17Ne valence-proton pair that is used to quantify its halo-nature. The results include the 15O-p relative-energy spectrum, 16F momentum distributions, and their corresponding momentum profile.

  10. Importance of lifetime effects in breakup and suppression of complete fusion in reactions of weakly bound nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. J.; Simpson, E. C.; Luong, D. H.; Kalkal, Sunil; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.

    2016-06-01

    Background: Complete fusion cross sections in collisions of light weakly bound nuclei and high-Z targets show suppression of complete fusion at above-barrier energies. This has been interpreted as resulting from the breakup of the weakly bound nucleus prior to reaching the fusion barrier, reducing the probability of complete charge capture. Below-barrier studies of reactions of 9Be have found that the breakup of 8Be formed by neutron stripping dominates over direct breakup and that transfer-triggered breakup may account for the observed suppression of complete fusion. Purpose: This paper investigates how the above conclusions are affected by lifetimes of the resonant states that are populated prior to breakup. If the mean life of a populated resonance (above the breakup threshold) is much longer than the fusion time scale, then its breakup (decay) cannot suppress complete fusion. For short-lived resonances, the situation is more complex. This work explicitly includes the mean life of the short-lived 2+ resonance in 8Be in classical dynamical model calculations to determine its effect on energy and angular correlations of the breakup fragments and on model predictions of suppression of cross sections for complete fusion at above-barrier energies. Method: Previously performed coincidence measurements of breakup fragments produced in reactions of 9Be with 144Sm, 168Er, 186W, 196Pt, 208Pb, and 209Bi at energies below the barrier have been reanalyzed using an improved efficiency determination of the BALiN detector array. Predictions of breakup observables and of complete and incomplete fusion at energies above the fusion barrier are then made using the classical dynamical simulation code platypus, modified to include the effect of lifetimes of resonant states. Results: The agreement of the breakup observables is much improved when lifetime effects are included explicitly. Sensitivity to subzeptosecond lifetime is observed. The predicted suppression of complete fusion

  11. Measurement of the Breakup Cross Sections in 6He+9Be Reaction at 25 MeV/Nucleon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia; HU Qing-Yuan; WU Cui-E; A. Ozawa; Y. Yamaguchi; R. Kanungo; D. Fang; I. Tanihata; YE Yan-Lin; JIANG Dong-Xing; ZHANG Gao-Long; PANG Dan-Yang; LI Zhi-Huan; ZHENG Tao; LI Xiang-Qing; WANG Quan-Jin

    2005-01-01

    @@ The breakup reaction cross sections were measured for the reaction of 6He at 25 MeV/nucleon from 9Be target with intensity of 105 pps. By fitting the energy spectra of breakup α particles with Gaussian functions, the angular distribution of differential cross sections in the laboratory system has been extracted and compared with the Serber model calculations. The good agreement between the calculation and the experimental data favours a dominant configuration of the 4He core plus valence neutrons for the structure of 6He.

  12. Study of the He3 breakup reaction and the triton production spectra at 283 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breakup of He3 ions at 94MeV/nucleon was studied in inclusive experiments on nuclei ranging from C12 to Pb208, and in coincidence experiments (γd) and (γt) on an A127 target. The inclusive spectra of protons and deuterons show an important contribution of the He3 breakup reaction to the reaction cross section (80%). Analysis of the dependence as a function of A confirms a peripheral mechanism. The coincidence experiment gives a proportion of inelastic breakup in the inclusive cross section of 40 %. Examination of triton spectra reveals that at 94 MeV the dominant reaction is not breakup transfer as at lower energies, but charge exchange. The spectra peak at energies of 20MeV, compatible with the excitation of a mixture of L=1 and L=2 states. The variation of the cross section following an A1/3 law indicates a peripheral mechanism for the (He3,t) reaction too. The (γ-t) coincidence reaction showing residual nucleus production near the target nucleus reinforces this result

  13. Faddeev calculations of break-up reactions with realistic experimental constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Kuros-Zolnierczuk, J; Meyer, H O; Whitaker, T J; Witala, H; Golak, J; Kamada, H; Nogga, A; Skibinski, R

    2004-01-01

    We present a method to integrate predictions from a theoretical model of a reaction with three bodies in the final state over the region of phase space covered by a given experiment. The method takes into account the true experimental acceptance, as well as variations of detector efficiency, and eliminates the need for a Monte-Carlo simulation of the detector setup. The method is applicable to kinematically complete experiments. Examples for the use of this method include several polarization observables in dp break-up at 270 MeV. The calculations are carried out in the Faddeev framework with the CD Bonn nucleon-nucleon interaction, with or without the inclusion of an additional three-nucleon force.

  14. Vector and tensor analyzing powers in deuteron-proton breakup reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High precision data for vector and tensor analyzing powers of the 1H( d-vector ,pp)n breakup reaction at 130 and 100 MeV deuteron beam energies have been measured in a large fraction of the phase space. They are compared to the theoretical predictions based on various approaches to describe the three nucleon (3N) system dynamics. Theoretical predictions describe very well the vector analyzing power data, with no need to include any three-nucleon force effects for these observables. Tensor analyzing powers can be also very well reproduced by calculations in most of the studied region, but locally certain discrepancies are observed. At 130 MeV for Axy such discrepancies usually appear, or are enhanced, when model 3N forces are included. Predicted effects of 3NFs are much lower at 100 MeV and at this energy equally good consistency between the data and the calculations is obtained with or without 3NFs.

  15. Experimental study of relativistic effects in the dp breakup reaction using the WASA detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment to investigate the 1H(d→$\\overrightarrow d $, ppn breakup reaction at 340 MeV, 360 MeV and 400 MeV deuteron beam energy has been performed at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY-Jülich with the WASA detector. The main goal was to study of various aspects of few-nucleon dynamics in the medium energy region, with a particular emphasis on relativistic effects and their interplay with three nucelon forces. The almost 4π geometry of the WASA detector gives an unique possibility to study the different aspects of nucleon-nucleon dynamics in the three nucleon system. The preliminary analysis of the collected data is presented.

  16. Importance of lifetime effects in breakup and suppression of complete fusion in reactions of weakly bound nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, K J; Luong, D H; Kalkal, Sunil; Dasgupta, M; Hinde, D J

    2016-01-01

    Complete fusion cross sections in collisions of light, weakly bound nuclei and high Z targets show above-barrier suppression of complete fusion. This has been interpreted as resulting from breakup of the weakly bound nucleus prior to reaching the fusion barrier, reducing the probability of complete fusion. This paper investigates how these conclusions are affected by lifetimes of the resonant states that are populated prior to breakup. If the mean life of a populated resonance is much longer than the fusion timescale, then its breakup cannot suppress complete fusion. For short-lived resonances, the situation is more complex. This work includes the mean life of the short-lived 2+ resonance in 8Be in classical dynamical model calculations to determine its effect on energy and angular correlations of the breakup fragments and on predictions of fusion suppression. Coincidence measurements of breakup fragments produced in reactions of 9Be with 144Sm, 168Er, 186W, 196Pt, 208Pb and 209Bi at energies below the barrie...

  17. Study of {sup 19}C by breakup reactions; Etude du {sup 19}C par reactions de cassure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liegard, Emmanuel [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 Caen (France)

    1998-01-07

    To date studies of halo nuclei have been principally focussed on the A 11 systems {sup 11}Li and {sup 11}Be. The evolution of the properties of the halo with the mass of the system and the binding energy and angular momentum of the halo nucleons is a question of fundamental importance. It was in this spirit that the present study of {sup 19}C (S{sub n} = 240 {+-} 100 keV) was undertaken. The experiment was performed at GANIL using a secondary {sup 19}C beam ({approx_equal} 15 pps at 36 MeV/nucleon) produced via fragmentation. The experimental setup which included the neutron array DEMON, provided for identification of the core-breakup and dissociation reaction channels. In the first case, a very narrow single neutron angular distribution (FWHM = 64 {+-} 17 MeV/c) was observed for {sup 19}C, in contrast to that found for three `reference` nuclei {sup 21}N, {sup 22}O and {sup 24}F (FWHM {approx_equal} 165 MeV/c). This result could be interpreted within the framework of the core-breakup reaction model of a one-neutron halo nucleus. The results obtained for dissociation, while supporting the existence of the halo, indicated that it is not well developed. In addition, a comparison between the present results, the parallel momentum distributions for the core ({sup 18}C) and theoretical predictions have allowed conclusions to be drawn regarding the configuration of the valence neutron. In particular, a purely 2s{sub 1/2} of 1d{sub 5/2} configuration is excluded and mixing, possible with core excited states, must be considered. A probable ground state spin-parity assignment of 3{sup +}/2 or 5{sup +}/2 is suggested. (author) 150 refs., 278 figs., 28 tabs.

  18. The tensor analyzing power T20 in deuteron break-up reactions within the Bethe-Salpeter formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deuteron tensor analyzing power T20 in the deuteron break-up reaction Dp → pX is calculated within a relativistic approach based on the Bethe-Salpeter equation with a realistic meson-exchange potential. Our results on T20 and the cross section are compared with experimental data and non-relativistic calculations and with the outcome of a relativization procedure of the deuteron wave function. (orig.)

  19. GEANT4 simulation of dp non-mesonic breakup reaction at 300 and 500 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GEANT4 simulations of the reaction dp→ppn, i.e. the dp non-mesonic breakup reaction, at 300 and 500 MeV of deuteron energy for different detector configurations are presented. Two threads made from polyethylene and carbon with the thickness of 10 μm are used as targets. The goal of the simulations is to find a method by means of which the signal from the dp non-mesonic breakup can be separated from the background that mainly comes from the carbon content of the CH2 target. The obtained results will be used in the experimental spin program that will be realized at the Nuclotron in Dubna. The aim of this experimental investigation is to contribute to the elucidation of the structure of the spin-dependent parts of the nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon forces acting in the dp non-mesonic breakup. The deuteron energies will be ranging from 300 up to 500 MeV

  20. A distorted-wave Born-approximation theory of heavy-ion induced projectile break-up reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A distorted-wave Born-approximation (DWBA) formalism is developed to describe the 'elastic' and 'inelastic' break-up of the projectile in the heavy ion induced reactions. Using a 'local momentum approximation' and the surface localization property of these reactions expressions for the DWBA transition amplitude are derived. One of the attractive features of the present formulation is the fact that the readial integrals involved in it are the same as those contained in the transition amplitude evaluated with a zero range approximation. The validity of the approximations used in our derivations has been tested and it is shown that these approximations are well fulfilled. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of the reaction 2H(e,e') at 180 degrees close to the deuteron breakup threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryezayeva, N; Arenhövel, H; Burda, O; Byelikov, A; Chernykh, M; Enders, J; Griesshammer, H W; Kalmykov, Y; von Neumann-Cosel, P; Ozel, B; Poltoratska, I; Pysmenetska, I; Rangacharyulu, C; Rathi, S; Richter, A; Schrieder, G; Shevchenko, A; Yevetska, O

    2008-05-01

    Inclusive inelastic electron scattering off the deuteron under 180 degrees has been studied at the S-DALINAC close to the breakup threshold at momentum transfers q=0.27 fm;{-1} and 0.74 fm;{-1} with good energy resolution sufficient to map in detail the spin flip M1 response, which governs the starting reaction pn-->dgamma of big-bang nucleosynthesis over most of the relevant temperature region. Results from potential model calculations and (for q=0.27 fm;{-1}) from pionless nuclear effective field theory are in excellent agreement with the data. PMID:18518283

  2. Equivalence of post and prior sum rules for inclusive breakup reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical examination of sum rules derived previously by Austern and Vincent (post form) and by Udagawa and Tamura (prior form) demonstrates that agreement between the two approaches is obtained if certain approximations implicit in the Udagawa-Tamura prior-form derivation are avoided. We examine the relation of the two approaches to singularities of the post-form distorted wave Born approximation matrix element and to the procedures for reduction of a many-body theory by use of effective operators in a model space. The two-step heuristic model is seen to be invalid for prior-form inelastic breakup; it is necessary to take account of nuclear excitations during projectile breakup. Careful treatment of the non-Hermiticity of kinetic energy operators with respect to continuum wave functions is required

  3. Charge correlations in the breakup of gold projectiles in reactions at E/A=600 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present thesis the charge correlations in the breakup of gold projectiles in heavy ion collisions at an incident energy of E/A=600 MeV were studied. Thereby it has been proved that the sum of the charges from the projectile source under exclusion of the protons (Zbound) is saliently suited for the classification of the nuclear reactions. At large values of Zbound we fins fission and spallation reactions. For smaller values of Zbound we observe events with an increasing number of medium-heavy fragments. Thereby the multifragment events appear in the Dalitz diagrams as a continuation of more symmetric becoming spallation events. In reactions with Zbound ≅ 35 the conditions for the formation of medium-heavy fragments are optimal and the multifragment events represent the dominating exit channel. A mean multiplicity of the medium-heavy fragments of ≅ 4 is reached. (orig./HSI)

  4. Investigation of the role of break-up processes on the fusion of 16O induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was carried out to explore heavy ion incomplete fusion reaction dynamics, within the framework of the break-up fusion model, at energies near and above the Coulomb barrier. Excitation functions for several radionuclides produced via xn, pxn, and αxn channels were measured in the 16O+181Ta system at energies of ≅76-100 MeV. The experimental excitation functions were compared with those calculated using the theoretical model code PACE4. It was observed that excitation functions of xn/pxn channels are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. However, a significant enhancement in the measured excitation functions of α-emitting channels was observed and attributed to the incomplete fusion processes. The incomplete fusion fraction (FICF) that gives the relative importance of complete and incomplete fusion processes was found to increase with energy. The results are discussed in terms of α-cluster structure of the projectile on various fusion reactions.

  5. The influence of experimental setup on the spectroscopy investigation of $^{\\mathrm{14}}$Be by Coulomb breakup reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yu-Shou; Hu, Li-Yuan; Liu, Hui-Lan; Wu, Hong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    The two-body core+$2n$ cluster structure was implemented to describe the two-neutron halo nucleus $^{\\mathrm{14}}\\mathrm{Be}$, where the core$^{\\mathrm{12}}\\mathrm{Be}$ was assumed inert and at ground state and the dineutron was assumed at pure $2S_0$ state. Based on such a structure the three-body continuum-discretized coupled-channel (CDCC) calculation was successfully used to deal with the $^{\\mathrm{14}}\\mathrm{Be}$ breakup reactions of $^{\\mathrm{14}}\\mathrm{Be}+^{\\mathrm{12}}\\mathrm{C}$ at 68~MeV/nucleon and $^{\\mathrm{14}}\\mathrm{Be}+ $Pb at 35~MeV/nucleon.Consequently, we modeled the kinematically complete measurement experiment of $^{\\mathrm{14}}\\mathrm{Be}$ (35~MeV/nucleon) Coulomb breakup at a lead target with the help of Geant4. From the simulation data the relative energy spectrum was constructed by the invariant mass method and $B(E1)$ spectrum was extracted using virtual photon model. The influence of the target thickness and detector performance on the spectroscopy was investigated.

  6. Determination of nn scattering length from data on nn final state interaction in nd-breakup reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An experiment is proposed for the high-precision determination of the neutron-neutron scattering length investigating the nn final state interaction in the nd breakup reaction. The singlet pp and nn scattering lengths are very sensitive probes of the NN-interaction, and their difference is a direct measure of charge-symmetry breaking (CSB) of the nuclear force. However CSB is a small effect, and accurate values of the scattering lengths are needed for a theoretical analysis. The proton-proton scattering length is well known from pp-scattering data (app = -17.3± 0.4 fm), and its uncertainty is mainly due to a model-dependent procedure of removing Coulomb effects. The neutron-neutron scattering length is determined from the following processes n+d→p+n+n, π- + d → γ +n+n, d+d→2He+n+n by investigating the kinematic region of the nn final-state interaction (FSI) where two neutrons fly with low relative energy. The results obtained by now are characterized by a significant uncertainty in values of ann; they are grouped near -16 and -19 fm [1,2], so even the sign of the difference ann - app is uncertain. In this experiment neutron-neutron scattering length is determined by measuring the yield of the nd breakup reaction as a function of the relative energy εnn =(E1 +E2-2(E1E2)1/2cosθ)/2 of two neutrons in the FSI region (two neutrons fly in a narrow angular cone) where nn-interaction is strongly revealed. The theory of reactions in 3N system predicts the εnn dependence of the FSI cross section being sensitive to the value of ann. The measurements will be made using the neutron channel RADEX at Moscow meson factory of the Institute for Nuclear Research. The momenta and angles of the two emitted neutrons and the energy of the proton will be measured for each breakup event. The measured dependence of the reaction yield on the relative energy of the two neutrons will be compared to results of the Monte Carlo simulation that includes the finite geometry

  7. A study of proton breakup from exotic nuclei through various reaction mechanisms in 40 A - 80 AMeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the single proton breakup from weakly bound exotic nuclei due to several reaction mechanisms separately and their total and the interference effects, in order to clarify quantitatively which mechanism would dominate the measured observables. We have considered: first, the recoil effect of the core-target Coulomb potential which we distinguish from the direct proton-target Coulomb potential, and secondly the nuclear breakup, which consists of stripping and diffraction. Thus, we have calculated the absolute values of breakup cross sections and parallel momentum distributions (LMD) for 8B and 17F projectiles on a light and a heavy target in a range of intermediate incident energies (40 A-80 A MeV) for each reaction mechanism. Furthermore the interference among the two Coulomb effects and nuclear diffraction has been studied in detail. The calculation of the direct and recoil Coulomb effects separately and of their interference is the new and most relevant aspect of this work. (authors)

  8. Analysis of LMD data of core coming from Ta(15C, 14C+n)Ta Coulomb breakup reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established fact that the neutron-halo nucleus is a loosely bound exotic nuclear state where in the valence neutron is found mostly at a much larger distance from the remaining core. The development of radioactive ion beams (RI) has provided a great opportunity to explore various peculiar properties of such nuclear systems. Consequently lots of efforts have been made on theoretical and experimental fronts to understand the exotic features of halo nuclei. One of the clear manifestations of exotic properties of isotopes lying near neutron drip line is the loss of magicity and the tendency to posses prolate deformation. In this conference contribution, we study Ta(15C, 14C+n)Ta Coulomb breakup reaction with a special emphasis on the study of effects of deformation and to investigate the possibility of occupying d-orbital by valence neutron in 15 C

  9. Experimental Studies of the Coulomb Force Effects in Deuteron-Proton Break-up Reaction at Medium Energy Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepał, I.; Parol, W.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Khatri, G.; Kistryn, St.; Kłos, B.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Messchendorp, J.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Stephan, E.; Włoch, B.

    2016-03-01

    A set of differential cross-section data of the 1H(d, pp)n breakup reaction at 130 and 160 MeV deuteron beam energies has been measured in the forward polar angles domain. The data were collected with the use of the Germanium Wall (FZ Jülich) and BINA (KVI Groningen) detectors. This part of the phase-space is special with respect to the dominant Coulomb force influence on the system dynamics. The data are compared with the theoretical calculations based on the Argonne V18 potential supplemented with the long-range electromagnetic component. The predictions also include the Urbana IX three nucleon force model. The strongest Coulomb effects are found in regions where the relative energy of the two protons is the smallest.

  10. An investigation of the role of spectroscopic factors in the breakup reaction of 11Be

    CERN Document Server

    Canbula, Bora; Canbula, Deniz; Babacan, Halil

    2014-01-01

    The experimental elastic cross section data of the projectile 11Be on target 12C at 49.3 MeV/nucleon energy is analysed. The calculations for the elastic scattering is performed by the phenomenological optical model. The different optical potentials to include breakup effects into the calculations, which are neutron+12C, neutron+10Be and 10Be+12C are described with the aid of the global potentials for neutron interactions and fitted to experimental data for the core and target interaction. Also, the first analysis of the optical model for 10Be on target 12C at 39.1 MeV is done for building the interaction potential of the core and the target for 11Be. For investigating the effects of the spectroscopic factor obtained from the direct capture process using the nuclear level density are compared with the previous cross section and spectroscopic factor results. Obtained results for the elastic cross section are reproduced the experimental data very well, and shows the requirement of including spectroscopic proper...

  11. Effects of projectile resonances on the total, Coulomb, and nuclear breakup cross sections in the 6Li+152Sm reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukeru, B.; Lekala, M. L.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of the projectile resonances on the total, Coulomb, and nuclear breakup cross sections as well as on the Coulomb-nuclear interferences at different arbitrary incident energies. It is found that these resonances have non-negligible effects on the total, Coulomb, and nuclear breakup cross sections. Qualitatively, they have no effects on the constructiveness or destructiveness of the Coulomb-nuclear interferences. Quantitatively, we obtained that these resonances increase by 7.38%, 7.58%, and 20.30% the integrated total, Coulomb, and nuclear breakup cross sections, respectively at Elab=35 MeV . This shows that the nuclear breakup cross sections are more affected by the effects of the projectile resonances than their total and Coulomb breakup counterparts. We also obtain that the effects of the resonances on the total, Coulomb, and nuclear breakup cross sections decrease as the incident energy increases.

  12. Probing elastic and inelastic breakup contributions to intermediate-energy two-proton removal reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wimmer, K; Gade, A; Tostevin, J A; Baugher, T; Chajecki, Z; Coupland, D; Famiano, M A; Ghosh, T K; Grinyer, G F; Hodges, R; Howard, M E; Kilburn, M; Lynch, W G; Manning, B; Meierbachtol, K; Quarterman, P; Ratkiewicz, A; Sanetullaev, A; Stroberg, S R; Tsang, M B; Weisshaar, D; Winkelbauer, J; Youngs, R Winkler M

    2012-01-01

    The two-proton removal reaction from 28Mg projectiles has been studied at 93 MeV/u at the NSCL. First coincidence measurements of the heavy 26Ne projectile residues, the removed protons and other light charged particles enabled the relative cross sections from each of the three possible elastic and inelastic proton removal mechanisms to be determined. These more final-state-exclusive measurements are key for further interrogation of these reaction mechanisms and use of the reaction channel for quantitative spectroscopy of very neutron-rich nuclei. The relative and absolute yields of the three contributing mechanisms are compared to reaction model expectations - based on the use of eikonal dynamics and sd-shell-model structure amplitudes.

  13. Estimation of the breakup cross sections in $^6$He+$^{12}$C reaction within high-energy approximation and microscopic optical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Zemlyanaya, E V; Lukyanov, K V

    2010-01-01

    The breakup cross sections in the reaction $^6$He+$^{12}$C are calculated at about 40 MeV/nucleon using the high-energy approximation (HEA) and with the help of microscopic optical potentials (OP) of interaction with the target nucleus $^{12}$C of the projectile nucleus fragments $^4$He and 2n. Considering the di-neutron $h$=2n as a single particle the relative motion $h\\alpha$ wave function is estimated so that to explain both the separation energy of $h$ in $^6$He and the rms radius of the latter. The stripping and absorbtion total cross sections are calculated and their sum is compared with the total reaction cross section obtained within a double-folding microscopic OP for the $^6$He+$^{12}$C scattering. It is concluded that the breakup cross sections contribute in about 50% of the total reaction cross section.

  14. Analysis on two-neutron correlation through Dalitz plot of Coulomb breakup reaction for 6He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method to describe the three-body decaying states is developed. In this method, the Lippmann–Schwinger equation is combined with the complex scaling method to take the correct boundary condition into account. For the application, the E1 transition strength of 6He is investigated. The energy and Dalitz distributions of the E1 transition are calculated, and the internal correlation of 6He is discussed. As results, it is found that the 6He → 5He(3/2-)+n → 4He+n+n sequential decay process is dominant in the E1 transition reaction of 6He. (author)

  15. Study of the Three-Nucleon Force Effects in the 2H(p, n) Breakup Reaction at 170 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the study of three nucleon force (3NF) effects in the intermediate energy region, the differential cross sections and the vector analyzing power Ay were measured for the 2H(p, n) inclusive breakup reaction at 170 MeV. The polarized proton beam of 170 MeV was injected to the deuterated polyethylene (CD2) target and the energy of scattered neutrons were deduce by TOF method. The data was compared with the results of the Faddeev calculations with and without 3NFs. Concerning about the differential cross sections, we can see large discrepancies between the data and the calculations in the region where the energies of scattered neutrons are low, which are similar to the results of the 2H(p, p) inclusive breakup reaction at 250 MeV. (author)

  16. Measurement of the 2H(p, n) Breakup Reaction at 170 MeV and the Three-Nucleon Force Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of three nucleon force (3NF) have been actively studied via the nucleon–deuteron (Nd) scattering states. The differential cross sections and the vector analyzing powers Ay of the 2H(p, n) inclusive breakup reaction at 170 MeV were measured for the study of 3NF effects in the intermediate energy region. The polarized proton beam of 170 MeV was injected to the deuterated polyethylene (CD2) target and the energy of scattered neutrons were measured by using TOF method. The data were compared with the Faddeev calculations based on modern nucleon–nucleon (NN) forces with and without the 3NF. Concerning the differential cross sections, we can see large discrepancies between the data and the calculations in the region of scattered neutron energies are low, which is similar to the results of the 2H(p, p) inclusive breakup reaction at 250 MeV. (author)

  17. A study of 11 Be an 11 Li halo nuclei by core breakup reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of light nuclei with large neutron excess are very useful for the understanding of nuclear matter far from stability. The nuclear halo phenomenon has been observed for the first time for Z 11 Be and 11 Li halo nuclei. In this channel, the neutron is supposed not to participate to the reaction and then, when detected, to carry out the same properties as in the halo nucleus. The deduced widths of the neutron momentum distributions are different from the one extracted from the core distributions and with the more recent theoretical models. From these studies, it is also stressed that the properties of the core are essential to understand the halo phenomenon. In particular, the correlation between the core vibrations and the halo neutron are able to explain the emergence of the halo in 11 Be. (author)

  18. What does determine the competition between complete fusion, incomplete fusion and breakup reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of γ-charged particle coincidence experiments were performed with the aim to identify simulatanously both the target and the projectile residues in heavy-ion induced reactions. The study concentrates on the mechanism of the production of 'fast' α-particles in 12C + 160Gd collisions at four bombarding energies: 90, 120, 160 and 200 MeV. Inclusive α-particle production cross sections increase in this energy range from 570 mb at E(12C) = 90 MeV to 2100 mb at E(12C) = 200 MeV. At forward angles the energy spectra of singles α-particles are bell-shaped with the mean energy close to Esub(α) = 1/3E(12C). Contribution of evaporation α-particles is negligible at forward angles and high bombarding energies. Angular distributions of the 'fast' component are peaked at forward angles, and they fall down with angle almost exponentially. (orig./AH)

  19. Studies of the Three-Nucleon System Dynamics in the Deuteron-Proton Breakup Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciepał I.

    2014-03-01

    $$\\overrightarrow d$ , ppn reaction was investigated experimentally at 100 and 130 MeV deuteron beam energies. Rich set of data for cross section, vector and tensor analyzing powers was obtained with the use of the SALAD and BINA detectors at KVI and Germanium Wall setup at FZ-Jülich. Results are compared with various theoretical approaches which describe the three-nucleon (3N system dynamics. For correct description of the cross section data both, three-nucleon force (3NF and Coulomb force, have to be included into calculations and influence of those ingredients is seizable at specific parts of the phase space. In case of the vector analyzing powers very low sensitivity to any effects beyond nucleon-nucleon interaction was found. At 130 MeV, the Axy data are not correctly described when 3NF models are included into calculations.

  20. Influence of neutron correlations on nuclear break-up reaction both from theoretical and experimental point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear break-up has been studied both from an experimental and a theoretical point of view and has shown to be a powerful tool to probe nucleon correlations in nuclei. A theory beyond mean-field, called TDDM, (Time Dependant Density Matrix) taking into account two-body correlations has been developed. The dynamical evolution of a correlated nuclei can be described and especially nuclear break-up. This study shows that the distributions of relative angle between the two neutrons strongly differ when varying initial correlations: two nucleons close together in the nuclei will lead to small relative angle after emission whereas two nucleons far from each other gives large relative angles. From an experimental point of view, correlations between the two neutrons in the halo of the Borromean nucleus He6 have been investigated. Its ground state is predicted to have two dominant configurations: the di-neutron configuration where the two neutrons are very close to each other and the cigar configuration, where the two neutrons are on opposite side with respect to the core. Nuclear break-up of He6 on a lead target has been studied at GANIL with a SPIRAL beam. The alpha particles coming out of the break-up where detected by a stripped Silicon detector coupled to a Silicon-Lithium detector and the neutrons by EDEN and the Neutron Wall, in order to get a large angular coverage. Angular correlation functions extracted from data show both strong correlation at small relative angles and at large relative angle corresponding respectively to the contribution of the di-neutron configuration and of the cigar like configuration. So He6 ground state seems to be a superposition of these two configurations. (author)

  1. Charge-exchange breakup of the deuteron with the production of two protons and spin structure of the amplitude of the nucleon charge transfer reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the impulse approximation, the relation between the effective cross section of the charge-exchange breakup of a fast deuteron d + a → (pp) + b and the effective cross section of the charge transfer process n + a → p + b is discussed. In doing so, the effects of the proton identity (Fermi-statistics) and of the Coulomb and strong interactions of protons in the final state are taken into account. The distribution over relative momenta of the protons, produced in the charge-exchange process d + p → (pp) + n in the forward direction, is investigated. At the transfer momenta being close to zero the effective cross section of the charge-exchange breakup of a fast deuteron, colliding with the proton target, is determined only by the spin-flip part of the amplitude of the charge transfer reaction n + p → p + n at the zero angle. It is shown that the study of the process d + p → (pp) + n in a beam of the polarized (aligned) deuterons allows one, in principle, to separate two spin-dependent terms in the amplitude of the charge transfer reaction n + p → p + n, one of which does not conserve and the other one conserves the projection of the nucleon spin onto the direction of momentum at the transition of the neutron into the proton

  2. Triple-differential cross section of the 208Pb(6Li, αd)208 Pb Coulomb breakup and astrophysical S-factor of the d(α,γ)6 Li reaction at extremely low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of calculation of the triple-differential cross section of the 208Pb(6Li, αd)208Pb Coulomb breakup at astrophysically relevant energies E of the relative motion of the breakup fragments, taking into account the three-body (α - d - 208Pb) Coulomb effects and the contributions from the E1- and E2- multipoles, including their interference, has been proposed. The new results for the astrophysical S-factor of the direct radiative capture d(α, γ)6 Li reaction at E ≤ 250 keV have been obtained. It is shown that the experimental triple-differential cross section of the 208Pb(6Li, αd)208Pb Coulomb breakup can also be used to give information about the value of the modulus squared of the nuclear vertex constant for the virtual 6Li → α + d. (author)

  3. Measurement of the 12C(e,e′p)11B two-body breakup reaction at high missing momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The five-fold differential cross section for the 12C(e,e′p)11B reaction was determined over a missing momentum range of 200–400 MeV c−1, in a kinematics regime with xB>1 and Q2=2.0 (GeV c−1)2. A comparison of the results with previous lower missing momentum data and with theoretical models are presented. The extracted distorted momentum distribution is shown to be consistent with previous data and extends the range of available data up to 400 MeV c−1. The theoretical calculations are from two very different approaches, one mean field and the other short range correlated; yet for this system the two approaches show striking agreement with the data and each other up to a missing momentum value of 325 MeV c−1. For larger momenta, the calculations diverge which is likely due to the factorization approximation used in the short range approach. (paper)

  4. A study of {sup 11} Be an {sup 11} Li halo nuclei by core breakup reactions; Etude des noyaux a halo de {sup 11} Be et {sup 11} Li par reactions de cassure du coeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grevy, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS - IN2P3 Universite Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    1997-12-31

    The study of light nuclei with large neutron excess are very useful for the understanding of nuclear matter far from stability. The nuclear halo phenomenon has been observed for the first time for Z < 10 nuclei in 80`s: halo nuclei consist of a `stable` core (neutron separation energy of about a few MeV) and one or two neutrons with a very low separation energy of about a few hundred keV. Their wave functions can extent from the core at distances larger than the main range of nuclear force. These halo nuclei have been studied by dissociation reactions in which the neutron from the halo is detected in coincidence with the core. It has been shown that the extraction of the halo wave function is strongly influenced by (i) the reaction mechanism itself (ii) final state interactions. In the present work core breakup reactions are used in which the halo neutron is detected in anticoincidence with the core to study the {sup 11} Be and {sup 11} Li halo nuclei. In this channel, the neutron is supposed not to participate to the reaction and then, when detected, to carry out the same properties as in the halo nucleus. The deduced widths of the neutron momentum distributions are different from the one extracted from the core distributions and with the more recent theoretical models. From these studies, it is also stressed that the properties of the core are essential to understand the halo phenomenon. In particular, the correlation between the core vibrations and the halo neutron are able to explain the emergence of the halo in {sup 11} Be. (author). 78 refs.

  5. Influence of the breakup on the fusion and scattering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of the study of the influence of the break-up process on the fusion, scattering and reaction cross sections, at near barrier energies. Most of the discussed reactions and scattering mechanisms are induced by the stable weakly bound nuclei 6,7 Li and 9 Be, although comparisons with reactions induced by strongly bound nuclei are also made. We give a picture of the break-up and fusion mechanisms at energies above the Coulomb barrier. (author)

  6. Asymptotic and near-target direct breakup of 6Li and 7Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkal, Sunil; Simpson, E. C.; Luong, D. H.; Cook, K. J.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.; Carter, I. P.; Jeung, D. Y.; Mohanto, G.; Palshetkar, C. S.; Prasad, E.; Rafferty, D. C.; Simenel, C.; Vo-Phuoc, K.; Williams, E.; Gasques, L. R.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Linares, R.

    2016-04-01

    Background: Li,76 and 9Be are weakly bound against breakup into their cluster constituents. Breakup location is important for determining the role of breakup in above-barrier complete fusion suppression. Recent works have pointed out that experimental observables can be used to separate near-target and asymptotic breakup. Purpose: Our purpose is to distinguish near-target and asymptotic direct breakup of Li,76 in reactions with nuclei in different mass regions. Method: Charged particle coincidence measurements are carried out with pulsed Li,76 beams on 58Ni and 64Zn targets at sub-barrier energies and compared with previous measurements using 208Pb and 209Bi targets. A detector array providing a large angular coverage is used, along with time-of-flight information to give definitive particle identification of the direct breakup fragments. Results: In interactions of 6Li with 58Ni and 64Zn, direct breakup occurs only asymptotically far away from the target. However, in interactions with 208Pb and 209Bi, near-target breakup occurs in addition to asymptotic breakup. Direct breakup of 7Li into α -t is not observed in interactions with 58Ni and 64Zn. However, near-target dominated direct breakup was observed in measurements with 208Pb and 209Bi. A modified version of the Monte Carlo classical trajectory model code platypus, which explicitly takes into account lifetimes associated with unbound states, is used to simulate sub-barrier breakup reactions. Conclusions: Near-target breakup in interactions with Li,76 is an important mechanism only for the heavy targets 208Pb and 209Bi. There is insignificant near-target direct breakup of 6Li and no direct breakup of 7Li in reactions with 58Ni and 64Zn. Therefore, direct breakup is unlikely to suppress the above-barrier fusion cross section in reactions of Li,76 with 58Ni and 64Zn nuclei.

  7. Breakup branches of Borromean beryllium-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breakup reaction 9Be(4He, 3α)n was measured using an array of four double-sided silicon strip detectors at beam energies of 22 and 26 MeV. Excited states in 9Be up to 12 MeV were populated and reconstructed through the measurement of the charged reaction products. It is proposed that limits on the spins and parities of the states can be derived from the way that they decay. Various breakup paths for excited states in 9Be have been explored including the 8Beg.s. + n, 8Be2+ + n and 5Heg.s. + 4He channels. By imposing the condition that the breakup proceeded via the 8Be ground state, clean excitation spectra for 9Be were reconstructed. The remaining two breakup channels were found to possess strongly-overlapping kinematic signatures and more sophisticated methods (referenced) are required to completely disentangle these other possibilities. Emphasis is placed on the development of the experimental analysis and the usefulness of Monte-Carlo simulations for this purpose

  8. Breakup branches of Borromean beryllium-9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R., E-mail: r.smith.3@pgr.bham.ac.uk; Freer, M.; Wheldon, C.; Curtis, N.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Kokalova, Tz.; Malcolm, J. D.; Ziman, V. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Aprahamian, A.; Bucher, B.; Couder, M.; Fang, X.; Jung, F.; Lu, W.; Roberts, A.; Tan, W. P. [Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Copp, P.; Lesher, S. R. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin - La Crosse, La Crosse, WI 54601 (United States); and others

    2015-10-15

    The breakup reaction {sup 9}Be({sup 4}He, 3α)n was measured using an array of four double-sided silicon strip detectors at beam energies of 22 and 26 MeV. Excited states in {sup 9}Be up to 12 MeV were populated and reconstructed through the measurement of the charged reaction products. It is proposed that limits on the spins and parities of the states can be derived from the way that they decay. Various breakup paths for excited states in {sup 9}Be have been explored including the {sup 8}Be{sub g.s.} + n, {sup 8}Be{sub 2{sup +}} + n and {sup 5}He{sub g.s.} + {sup 4}He channels. By imposing the condition that the breakup proceeded via the {sup 8}Be ground state, clean excitation spectra for {sup 9}Be were reconstructed. The remaining two breakup channels were found to possess strongly-overlapping kinematic signatures and more sophisticated methods (referenced) are required to completely disentangle these other possibilities. Emphasis is placed on the development of the experimental analysis and the usefulness of Monte-Carlo simulations for this purpose.

  9. Breakup branches of Borromean beryllium-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Freer, M.; Wheldon, C.; Curtis, N.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Aprahamian, A.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Bucher, B.; Copp, P.; Couder, M.; Fang, X.; Goldring, G.; Jung, F.; Kokalova, Tz.; Lesher, S. R.; Lu, W.; Malcolm, J. D.; Roberts, A.; Tan, W. P.; Ziman, V. A.

    2015-10-01

    The breakup reaction 9Be(4He, 3α)n was measured using an array of four double-sided silicon strip detectors at beam energies of 22 and 26 MeV. Excited states in 9Be up to 12 MeV were populated and reconstructed through the measurement of the charged reaction products. It is proposed that limits on the spins and parities of the states can be derived from the way that they decay. Various breakup paths for excited states in 9Be have been explored including the 8Beg.s. + n, 8Be2+ + n and 5Heg.s. + 4He channels. By imposing the condition that the breakup proceeded via the 8Be ground state, clean excitation spectra for 9Be were reconstructed. The remaining two breakup channels were found to possess strongly-overlapping kinematic signatures and more sophisticated methods (referenced) are required to completely disentangle these other possibilities. Emphasis is placed on the development of the experimental analysis and the usefulness of Monte-Carlo simulations for this purpose.

  10. 11Li structural information from inclusive break-up measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-García J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure information of 11Li halo nucleus has been obtained from the inclusive break-up measurements of the 11Li+208Pb reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier (Elab = 24.3 and 29.8 MeV. The effective break-up energy and the slope of B(E1 distribution close to the threshold have been extracted from the experimental data.

  11. Systematic study of breakup effects on complete fusion at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Bing; Gomes, P R S; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2014-01-01

    A large number of complete fusion excitation functions of reactions including the breakup channel were measured in recent decades, especially in the last few years. It allows us to investigate the systematic behavior of the breakup effects on the complete fusion cross sections. To this end, we perform a systematic study of the breakup effects on the complete fusion cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier. The reduced fusion functions $F(x)$ are compared with the universal fusion functions which are used as a uniform standard reference. The complete fusion cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier are suppressed by the breakup of projectiles. This suppression effect for reactions induced by the same projectile is independent of the target and mainly determined by the lowest energy breakup channel of the projectile. There holds a good exponential relation between the suppression factor and the energy corresponding to the lowest breakup threshold.

  12. Study of 9Be breakup influence by comparing fusion around the barrier in the reactions: 9Be + 116Sn and 10B + 115In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weakly bound 9Be and tightly bound 10B, neighbouring projectiles were used on the 116Sn and 115In respectively; both reactions leading to the same compound nucleus 125Xe. The present study was carried out near the barrier varying the beam energy

  13. Medium modifications of the nucleon--deuteron break--up cross section in the Faddeev approach

    OpenAIRE

    M. Beyer; G. Röpke; Sedrakian, A.

    1996-01-01

    The three--nucleon scattering problem in a nuclear medium is considered within the Faddeev technique. In particular the deuteron break--up cross section that governs the formation and the break--up reactions of deuterons (NNN Nd) in a nuclear environment is calculated at finite temperatures and densities. A significant enhancement of the in--medium break--up cross section with increasing density has been found.

  14. Validity test of the Trojan Horse Method applied to the {sup 7}Li+p{yields} {alpha}+{alpha} reaction via the {sup 3}He break-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M.L.; Cherubini, S.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Catania (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Kroha, V.; Burjan, V.; Novac, J.; Vincour, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute of ASCR, Rez, Prague (Czech Republic); Fueloep, Z.; Somorjai, E. [Institute of Nuclear Research of Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Pizzone, R.G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) was applied to the {sup 3}He+{sup 7}Li interaction in order to investigate the quasi-free {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 4}He reaction. The three-body experiment was performed at 33 MeV corresponding to a {sup 7}Li-p relative energy ranging from 50 keV to 7 MeV. The extracted {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 4}He quasi-free cross-section was compared with the behavior of direct data, as well as with the result of a previous THM investigation on the {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 4}He reaction off the neutron in {sup 2}H. A good agreement between data sets shows up throughout the energy range investigated, providing a very important validity test of the pole approximation for the THM. (orig.)

  15. Use of Monte Carlo techniques to derive yields for n+12C multibody breakup reactions: Programming the computer to simulate collisions by fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer ''experiment'' using Monte Carlo sampling methods has been designed to simulate the breaking up of 12C by medium-energy neutrons into final reaction channels having 2, 3, or 4 outgoing charged particles. The calculational nuclear physics concept used in the ''experiment'' is one of a sequentially decaying, highly excited compound nucleus. Two methods of Monte Carlo sampling, the rejection method and the cumulative-distribution method, are discussed as applied to probability functions developed in the program

  16. Hard breakup of two nucleons from the 3He nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate a large angle photodisintegration of two nucleons from the 3He nucleus within the framework of the hard rescattering model (HRM). In the HRM a quark of one nucleon knocked out by an incoming photon rescatters with a quark of the other nucleon leading to the production of two nucleons with large relative momentum. Assuming the dominance of the quark-interchange mechanism in a hard nucleon-nucleon scattering, the HRM allows the expression of the amplitude of a two-nucleon breakup reaction through the convolution of photon-quark scattering, NN hard scattering amplitude, and nuclear spectral function, which can be calculated using a nonrelativistic 3He wave function. The photon-quark scattering amplitude can be explicitly calculated in the high energy regime, whereas for NN scattering one uses the fit of the available experimental data. The HRM predicts several specific features for the hard breakup reaction. First, the cross section will approximately scale as s-11. Second, the s11 weighted cross section will have the shape of energy dependence similar to that of s10 weighted NN elastic scattering cross section. Also one predicts an enhancement of the pp breakup relative to the pn breakup cross section as compared to the results from low energy kinematics. Another result is the prediction of different spectator momentum dependencies of pp and pn breakup cross sections. This is due to the fact that the same-helicity pp-component is strongly suppressed in the ground state wave function of 3He. Because of this suppression the HRM predicts significantly different asymmetries for the cross section of polarization transfer NN breakup reactions for circularly polarized photons. For the pp breakup this asymmetry is predicted to be zero while for the pn it is close to (2/3).

  17. Nuclear Interference effects in 8B sub-Coulomb breakup

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, F. M.; Thompson, I.J.

    1998-01-01

    The breakup of $^8$B on $^{58}$Ni below the Coulomb barrier was measured recently with the aim of determining the Coulomb breakup components. We reexamine this reaction, and perform one step quantum-mechanical calculations that include E1, E2 and nuclear contributions. We show that the nuclear contribution is by no means negligible at the intermediate angular range where data was taken. Our results indicate that, for an accurate description of this reaction, Coulomb E1, E2 and nuclear process...

  18. Measurement of the 12C(e,e'p)11B Two-Body Breakup Reaction at High Missing Momentum Values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monaghan, P; Shneor, R; Subedi, R; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Arrington, J; Benaoum, H; Benmokhtar, F; Bertin, P; Bertozzi, W; Boeglin, W; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Ciofi degli-Atti, C; Cisbani, E; Cosyn, W; Craver, B; de Jager, C W; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jans, E; Jiang, X; Jiang, Y; Kaufman, L; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Mazouz, M; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Morita, H; Nanda, S; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Ryckebusch, J; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sulkosky, V; Thompson, N; Ulmer, P E; Urciuoli, G M; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Yao, H; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2014-08-01

    The five-fold differential cross section for the 12C(e,e'p)11B reaction was determined over a missing momentum range of 200-400 MeV/c, in a kinematics regime with Bjorken x > 1 and Q2 = 2.0 (GeV/c)2. A comparison of the results and theoretical models and previous lower missing momentum data is shown. The theoretical calculations agree well with the data up to a missing momentum value of 325 MeV/c and then diverge for larger missing momenta. The extracted distorted momentum distribution is shown to be consistent with previous data and extends the range of available data up to 400 MeV/c.

  19. Measurement of the 12C(e,e'p)11B Two-Body Breakup Reaction at High Missing Momentum Values

    CERN Document Server

    Monaghan, P; Subedi, R; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Arrington, J; Benaoum, H; Benmokhtar, F; Bertin, P; Bertozzi, W; Boeglin, W; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Atti, C Ciofi degli; Cisbani, E; Cosyn, W; Craver, B; de Jager, C W; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jans, E; Jiang, X; Jiang, Y; Kaufman, L; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Mazouz, M; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Morita, H; Nanda, S; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Ryckebusch, J; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sulkosky, V; Thompson, N; Ulmer, P E; Urciuoli, G M; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Yao, H; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2013-01-01

    The five-fold differential cross section for the 12C(e,e'p)11B reaction was determined over a missing momentum range of 200-400 MeV/c, in a kinematics regime with Bjorken x > 1 and Q2 = 2.0 (GeV/c)2. A comparison of the results and theoretical models and previous lower missing momentum data is shown. The theoretical calculations agree well with the data up to a missing momentum value of 325 MeV/c and then diverge for larger missing momenta. The extracted distorted momentum distribution is shown to be consistent with previous data and extends the range of available data up to 400 MeV/c.

  20. Breakup mechanisms for 7Li + 197Au, 204Pb systems at sub-barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luong D.H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coincidence measurements of breakup fragments were carried out for the 7Li + 197Au and 204Pb systems at sub-barrier energies. The mechanisms triggering breakup, and time-scales of each process, were identified through the reaction Q-values and the relative energy of the breakup fragments. Binary breakup of 7Li were found to be predominantly triggered by nucleon transfer, with p-pickup leading to 8Be → α + α decay being the preferred breakup mode. From the time-scales of each process, the coincidence yields were separated into prompt and delayed components, allowing the identification of breakup process important in the suppression of complete fusion of 7Li at above-barrier energies.

  1. 11Li structural information from inclusive break-up measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Cubero, M.; Acosta, L.; Alcorta, M.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Borge, M. J. G.; Buchmann, L.; Diget, C. A.; Falou, H. A.; Fulton, B. R.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Kanungo, R.; Lay, J. A.; Madurga, M.; Martel, I.; Moro, A. M.; Mukha, I.; Nilsson, T.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M.; Shotter, A.; Tengblad, O.; Walden, P.

    2015-01-01

    Structure information of Li-11 halo nucleus has been obtained from the inclusive break-up measurements of the Li-11+Pb-208 reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier (E-lab = 24.3 and 29.8 MeV). The effective break-up energy and the slope of B(E1) distribution close to the threshold have be...

  2. Percolation picture of nucleus break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of nuclear fragments in multifragmentation and spallation reactions is viewed as a percolation phenomenon. A model of nuclear percolation is proposed. The criteria for linkage of nucleons to a cluster are defined in real and momentum spaces. In addition, ''compactness'' conditions are imposed to the clusters in both spaces. This model behaves in many respects as a two-dimensional site percolation model, exhibiting a rather well defined percolation threshold at psub(c) approximately 0.6. The concentration p is related to the number of fast particles leaving the nuclear volume. We discuss possible experimental signatures of this new break-up mechanism

  3. Polarization measurements in pion deuteron breakup and absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactions which form the pion-NN system are discussed. Rare and sensitive spin transfer observables involving the deuteron spin are reported. The improvements performed in the uncertainty associated with the only observable measured in pion deuteron breakup are presented

  4. Study on breakup mechanism of unstable nuclei with CDCC

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, T

    2015-01-01

    The continuum-discretized coupled-channels method (CDCC) has been successful in describing breakup reactions involving unstable nuclei. Moreover, CDCC is a useful method for evaluation of nuclear data, which are important for nuclear engineering. In this article, we present the theoretical foundation of CDCC and some results of CDCC analyses.

  5. Breakup of molten aluminum drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the entrapment of water and the breakup mechanism in molten Al drops, a series of experiments was carried out by pouring molten Al of 10 to 20 g (up to 1,000degC) into a highly subcooled-water pool (room temperature) through the air. A single large-scale water jet, which is capable of penetrating a molten Al drop, was found to appear above the molten Al drop immediately after an air column which the molten drop is dragging from the water surface, is detached. It was observed with a high frequency that a molten Al drop begins swelling first, and is then broken up during falling through the water pool or after hitting the basement. It was also found that the breakup always occurs in the course of solid crust formation, and the molten drop solidified without breakup forms a large cavity inside. Based on the experimental observations, it is concluded that the swelling and the breakup of a molten Al drop should be caused by the water entrapped inside and the hydrogen remaining super-saturated. It is reasonable to consider that an intensive breakup should be caused when some quantity of water is injected into a molten Al drop with a capability that a high-pressure vapor is generated due to a rapid release of latent heat just after brittle cracks occur during swelling. (author)

  6. Deuteron–deuteron scattering above four-nucleon breakup threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Deltuva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deuteron–deuteron elastic scattering and transfer reactions in the energy regime above four-nucleon breakup threshold are described by solving exact four-particle equations for transition operators. Several realistic nuclear interaction models are used, including the one with effective many-nucleon forces generated by the explicit Δ-isobar excitation; the Coulomb force between protons is taken into account as well. Differential cross sections, deuteron analyzing powers, outgoing nucleon polarization, and deuteron-to-neutron polarization transfer coefficients are calculated at 10 MeV deuteron energy. Overall good agreement with the experimental data is found. The importance of breakup channels is demonstrated.

  7. Deuteron-deuteron scattering above four-nucleon breakup threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Deltuva, A

    2015-01-01

    Deuteron-deuteron elastic scattering and transfer reactions in the energy regime above four-nucleon breakup threshold are described by solving exact four-particle equations for transition operators. Several realistic nuclear interaction models are used, including the one with effective many-nucleon forces generated by the explicit $\\Delta$-isobar excitation; the Coulomb force between protons is taken into account as well. Differential cross sections, deuteron analyzing powers, outgoing nucleon polarization, and deuteron-to-neutron polarization transfer coefficients are calculated at 10 MeV deuteron energy. Overall good agreement with the experimental data is found. The importance of breakup channels is demonstrated.

  8. Deuteron–deuteron scattering above four-nucleon breakup threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deltuva, A., E-mail: arnoldas.deltuva@tfai.vu.lt [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, A. Goštauto 12, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Fonseca, A.C. [Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, P-1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-03-06

    Deuteron–deuteron elastic scattering and transfer reactions in the energy regime above four-nucleon breakup threshold are described by solving exact four-particle equations for transition operators. Several realistic nuclear interaction models are used, including the one with effective many-nucleon forces generated by the explicit Δ-isobar excitation; the Coulomb force between protons is taken into account as well. Differential cross sections, deuteron analyzing powers, outgoing nucleon polarization, and deuteron-to-neutron polarization transfer coefficients are calculated at 10 MeV deuteron energy. Overall good agreement with the experimental data is found. The importance of breakup channels is demonstrated.

  9. Inclusive breakup of Borromean nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Mahir S; Frederico, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We derive the inclusive breakup cross section of a three-fragment projectile nuclei, $a = b +x_1 + x_2$, in the spectator model. The resulting four-body cross section for observing $b$, is composed of the elastic breakup cross section which contains information about the correlation between the two participant fragments, and the inclusive non-elastic breakup cross section. This latter cross section is found to be a non-trivial four-body generalization of the Austern formula \\cite{Austern1987}, which is proportional to a matrix element of the form, $\\langle\\hat{\\rho}_{{x_1},{x_2}}\\left|\\left[W_{{x_1}} + W_{{x_2}} + W_{3B}\\right]\\right|\\hat{\\rho}_{{x_1}, {x_2}}\\rangle$. The new feature here is the three-body absorption, represented by the imaginary potential, $W_{3B}$. We analyze this type of absorption and supply ideas of how to calculate its contribution.

  10. Mechanisms of Li-projectile breakup-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various experimental and theoretical features observed in recent studies of break-up of 6Li and 7Li projectiles in the field of atomic nuclei are discussed, in particular for the transitional energy regime of 10-30 MeV/amu. The discussion is organized as three independent lectures presented at the International School on Nuclear Physics, Kiev (UkSSR), 28 May - 8 June, 1990. After a survey on the main experimental facts and on the basic reaction mechanisms, current theoretical approaches are illustrated by an application to the analysis of elastic break-up of 156 MeV 6Li projectiles. Finally Coulomb break-up is discussed as a novel tool of laboratory nuclear astrophysics. (orig.)

  11. High Energy Break-Up of Few-Nucleon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsian, Misak

    2008-03-01

    We discus recent developments in theory of high energy two-body break-up reactions of few-nucleon systems. The characteristics of these reactions are such that the hard two-body quasielastic subprocess can be clearly separated from the accompanying soft subprocesses. We discuss in details the hard rescattering model (HRM) in which hard photodisintegration develops in two stages. At first, photon knocks-out an energetic quark which rescatters subsequently with a quark of the other nucleon. The latter provides a mechanism of sharing the initial high momentum of the photon by the outgoing two nucleons. Within HRM we discuss hard break-up reactions involving 2D and 3He targets. Another development of HRM is the prediction of new helicity selection mechanism for hard two-body reactions, which was apparently confirmed in the recent JLab experiment.

  12. High Energy Break-Up of Few-Nucleon Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sargsian, Misak M

    2008-01-01

    We discus recent developments in theory of high energy two-body break-up reactions of few-nucleon systems. The characteristics of these reactions are such that the hard two-body quasielastic subprocess can be clearly separated from the accompanying soft subprocesses. We discuss in details the hard rescattering model (HRM) in which hard photodisintegration develops in two stages. At first, photon knocks-out an energetic quark which rescatters subsequently with a quark of the other nucleon. The latter provides a mechanism of sharing the initial high momentum of the photon by the outgoing two nucleons. Within HRM we discuss hard break-up reactions involving $^2D$ and $^3He$ targets. Another development of HRM is the prediction of new helicity selection mechanism for hard two-body reactions, which was apparently confirmed in the recent JLab experiment.

  13. Elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G.; Shubhchintak, Chatterjee, R.

    2016-08-01

    Background: 34Na is conjectured to play an important role in the production of seed nuclei in the alternate r -process paths involving light neutron rich nuclei very near the β -stability line, and as such, it is important to know its ground state properties and structure to calculate rates of the reactions it might be involved in, in the stellar plasma. Found in the region of `island of inversion', its ground state might not be in agreement with normal shell model predictions. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb to give us a core of 33Na with a neutron and in the process we try and investigate the one neutron separation energy and the ground state configuration of 34Na. Method: A fully quantum mechanical Coulomb breakup theory within the architecture of post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation extended to include the effects of deformation is used to research the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb at 100 MeV/u. The triple differential cross section calculated for the breakup is integrated over the desired components to find the total cross-section, momentum, and angular distributions as well as the average momenta, along with the energy-angular distributions. Results: The total one neutron removal cross section is calculated to test the possible ground state configurations of 34Na. The average momentum results along with energy-angular calculations indicate 34Na to have a halo structure. The parallel momentum distributions with narrow full widths at half-maxima signify the same. Conclusion: We have attempted to analyze the possible ground state configurations of 34Na and in congruity with the patterns in the `island of inversion' conclude that even without deformation, 34Na should be a neutron halo with a predominant contribution to its ground state most probably coming from 33Na(3 /2+)⊗ 2 p3 /2ν configuration. We also surmise that it would certainly be useful and rewarding to test our

  14. Elastic breakup cross sections of well-bound nucleons

    CERN Document Server

    Wimmer, K; Gade, A; Tostevin, J A; Baugher, T; Chajecki, Z; Coupland, D; Famiano, M A; Ghosh, T K; Howard, G F Grinyer M E; Kilburn, M; Lynch, W G; Manning, B; Meierbachtol, K; Quarterman, P; Ratkiewicz, A; Sanetullaev, A; Showalter, R H; Stroberg, S R; Tsang, M B; Weisshaar, D; Winkelbauer, J; Winkler, R; Youngs, M

    2014-01-01

    The 9Be(28Mg,27Na) one-proton removal reaction with a large proton separation energy of Sp(28Mg)=16.79 MeV is studied at intermediate beam energy. Coincidences of the bound 27Na residues with protons and other light charged particles are measured. These data are analyzed to determine the percentage contributions to the proton removal cross section from the elastic and inelastic nucleon removal mechanisms. These deduced contributions are compared with the eikonal reaction model predictions and with the previously measured data for reactions involving the re- moval of more weakly-bound protons from lighter nuclei. The role of transitions of the proton between different bound single-particle configurations upon the elastic breakup cross section is also quantified in this well-bound case. The measured and calculated elastic breakup fractions are found to be in good agreement.

  15. Simulation of deuteron break-up at Tp=2.5 GeV for ANKE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental conditions for studying the deuteron break-up are simulated on the basis of pd interaction events generated by the ROC model at the energy Tp=2.5 GeV. The background conditions for separation of the break-up reaction pd→ppn at this energy are examined. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Elastic and break-up of the 1n-halo 11Be nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, A.; Moro, A. M.; Acosta, L.; Amorini, F.; Borge, M. J. G.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Fraile, L. M.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Jeppesen, H.; Lattuada, M.; Martel, I.; Milin, M.; Musumarra, A.; Papa, M.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Perez-Bernal, F.; Raabe, R.; Randisi, G.; Rizzo, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tengblad, O.; Torresi, D.; Vidal, A. Maira; Voulot, D.; Wenander, F.; Zadro, M.

    2014-03-01

    The elastic and break-up angular distributions of the 10,11Be+64Zn reactions measured at Ec.m.≈1.4 VC have been analysed within the CCDC and O.M. frameworks. The suppression of the Coulomb-nuclear interference, observed in the 11Be scattering case with respect to the 10Be, has been interpreted as due to a long range absorption owing to the coupling with the break-up (Coulomb and nuclear) channels. The presence of 10Be events on the 11Be experiment data have been explained as due mainly to break-up processes.

  17. Elastic and break-up of the 1n-halo 11Be nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pietro A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The elastic and break-up angular distributions of the 10,11Be+64Zn reactions measured at Ec.m.≈1.4 VC have been analysed within the CCDC and O.M. frameworks. The suppression of the Coulomb-nuclear interference, observed in the 11Be scattering case with respect to the 10Be, has been interpreted as due to a long range absorption owing to the coupling with the break-up (Coulomb and nuclear channels. The presence of 10Be events on the 11Be experiment data have been explained as due mainly to break-up processes.

  18. Evidence for elastic {sup 16}O breakup into the {alpha}-{sup 12}C continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatischeff, V.; Auger, P.; Bogaert, G.; Coc, A.; Kiener, J.; Lefebvre, A. [Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3), 75 - Paris (France); Disdier, D.; Kraus, L.; Linck, I. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France); Mittig, W. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Stephan, C. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; and others

    1996-09-01

    Radiative capture cross section have been measured by the method of breakup of a {sup 16}O beam at 95 MeV/A, which is particularly sensitive to the E2 part. The elastic breakup of {sup 16}O into {sup 12}C and {alpha} induced by Coulomb interaction with the electric field of a heavy nucleus may be regarded as the time reversed radiative capture reaction. (K.A.). 11 refs.

  19. Breakup of loosely bound nuclei as indirect method in nuclear astrophysics. 8B, 9C, 23Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the use of one-nucleon breakup reactions of loosely bound nuclei at intermediate energies as an indirect method in nuclear astrophysics. These are peripheral processes, therefore from breakup reaction data we can extract asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANC) from which reaction rates of astrophysical interest can be precisely evaluated. In particular, the breakup of 8B and 9C is described in detail in terms of an extended Glauber model. The results of this new analysis lead to the astrophysical factor S17(0) = 18.7 ± 1.9 eVb for the key reaction for solar neutrino production 7Be(p,γ)8B. We discuss a proposed use of the breakup of proton drip line nucleus 23Al to obtain the stellar reaction rate for 22Mg(p,γ)23Al. (author)

  20. Observation of auroral fading before breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have obtained detailed observations of the onset of auroral breakup using a variety of instruments with time resolution of some tens of seconds. Rapid sequences of all-sky photographs, and fast meridian scans by photometers, show that breakup is usually preceded by moderate brightening, followed by fading of the auroral brightness lasting one or two minutes, before the actual breakup itself. At the time of the fading there is a brief darkening of the poleward sky. Often the breakup is preceded by one or more rapid intensifications, each one preceded by local fading. Pseudo-breakups may also occur without the development of a major event. A bonafide breakup may begin on the fading arc, on an adjacent arc, or in an entirely new region nearby. This optical activity is closely correlated with the development of auroral radar echoes, suggesting that variations in the ionospheric and magnetospheric electric and magnetic fields are responsible for the observed auroral variations. Data from the IMS magnetometer network provide some indication of a correlated response by the local auroral and ionospheric current, although this could be partly due to changes in conductivity. Riometer recordings show a slow decrease in ionsperic radio wave absorption over a period of about ten minutes prior to breakup, with the largest decrease essentially to quiet-time values in the region of auroral fading and subsequent breakup. The implications of these observations regarding the trigger mechanism for the expansion phase of a magnetospheric substorm are discussed. (author)

  1. Theoretical studies on reaction mechanisms of unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies on reactions of unstable nuclei by means of the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method (CDCC) are briefly reviewed. The topics covered are: four-body breakup processes for 6He induced reaction, microscopic description of projectile breakup processes, and new approach to inclusive breakup processes. (author)

  2. Microscopic Description of Diffractive Deuteron Breakup by He-3 Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, Valery

    2016-01-01

    A microscopic formalism for describing observed cross sections for deuteron breakup by three-nucleon nuclei was developed on the basis of the diffraction nuclear model. A general formula that describes the amplitude for the reaction d+3He->3He+p+n and which involves only one adjustable parameter was obtained by using expansions of the integrands involved in terms of a Gaussian basis. This formula was used to analyze experimental data on the exclusive cross sections for deuteron breakup by He-3 nuclei at the projectile energy of 89.4 MeV. The importance of employing, in calculations, a deuteron wave function that has a correct asymptotic behavior at large nucleon-nucleon distances was demonstrated.

  3. Investigation of correlations in the breakup of He8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlations in light neutron-rich nuclei are of considerable importance in understanding their structure. In this context the breakup of He8 into He6 + 2n has been investigated at 15 MeV/nucleon. The measurements were undertaken using a setup composed of two detector arrays: CHARISSA to detect the charged fragments and DEMON to detect the neutrons. The interpretation of the results was facilitated using a Monte Carlo simulation which was developed to take into account the correlations, the reaction and the experimental setup. Two techniques were used to study the correlations in the breakup of He8. The first, intensity interferometry, provides, via the construction of the neutron-neutron correlation function, for a first estimate of the source size and thus the average separation between the neutrons. The second, using Dalitz plots, allows both the neutron-neutron and core-neutron correlations to be probed. Here, sequential decay via the ground state resonance of He7 and has been found to dominate the dissociation of He8. The spatial and temporal characteristics of the breakup of He8 have thus been deduced and a root-mean-square separation between the two valence neutrons in the continuum states was estimated to be (7.3 ± 0.6) fm with a time delay between their emission of (1000 ± 300) fm/c. (author)

  4. Neutron Induced D Breakup in Inertial Confinement Fusion at the Omega Laser Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Knauer, J. P.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Schroder, W. U.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution neutron spectroscopy is used to study the deuteron breakup reaction D(n,n ') np in the thermonuclear environment created in inertial confinement fusion experiments at the Omega Laser Facility. Neutrons with an energy of 14.1 MeV generated in the primary D-T fusion reactions scatter elastically and inelastically off the dense (cryogenic) D-T fuel assembly surrounding the central hot spot at peak fuel compression. These neutrons also induce a breakup of the fuel deuterons. The corresponding breakup cross section is measured relative to elastic n -D and n -T scattering, i.e., simultaneously in the same environment. Apart from astrophysical and technological interest, the neutron-induced deuteron breakup reaction is of interest to the physics of nucleon -nucleon forces. For example, theoretical calculations predict a noticeable influence of nucleonic three-body forces on the magnitude of the breakup cross section. Preliminary results from measurements of the neutron contribution in the 2- to 6-MeV range show reasonable agreement with the published ENDL 2008.2 semi-empirical cross-section. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  5. Study of pairing and clusterization in light nuclei through nuclear break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear break-up is a powerful tool to investigate nuclear structure as it is sensitive to the quantum properties of the emitted particles. This reaction mechanism has been used to investigate several aspects of correlations. First, the case of 11Be was studied where the spectroscopic factors for the two configurations where extracted. Secondly, the spectroscopic factor for alpha clusterization in the ground state of 40Ca was measured. Finally the correlation between the two neutrons in the halo of 6He emitted through breakup reactions showed strong contribution for the di-neutron configuration. (authors)

  6. Negative Emotions and Behaviors are Markers of Breakup Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…

  7. Intrusive Thoughts: A Primary Variable in Breakup Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    University students who were high versus low on breakup distress scores were given self-report measures to assess their intrusive thoughts about the romantic breakup and their somatic symptoms that followed the breakup as well as their extracurricular activities and social support that might alleviate their breakup distress. In a regression…

  8. Fragmentation processes in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragmentation processes in nuclear collisions are reviewed. The main emphasis is put on light ion breakup at nonrelativistic energies. The post- and prior-form DWBA theories are discussed. The post-form DWBA, appropriate for the ''spectator breakup'' describes elastic as well as inelastic breakup modes. This theory can also account for the stripping to unbound states. The theoretical models are compared to typical experimental results to illustrate the various possible mechanisms. It is discussed, how breakup reactions can be used to study high-lying single particle strength in the continuum; how it can yield information about momentum distributions of fragments in the nucleus. (orig.)

  9. Dynamical effects in nuclear collisions in the Fermi energy range: aligned breakup of heavy projectiles 24.75.+i; 25.70.Mn; 25.70.Pq; Heavy ions reactions at intermediate energy; Fragment correlations; Fission and aligned breakup; Deformation and neck instability

    CERN Document Server

    Bocage, F; Louvel, M; Auger, G; Bacri, C O; Bellaize, N; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Brou, R; Buchet, P; Charvet, J L; Chbihi, A; Cussol, D; Dayras, R; De Cesare, N; Demeyer, A N; Doré, D; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galíchet, E; Genouin-Duhamel, E; Gerlic, E; Guinet, D; Lautesse, P; Laville, J L; Lecolley, J F; Legrain, R; Le Neindre, N; López, O; Maskay, A M; Nalpas, L; Nguyen, A D; Pârlog, M; Péter, J; Plagnol, E; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Saint-Laurent, F; Salou, S; Steckmeyer, J C; Stern, M; Tabacaru, G; Tamain, B; Tirel, O; Tassan-Got, L; Vient, E; Vigilante, M; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P; Le Brun, C; Genoux-Lubain, A; Rudolf, G; Stuttgé, L

    2000-01-01

    Recent experimental results concerning heavy systems (Pb + Au, Pb + Ag, Pb + Al, Gd + C, Gd + U, Xe + Sn, etc) obtained at GANIL with the INDRA and NAUTILUS 4 pi arrays will be presented. The study of reaction mechanisms has shown the dominant binary and highly dissipative character of the process. The two heavy and excited fragments produced after the first stage of the interaction can decay into various decay modes from evaporation to multifragmentation including fission. However, deviations from this simple picture have been found by analyzing angular and velocity distributions of light charged particles, and fragments. Indeed, there is a certain amount of matter in excess emitted between the two primary sources suggesting either the existence of a mid-rapidity source similar to the one observed in the relativistic regime (participants) or a strong deformation induced by the dynamics of the collision (neck instability). This last possibility has been suggested by analyzing in detail the angular distributio...

  10. Recent developments in the eikonal description of the breakup of exotic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Capel, P; Esbensen, H; Fukui, T; Johnson, R C; Nunes, F M; Ogata, K

    2015-01-01

    The study of exotic nuclear structures, such as halo nuclei, is usually performed through nuclear reactions. An accurate reaction model coupled to a realistic description of the projectile is needed to correctly interpret experimental data. In this contribution, we briefly summarise the assumptions made within the modelling of reactions involving halo nuclei. We describe briefly the Continuum-Discretised Coupled Channel method (CDCC) and the Dynamical Eikonal Approximation (DEA) in particular and present a comparison between them for the breakup of 15C on Pb at 68AMeV. We show the problem faced by the models based on the eikonal approximation at low energy and detail a correction that enables their extension down to lower beam energies. A new reaction observable is also presented. It consists of the ratio between angular distributions for two different processes, such as elastic scattering and breakup. This ratio is completely independent of the reaction mechanism and hence is more sensitive to the projectile...

  11. Theory of inclusive breakup cross section for Borromean nuclei within a four-body spectator model

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Brett V; Hussein, Mahir S

    2016-01-01

    We develop a model to treat the inclusive non-elastic break up reactions involving weakly bound three-cluster nuclei. Borromean, two-nucleon, halo nuclei are candidates of unstable three-fragments projectiles. The model is based on the theory of inclusive breakup reactions commonly employed in the treatment of incomplete fusion and surrogate method. The theory was developed in the 80's by Ichimura, Autern and Vincent (IAV) [Phys. Rev. C 32, 431 (1985)] \\cite{IAV1985}, Udagawa and Tamura (UT)[Phys. Rev. C 24, 1348 (1981)], \\cite{UT1981} and Hussein and McVoy (HM)[Nucl. Phys. A 445, 124 (1985)], \\cite{HM1985}. We extend these three-body theories to derive an expression for the fragment yield in the reaction $A\\,(a,b)\\,X$, where the projectile is $a = x_1 + x_2 + b$. The inclusive breakup cross section is found to be the sum of a generalized four-body form of the elastic breakup cross section plus the inclusive non-elastic breakup cross section which involves the "reaction" cross section of the participant fragm...

  12. Influence of the halo upon angular distributions for elastic scattering and breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distributions for elastic scattering and breakup of halo nuclei are analysed using a near-side/far-side decomposition within the framework of the dynamical eikonal approximation. This analysis is performed for 11Be impinging on Pb at 69 MeV/nucleon. These distributions exhibit very similar features. In particular they are both near-side dominated, as expected from Coulomb-dominated reactions. The general shape of these distributions is sensitive mostly to the projectile-target interactions, but is also affected by the extension of the halo. This suggests the elastic scattering not to be affected by a loss of flux towards the breakup channel.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Multi-Phase Flow in Sodium-Water Reaction using MPS Method; Numerical Investigation of Dropret Breakup and Flow Regime (Final report of the JNC cooperative research shceme on the nuclear fuel cycle)

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, R.-O.; 越塚 誠一; 高田 孝; 山口 彰

    2004-01-01

    The JNC cooperative research scheme on the nuclear fuel cycle with The University of Tokyo has been carried out to investigate a flow regime and interfacial area density of multi-phase flow in sodium-water reaction using the Moving-Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method.

  14. Three-body coupled-channel theory of scattering and breakup of light and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the method of coupled discretized continuum channels (CDCC) based on the three-body model for direct reactions is very successful in explaining the following, recently developed experiments using deuteron, 6Li and 7Li projectiles whose breakup threshold energies are very low: (i) Precise measurement of all the possible analyzing powers in elastic scattering of polarized deuteron at 56 MeV, (ii) scattering of polarized deuteron at intermediate energies, (iii) deuteron projectile breakup at 56 MeV, (iv) scattering of polarized 7Li at 20 and 44 MeV and (v) projectile breakup of 6Li at 178 MeV and 7Li at 70 MeV. The CDCC analyses of those data are made transparently with no adjustable parameters. (author)

  15. Far-field breakup of spiral waves in the plankton ecological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Quan-Xing

    2007-01-01

    For oscillatory conditions, breakup of the spiral waves far away from the spiral core (as so-called "far-field breakup") was reported in a simple activator-inhibitor model by Markus B\\"{a}r, Michal Or-Guil and Lutz Brusch [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{82}, 1160 (1999) and New J. Phys. \\textbf{6}, 5 (2004)], which is in the chemical reaction-diffusion system. In present letter, the scenario in the plankton ecological system is reported. The spatial plankton model is studied numerically by computer and we find that the far-field breakup also exists in the oceanic ecological systems over a range of diffusion coefficients of phytoplankton and zooplankton. The far-field breakup leading to the spatial chaos patterns can be verified in field observation and is useful to understand the population dynamics of oceanic ecological systems. It also indicates that the far-field breakup may be a common phenomenon in the world. Finally, we give some illumination from the ecological meaning.

  16. Nuclear-breakup mechanisms in the interaction of relativistic projectiles with heavy targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breakup of a Au nucleus under bombardment with relativistic p, α, and 20Ne has been investigated in an extensive, multi-detector study. The present discussion addresses some of the many aspects of the experimental results. A broad distribution of coincident fragment masses is observed, with the total fragment kinetic energy being higher than expected for a fission mechanism for total fragment mass less than or equal to 120. The formation of light fragments is shown to be inconsistent with a binary breakup mechanism, and a multi-fragment target breakup is suggested. In general, the results indicate a broad spectrum of violence in the collisions, from gentle, leading to the production of heavy spallation products and fission, to essentially explosive, leading to multi-fragment breakup into light mas products. These aspects of the reactions represent a late-stage breakup of the target residues and are positively correlated with the violence of the initial fast stage of the collision as measured by the charged particle multiplicity

  17. Critical exponents in nucleus breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years the study of cluster formation has become a new field in statistical physics. Nuclear reactions with particle number change can be viewed as a cluster formation processes. Multifragmentation decay produces a power law distribution of medium size clusters. These two cluster size distributions resemble that of many others statistical cluster formation processes. We discuss now these analogies in some details

  18. Elastic Coulomb breakup of $^{34}$Na

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, G; Chatterjee, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose : The aim of this paper is to study the elastic Coulomb breakup of $^{34}$Na on $^{208}$Pb to give us a core of $^{33}$Na with a neutron and in the process we try and investigate the one neutron separation energy and the ground state configuration of $^{34}$Na. Method : A fully quantum mechanical Coulomb breakup theory within the architecture of post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation extended to include the effects of deformation is used to research the elastic Coulomb breakup of $^{34}$Na on $^{208}$Pb at 100 MeV/u. The triple differential cross-section calculated for the breakup is integrated over the desired components to find the total cross-section, momentum and angular distributions as well as the average momenta, along with the energy-angular distributions. Results : The total one neutron removal cross-section is calculated to test the possible ground state configurations of $^{34}$Na. The average momentum results along with energy-angular calculations indicate $^{34}$Na to ha...

  19. Firm break-up and performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Hanousek, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2012), s. 121-143. ISSN 1435-6104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/1595 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : break-up of firms * corporate performance * ownership changes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.588, year: 2012

  20. Projectile deformation effects in the breakup of $^{37}$Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Shubhchintak,; Shyam, R

    2015-01-01

    We study the breakup of $^{37}$Mg on Pb at 244MeV/u with the recently developed extended theory of Coulomb breakup within the post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation that includes deformation of the projectile. Comparing our calculated cross section with the available Coulomb breakup data we determine the possible ground state configuration of $^{37}$Mg.

  1. The H + HeH(+) → He + H2(+) reaction from the ultra-cold regime to the three-body breakup: exact quantum mechanical integral cross sections and rate constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fazio, Dario

    2014-06-21

    In this work, we present a quantum mechanical scattering study of the title reaction from 1 mK to 2000 K. Total integral cross sections and thermal rate constants are compared with previous theoretical and experimental data and with simpler theoretical models to understand the range of validity of the approximations used in the previous studies. The obtained quantum reactive observables have been found to be nearly insensitive to the roto-vibrational energy of the reactants at high temperatures. More sensitive to the reactant's roto-vibrational energy are the data in the cold and ultra-cold regimes. The implications of the new data presented here in the early universe scenario are also discussed and analyzed. PMID:24810283

  2. Entrainment instability and vertical motion as causes of stratocumulus breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C. J.; Pearson, R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Entrainment instability is thought to be a cause of stratocumulus breakup. At the interface between the cloud and the overlying air, mixtures may form which are negatively buoyant because of cloud droplet evaporation. Quantities devised to predict breakup are obtained from aircraft observations and are tested against cloud observations from satellite. Often, the parameters indicate that breakup should occur but the clouds remain, sometimes for several days. One possible explanation for breakup is vertical motion from passing synoptic cyclones. Several cases suggest that breakup is associated with the downward vertical motion from the cold air advected behind an eastward moving cyclone.

  3. Proton-neutron correlation in the deuteron breakup at 56 MeV and prior-form DWBA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton-neutron angular correlations in the 12C, 51V and 118Sn(d,pn) reactions have been measured at 56 MeV to investigate the deuteron breakup process. The elastic breakup which leaves the target nucleus in its ground state dominates the coincident spectra. The experimental data have been analyzed using the prior-form DWBA. For both nuclear and Coulomb breakup, sufficient convergence of the calculations is obtained by including the pn angular momenta up to l=2. For the nuclear breakup calculations, the l=0 and 2 contributions dominate the cross sections. For the Coulomb breakup the l=1 contribution is predominant. The DWBA calculations reproduce the experimental data in the angular region where the protons are emitted on the side of the beam opposite to the neutrons. On the other hand the calculations overestimate the breakup cross sections by a factor of 2 to 10 in the angular region where the protons are emitted on the same side of the beam as the neutrons. The disagreement may be due to the insufficient treatment of the final-state distorted wave in the prior-form DWBA. (author)

  4. Ice breakup: Observations of the acoustic signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, S. R.; Farmer, D. M.

    1988-03-01

    We describe observations of ambient sound beneath landfast ice in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and interpret its evolution over the period June-August in terms of ice cracking and disintegration. The data were recorded on six bands between 50 and 14,500 Hz for the period April 2 to August 7, 1986, in Dolphin and Union Strait. The frequency dependence of the attenuation of sound in water allows separation of distant and local noise sources. In conjunction with satellite imagery and meteorological data, it is shown that strong signals in the acoustic time series are associated with major breakup events. The acoustic signal can provide predictive information about ice conditions and the approach of breakup.

  5. Nuclear break-up of 11Be

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, V; Lacroix, D; Blumenfeld, Y; Bourgeois, C; Chabot, M; Chomaz, Ph; Désesquelles, P; Duflot, V; Duprat, J; Fallot, M; Frascaria, N; Grévy, S; Guillemaud-Müller, D; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Savajols, H; Sorlin, O

    2007-01-01

    The break-up of 11Be was studied at 41AMeV using a secondary beam of 11Be from the GANIL facility on a 48Ti target by measuring correlations between the 10Be core, the emitted neutrons and gamma rays. The nuclear break-up leading to the emission of a neutron at large angle in the laboratory frame is identified with the towing mode through its characteristic n-fragment correlation. The experimental spectra are compared with a model where the time dependent Schrodinger equation (TDSE) is solved for the neutron initially in the 11 Be. A good agreement is found between experiment and theory for the shapes of neutron experimental energies and angular distributions. The spectroscopic factor of the 2s orbital is tentatively extracted to be 0.46+-0.15. The neutron emission from the 1p and 1d orbitals is also studied.

  6. Basis for breakup states of three identical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new basis for expanding three-body momentum-space states for three identical particles is studied. The basis states are simultaneously eigenstates of the total angular momentum and the total antisymmetrization operator. The total kinetic energy and two Dalitz-Fabri variables are chosen as the remaining three continuous variables. Zernike polynomials are used as a basis set for a generalized Fourier expansion in the Dalitz-Fabri variables. Born approximations to the nucleon-deuteron breakup amplitude zero total orbital angular momentum) are calculated for Malfliet-Tjon I-III potentials and displayed in a Dalitz plot that shows the global structures of the reaction probabilities. Numerical results are presented, which indicate favorable convergence properties of the generalized Fourier expansion. These results suggest that the new basis set may be attractive in more realistic calculations. (author)

  7. Breakup of Bubbles in Turbulent Flow.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejražka, Jiří; Stanovský, Petr; Tihon, Jaroslav

    Ozarow Mazowiecki : Nobell Compressing sp. z o.o, 2015 - (Kosinsky, K.; Urbanczyk, M.; Žerko, S.), s. 70 ISBN N. [Smart and Green Interfaces Conference - SGIC2015. Belgrade (RS), 30.03.2015-01.04.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : bubble breakup * turbulent flow * velocity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  8. Fractal aggregation and breakup of fine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakup may exert a controlling influence on particle size distributions and particles either are fractured or are eroded particle-by-particle through shear. The shear-induced breakage of fine particles in turbulent conditions is investigated using Taylor-expansion moment method. Their equations have been derived in continuous form in terms of the number density function with particle volume. It suitable for future implementation in computational fluid dynamics modeling.

  9. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travish, G.A.

    1989-11-01

    Beam Break-Up (BBU) is a severe constraint in accelerator design, limiting beam current and quality. The control of BBU has become the focus of much research in the design of the next generation collider, recirculating and linear induction accelerators and advanced accelerators. Determining the effect on BBU of modifications to cavities, the focusing elements or the beam is frequently beyond the ability of current analytic models. A computer code was written to address this problem. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator (BBUNS) was designed to numerically solve for beam break-up (BBU) due to an arbitrary transverse wakefield. BBUNS was developed to be as user friendly as possible on the Cray computer series. The user is able to control all aspects of input and output by using a single command file. In addition, the wakefield is specified by the user and read in as a table. The program can model energy variations along and within the beam, focusing magnetic field profiles can be specified, and the graphical output can be tailored. In this note we discuss BBUNS, its structure and application. Included are detailed instructions, examples and a sample session of BBUNS. This program is available for distribution. 50 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam Break-Up (BBU) is a severe constraint in accelerator design, limiting beam current and quality. The control of BBU has become the focus of much research in the design of the next generation collider, recirculating and linear induction accelerators and advanced accelerators. Determining the effect on BBU of modifications to cavities, the focusing elements or the beam is frequently beyond the ability of current analytic models. A computer code was written to address this problem. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator (BBUNS) was designed to numerically solve for beam break-up (BBU) due to an arbitrary transverse wakefield. BBUNS was developed to be as user friendly as possible on the Cray computer series. The user is able to control all aspects of input and output by using a single command file. In addition, the wakefield is specified by the user and read in as a table. The program can model energy variations along and within the beam, focusing magnetic field profiles can be specified, and the graphical output can be tailored. In this note we discuss BBUNS, its structure and application. Included are detailed instructions, examples and a sample session of BBUNS. This program is available for distribution. 50 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Droplet Breakup of the Nematic Liquid Crystal MBBA

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Droplet breakup is a well studied phenomena in Newtonian fluids. One property of this behavior is that, independent of initial conditions, the minimum radius exhibits power law scaling with the time left to breakup tau. Because they have additional structure and shear dependent viscosity, liquid crystals pose an interesting complication to such studies. Here, we investigate the breakup of a synthetic nematic liquid crystal known as MBBA. We determine the phase of the solution by using a cross polarizer setup in situ with the liquid bridge breakup apparatus. Consistent with previous studies of scaling behavior in viscous-inertial fluid breakup, when MBBA is in the isotropic phase, the minimum radius decreases as tau^{1.03 \\pm 0.04}. In the nematic phase however, we observe very different thinning behavior. Our measurements of the thinning profile are consistent with two interpretations. In the first interpretation, the breakup is universal and consists of two different regimes. The first regime is characterize...

  12. Study on the breakup length of circular impinging jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Circular impinging jet, which is widely used in accelerated control cooling (ACC) equipment to accelerate the cooling of hot rolled plates, is subject to breakup, and may result in undesirable cooling effect. Therefore, the jet breakup should be avoided as possible in industrial production. The objective of this study is to find the relation of the processing parameters of the ACC equipment versus the breakup length of jet with weaker turbulence. To obtain quantitative findings, not only relative experimental study but also numerical simulation was carried out. For a weaker turbulent water jet, the breakup length increases with the increase of jet diameter, as well as with the jet velocity; jet diameter has a significant effect on the breakup length for a certain flow rate when compared with jet velocity; finally a suggested correlation of the jet breakup length versus jet Weber number is presented in this study.

  13. Effects of nuclear breakup channel on fusion of 6Li+64Zn system around barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the effects of breakup, occurring due to the nuclear interaction between weakly bound 6Li and tightly bound 64Zn isotopes, on the fusion reaction at near barrier energies within the framework of dynamic polarization potential (DPP) approach. When the nuclear induced dynamic polarization potential is taken into account sub barrier enhancement and above barrier suppression have been found which improves the matching between the fusion excitation function data and predictions for 6Li+64Zn system significantly. (author)

  14. Integral measurement of break-up excitation function using a multiple silicon telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method is proposed for measuring the inclusive break-up excitation function which the experimental device, consisting of a set of successive silicon detectors, serves the double purpose of decreasing the incident beam energy and of detecting and identifying the reaction products. Monte Carlo simulations revealed the merits and the limitations of the method. Finally, experimental data for tritons are treated in order to obtain relevant physical informations (authors). 9 refs., 9 figs

  15. Quantitative analysis of liquid jets breakup with SAXS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The breakup of liquid jets represents a wide area of research in the field of multiphase flows, fully justified by their wide presence both in industrial and in scientific applications. Moreover, the recent development of microfluidic systems has raised great interest in understanding the flows in small spatial dimensions. Such interest has been further increased due to the evolution of free electron lasers and the consequent need to develop new, high throughput techniques to characterize biological macromolecules. Jet instability has been widely described both theoretically and by performing simulations, however there is still need to have accurate sets of experimental data. In fact most of them are based on light scattering which is disturbed by reflection, absorption and multiple scattering of droplets and air interface morphology, and on camera imaging which is limited by the dimension of the phenomena that can be seen. In the present communication we want to show the potentiality of synchrotron SAXS in providing quantitative information on the dynamics of liquid jets at the nanoscale. To this purpose, we have investigated free liquid jets in air with circular nozzle geometry of different diameters (450μm-100μm), flow rates (2-10 ml/min), and solvents (water, ethanol, isopropanol and their mixtures). We determined their time dependent morphology and their breakup length in the Rayleigh and rst wind-induced regimes. The resulting data are considered as basis for the use of free jet micromixers to examine the evolution of chemical and biological reactions by SAXS. (author)

  16. 11Li Breakup on 208Pb at Energies Around the Coulomb Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-García, J.P.; Cubero, M.; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M.;

    2013-01-01

    The inclusive breakup for the 11Li+208Pb reaction at energies around the Coulomb barrier has been measured for the first time. A sizable yield of 9Li following the 11Li dissociation has been observed, even at energies well below the Coulomb barrier. Using the first-order semiclassical perturbatio...

  17. Breakup of oil droplets in turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil droplets, or water-in-oil emulsions, which form after an oil is spilled at sea, were studied. The mechanism that disintegrates an oil film into droplets was critically examined. A theoretical interpretation was developed for the mechanical shear associated with small turbulent eddies. This mechanism has been suggested to be the cause of the droplet breakup. A formula for maximum droplet sizes to be expected in turbulent flows was derived. It was found that the dissipation rates required by the shear mechanism were higher than typical values found in breaking waves in the upper ocean. 27 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  18. Assessment of deuteron-induced reaction mechanisms at low and medium energies

    OpenAIRE

    Avrigeanu V.; Avrigeanu M.

    2010-01-01

    An extended analysis of the nuclear reaction mechanisms involved in the deuterons interaction with 63,65Cu is presented. First, the available elastic-scattering data analysis provided us the optical potential for reaction cross sections calculations. An increased effort has been devoted to the breakup mechanism, both the elastic breakup and the breakup fusion contributions to the different activation cross sections being carefully considered. Next, the direct reaction contributions throu...

  19. Study of the role of breakup following neutron transfer in fusion induced by 9Be at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies on the breakup effects of weakly bound nuclei, both stable and radioactive, on fusion cross section is a subject of contemporary interest. These weakly bound nuclei have low breakup threshold (binding energy) that makes the fusion induced by these nuclei fundamentally different from that induced by tightly bound nuclei. Among these nuclei, the nucleus 9Be is very interesting because it has low break up threshold of 1.67 MeV and has a possible three body n+α+α Borromean structure. So far, numbers of experiments have been carried out to study the fusion reactions induced by 9Be on various targets at near barrier energies

  20. 24 CFR 982.315 - Family break-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family break-up. 982.315 Section... SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Leasing a Unit § 982.315 Family break-up... assistance in the program if the family breaks up. The PHA administrative plan must state PHA policies on...

  1. Breakup Effects on University Students' Perceived Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    The Problem: Problems that might be expected to affect perceived academic performance were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: Breakup Distress Scale scores, less time since the breakup and no new relationship contributed to 16% of the variance on perceived academic performance. Variables that were related to academic…

  2. Comment on breakup densities of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In [V.E. Viola et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 132701, D.S. Bracken et al., Phys. Rev. C 69 (2004) 034612] the observed decrease in spectral peak energies of IMFs emitted from hot nuclei was interpreted in terms of a breakup density that decreased with increasing excitation energy. Subsequently, Raduta et al. [Ad. Raduta et al., Phys. Lett. B 623 (2005) 43] performed MMM simulations that showed decreasing spectral peaks could be obtained at constant density. In this Letter we point out that this apparent inconsistency is due to a selective comparison of theory and data that overlooks the evolution of the fragment multiplicities as a function of excitation energy

  3. Team formation and breakup in multiagent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Venkatesh Guru

    The goal of this dissertation is to pose and solve problems involving team formation and breakup in two specific multiagent domains: formation travel and space-based interferometric observatories. The methodology employed comprises elements drawn from control theory, scheduling theory and artificial intelligence (AI). The original contribution of the work comprises three elements. The first contribution, the partitioned state-space approach is a technique for formulating and solving co-ordinated motion problem using calculus of variations techniques. The approach is applied to obtain optimal two-agent formation travel trajectories on graphs. The second contribution is the class of MixTeam algorithms, a class of team dispatchers that extends classical dispatching by accommodating team formation and breakup and exploration/exploitation learning. The algorithms are applied to observation scheduling and constellation geometry design for interferometric space telescopes. The use of feedback control for team scheduling is also demonstrated with these algorithms. The third contribution is the analysis of the optimality properties of greedy, or myopic, decision-making for a simple class of team dispatching problems. This analysis represents a first step towards the complete analysis of complex team schedulers such as the MixTeam algorithms. The contributions represent an extension to the literature on team dynamics in control theory. The broad conclusions that emerge from this research are that greedy or myopic decision-making strategies for teams perform well when specific parameters in the domain are weakly affected by an agent's actions, and that intelligent systems require a closer integration of domain knowledge in decision-making functions.

  4. Numerical analysis of jet breakup behavior using particle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continuous jet changes to droplets where jet breakup occurs. In this study, two-dimensional numerical analysis of jet breakup is performed using the MPS method (Moving Particle Semi-implicit Method) which is a particle method for incompressible flows. The continuous fluid surrounding the jet is neglected. Dependencies of the jet breakup length on the Weber number and the Froude number agree with the experiment. The size distribution of droplets is in agreement with the Nukiyama-Tanasawa distribution which has been widely used as an experimental correlation. Effects of the Weber number and the Froude number on the size distribution are also obtained. (author)

  5. Numerical analysis of jet breakup behavior using particle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continuous jet changes to droplets where jet breakup occurs. In this study, two-dimensional numerical analysis of jet breakup is performed using the MPS method (Moving Particle Semi-implicit Method) which is a particle method for incompressible flows. The continuous fluid surrounding the jet is neglected. Dependencies of the jet breakup length on the Waber number and the Froude number agree with the experiment. The size distribution of droplets is in agreement with the Nukiyama-Tanasawa distribution which has been widely used as an experimental correlation. Effects of the Weber number and the Froude number on the size distribution are also obtained. (author)

  6. Numerical analysis of jet breakup behavior using particle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continuous jet changes to droplets where jet breakup occurs. In this study, two-dimensional numerical analysis of jet breakup is performed using the MPS method (Moving Particle Semi-implicit Method) which is a particle method for incompressible flows. The continuous fluid surrounding the jet is neglected. Dependencies of the jet breakup length on the Weber number and the Froude number agree with the experiment. The size distribution of droplets is in agreement with the Nukiyama-Tanasawa distribution that has been widely used as an experimental correlation. Effects of the Weber number and the Froude number on the size distribution are also obtained. (author)

  7. Breakup of Spiral Waves in Coupled Hindmarsh–Rose Neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breakup of spiral wave in the Hindmarsh–Rose neurons with nearest-neighbour couplings is reported. Appropriate initial values and parameter regions are selected to develop a stable spiral wave and then the Gaussian coloured noise with different intensities and correlation times is imposed on all neurons to study the breakup of spiral wave, respectively. Based on the mean field theory, the statistical factor of synchronization is defined to analyse the evolution of spiral wave. It is found that the stable rotating spiral wave encounters breakup with increasing intensity of Gaussian coloured noise or decreasing correlation time to certain threshold

  8. Breakup of Spiral Waves in Coupled Hindmarsh-Rose Neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; JIA Ya; TANG Jun; YANG Li-Jian

    2008-01-01

    @@ Breakup of spiral wave in the Hindmarsh-Rose neurons with nearest-neighbour couplings is reported.Appropriate initial values and parameter regions are selected to develop a stable spiral wave and then the Gauesian coloured noise with different intensities and correlation times is imposed on all neurons to study the breakup of spiral wave, respectively.Based on the mean field theory, the statistical factor of synchronization is defined to analyse the evolution of spiral wave.It is found that the stable rotating spiral wave encounters breakup with increasing intensity of Gaussian coloured noise or decreasing correlation time to certain threshold.

  9. The TAB method for numerical calculation of spray droplet breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orourke, P. J.; Amsden, A. A.

    A short history is given of the major milestones in the development of the stochastic particle method for calculating liquid fuel sprays. The most recent advance has been the discovery of the importance of drop breakup in engine sprays. A new method, called TAB, for calculating drop breakup is presented. Some theoretical properties of the method are derived; its numerical implementation in the computer program KIVA is described; and comparisons are presented between TAB-method calculations and experiments and calculations using another breakup model.

  10. Vector and tensor analyzing powers in deuteron-proton breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vector and tensor analyzing powers of the 1H(d-bar,pp)n breakup reaction at 130 and 100 MeV deuteron beam energies have been measured at KVI Groningen with the use of the detection systems covering large fractions of the phase space. The high precision data are compared to the theoretical predictions based on various approaches to describe the three nucleon (3N) system dynamics. Theoretical predictions describe very well the vector analyzing power data, with no need to include any three-nucleon force effects for these observables. The tensor analyzing powers can be also very well reproduced by calculations in most of the studied region, but locally certain discrepancies are observed. At 130 MeV for Axy such discrepancies usually appear, or are enhanced, when model 3N forces (3NFs), TM99 or Urbana IX, are included. Problems of all theoretical approaches with describing Axx and Ayy are limited to very small regions of the phase space, usually characterized with the lowest relative energies of the two protons. Predicted effects of 3NFs are much lower at 100 MeV, therefore at this energy equally good consistency between the data and the calculations is obtained with or without 3NFs.

  11. Hard Break-Up of Two-Nucleons and QCD Dynamics of NN Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discus recent developments in theory of high energy two-body break-up of few-nucleon systems. The characteristics of these reactions are such that the hard two-body quasielastic subprocess can be clearly separated from the accompanying soft subprocesses. We discuss in details the hard rescattering model (HRM) in which hard photodisintegration develops in two stages. At first, photon knocks-out an energetic quark which rescatters subsequently with a quark of the other nucleon. The latter provides a mechanism of sharing the initial high momentum of the photon between two outgoing nucleons. This final state hard rescattering can be expressed through the hard NN scattering amplitude. Within HRM we discuss hard break-up reactions involving D and 3He targets and demonstrate how these reactions are sensitive to the dynamics of hard pn and pp interaction. Another development of HRM is the prediction of new helicity selection mechanism for hard two-body reactions, which was apparently confirmed in the recent JLab experiment.

  12. Hard Break-Up of Two-Nucleons and QCD Dynamics of NN Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsian, Misak

    2008-10-01

    We discus recent developments in theory of high energy two-body break-up of few-nucleon systems. The characteristics of these reactions are such that the hard two-body quasielastic subprocess can be clearly separated from the accompanying soft subprocesses. We discuss in details the hard rescattering model (HRM) in which hard photodisintegration develops in two stages. At first, photon knocks-out an energetic quark which rescatters subsequently with a quark of the other nucleon. The latter provides a mechanism of sharing the initial high momentum of the photon between two outgoing nucleons. This final state hard rescattering can be expressed through the hard NN scattering amplitude. Within HRM we discuss hard break-up reactions involving D and 3He targets and demonstrate how these reactions are sensitive to the dynamics of hard pn and pp interaction. Another development of HRM is the prediction of new helicity selection mechanism for hard two-body reactions, which was apparently confirmed in the recent JLab experiment.

  13. Hard Break-Up of Two-Nucleons and QCD Dynamics of NN Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Sargsian, Misak M

    2008-01-01

    We discus recent developments in theory of high energy two-body break-up of few-nucleon systems. The characteristics of these reactions are such that the hard two-body quasielastic subprocess can be clearly separated from the accompanying soft subprocesses. We discuss in details the hard rescattering model(HRM) in which hard photodisintegration develops in two stages. At first, photon knocks-out an energetic quark which rescatters subsequently with a quark of the other nucleon. The latter provides a mechanism of sharing the initial high momentum of the photon between two outgoing nucleons. This final state hard rescattering can be expressed through the hard NN scattering amplitude. Within HRM we discuss hard break-up reactions involving D and 3He targets and demonstrate how these reactions are sensitive to the dynamics of hard pn and pp interaction. Another development of HRM is the prediction of new helicity selection mechanism for hard two-body reactions, which was apparently confirmed in the recent JLab ex...

  14. Breakup of spiral wave under different boundary conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ying-Kui; Wang Guang-Rui; Chen Shi-Gang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the breakup of spiral wave under no-flux, periodic and Dirichlet boundary conditions respectively. When the parameter ε is close to a critical value for Doppler-induced wave breakup, the instability of the system caused by the boundary effect occurs in the last two cases, resulting in the breakup of spiral wave near the boundary. With our defined average order measure of spiral wave (AOMSW), we quantify the degree of order of the system when the boundary-induced breakup of spiral wave happens. By analysing the AOMSW and outer diameter R of the spiral tip orbit, it is easy to find that this boundary effect is correlated with large values of R, especially under the Dirichlet boundary condition. This correlation is nonlinear, so the AOMSW sometimes oscillates with the variation of ε.

  15. Study on the breakup lengths of free round liquid jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying; WAN Yun-xia; HUANG Yong; PENG Xin-ke

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the breakup lengths of water jets with a high-speed video camera for Weber numbers from 0 to about 1.1 × 103. The initial jet diameters are changed from 0.3mm to 1.0mm. The results indicate that at low jet velocity the breakup lengths of the jets are increased linearly from 0 to a maximum value. At the Weber number about 20 the breakup length of the jet reaches its maximum value for different initial jet diameter. A computation based on the dispersion equation is conducted to study the relationship between the growth rate of the jet surface wave and the maximum breakup length. The computations show that the maximum growth rate for the axisymmetric surface wave has a turning point at Weber number about 20, and that agrees well with the experiments.

  16. Capillary Breakup of a Liquid Bridge: Identifying Regimes and Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Computations of the breakup of a liquid bridge are used to establish the limits of applicability of similarity solutions derived for different breakup regimes. These regimes are based on particular viscous-inertial balances, that is different limits of the Ohnesorge number $Oh$. To accurately establish the transitions between regimes, the minimum bridge radius is resolved through four orders of magnitude using a purpose-built multiscale finite element method. This allows us to construct a quantitative phase diagram for the breakup phenomenon which includes the appearance of a recently discovered low-$Oh$ viscous regime. The method used to quantify the accuracy of the similarity solutions allows us to identify a number of previously unobserved features of the breakup, most notably an oscillatory convergence towards the viscous-inertial similarity solution. Finally, we discuss how the new findings open up a number of challenges for both theoretical and experimental analysis.

  17. Vibrating Breakup of Jet for Uniform Metal Droplets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengdong GAO; Yingxue YAO; Chengsong CUI

    2007-01-01

    Uniform droplet formation from capillary stream breakup provides promising opportunities for many applications such as solder balls manufacturing, circuit board printing and rapid prototype manufacturing. In this study an apparatus capable of making monosize metal spheres by vibrating breakup has been developed. The droplets were electrically charged to avoid collision and merging with one another during flight. As a result, uniformly sized tin powders (180μm in diameter) were obtained after cooling and solidification.

  18. Numerical simulation of mechanical breakup of river ice-cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; HE Liang; CHEN Pang-pang; SUI Jueyi

    2013-01-01

    Ice jams and ice dams in rivers will cause significant rises of water levels.Under extreme conditions,the ice flooding during winter or early spring may occur.In this paper,by considering the fluid-solid coupling effect caused by the water and the ice cover,the mechanisms of the mechanical breakup of the river ice cover are studied.A formula is obtained for determining whether or not the mechanical breakup process would happen under the hydraulic pressure of the flow.Combined with the hydraulic model under the ice covered flow,a numerical model is built and the interaction between the discharge,the hydraulic pressure under the ice cover and the date for the mechanical breakup of the river ice cover is simulated.The simulated results of the dates for the mechanical breakup of the river ice cover agree very well with the field observations of the breakups of the river ice cover in the Hequ Reach of the Yellow River.Therefore,the numerical model might serve as a good preliminary step in studying the breakup of the river ice-cover,evidencing many important parameters that affect the ice-cover process.

  19. Role of the direct mechanisms in the deuteron-induced surrogate reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Avrigeanu, M

    2015-01-01

    An extended analysis of the key role of direct interactions, i.e., breakup, stripping and pick-up processes, for the deuteron–induced surrogate reactions is presented. Particular comments concern the deuteron breakup which is dominant in the case of the ( d; p g ) surrogate reactions on actinides target nuclei, around the Coulomb barrier.

  20. Proton--induced deuteron breakup at GeV energies with forward emission of a fast proton pair

    CERN Document Server

    Komarov, V; Kacharava, A K; Kulikov, A; Macharashvili, G; Petrus, A Yu; Rathmann, F; Seyfarth, H; Ströher, H; Uzikov, Yu N; Yaschenko, S V; Zalikhanov, B; Büscher, M; Erven, W; Hartmann, M; Khoukaz, A; Koch, R; Kurbatov, V S; Lang, N; Maier, R; Merzlyakov, S I; Mikirtychiants, S M; Müller, H; Nioradze, M S; Ohm, H; Prasuhn, D; Schieck, H P; Schleichert, R; Stein, H J; Watzlawik, K H; Zhuravlev, N Yu; Zwoll, K; Uzikov, Yu.

    2003-01-01

    A study of the deuteron breakup reaction $pd \\to (pp)n$ with forward emission of a fast proton pair with small excitation energy $E_{pp}<$ 3 MeV has been performed at the ANKE spectrometer at COSY--J\\"ulich. An exclusive measurement was carried out at six proton--beam energies $T_p=$~0.6,~0.7,~0.8,~0.95,~1.35, and 1.9 GeV by reconstructing the momenta of the two protons. The differential cross section of the breakup reaction, averaged up to $8^{\\circ}$ over the cm polar angle of the total momentum of the $pp$ pairs, has been obtained. Since the kinematics of this process is quite similar to that of backward elastic $pd \\to dp$ scattering, the results are compared to calculations based on a theoretical model previously applied to the $pd \\to dp$ process.

  1. Neutron-neutron quasifree scattering in nd breakup at 10 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, R. C.; Crowe, B.; Crowell, A. S.; Cumberbatch, L. C.; Esterline, J. H.; Fallin, B. A.; Friesen, F. Q. L.; Han, Z.; Howell, C. R.; Markoff, D.; Ticehurst, D.; Tornow, W.; Witała, H.

    2016-03-01

    The neutron-deuteron (nd) breakup reaction provides a rich environment for testing theoretical models of the neutron-neutron (nn) interaction. Current theoretical predictions based on rigorous ab-initio calculations agree well with most experimental data for this system, but there remain a few notable discrepancies. The cross section for nn quasifree (QFS) scattering is one such anomaly. Two recent experiments reported cross sections for this particular nd breakup configuration that exceed theoretical calculations by almost 20% at incident neutron energies of 26 and 25 MeV [1, 2]. The theoretical values can be brought into agreement with these results by increasing the strength of the 1S0 nn potential matrix element by roughly 10%. However, this modification of the nn effective range parameter and/or the 1S0 scattering length causes substantial charge-symmetry breaking in the nucleon-nucleon force and suggests the possibility of a weakly bound di-neutron state [3]. We are conducting new measurements of the cross section for nn QFS in nd breakup. The measurements are performed at incident neutron beam energies below 20 MeV. The neutron beam is produced via the 2H(d, n)3He reaction. The target is a deuterated plastic cylinder. Our measurements utilize time-of-flight techniques with a pulsed neutron beam and detection of the two emitted neutrons in coincidence. A description of our initial measurements at 10 MeV for a single scattering angle will be presented along with preliminary results. Also, plans for measurements at other energies with broad angular coverage will be discussed.

  2. Simultaneous optical model analysis of elastic scattering, fusion, and breakup for the Be9+Sm144 system at near-barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Camacho, A.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Padrón, I.

    2008-05-01

    A simultaneous optical model calculation of elastic scattering, complete fusion, and breakup cross sections for energies around the Coulomb barrier is presented for reactions involving the weakly bound projectile Be9 on the medium size target Sm144. In the calculations, the nuclear polarization potential U is split into a volume part UF, which is responsible for fusion reactions, and a surface part UDR, which accounts for direct reactions. A simultaneous χ2 analysis of elastic and complete fusion data shows that the extracted optical potential parameters of the real VF and imaginary WF parts of UF and the corresponding parts VDR and WDR of UDR satisfy separately the dispersion relation. Energy-dependent forms for the fusion and direct reaction potentials indicate that, at the strong absorption radius, the direct reaction potentials dominate over the fusion potentials. Moreover, the imaginary direct reaction potential results in a rather smooth function of E around the barrier energy. These findings show that the threshold anomaly, usually present in reactions with tightly bound projectiles, is not exhibited for the system Be9+Sm144. Within this formalism, the effect of breakup reactions on complete fusion is studied by turning on and off the potentials responsible for breakup reactions.

  3. Breakup of 42 MeV 7Li projectiles in the fields of 12C and 197Au nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhruba Gupta; C Samanta; R Kanungo; P Basu; Subinit Roy; S Kailas; A Chatterjee; B J Roy; K Mahata; A Samant; A Shrivastava

    2001-07-01

    Inclusive cross sections of particles and tritons from the breakup of 42 MeV 7Li by 12C and 197Au targets are presented and analysed in the framework of the Serber model. Spectral distortions due to the targets and relevant reaction mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Investigation on Electrostatical Breakup of Bio-Oil Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Z. Wen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In electrostatic atomization, the input electrical energy causes breaking up of the droplet surface by utilizing a mutual repulsion of net charges accumulating on that surface. In this work a number of key parameters controlling the bio-oil droplet breakup process are identified and these correlations among the droplet size distribution, specific charges of droplets and externally applied electrical voltages are quantified. Theoretical considerations of the bag or strip breakup mechanism of biodiesel droplets experiencing electrostatic potential are compared to experimental outcomes. The theoretical analysis suggests the droplet breakup process is governed by the Rayleigh instability condition, which reveals the effects of droplets size, specific charge, surface tension force, and droplet velocities. Experiments confirm that the average droplet diameters decrease with increasing specific charges and this decreasing tendency is non-monotonic due to the motion of satellite drops in the non-uniform electrical field. The measured specific charges are found to be smaller than the theoretical values. And the energy transformation from the electrical energy to surface energy, in addition to the energy loss, Taylor instability breakup, non-excess polarization and some system errors, accounts for this discrepancy. The electrostatic force is the dominant factor controlling the mechanism of biodiesel breakup in electrostatic atomization.

  5. Dynamics of bubble breakup at a T junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yutao; Fu, Taotao; Zhu, Chunying; Ma, Youguang; Li, Huai Z.

    2016-02-01

    The gas-liquid interfacial dynamics of bubble breakup in a T junction was investigated. Four regimes were observed for a bubble passing through the T junction. It was identified by the stop flow that a critical width of the bubble neck existed: if the minimum width of the bubble neck was less than the critical value, the breakup was irreversible and fast; while if the minimum width of the bubble neck was larger than the critical value, the breakup was reversible and slow. The fast breakup was driven by the surface tension and liquid inertia and is independent of the operating conditions. The minimum width of the bubble neck could be scaled with the remaining time as a power law with an exponent of 0.22 in the beginning and of 0.5 approaching the final fast pinch-off. The slow breakup was driven by the continuous phase and the gas-liquid interface was in the equilibrium stage. Before the appearance of the tunnel, the width of the depression region could be scaled with the time as a power law with an exponent of 0.75; while after that, the width of the depression was a logarithmic function with the time.

  6. Resonant and nonresonant breakup of the neutron-halo nuclei 11Be and 19C from a proton target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breakup of a halo nuclei from a stable nucleus is a sensitive tool of the reaction framework. In order to study the halo continuum, both resonant and nonresonant contributions should be taken into account. In addition a proper treatment of the few-body dynamics of the three-body problem should be accomplished in case only few degrees of freedom play a role in the reaction mechanism. Most recently, the Faddeev/AGS multiple scattering reaction formalism [1,2,3] has been applied to the study of reactions involving two-body halo nuclei [4,5,6]. These works have shown that a tighter control in the reaction theory is needed and that traditional reaction approaches may not be adequate to interpret and extract accurate and reliable structure information from the data. Our aim is to use the Faddeev/AGS scattering approach to analyse the experimental data, which unlike other approximate reaction methods provides a numerically exact solution of the underlying effective three-body Hamiltonian. We calculate inclusive breakup angular cross sections and energy spectrum observables for the scattering of one neutron-halo nuclei 11Be and 19C from a proton target at intermediate energies and compare with existing experimental data [7,8] respectively.(author)

  7. Coulomb and nuclear breakup at low energies: Scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a recent work on the low-energy behavior of the breakup cross section in so far as it has important role in the fusion of weakly bound and halo nuclei at near-barrier energies. We assess the way the nuclear component of this cross section scales with the target mass. In complete accord with previous finding at higher energies we verify that the low energy behavior of the breakup cross section for a given projectile and relative center of mass energy with respect to the Coulomb barrier height scales as the cubic root of the mass number of the target. Surprisingly we find that the Coulomb component of the breakup cross section at these low energies also obeys scaling, but with a linear dependence on the target charge. Our findings are important when planning for experiments involving these exotic nuclei. (authors)

  8. Breakup of Droplets in Micro and Nanofluidic T-Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. bedram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ numerical simulations to investigate the breakup of droplets in micro- and nanoscale T junctions, which are used to produce small droplets from a large droplet. For this purpose a Volume f Fluid (VOF based method is used and for verifying the reliability of the numerical outcomes, the results are compared with the available experimental and analytical results. Our results reveal that breakup time and breakup length of the droplets play important roles in handling these systems optimally. Our results also indicate that for nanoscale Tjunctions by increasing the capillary number the performance increases while for the micro-scale systems there is a specific capillary number for which the system is in its optimum condition.

  9. Scaling laws for near barrier Coulomb and Nuclear Breakup

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, M S; Lubian, J; Otomar, D R; Canto, L F

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the nuclear and the Coulomb contributions to the breakup cross sections of $^6$Li in collisions with targets in different mass ranges. Comparing cross sections for different targets at collision energies corresponding to the same $E/V_{\\mathrm{\\scriptscriptstyle B}}$, we obtain interesting scaling laws. First, we derive an approximate linear expression for the nuclear breakup cross section as a function of $A_{\\mathrm{% \\scriptscriptstyle T}}^{1/3}$. We then confirm the validity of this expression performing CDCC calculations. Scaling laws for the Coulomb breakup cross section are also investigated. In this case, our CDCC calculations indicate that this cross section has a linear dependence on the atomic number of the target. This behavior is explained by qualitative arguments. Our findings, which are consistent with previously obtained results for higher energies, are important when planning for experiments involving exotic weakly bound nuclei.

  10. Coulomb and Nuclear Breakup at Low Energies: Scaling Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a recent work on the low-energy behavior of the breakup cross section in so far as it has important role in the fusion of weakly bound and halo nuclei at near-barrier energies. We assess the way the nuclear component of this cross section scales with the target mass. In complete accord with previous finding at higher energies we verify that the low energy behavior of the breakup cross section for a given projectile and relative center of mass energy with respect to the Coulomb barrier height scales as the cubic root of the mass number of the target. Surprisingly we find that the Coulomb component of the breakup cross section at these low energies also obeys scaling, but with a linear dependence on the target charge. Our findings are important when planning for experiments involving these exotic nuclei.

  11. Neutrino Magnetic Moment Contribution to the Neutrino-Deuteron Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuji, K.; Nakamura, S.; Sato, T.; Kubodera, K.; Myhrer, F.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect of the neutrino magnetic moment on the neutrino-deuteron breakup reaction, using a method called the standard nuclear physics approach, which has already been well tested for several electroweak processes involving the deuteron.

  12. New technique for high-speed microjet breakup analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vago, N. [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki ut 8, 1111, Budapest (Hungary); Synova SA, Ch. Dent d' Oche, 1024 Ecublens (Switzerland); Spiegel, A. [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki ut 8, 1111, Budapest (Hungary); Couty, P. [Institute of Imaging and Applied Optics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, BM, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Wagner, F.R.; Richerzhagen, B. [Synova SA, Ch. Dent d' Oche, 1024 Ecublens (Switzerland)

    2003-10-01

    In this paper we introduce a new technique for visualizing the breakup of thin high-speed liquid jets. Focused light of a He-Ne laser is coupled into a water jet, which behaves as a cylindrical waveguide until the point where the amplitude of surface waves is large enough to scatter out the light from the jet. Observing the jet from a direction perpendicular to its axis, the light that appears indicates the location of breakup. Real-time examination and also statistical analysis of the jet disruption is possible with this method. A ray tracing method was developed to demonstrate the light scattering process. (orig.)

  13. Coincidence cross sections within the quasi free break-up model for elastic projectile break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrutinizing the basic break-up model of Serber we show that it is possible to derive the triple differential cross sections for particle-particle coincidences in analytical form. An alternative interpretation within the opaque version of the model suggests to assign these cross sections to the elastic nonresonant projectile break-up due to the nuclear interaction. Distortion effects by the Coulomb field of the target are included in analogy to the Serber model. Beside the well known single maximum in the break-up spectra double and triple peak structures appear for certain combinations of the observation angles. The model yields reasonable agreement to the given experimental data, concerning the multiple peak structure as well as the order of magnitude for the absolute normalisation. Its application comprises the region of forward emission angles, especially the angular range of the classical Coulomb deflection. (orig.)

  14. Light particle emission and projectile breakup in 35A MeV 12C induced collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inclusive spectra of p, d, t, 3He from 35A MeV 12C + C, Al, Cu, Au reactions as wll as coincidences between projectile-like fragments and light particles have been measured. The apparent temperature does not seem to depend on the size of the coincident fragment. An independent way to determine source velocities indicates that high energy protons are emitted from a source with a velocity close to half the beam velocity even in assymmetric reactions. We observed in in-plane enhancement in the azimuthal angular distributions of coincident projectile-like fragments which gets stronger with increasing mass of the triggering particle or the fragment. A discussion around momentum conservation effects shows that p * B correlations may originate form a combination of pure projectile breakup- and nucleon-nucleon quasi-elastic scattering process. The correlations observed in less peripheral collision need the introduction of a second, light particle emitting source

  15. Optical model parallel description of elastic, fusion and breakup cross sections for systems with weakly bound projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Camacho, A.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Aguilera, E. F.

    2014-03-01

    A brief description is presented of the results obtained in recent years for the simultaneous analysis of elastic and fusion cross section data of nuclear reactions for several nuclear systems with weakly bound and halo projectiles. The method used in this description, consists of simultaneously determine the parameters of fusion UF and direct reaction UDR polarization potentials of Woods-Saxon geometric shapes, that fit the elastic and fusion data. As a matter of fact, UFis an energy dependent potential, with real VF and imaginary WFcomponents, that is responsible for fusion reactions. Similarly, UDR is also energy dependent with real VDR and imaginary WDR parts, that accounts for direct reactions. A general finding for all the systems presented is that, the real and imaginary parts of the fusion potential and direct reaction potentials, are related by a dispersion relation and their energy dependence around and below the Coulomb barrier, show the so-called Breakup Threshold Anomaly. The effect of breakup reactions on fusion cross sections is studied by analyzing the separate effect of the absorption potential WDR and the fusion barrier rising produced by VDR.

  16. Capillary breakup of suspensions near pinch-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathues, Wouter; McIlroy, Claire; Harlen, Oliver G.; Clasen, Christian

    2015-09-01

    We present new findings on how the presence of particles alters the pinch-off dynamics of a liquid bridge. For moderate concentrations, suspensions initially behave as a viscous liquid with dynamics determined by the bulk viscosity of the suspension. Close to breakup, however, the filament loses its homogeneous shape and localised accelerated breakup is observed. This paper focuses on quantifying these final thinning dynamics for different sized particles with radii between 3 μm and 20 μm in a Newtonian matrix with volume fractions ranging from 0.02 to 0.40. The dynamics of these capillary breakup experiments are very well described by a one-dimensional model that correlates changes in thinning dynamics with the particle distribution in the filament. For all samples, the accelerated dynamics are initiated by increasing particle-density fluctuations that generate locally diluted zones. The onset of these concentration fluctuations is described by a transition radius, which scales with the particle radius and volume fraction. The thinning rate continues to increase and reaches a maximum when the interstitial fluid is thinning between two particle clusters. Contrary to previous experimental studies, we observe that the final thinning dynamics are dominated by a deceleration, where the interstitial fluid appears not to be disturbed by the presence of the particles. By rescaling the experimental filament profiles, it is shown that the pinching dynamics return to the self-similar scaling of a viscous Newtonian liquid bridge in the final moments preceding breakup.

  17. Influence of projectile breakup on complete fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Mukherjee; M K Pradhan

    2010-07-01

    Complete fusion excitation functions for 11,10B+159Tb and 6,7Li+159Tb have been reported at energies around the respective Coulomb barriers. The measurements show significant suppression of complete fusion cross-sections at energies above the barrier for 10B+159Tb and 6,7Li+159Tb reactions, when compared to those for 11B+159Tb. The comparison shows that the extent of suppression of complete fusion cross-sections is correlated with the -separation energies of the projectiles. Also, the measured incomplete fusion cross-sections show that the -particle emanating channel is the favoured incomplete fusion process. Inclusive measurement of the -particles produced in 6Li+159Tb reaction has been carried out. Preliminary CDCC calculations carried out to estimate the - yield following 6Li breaking up into + fail to explain the measured -yield. Transfer processes seem to be important contributors.

  18. Analyzing powers of the deuteron-proton breakup in a wide phase space region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuteron-proton breakup can serve as a very rich testing ground for modern calculations based on model nucleon-nucleon interactions and including also subtle effects of the so-called three-nucleon force (3NF). In the case of experiment exploring a significant part of the phase space, data obtained for continuum of final states constitute a large base for comparisons with theoretical predictions. Moreover, studies with transversally polarized deuterons give access to two vector and three tensor analyzing powers, some of which vanish in the case of the elastic scattering process. A dedicated experiment has been performed at KVI Groningen, with the use of 130 MeV polarized deuteron beam and high acceptance position-sensitive detection system. About 800 data points have been analyzed for each spin observable: vector Ax, Ay and tensor Axx, Axy, Ayy analyzing powers of the 1H(vector (d),pp)n breakup reaction. Theoretical predictions generally describe analyzing power data quite well and the quality of description provided by various approaches is rather similar. There are, however, configurations where the agreement between the data and theory is not so satisfactory. These discrepancies are not always cured by inclusion of 3NF, what indicates incompleteness of the treatment of the spin part of three nucleon system dynamics.

  19. Development and validation of models for bubble coalescence and breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generalized model for bubble coalescence and breakup has been developed, which is based on a comprehensive survey of existing theories and models. One important feature of the model is that all important mechanisms leading to bubble coalescence and breakup in a turbulent gas-liquid flow are considered. The new model is tested extensively in a 1D Test Solver and a 3D CFD code ANSYS CFX for the case of vertical gas-liquid pipe flow under adiabatic conditions, respectively. Two kinds of extensions of the standard multi-fluid model, i.e. the discrete population model and the inhomogeneous MUSIG (multiple-size group) model, are available in the two solvers, respectively. These extensions with suitable closure models such as those for coalescence and breakup are able to predict the evolution of bubble size distribution in dispersed flows and to overcome the mono-dispersed flow limitation of the standard multi-fluid model. For the validation of the model the high quality database of the TOPFLOW L12 experiments for air-water flow in a vertical pipe was employed. A wide range of test points, which cover the bubbly flow, turbulent-churn flow as well as the transition regime, is involved in the simulations. The comparison between the simulated results such as bubble size distribution, gas velocity and volume fraction and the measured ones indicates a generally good agreement for all selected test points. As the superficial gas velocity increases, bubble size distribution evolves via coalescence dominant regimes first, then breakup-dominant regimes and finally turns into a bimodal distribution. The tendency of the evolution is well reproduced by the model. However, the tendency is almost always overestimated, i.e. too much coalescence in the coalescence dominant case while too much breakup in breakup dominant ones. The reason of this problem is discussed by studying the contribution of each coalescence and breakup mechanism at different test points. The redistribution of the

  20. On reaction mechanisms involved in the deuteron–induced surrogate reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extended analysis of the nuclear reaction mechanisms involved within deuteron interaction with nuclei, namely the breakup, stripping, pick-up, pre-equilibrium emission, and evaporation from fully equilibrated compound nucleus, is presented in order to highlight the importance of the direct mechanisms still neglected in the analysis of deuteron-induced surrogate reactions. Particularly, the dominance of the breakup mechanism at low energies around the Coulomb barrier should be considered in the case of (d,x) surrogate reactions on actinide target nuclei

  1. On reaction mechanisms involved in the deuteron–induced surrogate reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Mănăilescu, C. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2015-02-24

    An extended analysis of the nuclear reaction mechanisms involved within deuteron interaction with nuclei, namely the breakup, stripping, pick-up, pre-equilibrium emission, and evaporation from fully equilibrated compound nucleus, is presented in order to highlight the importance of the direct mechanisms still neglected in the analysis of deuteron-induced surrogate reactions. Particularly, the dominance of the breakup mechanism at low energies around the Coulomb barrier should be considered in the case of (d,x) surrogate reactions on actinide target nuclei.

  2. The study of the dp{yields}ppn reaction at 500 MeV of the deuteron energy at ITS Nuclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyadin, S.M., E-mail: piyadin@jinr.ru [LHEP-JINR, 141-980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Janek, M. [LHEP-JINR, 141-980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Physics Dept, University of Zilina, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia); Gurchin, Yu.V.; Isupov, A.Yu. [LHEP-JINR, 141-980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Karachuk, J.-T. [LHEP-JINR, 141-980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Advanced Research Institute for Electrical Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Khrenov, A.N.; Krasnov, V.A.; Kurilkin, A.K.; Kurilkin, P.K.; Ladygin, V.P.; Livanov, A.N. [LHEP-JINR, 141-980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Martinska, G. [P.J.Safarik University, Kosice (Slovakia); Reznikov, S.G. [LHEP-JINR, 141-980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Semenov, A.K. [Moscow University Radioelectronic and Avtomatic, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Terekhin, A.A. [LHEP-JINR, 141-980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Tumanov, A.E. [Moscow University Radioelectronic and Avtomatic, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, T.A. [LHEP-JINR, 141-980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-15

    The experiment on dp non-mesonic breakup at Internal Target Station at Nuclotron-M is presented. The first results on the study of the dp-breakup reaction with 500 MeV unpolarized deuteron beam are discussed. Selection procedure of useful events for the dp{yields}ppn reaction with the registration of two protons is shown.

  3. Improvement of Jet Breakup Model in Fuel Coolant Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Kyung Kyu; Nam, Yang Ho [Korea Maritime Univ., Jinhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    The objective of this work is to improve TRACER-II code in conjunction with the OECD SERENA project for validation of vapor explosion analysis codes. FCI breakup model is to be improved by building four-fluid multiphase flow model and existing models and experimental data are examined for the validation of the model. Four-fluid multiphase flow model has been built in TRACER-II code and jet breakup model has been included. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is modelled for the jet side and boundary layer stripping is modelled for the jet leading edge. This work can contributes to the reduction of uncertainty in the FCI models for reactor safety analysis.

  4. Laser-induced break-up of water jet waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couty, P.; Hoffmann, P. [EPFL/STI/IOA/Advanced Photonics Laboratory, Lausanne BM, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Spiegel, A.; Vago, N. [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki ut 8, 1111, Budapest (Hungary); Ugurtas, B.I. [EPFL/STI/IMHEF/Laboratory Fluid Mechanics, Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2004-06-01

    In this article, an optical method to control the break-up of high-speed liquid jets is proposed. The method consists of focusing the light of a pulsed laser source into the jet behaving as a waveguide. Experiments were performed with the help of a Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:Yag laser ({lambda}=532 nm). The jet diameter was 48 {mu}m and jet velocities from 100 to 200 m/s. To study the laser-induced water jet break-up, observations of the jet coupled with the high power laser were performed for variable coupling and jet velocity conditions. Experimentally determined wavelength and growth rate of the laser-generated disturbance were also compared with the ones predicted by linear stability theory of free jets. (orig.)

  5. Effect of target deformation and projectile breakup in complete fusion of 6Li + 152Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reaction induced by weakly bound (stable or radioactive) nuclei is a subject of current experimental and theoretical interest. Measurements of fusion cross section involving loosely bound projectile 6Li and 9Be exist with different conclusion about the enhancement or suppression of fusion cross section. Recently we have measured the fusion cross section for 6Li + 144Sm, where it has been found that there is an enhancement of fusion cross section below the barrier in comparison with single BPM calculation, where as there is an overall suppression in fusion cross section as compared to CCFULL calculation in the entire energy range measured. With this motivation, we chose a deformed target, 152Sm, with β2 = 0.24 to compare with the results of 144Sm which is a spherical target. It will also be interesting to see effect of target deformation (enhancement) versus projectile breakup (suppression) specially at subbarrier energy

  6. Semiclassical treatment of fusion and breakup processes of ^{6,8}He halo nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Fouad A.; Abdul-Hussien, Yousif A.

    2016-06-01

    A semiclassical approach has been used to study the effect of channel coupling on the calculations of the total fusion reaction cross section σ _{fus}, and the fusion barrier distribution D_{fus} for the systems 6He +^{238}U and 8He +^{197}Au. Since these systems invloves light exotic nuclei, breakup states channel play an important role that should be considered in the calculations. In semiclassical treatment, the relative motion between the projectile and target nuclei is approximated by a classical trajectory while the intrinsic dynamics is handled by time-dependent quantum mechanics. The calculations of the total fusion cross section σ _{fus}, and the fusion barrier distribution D_{fus} are compared with the full quantum mechanical calculations using the coupled-channels calculations with all order coupling using the computer code and with the available experimental data.

  7. Population of Metastable States in Stable Hafnium and Ytterbium Nuclei via Beam Break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Chessboard'' section of the DIAMANT charged-particle array has been coupled with the AFRODITE γ-ray spectrometer at the iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences. Charged-particle-γ-ray coincidence data were recorded during the bombardment of a 176Yb target with a 13C beam at an energy of 90 MeV. The purpose of the investigation was to study the population of metastable states in hafium nuclei via incomplete fusion reactions in which the beam breaks up due to its α-cluster character. Of note was the observation of the band based on the Kπ = 16+, T1/2 = 31 year isomer in 178Hf to its 19+ member. Also, decays from the high-K isomeric states in 174Yb and 176Yb. which were populated via 3αxn channels, indicative of complete break-up of the 13C beam

  8. Study on breakup behavior of molten material JET in coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to estimate the jet breakup behavior of the molten core material jet in coolant during a core distractive accident (CDA) of a fast breeder reactor (FBR). In the present study, the molten jet of U-alloy 78 simulating the core material is injected into the water simulating the coolant. The visual data of the molten jet breakup behavior is observed by using the high-speed video camera. The front velocity of the molten jet is estimated by using the image processing technique from the visual data. It shows that the front velocity of the molten jet can be divided into three regions in time. In first region, the front velocity of the molten jet increases. In second region, the front velocity of the molten jet suddenly decreases. In third region, the front velocity of the molten jet keeps at low and steady. In first region, the column diameter of the molten jet decreases with the passage of time. At the location between first region and second region, the column of the molten jet breaks up and disappears. It is experimentally observed that the molten material column in the molten material jet from breaks up and disappears as the border time between the first and the second regions. In the present study, the jet breakup length is defined as the distance from the water surface to the location between the first and the second regions, since the main body of the molten material jet column is fragmented at the time and location. From the present experimental results, it is clarified that the jet breakup behavior depends on the injection nozzle diameter but independs on the penetration velocity of the molten material jet. The present experimental results are different from qualitative tendency of the formula by Saito at al. but are qualitatively similar by Epstein et al.. (author)

  9. Coalescence and breakup of large droplets in turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarbolo, Luca; Bianco, Federico; Soldati, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    Coalescence and breakup of large deformable droplets dispersed in a wall-bounded turbulent flow are investigated. Droplets much larger than the Kolmogorov length scale and characterized by a broad range of surface tension values are considered. The turbulent field is a channel flow computed with pseudo-spectral direct numerical simulations, while phase interactions are described with a phase field model. Within this physically consistent framework, the motion of the interfaces, the capillary effects, and the complex topological changes experienced by the droplets are simulated in detail. An oil-water emulsion is mimicked: the fluids are considered of same density and viscosity for a range of plausible values of surface tension, resulting in a simplified system that sets a benchmark for further analysis. In the present conditions, the Weber number (We), that is, the ratio between inertia and surface tension, is a primary factor for determining the droplets coalescence rate and the occurrence of breakups. Depending on the value of We, two different regimes are observed: when We is smaller than a threshold value (We 1), a permanent dynamic equilibrium between coalescence and breakup events is established.

  10. Hard breakup of the deuteron into two Δ isobars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study high-energy photodisintegration of the deuteron into two Δ isobars at large center of mass angles within the QCD hard rescattering model (HRM). According to the HRM, the process develops in three main steps: the photon knocks a quark from one of the nucleons in the deuteron; the struck quark rescatters off a quark from the other nucleon sharing the high energy of the photon; then the energetic quarks recombine into two outgoing baryons which have large transverse momenta. Within the HRM, the cross section is expressed through the amplitude of pn→ΔΔ scattering which we evaluated based on the quark-interchange model of hard hadronic scattering. Calculations show that the angular distribution and the strength of the photodisintegration is mainly determined by the properties of the pn→ΔΔ scattering. We predict that the cross section of the deuteron breakup to Δ++Δ- is 4-5 times larger than that of the breakup to the Δ+Δ0 channel. Also, the angular distributions for these two channels are markedly different. These can be compared with the predictions based on the assumption that two hard Δ isobars are the result of the disintegration of the preexisting ΔΔ components of the deuteron wave function. In this case, one expects the angular distributions and cross sections of the breakup in both Δ++Δ- and Δ+Δ0 channels to be similar.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics and breakup of free-surface flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface-tension-driven flows and, in particular, their tendency to decay spontaneously into drops have long fascinated naturalists, the earliest systematic experiments dating back to the beginning of the 19th century. Linear stability theory governs the onset of breakup and was developed by Rayleigh, Plateau, and Maxwell. However, only recently has attention turned to the nonlinear behavior in the vicinity of the singular point where a drop separates. The increased attention is due to a number of recent and increasingly refined experiments, as well as to a host of technological applications, ranging from printing to mixing and fiber spinning. The description of drop separation becomes possible because jet motion turns out to be effectively governed by one-dimensional equations, which still contain most of the richness of the original dynamics. In addition, an attraction for physicists lies in the fact that the separation singularity is governed by universal scaling laws, which constitute an asymptotic solution of the Navier-Stokes equation before and after breakup. The Navier-Stokes equation is thus continued uniquely through the singularity. At high viscosities, a series of noise-driven instabilities has been observed, which are a nested superposition of singularities of the same universal form. At low viscosities, there is rich scaling behavior in addition to aesthetically pleasing breakup patterns driven by capillary waves. The author reviews the theoretical development of this field alongside recent experimental work, and outlines unsolved problems. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Inverted Break-up Behaviour in Continuous Inkjet (CIJ) Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Claire; Harlen, Oliver; Morrison, Neil

    2014-11-01

    Although droplet creation during continuous jetting of Newtonian fluids has been widely studied, unsolved problems surrounding the break-up dynamics remain. Jetting through a nozzle creates a stream of liquid that is rendered unstable by surface tension. This instability creates a succession of main drops connected by thin filaments, with drop separation determined by the fastest growing wavelength. In order to control break-up and increase printing speeds, continuous inkjet (CIJ) printing exploits the effects of finite amplitude modulations in the jet velocity profile giving conditions where jet stability deviates from the usual Rayleigh behaviour. To explore these non-linear effects, we have developed a one-dimensional jetting model. In particular, we identify a modulation range for which pinching occurs upstream of the connecting filament, rather than downstream - a phenomenon we call ``inverted'' break-up. Furthermore, this behaviour can be controlled by the addition of harmonics to the initial driving signal. Our results are compared to full axisymmetric simulations in order to incorporate the effects of nozzle geometry. EPSRC Innovation in Industrial Technology.

  13. Some features of spray breakup in effervescent atomizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Hrishikesh P.; Raghunandan, B.N. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Bangalore (India)

    2011-02-15

    The near orifice spray breakup at low GLR (gas to liquid ratio by mass) values in an effervescent atomizer is studied experimentally using water as a simulant and air as atomizing gas. From the visualizations, the near orifice spray structures are classified into three modes: discrete bubble explosions, continuous bubble explosions and annular conical spray. The breakup of the spray is quantified in terms of the mean bubble bursting distance from the orifice. The parametric study indicates that the mean bubble bursting distance mainly depends on airflow rate, jet diameter and mixture velocity. It is also observed that the jet diameter has a dominant effect on the bubble bursting distance when compared to mixture velocity at a given airflow rate. The mean bubble bursting distance is shown to be governed by a nondimensional two-phase flow number consisting of all the aforementioned parameters. The location of bubble bursting is found to be highly unsteady spatially, which is influenced by flow dynamics inside the injector. It is proposed that this unsteadiness in jet breakup length is a consequence of varying degree of bubble expansion caused due to the intermittent occurrence of single phase and two-phase flow inside the orifice. (orig.)

  14. A methodology of MSL breakup analysis for Earth accidental reentry and its application to breakup analysis for Mars off-nominal entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Ahmed; Ling, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Vehicle breakup analysis has been performed for missions that may carry nuclear fuel for heating or power purposes to assess nuclear safety in case of launch failure leading to atmospheric reentry. Also, failure scenarios exist which could lead to breakup during Entry / Descent / Landing (EDL) at Mars due to off-nominal entries, with implications for planetary protection requirements. Since the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft may include a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), an analysis of breakup in case of launch failure is required. Also, breakup during Mars EDL due to off-nominal entries could release the RTG heat source that has implications for planetary protection requirements. This paper presents a methodology of MSL breakup analysis for launch failure with application to Mars off-nominal entry.

  15. Elastic break-up of 156 MeV 6Li projectiles with large asymptotic relative momenta of the fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The triple differential cross sections for elastic break-up of 156 MeV 6Li projectiles by the reactions 208Pb (6Li, ad) 208Pbg.s., and 12C (6Li, ad) 12Cg.s. have been measured with large asymptotic relative momenta of the outgoing fragments. The data exhibit rather unfamiliar shapes of the energy spectra, often replacing the usual bell-shape distributions by double-peaked structures and varying rapidly with the relative emission angles. The origin of these features has been explored and the cross sections have been analysed on the basis of a diffractive disintegration approach. (orig.)

  16. The Effect of Corporate Break-ups on Information Asymmetry: A Market Microstructure Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bardong, Florian; Bartram, Söhnke M.; Yadav, Pradeep K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the information environment during and after a corporate break-up utilizing direct measures of information asymmetry developed in the market microstructure literature. The analysis is based on all corporate break-ups in the United States in the period 1995-2005. The results document that information asymmetry declines significantly as a result of a break-up. However, this reduction takes place not at the time of its announcement or its completion, but after it has been...

  17. Spectroscopy and break-up of low energy unbound states in 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear structure of 12C has been discussed since the early days of nuclear physics, but experimentally there are today still open questions about the spectroscopy of this nucleus, which hamper a clear understanding of this issue. In particular the properties of broad states just above the 3α-threshold are presently being elucidated by both theory and experiments. Since 2001 we have used the β-decays of the short lived isotopes 12N and 12B to provide new information on the 0+, 1+, and 2+ states in 12C. The main results from our first series of experiments performed at IGISOL Jyvaeskylae in 2001 and ISOLDECERN in 2002, published in [1,2,3], are: 1. The Spin-parity of the so-called 10.3 MeV state is 0+ and its shape is strongly influenced by interference with the 7.654 MeV 0+ state. 2. The breakup mechanism of the 10.3 MeV state is mainly through the 8Be ground-state, but higher energies in 8Be also contribute. 3. A (most likely) 2+ state above the so called 10.3 MeV state is populated in the β-decay of 12N. 4. A good description of the breakup spectrum of the 12.71 MeV state can be made using an R-matrix formalism taking into account the symmetrisation of the three a-particles in the final state as well as the properties of the 8Be 2+ state. 5. The consequences for the astrophysical reaction rate of the triple-a reaction has been explored. In 2004 (in Jyvaeskylae) and again in 2006 (at the KVI, The Netherlands) we have revisited these decays for the following reasons. Our first set of experiments had a poor coverage for decays where the three a-particles share the breakup energy more or less equally, and hence the extend that such channels contribute could not be accurately extracted. Also, we were unable to extract the branching ratios with which the observed states were populated from the first set of data. Preliminary results from our new experiments can be found in [4] (Jyvaeskylae) and [5] (KVI data). In the ongoing analysis it has become clear that some

  18. What should be measured in deuteron breakup with polarized proton target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, two different approaches are used for interpretation of inclusive data on deuteron breakup with emission of protons-fragments at zero degree by hadrons. According to one of them the observed characteristics of this reaction (cross sections, polarization observables) are determined by the reaction mechanism and the deuteron structure at short distances (in the commonly accepted sense) plays a minor role. According to the other approach it is the deuteron structure at short distances which determines the observed trend of the data. Neither of these approaches can describe the data even qualitatively in the whole investigated region of kinematical variables, having particular success for some narrow region corresponding to long distances. Installation of the polarized proton target at LHE (Laboratory of High Energies) JINR opens an opportunity to perform a rather simple experiment which could discriminate one of these completing approaches. The idea of this experiment is discussed in the present paper. Measurement of the observable suggested here is a particular example of a general problem of a search for spin correlations in inelastic reactions between particles separated well in 4-velocity or rapidity spaces. In our particular case correlations of spin degrees of freedom between particles, one of which is in the target fragmentation region and the other belongs to the projectile fragmentation region, are discussed. 10 refs., 1 fig

  19. Experimental study on breakup characteristics of molten jet falling in gas plenum and water pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinaga, Makoto; Kurita, Tomohisa; Yokobori, Seiichi [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The breakup characteristics of liquid jet issuing to air plenum and flowing into liquid pool were experimentally clarified. The jet breakup behavior around air was classified varying liquid substance. The bismuth and stannum molten jet was found to maintain its original shape. Moreover, breakup behavior of this molten jet during falling into the water pool was visualized. From the lump sedimented to the bottom, break-up behavior was found to be affected by the water subcooling which determining the balance between boiling and solidifying. (author)

  20. Experimental study on breakup characteristics of molten jet falling in gas plenum and water pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breakup characteristics of liquid jet issuing to air plenum and flowing into liquid pool were experimentally clarified. The jet breakup behavior around air was classified varying liquid substance. The bismuth and stannum molten jet was found to maintain its original shape. Moreover, breakup behavior of this molten jet during falling into the water pool was visualized. From the lump sedimented to the bottom, break-up behavior was found to be affected by the water subcooling which determining the balance between boiling and solidifying. (author)

  1. Application of Multiphase Particle Methods in Atomization and Breakup Regimes of Liquid Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Farrokhpanah, Amirsaman

    2016-01-01

    Multiphase Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been used to study the jet breakup phenomena. It has been shown that this method is well capable of capturing different jet breakup characteristics. The value obtained for critical Weber number here in transition from dripping to jetting is a very good match to available values in literature. Jet breakup lengths are also agreeing well with several empirical correlations. Successful usage of SPH, as a comparably fast CFD solver, in jet breakup analysis helps in speeding up the numerical study of this phenomenon.

  2. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea interaction at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of the sea surface drag reduction at the wind speed exceeding 30-35 m/s. This phenomenon predicted by Emanuel (1995) and confirmed by a number of field (e.g., Powell, et al, 2003) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments still waits its physical explanation. Several papers attributed the drag reduction to spume droplets - spray turning off the crests of breaking waves (e.g., Kudryavtsev, Makin, 2011, Bao, et al, 2011). The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Herewith, it is unknown what is air-sea interface and how water is fragmented to spray at hurricane wind. Using high-speed video, we observed mechanisms of production of spume droplets at strong winds by high-speed video filming, investigated statistics and compared their efficiency. Experiments showed, that the generation of the spume droplets near the wave crest is caused by the following events: bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" and "bag breakup". Statistical analysis of results of these experiments showed that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film. Using high-speed video, we show that at hurricane winds the main mechanism of spray production is attributed to "bag-breakup", namely, inflating and

  3. Breakup conditions of projectile spectators from dynamical observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begemann-Blaich, M.; Lindenstruth, V.; Pochodzalla, J. [and others

    1998-03-01

    Momenta and masses of heavy projectile fragments (Z {>=} 8), produced in collisions of {sup 197}Au with C, Al, Cu and Pb targets at E/A=600 MeV, were determined with the ALADIN magnetic spectrometer at SIS. Using these informations, an analysis of kinematic correlations between the two and three heaviest projectile fragments in their rest frame was performed. The sensitivity of these correlations to the conditions at breakup was verified within the schematic SOS-model. For a quantitative investigation, the data were compared to calculations with statistical multifragmentation models and to classical three-body calculations. With classical trajectory calculations, where the charges and masses of the fragments are taken from a Monte Carlo sampling of the experimental events, the dynamical observables can be reproduced. The deduced breakup parameters, however, differ considerably from those assumed in the statistical multifragmentation models which describe the charge correlations. If, on the other hand, the analysis of kinematic and charge correlations is performed for events with two and three heavy fragments produced by statistical multifragmentation codes, a good agreement with the data is found with the exception that the fluctuation widths of the intrinsic fragment energies are significantly underestimated. A new version of the multifragmentation code MCFRAG was therefore used to investigate the potential role of angular momentum at the breakup stage. If a mean angular momentum of 0.75 {Dirac_h}/nucleon is added to the system, the energy fluctuations can be reproduced, but at the same time the charge partitions are modified and deviate from the data. (orig.)

  4. Breakup conditions of projectile spectators from dynamical observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momenta and masses of heavy projectile fragments (Z ≥ 8), produced in collisions of 197Au with C, Al, Cu and Pb targets at E/A=600 MeV, were determined with the ALADIN magnetic spectrometer at SIS. Using these informations, an analysis of kinematic correlations between the two and three heaviest projectile fragments in their rest frame was performed. The sensitivity of these correlations to the conditions at breakup was verified within the schematic SOS-model. For a quantitative investigation, the data were compared to calculations with statistical multifragmentation models and to classical three-body calculations. With classical trajectory calculations, where the charges and masses of the fragments are taken from a Monte Carlo sampling of the experimental events, the dynamical observables can be reproduced. The deduced breakup parameters, however, differ considerably from those assumed in the statistical multifragmentation models which describe the charge correlations. If, on the other hand, the analysis of kinematic and charge correlations is performed for events with two and three heavy fragments produced by statistical multifragmentation codes, a good agreement with the data is found with the exception that the fluctuation widths of the intrinsic fragment energies are significantly underestimated. A new version of the multifragmentation code MCFRAG was therefore used to investigate the potential role of angular momentum at the breakup stage. If a mean angular momentum of 0.75 ℎ/nucleon is added to the system, the energy fluctuations can be reproduced, but at the same time the charge partitions are modified and deviate from the data. (orig.)

  5. Bubble breakup in two-dimensional Stokes flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new class of exact solutions is reported for an evolving bubble in a two-dimensional slow viscous flow. It is observed that for an expanding bubble the interface grows smoother with time, whereas the contracting-bubble solutions display a tendency to form sharp corners (''near cusps'') for small values of surface tension. In the latter case, we also obtain analytic solutions that describe bubble breakup: For a large class of initial shapes, the interface will eventually develop a thin ''neck'' whose width goes to zero before the bubble is completely removed from the liquid

  6. Chaotic behaviour as a signal of nuclear breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear breakup process is studied under the assumption that the energy transfer between the target and the projectile nucleus in the peripheral collisions can induce a chaotic behaviour of the nuclear Fermi systems, provided by the matching between the Woods - Saxon wall frequency and the uni - nucleonic frequency oscillation. Such a behaviour could be emphasized by uni-nucleonic phase - space maps, Poincare maps, power spectra, autocorrelation function and Lyapunov exponents ranging the nuclear interaction time scale: 10-22 s - 10-23 s. It is also shown that this method could be applied for various different fields and problems regarding nuclear dynamics. (authors)

  7. Investigation of the Deuteron Breakup on Proton Target in the Forward Angular Region at 130 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of differential cross-section data of the 1H(d, pp)n breakup reaction at 130 MeV deuteron beam energy has been measured in the domain of very forward polar angles with the use of the Germanium Wall detector at the Forschungszentrum Jülich. The data obtained for over 1000 kinematical points (112 geometries) are compared with the theoretical predictions based on various models of the three-nucleon (3N) dynamics. They comprise: the realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials alone or combined with the three-nucleon force (3NF), the coupled-channel calculations with the explicit treatment of the Δ-isobar excitation and finally, the potentials derived from chiral perturbation theory. In the part of the phase space studied, the Coulomb interaction between protons has a strong impact on the differential cross section of the breakup reaction. The strongest Coulomb effects are found in regions where the relative energy of the two protons is the smallest. In these regions the data are well reproduced exclusively by calculations which include the electromagnetic repulsion between protons. In spite of the dominance of the Coulomb force in the phase space studied, the contribution of 3NF effects is also observed. (author)

  8. Temporal variations in river-ice break-up over the Mackenzie River Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rham, Laurent P.; Prowse, Terry D.; Bonsal, Barrie R.

    2008-02-01

    SummaryFor northern and arctic regions, the spring break-up period has important socio-economic, ecological and morphological effects. While these impacts are reasonably well understood, spatial and temporal assessments of break-up timing and duration remain limited due to the lack of readily available hydrometric data. For this study, the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) of Canada is selected as a test watershed in which the spatial and temporal aspects of observed (1913-2002) spring river-ice break-up are characterized. Data from 29 Water Survey of Canada gauging sites are used including the commonly assessed 'Last B date' (last ice effect) and two hydrometric variables extracted directly from original water-level recording charts (the timing of initiation of break-up and peak water-level during break-up). It is found that the extracted variables provide a more physically based quantitative description of the break-up season in the MRB compared to the 'Last B date' method. On average, the northwards progressing ice break-up season within the MRB lasts ∼8 weeks but historically has varied within a window representative of ∼3 months of the year. The break-up period at specific locations varies from 4 days to 4 weeks. Results also indicate an anomalous zone of earlier spring break-up in the upper Peace and Athabasca region that may be partially related to the effects of flow regulation. In addition, the Mann-Kendall test reveals significantly earlier trends in the timing of spring break-up (∼1 day/decade) in upstream portions of the major tributaries of the MRB over the period 1970-2002. While similar trends have been found for other hydroclimatic variables in the basin, this study highlights the temporal patterns and variability of the spring break-up period in the Mackenzie River system.

  9. Role of projectile breakup effects and intrinsic degrees of freedom on fusion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Gautam, Manjeet

    2016-05-01

    This article analyzes the fusion dynamics of loosely bound and stable projectiles with Zr-target isotopes within the context of the coupled channel approach and the energy-dependent Woods-Saxon potential model (EDWSP model). In the case of the 28Si + 90Zr reaction, the coupling to the inelastic surface excitations results in an adequate description of the observed fusion dynamics while in case of the 28Si + 94Zr reaction, the coupling to collective surface vibrational states as well as the neutron (multi-neutron) transfer channel is necessary in the coupled channel calculations to reproduce the below-barrier fusion data. However, the EDWSP model calculation provides an accurate explanation of the fusion data of 28Si + 90,94Zr reactions in the domain of the Coulomb barrier. In the fusion of the 6Li + 90Zr reaction, the inclusion of the nuclear structure degrees of freedom recovers the observed sub-barrier fusion enhancement but results in suppression of the above barrier fusion data by 34% with respect to the coupled channel calculations. Using EDWSP model calculations, this suppression factor is reduced by 14% and consequently, the above-barrier fusion data of 6Li + 90Zr reaction is suppressed by 20% with reference to the EDWSP model calculations. Such fusion suppression at above-barrier energies can be correlated with the breakup of the projectile (6Li) before reaching the fusion barrier, as a consequence of low binding energy. Supported by Dr. D. S. Kothari Post-Doctoral Fellowship Scheme sponsored by University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India

  10. Break-up dynamics of fluctuating liquid threads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Julien; Rivière, David; Kellay, Hamid; Delville, Jean-Pierre

    2012-11-01

    The thinning dynamics of a liquid neck before break-up, as may happen when a drop detaches from a faucet or a capillary, follows different rules and dynamic scaling laws depending on the importance of inertia, viscous stresses, or capillary forces. If now the thinning neck reaches dimensions comparable to the thermally excited interfacial fluctuations, as for nanojet break-up or the fragmentation of thermally annealed nanowires, these fluctuations should play a dominant role according to recent theory and observations. Using near-critical interfaces, we here fully characterize the universal dynamics of this thermal fluctuation-dominated regime and demonstrate that the cross-over from the classical two-fluid pinch-off scenario of a liquid thread to the fluctuation-dominated regime occurs at a well-defined neck radius proportional to the thermal length scale. Investigating satellite drop formation, we also show that at the level of the cross-over between these two regimes it is more probable to produce monodisperse droplets because fluctuation-dominated pinch-off may allow the unique situation where satellite drop formation can be inhibited. Nonetheless, the interplay between the evolution of the neck profiles from the classical to the fluctuation-dominated regime and the satellites' production remains to be clarified. PMID:23090994

  11. Numerical simulation of particle fluxes formation generated as a result of space objects breakups in orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, A. G.; Galushina, T. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    The paper describes the software package developed for the numerical simulation of the breakups of natural and artificial objects and algorithms on which it is based. A new software "Numerical model of breakups" includes models of collapse of the spacecraft (SC) as a result of the explosion and collision as well as two models of the explosion of an asteroid.

  12. Light-particle multiplicity accompanying projectile breakup at 20 MeV/A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-solid-angle array has been used to determine the multiplicity of Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles accompanying projectile breakup into two fragments each with 5 ≤ Z ≤ 8. The charge balance obtained shows that projectile breakup is not associated with an unusual charge transfer to the target. 13 refs., 1 fig

  13. Coupled channels approach to the break-up in the field of a nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elastic scattering and break-up of the deuteron in the field of a nucleus is formulated in terms of coupled differential equations together with correct boundary conditions. Cross sections for the two processes are given in terms of the scattering coefficients. An approximate treatment of the Coulomb distortion in the break-up channel is suggested. (orig.)

  14. The breakup of levitating water drops observed with a high speed camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Emersic

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Collision-induced water drop breakup in a vertical wind tunnel was observed using a high speed camera for interactions between larger drop sizes (up to 7 mm diameter than have previously been experimentally observed. Three distinct collisional breakup types were observed and the drop size distributions from each were analysed for comparison with predictions of fragment distributions from larger drops by two sets of established breakup parameterisations. The observations showed some similarities with both parameterisations but also some marked differences for the breakup types that could be compared, particularly for fragments 1 mm and smaller. Modifications to the parameterisations are suggested and examined. Presented is also currently the largest dataset of bag breakup distributions observed. Differences between this and other experimental research studies and modelling parameterisations, and the associated implications for interpreting results are discussed. Additionally, the stochastic coalescence and breakup equation was solved computationally using a breakup parameterisation, and the evolving drop-size distribution for a range of initial conditions was examined. Initial cloud liquid water content was found to have the greatest influence on the resulting distribution, whereas initial drop number was found to have relatively little influence. This may have implications when considering the effect of aerosol on cloud evolution, raindrop formation and resulting drop size distributions. Calculations presented show that, using an ideal initial cloud drop-size distribution, ~1–3% of the total fragments are contributed from collisional breakup between drops of 4 and 6 mm.

  15. Self-similar drop-size distributions produced by breakup in chaotic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deformation and breakup of immiscible fluids in deterministic chaotic flows is governed by self-similar distributions of stretching histories and stretching rates and produces populations of droplets of widely distributed sizes. Scaling reveals that distributions of drop sizes collapse into two self-similar families; each family exhibits a different shape, presumably due to changes in the breakup mechanism

  16. Unity and diversity in mixing: Stretching, diffusion, breakup, and aggregation in chaotic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments and theory have produced a reasonably good qualitative understanding of the evolution of chaotic mixing of passive tracers, especially in two-dimensional time-periodic flow fields. Such an understanding forms a fabric for the evolution of breakup, aggregation, and diffusion-controlled reactions in more complex flows. These systems can be viewed as a population of ''microstructures'' whose behavior is dictated by iterations of a chaotic flow; microstructures break, diffuse, and aggregate, causing the population to evolve in space and time. This paper presents simple physical models for such processes. Self-similarity is common to all the problems; examples arise in the context of the distribution of stretchings within chaotic flows, in the asymptotic evolution of diffusion-reaction processes at striation thickness scales, in the equilibrium distribution of drop sizes generated upon mixing of immiscible fluids, in the equations describing mean-field kinetics of coagulation, in the sequence of actions necessary for the destruction of islands in two-dimensional flow, and in the fractal structure of clusters produced upon aggregation in chaotic flows

  17. Evidence of the Coulomb force effects in the cross sections of the deuteron-proton breakup at 130 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Kistryn, S; Bodek, K; Ciepal, I; Deltuva, A; Fonseca, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kis, M; Klos, B; Kozela, A; Mahjour-Shafiei, M; Micherdzinska, A; Sauer, P U; Stephan, E; Sworst, R; Zejma, J; Zipper, W; Kistryn, St.

    2006-01-01

    High precision cross-section data of the deuteron-proton breakup reaction at 130 MeV deuteron energy are compared with the theoretical predictions obtained with a coupled-channel extension of the CD Bonn potential with virtual Delta-isobar excitation, without and with inclusion of the long-range Coulomb force. The Coulomb effect is studied on the basis of the cross-section data set, extended in this work to about 1500 data points by including breakup geometries characterized by small polar angles of the two protons. The experimental data clearly prefer predictions obtained with the Coulomb interaction included. The strongest effects are observed in regions in which the relative energy of the two protons is the smallest.

  18. Numerical simulation of jet breakup behavior by the lattice Boltzmann method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the jet breakup behavior of the molten core material into coolant during a core disruptive accident (CDA) for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), we simulated the jet breakup due to the hydrodynamic interaction using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The applicability of the LBM to the jet breakup simulation was validated by comparison with our experimental data. In addition, the influence of several dimensionless numbers such as Weber number and Froude number was examined using the LBM. As a result, we validated applicability of the LBM to the jet breakup simulation, and found that the jet breakup length is independent of Froude number and in good agreement with the Epstein's correlation when the jet interface becomes unstable. (author)

  19. A PROPOSAL TO MEASURE THE CROSS SECTION OF THE SPACE STAR IN NEUTRON-DEUTERON BREAKUP IN A RECOIL GEOMETRY SETUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin J. Crowe III

    2009-09-30

    Nucleon-deuteron (Nd) breakup is an important tool for obtaining a better understanding of three-nucleon (3N) dynamics and for developing meson exchange descriptions of nuclear systems. The kinematics of the nd breakup reaction enable observables to be studied in a variety of exit-channel configurations that show sensitivity to realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential models and three-nucleon force (3NF) models. Rigorous 3N calculations give very good descriptions of most 3N reaction data. However, there are still some serious discrepancies between data and theory. The largest discrepancy observed between theory and data for nd breakup is for the cross section for the space-star configuration. This discrepancy is known as the “Space star Anomaly”. Several experimental groups have obtained results consistent with the “Space Star Anomaly”, but it is important to note that they all used essentially the same experimental setup and so their experimental results are subject to the same systematic errors. We propose to measure the space-star cross-section at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) using an experimental technique that is significantly different from the one used in previous breakup experiments. This technique has been used by a research group from the University of Bonn to measure the neutron-neutron scattering length. There are three possible scenarios for the outcome of this work: 1) the new data are consistent with previous measurements; 2) the new data are not in agreement with previous measurements, but are in agreement with theory; and 3) the new data are not in agreement with either theory or previous measurements. Any one of the three scenarios will provide valuable insight on the Space Star Anomaly.

  20. A PROPOSAL TO MEASURE THE CROSS SECTION OF THE SPACE STAR IN NEUTRON-DEUTERON BREAKUP IN A RECOIL GEOMETRY SETUP. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleon-deuteron (Nd) breakup is an important tool for obtaining a better understanding of three-nucleon (3N) dynamics and for developing meson exchange descriptions of nuclear systems. The kinematics of the nd breakup reaction enable observables to be studied in a variety of exit-channel configurations that show sensitivity to realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential models and three-nucleon force (3NF) models. Rigorous 3N calculations give very good descriptions of most 3N reaction data. However, there are still some serious discrepancies between data and theory. The largest discrepancy observed between theory and data for nd breakup is for the cross section for the space-star configuration. This discrepancy is known as the 'Space Star Anomaly'. Several experimental groups have obtained results consistent with the 'Space Star Anomaly', but it is important to note that they all used essentially the same experimental setup and so their experimental results are subject to the same systematic errors. We propose to measure the space-star cross-section at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) using an experimental technique that is significantly different from the one used in previous breakup experiments. This technique has been used by a research group from the University of Bonn to measure the neutron-neutron scattering length. There are three possible scenarios for the outcome of this work: (1) the new data are consistent with previous measurements; (2) the new data are not in agreement with previous measurements, but are in agreement with theory; and (3) the new data are not in agreement with either theory or previous measurements. Any one of the three scenarios will provide valuable insight on the Space Star Anomaly.

  1. Equation of state of hot nuclei before break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the method developed by the authors, recently, the equation of state of hot nuclei (238U* in concrete) before break-up was investigated numerically. The isotherms are drawn in the plane of the general pressure P versus volume VRT. They are similar to those of Van der Waals gas. The critical temperature of phase transition should correspond to the isotherm with one truning point only. It turns out that the data of mas yield distribution can be reproduced by many pairs of parameters T and VRT (freeze-out temperature and freezeout volume) varying in certain range. For each isotherm (each T), the data are always best reproduced by the value of VRT located at the maximum general pressure within two phases coexistence region

  2. Space debris characterization in support of a satellite breakup model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortson, Bryan H.; Winter, James E.; Allahdadi, Firooz A.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Kinetic Impact and Debris Branch began an ambitious program to construct a fully analytical model of the breakup of a satellite under hypervelocity impact. In order to provide empirical data with which to substantiate the model, debris from hypervelocity experiments conducted in a controlled laboratory environment were characterized to provide information of its mass, velocity, and ballistic coefficient distributions. Data on the debris were collected in one master data file, and a simple FORTRAN program allows users to describe the debris from any subset of these experiments that may be of interest to them. A statistical analysis was performed, allowing users to determine the precision of the velocity measurements for the data. Attempts are being made to include and correlate other laboratory data, as well as those data obtained from the explosion or collision of spacecraft in low earth orbit.

  3. Elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering and breakup with chiral forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witała Henryk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results on three-nucleon (3N elastic scattering and breakup below the pion production threshold are discussed. The large discrepancies found between a theory based on numerical solutions of 3N Faddeev equations with standard nucleon-nucleon (NN potentials only and data point to the need for three-nucleon forces (3NF’s. This notion is supported by the fact that another possible reason for the discrepancies in elastic nucleon-deuteron (Nd scattering, relativistic effects, turned out to be small. Results for a new generation of chiral NN forces (up to N4LO together with theoretical truncation errors are shown. They support conclusions obtained with standard NN potentials

  4. Breakup of partially wetting nanoscale nematic liquid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael; Linda Cummings Collaboration; Lou Kondic Collaboration; Te-Sheng Lin Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The breakup of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) films with thicknesses less than a micrometer is studied. Particular attention is paid to the interplay between the bulk elasticity and the anchoring (boundary) conditions at the substrate and free surface. Within the framework of the long wave approximation, a fourth order nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) is derived for the free surface height. Numerical simulations of a perturbed flat film show that, depending on the initial average thickness of the film, satellite droplets form and persist on time scales much longer than dewetting. Formulating the model in terms of an effective disjoining pressure (elastic response and van der Waals interaction), simulations further suggest that satellite droplets form when the initial average film thickness corresponds to a positive effective disjoining pressure. Our results may shed light on the so-called ''forbidden film thicknesses'' seen in experiments. Supported by NSF grant DMS-1211713.

  5. Effect of rf structure on cumulative beam breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We treat the effect of rf structure of a linac beam on cumulative beam breakup in the presence of external focusing. Starting with the difference equations of Helm and Loew, we derive two forms of an exact analytic solution for coasting beams: as a sum of products of Gegenbauer polynomials involving external focusing and rf structure, and as an integral involving these same parameters. The continuous-beam limit of Neil, Hall, and Cooper is obtained as the bunch separation goes to zero. An explicit solution is presented for the steady state, including modulation of the incoming displacement, showing both stable and unstable behavior with distance. Asymptotic amplitude expressions are derived for the transient solution, which can lead to even larger beam displacements. Approximate solutions also are obtained for accelerated and decelerated beams. Comparison with numerical simulations are presented

  6. Scattering and breakup probabilities in nuclear few-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One can state that the three-body model calculations based on the solution of Faddeev-type equations have been successful in predicting scattering and breakup probabilities for the three-nucleon case as well as for the α-d system. However, much remains to be done, such as more precision experiments and the laborious critical evaluation of existing data. It would be extremely valuable to have a quick way to handle the Coulomb problem. Experiments on d-16O and d-40Ca might aid in finding a way to do this. It will still be quite some time before we can make any definite statements about the offshell effects or about three-body forces in the three-nucleon case, i e effects which are not already contained in the knowledge of the triton binding energy

  7. Single bunch beam breakup in linacs and BNS damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a single-bunch beam breakup (BBU) problem by a macro-particle model. We consider both the BBU solution and the Landau damping solution which includes the Balakin-Novokhatsky-Smirnov (BNS) damping. In the BBU solution, we get an analytic solution which includes both the Chao-Richter-Yao solution and the two-particle model solution and which agrees well with simulation. The solution can also be used in a multi-bunch case. In the Landau damping solution, we can be see the mechanism of Landau damping formally and can get some insights into BNS damping. We confirm that a two-particle model criterion for BNS damping is a good one. We expect that the two-particle model criterion is represented by the first order interaction in Landau damping solution of a macro-particle model. (author)

  8. Considerations and calculations on the breakup of jets and drops of melt related to premixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, M.; Berg, E. von; Buck, M. [Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE), Univ. of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Various descriptions of jet and drop breakup are applied in premixing codes, presently. The main task is to check these descriptions over a wide range of conditions in order to assure extrapolation capabilities for the codes. Jet breakup under non-boiling conditions is relatively well described by IKEJET, based on Conte/Miles (CM) instability description and a relatively detailed stripping model, in contrast to using Kelvin/Helmholtz (KH) theory. Remaining open questions are elaborated. Especially, thick jet behavior with dominance of stripping even at small relative velocities must be distinguished from thin jets with coarse breakup. The application of IKEJET to cases with jet breakup under strong film boiling yielded significantly too little fragmentation. As a possible explanation line, multiphase effects on the wave growth and stripping are considered, due to entrainment of melt and water. Parametric checking calculations are performed with a strongly simplified approach for PREMIX and FARO experiments in order to reveal main effects and the possible physical explanation features as a basis for extended modelling. The results indicate that jet breakup may be essentially sufficient to explain the experimental behavior. Rather coalescence than further drop breakup may be expected. This is also indicated by calculations with IKE drop breakup models. (author)

  9. Effect of Air Entrainment on Breakup of Plunging Liquid Jet into Water Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam explosion intensity is largely dependent upon the degree of volumetric fractions of melt droplets and steam in the fuel-coolant mixture. The rate of melt jet breakup and droplet sizes are, therefore, the key physical parameters in the analysis of FCIs. In a recent OECD/NEA international program SERENA, the areas where research may be needed to reduce the level of uncertainties in the code predictions have been identified. The predicted void fractions in the mixture were generally much higher than experimental data and a deficiency in melt jet breakup modeling would be one of the primary causes. In this paper, an extended study of non-boiling liquid jet breakup from the previous jet breakup experiment is reported with an emphasis on the role of air entrainment by plunging liquid jet into water pool. An improved jet breakup model is also presented with comparison to the experimental data. Non-boiling liquid jet breakup experiment was conducted and the debris size was analyzed with a new jet breakup model with an emphasis on the role of air entrainment. The predicted debris size with consideration of entrained air showed good agreement with the experimental data

  10. Effect of Air Entrainment on Breakup of Plunging Liquid Jet into Water Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoungtak; Bang, Kwanghyun [Korea Maritime Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The steam explosion intensity is largely dependent upon the degree of volumetric fractions of melt droplets and steam in the fuel-coolant mixture. The rate of melt jet breakup and droplet sizes are, therefore, the key physical parameters in the analysis of FCIs. In a recent OECD/NEA international program SERENA, the areas where research may be needed to reduce the level of uncertainties in the code predictions have been identified. The predicted void fractions in the mixture were generally much higher than experimental data and a deficiency in melt jet breakup modeling would be one of the primary causes. In this paper, an extended study of non-boiling liquid jet breakup from the previous jet breakup experiment is reported with an emphasis on the role of air entrainment by plunging liquid jet into water pool. An improved jet breakup model is also presented with comparison to the experimental data. Non-boiling liquid jet breakup experiment was conducted and the debris size was analyzed with a new jet breakup model with an emphasis on the role of air entrainment. The predicted debris size with consideration of entrained air showed good agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns in Arctic river ice breakup revealed by automated ice detection from MODIS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sarah; Pavelsky, Tamlin

    2016-04-01

    The annual spring breakup of river ice has important consequences for northern ecosystems and significant economic implications for Arctic industry and transportation. River ice breakup research is restricted by the sparse distribution of hydrological stations in the Arctic, where limited available data suggests a trend towards earlier ice breakup. The specific climatic mechanisms driving this trend, however, are complex and can vary both regionally and within river systems. Consequently, understanding the response of river ice processes to a warming Arctic requires simultaneous examination of spatial and temporal patterns in breakup timing. Here we present an automated algorithm for river ice breakup detection using MODIS satellite imagery that enables identification of spatial and temporal breakup patterns at large scales. We examine breakup timing on the Mackenzie, Lena, Ob' and Yenisey rivers for the period 2000-2014. First, we split each river into 10 km segments. Next, for each day of the breakup season, we classify each river pixel as snow/ice, mixed ice/water or open water based on MODIS reflectance values and remove all cloud-covered segments using the MODIS cloud product. We then define the breakup date as the first day where the segment is 75% open water. Using this method, we are able to determine breakup dates with a mean uncertainty of +/-1.3 days. We find our remotely sensed breakup dates to be highly correlated to ground breakup dates and the timing of peak discharge. All statistically significant temporal trends in breakup timing are negative, indicating an overall shift towards earlier breakup. Considerable variability in the statistical significance and magnitude of trends along each river suggests that different climatic and physiographic drivers are impacting spatial patterns in breakup. Trends detected on the lower Mackenzie corroborate recent studies indicating weakening ice resistance and earlier breakup timing near the Mackenzie Delta. In

  12. Electron fluxes in the breakup region according to measurements at Kosmos-426

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of electron flux measurement conducted at KOSMOS-426 satellite within magnetosphere region, where breakup propagated, are analyzed. Maximum of electron fluxes with particle isotropic pinch-angular distribution measured with different pinch-angles is recorded in breakup region. Energy spectrum of 0.25-2 MeV electrons is harded near the boundary of radiation belt. Essential decrease of the intensity within latitude narrow range is marked during breakup in E≤1 keV energy electron fluxes behind the boundary of radiation belt

  13. Sensitivity of N/Z ratio in projectile break-up of isobaric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filippo E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The binary break-up of projectile-like fragments in non central heavy-ion collisions follows different decay patterns, from equilibrated emission towards dynamical (prompt fission. Recently, comparing two systems with different N/Z in the entrance channel, it has been shown that the dynamical emission cross-section is enhanced for the most neutron rich system while the statistical emission cross-section is independent from the isotopic composition. In order to understand this dependence and disentangle it from the initial size of the nuclei, we have studied the two isobaric systems 124Xe+64 Zn and 124Xe+64 Ni at 35 A MeV (InKiIsSy experiment, in comparison with the previous studied reactions (124Sn +64 Ni and 112Sn +58 Ni at the same bombarding energy. We present the first results evidencing a striking similar effect in the dynamical decay as a function of the N/Z of the target for equal size systems.

  14. The Nd Break-Up Process in Leading Order in a Three-Dimensional Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Fachuddin, I; Glöckle, W; Elster, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    A three-dimensional approach based on momentum vectors as variables for solving the three nucleon Faddeev equation in first order is presented. The nucleon-deuteron break-up amplitude is evaluated in leading order in the NN T-matrix, which is also generated directly in three dimensions avoiding a summation of partial wave contributions. A comparison of semi-exclusive observables in the $d(p,n)pp$ reaction calculated in this scheme with those generated by a traditional partial wave expansion shows perfect agreement at lower energies. At about 200 MeV nucleon laboratory energies deviations in the peak of the cross section appear, which may indicate that special care is required in a partial wave approach for energies at and higher than 200 MeV. The role of higher order rescattering processes beyond the leading order in the NN T-matrix is investigated with the result, that at 200 MeV rescattering still provides important contributions to the cross section and certain spin observables. The influence of a relativi...

  15. Investigation of correlations in the breakup of He{sup 8}; Etude des correlations dans la dissociation de l'He{sup 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, B

    2007-11-15

    Correlations in light neutron-rich nuclei are of considerable importance in understanding their structure. In this context the breakup of He{sup 8} into He{sup 6} + 2n has been investigated at 15 MeV/nucleon. The measurements were undertaken using a setup composed of two detector arrays: CHARISSA to detect the charged fragments and DEMON to detect the neutrons. The interpretation of the results was facilitated using a Monte Carlo simulation which was developed to take into account the correlations, the reaction and the experimental setup. Two techniques were used to study the correlations in the breakup of He{sup 8}. The first, intensity interferometry, provides, via the construction of the neutron-neutron correlation function, for a first estimate of the source size and thus the average separation between the neutrons. The second, using Dalitz plots, allows both the neutron-neutron and core-neutron correlations to be probed. Here, sequential decay via the ground state resonance of He{sup 7} and has been found to dominate the dissociation of He{sup 8}. The spatial and temporal characteristics of the breakup of He{sup 8} have thus been deduced and a root-mean-square separation between the two valence neutrons in the continuum states was estimated to be (7.3 {+-} 0.6) fm with a time delay between their emission of (1000 {+-} 300) fm/c. (author)

  16. Determination of 2> from fission fragment anisotropy for reactions involving weakly bound 6,7Li projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission fragment (FF) angular distributions for 6,7Li+235,238U reactions and FF mass distributions for 6,7Li+238U reactions have been measured at energies around the Coulomb barrier and reported in earlier symposia. The aim is to investigate the effect of projectile breakup on various observables in fission reactions. Due to low breakup threshold there is a probability of breakup of the projectiles which in turn may affect the compound nucleus (CN) formation cross section. In the present study it is proposed to determine the 2 > from the measured fission fragment anisotropy and compare them with the ones obtained from coupled channels calculations to investigate the effect of projectile breakup

  17. Experimental study of submillimeter droplets dynamics and breakup in continuous supersonic flow terminated by shock wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobyzov Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports an application of optical methods, namely PIV, background-oriented-schlieren (BOS and high-magnification imaging with background illumination to study of dynamics and breakup of 10-100 μm size droplets in continuous supersonic flow terminated by a normal shock wave. Flow diagnostics was performed by means of BOS and PIV. Shadow photography allowed to specify velocity ranges for different droplet sizes and to visualize droplets dynamics and breakup modes. Features of the experimental setup and certain details of implemented measurement system are considered. Results of velocity measurements and droplets behavior, including deformation and breakup, are presented and analysis of experimental conditions and dimensionless parameters affecting the droplets behavior is performed. Distinctive features of deformation and breakup processes of submillimeter scale droplets are revealed.

  18. Generalized breakup and coalescence models for population balance modelling of liquid-liquid flows

    CERN Document Server

    Traczyk, Marcin; Thompson, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Population balance framework is a useful tool that can be used to describe size distribution of droplets in a liquid-liquid dispersion. Breakup and coalescence models provide closures for mathematical formulation of the population balance equation (PBE) and are crucial for accu- rate predictions of the mean droplet size in the flow. Number of closures for both breakup and coalescence can be identified in the literature and most of them need an estimation of model parameters that can differ even by several orders of magnitude on a case to case basis. In this paper we review the fundamental assumptions and derivation of breakup and coalescence ker- nels. Subsequently, we rigorously apply two-stage optimization over several independent sets of experiments in order to identify model parameters. Two-stage identification allows us to estab- lish new parametric dependencies valid for experiments that vary over large ranges of important non-dimensional groups. This be adopted for optimization of parameters in breakup...

  19. Experimental study of submillimeter droplets dynamics and breakup in continuous supersonic flow terminated by shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobyzov, Oleg; Lozhkin, Yuriy; Ryabov, Mikhail; Markovich, Dmitriy

    2016-03-01

    The present paper reports an application of optical methods, namely PIV, background-oriented-schlieren (BOS) and high-magnification imaging with background illumination to study of dynamics and breakup of 10-100 μm size droplets in continuous supersonic flow terminated by a normal shock wave. Flow diagnostics was performed by means of BOS and PIV. Shadow photography allowed to specify velocity ranges for different droplet sizes and to visualize droplets dynamics and breakup modes. Features of the experimental setup and certain details of implemented measurement system are considered. Results of velocity measurements and droplets behavior, including deformation and breakup, are presented and analysis of experimental conditions and dimensionless parameters affecting the droplets behavior is performed. Distinctive features of deformation and breakup processes of submillimeter scale droplets are revealed.

  20. Asymptotic method for determining the amplitude for three-particle breakup: Neutron-deuteron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, P. A., E-mail: pavelbelov@gmail.com; Yakovlev, S. L., E-mail: yakovlev@cph10.phys.spbu.ru [St. Petersburg State University, Department of Computational Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    The process of neutron-deuteron scattering at energies above the deuteron-breakup threshold is described within the three-body formalism of Faddeev equations. Use is made of the method of solving Faddeev equations in configuration space on the basis of expanding wave-function components in the asymptotic region in bases of eigenfunctions of specially chosen operators. Asymptotically, wave-function components are represented in the form of an expansion in an orthonormalized basis of functions depending on the hyperangle. This basis makes it possible to orthogonalize the contributions of elastic-scattering and breakup channels. The proposed method permits determining scattering and breakup parameters from the asymptotic representation of the wave function without reconstructing it over the entire configuration space. The scattering and breakup amplitudes for states of total spin S = 1/2 and 3/2 were obtained for the s-wave Faddeev equation.

  1. Multipass beam breakup in the CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multipass beam breakup can severely limit current in superconducting linear accelerators due to the inherently high Q's of transverse deflecting modes of the rf cavities. The success of higher-order-mode damping in increasing threshold currents for the 4-pass CEBAF SRF linac design is investigated with computer modeling. This simulation is shown to be in agreement with theoretical analyses which have successfully described beam breakup in the Stanford superconducting, recirculating linac. Numerical evaluation of an analytic treatment by Gluckstern of multipass beam breakup with distributed cavities is also found to be consistent with the computer model. Application of the simulation to the design array of 400 five-cell CEBAF/Cornell cavities with measured higher-order-mode damping indicates that the beam breakup threshold current is at least an order of magnitude above the CEBAF design current of 200 μA

  2. Is the inhibition/enhancement of fusion due to breakup still a puzzle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of breakup in the fusion cross section in terms of suppression versus enhancement, discussed in a conflicting way in the literature, is addressed. Data and theoretical predictions available in the literature are compared. Excitation functions of the sub- and near-barrier fusion cross-sections for a wide variety of light and heavy systems are presented and interpreted. We have measured fusion excitation functions and breakup correlation functions for the medium weight systems 6 Li + 59 Co and 7 Li + 59 Co. These measurements help to establish the influence of the projectile breakup on the fusion process at near-barrier energies and contribute to the determination of how the mass of the target affects the breakup role. The results indicate a light fusion enhancement at sub-barrier energies and a geometry dominated cross section at barrier energies. (author)

  3. Measuring the area of tear film break-up by image analysis software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Verdeal, Hugo; García-Resúa, Carlos; Ramos, Lucía.; Mosquera, Antonio; Yebra-Pimentel, Eva; Giráldez, María. Jesús

    2013-11-01

    Tear film breakup time (BUT) test only examines the first break in the tear film, but subsequent tear film events are not monitored. We present a method of measuring the area of breakup after the appearance of the first breakup by using open source software. Furthermore, the speed of the rupture was determined. 84 subjects participated in the study. 2 μl volume of 2% sodium fluorescein was instilled using a micropipette. The subject was seated behind a slit-lamp using a cobalt blue filter together with a Wratten 12 yellow filter. Then, the tear film was recorded by a camera attached to the slit lamp. 4 frames of each video was extracted, the first rupture (BUT_0), breakup after 1 second (BUT_1), rupture after 2 seconds (BUT_2) and breakup before the last blink (BUT_F). Open source software of measurement based on Java (NIH ImageJ) was used to measure the number of pixels in areas of breakup. These areas were divided by the area of exposed cornea to obtain the percentage of ruptures. Instantaneous breakup speed was calculated for second 1 as the difference between BUT_1 - BUT_0, whereas instant speed for second 2 was BUT_2 - BUT_1. Mean area of breakup obtained was: BUT_0 = 0.26%, BUT_1 = 0.48%, BUT_2 = 0.79% and BUT_F = 1.61%. Break speed was 0.22 area/sec for second 1 and 0.31 area/sec for second 2, showing a statistical difference between them (p = 0.007). Post BUT analysis may be easily monitoring with the aid of this software.

  4. Sub-picosecond pulse break-up in an InGaAsP optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romstad, Francis Pascal

    broadening and eventual break-up for input pulse energies on the order of picoJoules. This break-up is present in the gain region (6-14 dB), while for absorption (-6 dB9 and transparency, pulse narrowing by a factor of two is evidenced. We observe that not only the amplitude is modulated, but also the linear...

  5. Ice breakup forecast in the reach of the Yellow River: the support vector machines approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, H; Li, W.; C. Zhang; Liu, J.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate lead-time forecast of ice breakup is one of the key aspects for ice flood prevention and reducing losses. In this paper, a new data-driven model based on the Statistical Learning Theory was employed for ice breakup prediction. The model, known as Support Vector Machine (SVM), follows the principle that aims at minimizing the structural risk rather than the empirical risk. In order to estimate the appropriate parameters of the SVM, Multiobj...

  6. Drag-induced breakup mechanism for droplet generation in dripping within flow focusing microfluidics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Wu; Zhaofeng Luo; Zhifeng Liu; Zida Li; Chi Chen; Lili Feng; Liqun He

    2015-01-01

    Based on viscous drag-induced breakup mechanism, a simple model was proposed to predict the dripping drop-let size as a function of controllable parameters in flow focusing micro devices. The size of thread before breakup was also investigated through laminar flow theory. Experiments and numerical simulations by VOF are carried out simultaneously to validate the theoretical analysis, showing that droplet size decreases rapidly with the in-crease of the flow rate ratio and capil ary number.

  7. A Genesis breakup and burnup analysis in off-nominal Earth return and atmospheric entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Ahmed; Ling, Lisa; McRonald, Angus

    2005-01-01

    The Genesis project conducted a detailed breakup/burnup analysis before the Earth return to determine if any spacecraft component could survive and reach the ground intact in case of an off-nominal entry. In addition, an independent JPL team was chartered with the responsibility of analyzing several definitive breakup scenarios to verify the official project analysis. This paper presents the analysis and results of this independent team.

  8. Aerosol cluster impact and break-up : model and implementation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechman, Jeremy B.

    2010-10-01

    In this report a model for simulating aerosol cluster impact with rigid walls is presented. The model is based on JKR adhesion theory and is implemented as an enhancement to the granular (DEM) package within the LAMMPS code. The theory behind the model is outlined and preliminary results are shown. Modeling the interactions of small particles is relevant to a number of applications (e.g., soils, powders, colloidal suspensions, etc.). Modeling the behavior of aerosol particles during agglomeration and cluster dynamics upon impact with a wall is of particular interest. In this report we describe preliminary efforts to develop and implement physical models for aerosol particle interactions. Future work will consist of deploying these models to simulate aerosol cluster behavior upon impact with a rigid wall for the purpose of developing relationships for impact speed and probability of stick/bounce/break-up as well as to assess the distribution of cluster sizes if break-up occurs. These relationships will be developed consistent with the need for inputs into system-level codes. Section 2 gives background and details on the physical model as well as implementations issues. Section 3 presents some preliminary results which lead to discussion in Section 4 of future plans.

  9. Asteroid breakup linked to the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Birger; Harper, David A. T.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Stouge, Svend; Alwmark, Carl; Cronholm, Anders; Bergström, Stig M.; Tassinari, Mario; Xiaofeng, Wang

    2008-01-01

    The rise and diversification of shelled invertebrate life in the early Phanerozoic eon occurred in two major stages. During the first stage (termed as the Cambrian explosion), a large number of new phyla appeared over a short time interval ~540Myrago. Biodiversity at the family, genus and species level, however, remained low until the second stage marked by the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event in the Middle Ordovician period. Although this event represents the most intense phase of species radiation during the Palaeozoic era and led to irreversible changes in the biological make-up of Earth's seafloors, the causes of this event remain elusive. Here, we show that the onset of the major phase of biodiversification ~470Myrago coincides with the disruption in the asteroid belt of the L-chondrite parent body-the largest documented asteroid breakup event during the past few billion years. The precise coincidence between these two events is established by bed-by-bed records of extraterrestrial chromite, osmium isotopes and invertebrate fossils in Middle Ordovician strata in Baltoscandia and China. We argue that frequent impacts on Earth of kilometre-sized asteroids-supported by abundant Middle Ordovician fossil meteorites and impact craters-accelerated the biodiversification process.

  10. Spin observables in the three-body break-up process near the quasi-free limit in deuteron–deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied spin observables in the three-body break-up reaction in deuteron–deuteron scattering in the phase-space regime that corresponds to the quasi-free deuteron–proton scattering process with the neutron as spectator. The data are compared to measurements of the elastic deuteron–proton scattering process and state-of-the-art Faddeev calculations. The results for iT11 and T22 for the quasi-free scattering data agree very well with previously published elastic-scattering data. A significant discrepancy is found for T20, which could point to a break-down of the quasi-free assumption

  11. Deformation, wave phenomena, and breakup outcomes of round nonturbulent liquid jets in uniform gaseous crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chee-Loon

    Scope and method of study. An experimental and computational research is performed to study the deformation and breakup of round nonturbulent liquid jets in uniform gaseous crossflow. Pulsed photography and shadow graphy in conjunction with high-speed imaging were used to study the wave phenomena and the droplets properties/transport dynamics of a nonturbulent liquid jet injected into a uniform crossflow within the bag breakup regime. The computational study extended the previous two-dimensional study by adding the third dimension, allowing the wave properties to be modeled. The computational simulation employed the Volume of Fluid (VOF) formulation of FLUENT, and was run on a 3-processors parallel Linux cluster and P4 desktops. The validated, time-accurate, CFD simulation analyzes the surface properties of the liquid jets within the column, bag, and shear breakup regimes by considering the effects of surface tension, liquid viscosity, and crossflow Weber number at large liquid/gas density ratios (>500) and small Ohnesorge numbers (liquid jet are attributed to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and the nodes layout per bag affected the breakup mechanisms of the bags. Three distinctive sizes of droplets were produced in the bag breakup regime. The size of bag-droplets normalized by the nozzle exit diameter was constant. The different trajectories for bag- and node-droplets suggested that separation of bag- and node-droplets is possible. The computational results included jet deformations, jet cross-sectional area, jet velocity, wake velocity defect, wake width, and wavelengths of column and surface waves. Present computational results yielded a similarity solution for the inner wake region. In bag breakup, the lower pressure along the sides of the jet pulled the liquid away from both the upwind and downwind surfaces of the liquid cross-section. In shear breakup, the flattened upwind surface pushed the liquid towards the two sides of the jet. In bag breakup, the flow

  12. The oil body formation and breakup in the compound vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplina, T. O.; Stepanova, E. V.

    2012-04-01

    The flows in the Ocean and Atmosphere combine different types of motion: streams, jets, wakes, vortices and waves. When flows transport solid bodies or immiscible admixtures picturesque flow patterns are revealed and indicated the type of flow. Different spiral patterns visualize vortex flow structure. In experiments is studied the transport of finite volumes of immiscible admixture introduced on the free surface of water drawn into the vortex motion in the vertical cylindrical container. The basic medium was tap water, preliminary degasified to make the visualization less difficult. The fixed volume of immiscible admixture (castor or sunflower oil) is introduced on the quiescent free surface of water inside the cylindrical container. The generation of compound vortex in the cylindrical container started after all the disturbances caused by deposition of the oil volume are damped. In compound vortex the flow oil patch with smooth boundary placed onto free surface is transformed into a set of spiral arms and separate drops contacting with the central oil volume. The droplets are separated from the central spot and slowly travel towards the container sidewall. With time, the spot is transformed into pronounced spiral arms. The most part of oil under the influence of vortex flow is gathered into the central volume contacting with the free surface. This volume is called "the oil body". On the lower frequencies of disk rotation and respectively slow flow gyration the oil body has smooth boundaries with water and air. The growth of disk rotation frequency leads to more pronounced deformation of the contact surface between liquid and air, the boundary of the oil body and water then is covered by small pimples. At the further increase of disk rotation frequency the oil body comes to the breakup, the water-oil boundary become irregular and on the lowest part of the oil body the analog of foam appears (the water-oil emulsion). The work is supported by Ministry of Education

  13. Dynamical diagnosis of the breakup of the stratospheric polar vortex in the Northern Hemisphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The research on climate change in polar regions, especially on the role of polar in the global climate system, has gain unprecedented level of interest. It has been the key scientific issue of the International Polar Year program (IPY, 2007―2008). In this paper, we dealt with the debate upon the breakup time of the stratospheric polar vortex in boreal spring. An observational study of the relation between stratospheric polar vortex breakup and the extra-tropical circulation was performed. The mean breakup date―when the winter westerly at the core of polar jet turns to summer easterly―is about April 10. The breakup time has large interannual variation with a time span of about 2 months. It also has a long-term trend with the 1990s and 2000s witnessing more and more late breakups of polar vortex. Composite of wind speed at the core of polar jet for the extremely early and late breakup years shows that late years have two periods of westerly weakening while early breakup years have only one. The first weakening in the late years happens in middle January with wind speed dropping sharply from more than 40 m s-1 to about 15 m s-1. This is accompanied with anomalous activities of planetary waves in both stratosphere and troposphere; while the second weakening in the late breaking years is mainly the results of diabatic heating with very weak wave activities. In early breakup years, the transition from westerly to easterly is rapid with wind speed dropping from more than 30 m s-1 to less than -10 m s-1 within a month. This evolution is associated with a strong bidirectional dynamical coupling of the stratosphere and troposphere. The circulation anomalies at low troposphere are also analyzed in the extremely early and late breakup years. It shows that there are significant differences between the two kinds of extreme years in the geopotential height and temperature composite analysis, indicating the dynamical coupling of stratosphere and troposphere with the

  14. Trojan Horse particle invariance in fusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzone R.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trojan Horse method plays an important part for the measurement of several charged particle induced reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest. In order to better understand its cornerstones and the related applications to different astrophysical scenarios several tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance for the binary reactions d(d,pt, 6,7Li(p,α3,4He was therefore tested using the appropriate quasi free break- ups, respectively. In the first cases results from 6Li and 3He break up were used, while for the lithium fusion reactions break-ups of 2H and 3He were compared. The astrophysical S(E-factors for the different processes were then extracted in the framework of the PlaneWave Approximation applied to the different break-up schemes. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement between data coming from different break-up schemes confirms the applicability of the plane wave approximation and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nucleus also for the present cases. Moreover the astrophysical implications of the results will also be discussed in details.

  15. Trojan Horse particle invariance in fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleril, C.; Bertulani, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Blokhintsev, L.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Spartá, R.; Tumino, A.

    2015-01-01

    Trojan Horse method plays an important part for the measurement of several charged particle induced reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest. In order to better understand its cornerstones and the related applications to different astrophysical scenarios several tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance for the binary reactions d(d,p)t, 6,7Li(p,α)3,4He was therefore tested using the appropriate quasi free break- ups, respectively. In the first cases results from 6Li and 3He break up were used, while for the lithium fusion reactions break-ups of 2H and 3He were compared. The astrophysical S(E)-factors for the different processes were then extracted in the framework of the PlaneWave Approximation applied to the different break-up schemes. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement between data coming from different break-up schemes confirms the applicability of the plane wave approximation and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nucleus also for the present cases. Moreover the astrophysical implications of the results will also be discussed in details.

  16. Mechanism of Water Droplet Breakup Near the Leading Edge of an Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mario; Sor, Suthyvann; Magarino, Adelaida, Garcia

    2012-01-01

    This work presents results of an experimental study on droplet deformation and breakup near the leading edge of an airfoil. The experiment was conducted in the rotating rig test cell at the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in Madrid, Spain. The airfoil model was placed at the end of the rotating arm and a monosize droplet generator produced droplets that fell from above, perpendicular to the path of the airfoil. The interaction between the droplets and the airfoil was captured with high speed imaging and allowed observation of droplet deformation and breakup as the droplet approached the airfoil near the stagnation line. Image processing software was used to measure the position of the droplet centroid, equivalent diameter, perimeter, area, and the major and minor axes of an ellipse superimposed over the deforming droplet. The horizontal and vertical displacement of each droplet against time was also measured, and the velocity, acceleration, Weber number, Bond number, Reynolds number, and the drag coefficients were calculated along the path of the droplet to the beginning of breakup. Droplet deformation is defined and studied against main parameters. The high speed imaging allowed observation of the actual mechanism of breakup and identification of the sequence of configurations from the initiation of the breakup to the disintegration of the droplet. Results and comparisons are presented for droplets of diameters in the range of 500 to 1800 microns, and airfoil velocities of 70 and 90 m/sec.

  17. Three-cluster breakup in deuteron-deuteron collisions: single-scattering approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Deltuva, A

    2016-01-01

    We present results for the three-cluster breakup in deuteron-deuteron collisions at 130 and 270 MeV deuteron beam energy. The breakup amplitude is calculated using the first term in the Neumann series expansion of the corresponding exact four-nucleon equations. In analogy with nucleon-deuteron breakup where an equivalent approximation is compared with exact calculations, we expect this single-scattering approximation to provide a rough estimation of three-body breakup observables in quasifree configurations. We predict the nucleon-deuteron and deuteron-deuteron three-cluster breakup cross sections to be of a comparable size and thereby question the reliability of the recent experimental data [A. Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, Ph.D. thesis, University of Groningen, 2009; A. Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani et al., EPJ Web of Conferences 3, 04012 (2010)] that is smaller by about three orders of magnitude. We also show that an equivalent single-scattering approximation provides a reasonable description of deuteron-deuteron e...

  18. Development of the VESUVIUS module. Molten jet breakup modeling and model verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierow, K. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nagano, Katsuhiro; Araki, Kazuhiro

    1998-01-01

    With the in-vessel vapor explosion issue ({alpha}-mode failure) now considered to pose an acceptably small risk to the safety of a light water reactor, ex-vessel vapor explosions are being given considerable attention. Attempts are being made to analytically model breakup of continuous-phase jets, however uncertainty exists regarding the basic phenomena. In addition, the conditions upon reactor vessel failure, which determine the starting point of the ex-vessel vapor explosion process, are difficult to quantify. Herein, molten jet ejection from the reactor pressure vessel is characterized. Next, the expected mode of jet breakup is determined and the current state of analytical modeling is reviewed. A jet breakup model for ex-vessel scenarios, with the primary breakup mechanism being the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, is described. The model has been incorporated into the VESUVIUS module and comparisons of VESUVIUS calculations against FARO L-06 experimental data show differences, particularly in the pressure curve and amount of jet breakup. The need for additional development to resolve these differences is discussed. (author)

  19. Breakup characteristics of power-law liquid sheets formed by two impinging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Fuqiang; Diao, Hai; Chang, Qing; Wang, Endong; Du, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, People’s Republic of China (China); Zhang, Mengzheng, E-mail: duqing@tju.edu.cn [Xi’an Aerospace Propulsion Institute, Xi’an, 710100, People’s Republic of China (China)

    2014-10-01

    The breakup characteristics of the shear-thinning power-law liquid sheets formed by two impinging jets have been investigated with the shadowgraph technique. This paper focuses on the effects of spray parameters (jet velocity), physical parameters (viscosity) and geometry parameters (impinging angle and nozzle cross-sectional shape) on the breakup behaviors of liquid sheets. The breakup mode, sheet length and expansion angle of the sheet are extracted from the spray images obtained by a high speed camera. Impinging angle and Weber number play the similar roles in promoting the breakup of liquid sheets. With the increase of jet velocity, five different breakup modes are observed and the expansion angle increases consistently after the closed-rim mode while the sheet length first increases and then decreases. But there exists a concave consisting of a fierce drop and a second rising process on the sheet length curve for the fluid with smaller viscosity. Different nozzle cross-sectional shapes emphasize significant effects on the sheet length and expansion angle of liquid sheets. At a fixed Weber number, the liquid sheet with greater viscosity has a greater sheet length and a smaller expansion angle due to the damping effect of viscosity. (papers)

  20. Three-cluster breakup in deuteron-deuteron collisions: Single-scattering approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deltuva, A.; Fonseca, A. C.

    2016-04-01

    We present results for the three-cluster breakup in deuteron-deuteron collisions at 130 and 270 MeV deuteron beam energy. The breakup amplitude is calculated using the first term in the Neumann series expansion of the corresponding exact four-nucleon equations. In analogy with nucleon-deuteron breakup where an equivalent approximation is compared with exact calculations, we expect this single-scattering approximation to provide a rough estimation of three-body breakup observables in quasifree configurations. We predict the nucleon-deuteron and deuteron-deuteron three-cluster breakup cross sections to be of a comparable size and thereby question the reliability of the recent experimental data [A. Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, Ph.D. thesis, University of Groningen, 2009; A. Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani et al., EPJ Web Conf. 3, 04012 (2010), 10.1051/epjconf/20100304012], which are smaller by about three orders of magnitude. We also show that an equivalent single-scattering approximation provides a reasonable description of deuteron-deuteron elastic scattering at forward-scattering angles.

  1. Effects of the geometric orientations of the nozzle exit on the breakup of free liquid jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, V. N.; Murthy, Z. V. P. [Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Gujarat (India)

    2016-04-15

    Free liquid jets are produced through various geometric orientations of the nozzle exit. The breakup lengths of liquid jets under various geometric orientations of the nozzle exit were studied. Images of jets were captured using a high-speed camera with a maximum frame rate of 1000 frames per second and were analyzed to determine the dynamics between jets and breakup lengths. The breakup length of jets changes with the cut angle of the nozzle exit. In addition, adding polymer reduces the effect of the cut angle of the nozzle exit on the breakup length for an entire range of velocities. The effect of the cut angle on breakup length is predominant for aqueous solutions with surfactants. This work provides motivation for further computational research to study jet dynamics in a partially covered nozzle exit, such as the case in which the boundary conditions near the nozzle opening is more complex with the cut angle and its vertex position, which directly reflects liquid jet dynamics.

  2. An exclusive cross section of reaction 3H(p,pn)n1H in diffraction approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical analysis in diffraction approach of full triton breakup process (3H → p+2n) at scattering of protons with energy 72 MeV is performed. An estimation of cross section magnitude of three particle breakup of 3H nucleus is carried out in order to compare with reaction cross section 3H(p,pn)2H. The comparison with experimental data is done

  3. Physics-Based Modeling of Meteor Entry and Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Agrawal, Parul; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Brandis, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Kang; Jaffe, Richard L.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.; Stern, Eric C.; Tauber, Michael E.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2015-01-01

    A new research effort at NASA Ames Research Center has been initiated in Planetary Defense, which integrates the disciplines of planetary science, atmospheric entry physics, and physics-based risk assessment. This paper describes work within the new program and is focused on meteor entry and breakup.Over the last six decades significant effort was expended in the US and in Europe to understand meteor entry including ablation, fragmentation and airburst (if any) for various types of meteors ranging from stony to iron spectral types. These efforts have produced primarily empirical mathematical models based on observations. Weaknesses of these models, apart from their empiricism, are reliance on idealized shapes (spheres, cylinders, etc.) and simplified models for thermal response of meteoritic materials to aerodynamic and radiative heating. Furthermore, the fragmentation and energy release of meteors (airburst) is poorly understood.On the other hand, flight of human-made atmospheric entry capsules is well understood. The capsules and their requisite heatshields are designed and margined to survive entry. However, the highest speed Earth entry for capsules is 13 kms (Stardust). Furthermore, Earth entry capsules have never exceeded diameters of 5 m, nor have their peak aerothermal environments exceeded 0.3 atm and 1 kW/sq cm. The aims of the current work are: (i) to define the aerothermal environments for objects with entry velocities from 13 to 20 kms; (ii) to explore various hypotheses of fragmentation and airburst of stony meteors in the near term; (iii) to explore the possibility of performing relevant ground-based tests to verify candidate hypotheses; and (iv) to quantify the energy released in airbursts. The results of the new simulations will be used to anchor said risk assessment analyses. With these aims in mind, state-of-the-art entry capsule design tools are being extended for meteor entries. We describe: (i) applications of current simulation tools to

  4. Numerical simulation of liquid jet breakup using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)

    CERN Document Server

    Pourabdian, Majid; Morad, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, breakup of liquid jet is simulated using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) which is a meshless Lagrangian numerical method. For this aim, flow governing equations are discretized based on SPH method. In this paper, SPHysics open source code has been utilized for numerical solutions. Therefore, the mentioned code has been developed by adding the surface tension effects. The proposed method is then validated using dam break with obstacle problem. Finally, simulation of twodimensional liquid jet flow is carried out and its breakup behavior considering one-phase flow is investigated. Length of liquid breakup in Rayleigh regime is calculated for various flow conditions such as different Reynolds and Weber numbers and the results are validated by an experimental correlation. The whole numerical solutions are accomplished for both Wendland and cubic spline kernel functions and Wendland kernel function gave more accurate results. The results are compared to MPS method for inviscid liquid as well. T...

  5. Research on the Rebound and Breakup of the Droplet after Impacting on the Superhydrophobic Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. W.; Ning, Z.; Lü, M.; Yan, K.; Sun, C. H.

    The surface hydrophilicity affects the movement of the droplet intensively when the droplet impacting on a wall, In this paper, the motion of the droplet after impacting on the superhydrophobic wall were researched by using the combined Level Set-VOF method for gas-liquid interface tracking. The results show that, the droplet would rebound after impacting on the superhydrophobic wall when the velocity is small: the droplet would breakup after when the velocity is larger; the droplet would breakup during spreading when the initial diameter is larger and less surface tension: impact angle affect the movement of the chop-let intensively after impacting on the wall. At the same time, this paper obtains critical conditions of rebound an breakup after droplet impacts on the superliydrophbic wall by vertical or inclined angle through numerical simulation in a certain range of condition.

  6. Simultaneous visual acquisition of melt jet breakup in water by high speed videography and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated to understand molten corium jet falling in a water pool and fragmenting into droplets in the coolant during a hypothetical severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR), this paper presents insights on the dynamics of a coherent molten material jet and its breakup as a function of molten jet initial conditions (jet initial velocity, diameter, etc.) and material thermo-physical properties, with several corium simulant materials from low-melting temperature metallic melt (woods metal) to medium-melting temperature binary oxide melts (e.g., WO3-Bi2O3, WO3-ZrO2). A visualization system of Simultaneous High-speed Acquisition of Radiography and Photography (SHARP) is employed to quantify the characteristics of the melt jet breakup in a water pool. The experiment features well-controlled conditions and small-scale jets which can be visualized by X-ray, and therefore enables a better scrutiny of the jet breakup. (author)

  7. Ice breakup forecast in the reach of the Yellow River: the support vector machines approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhou

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate lead-time forecast of ice breakup is one of the key aspects for ice flood prevention and reducing losses. In this paper, a new data-driven model based on the Statistical Learning Theory was employed for ice breakup prediction. The model, known as Support Vector Machine (SVM, follows the principle that aims at minimizing the structural risk rather than the empirical risk. In order to estimate the appropriate parameters of the SVM, Multiobjective Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis (MOSCEM-UA algorithm is performed through exponential transformation. A case study was conducted in the reach of the Yellow River. Results from the proposed model showed a promising performance compared with that from artificial neural network, so the model can be considered as an alternative and practical tool for ice breakup forecast.

  8. Ice breakup forecast in the reach of the Yellow River: the support vector machines approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H.; Li, W.; Zhang, C.; Liu, J.

    2009-04-01

    Accurate lead-time forecast of ice breakup is one of the key aspects for ice flood prevention and reducing losses. In this paper, a new data-driven model based on the Statistical Learning Theory was employed for ice breakup prediction. The model, known as Support Vector Machine (SVM), follows the principle that aims at minimizing the structural risk rather than the empirical risk. In order to estimate the appropriate parameters of the SVM, Multiobjective Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis (MOSCEM-UA) algorithm is performed through exponential transformation. A case study was conducted in the reach of the Yellow River. Results from the proposed model showed a promising performance compared with that from artificial neural network, so the model can be considered as an alternative and practical tool for ice breakup forecast.

  9. Internal stresses and breakup of rigid isostatic aggregates in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    De Bona, Jeremias; Vanni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    By characterising the hydrodynamic stresses generated by statistically homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in rigid aggregates, we estimate theoretically the rate of turbulent breakup of colloidal aggregates and the size distribution of the formed fragments. The adopted method combines Direct Numerical Simulation of the turbulent field with a Discrete Element Method based on Stokesian dynamics. In this way, not only the mechanics of the aggregate is modelled in detail, but the internal stresses are evaluated while the aggregate is moving in the turbulent flow. We examine doublets and cluster-cluster isostatic aggregates, where the failure of a single contact leads to the rupture of the aggregate and breakup occurs when the tensile force at a contact exceeds the cohesive strength of the bond. Due to the different role of the internal stresses, the functional relationship between breakup frequency and turbulence dissipation rate is very different in the two cases. In the limit of very small and very large valu...

  10. Nucleon-nucleon scattering length from three-body reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments aimed at the measurement of the singlet scattering lengths 1anp and 1ann of the NN-interaction in the presence of a heavy spectator are described. The values obtained are compared with the results of measurements of other reactions. The very good agreement of the experimental values of 1anp from all breakup reactions and elastic scattering as well as agreement of the values of 1ann from breakup reactions and disagreement with the value from the π-d → nnγ reaction cast doubts on the hypothesis ascribing this discrepancy to a 3N-force. This result also suggests a stronger effect of a violation of the charge independence principle than previously accepted. 101 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  11. Many-body quantum reaction dynamics near the fusion barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The understanding of quantum effects in determining nuclear reaction outcomes is evolving as improved experimental techniques reveal new facets of interaction dynamics. Whilst the phenomenon of coupling-enhanced quantum tunnelling is understood to arise due to quantum superposition, the observed inhibition of fusion at energies well below the barrier is not yet quantitatively understood. Collisions involving weakly-bound nuclei, which have low energy thresholds against breakup, present further challenges. Recent coincidence measurements for reactions of weakly bound stable nuclei have not only provided a complete picture of the physical mechanisms triggering breakup, but have also shown how information on reaction dynamics occurring on time-scales of ∼ zepto-seconds can be obtained experimentally. These new experimental findings demand major developments in quantum models of near-barrier nuclear reactions. (authors)

  12. Many-body Quantum Reaction Dynamics near the Fusion Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of quantum effects in determining nuclear reaction outcomes is evolving as improved experimental techniques reveal new facets of interaction dynamics. Whilst the phenomenon of coupling-enhanced quantum tunnelling is understood to arise due to quantum superposition, the observed inhibition of fusion at energies well below the barrier is not yet quantitatively understood. Collisions involving weakly-bound nuclei, which have low energy thresholds against breakup, present further challenges. Recent coincidence measurements for reactions of weakly bound stable nuclei have not only provided a complete picture of the physical mechanisms triggering breakup, but have also shown how information on reaction dynamics occurring on time-scales of ~zepto-seconds can be obtained experimentally. These new experimental findings demand major developments in quantum models of near-barrier nuclear reactions.

  13. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, V., E-mail: vkulkarn@purdue.edu; Sojka, P. E. [Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ∼12 < We < ∼16. We aim to address several issues connected with this breakup process and their dependence on We and Oh which have been hitherto unexplored. The We boundary at which breakup begins is theoretically determined and the expression obtained, We=12(1+2/3Oh{sup 2}), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  14. Comparison of various droplet breakup models in gas-liquid flows in high-pressure environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droplet breakup affects spray penetration and evaporation, and plays a critical role in engine efficiency. The purpose of this research was to examine the rate of penetration and evaporation of droplets in a combustion chamber, and the efficiency of the engine when liquid jet is injected into the compressed gas chamber in an axi-symmetrical fashion leading to a turbulent and unsteady flow. As a result of interaction with the highly compressed air in the chamber, the liquid jet breaks up and forms minute droplets. These particles will in turn breakup because of aerodynamic forces, producing even smaller droplets. A number of models are available for analyzing the breakup of droplets; however, each model is typically reliable only over a limited parameter range. In this research three well-known models are applied for droplet breakup modeling and their results are compared. To obtain the details of the flow field, the Eulerian gas phase mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as equations governing the transport of turbulence and fuel vapor mass fraction are solved together with equations of trajectory, momentum, mass and energy conservation for liquid droplets in Lagrangian form. The numerical solution is performed using the finite volume method and EPISO (Engine-PISO) algorithm. The results obtained from the models show that the breakup process in a high pressure environment significantly affects the penetration and evaporation rates of the spray, and the droplet size is determined by the balance between breakup and coalescence processes. It is also shown that the details of atomization in the nozzle do not significantly influence the ultimate size of droplets. It should be mentioned that droplet collision modeling has been taken into account in the computer code and is activated wherever necessary

  15. Monitoring ice break-up on the Mackenzie River using MODIS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muhammad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study involves the analysis of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Level 3 500 m snow products (MOD/MYD10A1, complemented with 250 m Level 1B data (MOD/MYD02QKM, to monitor ice cover during the break-up period on the Mackenzie River, Canada. Results from the analysis of data for 13 ice seasons (2001–2013 show that first day ice-off dates are observed between days of year (DOY 115–125 and end DOY 145–155, resulting in average melt durations of about 30–40 days. Floating ice transported northbound could therefore generate multiple periods of ice-on and ice-off observations at the same geographic location. During the ice break-up period, ice melt was initiated by in situ (thermodynamic melt over the drainage basin especially between 61–61.8° N (75–300 km. However, ice break-up process north of 61.8° N was more dynamically driven. Furthermore, years with earlier initiation of the ice break-up period correlated with above normal air temperatures and precipitation, whereas later ice break-up period was correlated with below normal precipitation and air temperatures. MODIS observations revealed that ice runs were largely influenced by channel morphology (islands and bars, confluences and channel constriction. It is concluded that the numerous MODIS daily overpasses possible with the Terra and Aqua polar orbiting satellites, provide a powerful means for monitoring ice break-up processes at multiple geographical locations simultaneously along the Mackenzie River.

  16. Multinucleon transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactions induced by complex nuclei are studied. The description of the single neutron transfer is used to show some aspect of the theoretical treatment of transfer reactions and rules concerning the dependence of cross sections on quantum numbers of the initial and final channels are deduced. Strongly excited states of 20Ne, 19F, sup(16,17)0, 15N were studied experimentally by using different projectile-target combinations in the four-particle, eight-particle and ten-particle transfer reactions, leading to the some final nuclei. Obtained results are discussed. In addition, studies of the projectile break-up phenomenon were performed. The dissociation of 6Li and 7Li projectiles was investigated in reactions on Pb, Sn and Ni nuclei. These nuclei were chosen to allow measurements at one incident energy below, above and at the Coulomb barrier. The observed spectra indicate that the process proceeds primarily via the resonance level but the shape deviates from the shape which was calculated assuming isotropic decay of the excited 6Li in its center of mass system. The investigations of the elastic scattering turned out to be more fruitful and allowed to define better the Coulomb barrier for the 6Li-target system. (S.B.)

  17. Three-body Coulomb breakup of 11Li in the complex scaling method

    OpenAIRE

    Myo, T.; Aoyama, S.; Kato, K.; Ikeda, K.

    2003-01-01

    Coulomb breakup strengths of 11Li into a three-body 9Li+n+n system are studied in the complex scaling method. We decompose the transition strengths into the contributions from three-body resonances, two-body ``10Li+n'' and three-body ``9Li+n+n'' continuum states. In the calculated results, we cannot find the dipole resonances with a sharp decay width in 11Li. There is a low energy enhancement in the breakup strength, which is produced by both the two- and three-body continuum states. The enha...

  18. Monitoring ice break-up on the Mackenzie River using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, P.; Duguay, C.; Kang, K.-K.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an approach for estimating ice break-up dates on the Mackenzie River (MR) using more than a decade of MODIS Level 3 500 m snow products (MOD/MYD10A1), complemented with 250 m Level 1B radiance products (MOD/MYD02QKM) from the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms. The analysis showed break-up began on average between days of year (DOYs) 115 and 125 and ended between DOYs 145 and 155 over 13 ice seasons (2001-2013), resulting in an average melt duration of ca. 30-40 days. Thermal processes were more important in driving ice break-up south of the MR confluence with the Liard River, while dynamically driven break-up was more important north of the Liard. A comparison of the timing of ice disappearance with snow disappearance from surrounding land areas of the MR with MODIS Level 3 snow products showed varying relationships along the river. Ice-off and snow-off timing were in sync north of the MR-Liard River confluence and over sections of the MR before it enters the Mackenzie Delta, but ice disappeared much later than snow on land in regions where thermal ice break-up processes dominated. MODIS observations revealed that channel morphology is a more important control of ice break-up patterns than previously believed with ice runs on the MR strongly influenced by channel morphology (islands and bars, confluences and channel constriction). Ice velocity estimates from feature tracking were able to be made in 2008 and 2010 and yielded 3-4-day average ice velocities of 1.21 and 1.84 m s-1 respectively, which is in agreement with estimates from previous studies. These preliminary results confirm the utility of daily MODIS data for monitoring ice break-up processes along the Mackenzie River. The addition of optical and synthetic aperture radar data from recent and upcoming satellite missions (e.g. Sentinel-1/2/3 and RADARSAT Constellation) would improve the monitoring of ice break-up in narrower sections of the MR.

  19. Breakup Behavior of Molten Wood's Metal Jet in Subcooled Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Hyo; Park, Seong Dae; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    There are safety characteristics of the metal fueled sodium fast-cooled reactor (SFR), by identifying the possibility of early termination of severe accidents. If the molten fuel is ejected from the cladding, the ejected molten fuel can interact with the coolant in the reactor vessel. This phenomenon is called as fuel-coolant interaction (FCI). The FCI occurs at the initial phase leading to severe accidents like core disruptive accident (CDA) in the SFR. A part of the corium energy is intensively transferred to the coolant in a very short time during the FCI. The coolant vaporizes at high pressure and expands so results in steam explosion that can threat to the integrity of nuclear reactor. The intensity of steam explosion is determined by jet breakup and the fragmentation behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the jet breakup between the molten fuel jet and the coolant in order to evaluate whether the steam explosion occurs or not. The liquid jet breakup has been studied in various areas, such as aerosols, spray and combustion. In early studies, small diameter jets of low density liquids were studied. The jet breakup for large density liquids has been studied in nuclear reactor field with respect to safety. The existence of vapor film layer between the melt and liquid fluid is only in case of large density breakup. This paper deals with the jet breakup experiment in non-boiling conditions in order to analyze hydraulic effect on the jet behavior. In the present study, the wood's metal was used as the jet material. It has similar properties to the metal fuel. The physical properties of molten materials and coolants are listed in Table I, respectively. It is easy to conduct the experiment due to low melting point of the wood's metal. In order to clarify the dominant factors determining jet breakup and size distribution of the debris, the experiment that the molten wood's metal was injected into the subcooled condition was conducted. The

  20. Breakup Behavior of Molten Wood's Metal Jet in Subcooled Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are safety characteristics of the metal fueled sodium fast-cooled reactor (SFR), by identifying the possibility of early termination of severe accidents. If the molten fuel is ejected from the cladding, the ejected molten fuel can interact with the coolant in the reactor vessel. This phenomenon is called as fuel-coolant interaction (FCI). The FCI occurs at the initial phase leading to severe accidents like core disruptive accident (CDA) in the SFR. A part of the corium energy is intensively transferred to the coolant in a very short time during the FCI. The coolant vaporizes at high pressure and expands so results in steam explosion that can threat to the integrity of nuclear reactor. The intensity of steam explosion is determined by jet breakup and the fragmentation behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the jet breakup between the molten fuel jet and the coolant in order to evaluate whether the steam explosion occurs or not. The liquid jet breakup has been studied in various areas, such as aerosols, spray and combustion. In early studies, small diameter jets of low density liquids were studied. The jet breakup for large density liquids has been studied in nuclear reactor field with respect to safety. The existence of vapor film layer between the melt and liquid fluid is only in case of large density breakup. This paper deals with the jet breakup experiment in non-boiling conditions in order to analyze hydraulic effect on the jet behavior. In the present study, the wood's metal was used as the jet material. It has similar properties to the metal fuel. The physical properties of molten materials and coolants are listed in Table I, respectively. It is easy to conduct the experiment due to low melting point of the wood's metal. In order to clarify the dominant factors determining jet breakup and size distribution of the debris, the experiment that the molten wood's metal was injected into the subcooled condition was conducted. The

  1. Is the breakup time a free parameter when describing heavy ion collisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodinamic descriptions of heavy ion collisions generally include the so called breakup time (when to switch from continuum picture to a collisionless gas). While an appropriate choice of this time can help to reproduce the detected spectra, from the same reason this freedom may prevent us to reconstruct uniquely the compressed hot stages from the observables. This problem is absent if the calculated final spectra are insensitive on the breakup time at least in a domain. Here we show such an example in a model system. This example may give further arguments for the thermodynamic description. (author) 13 refs.; 4 figs

  2. Configuration space Faddeev equations within the general formalism for studying Nd breakup scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, Vladimir; Braun, Mikhail; Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav; Slaus, Ivo

    2015-10-01

    Appropriate modifications of the configuration space Faddeev equations have been made to study the three-nucleon system assuming the neutrons and protons to be distinguishable. Breakup amplitudes for n-d and p-d scattering at Elab =14.1 MeV are calculated in s-wave approach with the Malfliet-Tjon MT I-III and AV14 potentials. Results obtained for Nd breakup scattering in quartet and doublet spin states are compared with our predictions and those of the Los-Alamos/Iowa group. This work is supported by NSF CREST (HRD-0833184).

  3. Coulomb versus nuclear break-up of 11Be halo nucleus in a non perturbative framework

    CERN Document Server

    Fallot, M; Lacroix, D; Chomaz, P; Margueron, J; Chomaz, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    The 11Be break-up is calculated using a non perturbative time-dependent quantum calculation. The evolution of the neutron halo wave function shows an emission of neutron at large angles for grazing impact parameters and at forward angles for large impact parameters. The neutron angular distribution is deduced for the different targets and compared to experimental data. We emphasize the diversity of diffraction mechanisms, in particular we discuss the interplay of the nuclear effects such as the towing mode and the Coulomb break-up. A good agreement is found with experimental data.

  4. Coupled simulations of nozzle flow, primary fuel jet breakup, and spray formation

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Eberhard von; Edelbauer, Wilfried; Alajbegović, Aleš; Tatschl, Reinhard; Volmajer, Martin; Kegl, Breda; Ganippa, Lionel C.

    2012-01-01

    Presented are two approaches for coupled simulations of the injector flow withspray formation. In the first approach the two-fluid model is used within the injector for the cavitating flow. A primary breakup model is then applied at the nozzle orifice where it is coupled with the standard discrete droplet model. In the second approach the Eulerian multi-fluid model is applied for both the nozzle and spray regions. The developed primary breakup model, used in both approaches, is based on local...

  5. Computational modeling of ice cracking and break-up from helicopter blades

    KAUST Repository

    Shiping, Zhang

    2012-06-25

    In order to reduce the danger of impact onto components caused by break-up, it is important to analyze the shape of shed ice accumulated during flight. In this paper, we will present a 3D finite element method (FEM) to predict the shed ice shape by using a fluid-solid interaction (FSI) approach to determine the loads, and linear fracture mechanics to track crack propagation. Typical icing scenarios for helicopters are analyzed, and the possibility of ice break-up is investigated.

  6. Theoretical Model Calculation for d + 8Li Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yin-Lu; GUO Hai-Rui; ZHANG Yue; ZHANG Jing-Shang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the theoretical models for light nuclei, the calculations of reaction cross sections and the angular distributions for d+8Li reaction are performed. Since all of the particle emissions are from the compound nucleus to the discrete levels, the angular momentum coupling effect in pre-equilibrium mechanism is taken into account. The three-body break-up process and the recoil effect are involved. The theoretical calculated results are compared to existing experimental data.

  7. Radiochemical studies of fast neutron induced reactions at KFA JUELICH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radiochemical study of neutron induced threshold reactions are reported. Integral cross-sections were measured by the activation technique. Tritium and 3He formation cross-sections were determined at 14.6 MeV neutron energy and on neutron spectrum from d-Be break-up reaction. Some preliminary systematic trends observed in the cross-section data described. Some general results of nuclear data measurement for reactor techology are discussed

  8. Experimental study of drop breakup in a turbulent flow; Etude experimentale de la rupture de gouttes dans un ecoulement turbulent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinat, S.

    2005-04-15

    This work presents the drop breakup phenomenon in a turbulent flow induced by a cross-section restriction in a pipe. A global analysis of single-drop breakup, in a finite volume downstream of the orifice, has allowed deriving statistical quantities such as the break-up probability and the daughter-drop distribution. These parameters are function of a global Weber number based on the maximal pressure drop through the orifice. At a local scale, the locations of breakup events are distributed heterogeneously and depend on the flow Reynolds number. The local hydrodynamic study in downstream of the orifice, which has been done by using Particle Image Velocimetry, reveals the specific breakup zones. Otherwise, this analysis has proved that the turbulence is the predominant external stress at the drop scale. The relation between drop deformation and the external stress along the trajectory has been simulated numerically by the response of a damped oscillator to the locally measured instantaneous turbulence forcing. The results of statistical analysis have allowed to introduce a breakup criterion, based on a unique deformation threshold value for all experiments. This multi-scale approach has been conducted to study drop breakup mechanisms in a concentrated dispersion. The breakup probability decrease with the increase of dispersed phase concentration, which influences the turbulent Weber number distribution in downstream of the orifice. (author)

  9. Inclusive measurements of the break-up of 156 MeV 6Li-ions at extreme forward angles and the quasi free break-up model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inclusive alpha particle and deuteron spectra from collisions of 156 MeV 6Li-ions with 12C and 208Pb were measured at extreme forward emission angles including zero degree. The measurements were performed with the Karlsruhe magnetic spectrograph 'Little John' and required an efficient reduction of the background from small-angle scattering. The observed double differential cross sections and angular distributions have been analysed on the basis of Serber's spectator break-up model. When going to angles smaller than grazing, where Coulomb effects are expected to the dominating, transitional features may appear. Corresponding effects probably associated with Coulomb break-up are observed with the 208Pb-target and require a slight extension of the Serber approach. In the case of the 12C-target the break-up cross sections in forward direction seem to reflect the shape of the internal momentum distribution of the alpha particle and deuteron cluster in the 6Li-projectile and are in agreement with a 2S-type wave function. However, at larger angles the shape appears to be distorted, possibly by final state interactions. (orig.)

  10. Breakup of 96 MeV α-particles in the 58,64Ni niclei fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the process of α-particle breakup into two deuterons and to estimate the applicability of data on breakup for extraction of diffusivity parameter (a) in the framework of the diffraction approach. Measurements of absolute values of differential cross sections (DCS) of 96 MeV α-particle breakup on 58,64Ni are carried out in the limited angular range: Θ1=22.5 deg, Θ2=50, 55, 60, -50, -60 deg. Wide maxima typical for the process of incident α-particle breakup are observed in deuteron energy spectra. Measured DCS for α-particle breakup show distinct difference for 58Ni and 64Ni. The calculations describe satisfactorily this difference in the framework of the diffraction approach, if it is supposed that the diffusivity parameter for 58Ni nucleus has the value a=0.65 fm, and for 64Ni - a=0.85 fm

  11. Finite Range Effects on Fusion and/or Breakup of 6He+238U and 11Li+208Pb Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sukhvinder S. Duhan; Manjeet Singh; Rajesh Kharab; H.C. Sharma

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the finite range of the interaction between the fragments of the projectile on the fusion and/or breakup of 6He+238U and 11 Li+208 Pb systems at near barrier energies within the framework of dynamic polarization potential approach.It has been found that at near barrier energies the maximum flux is lost to the breakup channel and at energies well above the Coulomb barrier the fusion coupled with the breakup channel opens up, initially with sharp rise and later becoming saturated at energy nearly twice of the Coulomb barrier.Further, it is found that the breakup cross section increases with the increasing range of the interaction between the fragments of the projectile while the fusion coupled with the breakup channel cross section decreases with the increasing range.

  12. Polarized proton induced reactions on lithium isotopes around 14 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential cross sections, analyzing powers, and double differential cross sections were measured for 6Li(p,x) reactions at 14.0 MeV and for 7Li(p,x) reactions at 12.0, 14.0 and 16.0 MeV. The three-body breakup reactions of 6Li(p,d)pα, 6Li(p,α)pd and 7Li(p,t)pα were intensively studied in order to understand their reaction mechanisms, which must be similar in the neutron induced reactions. Moreover, the contribution of the four-body 6Li(p,2p)nα breakup reaction in the 6Li(p,xp) reaction has been estimated and analyzed on the basis of the sequential decay processes. The optical potential of the p-7Li system has been discussed. (author)

  13. Deformation pathways and breakup modes in acoustically levitated bicomponent droplets under external heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Binita; Basu, Saptarshi

    2016-03-01

    Controlled breakup of droplets using heat or acoustics is pivotal in applications such as pharmaceutics, nanoparticle production, and combustion. In the current work we have identified distinct thermal acoustics-induced deformation regimes (ligaments and bubbles) and breakup dynamics in externally heated acoustically levitated bicomponent (benzene-dodecane) droplets with a wide variation in volatility of the two components (benzene is significantly more volatile than dodecane). We showcase the physical mechanism and universal behavior of droplet surface caving in leading to the inception and growth of ligaments. The caving of the top surface is governed by a balance between the acoustic pressure field and the restrictive surface tension of the droplet. The universal collapse of caving profiles for different benzene concentration (force balance. Continuous caving leads to the formation of a liquid membrane-type structure which undergoes radial extension due to inertia gained during the precursor phase. The membrane subsequently closes at the rim and the kinetic energy leads to ligament formation and growth. Subsequent ligament breakup is primarily Rayleigh-Plateau type. The breakup mode shifts to diffusional entrapment-induced boiling with an increase in concentration of the volatile component (benzene >70 % by volume). The findings are portable to any similar bicomponent systems with differential volatility.

  14. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ∼12 2), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak

  15. Breakup of the projectile in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report on an experiment in which the 4He breakup channel of 16O projectiles on various targets (27Al, 58Ni, 197Au) has been studied inclusively, and exclusively (in coincidence with charged pions). The bombarding energy was 94 MeV/nucleon. (D.L.). 7 refs., 5 figs

  16. Large-eddy simulation of cavitating nozzle flow and primary jet break-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Örley, F.; Trummler, T.; Hickel, S.; Mihatsch, M.S.; Schmidt, S.J.; Adams, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    We employ a barotropic two-phase/two-fluid model to study the primary break-up of cavitating liquid jets emanating from a rectangular nozzle, which resembles a high aspect-ratio slot flow. All components (i.e., gas, liquid, and vapor) are represented by a homogeneous mixture approach. The cavitating

  17. Measurement of the Time Course of Optical Quality and Visual Deterioration during Tear Break-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haixia; THIBOS, LARRY; Begley, Carolyn G.; Bradley, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a new optical system was developed that simultaneously measured optical quality and visual performance during monitoring of tear film instability. The results confirmed that blurry vision symptoms reported by contact lens patients are caused by the poor quality of the retinal image due to tear break-up.

  18. From the Coulomb breakup of halo nuclei to neutron radiative capture

    CERN Document Server

    Capel, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Coulomb breakup is used to infer radiative-capture cross sections at astrophysical energies. We test theoretically the accuracy of this indirect technique in the particular case of 15C, for which both the Coulomb breakup to ^{14}C+n and the radiative capture 14C(n,{\\gamma})15C have been measured. We analyse the dependance of Coulomb-breakup calculations on the projectile description in both its initial bound state and its continuum. Our calculations depend not only on the Asymptotic Normalisation Coefficient (ANC) of the 15C ground state, but also on the 14C-n continuum. This questions the method proposed by Summers and Nunes [Phys. Rev. C 78, 011601 (2008), ibid. 78, 069908 (2008)], which assumes that an ANC can be directly extracted from the comparison of calculations to breakup data. Fortunately, the sensitivity to the continuum description can be absorbed in a normalisation constant obtained by a simple {\\chi}2 fit of our calculations to the measurements. By restricting this fit to low 14C-n energy in the...

  19. Tidal Breakup of the Nucleus of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The breakup of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 is discussed both in the context of splitting as a cometary phenomenon and comparing it with other split comets. The physical appearance of the comet is described, diagnostic features are identified, and implications are noted for modelling the event.

  20. Influence of projectile α-breakup threshold on complete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete fusion excitation functions for B11,10+Tb159 have been measured at energies around the respective Coulomb barriers, and the existing complete fusion measurements for Li7+Tb159 have been extended to higher energies. The measurements show significant reduction of complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies for both the reactions, B10+Tb159 and Li7+Tb159, when compared to those for B11+Tb159. The comparison shows that the extent of suppression of complete fusion cross sections is correlated with the α-separation energies of the projectiles. Also, the two reactions, B10+Tb159 and Li7+Tb159 were found to produce incomplete fusion products at energies near the respective Coulomb barriers, with the α-particle emitting channel being the favoured incomplete fusion process in both the cases

  1. Influence of projectile - breakup threshold on complete fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, A; Pradhan, M K; Sarkar, M S; Basu, P; Dasmahapatra, B; Bhattacharya, T; Bhattacharya, S; Basu, S K; Chatterjee, A; Tripathi, V; Kailas, S; Roy, Subinit

    2006-01-01

    Complete fusion excitations for 11,10B+159Tb have been measured at energies around the respective Coulomb barriers, and the existing complete fusion measurements for 7Li+159Tb have been extended to higher energies. The measurements show significant reduction of complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies for both the reactions, 10B+159Tb and 7Li+159Tb, when compared to those for 11B+159Tb. The comparison shows that the extent of suppression of complete fusion cross sections is correlated with the -separation energies of the projectiles. Also, the two reactions, 10B+159Tb and 7Li+159Tb were found to produce incomplete fusion products at energies near the respective Coulomb barriers, with the - particle emitting channel being the favoured incomplete fusion process in both the cases.

  2. Sharing Remote and Local Information for Tracking Spring Breakup in the Mackenzie Delta and Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, D. L.; Whalen, D.; Fraser, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Mackenzie Delta is the second largest on the Arctic Ocean, covering 13 000 km2. The annual flood regime in the delta is dominated by the spring snowmelt freshet and associated ice breakup, as water from the south arrives in the ice-covered delta and spreads over bottomfast and adjacent floating sea ice at the delta front. The complex processes of water-ice interaction, flow partitioning, and overbank flooding to replenish waters in 43 000 delta lakes threaten community, transportation, subsistence, and energy infrastructure in the delta. The annual breakup season is a time of rejuvenation, excitement, and anxiety for delta residents and stakeholders. To track the progress of breakup and meet the need for knowledge dissemination to the local communities, a Mackenzie-Beaufort breakup newsletter has been produced by Natural Resources Canada on a quasi-daily basis during the May-June spring flood season for 10 years, and distributed to an e-mail list that grew to over 300 subscribers. This provides near real-time tracking of water levels and breakup using on-line gauges (Environment Canada), daily MODIS satellite imagery (NASA), Landsat imagery (USGS) and intermittent radar imagery (various sources). In earlier years, information was also supplied from field programs operating in the delta during breakup, but changing priorities and funding have reduced the number of outside researchers present during these critical weeks. Meanwhile the number of local contributors has grown, providing observations and photographs to share with the local, regional and global readership. In this way the newsletter evolved into a two-way communication tool and community portal. The newsletter is a chronicle of each breakup season and a key resource for territorial and municipal managers, subsistence organizations, and emergency response agencies, with routine requests for specific imagery in areas of concern. With the completion of 10 years under the present model, we are exploring

  3. Breakup Style and Magmatic Underplating West of the Lofoten Islands, Norway, Based on OBS Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.; Mjelde, R.; Murai, Y.; Flueh, E. R.

    2014-12-01

    The breakup of the Northeast Atlantic in the Early Eocene was magma-rich, forming the major part of the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP). This is seen as extrusive and intrusive magmatism in the continental domain, and as a thicker than normal oceanic crust produced the first few million years after continental breakup. The maximum magma productivity and the duration of excess magmatism varies along the margins of Northwest Europe and East Greenland, to some extent as a function of the distance from the Iceland hotspot. The Vøring Plateau off mid-Norway is the northernmost of the margin segments in northwestern Europe with extensive magmatism. North of the plateau, magmatism dies off towards the Lofoten Margin, marking the northern boundary of the NAIP here. In 2003, as part of the Euromargins Program we collected an Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) profile from mainland Norway, across the Lofoten Islands, and out into the deep ocean. Forward velocity modeling using raytracing reveals a continental margin that shows transitional features between magma-rich and magma-poor rifting. On one hand, we detect an up to 2 km thick and 40-50 km wide magmatic underplate of the outer continent, on the other hand, continental thinning is greater and intrusive magmatism less than farther south. Continental breakup also appears to be somewhat delayed compared to breakup on the Vøring Plateau, consistent with increased extension. This indicates that magmatic diking, believed to quickly lead to continental breakup of volcanic margins and thus to reduce continental thinning, played a much lesser role here than at the plateau. Early post-breakup oceanic crust is up to 8 km thick, less than half of that observed farther south. The most likely interpretation of these observations, is that the source for the excess magmatism of the NAIP was not present at the Lofoten Margin during rifting, and that the excess magmatism actually observed was the result of lateral transport from the

  4. Post-breakup Basin Evolution along the South-Atlantic Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic evolution of large offshore basins along the South American and African continental margins record strongly varying post-rift sedimentary successions. The northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt in comparison to the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. Another important observation is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. A regional comparison based on tectonic-stratigraphic analysis of selected seismic transects between the large basins offshore southern Brazil (Espirito Santo Basin, Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Lower Congo Basin, Kwanza Basin, Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin) provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of the key geological parameters controlling ocean and continental margin development. This comparison includes the margin configuration, subsidence development through time, sediment influx and storage patterns, type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems) and finally major tectonic and magmatic events. Data from the salt basins indicate that salt-related tectonic deformation is amongst the prime controls for the non-uniform post-rift margin development. The diversity in the stratigraphic architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are (a) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, (b) the post break-up subsidence history of the respective margin segment

  5. The calculation of angular and energy-angular distributions for n+D reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy-angular distributions for secondary neutrons and protons of breakup reactions and the elastic angular distributions of n+D were calculated by the computer code TSD which was developed by Chu and his co-workers from the three-body integral equations based on Faddeev-AGS theory. The results are compiled in the ENDF/B-6 format, and they are stored in the second version of Chinese Evaluated Nuclear DAta Library, CENDL-2. Their errors of energy conservation for breakup are less than one percent. The differential cross sections of the elastic scattering and the double-differential cross sections for secondary neutrons and protons of breakup reactions were calculated from CENDL-2, the results are in good agreement with the experimental data

  6. Attachment styles and personal growth following romantic breakups: the mediating roles of distress, rumination, and tendency to rebound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara C Marshall

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the associations of attachment anxiety and avoidance with personal growth following relationship dissolution, and to test breakup distress, rumination, and tendency to rebound with new partners as mediators of these associations. Study 1 (N = 411 and Study 2 (N = 465 measured attachment style, breakup distress, and personal growth; Study 2 additionally measured ruminative reflection, brooding, and proclivity to rebound with new partners. Structural equation modelling revealed in both studies that anxiety was indirectly associated with greater personal growth through heightened breakup distress, whereas avoidance was indirectly associated with lower personal growth through inhibited breakup distress. Study 2 further showed that the positive association of breakup distress with personal growth was accounted for by enhanced reflection and brooding, and that anxious individuals' greater personal growth was also explained by their proclivity to rebound. These findings suggest that anxious individuals' hyperactivated breakup distress may act as a catalyst for personal growth by promoting the cognitive processing of breakup-related thoughts and emotions, whereas avoidant individuals' deactivated distress may inhibit personal growth by suppressing this cognitive work.

  7. Two-valued breakup length of a water jet issuing from a finite-length nozzle under normal gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Akira; Kawanabe, Sho; Suzuki, Sousuke; Osaka, Jun

    2011-09-01

    Laboratory experiments are conducted in which water is issued vertically downward from a finite-length nozzle at a constant speed using a piston. The results of these experiments indicate that the breakup length of the liquid jet is two-valued at Weber numbers greater than unity but less than a certain value, which depends on the nozzle length-to-radius ratio and the Bond number. In addition to a long breakup length, which is consistent with the conventional observation, another shorter breakup length is realized at the same jet issue speed. Each experimental run for a specific jet issue speed begins from the start of liquid issue so that each run is independent of the other runs. Transition between the two breakup lengths seldom occurs in each run. Which of the two breakup lengths occurs is determined at the start of liquid issue, when the capillary wave produced by the liquid jet tip contraction easily reaches the nozzle exit. Unlike the conventional belief, which is based on the Plateau-Rayleigh instability theory, this experimental evidence demonstrates that liquid jet disintegration occurs in a deterministic manner. The previously proposed self-destabilizing mechanism of a liquid jet in microgravity, in which the origin of the unstable wave responsible for the breakups is attributed to the formation of an upstream propagating capillary wave at every breakup, is extended to explore the physics underlying the observed liquid jet disintegration behaviors. PMID:22060494

  8. Asymmetries in electron-induced breakup of polarized 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jefferson Lab Experiment E05-102 'Measurement of Ax' and Az' asymmetries in the quasi-elastic 3He(e,e'd) reaction' was performed in Hall A in 2009. The main physics motivation of the experiment was to investigate the effects of small components of the 3He ground-state wave-function by a simultaneous measurement of double-polarization asymmetries in quasi-elastic kinematics for three exclusive channels, (e,e'd), (e,e'p), and (e,e'n), at almost identical momentum transfers, as well as for (e,e'). This experiment will help map the spin structure of the 3He nucleus onto the picture of the ''free'' polarized neutron. As such, it is of great relevance to the polarized-neutron programs at Jefferson Lab and beyond.

  9. Fusion and nonfusion phenomena in the 6Li+40Ca reaction at 156 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction products from 6Li-induced reactions on 40Ca at 156 MeV have been studied using the dE x E identification as well as the inclusive γ-ray method. The complete fusion cross-section has been found to be σsub(f)=(77 +- 11)mb. The Z distribution of fusion evaporation residues is compared with statistical model predictions. The Z spectrum of reaction products shows a maximum at 156Li break-up. (author)

  10. Deformation pathways and breakup modes in acoustically levitated bicomponent droplets under external heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Binita; Basu, Saptarshi

    2016-03-01

    Controlled breakup of droplets using heat or acoustics is pivotal in applications such as pharmaceutics, nanoparticle production, and combustion. In the current work we have identified distinct thermal acoustics-induced deformation regimes (ligaments and bubbles) and breakup dynamics in externally heated acoustically levitated bicomponent (benzene-dodecane) droplets with a wide variation in volatility of the two components (benzene is significantly more volatile than dodecane). We showcase the physical mechanism and universal behavior of droplet surface caving in leading to the inception and growth of ligaments. The caving of the top surface is governed by a balance between the acoustic pressure field and the restrictive surface tension of the droplet. The universal collapse of caving profiles for different benzene concentration (70 % by volume). The findings are portable to any similar bicomponent systems with differential volatility.

  11. Theoretical study of the elastic breakup of weakly bound nuclei at near barrier energies

    CERN Document Server

    Otomar, D R; Lubian, J; Canto, L F; Hussein, M S

    2015-01-01

    We have performed CDCC calculations for collisions of $^{7}$Li projectiles on $^{59}$Co, $^{144}$Sm and $^{208}$Pb targets at near-barrier energies, to assess the importance of the Coulomb and the nuclear couplings in the breakup of $^{7}$Li, as well as the Coulomb-nuclear interference. We have also investigated scaling laws, expressing the dependence of the cross sections on the charge and the mass of the target. This work is complementary to the one previously reported by us on the breakup of $^{6}$Li. Here we explore the similarities and differences between the results for the two Lithium isotopes. The relevance of the Coulomb dipole strength at low energy for the two-cluster projectile is investigated in details.

  12. Total cross section for p-d breakup below 30 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Kievsky, A; Viviani, M

    2000-01-01

    The total cross section for p-d breakup is studied in terms of the elastic S-matrix through the unitary condition. Calculations using the complex Kohn variational method along with the Pair Correlated Hyperspherical Harmonic basis are presented. The results have been restricted to energies below Ep=30 MeV where Coulomb effects are expected to be sizable and are compared to the existing data. Two different measurements have been found in the literature: 40 years ago, Gibbons and Macklin (1959); and 26 years ago, Carlosn et al. (1973). The calculations are found to be in reasonable agreement with these old data, though a discrepancy is observed near the deuteron breakup threshold. Moreover, a detailed analysis of the contributions to the observable from different partial waves has been presented. Unexpectedly, the main contribution for a wide range of energies has been detected in the J=3/2- state.

  13. Development of the VESUVIUS code for steam explosion analysis. Pt.2: verification of jet breakup modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierow, K.; Naitoh, Masanori [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nagano, Katsuhiro; Araki, Kazuhiro

    1998-12-01

    In the comparison Part 1 paper, the jet breakup model incorporated into the VESUVIUS code was described. Herein, initial verification of the VESUVIUS jet breakup modeling by comparison of calculation results against the PREMIX PM10 and FARO L-14 experimental data is discussed. Predictions of the main experimental parameters, which include steam outlet flow rate and interaction region` development for the PREMIX test and test vessel pressure and level swell for the FARO test, are shown to be in good agreement with the test data. In addition, the change with time of the jet axial profile and two-dimensional spatial distributions of the jet and coolant, which are not available as experimental data, are discussed in an attempt to further clarify molten jet behavior. (author)

  14. Romantic Partner Monitoring After Breakups: Attachment, Dependence, Distress, and Post-Dissolution Online Surveillance via Social Networking Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Tokunaga, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Romantic relationship dissolution can be stressful, and social networking sites make it difficult to separate from a romantic partner online as well as offline. An online survey (N = 431) tested a model synthesizing attachment, investment model variables, and post-dissolution emotional distress as predictors of interpersonal surveillance (i.e., "Facebook stalking") of one's ex-partner on Facebook after a breakup. Results indicated that anxious attachment predicted relational investment but also seeking relationship alternatives; avoidant attachment was negatively related to investment but positively related to seeking alternatives. Investment predicted commitment, whereas seeking alternatives was negatively related to commitment. Commitment predicted emotional distress after the breakup. Distress predicted partner monitoring immediately following the breakup, particularly for those who did not initiate the breakup, as well as current partner monitoring. Given their affordances, social media are discussed as potentially unhealthy enablers for online surveillance after relationship termination. PMID:26348808

  15. Study of Ground State Wave-function of the Neutron-rich 29,30Na Isotopes through Coulomb Breakup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahaman A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Coulomb breakup of unstable neutron rich nuclei 29,30Na around the ‘island of inversion’ has been studied at energy around 434 MeV/nucleon and 409 MeV/nucleon respectively. Four momentum vectors of fragments, decay neutron from excited projectile and γ-rays emitted from excited fragments after Coulomb breakup are measured in coincidence. For these nuclei, the low-lying dipole strength above one neutron threshold can be explained by direct breakup model. The analysis for Coulomb breakup of 29,30Na shows that large amount of the cross section yields the 28Na, 29Na core in ground state. The predominant ground-state configuration of 29,30Na is found to be 28Na(g.s⊗νs1/2 and 29Na(g.s⊗νs1/2,respectively.

  16. Study of the Beta-delayed multiple particle break-up of the 2.43 MeV state in Be-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madurga Flores, Miguel; Borge, M. J. G.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Jonson, B.; Nyman, G.; Prezado, Y.; Riisager, K.

    The aim of this work is to study the β -delayed multiparticle break-up of the 5/2- state in 9 Be at 2.43 MeV excitation energy. This process is relevant as it has been proposed recently that this level plays a role in the α(αn,γ)9 Be reaction. This state breaks-up in 2α+n, and sequential as well as direct ("democratic") decay have previously been considered. In our work energy and direction of the two emitted α particles has been measured, while those of the neutron have been reconstructed. The sequential decay is considered using the R-matrix formalism. For the democratic decay the hyper-spherical harmonics functions are used. The different decay processes are compared with the data using the Monte-Carlo method. Our preliminary results indicate that the data is better described when democratic decay is assumed.

  17. Multi-pass, multi-bunch beam breakup for 9-cell Tesla cavities in the ERL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally, the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) needs specially designed high current superconducting RF cavities. In this paper, the threshold current of beam breakup for compact ERL facilities with 9-cell Tesla type cavities are investigated. The results show that it is feasible to adopt the 9-cell Tesla cavity for compact ERL test facilities with just a few cavities and beam current around 10 mA. (authors)

  18. Deformation and Break-up of Suspension Droplets Sheared in an Immiscible Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desse, Melinda; Hill, Sandra E.; Mitchell, John R.; Wolf, Bettina; Budtova, Tatiana

    2008-07-01

    The deformation and break-up behaviour of suspension droplets immersed in an immiscible fluid has not been widely studied albeit such systems are frequently encountered in every day multiphase products such as foods and cosmetics. Starch is a common thickener used in the food industry. Starch suspensions have shown to offer better flavour perception than polymer thickened solutions; a better understanding of their behaviour under flow would be beneficial in terms of advancement on product formulation. Deformation and break-up of a droplet of swollen-in-water starch granules placed in high viscosity silicon oil was visualised using a counter-rotating parallel-plate shear cell. The silicon oil had a high viscosity to induce shear stresses high enough to deform the droplet; it is also transparent and inert towards the studied system. The starch suspension was prepared to have a volume fraction of 100% swollen granules, i.e. that all water was bound within the swollen starch granules. The shear flow behaviour of this starch suspension is characterised by an apparent yield stress, shear-thinning and first normal stress differences. The rheo-optical experiments were conducted as start-up flow experiments applying shear stresses above the apparent yield stress. A constant shear stress throughout the experiment allows a constant viscosity of the droplet and therefore rules out the shear thinning aspect. Analysis showed droplet break-up at critical Capillary numbers close to those reported for Newtonian fluids. The results demonstrate that the droplet break-up behaviour in a complex emulsion system submitted to shear flow may not be fully described by the rheology of the individual phases alone but may require a microstructure component.

  19. Doomsday for the Euro Area: Causes, Variants and Consequences of Breakup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansgar Belke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the genesis of a doomsday scenario and discuss potential causes and motivations for a breakup of the euro area. For this purpose, we differentiate between the departure of weak and strong countries, and examine the impact of the reintroduction of a national currency on domestic debt, the domestic banking sector, EU membership and the freedom of trade. We also briefly analyze the social and political costs of the accompanying social disorder.

  20. Dynamics of Growth and Breakup of Viscous Pendant Drops into Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang

    1999-04-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the dynamics of a viscous liquid drop that is being formed directly at the tip of a vertical tube into ambient air. A model is developed to predict the evolution of the drop shape and its breakup based on RIPPLE, which is a solution algorithm for computing transient, two-dimensional, incompressible fluid flow with surface tension on free surfaces of general topology (D. B. Kothe and R. C. Mjolsness, AIAA J. 30, 2694 (1992)). The full Navier-Stokes system is solved by using finite-difference formulation on a Eulerian mesh. The mesh is fixed in space, with the flow and surface moving through it to ensure accurate calculations of complex free surface flows and topology, including surface breakup and coalescence. The novel feature of the numerical algorithm is the use of a Eulerian volume-tracking approach which allows the calculations to pass the breaking point during formation of a drop continuously without interruption or numerical modification and, therefore, to explore the features of generation of satellite droplets. The effects of physical and geometric parameters on the nonlinear dynamics of drop growth and breakup are investigated. The focus here is on drop breakup and subsequent formation of satellite droplets. The effects of finite inertial, capillary, viscous, and gravitational forces are all accounted for to classify different formation dynamics and to elucidate features of satellite droplet generation. The numerical predictions are compared with experimental measurements for water drops, and the results show good agreement. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10072280

  1. Hyperinflations Are Rare, but a Breakup of the Euro Area Could Prompt One

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Aslund

    2012-01-01

    Hyperinflation—usually 1,000 percent or more a year—occurs only under very special circumstances: in a disorderly breakup of a currency zone; after wars or revolutions, when monetary or fiscal authorities lack control; and when wild populism prevails. Åslund reviews the historical record and shows that hyperinflation does not arise by mistake but because of major dysfunction or mismanagement. Responsible countries with reasonable governance may default, but they do not have hyperinflation. Th...

  2. Formation, cascade development and breakup of the X pinch sausage-type instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data on the X-pinches high-resolution shadowgraphy in a high-power thick plasma generator are presented. The process of mini-diode formation, sausage-type instability originating therein, its breakup and subsequent destruction are studied. The cascade formation of short-living structures, firmly reproducing the mini-diode form in smaller scales before the X-ray flare, are observed in the process of implosion. The position of the X-ray emission points is determined

  3. EOS Microwave Limb Sounder observations of the Antarctic polar vortex breakup in 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Manney, G. L.; M. L. Santee; N. J. Livesey; Froidevaux, L.; W. G. Read; Pumphrey, H. C.; Waters, J.W.; Pawson, S.

    2005-01-01

    New observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on NASA's Aura satellite give a detailed picture of the spring Antarctic polar vortex breakup throughout the stratosphere, with the first daily global HCl profiles providing an unprecedentedly clear view of transport in the lower stratosphere. Poleward transport at progressively lower levels, filamentation, and mixing are detailed in MLS HCl, N2O, H2O, and O3 as the 2004 Antarctic vortex broke up from the top down in early October through...

  4. Breakup of finite thickness viscous shell microbubbles by ultrasound: A simplified zero-thickness shell model

    OpenAIRE

    HSIAO, Chao-Tsung; Chahine, Georges L.

    2013-01-01

    A simplified three-dimensional (3-D) zero-thickness shell model was developed to recover the non-spherical response of thick-shelled encapsulated microbubbles subjected to ultrasound excitation. The model was validated by comparison with previously developed models and was then used to study the mechanism of bubble break-up during non-spherical deformations resulting from the presence of a nearby rigid boundary. The effects of the shell thickness and the bubble standoff distanc...

  5. Nd isotope constraints on ocean circulation, paleoclimate, and continental drainage during the Jurassic breakup of Pangea

    OpenAIRE

    Dera, Guillaume; Prunier, Jonathan; Smith, Paul L.; Haggart, James W.; Popov, Evgeny; Guzhov, Alexander; Rogov, Mikhail; Delsate, Dominique; Thies, Detlev; Cuny, Gilles; Puceat, Emmanuelle; Charbonnier, Guillaume; Bayon, Germain

    2015-01-01

    The breakup of Pangea and onset of growth of the Pacific plate led to several paleoenvironmental feedbacks, which radically affected paleoclimate and ocean chemistry during the Jurassic. Overall, this period was characterized by intense volcanic degassing from large igneous provinces and circum-Panthalassan arcs, new oceanic circulation patterns, and changes in heat and humidity transports affecting continental weathering. Few studies, however, have attempted to unravel the global interaction...

  6. Numerical studies of spray breakup in a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine

    OpenAIRE

    Jafarmadar Samad; Heidarpoor Vahied

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate Spray Breakup process of sprays injected from single and two-hole nozzles for gasoline direct Injection (GDI) engines by using three dimensional CFD code. Spray characteristics were examined for spray tip penetration and other characteristics including: the vapor phase concentration distribution and droplet spatial distribution, which were acquired using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Results showed that as the hole-axis-...

  7. How the liner material metallurgical affects the shaped charge jet break-up time

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hirsch, E.; Plešek, Jiří; Gabriel, Dušan

    SaintLouis : EDP Sciences, 2003 - (Cirne, J.), s. 723-727 [International conference on mechanical and physical behaviour of materials under dynamic loading /7./. Porto (PT), 08.09.2003-12.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/03/0331 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : shape charge * liner * jet break-up Time Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  8. The NASA Ames Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility: Experimental Simulation of the Atmospheric Break-Up of Meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, M. C.; Bogdanoff, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility at NASA Ames Research Center provides a potential platform for the experimental simulation of meteor breakup at conditions that closely match full-scale entry condition for select parameters. The poster describes the entry environment simulation capabilities of the Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF) at NASA Ames Research Center and provides example images of the fragmentation of a hypersonic projectile for which break-up was initiated by mechanical forces (impact with a thin polymer diaphragm).

  9. Applicability of the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method to the deuteron breakup at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We re-examine the deuteron elastic breakup cross sections on 12C and 10Be at low incident energies, for which a serious discrepancy between the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method (CDCC) and the Faddeev-Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas theory (FAGS) was pointed out. We show the closed-channels neglected in the preceding study affect significantly the breakup cross section calculated with CDCC, resulting in good agreement with the result of FAGS.

  10. Cluster Model For Reactions Induced By Weakly Bound And/Or Exotic Halo Nuclei With Medium-Mass Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, C; Papka, P; Courtin, S; Rousseau, M; Souza, F A; Carlin, N; Neto, F Liguori; De Moura, M M; Del Santo, M G; Suade, A A I; Munhoz, M G; Szanto, E M; De Toledo, A Szanto; Keeley, N; Diaz-Torres, A; Hagino, K

    2010-01-01

    An experimental overview of reactions induced by the stable, but weakly-bound nuclei 6Li, 7Li and 9Be, and by the exotic, halo nuclei 6He, 8He, 8B, and 11Be on medium-mass targets, such as 58Ni, 59Co or 64Zn, is presented. Existing data on elastic scattering, total reaction cross sections, fusion processes, breakup and transfer channels are discussed in the framework of a CDCC approach taking into account the breakup degree of freedom.

  11. Updated evidences of the Trojan Horse particle invariance for $^2$H(d,p)$^3$H reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.(Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia, Univ. di Catania, via S. Sofia, Catania, Italy); Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L.; M. La Cognata; Lamia, L; Rinollo, A.; Spartá, R.; A. Tumino

    2012-01-01

    The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance for the binary d(d,p)t reaction was tested using the quasi free $^2$H($^6$Li, pt)$^4$He and $^2$H($^3$He,pt)H reactions after $^6$Li and $^3$He break-up, respectively. The astrophysical S(E)-factor for the d(d,p)t binary process was then extracted in the framework of the Plane Wave Approximation applied to the two different break-up schemes. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good ag...

  12. The absence of a dense potential core in supercritical injection: A thermal break-up mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banuti, Daniel T.; Hannemann, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Certain experiments in quasi-isobaric supercritical injection remain unexplained by the current state of theory: Without developing a constant value potential core as expected from the mechanical view of break-up, density is observed to drop immediately upon entering the chamber. Furthermore, this phenomenon has never been captured in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) despite having become a de facto standard case for real fluid CFD validation. In this paper, we present strong evidence for a thermal jet disintegration mechanism (in addition to classical mechanical break-up) which resolves both the theoretical and the computational discrepancies. A new interpretation of supercritical jet disintegration is introduced, based on pseudo-boiling, a nonlinear supercritical transition from gas-like to liquid-like states. We show that thermal disintegration may dominate classical mechanical break-up when heat transfer takes place in the injector and when the fluid state is sufficiently close to the pseudo-boiling point. A procedure which allows to capture subsided cores with standard CFD is provided and demonstrated.

  13. Stereotypes about the Serbs and the break-up of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the influence of Western press, mainly German Austrian and American on the break-up of the second Yugoslavia. Regarding German and Austrian press, it only renewed old and created new stereotypes about the Serbs and Serbia in the eve and during the break-up of Yugoslavia. Comparative analysis shows that these are the long lasting structures and that this writing is in accordance with a long tradition. At the end, German and Austrian elites reached consensus regarding these specific issues, that is, break-up of Yugoslavia. On the other hand, the attitude of the USA press was changing in accordance with the changes in the position of the administration. American media have a unique standpoint towards the foreign public and they represent the proclaimed interests of the administration. This means that the USA government, through the controlled media, prepared its public for its future steps in order to justify the recognition of separated republics.

  14. DebriSat: The New Hypervelocity Impact Test for Satellite Breakup Fragment Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, Heather

    2015-01-01

    To replicate a hyper-velocity fragmentation event using modern-day spacecraft materials and construction techniques to better improve the existing DoD and NASA breakup models: DebriSat is intended to be representative of modern LEO satellites. Major design decisions were reviewed and approved by Aerospace subject matter experts from different disciplines. DebriSat includes 7 major subsystems. Attitude determination and control system (ADCS), command and data handling (C&DH), electrical power system (EPS), payload, propulsion, telemetry tracking and command (TT&C), and thermal management. To reduce cost, most components are emulated based on existing design of flight hardware and fabricated with the same materials. center dotA key laboratory-based test, Satellite Orbital debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), supporting the development of the DoD and NASA satellite breakup models was conducted at AEDC in 1992. Breakup models based on SOCIT have supported many applications and matched on-orbit events reasonably well over the years.

  15. Rapid three-dimensional passive rotation micromixer using the breakup process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Jin; Kim, Jung Kyung; Park, Junha; Chung, Seok; Chung, Chanil; Chang, Jun Keun

    2004-01-01

    Stretching and folding, diffusion, and breakup are three basic processes that occur while mixing fluids. Although stretching and folding the interface of two fluids by rotation enables the mixing at microscale level in both low and high Reynolds number flows, rotation is not as effective at a low Reynolds number as at a high Reynolds number. Therefore, developing a rapid micromixer for microfluidic systems that can be used at a low Reynolds number is a challenging task, because it can demonstrate the full potential of microfluidic systems in commercial markets. Here, to enhance the mixing efficiency of a micromixer based on passive rotation, we present a breakup method. The breakup method not only generates interface actively but also enhances the diffusion process at the interface. With our novel design, over 70% mixing can be achieved only after passing through a 4 mm long microchannel. In this work, the mixer was easily fabricated with polydimethylsiloxane by soft lithography and a self-aligned bonding method with methanol. We analyzed the flow in the micromixer using the computational fluid dynamics method. Also, we conducted quantitative analyses using a confocal scanning microscope and image processing.

  16. Curvature Singularity in the Asymmetric Breakup of an Underwater Air Bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Lipeng

    2012-01-01

    The presence of slight azimuthal asymmetry in the initial shape of an underwater bubble entirely alters the final breakup dynamics. Here I examine the influence of initial asymmetry on the final breakup by simulating the bubble surface evolution as a Hamiltonian evolution corresponding to an inviscid, two-dimensional, planar implosion. I find two types of breakups: a previously reported coalescence mode in which distant regions along the air-water surface curve inwards and eventually collide with finite speed, and a hitherto unknown cusp-like mode in which the surface develops sharp tips whose radii of curvature are much smaller than the average neck radius. I present three sets of results that characterize the nature of this cusp mode. First, I show that the cusp mode corresponds to a saddle-node. In other words, an evolution towards a cross-section shape with sharp tips invariably later evolves away from it. In phase space, this saddle-node separates coalescence modes whose coalescence planes lie along diff...

  17. Liquid jet breakup characterization with application to melt-water mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe accidents in light-water reactors could lead to the flow of molten core material from the initial core region of the reactor vessel to the lower plenum. Steam explosions have been predicted to occur as a result of the contact of the melt with water available in the plenum. It is presently judged by many workers, that the magnitude of the energy released during such an in-vessel explosion would be insufficient to lead to failure of the containment building (SERG, 1985). A major contributing factor in this judgment is that the mass of melt which would participate in the interaction would be limited by the quantity of melt delivered to the lower plenum to the time of the explosion and by the limited breakup of the molten pour stream as it flows through the plenum prior to the explosion. Limited pour stream breakup would lead to limited melt-water mixing and, in addition, to the existence of ''large-scale'' melt masses which may lead to very inefficient thermal-to-mechanical energy conversion. The objective of this paper is to assess the available literature relevant to liquid jet breakup and to assess its implications with respect to the behavior of molten corium pour streams as they would flow from the core region through the lower plenum. Uncertainties in application of the available literature are discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs

  18. Influence of surfactant on the drop bag breakup in a continuous air jet stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng; Liu, Hai-Feng

    2016-05-01

    The deformation and breakup of surfactant-laden drops is a common phenomenon in nature and numerous practical applications. We investigate influence of surfactant on the drop bag breakup in a continuous air jet stream. The airflow would induce the advection diffusion of surfactant between interface and bulk of drop. Experiments indicate that the convective motions of deforming drop would induce the non-equilibrium distribution of surfactant, which leads to the change of surface tension. When the surfactant concentration is smaller than critical micelle concentration (CMC), with the increase of surface area of drop, the surface tension of liquid-air interface and the critical Weber number will increase. When the surfactant concentration is bigger than CMC, the micelle can be considered as the source term, which can supply the monomers. So in the presence of surfactant, there would be the significant nonlinear variation on the critical Weber number of bag breakup. We build the dynamic non-monotonic relationship between concentrations of surfactant and critical Weber number theoretically. In the range of parameters studied, the experimental results are consistent with the model estimates.

  19. A user`s guide for BREAKUP: A computer code for parallelizing the overset grid approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnette, D.W.

    1998-04-01

    In this user`s guide, details for running BREAKUP are discussed. BREAKUP allows the widely used overset grid method to be run in a parallel computer environment to achieve faster run times for computational field simulations over complex geometries. The overset grid method permits complex geometries to be divided into separate components. Each component is then gridded independently. The grids are computationally rejoined in a solver via interpolation coefficients used for grid-to-grid communications of boundary data. Overset grids have been in widespread use for many years on serial computers, and several well-known Navier-Stokes flow solvers have been extensively developed and validated to support their use. One drawback of serial overset grid methods has been the extensive compute time required to update flow solutions one grid at a time. Parallelizing the overset grid method overcomes this limitation by updating each grid or subgrid simultaneously. BREAKUP prepares overset grids for parallel processing by subdividing each overset grid into statically load-balanced subgrids. Two-dimensional examples with sample solutions, and three-dimensional examples, are presented.

  20. Large-eddy simulation of cavitating nozzle flow and primary jet break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We employ a barotropic two-phase/two-fluid model to study the primary break-up of cavitating liquid jets emanating from a rectangular nozzle, which resembles a high aspect-ratio slot flow. All components (i.e., gas, liquid, and vapor) are represented by a homogeneous mixture approach. The cavitating fluid model is based on a thermodynamic-equilibrium assumption. Compressibility of all phases enables full resolution of collapse-induced pressure wave dynamics. The thermodynamic model is embedded into an implicit large-eddy simulation (LES) environment. The considered configuration follows the general setup of a reference experiment and is a generic reproduction of a scaled-up fuel injector or control valve as found in an automotive engine. Due to the experimental conditions, it operates, however, at significantly lower pressures. LES results are compared to the experimental reference for validation. Three different operating points are studied, which differ in terms of the development of cavitation regions and the jet break-up characteristics. Observed differences between experimental and numerical data in some of the investigated cases can be caused by uncertainties in meeting nominal parameters by the experiment. The investigation reveals that three main mechanisms promote primary jet break-up: collapse-induced turbulent fluctuations near the outlet, entrainment of free gas into the nozzle, and collapse events inside the jet near the liquid-gas interface

  1. Droplet breakup by impacting upon dry and wet spacer grids during reflood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of the entrained droplet affects the reflood heat transfer by increasing the interfacial area between droplets and superheated steam. Experimental studies were performed with water droplet impacting on dry and wet steel strips. The dry grid was heated by gas torch and the dry condition was maintained during the experiment. The experiment focused on the droplet breakup induced by a thin steel strip simulating a spacer grid. Droplets were generated with a nozzle and they were injected downwards. A high-speed camera was used to visualize the behavior of the incoming and shattered droplet. Visisize Solo and MATLAB software were used to analyze its velocity and the diameter. A series of experiments were performed with dry and wet strip conditions in the Weber number range of 100 to 5000. A droplet breakup model was developed by assuming the droplet breakup is a mechanical phenomenon, not a thermo-hydraulic phenomenon. The proposed correlation was D32/D0=15.1*(We+126)(-0.56). Here, D0 is incoming droplet diameter before impacting on the strip and D32 is Sauter-mean diameter of shattered droplets. This correlation is applicable to a droplet field with Weber number of 100 to 5000 without considering droplet diameter to strip thickness ratio. We found out that the results of dry and wet strips were almost the same. (author)

  2. Nd isotope constraints on ocean circulation, paleoclimate, and continental drainage during the Jurassic breakup of Pangea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dera, Guillaume; Prunier, Jonathan; Smith, Paul L.;

    2015-01-01

    The breakup of Pangea and onset of growth of the Pacific plate led to several paleoenvironmental feedbacks, which radically affected paleoclimate and ocean chemistry during the Jurassic. Overall, this period was characterized by intense volcanic degassing from large igneous provinces and circum-P...... unradiogenic Arctic waters occurred in the NW Tethys in the Callovian-Early Oxfordian. All these results show that changes in surface oceanic circulation resulting from the Pangean breakup could have regionally impacted the evolution of seawater temperatures in the NW Tethys.......The breakup of Pangea and onset of growth of the Pacific plate led to several paleoenvironmental feedbacks, which radically affected paleoclimate and ocean chemistry during the Jurassic. Overall, this period was characterized by intense volcanic degassing from large igneous provinces and circum......-Panthalassan arcs, new oceanic circulation patterns, and changes in heat and humidity transports affecting continental weathering. Few studies, however, have attempted to unravel the global interactions linking these processes over the long-term. In this paper, we address this question by documenting the global...

  3. Large-eddy simulation of cavitating nozzle flow and primary jet break-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Örley, F., E-mail: felix.oerley@aer.mw.tum.de; Trummler, T.; Mihatsch, M. S.; Schmidt, S. J.; Adams, N. A. [Institute of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Hickel, S. [Institute of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Chair of Computational Aerodynamics, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, TU Delft, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    We employ a barotropic two-phase/two-fluid model to study the primary break-up of cavitating liquid jets emanating from a rectangular nozzle, which resembles a high aspect-ratio slot flow. All components (i.e., gas, liquid, and vapor) are represented by a homogeneous mixture approach. The cavitating fluid model is based on a thermodynamic-equilibrium assumption. Compressibility of all phases enables full resolution of collapse-induced pressure wave dynamics. The thermodynamic model is embedded into an implicit large-eddy simulation (LES) environment. The considered configuration follows the general setup of a reference experiment and is a generic reproduction of a scaled-up fuel injector or control valve as found in an automotive engine. Due to the experimental conditions, it operates, however, at significantly lower pressures. LES results are compared to the experimental reference for validation. Three different operating points are studied, which differ in terms of the development of cavitation regions and the jet break-up characteristics. Observed differences between experimental and numerical data in some of the investigated cases can be caused by uncertainties in meeting nominal parameters by the experiment. The investigation reveals that three main mechanisms promote primary jet break-up: collapse-induced turbulent fluctuations near the outlet, entrainment of free gas into the nozzle, and collapse events inside the jet near the liquid-gas interface.

  4. Study of the structure of unstable nuclei through the reaction experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with the development of the radioactive nuclear beam facility, the study of the structure of unstable nuclei has progressed rapidly over the last few decades. Due to the weakly binding property, the structure information of the unstable nuclei comes primarily from the scattering or reaction experiments. Therefore it would be very important to understand clearly the reaction mechanism involved in the experiment. We outlined here the major reaction mechanisms which are adequate to the study of unstable nuclei, with the focus on the new phenomena and methods in comparison with those with traditional stable nucleus beam. Especially emphasized are the breakup and knockout reactions, developed as accurate tools for spectroscopy investigation into the nuclear structure with low intensity secondary beam. Couplings of the breakup channel to the elastic scattering and the fusion and transfer reactions are also reviewed.

  5. On Low and Medium Energy Deuteron-induced Reactions on (63,65)CU

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimečková, Eva; Bém, Pavel; Honusek, Milan; Závorka, Lukáš; Fischer, U.; Simakov, SP.; Forrest, R.A.; Avrigeanu, V.; Roman, F.L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2011), s. 1928-1931. ISSN 0374-4884 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Deuterons * Activation * Breakup * Direct reactions Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2011

  6. Coarse break-up of a stream of oxide and steel melt in a water pool. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Break-up of a melt jet in a water pool is an important phenomenon in relation to the premixing phase of steam explosions and the coolability of debris bed in severe accidents of light water reactors. A series of experiments on the break-up of high temperature oxide and steel melt jets in a water pool were conducted. The objective was to obtain data for the jet break-up length and size distribution of the droplets produced by the jet break-up, and information on the influence of material properties. Also, we tried to obtain additional information giving a clue to the mechanism governing the melt jet break-up, such as flow intensity of the steam column surrounding the melt jet, and its relation with the droplet size. In the experiments, zirconia-alumina mixture and stainless steel melt jets with diameter ∼ 17mm and velocity ∼7.8m/s at the water surface were dropped into a deep (2.1m) or shallow (0.6m) water pool with various subcool. From the results of the present experiments and also by referring other experimental data from literature, we obtained empirical correlation equations for the jet break-up length, the fraction of jet broken-up in a shallow pool where the jet was not completely broken-up, and the droplet size. (author)

  7. With or Without You? Contextualizing the Impact of Romantic Relationship Breakup on Crime Among Serious Adolescent Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Matthew; Sweeten, Gary; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-01-01

    The decline and delay of marriage has prolonged adolescence and the transition to adulthood, and consequently fostered greater romantic relationship fluidity during a stage of the life course that is pivotal for both development and offending. Yet, despite a growing literature of the consequences of romantic relationships breakup, little is known about its connection with crime, especially among youth enmeshed in the criminal justice system. This article addresses this gap by examining the effects of relationship breakup on crime among justice-involved youth-a key policy-relevant group. We refer to data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a longitudinal study of 1354 (14% female) adjudicated youth from the juvenile and adult court systems in Phoenix and Philadelphia, to assess the nature and complexity of this association. In general, our results support prior evidence of breakup's criminogenic influence. Specifically, they suggest that relationship breakup's effect on crime is particularly acute among this at-risk sample, contingent upon post-breakup relationship transitions, and more pronounced for relationships that involve cohabitation. Our results also extend prior work by demonstrating that breakup is attenuated by changes in psychosocial characteristics and peer associations/exposure. We close with a discussion of our findings, their policy implications, and what they mean for research on relationships and crime among serious adolescent offenders moving forward. PMID:26092231

  8. Reaction dynamics for fusion of weakly-bound nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Hagino, K.; Vitturi, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss several open problems of fusion reactions induced by weakly bound nuclei. For this purpose, we solve a one dimensional three-body Hamiltonian with the coupled-channels formalism. We show that the continuum-continuum couplings substantially reduce the total fusion probability at energies above the barrier compared with the no-breakup case, although the fusion probability remains enhanced at subbarrier energies. We then discuss a role of transfer process in fusion of weakly bound nuc...

  9. Study of reactions induced by 6He on 9Be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires K.C.C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of experiments using a 6He beam on a 9Be target at energies 7 − 9 times the Coulomb barrier. Angular distributions of the elastic, inelastic scattering (target breakup and the a-particle production in the 6He+9Be collision have been analysed. Total reaction cross sections were obtained from the elastic scatteringanalyses and a considerable enhancement has been observed by comparing to stable systems.

  10. Establishing a theory for deuteron-induced surrogate reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potel, G.; Nunes, F. M.; Thompson, I. J.

    2015-09-01

    Background: Deuteron-induced reactions serve as surrogates for neutron capture into compound states. Although these reactions are of great applicability, no theoretical efforts have been invested in this direction over the last decade. Purpose: The goal of this work is to establish on firm grounds a theory for deuteron-induced neutron-capture reactions. This includes formulating elastic and inelastic breakup in a consistent manner. Method: We describe this process both in post- and prior-form distorted wave Born approximation following previous works and discuss the differences in the formulation. While the convergence issues arising in the post formulation can be overcome in the prior formulation, in this case one still needs to take into account additional terms due to nonorthogonality. Results: We apply our method to the 93Nb(d ,p )X at Ed=15 and 25 MeV and are able to obtain a good description of the data. We look at the various partial wave contributions, as well as elastic versus inelastic contributions. We also connect our formulation with transfer to neutron bound states. Conclusions: Our calculations demonstrate that the nonorthogonality term arising in the prior formulation is significant and is at the heart of the long-standing controversy between the post and the prior formulations of the theory. We also show that the cross sections for these reactions are angular-momentum dependent and therefore the commonly used Weisskopf limit is inadequate. Finally, we make important predictions for the relative contributions of elastic breakup and nonelastic breakup and call for elastic-breakup measurements to further constrain our model.

  11. Breakup of jet and drops during premixing phase of fuel coolant interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the course of a hypothetical severe accident in a light water reactor, molten liquid may be introduced into a volatile coolant, which, under certain conditions, results in explosive interactions. Such fuel-coolant interactions (FCI) are characterised by an initial pre-mixing phase during which the molten liquid, metallic or oxidic in nature, undergoes a breakup (fragmentation) process which significantly increase the area available for melt-coolant contact, and thus energy transfer. Although substantial progress in the understanding of phenomenology of the FCI events has been achieved in recent years, there remain uncertainties in describing the primary and secondary breakup processes. The focus of this work is on the melt jet and drop breakup during the premixing phase of FCI. The objectives are to gain insight into the premixing phase of the FCI phenomena, to determine what fraction of the melt fragments and determine the size distribution. The approach is to perform experiments with various simulant materials, at different scales, different conditions and with variation of controlling parameters affecting jet and drop breakup processes. The analysis approach is to investigate processes at different level of detail and complexity to understand the physics, to rationalise experimental results and to develop and validate models. In the first chapter a brief introduction and review of the status of the FCI phenomena is performed. A review of previous and current experimental projects is performed. The status of the experimental projects and major findings are outlined. The first part of the second chapter deals with experimental investigation of jet breakup. Two series of experiments were performed with low and high temperature jets. The low temperature experiments employed cerrobend-70 as jet liquid. A systematic investigation of thermal hydraulic conditions and melt physical properties on the jet fragmentation and particle debris characteristics was

  12. Breakup of 9Be on 209Bi above and near the Coulomb barrier as a molecular single-particle effect: Its influence on complete fusion and scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breakup of the 9Be projectile on the 209Bi target at bombarding energies above and near the Coulomb barrier is studied in the adiabatic two-center shell model approach. The effect of 9Be→n+2α breakup channel on complete fusion, elastic and inelastic cross sections is investigated. Results show that the breakup of the projectile 9Be could be due to a molecular single-particle effect shortly before the colliding nuclei reach the Coulomb barrier

  13. Experimental studies of the break-up of 156 MeV 6Li-ions at extreme forward angles using the Karlsruhe magnetic spectrograph 'Little John'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    6Li-induced break-up reactions have been investigated at reaction angles in extreme forward direction including O0 with the Karlsruhe Magnetic Spectrograph 'Little John'. The experiments were characterized by the minimization of the high experimental background that dominates at small emission angles. Inclusive alpha-particle and deuteron spectra from the bombardement of 12C- and 208Pb-targets with 156 MeV 6Li-ions have been measured. Below the grazing angle the Coulomb interaction shows a distinct influence on the angular distributions of the fragments. A simple spectator-model and a more realistic description within the DWBA-formalism largely allows a reproduction of the data. In the light of the reverse reaction α + d → 6Li + γ at small α-d-relative energies, which is of considerable interest for astrophysics, a particle-particle-coincidence measurement with θα = 50 and θd = -20 has been performed. The result could be reproduced reasonably well by a simple Monte-Carlo-simulation. Beside the treatment of a physical problem this work deals with the start-up of the magnetic spectrograph and the clarification of spectrograph specific questions concerning the data reduction. (orig.)

  14. Experimental investigation of hysteresis in the break-up of liquid curtains

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2014-09-01

    Findings from an experimental investigation of the break-up of liquid curtains are reported, with the overall aim of examining stability windows for multi-layer liquid curtains composed of Newtonian fluids, where the properties of each layer can be kept constant or varied. For a single-layer curtain it is known that the minimum flow rate required for initial stability can be violated by carefully reducing the flow rate below this point, which defines a hysteresis region. However, when two or three layers are used to form a composite curtain, the hysteresis window can be considerably reduced depending on the experimental procedure used. Extensive quantitative measurements of this hysteresis region are provided alongside an examination of the influence of physical properties such as viscosity and surface tension. The origins of curtain break-up for two different geometries are analysed; first where the curtain width remains constant, pinned by straight edge guides; and second where the curtain is tapered by angled edge guides. For both cases, the rupture speed is measured, which appears to be consistent with the Taylor-Culick velocity. Observations of the typical linearly spaced jets which form after the break-up has transpired and the periodicity of these jets are compared to the Rayleigh-Taylor wavelength and previous experimental measurements. Furthermore, the curtain stability criterion originally developed by Brown (1961), summarised in terms of a Weber number, has recently been extended to multi-layer curtains by Dyson et al. (2009); thus this report provides the first experimental measurements which puts this to the test. Ultimately, it is found that only the most viscous and polymer-based liquids violate this criterion. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Study of a clusters in 40Ca and 40Ar through nuclear break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclei are complex self-bound systems formed by nucleons. Conjointly to a mean-field picture in which nucleons can be regarded as independent particles, few nucleons might self-organize into compact objects, called clusters, inside the nucleus. It is theoretically predicted that it should manifest itself most strikingly for N = Z nuclei close to the emission thresholds and has been studied extensively in this region. We propose to study α-clusterization in the ground state of the N = Z 4020Ca20 nucleus and the N (different of) Z 4018Ar22 nucleus. We have studied the nuclear break-up of 40Ca when the 40Ar projectile passes by. If α clusters are preformed in 40Ca, the probability of α-emission through nuclear break-up will be enhanced as compared to 40Ar N (different of) Z nuclei.The nuclear break-up of 40Ca was studied with an 40Ar beam produced at GANIL at 35 MeV/A. The SPEG spectrometer was used to detect the heavy projectile with accurate resolution. The MUST2 Silicon detectors were placed around the target to measure the emitted α and the EXL calorimeter prototype was used to identify the γ rays from the decay of the residual 36Ar and 36S. A theoretical approach based on Time-Dependent Schroedinger Equation (TDSE) theory has been used to reproduce some experimental results like angular distributions. From the data analysis, we reconstructed excitation energy spectra and angular distributions which are compared to TDSE theory to extract some spectroscopic factors Sα. These factors show that there is no more clusterization state in the ground state of the 40Ca than in the ground state of 40Ar. (author)

  16. Break-up of a non-Newtonian jet injected downwards in a Newtonian liquid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Absar M Lakdawala; Rochish Thaokar; Atul Sharma

    2015-05-01

    The present work on downward injection of non-Newtonian jet is an extension of our recent work (Lakdawala et al, Int. J. Multiphase Flow. 59: 206–220, 2014) on upward injection of Newtonian jet. The non-Newtonian rheology of the jet is described by a Carreau type generalized Newtonian fluid (GNF) model, which is a phenomenological constitutive equation that accounts for both rate-thinning and rate-thickening. Level set method based numerical study is done for Newtonian as well as various types of shear thinning and thickening jet fluid. Effect of average injection velocity ($V_{av,i}$) is studied at a constant Reynolds number Re = 14.15, Weber number W e = 1, Froude number F r = 0.25, density ratio $\\chi$ = 0.001 and viscosity ratio $\\eta$ = 0.01. CFD analysis of the temporal variation of interface and jet length ($L_{j}$) is done to propose different types of jet breakup regimes. At smaller, intermediate and larger values of $V_{av,i}$, the regimes found are periodic uniform drop (P-UD), quasi-periodic non-uniform drop (QP-NUD) and no breakup (NB) regimes for a shear thinning jet; and periodic along with Satellite Drop (P+S), jetting (J) and no breakup (NB) regimes for a shear thickening jet, respectively. This is presented as a drop-formation regime map. Shear thickening (thinning) is shown to produce long (short) jet length. Diameter of the primary drop increases and its frequency of release decreases, due to increase in stability of the jet for shear thickening as compared to thinning fluid.

  17. Constraining Lithosphere Deformation Modes during Continental Breakup for the Iberia-Newfoundland Conjugate Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniot, L.; Kusznir, N. J.; Mohn, G.; Manatschal, G.

    2014-12-01

    How the lithosphere and asthenosphere deforms during continental rifting leading to breakup and sea-floor spreading initiation is poorly understood. Observations at present-day and fossil analogue rifted margins show a complex OCT architecture which cannot be explained by a single simplistic lithosphere deformation modes. This OCT complexity includes hyper-extended continental crust and lithosphere, detachments faults, exhumed mantle, continental slivers and scattered embryonic oceanic crust. We use a coupled kinematic-dynamic model of lithosphere and asthenosphere deformation to determine the sequence of lithosphere deformation modes leading to continental breakup for Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margin profiles. We quantitatively calibrate the models using observed present-day water loaded subsidence and crustal thickness, together with subsidence history and the age of melt generation. Flow fields, representing a sequence of lithosphere deformation modes, are generated by a 2D finite element viscous flow model (FE-Margin), and used to advect lithosphere and asthenosphere temperature and material. FE-Margin is kinematically driven by divergent deformation in the upper 15-20 km of the lithosphere inducing passive upwelling below. Buoyancy enhanced upwelling (Braun et al. 2000) is also kinematically included. Melt generation by decompressional melting is predicted using the methodology of Katz et al., 2003. The extension magnitudes used in the lithosphere deformation models are taken from Sutra et al (2013). The best fit calibrated models of lithosphere deformation evolution for the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins require (i) an initial broad region of lithosphere deformation and passive upwelling, (ii) lateral migration of deformation, (iii) an increase in extension rate with time, (iv) focussing of deformation and (v) buoyancy induced upwelling. The preferred calibrated models predict faster extension rates and earlier continental crustal rupture and

  18. Robustness and breakup of the spiral wave in a two-dimensional lattice network of neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The robustness and breakup of spiral wave in a two-dimensional lattice networks of neurons are investigated. The effect of small- world type connection is often simplified with local regular connection and the long-range connection with certain probability. The network effect on the development of spiral wave can be better described by local regular connection and changeable long-range connection probability than fixed long-range connection probability because the long-range probability could be changeable in realistic biological system. The effect from the changeable probability for long-range connection is simplified by multiplicative noise. At first, a stable rotating spiral wave is developed by using appropriate initial values, parameters and no-flux boundary conditions, and then the effect of networks is investigated. Extensive numerical studies show that spiral wave keeps its alive and robust when the intensity of multiplicative noise is below a certain threshold, otherwise, the breakup of spiral wave occurs. A statistical factor of synchronization in two-dimensional array is defined to study the phase transition of spiral wave by checking the membrane potentials of all neurons corresponding to the critical parameters(the intensity of noise or forcing current)in the curve for factor of synchronization. The Hindmarsh-Rose model is investigated, the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model in the presence of the channel noise is also studied to check the model independence of our conclusions. And it is found that breakup of spiral wave is easier to be induced by the multiplicative noise in presence of channel noise.

  19. Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, C.W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-05-17

    Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a ''reduction to computation'' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations, and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wave function can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.

  20. Joint venture breakup and the exploration-exploitation trade-off

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Ngo Van; Soubeyran, Antoine; Soubeyran, Raphael

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of a potential joint-venture breakup on the level of technology transfer in a set-up with exploration-exploitation trade-offs in the presence of time compression costs. We consider a joint-venture relationship between a technologically advanced multinational firm and a local firm operating in a developing economy where the ability to enforce contracts is weak, and the local firm can quit without penalties. The multinational firm has to consider the advantages an...

  1. Coherent soliton propagation through doped optical fibers: cloning, breakup, and soliton interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAVALCANTI SOLANGE B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous propagation of two optical pulses through a doped nonlinear dispersive medium modelled by a resonant three-level system was investigated numerically, within the framework of a pair of coupled extended nonlinear Schrödinger equations. These included the contribution of the dopant resonances whose dynamics is governed by Bloch equations. In this work, we review the interesting possibilities on the manipulation of fields such as cloning, breakup and soliton interactions, that the combination of coherent population trapping with nonlinear dispersive media offers.

  2. Breakup Effect of Weakly Bound Projectile on the Barrier Distribution Around Coulomb Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾会明; 林承键; 张焕乔; 刘祖华; 喻宁; 杨峰; 徐新星; 贾飞; 吴振东; 张世涛

    2012-01-01

    The excitation function of quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering at a backward angle has been measured for 9^Be+208^Pb. The barrier distribution was extracted by means of the first derivative of the measured excitation function and calculated with the coupled-channel model. The present work shows that the experimental barrier distribution extracted from QEL scattering is shifted to the low energy side by 1.5 MeV as compared with the theoretical one. This energy discrepancy indicates that breakup is important in the colliding processes of the weakly bound nucleus system.

  3. Evidence of strong dynamic core excitation in $^{19}$C resonant break-up

    OpenAIRE

    Lay, J. A.; Diego, R. de; Crespo, R.; Moro, A. M.; Arias, J. M; Johnson, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    The resonant break-up of $^{19}$C on protons measured at RIKEN [Phys. Lett. B 660, 320 (2008)] is analyzed in terms of a valence-core model for $^{19}$C including possible core excitations. The analysis of the angular distribution of a prominent peak appearing in the relative-energy spectrum could be well described with this model and is consistent with the previous assignment of $5/2^{+}$ for this state. Inclusion of core-excitation effects are found to be essential to give the correct magni...

  4. Phase-shift analysis of pd elastic scattering below break-up threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phase-shift analysis was performed for pd elastic scattering based on measurements of differential cross sections and proton and deuteron analyzing powers for energies below the break-up threshold. The angular momenta were restricted to l <= 3; j-splitting and channel-spin mixing of the P-phases and the tensor coupling between the S- and D-phases were taken into account. The phase shifts were parameterized by the effective-range formalism and the corresponding parameters were directly deduced from the data. The results are compared with Faddeev calculations in which the Coulomb interaction is treated exactly or as a two-body approximation. (orig.)

  5. Quasi-elastic heavy-ion transfer reactions from the coulomb barrier up to several tens MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasi-elastic transfer reactions populating the continuum states will be analyzed in terms of diffractional model calculations. Optimum Q value predictions will be compared to the data. Competition with other processes such as fragmentation or break-up will be also presented

  6. Dynamics of associative polymer solutions: Capillary break-up, jetting and rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Serdy, James G.; Threfall-Holmes, Phil; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2010-03-01

    Associative polymer solutions are used in extensively in the formulations for water-borne paints, food, inks, cosmetics, etc to control the rheology and processing behavior of multi-component dispersions. The commercially relevant formulations use dilute solutions of associative polymers, which have low viscosity and short relaxation times, and hence their non-Newtonian response is not apparent in a conventional rheometer. In this talk, we explore several methods for systematically exploring the linear and nonlinear solution rheology of associative polymer dispersions, including: high frequency oscillatory tests at frequencies up to 10 kHz, microfluidic shear rheometry at deformation rates up to 10^6 s-1 and the influence of transientextensional rheology in the jet breakup. The presence of inertial, elastic and viscous effects typically leads to complex dynamics in a necking fluid thread. We show that by carefully controlling the excitation frequency, it is possible to drive the break-up in a particularly simple and symmetric mode, which can be used to extract extensional viscosity information using capillary thinning analysis.

  7. Rifting and magmatism associated with the South America and Africa break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on about 380 K/Ar dating of basic and alkaline magmatic rocks from Brazilian sedimentary basins and the argentinean Atlantic margin it is possible to interpret the evolution of the rifting that caused the South America and Africa break-up. This process started in the Triassic and took place northwestward of the Foz do Amazonas basin, on the equatorial Brazilian continental margin, and reached the San Julian and North Malvinas basins, in the southern portion of South America. From this latter up to the Espirito Santo Basin, rifting took place between the Jurassic and Neocomian whereas transcurrence caused by clockwise rotation of South America on the equatorial margin generated the Potiguar Basin. The available information suggests that the final break-up of Africa and South America occurred along the eastern Brazilian margin, between the Cumuruxatiba/Mucuri and Pernambuco basins, during the Cenomanian/Turonian. The resistance offered by the Sao Luis/West African and Sao Francisco/Congo cratons promoted the huge magnetic manifestations which occur in the Brazilian paleozoic intracratonic basins (Acre, Solimoes, Amazonas, Paranaiba and Parana basins) as well as in the interior Tacutu Rift. Hot spots turned out during the drift phase, as registered by the Mecejana (CE)/Rocas Atoll/Fernando de Noronha Archipelago Alignment and Pocos de Caldas/Cabo Frio Alkaline Rocks Alignment that persists up to Vitoria/Trindade Chain. (author)

  8. Dynamics of associative polymer solutions: Capillary break-up, jetting and rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Serdy, James G.; Threfall-Holmes, Phil; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2011-11-01

    Associative polymer solutions are used in extensively in the formulations for water-borne paints, food, inks, cosmetics, etc to control the rheology and processing behavior of multi-component dispersions. These complex dispersions are processed and used over a broad range of shear and extensional rates. Furthermore, the commercially relevant formulations use dilute solutions of associative polymers, which have low viscosity and short relaxation times, and hence their non-Newtonian response is not apparent in a conventional rheometer. In this talk, we explore several methods for systematically exploring the linear and nonlinear solution rheology of associative polymer dispersions, including: fractional model description of physical gelation, high frequency oscillatory tests at frequencies up to 10 kHz, microfluidic shear rheometry at deformation rates up to 1000000 /s and the influence of transient extensional rheology in the jet breakup. We show that high deformation rates can be obtained in jetting flows, and the growth and evolution of instability during jetting and break-up of these viscoelastic fluids shows the influence of both elasticity and extensibility.

  9. Breakup and coalescence models for turbulent air-water mixtures in a vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range of multiphase flow applications (air-water mixtures) in today's technology is immense. Important examples can be found in chemical reactors, boiling and condensation equipments as well as nuclear reactors. The design of such systems requires the accurate prediction of the dynamical evolution of local bubble size or of interfacial area, since the rate of exchange of mass, momentum and energy between bubbles and water as well as between the two-phase mixture and external boundaries depends severely on the internal flow geometry or interfacial shape and area. The rapidly increasing computer power allows one to use CFD codes combined with the so-called population balance equation (PBE) to trace the transient change of local bubble size of poly-dispersed flows. Unfortunately, there are still some efforts needed to develop reliable constitutive models for the interaction between phases and the law governing the evolution of bubble size. An efficient 1D Multi-Bubble- Class Test Solver (Lucas et al., 2005) is developed in our institute for validating and improving these constitutive models such as bubble forces, multiphase turbulence, coalescence and breakup. Models of bubble coalescence and breakup were found to be the weakest points in modeling of poly-dispersed flows (Lucas et al., 2007; Krepper et al., 2008). (orig.)

  10. Simulation of melt jet breakup and debris bed formation in water pools with IKEJET/IKEMIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlner, Georg [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Vujic, Zoran [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: vujic@ike.uni-stuttgart.de; Buerger, Manfred [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Lohnert, Guenter [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    The objective of the development of the code system KESS is simulating the processes of core melting, relocation of core material to the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and its further heatup, modelling of fission product release and coolability of the core material. In the scope of the code development, IKEJET and IKEMIX were designed as key models for the breakup of a molten jet falling into a water pool, cooling of fragments and the formation of particulate debris beds. Calculations were performed with these codes, simulating FARO corium quenching experiments at saturated (L-28) and subcooled (L-31) conditions, as well as PREMIX experiments, e.g. PM-16. With the assumption of a reduced interfacial friction between water and steam as compared to usually applied laws, the melt breakup, energy release from the melt and pressurisation of the vessel observed in the experiments are reproduced with a reasonable accuracy. The model is further applied to reactor conditions, calculating the relocation of a mass of corium of 30 t into the lower plenum, its fragmentation and the formation of a particle bed.

  11. The use of the nonlinear optical loop mirror for investigations of pulse breakup in optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, Evgeny A.; Pottiez, Olivier; Ibarra-Escamilla, Baldemar

    2011-03-01

    Pulse breakup and the formation of a bunch of solitons are the principal processes at the initial stage of the supercontinuum generation using long pulses for pumping. Most investigations use the measurement of the output spectrum to characterize the development of the supercontinuum. The extraction of an individual soliton or a group of solitons with similar parameters from the bunch can reveal details that are usually hidden when only the output spectrum is measured. Earlier we have studied the NOLM including a twisted fiber and a quarter wave retarder (QWR) in the loop. Its operation is based on the nonlinear polarization rotation effect. We showed that this NOLM is stable to changes of environmental conditions, and allows simple and predictable changes of its characteristics. In previous works we demonstrated its application for mode-locked lasers, pedestal suppression, or retrieval of a pulse shape. In this work we demonstrate that the NOLM is a viable device for the investigation of pulse breakup process and soliton formation. The operation principle is based on the fact that the NOLM has a maximum transmission for the solitons with specific durations while solitons with shorter and longer durations are strongly rejected. The duration associated with high transmission depends on the NOLM length and can also be changed by amplification of the solitons before entering the NOLM. By an appropriate choice of the NOLM parameters and the amplification of the bunch of solitons, the extraction of the solitons with selected parameters is possible.

  12. The study on the relationship between breakup modes and gas-liquid interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Qing; LIU Ning; YIN Jun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the linear instability analysis, the study on the relationship between breakup modes and gas-liquid interfaces of a viscous annular liquid jet moving in two swirling gas streams has been car-ried out. From the numerical results of the dispersion equation, the relevancy of the breakup mode between an annular liquid jet and two liquid jets of limiting cases, namely the cylindrical liquid jet and hollow gas jet, as well as the effects of injecting factors on the instability of an annular liquid jet, is studied in detail. Considering the effects of inner and outer interface radii on the instability of the jet, it is proved that the para-sinuous mode mainly relates to the inner interface, whereas the para-varicose mode mainly relates to the outer interface. The results also indicate that all the forces produced by liquid jet have similar impacts on either the instability of para-sinuous mode or para-varicose mode due to the fact that they can affect both inner and outer gas-liquid interfaces. On the other hand, all the forces exerting only on the inner interface have more powerful effects on the instability of para-sinuous mode, and all the forces exerting only on the outer interface have more powerful effects on the insta-bility of para-varicose mode. That is to say, the effects of forces are weakened greatly when penetrating the liquid jet.

  13. The break-up dynamics of liquid threads revealed by laser radiation pressure and optocapillarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Julien; Robert de Saint Vincent, Matthieu; Rivière, David; Kellay, Hamid; Delville, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-01

    We show how optocapillary stresses and optical radiation pressure effects in two-phase liquids open the way for investigating the difficult problem of liquid thread breakup at small scales when surfactants are present at the interface or when the roughness of the interface becomes significant. Using thermocapillary stresses driven by light to pinch a surfactant-laden microjet, we observe deviations from the expected visco-capillary law governed by a balance between viscosity and interfacial tension. We suggest that these deviations are due to time varying interfacial tension resulting from the surfactant depletion at the neck pinching location, and we experimentally confirm this mechanism. The second case is representative of the physics of nanojets. Considering a near critical liquid-liquid interface, where the roughness of the interfaces may be tuned, we use the radiation pressure of a laser wave to produce stable fluctuating liquid columns and study their breakup. We show how pinching crosses over from the visco-capillary to a fluctuation dominated regime and describe this new regime. These experiments exemplify how optofluidics can reveal new physics of fluids.

  14. The value of tear film breakup and Schirmer's tests in preoperative blepharoplasty evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, P; Byun, M

    1999-08-01

    The authors published their article on the value of tear film breakup and Schirmer's tests in preoperative blepharoplasty evaluation in 1989. The purpose of this update is to expand the original article in light of refinements and experiences in subsequent years. It was concluded in the 1989 article that the abnormal tear film breakup and Schirmer's tests were not good predictors of possible postblepharoplasty dry eye complications. It was concluded in the review that the anatomy and the history including scleral show, lagophtholmus, negative vector, snap test, previous surgery, increased blinking, dryness, grittiness and pain were more important predictors of postoperative dry eye problems than the ocular tests. The authors' opinion remains so, and they do less preoperative tear film testing and place more emphasis on the history and the anatomy as predictors of potential problems. In this follow-up to the 1989 article, the authors include a survey from several surgeons as to how they evaluate their patients for elective aesthetic blepharoplasty, which in large measure confirms the authors' practice. PMID:10654706

  15. Cumulative beam break-up study of the spallation neutron source superconducting linac

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, D; Krafft, G A; Yunn, B; Sundelin, R; Delayen, J; Kim, S; Doleans, M

    2002-01-01

    Beam instabilities due to High Order Modes (HOMs) are a concern to superconducting (SC) linacs such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac. The effects of pulsed mode operation on transverse and longitudinal beam breakup instability are studied for H sup - beam in a consistent manner for the first time. Numerical simulation indicates that cumulative transverse beam breakup instabilities are not a concern in the SNS SC linac, primarily due to the heavy mass of H sup - beam and the HOM frequency spread resulting from manufacturing tolerances. As little as +-0.1 MHz HOM frequency spread stabilizes all the instabilities from both transverse HOMs, and also acts to stabilize the longitudinal HOMs. Such an assumed frequency spread of +-0.1 MHz HOM is small, and hence conservative compared with measured values of sigma=0.00109(f sub H sub O sub M -f sub 0)/f sub 0 obtained from Cornell and the Jefferson Lab Free Electron Laser cavities. However, a few cavities may hit resonance lines and generate a high heat lo...

  16. Vibration and Nonlinear Resonance in the Break-up of an Underwater Bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Lipeng; Fezzaa, Kamel; Zhang, Wendy W; Nagel, Sidney R

    2013-01-01

    We use high-speed X-ray phase-contrast imaging, weakly nonlinear analysis and boundary integral simulations to characterize the final stage of underwater bubble break-up. The X-ray imaging study shows that an initial azimuthal perturbation to the shape of the bubble neck gives rise to oscillations that increasingly distort the cross-section shape. These oscillations terminate in a pinch-off where the bubble surface develops concave regions that contact similar to what occurs when two liquid drops coalesce. We also present a weakly nonlinear analysis that shows that this coalescence-like mode of pinch-off occurs when the initial shape oscillation interferes constructively with the higher harmonics it generates and thus reinforce each other's effects in bringing about bubble break-up. Finally we present numerical results that confirm the weakly nonlinear analysis scenario as well as provide insight into observed shape reversals. They demonstrate that when the oscillations interfere destructively, a qualitativel...

  17. Effect of surface solidification on fragmentation and breakup behavior of molten material jet in coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the safety design of a Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR), Post Accident Heat Removal (PAHR) is required when a hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident (CDA) occurs. In PAHR, it is strongly required that the molten core material is solidified and cooled down by the sodium coolant in a reactor vessel. In order to estimate whether the molten material fuel jet is completely solidified by sodium coolant, it is necessary to understand the interaction between the molten material jet and the coolant. In order to clarify the dominant factor which determines the jet breakup length and the size of fragment considering solidification of molten material jet surface, we conducted the experiment in which molten material is injected into coolant. As a result, we found that the solidified crust on the molten material jet surface affects the jet breakup and the fragmentation behavior. In addition, we evaluate the influence of the solidified crust on the fragment size using the theoretical calculation in which the strength of the crust is considered. From the comparison between the calculation and the experiment, we found that our calculation can evaluate the fragment size better than the previous theory. (author)

  18. Coulomb breakup of 22C in a four-body model

    CERN Document Server

    Pinilla, E C

    2016-01-01

    Breakup cross sections are determined for the Borromean nucleus 22C by using a four-body eikonal model, including Coulomb corrections. Bound and continuum states are constructed within a 20C + n + n three-body model in hyperspherical coordinates. We compute continuum states with the correct asymptotic behavior through the R-matrix method. For the n+ n potential, we use the Minnesota interaction. As there is no precise experimental information on 21C, we define different parameter sets for the 20C + n potentials. These parameter sets provide different scattering lengths, and resonance energies of an expected 3/2+ excited state. Then we analyze the 22C ground-state energy and rms radius, as well as E1 strength distributions and breakup cross sections. The E1 strength distribution presents an enhancement at low energies. Its amplitude is associated with the low binding energy, rather than with a three-body resonance. We show that the shape of the cross section at low energies is sensitive to the ground-state pro...

  19. Breakup of Finite-Size Colloidal Aggregates in Turbulent Flow Investigated by Three-Dimensional (3D) Particle Tracking Velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Debashish; Babler, Matthaus U; Holzner, Markus; Soos, Miroslav; Lüthi, Beat; Liberzon, Alex; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2016-01-12

    Aggregates grown in mild shear flow are released, one at a time, into homogeneous isotropic turbulence, where their motion and intermittent breakup is recorded by three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV). The aggregates have an open structure with a fractal dimension of ∼2.2, and their size is 1.4 ± 0.4 mm, which is large, compared to the Kolmogorov length scale (η = 0.15 mm). 3D-PTV of flow tracers allows for the simultaneous measurement of aggregate trajectories and the full velocity gradient tensor along their pathlines, which enables us to access the Lagrangian stress history of individual breakup events. From this data, we found no consistent pattern that relates breakup to the local flow properties at the point of breakup. Also, the correlation between the aggregate size and both shear stress and normal stress at the location of breakage is found to be weaker, when compared with the correlation between size and drag stress. The analysis suggests that the aggregates are mostly broken due to the accumulation of the drag stress over a time lag on the order of the Kolmogorov time scale. This finding is explained by the fact that the aggregates are large, which gives their motion inertia and increases the time for stress propagation inside the aggregate. Furthermore, it is found that the scaling of the largest fragment and the accumulated stress at breakup follows an earlier established power law, i.e., dfrag ∼ σ(-0.6) obtained from laminar nozzle experiments. This indicates that, despite the large size and the different type of hydrodynamic stress, the microscopic mechanism causing breakup is consistent over a wide range of aggregate size and stress magnitude. PMID:26646289

  20. HYTAR : a Hybrid Telescope Array for Reaction dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HYTAR is an array of Hybrid detector telescopes developed at IUAC for the study of reaction mechanisms around coulomb barrier. The hybrid detector module is a combination of gas (ΔE) and silicon detector (stopping). They have been developed for heavy ion detection and particle identification in nuclear physics experiments in GPSC/NAND facility at IUAC. Currently the array has 13 such telescopes. The detector telescopes have been earlier used for studying the angular distribution of fission fragments. The detector system can also be used to identify projectile like fragments and thus can be used for studying quasi-elastic scattering, transfer and breakup reactions

  1. Coulomb versus nuclear break-up of sup 1 sup 1 Be halo nucleus in a nonperturbative framework

    CERN Document Server

    Fallot, M; Lacroix, D; Chomaz, P; Margueron, J

    2002-01-01

    The sup 1 sup 1 Be break-up is calculated at 41 MeV per nucleon incident energy on different targets using a nonperturbative time-dependent quantum calculation. The evolution of the neutron halo wave function shows an emission of neutron at large angles for grazing impact parameters and at forward angles for large impact parameters. The neutron angular distribution is deduced for the different targets and compared to experimental data. We emphasize the diversity of diffraction mechanisms, in particular we discuss the interplay of the nuclear effects such as the towing mode and the Coulomb break-up. A good agreement is found with experimental data.

  2. Neutrino Induced 4He Break-up Reaction -- Application of the Maximum Entropy Method in Calculating Nuclear Strength Function

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, T; Sato, T; Nakamura, S X

    2016-01-01

    The maximum entropy method is examined as a new tool for solving the ill-posed inversion problem involved in the Lorentz integral transformation (LIT) method. As an example, we apply the method to the spin-dipole strength function of 4He. We show that the method can be successfully used for inversion of LIT, provided the LIT function is available with a sufficient accuracy.

  3. Nonelastic nuclear reactions induced by light ions with the BRIEFF code

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, H

    2010-01-01

    The intranuclear cascade (INC) code BRIC has been extended to compute nonelastic reactions induced by light ions on target nuclei. In our approach the nucleons of the incident light ion move freely inside the mean potential of the ion in its center-of-mass frame while the center-of-mass of the ion obeys to equations of motion dependant on the mean nuclear+Coulomb potential of the target nucleus. After transformation of the positions and momenta of the nucleons of the ion into the target nucleus frame, the collision term between the nucleons of the target and of the ion is computed taking into account the partial or total breakup of the ion. For reactions induced by low binding energy systems like deuteron, the Coulomb breakup of the ion at the surface of the target nucleus is an important feature. Preliminary results of nucleon production in light ion induced reactions are presented and discussed.

  4. A Model of the Bubble Break-up in a Turbulent Flow; Modelizacion de la rotura de una Burbuja en un Flujo Turbulento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayod, R.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, J.; Martinez Bazan, C.

    2005-07-01

    In this report, a simplified model of the break-up of an air bubble in a turbulent water flow is proposed and analyzed numerically. According to Hinze's theory, and our experimental observations, the external flow field is assumed asymmetric and irrotational for away from the bubble. furthermore the turbulent flow-field is modelled by an asymmetric hyperbolic flow-field and the evolution of the air-water interface is calculated by the levels-set method for a wide range of Reynolds and Weber numbers. Therefore, the break-up times are obtained for super-critical weber numbers and different Reynolds numbers. Therefore, the break-up times are obtained for super-critical Weber and Reynolds numbers allows the comparison of the numeric with our experimental results. Other possible break-up mechanisms for subcritical Weber number, i. e. the break-up by resonance, are also considered. (Author) 20 refs.

  5. Breakup of jet and drops during premixing phase of fuel coolant interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraldsson, Haraldur Oskar

    2000-05-01

    During the course of a hypothetical severe accident in a light water reactor, molten liquid may be introduced into a volatile coolant, which, under certain conditions, results in explosive interactions. Such fuel-coolant interactions (FCI) are characterised by an initial pre-mixing phase during which the molten liquid, metallic or oxidic in nature, undergoes a breakup (fragmentation) process which significantly increase the area available for melt-coolant contact, and thus energy transfer. Although substantial progress in the understanding of phenomenology of the FCI events has been achieved in recent years, there remain uncertainties in describing the primary and secondary breakup processes. The focus of this work is on the melt jet and drop breakup during the premixing phase of FCI. The objectives are to gain insight into the premixing phase of the FCI phenomena, to determine what fraction of the melt fragments and determine the size distribution. The approach is to perform experiments with various simulant materials, at different scales, different conditions and with variation of controlling parameters affecting jet and drop breakup processes. The analysis approach is to investigate processes at different level of detail and complexity to understand the physics, to rationalise experimental results and to develop and validate models. In the first chapter a brief introduction and review of the status of the FCI phenomena is performed. A review of previous and current experimental projects is performed. The status of the experimental projects and major findings are outlined. The first part of the second chapter deals with experimental investigation of jet breakup. Two series of experiments were performed with low and high temperature jets. The low temperature experiments employed cerrobend-70 as jet liquid. A systematic investigation of thermal hydraulic conditions and melt physical properties on the jet fragmentation and particle debris characteristics was

  6. Model Calculation of n + 6Li Reactions Below 20 MeV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Shang; HAN Yin-Lu

    2001-01-01

    Based on the unified Hauser-Feshbach and exciton model for light nuclei, the calculations of reaction cross sections and the double-differential cross sections for n + 6Li are performed. Since all of the first-particle emissions are from the compound nucleus to the discrete levels, the angular momentum coupling effect in pre-equilibrium mechanism must be taken into account. The fitting of the measured data indicates that the three-body break-up process needs to be involved, and the pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism dominates the reaction processes. In light nucleus reactions the recoil effect must be taken into account.``

  7. Application of a hybrid breakup model for the spray simulation of a multi-hole injector used for a DISI gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid atomization and breakup model was developed for the simulation of the fuel injection processes of multi-hole injectors for direct injection spark ignition (DISI) gasoline engines. In modeling primary breakup, a competition between the Huh–Gosman and Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) breakup mechanisms was adopted. In addition to the two breakup mechanisms above, the Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) model was selected as a third competing mechanism in simulating secondary breakup. The hybrid model was implemented in the Star-CD software to simulate the effect of the background and injection pressures on the breakup processes of gasoline jets in a constant volume vessel, and on the mixture stratification of a wall-guided DISI gasoline engine with a newly-designed cavity in the piston. Results indicate that a higher background pressure intensifies the aerodynamically induced breakup along the tip of spray although it tends to reduce the overall breakup of spray. The spray atomization enhanced by increasing injection pressures is more pronounced at elevated background pressures. With the retard of fuel injection timing, the inhomogeneity of mixture increases in the DISI gasoline engine. Double injection with elevated second injection pressure can reduce the overall inhomogeneity of the mixture and effectively direct the mixture towards the spark plug. - Highlights: •A hybrid breakup model was developed to simulate injection process in a DISI engine. •Higher fuel injection pressure enhances breakup and evaporation at the spray tip. •Single fuel injection leads to a narrow spark timing range. •Two-stage fuel injection improves the homogeneity of the mixture. •The second injection with higher fuel pressure decreases over-rich mixture

  8. Wave packet analysis and break-up length calculations for an accelerating planar liquid jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the process of transition to turbulence within an accelerating planar liquid jet. By calculating the propagation and spatial evolution of disturbance wave packets generated at a nozzle where the jet emerges, we are able to estimate break-up lengths and break-up times for different magnitudes of acceleration and different liquid to air density ratios. This study uses a basic jet velocity profile that has shear layers in both air and the liquid either side of the fluid interface. The shear layers are constructed as functions of velocity which behave in line with our CFD simulations of injecting diesel jets. The non-dimensional velocity of the jet along the jet centre-line axis is assumed to take the form V (t) = tanh(at), where the parameter a determines the magnitude of the acceleration. We compare the fully unsteady results obtained by solving the unsteady Rayleigh equation to those of a quasi-steady jet to determine when the unsteady effects are significant and whether the jet can be regarded as quasi-steady in typical operating conditions for diesel engines. For a heavy fluid injecting into a lighter fluid (density ratio ρair/ρjet = q < 1), it is found that unsteady effects are mainly significant at early injection times where the jet velocity profile is changing fastest. When the shear layers in the jet thin with time, the unsteady effects cause the growth rate of the wave packet to be smaller than the corresponding quasi-steady jet, whereas for thickening shear layers the unsteady growth rate is larger than that of the quasi-steady jet. For large accelerations (large a), the unsteady effect remains at later times but its effect on the growth rate of the wave packet decreases as the time after injection increases. As the rate of acceleration is reduced, the range of velocity values for which the jet can be considered as quasi-steady increases until eventually the whole jet can be considered quasi-steady. For a homogeneous jet (q = 1), the

  9. Experimental investigation of spray induced gas stratification break-up and mixing in two interconnected vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Two containment spray tests were performed in two interconnected PANDA vessels. → Non-condensible gases influence depressurization and temperature of the system. → Slower depressurization rate is observed when more non-condensible gases involved. → Helium-rich layer erosion transient is dependent on density differences. → Helium gas concentration increased in the adjacent vessel. - Abstract: To analyze the effect of containment spray on gas mixing and depressurization, two experiments (ST31 and ST32) were performed with two interconnected vessels. These experiments were conducted in the frame of the OECD/SETH-2 project using the PANDA facility. The vessels were preconditioned such that a helium-rich layer is formed in the upper section of the first vessel, henceforth referred to as Vessel-1. In the case of the first experiment (ST31), the remaining volume of Vessel-1 and the entirety of the second vessel, Vessel-2, were filled with pure steam. For ST32, the second experiment presented here, pure steam was replaced with a steam-air mixture instead. Water was injected from the top of Vessel-1 with a spray nozzle projecting downwards. Transient behavior of system pressure, as well as global redistribution of gases is investigated. The results reveal that spray activation is very effective in containment system depressurization. Additionally it is found that the depressurization occurs at a higher rate for the systems containing more steam and less non-condensible gas. The depressurization rate gradually slows down, however, as the steam concentration decreases due to condensation, and non-condensible gases spread over the vessel system. It is also observed that the spray activation initiates the breakup of the helium-rich layer. The composition of the gas atmosphere plays a crucial role in determining the initiation time of the breakup; the presence of large amounts of non-condensible gas such as air delays the beginning of the helium layer

  10. Modelling of the Bubble Size Distribution in an Aerated Stirred Tank: Theoretical and Numerical Comparison of Different Breakup Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálal Zbyněk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this study is the mathematical modelling of bubble size distributions in an aerated stirred tank using the population balance method. The air-water system consisted of a fully baffled vessel with a diameter of 0.29 m, which was equipped with a six-bladed Rushton turbine. The secondary phase was introduced through a ring sparger situated under the impeller. Calculations were performed with the CFD software CFX 14.5. The turbulent quantities were predicted using the standard k-ε turbulence model. Coalescence and breakup of bubbles were modelled using the MUSIG method with 24 bubble size groups. For the bubble size distribution modelling, the breakup model by Luo and Svendsen (1996 typically has been used in the past. However, this breakup model was thoroughly reviewed and its practical applicability was questioned. Therefore, three different breakup models by Martínez-Bazán et al. (1999a, b, Lehr et al. (2002 and Alopaeus et al. (2002 were implemented in the CFD solver and applied to the system. The resulting Sauter mean diameters and local bubble size distributions were compared with experimental data.

  11. Does the association between broken partnership and first time myocardial infarction vary with time after break-up?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2013-01-01

    Marriage is associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease, but it is unknown if the association depends on time since break-up with a partner. In this study we included both married and unmarried couples to study if the association between broken partnership (BP) and first time incident...

  12. Dynamics of bound vector solitons induced by stochastic perturbations: Soliton breakup and soliton switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We respectively investigate breakup and switching of the Manakov-typed bound vector solitons (BVSs) induced by two types of stochastic perturbations: the homogenous and nonhomogenous. Symmetry-recovering is discovered for the asymmetrical homogenous case, while soliton switching is found to relate with the perturbation amplitude and soliton coherence. Simulations show that soliton switching in the circularly-polarized light system is much weaker than that in the Manakov and linearly-polarized systems. In addition, the homogenous perturbations can enhance the soliton switching in both of the Manakov and non-integrable (linearly- and circularly-polarized) systems. Our results might be helpful in interpreting dynamics of the BVSs with stochastic noises in nonlinear optics or with stochastic quantum fluctuations in Bose–Einstein condensates.

  13. Large area and low power dielectrowetting optical shutter with local deterministic fluid film breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Cumby, B.; Russell, A.; Heikenfeld, J.

    2013-11-01

    A large area (>10 cm2) and low-power (0.1-10 Hz AC voltage, ˜10's μW/cm2) dielectrowetting optical shutter requiring no pixelation is demonstrated. The device consists of 40 μm interdigitated electrodes covered by fluid splitting features and a hydrophobic fluoropolymer. When voltage is removed, the fluid splitting features initiate breakup of the fluid film into small droplets resulting in ˜80% transmission. Both the dielectrowetting and fluid splitting follow theory, allowing prediction of alternate designs and further improved performance. Advantages include scalability, optical polarization independence, high contrast ratio, fast response, and simple construction, which could be of use in switchable windows or transparent digital signage.

  14. Capillary break-up, gelation and extensional rheology of hydrophobically modified cellulose ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Haward, Simon; Pessinet, Olivia; Soderlund, Asa; Threlfall-Holmes, Phil; McKinley, Gareth

    2012-02-01

    Cellulose derivatives containing associating hydrophobic groups along their hydrophilic polysaccharide backbone are used extensively in the formulations for inks, water-borne paints, food, nasal sprays, cosmetics, insecticides, fertilizers and bio-assays to control the rheology and processing behavior of multi-component dispersions. These complex dispersions are processed and used over a broad range of shear and extensional rates. The presence of hydrophobic stickers influences the linear and nonlinear rheology of cellulose ether solutions. In this talk, we systematically contrast the difference in the shear and extensional rheology of a cellulose ether: ethy-hydroxyethyl-cellulose (EHEC) and its hydrophobically-modified analog (HMEHEC) using microfluidic shear rheometry at deformation rates up to 10^6 inverse seconds, cross-slot flow extensional rheometry and capillary break-up during jetting as a rheometric technique. Additionally, we provide a constitutive model based on fractional calculus to describe the physical gelation in HMEHEC solutions.

  15. Vertically-Vibrated Gas-Liquid Interfaces: Surface Deformation and Breakup

    CERN Document Server

    O'Hern, T J; Brooks, C F; Shelden, B; Torczynski, J R; Kraynik, A M; Romero, L A; Benavides, G L

    2010-01-01

    In his pioneering work of 1831, Faraday demonstrated that a vertically vibrated gas-liquid interface exhibits a period-doubling bifurcation from a flat state to a wavy configuration at certain frequencies or amplitudes. Typical experiments performed using thin layers of water produce "Faraday ripples", modest-amplitude nonlinear standing waves. Later experiments by Hashimoto and Sudo (1980) and Jameson (1966) as well as those performed in the present study show that much more dramatic disturbances can be generated at the gas-liquid free surface under certain ranges of vibration conditions. This breakup mechanism was examined experimentally using deep layers of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) silicone oils over a range of viscosity and sinusoidal, primarily axial vibration conditions that can produce dramatic disturbances at the gas-liquid free surface. Large-amplitude vibrations produce liquid jets into the gas, droplets pinching off from the jets, gas cavities in the liquid from droplet impact, and bubble transp...

  16. Late Jurassic breakup of the Proto-Caribbean and circum-global circulation across Pangea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Peter O.; Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Sandoval-Gutierrez, Maria; Urbani, Franco; García-Delgado, Dora; Garban, Grony; Pérez Rodríguez, Mireya

    2013-04-01

    Based on earlier plate reconstructions, many authors have postulated a circum-global equatorial current system flowing through the Pangea breakup, the Tethys - Atlantic - Caribbean Seaway, to explain changes in global climate during the Middle and Late Jurassic. While a Toarcian (late Early Jurassic) breakup is well constrained for the Central Atlantic, the place and timing of initial ocean crust formation between the Americas (Gulf of Mexico or Proto-Caribbean?) is still poorly constrained. Ar/Ar ages (190 to 154 Ma) in the Tinaquillo ultramafic complex (NW-Venezuela) have been interpreted as a result of initial Proto-Caribbean rifting. However, the Tinaquillo is clearly a subconinental block and the cited ages age cannot be related with breakup. The Siquisique Ophiolite (NW-Venezuela), long known for the occurrence of Bajocian-early Bathonian ammonite fragments found in interpilow sediments, has previously been interpreted as an early Proto-Caribbean remnant. However, the ammonite fragments were recovered from blocks in a Paleogene tectonic mélange, whereas the main Siquisique ophiolite body seems to be of middle Cretaceous age, based on a few Ar/Ar dates and poorly preserved middle to late Cretaceous radiolarians, which we recovered from black cherts interbedded with volcanics. The best record of Proto-Caribbean rifting and breakup is preserved in the Guaniguanico Terrane of NW-Cuba, which represents a distal Yucatan (N-American) passive margin segment telescoped by Tertiary nappe tectonics. In this terrane middle to upper Oxfordian pelagic limestones encroach on the E-MORB type El Sabalo Basalts which represent the oldest known remnants of oceanic crust clearly identifiable as Proto-Caribbean. Older, syn-rift sediments in the Proto-Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico are known to be deltaic to shallow marine detrital, and evaporitic. Although oceanic crust seemingly started to form in the early Late Jurassic (158 my), recent plate tectonic reconstructions show

  17. Computational and Experimental Study of Sprays from the Breakup of Water Sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jesper

    modeled using three approaches: 1) a volume of fluid (VOF) method using laminar viscosity only, 2) a VOF method using subgrid-scale turbulence modeling, and 3) a two-fluid Euler/Euler method using the laminar viscosity only. The primary focus of the analysis is on the internal flow characteristics in the...... equation (PBE) is coupled to the continuity and momentum balance equations. The direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is implemented to simulate the evolution of the droplet size distribution (DSD) due to breakup and coalescence. The DQMOM-multi-fluid model uses source terms for the first 2N moments......-of-focus particle images. The velocity of each particle is simultaneously determined using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) on focused images. Results are compared to PDA measurements. In shape and trends the data acquired with IPI and PDA are very similar, however due to different sampling methods employed by...

  18. Evidence of strong dynamic core excitation in $^{19}$C resonant break-up

    CERN Document Server

    Lay, J A; Crespo, R; Moro, A M; Arias, J M; Johnson, R C

    2016-01-01

    The resonant break-up of $^{19}$C on protons measured at RIKEN [Phys. Lett. B 660, 320 (2008)] is analyzed in terms of a valence-core model for $^{19}$C including possible core excitations. The analysis of the angular distribution of a prominent peak appearing in the relative-energy spectrum could be well described with this model and is consistent with the previous assignment of $5/2^{+}$ for this state. Inclusion of core-excitation effects are found to be essential to give the correct magnitude of the cross section for this state. By contrast, the calculation assuming an inert $^{18}$C core is found to largely underestimate the data.

  19. Rotating Rig Development for Droplet Deformation/Breakup and Impact Induced by Aerodynamic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, A.; Vargas, M.; Sor, A.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the development of a Rotating Rig Facility by the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in cooperation with the NASA Glenn Research Center. The facility is located at the INTA installations near Madrid, Spain. It has been designed to study the deformation, breakup and impact of large droplets induced by aerodynamic bodies. The importance of these physical phenomena is related to the effects of Supercooled Large Droplets in icing clouds on the impinging efficiency of the droplets on the body, that may change should these phenomena not be taken into account. The important variables and the similarity parameters that enter in this problem are presented. The facility's components are described and some possible set-ups are explained. Application examples from past experiments are presented in order to indicate the capabilities of the new facility.

  20. A Review of Fragmentation Models Relative to Molten UO2 Breakup when Quenched in Sodium Coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important aspect of the fuel-coolant interaction problem relative to liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) safety analysis is the fragmentation of molten oxide fuel during contact with liquid sodium coolant. A proper description of the kinetics of such an event requires an understanding of the breakup process and an estimate of the size and dispersion of such finely divided fuel in coolant. In recent years, considerable interest has centered on the problem of determining the nature of such fragmentation. In this paper, both analytic and experimental studies pertaining to such breakup are reviewed in light of recent developments in the understanding of heat transfer and solidification phenomena during quenching of UO2 in sodium. A more extensive review of this subject can be found in Ref. 1. In conclusion: As discussed, a number of models have been proposed in an attempt to understand the nature of the UO2 fragmentation process. The four principle mechanisms considered likely to cause such fragmentation (impact forces, boiling, violent gas release, and shell solidification) have been developed to the point where comparative analysis is possible. In addition, recent developments in the understanding of the physics of oxide fuel behavior in sodium coolant (boiling regime criteria, vapor nucleation theories, and prediction of solidification kinetics enable us to asses whether or not the various model assumptions are realistic. In view of this knowledge the following conclusions are made. For the case of hydrodynamic influence on fragmentation, it can be said that although the disruptive forces of impact and viscous drag may contribute to breakup, their effects are not controlling with respect to high temperature materials, including UO2-sodium. With respect to the vapor bubble growth and collapse mechanism it was shown that for sodium quenching, where coolant contact may, be expected (as opposed to water), the thermodynamic work potential of the bubble is more

  1. Magmatism during Gondwana break-up : new geochronological data from Westland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newly determined Late Cretaceous 40Ar/39Ar ages on megacrystic kaersutite from four lamprophyre dikes, and a U-Pb zircon age on a trachyte, from central and north Westland (New Zealand) are presented. These ages suggest that the intrusion of mafic dikes (88-86 and 69 Ma) was not necessarily restricted to the previously established narrow age range of 80-92 Ma. The younger lamprophyre and trachyte dikes (c. 68-70 Ma) imply that tensional stresses in the Western Province were either renewed at this time, or that extension and related magmatism continued during opening of the Tasman Sea. Extension-related magmatism in the region not only preceded Tasman seafloor spreading initiation (starting at c. 83 Ma, lasting to c. 53 Ma), but may have sporadically continued for up to 15 Ma after continental break-up. (author)

  2. Visual characterization of heated water spray jet breakup induced by full cone spray nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, M. Y.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ariwahjoedi, B.; Zilati, K.

    2015-03-01

    The present work with specific objectives places a greater emphasis on measurements of the breakup lengths and phenomenological analysis of a hot water jet under reduced pumping pressures in still environment. Therefore, visual and comparative studies are conducted on full cone jet disintegration of heated water for low pumping pressures. A further analysis of the grabbed images confirms the strong influence of the input processing parameters on full cone spray patternation. It is also predicted that the heated liquids generate a dispersed spray pattern by utilizing partial evaporation of the spraying medium. The radial spray cone width and angle do not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases, leading to enhanced macroscopic spray propagation. The discharge coefficient, mean flow rate, and mean flow velocity are significantly influenced by the load pressure, but less affected by the temperature. The fine scale image analysis also predicts toroidal-shaped vortex formation in the spray structure near the water boiling point.

  3. Orbital Envelope for Debris Generated by a Satellite Breakup: A stochastic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Neto, Ernesto; Winter, Othon

    2012-07-01

    The collision between the Russian satellite Kosmos-2251 and the American satellite Iridium 33 in February 2009 leads to several questions about the debris resulted in that collision. For example, we could ask how much of the debris stay in orbit, or how much of these debris decay to Earth. This are the kind of simple questions that we try to answer in this study. The fragmentation process occurs in a large branch of natural phenomena and thus it is a very important field of interest. We can find in the literature numerous theories about fragmentation, but none is complete and much of these theories could be used only for particular cases. Objects which breakup due a collision can generate fragments of various size. The size distribution generated by the destruction depends on many factors, as the physical properties of the object, the way the object was broken, the geometry of the impact, and the energy of the projectile used to break it. After we solve the problem of find a size distribution of the fragments, the next problem is to know the velocity distribution of these fragments, which is also a difficult problem to be modeled. Our method is to make a stochastic simulations of a satellite breakup using random walk, and thus we study the spread of the debris when we distribute random impulses to the fragments. With this process we obtain the velocity distribution of the particles to use it in the orbital evolution of the debris. Thus, We had split our problem into three steps: in the first step we fragment the satellite do produce a size distribution for the debris; in the second step we give linear momenta to the fragments to obtain the velocity distribution; finally, in the third step we use this velocity distribution to study the orbital envelope generated by the debris. Peculiarities of this model and the results we have achieved will be shown in the presentation.

  4. Constraining lithosphere deformation modes during continental breakup for the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate rifted margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniot, Ludovic; Kusznir, Nick; Mohn, Geoffroy; Manatschal, Gianreto; Cowie, Leanne

    2016-06-01

    A kinematic model of lithosphere and asthenosphere deformation has been used to investigate lithosphere stretching and thinning modes during continental rifting leading to breakup and seafloor spreading. The model has been applied to two conjugate profiles across the Iberia-Newfoundland rifted margins and quantitatively calibrated using observed present-day water loaded subsidence and crustal thickness, together with observed mantle exhumation, subsidence and melting generation histories. The kinematic model uses an evolving prescribed flow-field to deform the lithosphere and asthenosphere leading to lithospheric breakup from which continental crustal thinning, lithosphere thermal evolution, decompression melt initiation and subsidence are predicted. We explore the sensitivity of model predictions to extension rate history, deformation migration and buoyancy induced upwelling. The best fit calibrated models of lithosphere deformation evolution for the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins require; (1) an initial broad region of lithosphere deformation with passive upwelling, (2) lateral migration of deformation, (3) an increase in extension rate with time, (4) focussing of the deformation and (5) buoyancy induced upwelling. The model prediction of exhumed mantle at the Iberia-Newfoundland margins, as observed, requires a critical threshold of melting to be exceeded before melt extraction. The preferred calibrated models predict faster extension rates and earlier continental crustal separation and mantle exhumation for the Iberia Abyssal Plain-Flemish Pass conjugate margin profile than for the Galicia Bank-Flemish Cap profile to the north. The predicted N-S differences in the deformation evolution give insights into the 3D evolution of Iberia-Newfoundland margin crustal separation.

  5. Post-breakup Basin Evolution along the South-Atlantic Margins in Brazil and Angola/Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, P. A.; Strozyk, F.; Back, S.

    2013-12-01

    The post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic evolution of large offshore basins along the South American and African continental margins record strongly varying post-rift sedimentary successions. The northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt in comparison to the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. Another important observation is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. A regional comparison based on tectonic-stratigraphic analysis of selected seismic transects between the large basins offshore southern Brazil (Espirito Santo Basin, Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Lower Congo Basin, Kwanza Basin, Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin) provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of the key geological parameters controlling ocean and continental margin development. This comparison includes the margin configuration, subsidence development through time, sediment influx and storage patterns, type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems) and finally major tectonic and magmatic events. Data from the salt basins indicate that salt-related tectonic deformation is amongst the prime controls for the non-uniform post-rift margin development. The diversity in the stratigraphic architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are (a) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, (b) the post break-up subsidence history of the respective margin segment

  6. Capture cross-section and rate of the 14C(, )15C reaction from the Coulomb dissociation of 15C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shubhchintak; Neelam; R Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    We calculate the Coulomb dissociation of 15C on a Pb target at 68 MeV/u incident beam energy within the fully quantum mechanical distorted wave Born approximation formalism of breakup reactions. The capture cross-section and the subsequent rate of the 14C(, )15C reaction are calculated from the photodisintegration of 15C, using the principle of detailed balance. Our theoretical model is free from the uncertainties associated with the multipole strength distributions of the projectile.

  7. Experiment E89-044 on the Quasielastic 3He(e,e'p) Reaction at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Penel-Nottaris

    2004-07-07

    The Jefferson Lab Hall A E89-044 experiment has measured the 3He(e,e'p) reaction cross-sections. The extraction of the longitudinal and transverse response functions for the two-body break-up 3He(e,e'p)d reaction in parallel kinematics allows the study of the bound proton electromagnetic properties inside the 3He nucleus and the involved nuclear mechanisms beyond plane wave approximations.

  8. Elastic scattering and fusion cross-sections in 7Li + 27Al reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Patel; S Santra; S Mukherjee; B K Nayak; P K Rath; V V Parkar; R K Choudhury

    2013-10-01

    With an aim to understand the effects of breakup and transfer channels on elastic scattering and fusion cross-sections in the 7Li + 27Al reaction, simultaneous measurement of elastic scattering angular distributions and fusion cross-sections have been carried out at various energies (lab = 8.0–16.0 MeV) around the Coulomb barrier. Optical model (OM) analysis of the elastic scattering data does not show any threshold anomaly or breakup threshold anomaly behaviour in the energy dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the OM potential. Fusion cross-section at each bombarding energy is extracted from the measured -particle evaporation energy spectra at backward angles by comparing with the statistical model prediction. Results on fusion cross-sections from the present measurements along with data from the literature have been compared with the coupled-channels predictions. Detailed coupled-channels calculations have been carried out to study the effect of coupling of breakup, inelastic and transfer, channels on elastic scattering and fusion. The effect of 1-stripping transfer coupling was found to be significant compared to that of the projectile breakup couplings in the present system.

  9. Reaction mechanisms in collisions induced by 8B beam close to the barrier

    CERN Multimedia

    The aim of the proposed experiment is to investigate on the reaction dynamics of proton-halo induced collisions at energies around the Coulomb barrier where coupling to continuum effects are expected to be important. We propose to measure $^{8}$B+$^{64}$Zn elastic scattering angular distribution together with the measurement, for the first time, of p-$^{7}$Be coincidences coming from transfer and/or break-up of $^{8}$B. The latter will allow a better understanding of the relative contribution of elastic $\\textit{vs}$ non-elastic break-up in reactions induced by extremely weakly-bound nuclei. We believe that with the availability of the post accelerated $^{8}$B beam at REX-ISOLDE we will be able to collect for the first time high quality data for the study of such an important topic.

  10. Reaction mechanism of light nuclei below 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light nuclei are the elements in 1p shell. At the incident neutron energies below 20 MeV, the reaction mechanism could be classified as follows: 1. one particle emission, 2. sequential two particles emission, 3. the two cluster separation, when the residual are 8Be, 5He, 5Li, 4. three body break-up process, when the residual nuclei are 10Be, 6He. The Legendre expansion coefficients of the double differential cross section of outgoing particles in each type reaction mechanism are set up for the model calculating. The double differential cross section of secondary particle emission is calculated for light nuclei reaction and calculation formulation is also given. The problem on energy balance in light nuclear reaction is discussed

  11. Systematic study of three-nucleon force effects in the cross section of the deuteron-proton breakup at 130 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Kistryn, S; Bodek, K; Deltuva, A; Epelbaum, E; Ermisch, K; Glöckle, W; Golak, J; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kamada, H; Kis, M; Klos, B; Kozela, A; Kuros-Zolnierczuk, J; Mahjour-Shafiei, M; Meißner, Ulf G; Micherdzinska, A; Nogga, A; Sauer, P U; Skibinski, R; Stephan, E; Sworst, R; Witala, H; Zejma, J; Zipper, W

    2005-01-01

    High precision cross-section data of the deuteron-proton breakup reaction at 130 MeV are presented for 72 kinematically complete configurations. The data cover a large region of the available phase space, divided into a systematic grid of kinematical variables. They are compared with theoretical predictions, in which the full dynamics of the three-nucleon (3N) system is obtained in three different ways: realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials are combined with model 3N forces (3NF's) or with an effective 3NF resulting from explicit treatment of the Delta-isobar excitation. Alternatively, the chiral perturbation theory approach is used at the next-to-next-to-leading order with all relevant NN and 3N contributions taken into account. The generated dynamics is then applied to calculate cross-section values by rigorous solution of the 3N Faddeev equations. The comparison of the calculated cross sections with the experimental data shows a clear prefernce for the predictions in which the 3NF's are included. The m...

  12. Systematic study of three-nucleon force effects in the cross section of the deuteron-proton breakup at 130 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Kistryn; E. Stephan; A. Biegun; K. Bodek; A. Deltuva; E. Epelbaum; K. Ermisch; W. Gloeckle; J. Golak; N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki; H. Kamada; M. Kis; B. Klos; A. Kozela; J. Kuros-Zolnierczuk; M. Mahjour-Shafiei; U.-G. Meissner; A. Micherdzinska; A. Nogga; P. U. Sauer; R. Skibinski; R. Sworst; H. Witala; J. Zejma; W. Zipper

    2005-08-11

    High precision cross-section data of the deuteron-proton breakup reaction at 130 MeV are presented for 72 kinematically complete configurations. The data cover a large region of the available phase space, divided into a systematic grid of kinematical variables. They are compared with theoretical predictions, in which the full dynamics of the three-nucleon (3N) system is obtained in three different ways: realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials are combined with model 3N forces (3NF's) or with an effective 3NF resulting from explicit treatment of the Delta-isobar excitation. Alternatively, the chiral perturbation theory approach is used at the next-to-next-to-leading order with all relevant NN and 3N contributions taken into account. The generated dynamics is then applied to calculate cross-section values by rigorous solution of the 3N Faddeev equations. The comparison of the calculated cross sections with the experimental data shows a clear preference for the predictions in which the 3NF's are included. The majority of the experimental data points is well reproduced by the theoretical predictions. The remaining discrepancies are investigated by inspecting cross sections integrated over certain kinematical variables. The procedure of global comparisons leads to establishing regularities in disagreements between the experimental data and the theoretically predicted values of the cross sections. They indicate deficiencies still present in the assumed models of the 3N system dynamics.

  13. The Trojan-Horse Method applied to the {sup 6}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 3}He reaction down to astrophysical energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Pappalardo, L.; Cherubini, S.; Del Zoppo, A.; La Cognata, M.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Rinollo, A.; Romano, S.; Typel, S

    2004-04-05

    The Trojan-Horse Method has been applied to the three-body d({sup 6}Li,{alpha}{sup 3}He)n break-up reaction in order to extract the bare nucleus S(E) factor for the {sup 6}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 3}He down to astrophysical energies.

  14. Binary and Non-binary Aspects of 158Tb(40Ar, PLF) Reaction at Energies Close to 10 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a complex analysis of 40Ar + 159Tb collision data obtained from inclusive and coincidence measurements are presented. The experimental results support the binary nature of projectile like fragments close in Z to the projectile. Indirect evidences for primary projectile and projectile like fragment breakup following transfer reaction and/or inelastic scattering were found. (author)

  15. Termination of spiral wave breakup in a Fitzhugh-Nagumo model via short and long duration stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard A.

    2002-09-01

    Rotating spiral waves have been observed in a variety of nonlinear biological and physical systems. Spiral waves are found in excitable and oscillatory systems and can be stationary, meander, or even degenerate into multiple unstable rotating waves (a process called "spiral wave breakup"). In the heart, spiral wave breakup is thought to be the underlying mechanism of cardiac fibrillation. The spatiotemporal complexity of multiple unstable spiral waves is difficult to control or terminate. Here, the mechanisms of the termination of spiral wave breakup in response to global stimulation are investigated. A modified Fitzhugh-Nagumo model was used to represent cellular kinetics to study the role of the fast (activation) and slow (recovery) variables. This simplified model allows a theoretical analysis of the termination of spiral wave breakup via both short and long duration pulses. Simulations were carried out in both two-dimensional sheets and in a three-dimensional geometry of the heart ventricles. The short duration pulses affected only the fast variable and acted to reset wave propagation. Monophasic pulses excited tissue ahead of the wave front thus reducing the amount of excitable tissue. Biphasic shocks did the same, but they also acted to generate new wave fronts from the pre-existing wave tails by making some active regions excitable. Thus, if the short duration stimuli were strong enough, they acted to fill in excitable tissue via propagating wave fronts and terminated all activity. The long duration wave forms were selected such that they had a frequency spectrum similar to that of the pseudoelectrocardiograms recorded during fibrillation. These long duration wave forms affected both the recovery and activation variables, and the mechanism of unstable multiple spiral wave termination was different compared to the short duration wave forms. If the long duration stimuli were strong enough, they acted to alter the "state" (i.e., combination of fast and slow

  16. An Experimental Study on the Breakup of Simulant Melt Jet Released from the Submerged Reactor Vessel Lower Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential risk of explosive molten fuel coolant interactions (FCI, steam explosion) has drawn substantial attention in the safety analysis of reactor severe accidents. The steam explosion intensity is largely dependent upon the degree of volumetric fractions of melt droplets and steam in the fuel-coolant mixture. The rate of melt jet breakup and droplet sizes are, therefore, the key physical parameters in the analysis of FCIs. An ex-vessel steam explosion may occur when the core melt is released from the failed reactor vessel lower head into the water-filled reactor cavity. The water level in the cavity can be either below or above the reactor vessel lower head depending on the severe accident management strategy. The former, a partially-filled cavity with free-fall space for the melt jet, has been the major condition for the steam explosion studies in the past. An In-Vessel Retention by External Vessel Cooling (IVR-ERVC), however, requires the water level in the cavity be above the reactor vessel lower head so that the vessel can be completely submerged in coolant water. In this case, the melt jet falls in liquid water without free fall. The jet breakup behavior in such a condition has been rarely studied, nor well identified. In this work, jet breakup of the melt released from the submerged vessel has been experimentally investigated using stimulant melt of Woods metal. The initial melt temperature was set below the boiling point of water so that only the hydrodynamic mechanism of jet breakup can be identified. High-speed videos were taken to visualize the jet breakup behavior and the post-test debris were collected and sieved to obtain debris size distributions. Non-boiling liquid jet breakup experiment was conducted using 50 mm-diameter Woods metal jet released from a vessel submerged in water pool. The post-test debris was sieved and the debris size distributions were obtained. The size of the largest mass of the debris shows a fair agreement with the

  17. Causes and consequences of continental breakup in the South Atlantic: lessons learned from the SAMPLE program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, Robert B.

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009 the SAMPLE program (www.spp-sample.de) provides a platform for research into the causes and effects of continental breakup and the evolution of passive margins. SAMPLE encompasses 28 projects from 13 German institutions and many international partnerships. The 6-year program will run through 2015. At the core of the program are observational studies that are interlinked by modelling projects examining the interplay of deep mantle dynamics, lithospheric stress fields, pre-rift fabric and melt-weaking on localizing rifting. Geophysics teams collect and integrate existing data from wide-angle seismic profiles, reprocessed multichannel seismics, as well as gravity, magnetics and heat-flow studies to construct self-consistent lithospheric-scale 3-D models along the conjugate margins. Key interests are variations in margin architecture, distribution of magmatic features and the evolution of sedimentary basins (subsidence and thermal histories). An exciting new contribution of SAMPLE geophysics is a linked set of seismic, seismologic and magnetotelluric experiments along the Walvis Ridge, including onshore NW Namibia and the Tristan da Cunha hotspot. In the deep mantle, we examine evidence from global seismic tomography for dramatic low seismic-velocity regions near the core-mantle boundary beneath southern Africa and their implications for dynamics in the deep Earth and the thermo-chemical nature of plumes. Petrologic studies focus on near-primary mantle melts represented by Mg-rich mafic dikes. Projects address the origin of magmas and crust-mantle interaction, and the environmental impact of mega-scale volcanism during breakup. Thermobarometry results from the African margin reveal a N-to-S decrease in mantle potential temperatures from 1520°C (N) to 1380° (S), which supports a thermal plume origin for excessive melt production in the north. Thermochronology data from both conjugate margins reveal complex and puzzling patterns in the denudation history

  18. Unravelling the process of continental breakup: a case study of the Australia-Antarctica conjugate margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Morgane; Autin, Julia; Karpoff, Anne-Marie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Munschy, Marc; Sauter, Daniel; Schaming, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies of rifted margins, in particular of the North Atlantic, resulted in the development of new concepts and models. However, these studies also revealed a number of new questions concerning: the nature and composition of hyper-extended crust and the processes related to crustal thinning; the origin, volume and timing of magmatic rocks; and also how magmatic and tectonic processes are interrelated during rifting. A probably even more fundamental question that remains to be answered is: How do plate boundaries form in divergent systems and how, when and where does the transition from rifting to oceanic seafloor spreading occur? This statement seems at odds with the fact that on most global maps the limit between continents and oceans is mapped as an Ocean Continent Boundary (OCB) using magnetic lineations and other geophysical proxies. Therefore, one could assume that the problem of localizing the initial plate boundary in present-day oceans should be resolved. We will consider different margins including the N- and S- Atlantic sites, however, we give priority to the example of the Australia-Antarctica conjugate margins to discuss location, nature and age of the lithospheric breakup. The aim of this work is to gather new observations and to develop new methods to determine timing, location, and processes related to the formation of a plate boundary in a magma-poor rift system. In this presentation we focus on preliminary results on the Australia-Antarctica rift system. These results, obtained after a synthesis of geological (dredges, wells) and geophysical (seismic, gravity, magnetic, P-wave velocities) data, show that the conjugate Australia-Antarctica margins are the result of a polyphase rift evolution. Moreover, the architecture and the evolution of the main structural domains display a strong lateral variability. These results suppose a complex temporal and spatial evolution (including different stages of thinning, exhumation and seafloor spreading

  19. The 6Li(γ,p) reaction at intermediate photon energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6Li(γ,p) reaction was measured at average tagged photon energies of left angle Eγ right angle =59 and 75 MeV. Protons were detected at 5 different angles between 30 circle and 150 circle. Most of the observed strength is apparently due to the three-body breakup channels. In particular the semi-inclusive (γ,p(n)) and (γ,p(t)) channels are discussed. ((orig.))

  20. Resonance model for the three-body states of the A=6 reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paris Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an R-matrix-based model for three-body final states that has aspects of the Faddeev approach to three-particle scattering. The model is applied to describing the nucleon spectra for breakup reactions in the A = 6 systems. Calculations using a charge-symmetric parametrization agree fairly well with the experimental data, although they indicate larger contributions from the 5He or 5Li ground state are necessary.

  1. Isotopic effects in fragment emission studies in low energy light ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive efforts have been made to understand the fragment emission mechanism in light-heavy ion reaction at low energy. Inelastic transfer, projectile breakup, fusion-evaporation, fusion fission, deep-inelastic process etc. are the main processes by which fragments are emitted at these energies. Reported here are measurement of fragment emissions in 12C (80 MeV) on 12C and 13C (78.5 MeV) on 12C reactions. The present experiment has been done with the motivation to see if there is any isotopic dependence of fragment in these two reactions

  2. Nuclear Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Bertulani, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear reactions generate energy in nuclear reactors, in stars, and are responsible for the existence of all elements heavier than hydrogen in the universe. Nuclear reactions denote reactions between nuclei, and between nuclei and other fundamental particles, such as electrons and photons. A short description of the conservation laws and the definition of basic physical quantities is presented, followed by a more detailed account of specific cases: (a) formation and decay of compound nuclei;...

  3. A study of the factors effecting layer thickness uniformity and layer breakup in microlayered coextruded films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghumman, Bhavjit Singh

    Microlayer coextrusion offers the opportunity to economically commercialize the production of nanometer thick film. A major obstacle towards commercialization is the non-uniform thickness of these layers and their breakup into droplets, which is also known as a scattering instability. Prior research had indicated a strong interaction between material properties and process parameters. Therefore, the focus of this research effort was to better understand and then identify the coextrusion parameters and material properties that governed the layer non-uniformity and scattering. Initial studies had indicated that there existed an interaction between the two extruders, which gave rise to pressure fluctuations and non-uniform flow. The interaction of the two extruders was studied by analyzing the pressure signals at the two extruders and the junction of the two streams. A response surface method was used to analyze the two extruders individually, the number of layer multiplying elements and finally the interaction between the two extruders and the effect they had on pressure, surging, flow rate and torque. Although the interaction of the two extruders did result in higher backpressures, it did not decrease the output. The output was independent of the screw speed of the other extruder, however it did influence the melting mechanics along the screw. The more shear sensitive PMMA showed a greater degree of sensitivity than the Newtonian PC. The influence of primary; coextrusion, and secondary; chill roll, processing on the final layer thickness was studied in a second set of experiments. For this purpose primary coextrusion process parameters such as screw speed ratio, die temperature and core melt temperature were changed and the effect on the layer thickness uniformity was studied. Similarly secondary process parameters such as nip gap and chill roll speed were also investigated. Thickness was measured using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The screw speed ratio was the

  4. High-speed monodisperse droplet generation by ultrasonically controlled micro-jet breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommhold, Philipp Erhard; Lippert, Alexander; Holsteyns, Frank Ludwig; Mettin, Robert

    2014-04-01

    A liquid jet that is ejected from a nozzle into air will disintegrate into drops via the well-known Plateau-Rayleigh instability within a certain range of Ohnesorge and Reynolds numbers. With the focus on the micrometer scale, we investigate the control of this process by superimposing a suitable ultrasonic signal, which causes the jet to break up into a very precise train of monodisperse droplets. The jet leaves a pressurized container of liquid via a small orifice of about 20 μm diameter. The break-up process and the emerging droplets are recorded via high-speed imaging. An extended parameter study of exit speed and ultrasonic frequency is carried out for deionized water to evaluate the jet's state and the subsequent generation of monodisperse droplets. Maximum exit velocities obtained reach almost 120 m s-1, and frequencies have been applied up to 1.8 MHz. Functionality of the method is confirmed for five additional liquids for moderate jet velocities 38 m s-1. For the uncontrolled jet disintegration, the drop size spectra revealed broad distributions and downstream drop growth by collision, while the acoustic control generated monodisperse droplets with a standard deviation less than 0.5 %. By adjustment of the acoustic excitation frequency, drop diameters could be tuned continuously from about 30 to 50 μm for all exit speeds. Good agreement to former experiments and theoretical approaches is found for the relation of overpressure and jet exit speed, and for the observed stability regions of monodisperse droplet generation in the parameter plane of jet speed and acoustic excitation frequency. Fitting of two free parameters of the general theory to the liquids and nozzles used is found to yield an even higher precision. Furthermore, the high-velocity instability limit of regular jet breakup described by von Ohnesorge has been superseded by more than a factor of two without entering the wind-induced instability regime, and monodisperse droplet generation was

  5. Dynamics of GeV light-ion-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results from studies of the 1.8 - 4.8 GeV 3He + natAg, 197Au reactions at LNS with the ISiS detector array have shown evidence for a saturation in deposition energy and multifragmentation from a low-density source. The collision dynamics have been examined in the context of intranuclear cascade and BUU models, while breakup phenomena have been compared with EES and SMM models. Fragment-fragment correlations and isotope ratios are also investigated. (K.A.)

  6. Establishing a theory for deuteron induced surrogate reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, Gregory Potel; Thompson, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is to establish on firm grounds a theory for deuteron induced neutron capture reactions. This includes formulating elastic and inelastic breakup in a consistent manner. We describe this process both in post and prior form distorted wave Born approximation, and we apply our method to the 53Nb(d,p)X at Ed =15 MeV and 25 MeV, obtaining a good description of the data. We look at the various partial wave contributions, as well as elastic versus inelastic contributions. We also connect our formulation with transfer to neutron bound states.

  7. Dynamics of GeV light-ion-induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatkowski, K.; Bracken, D.S.; Foxford, E.R.; Ginger, D.S.; Hsi, W.C.; Morley, K.B.; Viola, V.E.; Wang, G. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Korteling, R.G. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Legrain, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Recent results from studies of the 1.8 - 4.8 GeV {sup 3}He + {sup nat}Ag, {sup 197}Au reactions at LNS with the ISiS detector array have shown evidence for a saturation in deposition energy and multifragmentation from a low-density source. The collision dynamics have been examined in the context of intranuclear cascade and BUU models, while breakup phenomena have been compared with EES and SMM models. Fragment-fragment correlations and isotope ratios are also investigated. (K.A.). 19 refs.

  8. Nuclear reaction studies with radioactive 17 F beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radioactive 17 F beams were produced at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility using the Isotope Separator On Line (ISOL) technique. A 40 MeV deuteron beam provided by the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) was used to bombard a hafnium oxide target to produce 17 F by the 16 O(d,n) reaction. The 17 F ions were mass analysed and subsequently accelerated by the 25 MV tandem. Two of the experiments using accelerated 17 F beams will be reported: the breakup of 170 MeV 17 F by 208 Pb and the simultaneous emission of two protons from a resonance in 18 Ne. (Author)

  9. Incomplete fusion reactions in 16O+165Ho

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Sharma; B Bindu Kumar; S Mukherjee; S Chakrabarty; B S Tomar; A Goswami; G K Gubbi; S B Manohar; A K Sinha; S K Datta

    2000-03-01

    Excitation functions for evaporation residues of the system 16O+165Ho have been measured up to 100 MeV. Recoil range distribution of long lived reaction products were measured at 16O beam energy of 100 MeV. Detailed Monte Carlo simulation of recoil range distributions of products were performed with the help of PACE2 code, in order to extract the contributions of incomplete fusion in the individual channels. The results clearly show the incomplete fusion contributions in the tantalum and thulium products. This is confirmed by the predictions of breakup fusion model of the incomplete fusion.

  10. Emergence of spatiotemporal chaos arising from far-field breakup of spiral waves in the plankton ecological systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Quan-Xing; Sun Gui-Quan; Jin Zhen; Li Bai-Lian

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that the minimal spatially extended phytoplankton-zooplankton system exhibits both tem-poral regular/chaotic behaviour, and spatiotemporal chaos in a patchy environment. As a further investigation by means of computer simulations and theoretical analysis, in this paper we observe that the spiral waves may exist and the spatiotcmporal chaos emerge when the parameters are within the mixed Turing Hopf bifurcation region, which arises from the far-field breakup of the spiral waves over a large range of diffusion coefficients of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Moreover, the spatiotemporal chaos arising from the far-field breakup of spiral waves does not gradually invade the whole space of that region. Our results arc confirmed by nonlinear bifurcation of wave trains. We also discuss ecological implications of these spatially structured patterns.

  11. Analysis of elastic scattering and breakup of 11li in collisions with protons using a dynamical two-cluster model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 11Li scattering and breakup on protons is considered under the assumption that the 11Li nucleus consists of two interacting clusters, which are a c = 9Li core and a h = 2n dineutron halo. The single-particle density of the 11Li nucleus, amicroscopic optical potential, and the cross section for 11Li+p scattering for various choices of cluster shape are obtained and analyzed by folding the density distribution for either cluster with the probability density for the relative motion of two clusters. A comparison with experimental data of the scattering cross section at low, 60–75 MeV, and intermediate, 700 MeV, energies is performed. The momentum distribution of c fragments upon 11Li breakup is calculated and studied with a help of the obtained p + c and p + h microscopic optical potentials

  12. Sea spray production by bag breakup mode of fragmentation of the air-water interface at strong and hurricane wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-04-01

    Sea sprays is a typical element of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) of large importance for marine meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and climate studies. They are considered as a crucial factor in the development of hurricanes and severe extratropical storms, since they can significantly enhance exchange of mass, heat and momentum between the ocean and the atmosphere. This exchange is directly provided by spume droplets with the sizes from 10 microns to a few millimeters mechanically torn off the crests of a breaking waves and fall down to the ocean due to gravity. The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Experimental core of our work comprise laboratory experiments employing high-speed video-filming, which have made it possible to disclose how water surface looks like at extremely strong winds and how exactly droplets are torn off wave crests. We classified events responsible for spume droplet, including bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" or liquid filaments (Koa, 1981) and "bag breakup", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film, "bags". The process is similar to "bag-breakup" mode of fragmentation of liquid droplets and jets in gaseous flows. Basing on statistical analysis of results of these experiments we show that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism On the base of general principles

  13. Containment scaling: experimental investigation of the break-up of a stratified layer due to a vertical jet from below

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of containment safety, the break-up of a helium (helium as substitute for hydrogen) layer due to an upward vertical jet in a confined volume was the subject of experimental investigation in two geometrically similar test facilities scaled 1:4. The high instrumentation resolution in space and time of the small-scale facility (MiniPanda) provided 2D temperature field and 1D helium concentration profile measurements well suited for CFD validation and detailed analysis of the break-up process. In order to conduct similar experiments on the scaled facilities, the boundary conditions (i.e., the jet diameter and velocity) for the experiments with two length scales have been scaled with regard to a Froude number relating the jet’s buoyancy to the jets inertia at the helium layer interface. The different flow phenomena observed in the two facilities are discussed based on experimental results. (author)

  14. Experimental Study of Drop Deformation and Breakup in Simple Shear Flows%简单剪切流动中液滴断裂机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林长志; 郭烈锦

    2007-01-01

    The experimental results of the deformation and breakup of a single drop immersed in a Newtonian liquid and subjected to a constant shear rate which generated by counter rotating Couette apparatus were presented in this paper. From experimental observations, the breakup occurred by three mechanisms, namely, necking, end pinching, and capillary instability. Quantitative results for the deformation and breakup of drop are presented. The maximum diameter and Sauter mean diameter of daughter drops and capillary thread radius are linearly related to the inverse shear rate and independent of the initial drop size, the dimensionless wavelength which is the wavelength divided by the thread width at breakup is independent of the shear rate and initial drop size, and the deformation of threads follows a pseudo-affine deformation for Cai/Cac larger than 2.

  15. Modeling corium jet breakup in water pool and application to ex-vessel fuel–coolant interaction analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Kelvin–Helmholtz Instability on melt–steam–water interfaces was solved numerically. • Corium jet breakup model was developed for FCI codes based on the KHI solutions. • Ex-vessel steam explosions in reactor cavity were calculated using TRACER-II code. - Abstract: In light water reactor core melt accidents, the molten fuel can be brought into contact with coolant water in the course of the melt relocation in-vessel and ex-vessel as well as in an accident mitigation action of water addition. For the last several decades, the potential risk of energetic molten fuel coolant interactions (FCIs, steam explosions) has drawn substantial attention in the safety analysis of reactor severe accidents. In this paper, an improved melt jet breakup model is presented and analyses of an energetic fuel–coolant interaction in a PWR cavity (1) partially filled (4 m deep) and (2) completely filled (7 m deep) with water are presented. The TRACER-II code was used in the analyses. For jet breakup model, the full dispersion equation of Kelvin–Helmholtz instability for the melt jet–vapor film–water was solved numerically and the solutions were correlated for use in the TRACER-II code. The new jet breakup model was benchmarked using FARO L28 test data. In reactor calculations the mixing calculations showed that the average melt drop size was much smaller in 4 m deep pool with 3 m free-fall than in 7 m deep pool. The explosion calculations showed that the peak pressure at the center of mixture was ∼90 MPa in 4 m deep pool, ∼25 MPa in 7 m deep pool. It also showed that the maximum impulse at the cavity wall was found at the lower wall in both cases and it was 50 kPa s in 4 m deep pool and 150 kPa s in 7 m deep pool

  16. Modeling corium jet breakup in water pool and application to ex-vessel fuel–coolant interaction analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kwang-Hyun, E-mail: khbang@hhu.ac.kr; Kumar, Rohit; Kim, Hyoung-Tak

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Kelvin–Helmholtz Instability on melt–steam–water interfaces was solved numerically. • Corium jet breakup model was developed for FCI codes based on the KHI solutions. • Ex-vessel steam explosions in reactor cavity were calculated using TRACER-II code. - Abstract: In light water reactor core melt accidents, the molten fuel can be brought into contact with coolant water in the course of the melt relocation in-vessel and ex-vessel as well as in an accident mitigation action of water addition. For the last several decades, the potential risk of energetic molten fuel coolant interactions (FCIs, steam explosions) has drawn substantial attention in the safety analysis of reactor severe accidents. In this paper, an improved melt jet breakup model is presented and analyses of an energetic fuel–coolant interaction in a PWR cavity (1) partially filled (4 m deep) and (2) completely filled (7 m deep) with water are presented. The TRACER-II code was used in the analyses. For jet breakup model, the full dispersion equation of Kelvin–Helmholtz instability for the melt jet–vapor film–water was solved numerically and the solutions were correlated for use in the TRACER-II code. The new jet breakup model was benchmarked using FARO L28 test data. In reactor calculations the mixing calculations showed that the average melt drop size was much smaller in 4 m deep pool with 3 m free-fall than in 7 m deep pool. The explosion calculations showed that the peak pressure at the center of mixture was ∼90 MPa in 4 m deep pool, ∼25 MPa in 7 m deep pool. It also showed that the maximum impulse at the cavity wall was found at the lower wall in both cases and it was 50 kPa s in 4 m deep pool and 150 kPa s in 7 m deep pool.

  17. Lithospheric controls on melt production during continental breakup at slow rates of extension: Application to the North Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, J.J.; Henstock, T. J.; Minshull, T.A.; Hopper, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Rifted margins form from extension and breakup of the continental lithosphere. If this extension is coeval with a region of hotter lithosphere, then it is generally assumed that a volcanic margin would follow. Here we present the results of numerical simulations of rift margin evolution by extending continental lithosphere above a thermal anomaly. We find that unless the lithosphere is thinned prior to the arrival of the thermal anomaly or half spreading rates are more than ...

  18. Calculation of Double-Differential Cross Sections of n+7Li Reactions Below 20 MeV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Shang; HAN Ying-Lu

    2002-01-01

    A new reaction model for light nuclei is proposed to analyze the measured data,especially for analysis of the double-differential cross sections of the outgoing particles.Many channels arc opened in the n + 7Li reaction below En< 20 MeV.The reaction mechanism is very complex,beside the sequential emissions there are also three-body breakup processes.Because of a strong recoil effect of light nucleus reactions,the energy balance is strictly taken into account.The comparisons of the calculated results with the double-differential measurements indicate that the model calculations are successful for the total outgoing neutrons.

  19. A magnetotelluric study of continental lithosphere in the final stages of break-up. Afar, Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. As part of a major programme of research into the processes and controls involved in the break-up of continents and the generation of new oceanic crust, we have collected broadband magnetotelluric data along two ∼50km long profiles in the Afar region of Ethiopia, with transient electromagnetic data for static shift control. The first is across a currently active magmatic segment that has experienced volcanic eruptions, seismic tremor and dyke injection over the last 3 years, and the other across a currently inactive segment. This presentation will concentrate on the results of the profile across the active segment. The data are broadly consistent with a two-dimensional interpretation, with geoelectrical strike along the segment's axis of rifting. Three-dimensional effects are seen primarily at sites beneath the rift axis and at longer periods. After static shift correction and rotation into TE and TM modes, we have inverted the data using the REBOCC algorithm. We find high conductivity at various depths beneath the segment axis: in a narrow zone close to the surface and in a much broader zone at depths straddling the crust-mantle interface. We interpret the deeper conductor to represent a magma chamber feeding the recent rifting episodes which has been inferred, but not previously observed directly, from a mis-match between the possible magma supply from deflation of the active volcanoes in the area and the volume of material intruded into the dykes.

  20. Laboratory simulation of spontaneous breakup of polluted water drops in the horizontal electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalwankar, Rohini; Subramanian, Subashini; Kamra, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    A laboratory simulation experiment to study the spontaneous breakup of distilled and polluted water drops suspended in horizontal electric field of 0, 100, 300, 500 kV m-1 has been performed in a small vertical wind tunnel. Water drops are formed from distilled water and from 100 ppm solution of ammonium sulfate and potassium nitrate. Results show that the life time of the both distilled and polluted water drops decreases with the increase in electric field. The water drops formed from both distilled and polluted water become more oblate as the electric field is increased. The results have been interpreted in terms of enhanced instability of water drops due to the changes in surface tension, viscosity, conductivity and hydro-dynamics of the water drop. Significance of the results is discussed in view of the possible modification of the drop size distribution and consequent growth of raindrops and lightning activity due to the combined effect of pollutants and electrical forces in clouds formed over big cities.

  1. Numerical simulation of liquid-layer breakup on a moving wall due to an impinging jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Taejong; Moon, Hojoon; You, Donghyun; Kim, Dokyun; Ovsyannikov, Andrey

    2014-11-01

    Jet wiping, which is a hydrodynamic method for controlling the liquid film thickness in coating processes, is constrained by a rather violent film instability called splashing. The instability is characterized by the ejection of droplets from the runback flow and results in an explosion of the film. The splashing phenomenon degrades the final coating quality. In the present research, a volume-of-fluid (VOF)-based method, which is developed at Cascade Technologies, is employed to simulate the air-liquid multiphase flow dynamics. The present numerical method is based on an unstructured-grid unsplit geometric VOF scheme and guarantees strict conservation of mass of two-phase flow, The simulation results are compared with experimental measurements such as the liquid-film thickness before and after the jet wiping, wall pressure and shear stress distributions. The trajectories of liquid droplets due to the fluid motion entrained by the gas-jet operation, are also qualitatively compared with experimental visualization. Physical phenomena observed during the liquid-layer breakup due to an impinging jet is characterized in order to develop ideas for controlling the liquid-layer instability and resulting splash generation and propagation. Supported by the Grant NRF-2012R1A1A2003699, the Brain Korea 21+ program, POSCO, and 2014 CTR Summer Program.

  2. Multifragmentation of gold nuclei by light relativistic ions - thermal break-up versus dynamic disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple emission of intermediate-mass fragments has been studied for the collisions of p, 4He and 12C on Au with the 4π setup FASA. The mean IMF multiplicities saturate at a value of around 2 for incident energies above 6 GeV. An attempt to describe the observed IMF multiplicities in the two-stage scenario, a fast cascade followed by a statistical multifragmentation, fails. Agreement with the measured IMF multiplicities is obtained by introducing an intermediate expansion phase and modifying empirically the excitation energies and masses of the remnants. The angular distributions and energy spectra from the p-induced collisions are in agreement with the scenario of 'thermal' multifragmentation of a hot and expanded target-spectator. In the case of 12C+Au (22.4 GeV) and 4He (14.6 GeV) +Au collisions, deviations from a pure thermal break-up are seen in the emitted-fragment energy spectra, which are harder than those both from model calculations and from the measured ones for p-induced collisions. This difference is attributed to a collective flow with the expansion velocity at the surface of about 0.1 s (for 12C + Au collisions)

  3. Coulomb breakup of neutron-rich $^{29,30}$Na isotopes near the island of inversion

    CERN Document Server

    Rahaman, A; Aumann, T; Beceiro-Novo, S; Boretzky, K; Caesar, C; Carlson, B V; Catford, W N; Chakraborty, S; Chartier, M; Cortina-Gil, D; Angelis, G De; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Emling, H; Fernandez, P Diaz; Fraile, L M; Ershova, O; Geissel, H; Jonson, B; Johansson, H; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Krücken, R; Kröll, T; Kurcewicz, J; Langer, C; Bleis, T Le; Leifels, Y; Münzenberg, G; Marganiec, J; Nilsson, T; Nociforo, C; Nowacki, F; Najafi, A; Panin, V; Paschalis, S; Plag, R; Poves, A; Ray, I; Reifarth, R; Rigollet, C; Ricciardi, V; Rossi, D; Scheit, H; Simon, H; Scheidenberger, C; Typel, S; Taylor, J; Togano, Y; Volkov, V; Weick, H; Wagner, A; Wamers, F; Weigand, M; Winfield, J S; Yakorev, D; Zoric, M

    2016-01-01

    First results are reported on the ground state configurations of the neutron-rich $^{29,30}$Na isotopes, obtained via Coulomb dissociation (CD) measurements as a method of the direct probe. The invariant mass spectra of those nuclei have been obtained through measurement of the four-momentum of all decay products after Coulomb excitation on a $^{208}Pb$ target at energies of 400-430 MeV/nucleon using FRS-ALADIN-LAND setup at GSI, Darmstadt. Integrated Coulomb-dissociation cross-sections (CD) of 89 $(7)$ mb and 167 $(13)$ mb up to excitation energy of 10 MeV for one neutron removal from $^{29}$Na and $^{30}$Na respectively, have been extracted. The major part of one neutron removal, CD cross-sections of those nuclei populate core, in its' ground state. A comparison with the direct breakup model, suggests the predominant occupation of the valence neutron in the ground state of $^{29}$Na${(3/2^+)}$ and $^{30}$Na${(2^+)}$ is the $d$ orbital with small contribution in the $s$-orbital which are coupled with ground ...

  4. Splash wave and crown breakup after disc impact on a liquid surface

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Ivo R; Gordillo, J M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the impact of a circular disc on a free surface using experiments, potential flow numerical simulations and theory. We focus our attention both on the study of the generation and possible breakup of the splash wave created after the impact and on the calculation of the force on the disc. We have experimentally found that drops are only ejected from the rim located at the top part of the splash --giving rise to what is known as the crown splash-- if the impact Weber number exceeds a threshold value $\\Weber_{crit}\\simeq 140$. We explain this threshold by defining a local Bond number $Bo_{tip}$ based on the rim deceleration and its radius of curvature, with which we show using both numerical simulations and experiments that a crown splash only occurs when $Bo_{tip}\\gtrsim 1$, revealing that the rim disrupts due to a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Neglecting the effect of air, we show that the flow in the region close to the disc edge possesses a Weber-number-dependent self-similar structur...

  5. Calculation of nucleon-deuteron breakup processes with realistic, charge-dependent potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron-deuteron breakup cross sections obtained within the framework of AGS theory are presented. As input the separable W-matrix representation of the two-body T matrix for the original Paris potential and for a charge dependent modification is used. A criterion to choose an optimal representation based on the Schmidt norm of the kernel of the AGS equations is presented. The results are compared with data from kinematically complete experiments at 10.3 MeV and 13.0 MeV. The neutron-neutron (nn) scattering length is extracted from the cross section of a nn-FSI configuration. It is shown that a reliable analysis of a given experimental situation requires the inclusion of about 400 neighbouring configurations in order to simulate finite energy and angle resolutions. In view of the huge demand on computational resources the simplifying yet very accurate W-matrix method is seen to be an algorithm particularly well suited for such realistic analyses. (orig.)

  6. Numerical studies of spray breakup in a gasoline direct injection (GDI engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarmadar Samad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate Spray Breakup process of sprays injected from single and two-hole nozzles for gasoline direct Injection (GDI engines by using three dimensional CFD code. Spray characteristics were examined for spray tip penetration and other characteristics including: the vapor phase concentration distribution and droplet spatial distribution, which were acquired using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation. Results showed that as the hole-axis-angle (γ of the two-hole nozzle decreased, the droplet coalescence increased and vapor mass decreased. The spray with cone angle (θ0 5 deg for single hole nozzle has the longest spray tip penetration and the spray with the γ of 30 deg and spray cone angle θ0=30 deg for two hole nozzles had the shortest one. Also, when the spray cone angle (θ0 and hole-axis-angle (γ increased from 5 to 30 deg, the Sauter mean diameter (SMD decreased for both single-hole and two-hole nozzles used in this study. For a single-hole nozzle, when spray cone angle increased from 5 to 30 deg, the vaporization rate very much because of low level of coalescence. The result of model for tip penetration is good agreement with the corresponding experimental data in the literatures.

  7. Annual report of IGCP Project No.440 in 2003--Rodinia assembly and breakup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergei Pisarevsky

    2004-01-01

    With the latest information on geology, isotop chronology, geochemistry and aerial geophysics, the structural enviroment, geological event characterists and evolution history of component units of Rodinia Supercontinent on a global scale are discussed. And some neo views and genetic pattern are provided. The East Eurppean Cratorn had a complex evolution history between 1.7 and 0.9 Ga. The arthors propose a new reconstruction of Laurentia acient land and Siberia at ca. 1 050~1 000 Ma. The largest litho-structural record ofthe Meso-Neoproterozoic orogenic collage in South America made up the western border of the South American Platform African Cratons are the result of convergence of Paleoproterozoic/Archaem Cratonic blocks. A part of Eastern Antarctica attached to southern Africa in Mesoproterozoic.Neoproterozoic felsic magmatic events in New India made the western border of Rodinia Pre-Grevoillian Laurentia was established as a major continental block by the end of the Paleoproterozoic. South China is geologically plausible to be between southern Laurentia and eastem Australia. Yangzi-Tarim connection or neighborhood is proposed. According to the abovementionded, the assembly and breakup paattern of Rodinia proposed by Pisarevsky is tested. It telles that primary break up is along the western border of Laurentia ancient land, which is similar to northem Atlantic. Another characteristic is that some continents are not considered as component parts of Rodinia, eg. India, Congo and San-Francisco.

  8. Inelastic collisions of heavy ions and their reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is dedicated to the study of inelastic collisions of heavy ions. Most experiments took place in Ganil facility. The 2 first chapters introduce the notion of inelastic scattering of heavy ions. The third chapter deals with target excitation, giant monopolar or dipolar or quadrupolar resonances ant the multi-phonon concept and presents relevant experimental results from the Ca40 + Ca40 nuclear reaction at 50 MeV/A. The fourth chapter is dedicated to nuclear processes involved in inelastic collisions: pick-up break-up mechanisms, the angular distribution of emitted protons and the towing mode. These notions are applied to the reaction Zr90(Ar40, Ar40'). The fifth chapter presents the solving of the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) applied to the wave function of a particle plunged in a variable potential. TDSE solving is applied to the break-up of Be11. These calculations have been validated by comparing them with experimental results from the nuclear reaction Ti48(Be11, Be10 + n + γ) that is described in the chapter 6. The last chapter presents the advantages of inelastic scattering considered as a tool to study exotic nuclei

  9. MULTIPHASE DROPLET/SLUG BREAK-UP MECHANISM IN MICROFLUIDIC T-JUNCTIONS AT VARIOUS WEBER NUMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Leng (Dawn Leow

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-MY X-NONE X-NONE The formation of immiscible liquid droplets, or slugs, in microchannels features the advantages of volume control and mixing enhancement over single-phase microflows. Although the applications of droplet-based microfluidics have been widely demonstrated, the fundamental physics governing droplet break-up remains an area of active research. This study defines an effective Weber (Weeff number that characterizes the interplay of interfacial tension, shear stress and channel pressure drop in driving slug formation in T-junction microchannel for a relative range of low, intermediate and high flow rates. The immiscible fluid system in this study consists of Tetradecane slug formation in Acetonitrile. The progressive deformation of slug interfaces during break-up events is observed. Experimental results indicate that, at a relatively low Weeff, clean slug break-up occurs at the intersection of the side and main channels. At intermediate Weeff, the connecting neck of the dispersed phase is stretched to a short and thin trail of laminar flow prior to breaking up a short distance downstream of the T-junction. At a relatively high Weeff, the connecting neck develops into a longer and thicker trail of laminar flow that breaks up further downstream of the main channel.

  10. Experimental Observations on the Deformation and Breakup of Water Droplets Near the Leading Edge of an Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mario; Feo, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of an experimental study on droplet deformation and breakup near the leading edge of an airfoil. The experiment was conducted in the rotating rig test cell at the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in Madrid, Spain. An airfoil model placed at the end of the rotating arm was moved at speeds of 50 to 90 m/sec. A monosize droplet generator was employed to produce droplets that were allowed to fall from above, perpendicular to the path of the airfoil at a given location. High speed imaging was employed to observe the interaction between the droplets and the airfoil. The high speed imaging allowed observation of droplet deformation and breakup as the droplet approached the airfoil near the stagnation line. A tracking software program was used to measure from the high speed movies the horizontal and vertical displacement of the droplet against time. The velocity, acceleration, Weber number, Bond number, Reynolds number, and the drag coefficients were calculated along the path of a given droplet from beginning of deformation to breakup and/or hitting the airfoil. Results are presented for droplets with a diameter of 490 micrometers at airfoil speeds of 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 m/sec

  11. An operational calculus framework to characterize droplet size populations from turbulent breakup by a small number of parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Rafael; Ganan-Calvo, Alfonso M, E-mail: amgc@us.e [Departamento de IngenierIa Aeroespacial y Mecanica de Fluidos, Universidad de Sevilla, e-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-05-07

    A systematic operational calculus framework that characterizes droplet/bubble size distributions resulting from turbulent breakup of an immiscible fluid into a carrier one is presented. The proposed formulation is derived from dynamical arguments; a finite-difference formulation of the integro-differential continuous coagulation and fragmentation equation is shown to exhibit the same structure as a discrete sequence of Mellin convolutions between the probability distribution of the evolving dispersed phase and a generic kernel. This kernel may have its physical correspondence with the probability distribution resulting from a single breakup event, e.g. a liquid ligament breakup in a ligament-mediated spray formation. The number of convolution steps in the sequence can be reduced to a single parameter. As an illustration, this procedure is applied to the exponential and the gamma distributions, obtaining as a result the Frechet distribution earlier used by Rosin and Rammler (1934 Kolloid-Zeitschrift 67 16-26), and by Nukiyama and Tanasawa (1939 Trans. Soc. Mech. Eng. Japan 5 62-7). Thus, the framework introduced in this work provides a physical foundation for the success of the Frechet distribution in accurately fitting experimentally measured droplet size distributions in sprays and emulsions.

  12. Low-energy 9 Be + 208 Pb scattering, breakup and fusion within a four-body model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mahir; Descouvemont, Pierre; Druet, T.; Canto, L. Felipe

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the 9 Be elastic scattering, breakup and fusion at energies around the Coulomb barrier. The three processes are described simultaneously, with identical conditions of calculations. The 9 Be nucleus is defined in an α + α + n three-body model, using the hyperspherical coordinate method. We first analyze spectroscopic properties of 9 Be, and show that the model provides a fairly good description of the low-lying states. The scattering with 208 Pb is then studied with the Continuum Discretized Coupled Channel (CDCC) method, where the α + α + n continuum is approximated by a discrete number of pseudostates. The use of a three-body model for 9 Be improves previous theoretical works, where 9 Be is assumed to have a two-body structure (9 Be +n or α + 5 He), although neither 8 Be nor 5 He are bound. Optical potentials for the α+208 Pb and n+208 Pb systems are taken from the literature. Scattering, breakup and fusion cross sections are calculated. In general, a good agreement with experiment is obtained, considering that there is no parameter fitting. We show that continuum effects increase at low energies, and confirm that breakup channels enhance the fusion cross Supported by CNPq, FAPESP, FAPERJ, CAPES/ITA.

  13. Tectonomagmatic controls on Gondwana break-up models: Evidence from the Proto-Pacific Margin of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Bryan C.; Alabaster, Tony

    1991-12-01

    Geochemical and isotopic data are presented that suggest the existence of a large, Middle Jurassic subduction-related magmatic province common to both the Antarctic Peninsula and southern South America. We argue that during the initial stages of Gondwana breakup, Pacific margin magmas were derived from an enriched lithospheric mantle source similar to that for the contemporaneous within-plate Ferrar-Tasman suite. Enriched lithospheric initial-rifting magmas were succeeded, in at least part of the Rocas Verdes basin, by transitional early drift magmas and then by entirely asthenospheric mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) magmas representing lithospheric rupture and seafloor spreading. We propose a plate interaction model for the initial stages of Gondwana breakup relating the broad zone of lithospheric mantle melting to a reduction in plate boundary forces. The change from Gondwanide compression to lithospheric extension in the Jurassic is linked to a change from shallow to steeply dipping subduction and to a slowing of subduction rates caused possibly by a decreasing age of the subducting plate. Ridge-trench interaction may have followed subduction of young, hot oceanic lithosphere, possibly causing a temporary cessation of subduction and a further reduction in plate boundary forces, thus facilitating breakup.

  14. Spectator invariance test in the study of the Trojan Horse Method 6,7Li fusion reactions via the Trojan Horse Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li C.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusion reactions play a crucial role for several astrophysical scenarios. At the low energies typical of such environments direct measurements of reaction cross sections are very difficult, and even sometimes impossible. In such cases the use of indirect methods can give a substantial help. The Trojan Horse Method (THM is based on the quasi-free break-up of a nucleus, which can be described in terms of a cluster structure. In such applications the independence of THM results with different break-up schemes, was tested using the quasi free3 He(6Li,ααH and 3He(7Li,αα2H reactions. Results were then compared with the direct behaviours obtained from available data as well as with the cross sections extracted from previous indirect investigations of the same binary reactions using a different nuclide as a Trojan Horse nucleus.

  15. Comparative analysis of post-breakup basin evolution along the South-American and South-African margins, southern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, F.; Back, S.; Kukla, P. A.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, considerable attempts have been made to compare the sedimentary basin evolution and the associated tectonic framework on both sides of the South-Atlantic. However, yet there are still unresolved questions concerning the tectono-sedimentary styles of margin basin evolution that markedly differ from north to south. Amongst the most striking observations is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic margin segment on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. Adding to the heterogeneity of the system, the northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is also characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin now comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt than the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. This project deals with a large-scale comparison of this very different post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development of the southern and northern South American and African continental margins that both record thick post-rift sedimentary successions. To gain detail of the basin margin evolution, we focus on a regional comparison between the post-breakup records archived in the large offshore southern Brazil basins (Pelotas, Santos, Campos) and the post-breakup continental margin successions of offshore Namibia (e.g. Orange Basin) and southern Angola (e.g. Kwanza Basin). A tectonic-stratigraphic comparison of representative geological transects provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of key factors influencing margin development which include the subsidence development through time, the sediment (in-)flux and storage patterns and the respective type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems). Data from the salt-prone areas offshore South America and southern

  16. Mantle Plume Temperature Variations Immediately Following Continental Breakup of the Northern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, C. J.; White, R. S.; Kusznir, N. J.

    2005-05-01

    The amount of melt generated by mantle decompression beneath an oceanic spreading centre and hence the oceanic crustal thickness is controlled in part by the temperature of the mantle. By measuring the thickness of the oceanic crust formed immediately after breakup of the northern North Atlantic during the early Tertiary, we are able to deduce the maximum elevated mantle temperatures caused by the presence of the Iceland mantle plume. Crustal thickness variations are caused by temporal variations in the mantle plume temperature: at the present Reykjanes Ridge spreading centre the plume temperature pulses on a 3-5 Myr timescale with temperature variations of c.30 K. We show results from two long-offset profiles acquired over oceanic crust; firstly a 170km line perpendicular to the Faroes rifted continetal margin where oceanic spreading developed close to the Iceland mantle plume; and secondly, a 200km line perpendicular to the Hatton rifted continental margin where oceanic spreading developed 800km south of the plume. Each survey recorded long-offset refractions and reflections on OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometers); 25 instruments, with a spacing of 2-3 km, were used for the Faroes line; and 45 instruments, with a spacing of 4-10 km were used for the Hatton-Rockall line. Accurate information for sediment velocity and thickness was acquired for the Faroes profile using a 12 km long streamer; whilst adequate sediment information was determined for the Hatton-Rockall profile using a 2.4 km streamer. By incorporating sediment structure into a joint reflection and refraction tomographic inversion of the wide-angle OBS data, we have been able to map crustal thickness across the oceanic crust in both regions. Crustal sections across the Faroes and Hatton lines cover the first 14 Myr and 17 Myr respectively, corresponding to the time interval from continental breakup through to mature seafloor spreading. With no apparent decrease in spreading rate observed thinning of the

  17. Motion of Comet D/Shoemaker-Levy 9 before the Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitarski, G.

    1995-04-01

    We collected astrometric observations of 19 fragments of the comet to determine separate orbits for 19 comet's nuclei. All the computations have been carried out in jovicentric rectangular coordinates; we included the solar and planetary perturbations, the perturbations due to oblateness of Jupiter and due to the Galilean jovian satellites. All the nuclei passed through the perijove almost simultaneously in 1992 July 7.8 at a distance amounting to 1.3 of Jupiter's equatorial radii. We assumed that motion of the center of mass of the comet's nuclei may represent the motion of the comet before its breakup near Jupiter in July 1992. We used values of diameters published for all the fragments of the comet to estimate relative masses of the nuclei, and accepted an earlier published result according to which the comet was disrupted 2.2 hours after its perijove time. We computed coordinates and velocity components for the center of mass of the nuclei, and thus we found the jovicentric orbit of the comet's parent body for 1992 July 7.921 ET. Equations of the jovicentric motion of the comet have been integrated back to 1990 Jan. 29 when the comet was about 1 a.u. from Jupiter, then the jovicentric hyperbolic orbit was transformed to the heliocentric one. We got the following elements of the osculating heliocentric orbit of the comet: Epoch: 1990 Jan. 29.0 ET, Equinox: J2000.0 T=1992 Nov. 9.429 ET omega=354.328 arcdeg q=5.5871 a.u. Omega=182.888 e=0.11793 i =4.674 a=6.3340 a.u. P =15.94 years We investigated the heliocentric motion of the comet before 1992. Evolution of jovicentric and heliocentric trajectories of the comet is presented graphically.

  18. Extraction of a single soliton from a bunch of solitons generated by pulse breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Jimenez, Miguel A.; Kuzin, Evgeny A.; Pottiez, Olivier; Ibarra-Escamilla, Baldemar; Flores-Rosas, Ariel; Duran-Sanchez, Manuel

    2010-02-01

    Pulses propagating in the fiber with anomalous dispersion are broken up to the bunch of soliton. The extraction of an individual soliton from the bunch can be used for soliton generation and also for investigation of the process of the soliton formation. In this work we experimentally demonstrate that the NOLM allows extraction of an individual soliton. Earlier we have shown numerically that the NOLM has high transmission for the solitons with a range of durations while solitons with shorter and longer durations are rejected. The range of the durations with high transmission depends on the NOLM length and also can be moved by amplification of solitons before entering to the NOLM. In the experiment we launched 25-ps pulses with about 10 W of power to the 500-m single mode fiber with dispersion equal to 20 ps/nm-km. As a result of the pulse breakup, a bunch of solitons is formed at the fiber output. The resulting solitons are launched to the EDFA and then to the NOLM made from the 40-m of the same fiber. The NOLM parameters are adjusted to transmit the highest soliton in the bunch (about 50 W of power and 1 ps of duration according to theoretical estimations). In the experiment we detected at the NOLM output a single pulse with duration of 1.46 ps and autocorrelation function similar to that of the soliton. When a 1-km fiber was attached to the NOLM at the fiber output we detected a soliton with duration of 0.9 ps.

  19. Upper mantle temperature and the onset of extension and break-up in Afar, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, John J.; Ferguson, David J.; Goes, Saskia; Hammond, James O. S.; Calais, Eric; Rychert, Catherine A.; Harmon, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    It is debated to what extent mantle plumes play a role in continental rifting and eventual break-up. Afar lies at the northern end of the largest and most active present-day continental rift, where the East African Rift forms a triple junction with the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts. It has a history of plume activity yet recent studies have reached conflicting conclusions on whether a plume still contributes to current Afar tectonics. A geochemical study concluded that Afar is a mature hot rift with 80 km thick lithosphere, while seismic data have been interpreted to reflect the structure of a young, oceanic rift basin above mantle of normal temperature. We develop a self-consistent forward model of mantle flow that incorporates melt generation and retention to test whether predictions of melt chemistry, melt volume and lithosphere-asthenosphere seismic structure can be reconciled with observations. The rare-earth element composition of mafic samples at the Erta Ale, Dabbahu and Asal magmatic segments can be used as both a thermometer and chronometer of the rifting process. Low seismic velocities require a lithosphere thinned to 50 km or less. A strong positive impedance contrast at 50 to 70 km below the rift seems linked to the melt zone, but is not reproduced by isotropic seismic velocity alone. Combined, the simplest interpretation is that mantle temperature below Afar is still elevated at 1450 °C, rifting started around 22-23 Ma, and the lithosphere has thinned from 100 to 50 km to allow significant decompressional melting.

  20. Role of the total isospin 3/2 component in three-nucleon reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Witala, H; Skibinski, R; Topolnicki, K; Epelbaum, E; Hebeler, K; Kamada, H; Krebs, H; Meissner, U -G; Nogga, A

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the role of the three-nucleon isospin T=3/2 amplitude in elastic neutron-deuteron scattering and in the deuteron breakup reaction. The contribution of this amplitude originates from charge-independence breaking of the nucleon-nucleon potential and is driven by the difference between neutron-neutron (proton-proton) and neutron-proton forces. We study the magnitude of that contribution to the elastic scattering and breakup observables, taking the locally regularized chiral N4LO nucleon-nucleon potential supplemented by the chiral N2LO three-nucleon force. For comparison we employ also the Av18 nucleon-nucleon potential combined with the Urbana IX three-nucleon force. We find that the isospin T=3/2 component is important for the breakup reaction and the proper treatment of charge-independence breaking in this case requires the inclusion of the 1S0 state with isospin T=3/2. For neutron-deuteron elastic scattering the T=3/2 contributions are insignificant and charge-independence breaking can be accounte...

  1. Investigation of the reaction d + d → 2He + 2n at the deuteron energy of 15 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental setup for studying the reaction d + d → 2He + 2n is described, and the first preliminary results of measurements at a deuteron energy of 15 MeV are presented. The experiment was aimed at determining the energies of quasibound singlet states of two-nucleon systems (nn and pp), these energies being important features of nucleon–nucleon (NN) interaction. The measurements in question were performed at a deuteron beamfrom the U-120 cyclotron of the Skobeltsyn Institute ofNuclear Physics (Moscow State University). Two protons and one of the neutrons fromthe breakup of the dineutron system were detected in the experiment. A simulation of the reaction in question and preliminary experimental results reveal the possibility of determining the energy of quasibound singlet states on the basis of the form of the energy spectra of particles originating from their breakup

  2. Updated evidence of the Trojan horse particle invariance for the 2H(d,p)3H reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Rinollo, A.; Spartá, R.; Tumino, A.

    2013-02-01

    The Trojan horse nucleus invariance for the binary d(d,p)t reaction was tested by means of an experiment using the quasifree 2H(6Li,pt)4He and 2H(3He,pt)H reactions after 6Li and 3He breakup, respectively. The astrophysical S(E) factor for the d(d,p)t binary process was extracted from the present data in the framework of the plane wave approximation applied to the two different breakup schemes. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement confirms the applicability of the plane wave approximation and suggests the independence of the binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan horse nucleus also for the present case.

  3. Updated evidences of the Trojan Horse particle invariance for $^2$H(d,p)$^3$H reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzone, R G; Bertulani, C A; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Blokhintsev, L; La Cognata, M; Lamia, L; Rinollo, A; Spartá, R; Tumino, A

    2012-01-01

    The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance for the binary d(d,p)t reaction was tested using the quasi free $^2$H($^6$Li, pt)$^4$He and $^2$H($^3$He,pt)H reactions after $^6$Li and $^3$He break-up, respectively. The astrophysical S(E)-factor for the d(d,p)t binary process was then extracted in the framework of the Plane Wave Approximation applied to the two different break-up schemes. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement confirms the applicability of the Plane Wave Approximation and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nucleus also for the present case.

  4. Study of the p+{sup 12}C reaction at energies up to 30 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Masahide; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshioka, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Double differential cross sections of charged-particles emitted in the p+{sup 12}C reaction were measured in the energy region from 14 to 26 MeV. The observed continuous components of emitted protons and {alpha}-particles were analyzed by assuming sequential decay of intermediate reaction products and/or simultaneous breakup process. It was found that the three body simultaneous decay, p+{alpha}+{sup 8}Be, and the sequential decay via p+{sup 12}C{sup *}{sub 3-} and {alpha}+{sup 9}B{sub g.s.} are most important in the proton-induced breakup of {sup 12}C for energies up to 30 MeV. (author)

  5. Piezonuclear Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, Fabio; Petrucci, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the subject of piezonuclear reactions, namely nuclear reactions (of new type) triggered by pressure waves. We discuss the experimental evidences obtained in the last two decades, which can be summarized essentially as follows: experiments in cavitation of liquids, where transmutation of elements, creation of elements and emission of neutrons have been observed; emission of neutrons in brittle failure of solids subjected to mechanical pressure; alteration of the lifetime of un unstable element (thorium) subjected to cavitation. A theoretical model to explain these facts is proposed. Future perspectives of these experimental and theoretical investigations are also underlined.

  6. Reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Reaction Mechanisms laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research topics are: the valence bond methods, the radical chemistry, the modelling of the transition states by applying geometric constraints, the long range interactions (ion - molecule) in gaseous phase, the reaction sites in gaseous phase and the mass spectroscopy applications. The points of convergence between the investigations of the mass spectroscopy and the theoretical chemistry teams, as well as the purposes guiding the research programs, are discussed. The published papers, the conferences, the congress communications and the thesis, are also reported

  7. Recent Results on Fusion and Direct Reactions with Weakly Bound Stable Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent measurements of fusion and direct reactions in case of weakly bound stable nuclei at extreme sub-barrier energies using a sensitive off beam technique are presented. Deviation in slope of the fusion excitation function, as observed in case of medium heavy systems, is absent in the present asymmetric systems at these low energies. These results along with the study of capture reaction of the breakup fragments using particle- gamma coincidences is presented, thereby giving the current status of the field.

  8. Analytical tool development for coarse break-up of a molten jet in a deep water pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi [Thermohydraulic Safety Research Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: moriyama.kiyofumi@jaea.go.jp; Nakamura, Hideo [Thermohydraulic Safety Research Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Maruyama, Yu [Thermohydraulic Safety Research Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    A computer code JASMINE-pre was developed for the prediction of premixing conditions of fuel-coolant interactions and debris bed formation behavior relevant to severe accidents of light water reactors. In JASMINE-pre code, a melt model which consists of three components of sub-models for melt jet, melt particles and melt pool, is coupled with a two-phase flow model derived from ACE-3D code developed at JAERI. The melt jet and melt pool models are one-dimensional representations of a molten core stream falling into a water pool and a continuous melt body agglomerated on the bottom, respectively. The melt particles generated by the melt jet break-up are modeled based on a Lagrangian grouped particle concept. Additionally, a simplified model pmjet was developed which considers only steady state break-up of the melt jet, cooling and settlement of particles in a stationary water pool. The FARO corium quenching experiments with a saturation temperature water pool and a subcooled water pool were simulated with JASMINE-pre and pmjet. JASMINE-pre reproduced the pressurization and fragmentation behavior observed in the experiments with a reasonable accuracy. Also, the influences of model parameters on the pressurization and fragmentation were examined. The calculation results showed a quasi-steady state phase of melt jet break-up during which the amount of molten mass contained in the premixture was kept almost constant, and the steady state molten premixed masses evaluated by JASMINE-pre and pmjet agreed well.

  9. Application of the Constrained Admissible Region Multiple Hypothesis Filter to Initial Orbit Determination of a Break-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelecy, Tom; Shoemaker, Michael; Jah, Moriba

    2013-08-01

    A break-up in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is simulated for 10 objects having area-to-mass ratios (AMR's) ranging from 0.1-10.0 m2/kg. The Constrained Admissible Region Multiple Hypothesis Filter (CAR-MHF) is applied to determining and characterizing the orbit and atmospheric drag parameters (CdA/m) simultaneously for each of the 10 objects with no a priori orbit or drag information. The results indicate that CAR-MHF shows promise for accurate, unambiguous and autonomous determination of the orbit and drag states.

  10. Direct measurement of wave-front distortion induced during second-harmonic generation: application to breakup-integral compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caumes, Jean Pascal; Videau, Laurent; Rouyer, Claude; Freysz, Eric

    2004-04-15

    The wave-front distortion of femtosecond laser pulses recorded with a Shack-Hartmann analyzer makes it possible to retrieve the nonlinear index of refraction of different glasses and the nonlinear phase shift induced during second-harmonic generation in beta-barium borate (BBO) crystal versus the phase mismatch. It is shown that the nonlinear phase shift induced in a 2-mm-thick BBO crystal allows compensation for up to a 2pi breakup-integral induced in a 4-cm fused-silica glass. The stability of the compensation is reported to be from 10 to 100 GW cm(-2). PMID:15119415

  11. Three-body break-up in deuteron-deuteron scattering at 65 MeV/nucleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan E.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We successfully identified several multibody final states in deuteron-deuteron scattering at 65 MeV/nucleon at KVI using a unique and advanced detection system called BINA. This facility enabled us to perform cross sections and polarization measurements with an improved statistical and systematic precision. The analysis procedure and a part of the results of the three-body break-up channel in the deuteron-deuteron scattering at 65 MeV/nucleon are presented.

  12. Early break-up of the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, John Inge; Briner, Jason P.; Mangerud, Jan; Young, Nicolás E.

    2015-01-01

    We present 18 new cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages that constrain the breakup time of the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream (NCIS) and the initial retreat of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet from the Southwest coast of Norway following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Seven samples from glacially transported erratics on the island Utsira, located in the path of the NCIS about 400 km up-flow from the LGM ice front position, yielded an average 10Be age of 22.0 ± 2.0 ka. The distribution of the ages is skewed with the 4 youngest all within the range 20.2-20.8 ka. We place most confidence on this cluster of ages to constrain the timing of ice sheet retreat as we suspect the 3 oldest ages have some inheritance from a previous ice free period. Three additional ages from the adjacent island Karmøy provided an average age of 20.9 ± 0.7 ka, further supporting the new timing of retreat for the NCIS. The 10Be ages from Utsira and Karmøy suggest that the ice stream broke up about 2000 years earlier than the age assignment based on 14C ages on foraminifera and molluscs from marine sediment cores. We postulate that the Scandinavian Ice Sheet flowed across the Norwegian Channel to Denmark and onto the North Sea plateau during early phases of the LGM. When the NCIS started to operate this ice supply to the North Sea was cut off and the fast flow of the NCIS also led to a lowering of the ice surface along the Norwegian Channel and thereby drawdown of the entire ice sheet. This facilitated rapid calving of the ice front in the North Sea and we reconstruct a large open bay across the entire northern North Sea by ˜20 ka based on our 10Be ages in the east and radiocarbon ages from marine cores in the west. Additional 10Be ages show that the mainland slightly east of the islands Utsira and Karmøy remained ice covered until about 16 ka, indicating almost no net ice-margin retreat for the 4000 years between 20 and 16 ka. After 16 ka the ice margin retreated quickly up-fjord.

  13. Lithosphere erosion and breakup due to the interaction between extension and plume upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Alessio; Thieulot, Cedric; Beekman, Fred; Cloetingh, Sierd; Clark, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    of melts contributes in weakening the crust and the uppermost lithospheric mantle, thus favoring the plate rupture and blocks drifting. Our results seem to exclude the possibility that forces related to plumes uprising are capable of breaking off the plates and cause blocks drifting. On the other hand, we support the possibility that plume uprising may strongly favor plate breakup, when combined with external far field forces.

  14. The role of mechanical heterogeneities during continental breakup: a 3D lithospheric-scale modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclaux, Guillaume; Huismans, Ritske S.; May, Dave

    2015-04-01

    olivine for the mantle. A constant extension rate is imposed on two opposite walls in the horizontal direction; the model' surface evolves freely; an isostatic boundary condition is imposed on the bottom wall. We explore a range of weak notches geometries, as well as the presence of random noise across a central region of the model. We compare the evolution of the geometry of the surface rift segments, their linkage and faults propagation during ongoing extension. These models allow us to assess the importance of mechanical heterogeneities for controlling passive margin geometries, and to precise the underlying physics governing continental breakup.

  15. Bunbury Basalt: Gondwana breakup products or earliest vestiges of the Kerguelen mantle plume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olierook, Hugo K. H.; Jourdan, Fred; Merle, Renaud E.; Timms, Nicholas E.; Kusznir, Nick; Muhling, Janet R.

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, we investigate the role of a mantle plume in the genesis of the Bunbury Basalt using high-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and whole-rock geochemistry, and by using crustal basement thickness of the eastern Indian Ocean and the western Australian continent. The Bunbury Basalt is a series of lava flows and deep intrusive rocks in southwestern Australia thought to be the earliest igneous products from the proto-Kerguelen mantle plume. Nine new plateau ages indicate that the Bunbury Basalt erupted in three distinct phases, at 136.96 ± 0.43 Ma, 132.71 ± 0.43 Ma and 130.45 ± 0.82 Ma. All Bunbury Basalt samples are enriched tholeiitic basalts with varying contributions from the continental lithosphere that are similar to other Kerguelen plume-products. Based on plate reconstructions and the present geochronological constraints, the eruption of the oldest Bunbury Basalt preceded the emplacement of the Kerguelen large igneous province by at least 10-20 m.y. Such age differences between a precursor and the main magmatic event are not uncommon but do require additional explanation. Low crustal stretching factors beneath the Bunbury Basalt (β ≈ 1.4) indicate that decompression melting could not have been generated from asthenospheric mantle with a normal chemistry and geotherm. An elevated geotherm from the mantle plume coupled with the geochemical similarity between the Bunbury Basalt and other Kerguelen plume-products suggests a shared origin exists. However, new age constraints of the oldest Bunbury Basalt are synchronous with the breakup of eastern Gondwana and the initial opening of the Indian Ocean at ca. 137-136 Ma, which may mean an alternative explanation is possible. The enriched geochemistry can equally be explained by a patch of shallow mantle beneath the southern Perth Basin. The patch may have been enriched during Gondwana suturing at ca. 550-500 Ma, during early rifting events by magmatic underplating or by intruded melts into the

  16. Heavy ion reactions around the Coulomb barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The angular distributions of fission fragments for the 32S+184W reaction near Coulomb barrier energies are measured. The ex perimental fission excitation function is obtained. The measured fission cross sections are decomposed into fusion-fission, quasi-fission and fast fission contributions by the dinuclear system (DNS) model. The hindrance to completing fusion both at small and large collision energies is explained. The fusion excitation functions of 32S+90,96Zr in an energy range from above to below the Coulomb barrier are measured and analyzed within a semi-classical model. The obvious effect of positive Q-value multi-neutron transfers on the sub-barrier fusion enhancement is observed in the 32S+96Zr system. In addition, the excitation functions of quasi-elastic scattering at a backward angle have been measured with high precision for the systems of 16O+208Pb, 196Pt, 184W, and 154,152Sm at energies well below the Coulomb barrier. Considering the deformed coupling effects, the extracted diffuseness parameters are close to the values extracted from the systematic analysis of elastic and inelastic scattering data. The elastic scattering angular distribution of 17F+12C at 60 MeV is measured and calculated by using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) approach. It is found that the diffuseness parameter of the real part of core-target potential has to be increased by 20% to reproduce the experimental result, which corresponds to an increment of potential depth at the surface re gion. The breakup cross section and the coupling between breakup and elastic scattering are small.

  17. Fission fragment mass and angular distribution in 6,7Li+235,238U reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission fragment (FF) angular distributions for 6,7Li+235,238U reactions and mass distributions for 6,7Li+ 238U reactions have been measured at energies near and above the Coulomb barrier. The angle integrated fission cross sections for 6Li induced reactions at sub-barrier energies are found to be higher than 7Li induced reactions possibly due to larger contribution of breakup induced fission in case of the former compared to the latter. The FF anisotropy for 6,7Li+235U was found to be smaller than 6,7Li+238U, manifesting the effect of target ground state spin. The statistical saddle point (SSP) model predictions were found to be consistent with the measured FF anisotropy for 6,7Li+235U, however they were under-estimated for 6,7Li+238U particularly at lower energies. Observation of larger FWHM of FF folding angle distribution and sharp increase in peak to valley ratio for FF mass distribution with the decrease in bombarding energy in 6,7Li+238U reactions confirms the presence of breakup induced fission. (authors)

  18. Fission fragment mass and angular distribution in 6,7Li+235,238U reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santra S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fission fragment (FF angular distributions for 6,7Li+235,238U reactions and mass distributions for 6,7Li+238U reactions have been measured at energies near and above the Coulomb barrier. The angle integrated fission cross sections for 6Li induced reactions at sub-barrier energies are found to be higher than 7Li induced reactions possibly due to larger contribution of breakup induced fission in case of the former compared to the latter. The FF anisotropy for 6,7Li+235U was found to be smaller than 6,7Li+238U, manifesting the effect of target ground state spin. The statistical saddle point (SSP model predictions were found to be consistent with the measured FF anisotropy for 6,7Li+235U, however they were under-estimated for 6,7Li+238U particularly at lower energies. Observation of larger FWHM of FF folding angle distribution and sharp increase in peak to valley ratio for FF mass distribution with the decrease in bombarding energy in 6,7Li+238U reactions confirms the presence of breakup induced fission.

  19. Total kinetic energy distribution of fission fragments in 6,7Li + 238U reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shape and width of fission-fragment (FF) mass and kinetic energy distribution provides a lot of information on the fission reaction mechanism and the structure of the compound nucleus (CN), the fragments as well as the interacting nuclei. The shape of the mass distribution of the fission fragments for the actinides induced by the proton or neutron is known to change with the incident energy. At low energies, it shows a double humped distribution which changes slowly to a single humped distribution as energy increases. However, for a reaction involving a weakly bound projectile (i.e., 6Li + 232Th), a sharp change in the shape of the mass distribution with energy was observed. The sharp increase in the peak to valley ratio (P:V) in the fission-fragment mass distribution in 6Li + 232Th reaction by Itkis et al. and in 6,7Li + 238U reactions by Santra et al. was concluded to be due to the reduced energy transfer to the composite system caused by incomplete fusion (ICF) of alpha or deuteron/triton followed by fissions. Total Kinetic Energy (TKE) distribution of fission fragments is another important observable on which the effect of projectile breakup is not explored yet. In this contribution, the study of breakup/transfer effect on average TKE distribution for 6,7Li + 238U reactions is presented

  20. Marital satisfaction and break-ups differ across on-line and off-line meeting venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Gonzaga, Gian C; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2013-06-18

    Marital discord is costly to children, families, and communities. The advent of the Internet, social networking, and on-line dating has affected how people meet future spouses, but little is known about the prevalence or outcomes of these marriages or the demographics of those involved. We addressed these questions in a nationally representative sample of 19,131 respondents who married between 2005 and 2012. Results indicate that more than one-third of marriages in America now begin on-line. In addition, marriages that began on-line, when compared with those that began through traditional off-line venues, were slightly less likely to result in a marital break-up (separation or divorce) and were associated with slightly higher marital satisfaction among those respondents who remained married. Demographic differences were identified between respondents who met their spouse through on-line vs. traditional off-line venues, but the findings for marital break-up and marital satisfaction remained significant after statistically controlling for these differences. These data suggest that the Internet may be altering the dynamics and outcomes of marriage itself. PMID:23733955

  1. A proxy record of winter temperatures since 1836 from ice freeze-up/breakup in lake Naesijaervi, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudelsee, Manfred [Climate Risk Analysis, Hannover (Germany); Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    One obstacle on the way to a comprehensive spatial reconstruction of regional temperature changes over the past centuries is the sparseness of long winter temperature records. This paper reconstructs a proxy record of April and November-December temperatures in south-central Finland for the interval from 1836 to 1872 from breakup and freeze-up dates and ice-cover duration of a lake. Emphasis is on detecting the suitable winter months and quantifying the calibrations with measured temperatures (1873-2002). The calibration slope for the breakup date (0.158 C/day) is larger than for freeze-up date (0.119 C/day) or duration (0.090 C/day). A comparison with results from other proxy records shows that the slope may depend also on the geographical site. Trend analyses of the full temperature records (1836-2002) indicate the existence of minor change-points at around 1867 (April temperature) and 1874 (November-December temperature), with warming rates thereafter of 1.67 C per century (April) and 1.16 C per century (November-December). Spectral analyses reveal peaks in the band between 2 and 5 year period, which may point to influences of the North Atlantic Oscillation, and less power in the decadal band (up to 42 year period). (orig.)

  2. Effects of viscoelasticity on droplet dynamics and break-up in microfluidic T-Junctions: a lattice Boltzmann study

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    The effects of viscoelasticity on the dynamics and break-up of fluid threads in microfluidic T-junctions are investigated using numerical simulations of dilute polymer solutions at changing the Capillary number ($\\mbox {Ca}$), i.e. at changing the balance between the viscous forces and the surface tension at the interface, up to $\\mbox{Ca} \\approx 3 \\times 10^{-2}$. A Navier-Stokes (NS) description of the solvent based on the lattice Boltzmann models (LBM) is here coupled to constitutive equations for finite extensible non-linear elastic dumbbells with the closure proposed by Peterlin (FENE-P model). We present the results of three-dimensional simulations in a range of $\\mbox{Ca}$ which is broad enough to characterize all the three characteristic mechanisms of breakup in the confined T-junction, i.e. ${\\it squeezing}$, ${\\it dripping}$ and ${\\it jetting}$ regimes. The various model parameters of the FENE-P constitutive equations, including the polymer relaxation time $\\tau_P$ and the finite extensibility para...

  3. Extracting nuclear sizes of medium to heavy nuclei from total reaction cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, W.; Hatakeyama, S.; Ebata, S.; Suzuki, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Background: Proton and neutron radii are fundamental quantities of atomic nuclei. To study the sizes of short-lived unstable nuclei, there is a need for an alternative to electron scattering. Purpose: The recent paper by Horiuchi et al. [Phys. Rev. C 89, 011601(R) (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.89.011601 proposed a possible way of extracting the matter and neutron-skin thickness of light- to medium-mass nuclei using total reaction cross section, σR. The analysis is extended to medium to heavy nuclei up to lead isotopes with due attention to Coulomb breakup contributions as well as density distributions improved by paring correlation. Methods: We formulate a quantitative calculation of σR based on the Glauber model including the Coulomb breakup. To substantiate the treatment of the Coulomb breakup, we also evaluate the Coulomb breakup cross section due to the electric dipole field in a canonical-basis-time-dependent-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory in the three-dimensional coordinate space. Results: We analyze σR's of 103 nuclei with Z =20 , 28, 40, 50, 70, and 82 incident on light targets, H,21, 4He, and 12C. Three kinds of Skyrme interactions are tested to generate those wave functions. To discuss possible uncertainty due to the Coulomb breakup, we examine its dependence on the target, the incident energy, and the Skyrme interaction. The proton is a most promising target for extracting the nuclear sizes as the Coulomb excitation can safely be neglected. We find that the so-called reaction radius, aR=√{σR/π } , for the proton target is very well approximated by a linear function of two variables, the matter radius and the skin thickness, in which three constants depend only on the incident energy. We quantify the accuracy of σR measurements needed to extract the nuclear sizes. Conclusions: The proton is the best target because, once the incident energy is set, its aR is very accurately determined by only the matter radius and neutron-skin thickness. If σR's at

  4. The Research On The Performance Of Oil-gas Cyclone Separators In Oil Injected Compressor Systems With Considering The Collision And Breakup Of Oil Droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Yaopeng; Yang, Xin; Chang, YunFeng; Peng, Xueyuan

    2012-01-01

    The high-speed swirling flow field in the cyclone oil-gas separator will cause the breakup of oil droplets, thus reducing the separation efficiency. In this paper, the performance of an oil-gas cyclone separator was investigated through both numerical simulations and experiments with considering the breakup of oil droplets in oil-gas cyclone separators. The gas flow field was simulated using the RSM turbulence model and the trajectory of the oil droplets was calculated by the Discrete Phase M...

  5. Estimating Arctic sea-ice freeze-up and break-up from the satellite record: A comparison of different approaches in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Johnson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 1. Abstract The recognized importance of the annual cycle of sea ice in the Arctic to heat budgets, human behavior, and ecosystem functions, requires consistent definitions of such key events in the ice cycle as break-up and freeze-up. An internally consistent and reproducible approach to characterize the timing of these events in the annual sea-ice cycle is described. An algorithm was developed to calculate the start and end dates of freeze-up and break-up and applied to time series of satellite-derived sea-ice concentration from 1979 to 2013. Our approach builds from discussions with sea-ice experts having experience observing and working on the sea ice in the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Applying the algorithm to the 1979–2013 satellite data reveals that freeze-up is delayed by two weeks per decade for the Chukchi coast and one week per decade for the Beaufort coast. For both regions, break-up start is arriving earlier by 5–7 days per decade and break-up end is arriving earlier by 10–12 days per decade. In the Chukchi Sea, “early” break-up is arriving earlier by one month over the 34-year period and alternates with a “late” break-up. The calculated freeze-up and break-up dates provide information helpful to understanding the dynamics of the annual sea-ice cycle and identifying the drivers that modify this cycle. The algorithm presented here, and potential refinements, can help guide future work on changes in the seasonal cycle of sea ice. The sea-ice phenology of freeze-up and break-up that results from our approach is consistent with observations of sea-ice use. It may be applied to advancing our understanding and prediction of the timing of seasonal navigation, availability of ice as a biological habitat, and assessment of numerical models.

  6. Family break-up in Black and Red Kites Milvus migrans and M. milvus: is time of independence an offspring decision?

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, Javier

    1994-01-01

    I observed the natural process of family break-up in 13 families of Black Kites Milvus migrans and five families of Red Kites M. milvus in which fledglings had been individually marked. In other broods, I performed experiments which modified the parental investment fledglings received by supplementing nests of both species with food or transferring Black Kite chicks to nests with younger or older chicks of the same species. The time of family break-up in the Black Kite is mainly an offspr...

  7. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  8. Reaction mechanisms in the plasma focus - investigations on accelerated deuterons and reaction protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plasma focus POSEIDON (W0=280 kJ; U0=60 kV) exhibits two distinct phases of high suprathermal fusion production. The first, pinch or quiescent phase shows a stable, radially well confined plasma. The second, unstable phase corresponds to m=0 instabilities and subsequent break-up of the plasma. For an analysis of the mechanisms leading to the high fusion production in both phases, a new model, the ''Gyrating Particle Model'' (GPM), was developed. In the GPM the trajectories of fast deuterons in the time varying focus structures are determined by a ray-tracing code. The profiles nsub(e)(r,z,t) and Tsub(e)(r,z,t) for both phases are taken from measurements in a schematized form. The deuteron acceleration process is not treated, i.e. arbitrary initial distribution functions of the deuterons are taken at the beginning of each phase. Coulomb collisions with the thermal plasma electrons describing the energy loss of the fast deuterons and fusion collisions with the thermal deuterons are treated with the help of Monte Carlo methods. Other reaction mechanisms, such as beam-beam or thermal production, are neglected. The trajectories of the reaction protons in the focus-field are traced up to measuring positions outside of the focus pinch. Thus, measurable quantities such as spatial, angular and spectral distributions and time evolution of the reaction protons and neutrons are obtained and compared with experimental results. (orig./GG)

  9. The Effect of Temperature Dependent Rheology on a Kinematic Model of Continental Breakup and Rifted Continental Margin Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymms, V. J.; Kusznir, N. J.

    2004-12-01

    The effect of temperature dependent rheology has been examined for a model of continental lithosphere thinning by an upwelling divergent flow field within continental lithosphere and asthenosphere leading to continental breakup and rifted continental margin formation. The model uses a coupled FE fluid flow and thermal solution and is kinematically driven using a half divergence rate Vx and upwelling velocity Vz. Viscosity structure is modified by the evolving temperature field of the model through the temperature dependent Newtonian rheology. Continental lithosphere and asthenosphere material are advected by the fluid-flow field in order to predict crustal and mantle lithosphere thinning leading to rifted continental margin formation. The results of the temperature dependent rheology model are compared with those of a simple isoviscous model. The temperature dependent rheology model predicts continental lithosphere thinning and depth dependent stretching, similar to that predicted by the uniform viscosity model. However compared with the uniform viscosity model the temperature dependent rheology predicts greater amounts of thinning of the continental crust and lithospheric mantle than the isoviscous solutions. An important parameter within the kinematic model of continental lithosphere breakup and rifted continental margin development is the velocity ratio Vz/Vx. For non-volcanic margins, Vz/Vx is thought to be around unity. Applying a velocity ratio Vz/Vx of unity gives a diffuse ocean-continent transition and exhumation of continental lithospheric mantle. For volcanic margins, Vz/Vx is of order 10, falling to unity with a half-life of order 10 Ma, leading to a more sharply defined ocean-continent transition. While Vx during continental breakup may be estimated, Vz can only be inferred. FE fluid flow solutions, in which Vz is not imposed and without an initial buoyancy driven flow component, predict a velocity ratio Vz/Vx of around unity for both temperature

  10. Effects of earlier sea ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, E.V.; Lunn, N.J.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2007-01-01

    Some of the most pronounced ecological responses to climatic warming are expected to occur in polar marine regions, where temperature increases have been the greatest and sea ice provides a sensitive mechanism by which climatic conditions affect sympagic (i.e., with ice) species. Population-level effects of climatic change, however, remain difficult to quantify. We used a flexible extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber capture-recapture models to estimate population size and survival for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), one of the most ice-dependent of Arctic marine mammals. We analyzed data for polar bears captured from 1984 to 2004 along the western coast of Hudson Bay and in the community of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. The Western Hudson Bay polar bear population declined from 1,194 (95% CI = 1,020-1,368) in 1987 to 935 (95% CI = 794-1,076) in 2004. Total apparent survival of prime-adult polar bears (5-19 yr) was stable for females (0.93; 95% CI = 0.91-0.94) and males (0.90; 95% CI = 0.88-0.91). Survival of juvenile, subadult, and senescent-adult polar bears was correlated with spring sea ice breakup date, which was variable among years and occurred approximately 3 weeks earlier in 2004 than in 1984. We propose that this correlation provides evidence for a causal association between earlier sea ice breakup (due to climatic warming) and decreased polar bear survival. It may also explain why Churchill, like other communities along the western coast of Hudson Bay, has experienced an increase in human-polar bear interactions in recent years. Earlier sea ice breakup may have resulted in a larger number of nutritionally stressed polar bears, which are encroaching on human habitations in search of supplemental food. Because western Hudson Bay is near the southern limit of the species' range, our findings may foreshadow the demographic responses and management challenges that more northerly polar bear populations will experience if climatic warming in the Arctic continues as

  11. Mathematics Curriculum Changes in Republic of Serbia for Grades 5-8 After the Break-Up of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlajic, Jovana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the mathematics curriculum for grades 5-8 in the Republic of Serbia after the break-up of SFRY. In particular, the research sought to identify the changes in the mathematics curriculum in terms of curriculum content and learning objectives, textbooks, and high school entrance examination…

  12. Pre-breakup magmatism on the Vøring Margin: Insight from new sub-basalt imaging and results from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 642E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelmalak, M.m.; Meyer, R.; Planke, S.; Faleide, J.i.; Gernigon, L.; Frieling, J.; Sluijs, A.; Reichart, G.-J.; Zastrozhnov, D.; Theissen-krah, S.; Said, A.; Myklebust, R.

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in sub-basalt imaging combined with petrological and geochemical observations from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 642E core provide new constraints on the initial breakup processes at the Vøring Margin. New and reprocessed high-quality seismic data allow us to identify a new seis

  13. Pre-breakup magmatism on the Vexing Margin: Insight from new sub-basalt imaging and results from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 642E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelmalak, M.M.; Meyer, R.; Planke, S.; Faleide, J.I.; Gernigon, L.; Frieling, J.; Sluijs, A.; Reichart, G.-J.; Zastrozhnov, D.; Theissen-Krah, S.; Said, A.; Myklebust, R.

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in sub-basalt imaging combined with petrological and geochemical observations from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 642E core provide new constraints on the initial breakup processes at the Vøring Margin. New and reprocessed high-quality seismic data allow us to identify a new seis

  14. Spiraling bright spatial solitons formed by the breakup of an optical vortex in a saturable self-focusing medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonenko, Vladimir; Christou, Jason; Luther-Daves, Barry

    1995-11-01

    We report the generation of three-dimensional bright spatial solitary waves by the breakup of an optical vortex in a saturable self-focusing nonlinear medium. An elliptical Gaussian beam from a Ti:sapphire laser containing a singly charged on-axis vortex was passed through a nonlinear medium consisting of rubidium vapor at low concentrations. The modulational instability resulted in the formation of a pair of out-of-phase solitonlike beams, which spiraled away from each other during propagation as a result of the repulsive nature of their interaction. The rate of rotation and separation of the two soliton beams could be controlled by the parameters of the medium and the laser intensity. Numerical analysis of the propagation based on a model nonlinearity corresponding to a strongly saturated two-level system showed good quantitative agreement with the experimental data. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America

  15. Break-up Process of Perturbed Molten Metal Jet and Preparation of Lead-Free Solder Balls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Lijun; Zhang Shuguang; Zhang Shaoming; Xu Jun; Shi Likai

    2004-01-01

    Solder balls, which are used in advanced electronics packages such as BGA (Ball Grid Array) and CSP (Chip Scale Package) to substitute the leads and realize the electrical and mechanical connections between substrate and chip,have severe specifications in diameter tolerance, roundness and surface quality, and therefore challenge the traditional technologies for fabrication of metallic particles and powders. The present work made a survey of perturbed molten metal jet break-up process, observed the formation and growth of capillary wave of tin-lead melt jet by way of rapid solidification, and on the basis of the above research, successfully obtained tin-lead eutectic and Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu lead free solder balls with tight distribution and good sphericity of particles through optimization of processing parameters, forming a solid base for cost effectively producing solder balls.

  16. Kinematically complete measurements of the break-up of 6Li using the magnetic spectrograph 'Little John'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes set-up and application of an extended detection system for the magnetic spectrograph 'Little John'. The set-up is used in experiments of the Coulomb induced break-up of 6Li into α-particles and deuterons at the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron for the detection of both coincidence fragments. In first measurements the properties of the detection system are explored. It is shown that the extension provides an increased efficiency, simultaneously maintaining the angular resolution. This is achieved by a direct measurement of both particle trajectories and by an off-line subdivision of the solid angle acceptance. The differential cross sections obtained in this way are in a good agreement with known results and are completing the experimental information. (orig.)

  17. Complete and incomplete fusion cross sections for 6Li+209Bi reaction in multi-body classical molecular dynamical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the multi-body Classical Molecular Dynamics simulation of 6Li+209Bi reaction it is shown that: (i) the breakup of a projectile fragment near the barrier leads to substantial increase in the ICF probabilities; (ii) the expected increase in σCF on relaxation of the rigid-body (RB) constraint on the projectile is compensated by reduction in the flux leading to CF, due to ICF events; (iii) the breakup probability increases with ECM and, for given ECM it also increases as b increases and peaks around some b>0, while cross sections σCF and σTF were calculated for b=0 only Therefore, we present the results of σCF (Complete Fusion) and σTF (Total Fusion) calculations which are obtained at critical impact parameter, bcr, where many ICF channels open up and compare with the calculations performed at b=0 only, where only few ICF channels open up

  18. Development and validation of bubble breakup and coalescence constitutive models for the one-group interfacial area transport equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellacani, Filippo

    2012-12-04

    A local mechanistic model for bubble coalescence and breakup for the one-group interfacial area transport equation has been developed, in agreement and within the limits of the current understanding, based on an exhaustive survey of the theory and of the state of the art models for bubble dynamics simulation. The new model has been tested using the commercial 3D CFD code ANSYS CFX. Upward adiabatic turbulent air-water bubbly flow has been simulated and the results have been compared with the data obtained in the experimental facility PUMA. The range of the experimental data available spans between 0.5 to 2 m/s liquid velocity and 5 to 15 % volume fraction. For the implementation of the models, both the monodispersed and the interfacial area transport equation approaches have been used. The first one to perform a detailed analysis of the forces and models to reproduce the dynamic of the dispersed phase adequately and to be used in the next phases of the work. Also two different bubble induced turbulence models have been tested to consider the effect of the presence of the gas phase on the turbulence of the liquid phase. The interfacial area transport equation has been successfully implemented into the CFD code and the state of the art breakup and coalescence models have been used for simulation. The limitations of the actual theory have been shown and a new bubble interactions model has been developed. The simulations showed that a considerable improvement is achieved if compared to the state of the art closure models. Limits in the implementation derive from the actual understanding and formulation of the bubbly dynamics. A strong dependency on the interfacial non-drag force models and coefficients have been shown. More experimental and theory work needs to be done in this field to increase the prediction capability of the simulation tools regarding the distribution of the phases along the pipe radius.

  19. Development and validation of bubble breakup and coalescence constitutive models for the one-group interfacial area transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A local mechanistic model for bubble coalescence and breakup for the one-group interfacial area transport equation has been developed, in agreement and within the limits of the current understanding, based on an exhaustive survey of the theory and of the state of the art models for bubble dynamics simulation. The new model has been tested using the commercial 3D CFD code ANSYS CFX. Upward adiabatic turbulent air-water bubbly flow has been simulated and the results have been compared with the data obtained in the experimental facility PUMA. The range of the experimental data available spans between 0.5 to 2 m/s liquid velocity and 5 to 15 % volume fraction. For the implementation of the models, both the monodispersed and the interfacial area transport equation approaches have been used. The first one to perform a detailed analysis of the forces and models to reproduce the dynamic of the dispersed phase adequately and to be used in the next phases of the work. Also two different bubble induced turbulence models have been tested to consider the effect of the presence of the gas phase on the turbulence of the liquid phase. The interfacial area transport equation has been successfully implemented into the CFD code and the state of the art breakup and coalescence models have been used for simulation. The limitations of the actual theory have been shown and a new bubble interactions model has been developed. The simulations showed that a considerable improvement is achieved if compared to the state of the art closure models. Limits in the implementation derive from the actual understanding and formulation of the bubbly dynamics. A strong dependency on the interfacial non-drag force models and coefficients have been shown. More experimental and theory work needs to be done in this field to increase the prediction capability of the simulation tools regarding the distribution of the phases along the pipe radius.

  20. Theory of the A(d, p)B reaction as a tool for nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We outline how three-body models of the reaction A(d, p)B can be related to the underlying many-body problem and discuss the problems involved in making a precise connection. Various approximate methods for taking into account coupling to deuteron break-up channels are discussed and a practical way of correcting the adiabatic approximation is outlined. We emphasize issues that relate to the use of the A(d, p)B reaction as a tool for nuclear structure studies. (paper)