Parameterizing the Spatial Markov Model From Breakthrough Curve Data Alone
Sherman, Thomas; Fakhari, Abbas; Miller, Savannah; Singha, Kamini; Bolster, Diogo
2017-12-01
The spatial Markov model (SMM) is an upscaled Lagrangian model that effectively captures anomalous transport across a diverse range of hydrologic systems. The distinct feature of the SMM relative to other random walk models is that successive steps are correlated. To date, with some notable exceptions, the model has primarily been applied to data from high-resolution numerical simulations and correlation effects have been measured from simulated particle trajectories. In real systems such knowledge is practically unattainable and the best one might hope for is breakthrough curves (BTCs) at successive downstream locations. We introduce a novel methodology to quantify velocity correlation from BTC data alone. By discretizing two measured BTCs into a set of arrival times and developing an inverse model, we estimate velocity correlation, thereby enabling parameterization of the SMM in studies where detailed Lagrangian velocity statistics are unavailable. The proposed methodology is applied to two synthetic numerical problems, where we measure all details and thus test the veracity of the approach by comparison of estimated parameters with known simulated values. Our results suggest that our estimated transition probabilities agree with simulated values and using the SMM with this estimated parameterization accurately predicts BTCs downstream. Our methodology naturally allows for estimates of uncertainty by calculating lower and upper bounds of velocity correlation, enabling prediction of a range of BTCs. The measured BTCs fall within the range of predicted BTCs. This novel method to parameterize the SMM from BTC data alone is quite parsimonious, thereby widening the SMM's practical applicability.
Parameterizing the Spatial Markov Model from Breakthrough Curve Data Alone
Sherman, T.; Bolster, D.; Fakhari, A.; Miller, S.; Singha, K.
2017-12-01
The spatial Markov model (SMM) uses a correlated random walk and has been shown to effectively capture anomalous transport in porous media systems; in the SMM, particles' future trajectories are correlated to their current velocity. It is common practice to use a priori Lagrangian velocity statistics obtained from high resolution simulations to determine a distribution of transition probabilities (correlation) between velocity classes that govern predicted transport behavior; however, this approach is computationally cumbersome. Here, we introduce a methodology to quantify velocity correlation from Breakthrough (BTC) curve data alone; discretizing two measured BTCs into a set of arrival times and reverse engineering the rules of the SMM allows for prediction of velocity correlation, thereby enabling parameterization of the SMM in studies where Lagrangian velocity statistics are not available. The introduced methodology is applied to estimate velocity correlation from BTCs measured in high resolution simulations, thus allowing for a comparison of estimated parameters with known simulated values. Results show 1) estimated transition probabilities agree with simulated values and 2) using the SMM with estimated parameterization accurately predicts BTCs downstream. Additionally, we include uncertainty measurements by calculating lower and upper estimates of velocity correlation, which allow for prediction of a range of BTCs. The simulated BTCs fall in the range of predicted BTCs. This research proposes a novel method to parameterize the SMM from BTC data alone, thereby reducing the SMM's computational costs and widening its applicability.
Laboratory investigation and simulation of breakthrough curves in karst conduits with pools
Zhao, Xiaoer; Chang, Yong; Wu, Jichun; Peng, Fu
2017-12-01
A series of laboratory experiments are performed under various hydrological conditions to analyze the effect of pools in pipes on breakthrough curves (BTCs). The BTCs are generated after instantaneous injections of NaCl tracer solution. In order to test the feasibility of reproducing the BTCs and obtain transport parameters, three modeling approaches have been applied: the equilibrium model, the linear graphical method and the two-region nonequilibrium model. The investigation results show that pools induce tailing of the BTCs, and the shapes of BTCs depend on pool geometries and hydrological conditions. The simulations reveal that the two-region nonequilibrium model yields the best fits to experimental BTCs because the model can describe the transient storage in pools by the partition coefficient and the mass transfer coefficient. The model parameters indicate that pools produce high dispersion. The increased tailing occurs mainly because the partition coefficient decreases, as the number of pools increases. When comparing the tracer BTCs obtained using the two types of pools with the same size, the more appreciable BTC tails that occur for symmetrical pools likely result mainly from the less intense exchange between the water in the pools and the water in the pipe, because the partition coefficients for the two types of pools are virtually identical. Dispersivity values decrease as flow rates increase; however, the trend in dispersion is not clear. The reduced tailing is attributed to a decrease in immobile water with increasing flow rate. It provides evidence for hydrodynamically controlled tailing effects.
Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.
Li, Guangquan
2011-01-01
Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.
On the late-time behavior of tracer test breakthrough curves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
HAGGERTY, ROY; MCKENNA, SEAN A; MEIGS, LUCY C
2000-06-12
The authors investigated the late-time (asymptotic) behavior of tracer test breakthrough curves (BTCs) with rate-limited mass transfer (e.g., in dual or multi-porosity systems) and found that the late-time concentration, c, is given by the simple expression: c = t{sub ad} (c{sub 0}g {minus} m{sub 0}{partial_derivative}g/{partial_derivative}t), for t >> t{sub ad} and t{sub a} >> t{sub ad} where t{sub ad} is the advection time, c{sub 0} is the initial concentration in the medium, m{sub 0} is the 0th moment of the injection pulse; and t{sub a} is the mean residence time in the immobile domain (i.e., the characteristic mass transfer time). The function g is proportional to the residence time distribution in the immobile domain, the authors tabulate g for many geometries, including several distributed (multirate) models of mass transfer. Using this expression they examine the behavior of late-time concentration for a number of mass transfer models. One key results is that if rate-limited mass transfer causes the BTC to behave as a power-law at late-time (i.e., c {approximately} t{sup {minus}k}), then the underlying density function of rate coefficients must also be a power-law with the form a{sup k{minus}}, as a {r_arrow}0. This is true for both density functions of first-order and diffusion rate coefficients. BTCs with k < 3 persisting to the end of the experiment indicate a mean residence time longer than the experiment and possibly infinite, and also suggest an effective rate coefficient that is either undefined or changes as a function of observation time. They apply their analysis to breakthrough curves from Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, New Mexico.
Pedretti, Daniele; Bianchi, Marco
2018-03-01
Breakthrough curves (BTCs) observed during tracer tests in highly heterogeneous aquifers display strong tailing. Power laws are popular models for both the empirical fitting of these curves, and the prediction of transport using upscaling models based on best-fitted estimated parameters (e.g. the power law slope or exponent). The predictive capacity of power law based upscaling models can be however questioned due to the difficulties to link model parameters with the aquifers' physical properties. This work analyzes two aspects that can limit the use of power laws as effective predictive tools: (a) the implication of statistical subsampling, which often renders power laws undistinguishable from other heavily tailed distributions, such as the logarithmic (LOG); (b) the difficulties to reconcile fitting parameters obtained from models with different formulations, such as the presence of a late-time cutoff in the power law model. Two rigorous and systematic stochastic analyses, one based on benchmark distributions and the other on BTCs obtained from transport simulations, are considered. It is found that a power law model without cutoff (PL) results in best-fitted exponents (αPL) falling in the range of typical experimental values reported in the literature (1.5 tailing becomes heavier. Strong fluctuations occur when the number of samples is limited, due to the effects of subsampling. On the other hand, when the power law model embeds a cutoff (PLCO), the best-fitted exponent (αCO) is insensitive to the degree of tailing and to the effects of subsampling and tends to a constant αCO ≈ 1. In the PLCO model, the cutoff rate (λ) is the parameter that fully reproduces the persistence of the tailing and is shown to be inversely correlated to the LOG scale parameter (i.e. with the skewness of the distribution). The theoretical results are consistent with the fitting analysis of a tracer test performed during the MADE-5 experiment. It is shown that a simple
Direct Breakthrough Curve Prediction From Statistics of Heterogeneous Conductivity Fields
Hansen, Scott K.; Haslauer, Claus P.; Cirpka, Olaf A.; Vesselinov, Velimir V.
2018-01-01
This paper presents a methodology to predict the shape of solute breakthrough curves in heterogeneous aquifers at early times and/or under high degrees of heterogeneity, both cases in which the classical macrodispersion theory may not be applicable. The methodology relies on the observation that breakthrough curves in heterogeneous media are generally well described by lognormal distributions, and mean breakthrough times can be predicted analytically. The log-variance of solute arrival is thus sufficient to completely specify the breakthrough curves, and this is calibrated as a function of aquifer heterogeneity and dimensionless distance from a source plane by means of Monte Carlo analysis and statistical regression. Using the ensemble of simulated groundwater flow and solute transport realizations employed to calibrate the predictive regression, reliability estimates for the prediction are also developed. Additional theoretical contributions include heuristics for the time until an effective macrodispersion coefficient becomes applicable, and also an expression for its magnitude that applies in highly heterogeneous systems. It is seen that the results here represent a way to derive continuous time random walk transition distributions from physical considerations rather than from empirical field calibration.
Soil homogeneity evaluation by radionuclide tracer breakthrough curve interpretation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brenizer, J.S. Jr.; Jarrett, A.R.; Jester, W.A.
1980-01-01
Increasing concern about the environmental impact of hazardous waste disposal has made site evaluation and site selection difficult and expensive. Pollutants, assumed to be absorbed by the soil immediately surrounding the burial trench, have been detected far from sites. Discrepancies between predicted migration distances based on indirect methods such as laboratory and computer modeling and those observed at the field site are often significant. The homogeneity of subsurface media, often assumed in laboratory and modeling studies, is seldom found in the field. The use of tracers to determine the flow characteristics of a potential disposal site involves time and expense, but offers a direct evaluation of solute transport and eliminates the assumptions inherent in indirect methods. Current modeling of solute transport in nonhomogeneous porous media is limited by the quantification of input parameters. Several general models can predict solute transport in saturated-unsaturated media from low-level disposal sites if the hydraulic characteristics and chemical reactions expected in each unique water-solute-media system can be defined. The objective of this research was to develop a method of evaluating potential shallow-land burial waste disposal sites by interpreting tracer breakthrough curve structure with respect to the hydrologic properties of the media at the potential disposal site. This methodology will be helpful in evaluating the potential performance of many types of shallow-land waste burial sites such as low-level radioactive waste disposal, surface disposal of flyash, chemical waste disposal, waste sedimentation ponds, and sanitary landfills
Prediction of ion-exchange column breakthrough curves by constant-pattern wave approach.
Lee, I-Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Chung; Chern, Jia-Ming
2008-03-21
The release of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters represents one of major threats to environment. Compared with chemical precipitation method, fixed-bed ion-exchange process can effectively remove heavy metals from wastewaters and generate no hazardous sludge. In order to design and operate fixed-bed ion-exchange processes successfully, it is very important to understand the column dynamics. In this study, the column experiments for Cu2+/H+, Zn2+/H+, and Cd2+/H+ systems using Amberlite IR-120 were performed to measure the breakthrough curves under varying operating conditions. The experimental results showed that total cation concentration in the mobile-phase played a key role on the breakthrough curves; a higher feed concentration resulted in an earlier breakthrough. Furthermore, the column dynamics was also predicted by self-sharpening and constant-pattern wave models. The self-sharpening wave model assuming local ion-exchange equilibrium could provide a simple and quick estimation for the breakthrough volume, but the predicted breakthrough curves did not match the experimental data very well. On the contrary, the constant-pattern wave model using a constant driving force model for finite ion-exchange rate provided a better fit to the experimental data. The obtained liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient was correlated to the flow velocity and other operating parameters; the breakthrough curves under varying operating conditions could thus be predicted by the constant-pattern wave model using the correlation.
Modeling Breakthrough Curves of Citric Acid Adsorption onto Anionic Resins in an Aqueous Solution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sohrabali Ghorbanian
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Breakthrough curves for citric acid adsorption from aqueous solution onto ion-exchange resin at 20, 35, and 55°C have been investigated. To predict breakthrough curves, three mathematical models have been analyzed based on the values of the least square method parameters, Durbin-Watson test, and mean relative percent error and, finally, appropriate models have been achieved. Models are in good agreement with experimental data based on the results. To examine models reliabilities and accuracy, models have been compared by various breakthrough curve data obtained by other investigators. The results show appropriate agreement and in some cases regression errors have been reduced to less than 1.0 percent.
Massoudieh, A.; Dentz, M.; Le Borgne, T.
2017-12-01
In heterogeneous media, the velocity distribution and the spatial correlation structure of velocity for solute particles determine the breakthrough curves and how they evolve as one moves away from the solute source. The ability to predict such evolution can help relating the spatio-statistical hydraulic properties of the media to the transport behavior and travel time distributions. While commonly used non-local transport models such as anomalous dispersion and classical continuous time random walk (CTRW) can reproduce breakthrough curve successfully by adjusting the model parameter values, they lack the ability to relate model parameters to the spatio-statistical properties of the media. This in turns limits the transferability of these models. In the research to be presented, we express concentration or flux of solutes as a distribution over their velocity. We then derive an integrodifferential equation that governs the evolution of the particle distribution over velocity at given times and locations for a particle ensemble, based on a presumed velocity correlation structure and an ergodic cross-sectional velocity distribution. This way, the spatial evolution of breakthrough curves away from the source is predicted based on cross-sectional velocity distribution and the connectivity, which is expressed by the velocity transition probability density. The transition probability is specified via a copula function that can help construct a joint distribution with a given correlation and given marginal velocities. Using this approach, we analyze the breakthrough curves depending on the velocity distribution and correlation properties. The model shows how the solute transport behavior evolves from ballistic transport at small spatial scales to Fickian dispersion at large length scales relative to the velocity correlation length.
Peak and Tail Scaling of Breakthrough Curves in Hydrologic Tracer Tests
Aquino, T.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Bolster, D.
2014-12-01
Power law tails, a marked signature of anomalous transport, have been observed in solute breakthrough curves time and time again in a variety of hydrologic settings, including in streams. However, due to the low concentrations at which they occur they are notoriously difficult to measure with confidence. This leads us to ask if there are other associated signatures of anomalous transport that can be sought. We develop a general stochastic transport framework and derive an asymptotic relation between the tail scaling of a breakthrough curve for a conservative tracer at a fixed downstream position and the scaling of the peak concentration of breakthrough curves as a function of downstream position, demonstrating that they provide equivalent information. We then quantify the relevant spatiotemporal scales for the emergence of this asymptotic regime, where the relationship holds, in the context of a very simple model that represents transport in an idealized river. We validate our results using random walk simulations. The potential experimental benefits and limitations of these findings are discussed.
Mathematical models applied to the Cr(III) and Cr(VI) breakthrough curves.
Ramirez C, Margarita; Pereira da Silva, Mônica; Ferreira L, Selma G; Vasco E, Oscar
2007-07-19
Trivalent and hexavalent chromium continuous biosorption was studied using residual brewer Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in volcanic rock. The columns used in the process had a diameter of 4.5 cm and a length of 140 cm, working at an inlet flow rate of 15 mL/min. Breakthrough curves were used to study the yeast biosorption behavior in the process. The saturation time (ts) was 21 and 45 h for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively, and a breakthrough time (tb) of 4 h for Cr(III) and 5 h for Cr(VI). The uptake capacity of the biosorbent for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were 48 and 60 mg/g, respectively. Two non-diffusional mathematical models with parameters t0 and sigma were used to adjust the experimental data obtained. Microsoft Excel tools were used for the mathematical solution of the two parameters used.
Breakthrough curve of H/sub 2/-Ti-sponge adsorption system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yasufuku, K [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)
1977-11-01
Experimental work concerning H/sub 2/-Ti-sponge adsorption system has been undertaken at Kawasaki Heavy Industry Co. to obtain necessary data for the design of hydrogen removal tower (Ti-sponge trap) to be used as an purification component of a VHTR plant. In this study, the effects of equilibrium curve, H/sub 2/ inlet concentration, and the ratio of the solid-side capacity factor to the gas-side capacity factor on the breakthrough curve were investigated. The Freundlich's equation with the diffusion model of Carter et al. was numerically solved by the Crank-Nicholson method, and the results of calculations are presented. The flow diagram and the photographs of the facilities for He gas purification experiments are also presented.
Sabouni, Rana; Kazemian, Hossein; Rohani, Sohrab
2013-08-20
It is essential to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas because it is considered one of the main causes of global warming. Several materials and different methods have been reported for CO2 capturing including adsorption onto zeolites and porous membranes, as well as absorption in amine solutions. All such methods require high energy input and high cost. A new class of porous materials called Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) exhibited excellent performance in extracting carbon dioxide from a gas mixture. In this study, the breakthrough curves for the adsorption of carbon dioxide on CPM-5 (crystalline porous materials) were obtained experimentally and theoretically using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed column at different experimental conditions such as feed flow rate, adsorption temperature, and feed concentration. It was found that the CPM-5 has a dynamic CO2 adsorption capacity of 11.9 wt % (2.7 mmol/g) (corresponding to 8 mL/min, 298 K, and 25% v/v CO2). The tested CPM-5 showed an outstanding adsorption equilibrium capacity (e.g., 2.3 mmol/g (10.2 wt %) at 298 K) compared to other adsorbents, which can be considered as an attractive adsorbent for separation of CO2 from flue gas.
Capacitive Sensors and Breakthrough Curves in Automated Irrigation for Water and Soil Conservation
Fahmy Hussein, Mohamed
2016-04-01
when such sensors are used in farmers' fields. The second procedure was Breakthrough Curve (BTC) lab-method to follow the fate of chemical composition of water draining out of Ca-saturated soil columns and Exchangeable Sodium Percent, ESP, in soil materials under saturated-flow. The work was run on five packed soil-columns under hydraulic-gradient of about 6 in fine-grained soil materials (Nile clay-sediments) wetted with five NaCl aqueous solutions (10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mEq/l). The results revealed the removal of 40 to 80% of sodium from irrigation water after 6 to 8 pore volumes flowed out in about 12 hours with the highest removal from the most dilute solution. Rapid increase of ESP was observed when the inlet solution had moderate to high TDS whereas the dilute solution (10 mEq/l) has resulted in no soil chemical degradation. The results were extrapolated to field situation and showed that Nile clayey soil would never get sodic (ESP>15) when wetted with high quality water regardless the water application duration whereas only 1-4 year of irrigation with moderate to poor-quality water (as takes place under perennial irrigation) would result in ESP increase to 15 and much higher values. A secondary but important outcome of BTC experiments was that marginal sediments could be used in multi-column cells (6 to 8 columns) to improve water-quality through removal of Na+ ions from water, whereas anions could be removed by positively-charged resins and the cells could be recycled in a proposed prototype scheme.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng, Hao [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Li, Yuxiang, E-mail: superfigure@163.com [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); National Defense Key Discipline Laboratory for Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Wu, Lang [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Ma, Xue [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • The granular composites were fabricated by the sequential annealing mechanism. • The method controls the porous characteristics and stable structure of materials. • The breakthrough curve of Cs{sup +} follows the Thomas model with a high removal rate. • It is a probable for SM-AMP20 to recycle Cs{sup +} using an eluent of 2–3 mol/L NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}. - Abstract: Long-lived {sup 137}Cs (over 30 years), a byproduct of the spent fuel fission processes, comprises the majority of high-level and prolific heat-generating waste in downstream processing. This study reports a novel sequential annealing mechanism with cross-linked network of polyvinyl alcohol, fabricating the composite of ammonium molybdophosphate loaded on silica matrix (SM-AMP20, 20 wt% AMP) as an excellent granular ion exchanger for removal Cs{sup +}. When the matrix is remarkably sequential annealed, well-dispersed SM-AMP20 particles are formed by firmly anchoring themselves on controlling the porous characteristics and stable structure. The material crystallizes in the complex cubic space group Pn-3m with cell parameters of crystalline AMP formation. The breakthrough curve of Cs{sup +} by SM-AMP20 follows the Thomas model with a high removal rate of 88.23% (∼10 mg/L of Cs{sup +}) and breakthrough time as high as 26 h (flow rate Q ≈ 2.5 mL/min and bed height Z ≈ 11 cm) at neutral pH. We also report on sorbents that could efficiently remove Cs{sup +} ions from complex solutions containing different competitive cations (Na{sup +}, Al{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, and Ni{sup 2+}, respectively) in large excess. Furthermore, this study shows that there is a probability for SM-AMP20 to recycle cesium using an eluent of 2–3 mol/L NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} solution.
Zietzschmann, Frederik; Stützer, Christian; Jekel, Martin
2016-04-01
Small-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) tests for the adsorption of organic micro-pollutants (OMP) were conducted with drinking water and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. In both waters, three influent OMP concentration levels were tested. As long as the influent OMP concentrations are below certain thresholds, the relative breakthrough behavior is not impacted in the respective water. Accordingly, the GAC capacity for OMP is directly proportional to the influent OMP concentration in the corresponding water. The differences between the OMP breakthrough curves in drinking water and WWTP effluent can be attributed to the concentrations of the low molecular weight acid and neutral (LMW) organics of the waters. Presenting the relative OMP concentrations (c/c0) over the specific throughput of the LMW organics (mg LMW organics/g GAC), the OMP breakthrough curves in drinking water and WWTP effluent superimpose each other. This superimposition can be further increased if the UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) of the LMW organics is considered. In contrast, using the specific throughput of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) did not suffice to obtain superimposed breakthrough curves. Thus, the LMW organics are the major water constituent impacting OMP adsorption onto GAC. The results demonstrate that knowing the influent OMP and LMW organics concentrations (and UV254) of different waters, the OMP breakthroughs and GAC capacities corresponding to any water can be applied to all other waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zaira Zaman Chowdhury
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A continuous adsorption study for removal of Cu(II cations from wastewater using a fixed-bed column was conducted. A granular carbonaceous activated adsorbent produced by carbonization of the outer rind, or exocarp, of mangostene fruit shell was used for column packing. The effects of feed flow rate, influent cation concentration, and bed depth on the breakthrough curve were investigated at pH 5.5. Experimental analysis confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on flow rate, initial concentration of Cu(II cations, and bed height related to the amount of activated carbon used for column packing. Thomas, Yoon–Nelson, and Adams–Bohart models were applied to analyze the breakthrough curves at different conditions. Linear regression analysis of experimental data demonstrated that Thomas and Yoon–Nelson models were appropriate to explain the breakthrough curve, while the Adams–Bohart model was only applicable to predict the initial part of the dynamic process. It was concluded that the column packed with fruit rind based activated carbon can be used to treat Cu(II-enriched wastewater.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Neretnieks, I.; Moreno, L.
1992-01-01
Flowrate curves for the 53 sampling areas in the validation drift with measureable flowrates are given. The sampling area 267 is treated as three separate sampling areas; 267:1, 267:2 and 267:3. The total flowrate for these three sampling areas is given in a separate plot. The flowrates are given in ml/h. The time is given in hours since April 27 00:00, 1990. Disturbances in flowrates are observed after 8500 hours due to opening of boreholes C1 and W1. Results from flowrate measurements after 8500 hours are therefore excluded. The tracer breakthrough curves for 38 sampling areas in the validation drift are given as concentration values versus time. The sampling area 267 is treated as three separate sampling areas; 267:1, 267:2 and 267:3. This gives a total of 40 breakthrough curves for each tracer. (au)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mthombeni, Nomcebo H.; Mpenyana-Monyatsi, Lizzy; Onyango, Maurice S.; Momba, Maggie N.B.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Performance of silver nanoparticles coated resin in water disinfection is presented. ► Sigmoidal models are used to describe breakthrough curves. ► The performance of the media in water disinfection is affected by process variables. ► Test with environmental water shows the media is effective in water disinfection. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the use of silver nanoparticles coated resin beads in deactivating microbes in drinking water in a column filtration system. The coated resin beads are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to confirm the functional groups, morphology and the presence of silver nanoparticles on the surface of the resin. The performance of the coated resin is evaluated as a function of bed mass, initial bacterial concentration and flow rate using Escherichia coli as model microbial contaminant in water. The survival curves of E. coli are expressed as breakthrough curves (BTCs), which are modeled using sigmoidal regression equations to obtain relevant rate parameters. The number of bed volumes processed at breakthrough point and capacity of the bed are used as performance indicators. Results show that performance increases with a decrease in initial bacterial concentration, an increase in flow rate and an increase in bed mass.
Aziz, Abdul Shukor Abdul; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Man, Hasfalina Che; Kumar, Nadavala Siva
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the adsorption characteristics of palm oil boiler mill fly ash (POFA) derived from an agricultural waste material in removing Cd(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution via column studies. The performance of the study is described through the breakthrough curves concept under relevant operating conditions such as column bed depths (1, 1.5, and 2 cm) and influent metal concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mg/L). The Cd(II) and Cu(II) uptake mechanism is particularly bed depth- and concentration-dependant, favoring higher bed depth and lower influent metal concentration. The highest bed capacity of 34.91 mg Cd(II)/g and 21.93 mg Cu(II)/g of POFA was achieved at 20 mg/L of influent metal concentrations, column bed depth of 2 cm, and flow rate of 5 mL/min. The whole breakthrough curve simulation for both metal ions were best described using the Thomas and Yoon–Nelson models, but it is apparent that the initial region of the breakthrough for Cd(II) was better described using the BDST model. The results illustrate that POFA could be utilized effectively for the removal of Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column system.
Characteristics of a broad lytic spectrum endolysin from phage BtCS33 of Bacillus thuringiensis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuan Yihui
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Endolysins produced by bacteriophages lyse bacteria, and are thus considered a novel type of antimicrobial agent. Several endolysins from Bacillus phages or prophages have previously been characterized and used to target Bacillus strains that cause disease in animals and humans. B. thuringiensis phage BtCS33 is a Siphoviridae family phage and its genome has been sequenced and analyzed. In the BtCS33 genome, orf18 was found to encode an endolysin protein (PlyBt33. Results Bioinformatic analyses showed that endolysin PlyBt33 was composed of two functional domains, the N-terminal catalytic domain and the C-terminal cell wall binding domain. In this study, the entire endolysin PlyBt33, and both the N- and C-termini,were expressed in Escherichia coli and then purified. The lytic activities of PlyBt33 and its N-terminus were tested on bacteria. Both regions exhibited lytic activity, although PlyBt33 showed a higher lytic activity than the N-terminus. PlyBt33 exhibited activity against all Bacillus strains tested from five different species, but was not active against Gram-negative bacteria. Optimal conditions for PlyBt33 reactivity were pH 9.0 and 50°C. PlyBt33 showed high thermostability, with 40% of initial activity remaining following 1 h of treatment at 60°C. The C-terminus of PlyBt33 bound to B. thuringiensis strain HD-73 and Bacillus subtilis strain 168. This cell wall binding domain might be novel, as its amino acid sequence showed little similarity to previously reported endolysins. Conclusions PlyBt33 showed potential as a novel antimicrobial agent at a relatively high temperature and had a broad lytic spectrum within the Bacillus genus. The C-terminus of PlyBt33 might be a novel kind of cell wall binding domain.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Z. Chowdhury
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The potential of granular-activated carbon (GAC derived from agrowaste of Mangostene (Mangostana garcinia fruit peel was investigated in batch and fixed bed system as a replacement of current expensive methods for treating wastewater contaminated by manganese, Mn(II cations. Batch equilibrium data was analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models at different temperatures. The effect of inlet metal ion concentration (50 mg/L, 70 mg/L, and 100 mg/L, feed flow rate (1 mL/min and 3 mL/min, and activated carbon bed height (4.5 cm and 3 cm on the breakthrough characteristics of the fixed bed sorption system were determined. The adsorption data were fitted with well-established column models, namely, Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, and Adams-Bohart. The results were best-fitted with Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models rather than Adams-Bohart model for all conditions. The column had been regenerated and reused consecutively for five cycles. The results demonstrated that the prepared activated carbon was suitable for removal of Mn(II ions from wastewater using batch as well as fixed bed sorption system.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davies, Andrew; Buchanan, Alison; Zeppetella, Giovambattista
2013-01-01
Breakthrough pain is common in patients with cancer and is a significant cause of morbidity in this group of patients.......Breakthrough pain is common in patients with cancer and is a significant cause of morbidity in this group of patients....
Simulation of experimental breakthrough curves using multiprocess ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The transport of contaminant through porous media is a very complex ... Elzein & Booker (1999) presented boundary element method to solve ... Because of minimum flow through immobile region, it is behaving as a dis- ..... before performing the experiments to measure the concentration of free chloride and fluoride.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo Rossi
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Devido à grande importância em se avaliar o destino e o transporte de íons no solo, o presente trabalho teve o objetivo de obter os parâmetros de transporte do nitrato no solo, como a velocidade da água nos poros (v, o fator de retardamento (R, a dispersividade (lambda e o coeficiente de dispersão (D, em solos de diferentes texturas e em amostras deformadas e indeformadas. O ensaio foi conduzido empregando as amostras deformadas e indeformadas oriundas de dois perfis distintos de solos, coletadas à profundidade de 0-20 cm, com aplicação de solução de nitrato de cálcio contendo 50 mg L-1 de NO3-. Após a obtenção dos parâmetros de transporte, ajustados pelo programa computacional CXTFIT, notou-se que as curvas de efluentes preparadas com solos a partir de amostra deformada superestimaram os valores dos parâmetros avaliados, com exceção da dispersividade, quando comparados à amostra indeformada, para os dois tipos de solo.There is a great importance to quantify the trace and the chemical elements transport in soil. This work had as objective to obtain the transport parameters of the nitrate ion in soil (pore water velocity (v, retardation factor (R, dispersivity (lambda and the dispersion coefficient (D in different textures soils, mainly, under different sampling forms (deformed and non deformed. The research was carried out under two samplings forms, mentioned previously, by application of 50 mg L-1 of NO3- in two different soils profiles at a depth of 0-20 cm. The breakthrough curves was made by two forms: traditional methodology (TFSA and the technique with non deformed sample developed during the research period. The results showed that the transport parameters fitted by the computational program CXTFIT, with deformed sampling, overestimated the parameters values, with exception of dispersivity, when compared to the non deformed sampling, for both soil types.
Johnson, Norman
This is author-approved bcc: This is the third volume of a collection of seminal papers in the statistical sciences written during the past 110 years. These papers have each had an outstanding influence on the development of statistical theory and practice over the last century. Each paper is preceded by an introduction written by an authority in the field providing background information and assessing its influence. Volume III concerntrates on articles from the 1980's while including some earlier articles not included in Volume I and II. Samuel Kotz is Professor of Statistics in the College of Business and Management at the University of Maryland. Norman L. Johnson is Professor Emeritus of Statistics at the University of North Carolina. Also available: Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume I: Foundations and Basic Theory Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Editors 1993. 631 pp. Softcover. ISBN 0-387-94037-5 Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume II: Methodology and Distribution Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Edi...
von Hippel, E; Thomke, S; Sonnack, M
1999-01-01
Most senior managers want their product development teams to create break-throughs--new products that will allow their companies to grow rapidly and maintain high margins. But more often they get incremental improvements to existing products. That's partly because companies must compete in the short term. Searching for breakthroughs is expensive and time consuming; line extensions can help the bottom line immediately. In addition, developers simply don't know how to achieve breakthroughs, and there is usually no system in place to guide them. By the mid-1990s, the lack of such a system was a problem even for an innovative company like 3M. Then a project team in 3M's Medical-Surgical Markets Division became acquainted with a method for developing breakthrough products: the lead user process. The process is based on the fact that many commercially important products are initially thought of and even prototyped by "lead users"--companies, organizations, or individuals that are well ahead of market trends. Their needs are so far beyond those of the average user that lead users create innovations on their own that may later contribute to commercially attractive breakthroughs. The lead user process transforms the job of inventing breakthroughs into a systematic task of identifying lead users and learning from them. The authors explain the process and how the 3M project team successfully navigated through it. In the end, the team proposed three major new product lines and a change in the division's strategy that has led to the development of breakthrough products. And now several more divisions are using the process to break away from incrementalism.
[Major breakthroughs in the medical treatment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirk, O.; Gerstoft, J.; Lundgren, J.D.
2009-01-01
The introduction of antiretroviral combination therapy for patients with HIV infection is described as an example of a breakthrough within the field of medical treatment. The background for the breakthrough and the phases thereof are described and for comparison, the circumstances of major breakt...... breakthroughs within other medical specialities are mentioned Udgivelsesdato: 2009/3/2......The introduction of antiretroviral combination therapy for patients with HIV infection is described as an example of a breakthrough within the field of medical treatment. The background for the breakthrough and the phases thereof are described and for comparison, the circumstances of major...
Aostra claims major oilsands breakthrough
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1991-01-01
This paper reports that Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (Aostra) has completed a horizontal well in-situ steam injection project it calls a major breakthrough in commercially producing bitumen from the bast Athabasca oilsands deposit in Alberta. Aostra the its $71 million (Canadian) proof of concept pilot underground test facility (UTF) near Fort McMurray, achieved a 60% bitumen recovery rate, compared with less than 20% recovery typically achieved with Alberta bitumen. More than 100,000 bbl of bitumen was produced during the project
Recurring Utterances - Targeting a Breakthrough
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacqueline Stark
2014-05-01
The most interesting phenomenon is KB’s production of words from former sessions indicating that they are still ‘active’ and the production of completely novel incorrect words. The observable features indicate that immediate auditory processing is possible in the form of repeating target words. However, as soon as KB must retrieve information from the (semantic lexicon, even after being able to correctly ‘repeat’ the target word several times, he responds with a RU, perseveration, or paraphasia. Several of his productions can be characterized as aphasic confabulations which stem from a memory gap. Thus, although KB’s language impairment is severe, his responses across time indicate that step-by-step a breakthrough is being made.
[Breakthrough cancer pain in the elderly].
Cabezón-Gutiérrez, Luis; Viloria-Jiménez, María Aurora; Pérez-Cajaraville, Juan; Álamo-González, Cecilio; López-Trigo, José Antonio; Gil-Gregorio, Pedro
Breakthrough pain is defined as an acute exacerbation of pain with rapid onset, short duration and moderate or high intensity, which occurs spontaneously or in connection with a predictable or unpredictable event despite there being stabilised and controlled baseline pain. However, there are doubts about the definition, terminology, epidemiology, and assessment of breakthrough pain, with no clear answers or consensus, especially in the elderly population. This non-systematic review summarises the most important aspects of breakthrough pain in the elderly, based on the limited publications there are in that population group. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Innovation Impact: Breakthrough Research Results (Brochure)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2013-07-01
The Innovation Impact brochure captures key breakthrough results across NREL's primary areas of renewable energy and energy efficiency research: solar, wind, bioenergy, transportation, buildings, analysis, and manufacturing technologies.
The Breakthrough Behind the Chevy Volt Battery
Lerner, Louise
2011-03-28
A revolutionary breakthrough cathode for lithium-ion batteries—the kind in your cell phone, laptop and new hybrid cars—makes them last longer, run more safely and perform better than batteries currently on the market.
Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis
... 16, 2014 Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis For a disease that affects an estimated 6 ... 10% of women, surprisingly little is known about endometriosis — a disorder that causes uterine tissue to grow ...
Flipped Instruction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice
IGI Global, 2017
2017-01-01
The integration of technology into modern classrooms has enhanced learning opportunities for students. With increased access to educational content, students gain a better understanding of the concepts being taught. "Flipped Instruction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice" is a comprehensive reference source for the latest scholarly…
Exploring the Market for Breakthrough Technologies
Ortt, J. Roland; Langley, David J.; Pals, Nico
In this article, the gap between futures research (long term) and market research (short term) is closed in two ways. Firstly, by describing methods of market exploration that can be used earlier on in the process of development and diffusion of breakthrough technologies, so market research can be
Exploring the Market for Breakthrough Technologies
Ortt, J. Roland; Langley, David J.; Pals, Nico
2007-01-01
In this article, the gap between futures research (long term) and market research (short term) is closed in two ways. Firstly, by describing methods of market exploration that can be used earlier on in the process of development and diffusion of breakthrough technologies, so market research can be
The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life
Croft, Steve; Siemion, Andrew; De Boer, David; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Foster, Griffin; Gajjar, Vishal; Hellbourg, Greg; Hickish, Jack; Isaacson, Howard; Lebofsky, Matt; MacMahon, David; Price, Daniel; Werthimer, Dan
2018-01-01
The $100M, 10-year philanthropic "Breakthrough Listen" project is driving an unprecedented expansion of the search for intelligent life beyond Earth. Modern instruments allow ever larger regions of parameter space (luminosity function, duty cycle, beaming fraction, frequency coverage) to be explored, which is enabling us to place meaningful physical limits on the prevalence of transmitting civilizations. Data volumes are huge, and preclude long-term storage of the raw data products, so real-time and machine learning processing techniques must be employed to identify candidate signals as well as simultaneously classifying interfering sources. However, the Galaxy is now known to be a target-rich environment, teeming with habitable planets.Data from Breakthrough Listen can also be used by researchers in other areas of astronomy to study pulsars, fast radio bursts, and a range of other science targets. Breakthrough Listen is already underway in the optical and radio bands, and is also engaging with facilities across the world, including Square Kilometer Array precursors and pathfinders. I will give an overview of the technology, science goals, data products, and roadmap of Breakthrough Listen, as we attempt to answer one of humanity's oldest questions: Are we alone?
Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment
Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou
2013-01-01
Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121
Predicting the Risk of Breakthrough Urinary Tract Infections: Primary Vesicoureteral Reflux.
Hidas, Guy; Billimek, John; Nam, Alexander; Soltani, Tandis; Kelly, Maryellen S; Selby, Blake; Dorgalli, Crystal; Wehbi, Elias; McAleer, Irene; McLorie, Gordon; Greenfield, Sheldon; Kaplan, Sherrie H; Khoury, Antoine E
2015-11-01
We constructed a risk prediction instrument stratifying patients with primary vesicoureteral reflux into groups according to their 2-year probability of breakthrough urinary tract infection. Demographic and clinical information was retrospectively collected in children diagnosed with primary vesicoureteral reflux and followed for 2 years. Bivariate and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with breakthrough urinary tract infection. The final regression model was used to compute an estimation of the 2-year probability of breakthrough urinary tract infection for each subject. Accuracy of the binary classifier for breakthrough urinary tract infection was evaluated using receiver operator curve analysis. Three distinct risk groups were identified. The model was then validated in a prospective cohort. A total of 252 bivariate analyses showed that high grade (IV or V) vesicoureteral reflux (OR 9.4, 95% CI 3.8-23.5, p urinary tract infection (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.1-24.7, p = 0.034) and female gender (OR 2.6, 95% CI 0.097-7.11, p urinary tract infection. Subgroup analysis revealed bladder and bowel dysfunction was a significant risk factor more pronounced in low grade (I to III) vesicoureteral reflux (OR 2.8, p = 0.018). The estimation model was applied for prospective validation, which demonstrated predicted vs actual 2-year breakthrough urinary tract infection rates of 19% vs 21%. Stratifying the patients into 3 risk groups based on parameters in the risk model showed 2-year risk for breakthrough urinary tract infection was 8.6%, 26.0% and 62.5% in the low, intermediate and high risk groups, respectively. This proposed risk stratification and probability model allows prediction of 2-year risk of patient breakthrough urinary tract infection to better inform parents of possible outcomes and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Arlen, Angela M; Alexander, Siobhan E; Wald, Moshe; Cooper, Christopher S
2016-10-01
Factors influencing the decision to surgically correct vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) include risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) or renal scarring, and decreased likelihood of spontaneous resolution. Improved identification of children at risk for recurrent fUTI may impact management decisions, and allow for more individualized VUR management. We have developed and investigated the accuracy of a multivariable computational model to predict probability of breakthrough fUTI in children with primary VUR. Children with primary VUR and detailed clinical and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) data were identified. Patient demographics, VCUG findings including grade, laterality, and bladder volume at onset of VUR, UTI history, presence of bladder-bowel dysfunction (BBD), and breakthrough fUTI were assessed. The VCUG dataset was randomized into a training set of 288 with a separate representational cross-validation set of 96. Various model types and architectures were investigated using neUROn++, a set of C++ programs. Two hundred fifty-five children (208 girls, 47 boys) diagnosed with primary VUR at a mean age of 3.1 years (±2.6) met all inclusion criteria. A total 384 VCUGs were analyzed. Median follow-up was 24 months (interquartile range 12-52 months). Sixty-eight children (26.7%) experienced 90 breakthrough fUTI events. Dilating VUR, reflux occurring at low bladder volumes, BBD, and history of multiple infections/fUTI were associated with breakthrough fUTI (Table). A 2-hidden node neural network model had the best fit with a receiver operating characteristic curve area of 0.755 for predicting breakthrough fUTI. The risk of recurrent febrile infections, renal parenchymal scarring, and likelihood of spontaneous resolution, as well as parental preference all influence management of primary VUR. The genesis of UTI is multifactorial, making precise prediction of an individual child's risk of breakthrough fUTI challenging. Demonstrated risk factors for
Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project: Project Management Methods
Millis, Marc G.
2004-01-01
To leap past the limitations of existing propulsion, the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics (BPP) Project seeks further advancements in physics from which new propulsion methods can eventually be derived. Three visionary breakthroughs are sought: (1) propulsion that requires no propellant, (2) propulsion that circumvents existing speed limits, and (3) breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. Because these propulsion goals are presumably far from fruition, a special emphasis is to identify credible research that will make measurable progress toward these goals in the near-term. The management techniques to address this challenge are presented, with a special emphasis on the process used to review, prioritize, and select research tasks. This selection process includes these key features: (a) research tasks are constrained to only address the immediate unknowns, curious effects or critical issues, (b) reliability of assertions is more important than the implications of the assertions, which includes the practice where the reviewers judge credibility rather than feasibility, and (c) total scores are obtained by multiplying the criteria scores rather than by adding. Lessons learned and revisions planned are discussed.
Breakthrough at NIF 'unlikely' in 2010
Harris, Margaret
2010-05-01
Hopes of reaching a milestone in fusion research by the end of 2010 have dimmed following a US government report that plays down the chances of an early breakthrough and sharply criticizes management of the 4bn National Ignition Facility (NIF). In the report, officials from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) state that ignition - fusion's "break-even" point - is "unlikely" to occur at the laser-fusion lab this year and that "significant scientific and technical challenges" could delay or even prevent the facility from achieving ignition by 2012.
50 Breakthroughs by America's National Labs
2011-01-01
America's National Laboratory system has been changing and improving the lives of millions for more than 80 years. Born at a time of great societal need, this network of Department of Energy Laboratories has now grown into 17 facilities, working together as engines of prosperity and invention. As this list of 50 Breakthroughs attests, National Laboratory discoveries have spawned industries, saved lives, generated new products, fired the imagination, and helped to reveal the secrets of the universe. Rooted in the need to be the best and bring the best, America's National Laboratories have put an American stamp on the past century of science. With equal ingenuity and tenacity, they are now engaged in winning the future.
Breakthroughs in neuroactive steroid drug discovery.
Blanco, Maria-Jesus; La, Daniel; Coughlin, Quinn; Newman, Caitlin A; Griffin, Andrew M; Harrison, Boyd L; Salituro, Francesco G
2018-01-15
Endogenous and synthetic neuroactive steroids (NASs) or neurosteroids are effective modulators of multiple signaling pathways including receptors for the γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA A ) and glutamate, in particular N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). These receptors are the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS), and there is growing evidence suggesting that dysregulation of neurosteroid production plays a role in numerous neurological disorders. The significant unmet medical need for treatment of CNS disorders has increased the interest for these types of compounds. In this review, we highlight recent progress in the clinical development of NAS drug candidates, in addition to preclinical breakthroughs in the identification of novel NASs, mainly for GABA A and NMDA receptor modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Controlled Nucleosynthesis Breakthroughs in Experiment and Theory
Adamenko, Stanislav; Merwe, Alwyn
2007-01-01
This book ushers in a new era of experimental and theoretical investigations into collective processes, structure formation, and self-organization of nuclear matter. It reports the results of experiments wherein for the first time the nuclei constituting our world (those displayed in Mendeleev's table as well as the super-heavy ones) have been artificially created. Pioneering breakthroughs are described, achieved at the "Proton-21" Laboratory, Kiev, Ukraine, in a variety of new physical and technological directions. A detailed description of the main experiments, their analyses, and the interpretation of copious experimental data are given, along with the methodology governing key measurements and the processing algorithms of the data that empirically confirm the occurrence of macroscopic self-organizing processes leading to the nuclear transformations of various materials. The basic concepts underlying the initiation of self-sustaining collective processes that result in the formation of nuclear structures a...
Breakthrough characteristics of gas absorption in a packed column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shitanda, Shoji; Fukada, Satoshi; Koto, Kenji; Mitsuishi, Nobuo
1979-01-01
In nuclear industries, the operations to collect or recover various radioactive and non-radioactive gases with a number of absorption or adsorption reagents are practically utilized or planned. Specifically in the operations of recovering hydrogen isotopes, the direct collecting method with active metals such as uranium, zirconium (Zr) and yttrium is watched with keen interest. In this study, the capability of recovering hydrogen by means of Zr was investigated through the estimation of rate-determining step, by flowing the gas mixture of hydrogen and argon after activating metallic Zr under the condition of high temperature and high vacuum, and by determining overall mass transfer coefficient from the absorption breakthrough curves. The details of a packed column and the flowsheet are also described, and the deterioration of Zr powder is considered. That is, the diffusion speed and absorbing reaction speed of hydrogen in Zr particles are supposed to be slow and dominant in mass transfer speed. Further, since gas mixture does not simply diffuse in Zr particles, but the reaction plane seems to move toward the center from the surface in the case of Zr, different from general adsorbents, the moving speed seems to give large effect on the rate-determining step. It is ensured that the hydrogen absorption with Zr powder is so active that hydrogen in gas flow can easily be recovered, and its separation from other gases can be effectively carried out by the desorption of hydrogen from Zr powder by heating it in vacuum. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Breakdown Breakthrough: NREL Finds Easier Ways to Deconstruct Biomass |
News | NREL Breakdown Breakthrough: NREL Finds Easier Ways to Deconstruct Biomass Breakdown Breakthrough: NREL Finds Easier Ways to Deconstruct Biomass May 22, 2018 Roman Brunecky (left), Yannick Bomble soften biomass. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL If there's an easier, more efficient method, science will
Breakthrough Listen - A New Search for Life in the Universe
Worden, Pete
On July 20, 2015 Yuri Milner and Stephen Hawking announced a new set of scientific initiatives - a SETI search called Breakthrough Listen and a contest to devise potential messages in response to a detection entitled Breakthrough Message. These are the first of several privately-funded Breakthrough Initiatives, designed to answer the fundamental science questions surrounding the origin, extent and nature of life in the universe. The initiatives are managed by the Breakthrough Prize Foundation. With Breakthrough Listen, Radio SETI observations have begun at the Green Bank Radio Telescope (GBT) and optical SETI at the Lick Observatory Automated Planet Finder (APF). Observations will soon commence at the CSIRO Parkes Radio Telescope. Other SETI instruments and observations are under consideration. In addition, several other initiatives are under development including an expanded search for life in the universe.
Inertial frames and breakthrough propulsion physics
Millis, Marc G.
2017-09-01
The term ;Breakthrough Propulsion Physics; comes from the NASA project by that name which examined non-rocket space drives, gravity control, and faster-than-light travel. The focus here is on space drives and the related unsolved physics of inertial frames. A ;space drive; is a generic term encompassing any concept for using as-yet undiscovered physics to move a spacecraft instead of existing rockets, sails, or tethers. The collective state of the art spans mostly steps 1-3 of the scientific method: defining the problem, collecting data, and forming hypotheses. The key issues include (1) conservation of momentum, (2) absence of obvious reaction mass, and (3) the net-external thrusting requirement. Relevant open problems in physics include: (1) the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, (2) coupling of gravitation to the other fundamental forces, and (3) the nature of the quantum vacuum. Rather than following the assumption that inertial frames are an immutable, intrinsic property of space, this paper revisits Mach's Principle, where it is posited that inertia is relative to the distant surrounding matter. This perspective allows conjectures that a space drive could impart reaction forces to that matter, via some as-yet undiscovered interaction with the inertial frame properties of space. Thought experiments are offered to begin a process to derive new hypotheses. It is unknown if this line of inquiry will be fruitful, but it is hoped that, by revisiting unsolved physics from a propulsion point of view, new insights will be gained.
Building breakthrough businesses within established organizations.
Govindarajan, Vijay; Trimble, Chris
2005-05-01
Many companies assume that once they've launched a major innovation, growth will soon follow. It's not that simple. High-potential new businesses within established companies face stiff headwinds well after their inception. That's why a company's emphasis must shift: from ideas to execution and from leadership excellence to organizational excellence. The authors spent five years chronicling new businesses at the New York Times Company, Analog Devices, Corning, Hasbro, and other organizations. They found that a breakthrough new business (referred to as NewCo) rarely coexists gracefully with the established business in the company (called CoreCo). The unnatural combination creates three specific challenges--forgetting, borrowing, and learning--that NewCo must meet in order to survive and grow. NewCo must first forget some of what made CoreCo successful. NewCo and CoreCo have elemental differences, so NewCo must leave behind CoreCo's notions about what skills and competencies are most valuable. NewCo must also borrow some of CoreCo's assets--usually in one or two key areas that will give NewCo a crucial competitive advantage. Incremental cost reductions, for example, are never a sufficient justification for borrowing. Finally, NewCo must be prepared to learn some things from scratch. Because strategic experiments are highly uncertain endeavors, NewCo will face several critical unknowns. The more rapidly it can resolve those unknowns--that is, the faster it can learn--the sooner it will zero in on a winning business model or exit a hopeless situation. Managers can accelerate this learning by planning more simply and more often and by comparing predicted and actual trends.
The United States: breakthroughs and waste.
Reinhardt, U E
1992-01-01
The health system of the United States is in a paradoxical position. At its best, the system is a magnet for those seeking the latest technical breakthroughs. It can offer that excellence because there have never been effective financial constraints on the imagination; the system has become a major economic frontier, at which professional and other entrepreneurs successfully seek their fortune. At the same time, the system is leaving increasing numbers of Americans frustrated and disillusioned. It is beset by excess capacity in many areas, is needlessly expensive, and often bestows unnecessary health services. Yet only the experts are aware of these flaws; most Americans still express high satisfaction with the quality of the services they receive from their doctors and hospitals. The public's major misgivings arise over the awkward and inequitable way in which American health care is financed. The typical private health insurance policy, for example, is tied to a particular job. If the job is lost, so is the health insurance. Furthermore, these policies are priced on actuarially "fair" principles, so sick individuals are forced to pay higher insurance premiums than relatively healthy ones and chronically ill persons often cannot obtain health insurance coverage at any price. Although there are public programs to catch many persons not privately insured, the coverage tends to be insufficiently extensive and deep. Some 35 million Americans, mostly poor, have no health insurance whatsoever. Unfortunately, at this time there is no political force in the United States strong enough to reform the American health system toward greater social equity and economic efficiency, whereas there are numerous groups powerful enough to block whatever reform might harm their own narrow economic interests. Other nations can learn from America's clinical and organizational innovations in health care delivery. They can also learn what not to do by studying the unseemly way in which
A Breakthrough for Strengthening Tusi Studies
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Liangpin; Peng Furong
2016-01-01
Following the inscription of China’s Tusi ( native officials ) relics onto the list of world cultural heritage in 2015 , Tusi studies has already become a current topic. However, if we ignored the numerous and complicated historical events, the tremendous amount of historical materials and cases with different characteristics, it is difficult to realize a theoretical breakthrough and academic in-novation. Hence, if the academic world intends to find a new breakthrough in Tusi studies, enough attention should be given to the analysis of past e-vents, digging out historical materials, and case studies—only by which can Tusi studies be strengthened. 1 . Analysis of past events Scholarly research of the Tusi in the past has paid more attention to the system, culture ,and ap-plication of Tusi relics for inscription onto the list of world cultural heritage, but has ignored analysis of significant events. Due to the influence of the political right, economic benefit, and cultural in-filtration, there had always been competition be-tween the central government and the Tusi regime during the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties. When some conflicts could not be resolved through nego-tiation, large-scale events or battles were the re-sult. Judging from current studies on every small or large battle between the central government and a Tusi regime, we can see that scholars always focus their studies on the background, process, result, historical influence and related evaluations. Up to now, no scholars have written a monograph of these big events closely related to the Tusi, which is doubtlessly a pity when it comes to Tusi studies. We think that three issues should be noticed while analyzing big events related to the Tusi:1 ) taking the overall situation into consideration; 2 ) having theoretical sight; and 3 ) having a theoretical awareness. 2 . Uncovering historical materials The historical materials are especially impor-tant for the study of the Tusi system or Tusi issues
Managing Conversations: The Medium for Achieving "Breakthrough" Results.
Bolton, Robert
1998-01-01
Unlike traditional management development, use of conversations in coaching high-performance work teams addresses core processes of speaking and listening. Management of conversations aims to create learning that will lead to breakthroughs in team performance. (SK)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadermann, J.; Jakob, A.
1987-04-01
Uranium infiltration experiments for small samples of crystalline rock have been used to model radionuclide transport. The theory, taking into account advection and dispersion in water conducting zones, matrix diffusion out of these, and sorption, contains four independent parameters. It turns out, that the physical variables extracted from those of the best-fit parameters are consistent with values from literature and independent measurements. Moreover, the model results seem to differentiate between various geometries for the water conducting zones. Alpha-autoradiographies corroborate this result. A sensitivity analysis allows for a judgement on parameter dependences. Finally some proposals for further experiments are made. (author)
Effect of Relative Humidity on Adsorption Breakthrough of CO2 on Activated Carbon Fibers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Chun Chiang
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Microporous activated carbon fibers (ACFs were developed for CO2 capture based on potassium hydroxide (KOH activation and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA amination. The material properties of the modified ACFs were characterized using several techniques. The adsorption breakthrough curves of CO2 were measured and the effect of relative humidity in the carrier gas was determined. The KOH activation at high temperature generated additional pore networks and the intercalation of metallic K into the carbon matrix, leading to the production of mesopore and micropore volumes and providing access to the active sites in the micropores. However, this treatment also resulted in the loss of nitrogen functionalities. The TEPA amination has successfully introduced nitrogen functionalities onto the fiber surface, but its long-chain structure blocked parts of the micropores and, thus, made the available surface area and pore volume limited. Introduction of the power of time into the Wheeler equation was required to fit the data well. The relative humidity within the studied range had almost no effects on the breakthrough curves. It was expected that the concentration of CO2 was high enough so that the impact on CO2 adsorption capacity lessened due to increased relative humidity.
Bomback, Andrew S; Rekhtman, Yelena; Klemmer, Philip J; Canetta, Pietro A; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Appel, Gerald B
2012-01-01
Aldosterone levels increase in 30%-40% of patients on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers over the long term. This "aldosterone breakthrough" may carry important clinical consequences given aldosterone's nonepithelial, pro-fibrotic actions. The renin inhibitor, aliskiren, by suppressing the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) proximally, may limit breakthrough compared to conventional RAAS blockade. This open-label study (NCT01129557) randomized subjects to aliskiren 300 mg daily (A), valsartan 320 mg daily (V), or aliskiren 150 mg + valsartan 160 mg daily (A+V) for 9 months. Eligible subjects had proteinuria >300 mg/day, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >45 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and systolic blood pressure (BP) >130 or diastolic BP >80 mm Hg. Serum and 24-hour urine aldosterone (indexed to 24-hour urine Na) were checked before initiation of therapy and at 3, 6, and 9 months. Aldosterone breakthrough was defined as a sustained increase from baseline aldosterone by study end. The study was intended to enroll 120 subjects but was terminated early by the sponsor. We present here the results of 33 subjects who completed the protocol, of which 12 were randomized to A, 11 were randomized to V, and 10 were randomized to A+V. Mean baseline eGFR was 75.5 (±23.3) mL/min/1.73 m(2); baseline proteinuria was 3104 (±2943) mg/day; and baseline BP was 134.7 (±10.5)/84.8 (±8.4) mm Hg. Three (27%) subjects on V, three (25%) subjects on A, and three (30%) subjects on A+V had aldosterone breakthrough. Mean proteinuria reduction was 31% from baseline in all subjects: 30% in subjects with breakthrough vs. 32% in subjects without breakthrough. Mean BP reduction was 11.0/8.8 mm Hg in all subjects: 8.4/6.1 mm Hg in subjects with breakthrough vs. 12.0/9.8 mm Hg in subjects without breakthrough. Aliskiren, alone or in combination with valsartan, did not reduce the incidence of aldosterone breakthrough in subjects with hypertension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hume, H.B.
1997-08-01
Gas may be produced in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault. Given that the vault will be sealed with clay-based materials, the fate of the gas is uncertain. Therefore, an instrument was previously built to measure the pressure required to pass gas through compacted clay materials (a gas-breakthrough apparatus). However, the 10 MPa pressure limit of the apparatus was insufficient to test compacted buffer material at the density proposed in the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Therefore, a high-pressure (50 Wa) gas-breakthrough apparatus was designed, constructed and installed. This report describes the components of the apparatus and the materials and procedures that are used for the gas-breakthrough tests. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papon, P.
2010-01-01
The progress of science and technology has been so rapid in the last few decades that it receives especial attention in forecasting and foresight exercises. But, because they are too greatly in thrall to the dominant paradigms and hence favour a linear perspective, the experts who deal with these questions pay more attention to the future of technologies than to scientific advances and revolutions. The bulk of their work consists, then, in anticipating, by various different methods (Delphi surveys, Road-maps, etc.), at what date a particular technology might be available (without, however, always correctly gauging the conditions for its social appropriation or the applications to which it might be put). In this article, Pierre Papon expounds a much more original and promising approach for attempting to anticipate the discoveries that are likely radically to transform the fields of scientific knowledge by investigating the phenomena that may potentially lead to fundamental revolutions. After reminding us of the premonitory thinking of a number of authors - in the fields, for example, of genetics and computer science -, he endeavors to describe some of the dominant paradigms, particularly in quantum physics and molecular biology. In this way, he shows the advances they have made possible, and also their limitations, and explores what new scientific leaps forward might occur, bringing radically new technological breakthroughs between now and 2050. Papon reminds us, at the same time that, 'as science is not something isolated within society'; it has a duty to contribute to meeting the great challenges that face us - of work, health, nutrition and sustainable development, particularly where energy and climate are concerned. He therefore examines the ways in which future scientific and technological advances might provide solutions and how important it might be to 'translate the questions society poses into scientific questions'. He thus argues implicitly for strategic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seifert, Dorte; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard
2007-01-01
by up to three orders of magnitude. The hydraulic conductivity and dispersivity parameters were almost recovered after disinfection of the columns. Different models relating the changes of the hydraulic conductivity to the changes in the mobile porosity due to bioclogging were reviewed......Tracer tests were conducted in three laboratory columns to study changes in the hydraulic properties of a porous medium due to bioclogging. About 30 breakthrough curves (BTCs) for each column were obtained. The BTCs were analyzed using analytical equilibrium and dual-porosity models, and estimates...
Husserl's Illumination of the Breakthrough of Logical Investigations
African Journals Online (AJOL)
denise
the example Husserl offers of the room where the lights go off in order to illuminate the breakthrough for ... correspondence theory of truth, and his main concern seems to be to ..... The advantage of Husserl's example is that it tries to situate the ...
Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for groundwater recharge estimation in west coastal South Africa. ... the data from Oudebosch with different rainfall and groundwater abstraction inputs are simulated to explore individual effects on water levels as well as recharge rate estimated on a daily basis.
A European survey of oncology nurse breakthrough cancer pain practices
Rustoen, Tone; Geerling, Jenske I.; Pappa, Theodora; Rundstrom, Carina; Weisse, Isolde; Williams, Sian C.; Zavratnik, Bostjan; Kongsgaard, Ulf E.; Wengstrom, Yvonne
Purpose of the research: Breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP) is a prevalent type of pain in which the nurse can play an important role in improving patients' pain symptoms and overall well-being. Nurses' experience with BTCP (number of patients, and estimates of severity and frequency), the treatment of
Dissolved CO2 Increases Breakthrough Porosity in Natural Porous Materials.
Yang, Y; Bruns, S; Stipp, S L S; Sørensen, H O
2017-07-18
When reactive fluids flow through a dissolving porous medium, conductive channels form, leading to fluid breakthrough. This phenomenon is caused by the reactive infiltration instability and is important in geologic carbon storage where the dissolution of CO 2 in flowing water increases fluid acidity. Using numerical simulations with high resolution digital models of North Sea chalk, we show that the breakthrough porosity is an important indicator of dissolution pattern. Dissolution patterns reflect the balance between the demand and supply of cumulative surface. The demand is determined by the reactive fluid composition while the supply relies on the flow field and the rock's microstructure. We tested three model scenarios and found that aqueous CO 2 dissolves porous media homogeneously, leading to large breakthrough porosity. In contrast, solutions without CO 2 develop elongated convective channels known as wormholes, with low breakthrough porosity. These different patterns are explained by the different apparent solubility of calcite in free drift systems. Our results indicate that CO 2 increases the reactive subvolume of porous media and reduces the amount of solid residual before reactive fluid can be fully channelized. Consequently, dissolved CO 2 may enhance contaminant mobilization near injection wellbores, undermine the mechanical sustainability of formation rocks and increase the likelihood of buoyance driven leakage through carbonate rich caprocks.
Ritschel, Thomas; Totsche, Kai Uwe
2016-03-01
Transport studies that employ column experiments in closed-flow mode complement classical approaches by providing new characteristic features observed in the solute breakthrough and equilibrium between liquid and solid phase. Specific to the closed-flow mode is the recirculation of the effluent to the inflow via a mixing vessel. Depending on the ratio of volumes of mixing vessel and water-filled pore space, a damped oscillating solute concentration emerges in the effluent and mixing vessel. The oscillation characteristics, e.g., frequency, amplitude, and damping, allow for the investigation of solute transport in a similar fashion as known for classical open-flow column experiments. However, the closed loop conserves substances released during transport within the system. In this way, solute and porous medium can equilibrate with respect to physicochemical conditions. With this paper, the features emerging in the breakthrough curves of saturated column experiments run in closed-flow mode and methods of evaluation are illustrated under experimental boundary conditions forcing the appearance of oscillations. We demonstrate that the effective pore water volume and the pumping rate can be determined from a conservative tracer breakthrough curve uniquely. In this way, external preconditioning of the material, e.g., drying, can be avoided. A reactive breakthrough experiment revealed a significant increase in the pore water pH value as a consequence of the closed loop. These results highlight the specific impact of the closed mass balance. Furthermore, the basis for the modeling of closed-flow experiments is given by the derivation of constitutive equations and numerical implementation, validated with the presented experiments.
Modeling dust growth in protoplanetary disks: The breakthrough case
Drążkowska, J.; Windmark, F.; Dullemond, C. P.
2014-07-01
Context. Dust coagulation in protoplanetary disks is one of the initial steps toward planet formation. Simple toy models are often not sufficient to cover the complexity of the coagulation process, and a number of numerical approaches are therefore used, among which integration of the Smoluchowski equation and various versions of the Monte Carlo algorithm are the most popular. Aims: Recent progress in understanding the processes involved in dust coagulation have caused a need for benchmarking and comparison of various physical aspects of the coagulation process. In this paper, we directly compare the Smoluchowski and Monte Carlo approaches to show their advantages and disadvantages. Methods: We focus on the mechanism of planetesimal formation via sweep-up growth, which is a new and important aspect of the current planet formation theory. We use realistic test cases that implement a distribution in dust collision velocities. This allows a single collision between two grains to have a wide range of possible outcomes but also requires a very high numerical accuracy. Results: For most coagulation problems, we find a general agreement between the two approaches. However, for the sweep-up growth driven by the "lucky" breakthrough mechanism, the methods exhibit very different resolution dependencies. With too few mass bins, the Smoluchowski algorithm tends to overestimate the growth rate and the probability of breakthrough. The Monte Carlo method is less dependent on the number of particles in the growth timescale aspect but tends to underestimate the breakthrough chance due to its limited dynamic mass range. Conclusions: We find that the Smoluchowski approach, which is generally better for the breakthrough studies, is sensitive to low mass resolutions in the high-mass, low-number tail that is important in this scenario. To study the low number density features, a new modulation function has to be introduced to the interaction probabilities. As the minimum resolution
Maina, Fadji Hassane; Ackerer, Philippe; Younes, Anis; Guadagnini, Alberto; Berkowitz, Brian
2017-06-07
We present a combined experimental and numerical modeling study that addresses two principal questions: (i) is any particular Eulerian-based method used to solve the classical advection-dispersion equation (ADE) clearly superior (relative to the others), in terms of yielding solutions that reproduce BTCs of the kind that are typically sampled at the outlet of a laboratory cell? and (ii) in the presence of matches of comparable quality against such BTCs, do any of these methods render different (or similar) numerical BTCs at locations within the domain? To address these questions, we obtained measurements from carefully controlled laboratory experiments, and employ them as a reference against which numerical results are benchmarked and compared. The experiments measure solute transport breakthrough curves (BTCs) through a square domain containing various configurations of coarse, medium, and fine quartz sand. The approaches to solve the ADE involve Eulerian-Lagrangian and Eulerian (finite volume, finite elements, mixed and discontinuous finite elements) numerical methods. Model calibration is not examined; permeability and porosity of each sand were determined previously through separate, standard laboratory tests, while dispersivities are assigned values proportional to mean grain size. We find that the spatial discretization of the flow field is of critical importance, due to the non-uniformity of the domain. Although simulated BTCs at the system outlet are observed to be very similar for these various numerical methods, computed local (point-wise, inside the domain) BTCs can be very different. We find that none of the numerical methods is able to fully reproduce the measured BTCs. The impact of model parameter uncertainty on the calculated BTCs is characterized through a set of numerical Monte Carlo simulations; in cases where the impact is significant, assessment of simulation matches to the experimental data can be ambiguous. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All
Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Rolle, Massimo
2017-02-01
This study investigates the effects of compound-specific diffusion/dispersion and electrochemical migration on transient solute transport in saturated porous media. We conducted laboratory bench-scale experiments, under advection-dominated regimes (seepage velocity: 0.5, 5, 25 m/d), in a quasi two-dimensional flow-through setup using pulse injection of multiple tracers (both uncharged and ionic species). Extensive sampling and measurement of solutes' concentrations (˜1500 samples; >3000 measurements) were performed at the outlet of the flow-through setup, at high spatial and temporal resolution. The experimental results show that compound-specific effects and charge-induced Coulombic interactions are important not only at low velocities and/or for steady state plumes but also for transient transport under high flow velocities. Such effects can lead to a remarkably different behavior of measured breakthrough curves also at very high Péclet numbers. To quantitatively interpret the experimental results, we used four modeling approaches: classical advection-dispersion equation (ADE), continuous time random walk (CTRW), dual-domain mass transfer model (DDMT), and a multicomponent ionic dispersion model. The latter is based on the multicomponent formulation of coupled diffusive/dispersive fluxes and was used to describe and explain the electrostatic effects of charged species. Furthermore, we determined experimentally the temporal profiles of the flux-related dilution index. This metric of mixing, used in connection with the traditional solute breakthrough curves, proved to be useful to correctly distinguish between plume spreading and mixing, particularly for the cases in which the sole analysis of integrated concentration breakthrough curves may lead to erroneous interpretation of plume dilution.
A review on Anticipated Breakthrough Technologies of 21st Century
Aithal P. S.; Shubhrajyotsna Aithal
2016-01-01
This review discuss strategic management of thirteen most anticipated possible technology breakthroughs of 21st century which are substantially affect the life style of living beings in the world like (1) Nanotechnology-based human life comfort, (2) High speed computation through optical computers, (3) Embedded Intelligence, (4) HIV Antivirus, (5) Pseudo Senses - Sensation of existence through virtual reality and through artificial environment, (6) Off Planet Production in micro-gravity, (7) ...
Ten Main Technological Breakthroughs of CNPC in 2009
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2010-01-01
@@ Breakthrough in systematic technology for exploration of Qikou oil-enriched depression in Bohai Bay Basin Qikou oil-enriched depression is one of the largest depressions of the Tertiary deposit in Bohai Bay Basin.The oil and gas exploration of this area faces a number of bottlenecks,such as a large proportion of negative structures,complicated distribution of sedimentary sand bodies and diversified types of oil and gas reservoirs.
Breakthrough innovations : The impact of foreign acquisition of knowledge
Tojeiro Rivero, Damián; Moreno Serrano, Rosina; Badillo Enciso, Erika Raquel
2016-01-01
Based on the Spanish Technological Innovation Panel, this paper explores the role of R+D offshoring on innovation performance from 2004 to 2013. Specifically, we focus our attention on the impact of different types of offshoring governance models on the profitability of developing breakthrough innovations. Using a novel methodology for panel data sets, we control for the heterogeneity of firms as well as for the sample selection and endogeneity. Our study provides evidence that firms developi...
New AIDA-2020 call for breakthrough detector technologies
2016-01-01
Physicists, engineers, and industry will be interested in a new proof-of-concept fund for breakthrough projects from the general field of detector development and testing. Launched in the framework of the European project AIDA-2020, this open call will provide up to 200k€ of seed funding to support innovative and societal applications with a focus on industry-oriented applications. The deadline for applying is 20 October 2016. More information here.
Aggressive reductions in US greenhouse gas emissions will require radical changes in how society generates and uses energy. Technological breakthroughs will be necessary if we are to make this transition cost effectively. With limited resources, understanding the breakthrough pot...
The SolarPACES strategy for the solar thermal breakthrough
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burch, G.D. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)
1997-12-31
Our national solar thermal research programs and our combined efforts conducted through IEA/SolarPACES have brought about many breakthroughs in the development of solar thermal technology. We have components and systems that are much more efficient, much more reliable, and can be built much more cost-efficiently than just a few years ago. As our technology development proceeds, we undoubtedly will continue to make significant progress, breakthroughs in fact, in all these areas - progress that will bring us even closer to economic parity with more conventional forms of energy. And while this progress is absolutely necessary, the question is whether it will be enough to allow solar thermal to break into the mainstream of global energy supply. Our new IEA/SolarPACES strategy, crafted and approved over the course of the past year, has recognized the changes we must face and given us license to begin to make those changes. We must begin addressing financial hurdles, work to create a more favorable regulatory and tax environment, support development of international partnerships, and expand the visibility and excitement of solar thermal technology to achieve the final breakthroughs we need to allow solar thermal energy to live up to its vast potential. (orig./AKF)
Lagrangian Curves on Spectral Curves of Monopoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khalid, Madeeha; Ramon Mari, Jose J.
2010-01-01
We study Lagrangian points on smooth holomorphic curves in TP 1 equipped with a natural neutral Kaehler structure, and prove that they must form real curves. By virtue of the identification of TP 1 with the space LE 3 of oriented affine lines in Euclidean 3-space, these Lagrangian curves give rise to ruled surfaces in E 3 , which we prove have zero Gauss curvature. Each ruled surface is shown to be the tangent lines to a curve in E 3 , called the edge of regression of the ruled surface. We give an alternative characterization of these curves as the points in E 3 where the number of oriented lines in the complex curve Σ that pass through the point is less than the degree of Σ. We then apply these results to the spectral curves of certain monopoles and construct the ruled surfaces and edges of regression generated by the Lagrangian curves.
Generating breakthrough new product ideas feeding the innovation funnel
Cooper, Robert
2007-01-01
Senior executives are experiencing a shortage of game-changing ideas that drive growth. This book explains how to feed the innovation funnel with a steady stream of breakthrough new product ideas, providing numerous examples of the methods, approaches and techniques used by leading companies such as Motorola and Procter & Gamble. Learn more about the impact you can make by leveraging an innovation strategy, voice-of-customer research, external ideas via open innovation, employees? creative talent and fundamental research. Establish a proactive Discovery Stage that focuses on the drivers of innovation performance to transform your organization into an innovation machine.
Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough Brings Hope for African Farmers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2014-01-01
Scientists have cracked the genetic code of the bloodsucking tsetse fly, prompting hope that the breakthrough will help future efforts to control one of the most devastating livestock diseases in sub-Saharan Africa spread by the insect. The tsetse genome was sequenced and annotated during a 10-year international collaborative effort that involved the Insect Pest Control Laboratory run jointly by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The achievement allows scientists to better study the fly's genes and their functions, knowledge that should open the door for researching ways to control the insect
Mini-columns for Conducting Breakthrough Experiments. Design and Construction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ware, Stuart Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-06-11
Experiments with moderately and strongly sorbing radionuclides (i.e., U, Cs, Am) have shown that sorption between experimental solutions and traditional column materials must be accounted for to accurately determine stationary phase or porous media sorption properties (i.e., sorption site density, sorption site reaction rate coefficients, and partition coefficients or K_{d }values). This report details the materials and construction of mini-columns for use in breakthrough columns to allow for accurate measurement and modeling of sorption parameters. Material selection, construction techniques, wet packing of columns, tubing connections, and lessons learned are addressed.
The next breakthrough in phonon-mediated superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pickett, W.E.
2008-01-01
If history teaches us anything, it is that the next breakthrough in superconductivity will not be the result of surveying the history of past breakthroughs, as they have almost always been a matter of serendipity resulting from undirected exploration into new materials. Still, there is reason to reflect on recent advances, work toward higher T c of even an incremental nature, and recognize that it is important to explore avenues currently believed to be unpromising even as we attempt to be rational. In this paper we look at two remarkable new unusually high temperature superconductors (UHTS), MgB 2 with T c = 40 K and (in less detail) high pressure Li with T c = 20 K, with the aim of reducing their unexpected achievements to a simple and clear understanding. We also consider briefly other UHTS systems that provide still unresolved puzzles; these materials include mostly layered structures, and several with strongly bonded C-C or B-C substructures. What may be possible in phonon-coupled superconductivity is reconsidered in the light of the discussion
(Mis)understanding Science: The Problem with Scientific Breakthroughs.
Evans, James P
2016-09-01
On Saturday morning, February 28, 1953, the mystery of heredity appeared secure. Humans hadn't the faintest idea of how genetic information was transmitted-how the uncanny resemblance between mother and daughter, grandfather and grandson was conveyed across generations. Yet, by that Saturday afternoon, two individuals, James Watson and Francis Crick, had glimpsed the solution to these mysteries. The story of Watson and Crick's great triumph has been told and retold and has rightly entered the pantheon of scientific legend. But Watson and Crick's breakthrough was just that: a rupture and dramatic discontinuity in human knowledge that solved a deep mystery, the likes of which occurs, perhaps, a couple of times each century. And that's the problem. The story is just so good and so irresistible that it has misled generations of scientists about what to expect regarding a life in science. And more damaging, the resulting breakthrough mentality misleads the public, the media, and society's decision-makers about how science really works, all to the detriment of scientific progress and our society's well-being. © 2016 The Hastings Center.
Turning Regenerative Medicine Breakthrough Ideas and Innovations into Commercial Products.
Bayon, Yves; Vertès, Alain A; Ronfard, Vincent; Culme-Seymour, Emily; Mason, Chris; Stroemer, Paul; Najimi, Mustapha; Sokal, Etienne; Wilson, Clayton; Barone, Joe; Aras, Rahul; Chiesi, Andrea
2015-12-01
The TERMIS-Europe (EU) Industry committee intended to address the two main critical issues in the clinical/commercial translation of Advanced Therapeutic Medicine Products (ATMP): (1) entrepreneurial exploitation of breakthrough ideas and innovations, and (2) regulatory market approval. Since January 2012, more than 12,000 publications related to regenerative medicine and tissue engineering have been accepted for publications, reflecting the intense academic research activity in this field. The TERMIS-EU 2014 Industry Symposium provided a reflection on the management of innovation and technological breakthroughs in biotechnology first proposed to contextualize the key development milestones and constraints of allocation of financial resources, in the development life-cycle of radical innovation projects. This was illustrated with the biofuels story, sharing similarities with regenerative medicine. The transition was then ensured by an overview of the key identified challenges facing the commercialization of cell therapy products as ATMP examples. Real cases and testimonies were then provided by a palette of medical technologies and regenerative medicine companies from their commercial development of cell and gene therapy products. Although the commercial development of ATMP is still at the proof-of-concept stage due to technology risks, changing policies, changing markets, and management changes, the sector is highly dynamic with a number of explored therapeutic approaches, developed by using a large diversity of business models, both proposed by the experience, pitfalls, and successes of regenerative medicine pioneers, and adapted to the constraint resource allocation and environment in radical innovation projects.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja
2013-01-01
-arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...
Is a Breakthrough on Climate Change Governance on the Horizon?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Figueroa, Maria Josefina
The recently released Fifth Assessment report of the IPCC has highlighted again with unprecedented scope and insight the urgency of addressing climate change. The international community has pledged to devise the next international agreement on climate change by 2015, while the EU and in particular...... the Scandinavian countries have forged ahead advancing a variety of policies to respond to climate change. Similarly, regions, municipalities, and private actors across the world are also contributing to climate governance. This paper asks whether the world is reaching a tipping point where a breakthrough...... on climate change governance is near?. The answer is approached by contrasting the governance model within which the IPCC operates and the conditions of policy and governance interaction toward the more scientific foundations laid out by IPCC, with the range of multilateral climate governance...
How to revive breakthrough innovation in the pharmaceutical industry.
Munos, Bernard H; Chin, William W
2011-06-29
Over the past 20 years, pharmaceutical companies have implemented conservative management practices to improve the predictability of therapeutics discovery and success rates of drug candidates. This approach has often yielded compounds that are only marginally better than existing therapies, yet require larger, longer, and more complex trials. To fund them, companies have shifted resources away from drug discovery to late clinical development; this has hurt innovation and amplified the crisis brought by the expiration of patents on many best-selling drugs. Here, we argue that more breakthrough therapeutics will reach patients only if the industry ceases to pursue "safe" incremental innovation, re-engages in high-risk discovery research, and adopts collaborative innovation models that allow sharing of knowledge and costs among collaborators.
75 Breakthroughs by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Laboratories; Breakthroughs 2017
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
2017-01-01
Born at a time when the world faced a dire threat, the National Laboratory System protects America through science and technology. For more than 75 years, the Department of Energy’s national laboratories have solved important problems in science, energy and national security. Partnering with industry and academia, the laboratories also drive innovation to advance economic competitiveness and ensure our nation’s future prosperity. Over the years, America's National Laboratories have been changing and improving the lives of millions of people and this expertise continues to keep our nation at the forefront of science and technology in a rapidly changing world. This network of Department of Energy Laboratories has grown into 17 facilities across the country. As this list of breakthroughs attests, Laboratory discoveries have spawned industries, saved lives, generated new products, fired the imagination and helped to reveal the secrets of the universe.
Nyquist, Jonathan E.; Toran, Laura; Fang, Allison C.; Ryan, Robert J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.
2010-01-01
Characterization of the hyporheic zone is of critical importance for understanding stream ecology, contaminant transport, and groundwater‐surface water interaction. A salt water tracer test was used to probe the hyporheic zone of a recently re‐engineered portion of Crabby Creek, a stream located near Philadelphia, PA. The tracer solution was tracked through a 13.5 meter segment of the stream using both a network of 25 wells sampled every 5–15 minutes and time‐lapse electrical resistivity tomographs collected every 11 minutes for six hours, with additional tomographs collected every 100 minutes for an additional 16 hours. The comparison of tracer monitoring methods is of keen interest because tracer tests are one of the few techniques available for characterizing this dynamic zone, and logistically it is far easier to collect resistivity tomographs than to install and monitor a dense network of wells. Our results show that resistivity monitoring captured the essential shape of the breakthrough curve and may indicate portions of the stream where the tracer lingered in the hyporheic zone. Time‐lapse resistivity measurements, however, represent time averages over the period required to collect a tomographic data set, and spatial averages over a volume larger than captured by a well sample. Smoothing by the resistivity data inversion algorithm further blurs the resulting tomograph; consequently resistivity monitoring underestimates the degree of fine‐scale heterogeneity in the hyporheic zone.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janusz Charatonik
1991-11-01
Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.
The New Three Rs: Research, Reading, and Results. Breakthrough to Literacy[TM].
McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, NY. Educational and Professional Publishing Group.
Research in school districts throughout the United States shows that children who use "Breakthrough to Literacy" achieve significant and lasting improvement in their reading skills. At virtually every site studied where implementation criteria were met, children who participated in "Breakthrough" demonstrated marked increases…
Reingruber, E.; Bedani, F.; Buchberger, W.; Schoenmakers, P.
2010-01-01
Gradient-elution liquid chromatography (GELC) is a powerful tool for the characterization of synthetic polymers. However, gradient-elution chromatograms often suffer from breakthrough phenomena. Breakthrough can be averted by using a sample solvent as weak as the mobile phase. However, this approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turin, H.J.; Soll, W.E.
2002-01-01
The Busted Butte Unsaturated-Zone Transport Test Facility is located approximately 8 km southeast of Yucca Mountain, and was designed to address uncertainties associated with flow and transport in the UZ site-process models for Yucca Mountain. Busted Butte Phase 2 consisted of a 10m x 10m x 7m test block. From July 1988 through October 2000, complex tracer mixtures were injected continuously at 77 discrete points located along eight parallel 10-m boreholes arranged in two horizontal planes. In August 1999, iodide was added to the tracer mixture to explore the effects of initial hydraulic transients. During the course of the experiment, porewater samples were collected at regular intervals using sorbing-paper collection pads, emplaced into fifteen horizontal and inclined 10-m collection boreholes, oriented perpendicular to the injection boreholes. Potential travel distances ranged from 20 cm to over 500 cm. Nonreactive tracer and weakly sorbing lithium breakthrough was observed at most of the collection points during the injection period. Following termination of injection, approximately 800 rock samples were collected using overcore and mineback techniques, and analyzed for tracer concentration. Rock analyses are discussed in a subsequent paper. To complement complex 3-dimensional finite-element modeling of the entire block, bromide, iodide, and lithium breakthrough onto the collection pads has been modeled with CXTFIT. This simple 1-dimensional analytical code uses a non-linear curve-fitting routine to estimate transport parameters including apparent velocity, dispersivity, and field retardation factors. Preliminary results show that: (1) Bromide and iodide behaved similarly, despite the fact that bromide was injected in a strongly transient flow field, while iodide injection began after flow had approached steady state conditions. (2) With the exception of the closest collection points, tracer velocities remained relatively constant, indicating that transport was
Beyond the traditional definition of breakthrough pain: an observational study.
Gatti, Antonio; Gentili, Marta; Iorno, Vittorio; Mammucari, Massimo; Tufaro, Giuseppe; Lazzari, Marzia; Sabato, Alessandro Fabrizio
2013-03-01
Breakthrough pain (BTP) is traditionally defined as a transitory pain flare in opioid-treated patients with chronic background pain. This definition has, however, been challenged in recent years. This study aimed to analyze BTP prevalence in different pain conditions. This was a prospective, non-interventional, observational study conducted from June to September 2011 in two Italian pain treatment reference centres. Consecutive patients aged >18 years with oncological or non-oncological pain were eligible for this study; background pain was acute/ subacute (3 months). The characteristics of pain were evaluated by means of a structured interview by physicians, and patients were asked to complete a dedicated clinical study form. The following outcomes were assessed: chronic pain duration (in patients with chronic pain), BTP prevalence, and number and severity of daily BTP episodes. All outcomes were assessed in four populations of patients with: (a) chronic oncological pain; (b) chronic non-oncological pain; (c) non-chronic oncological pain; (d) non-chronic non-oncological pain. The correlation between BTP and gender was also investigated. Of 1,270 patients with chronic pain, 1,086 had non-oncological pain (85.5%). Most patients (68.6%) with non-oncological pain were female (P = 0.001). Pain duration was significantly longer in non-oncological pain versus oncological pain groups (P = 0.002). BTP prevalence was lower in non-oncological patients (P definition. BTP frequency and severity is similar in oncological and non-oncological pain.
From Islamicizing the Sciences to Strategizing for Muslims’ Scientific Breakthrough
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
RAFIU IBRAHIM ADEBAYO
2015-06-01
Full Text Available At inception, science and religion were seen as poles apart and so science was vehemently kicked against by religious leaders. Islam later came to bridge the gap between religion and science only to be later hijacked by the Western world and so science was rewritten from a purely materialist point of view; hence, experts in modern science became over-confident and arrogant to have relegated religion to the lowest ebb and looked down upon any knowledge which could not be scientifically proved. However attempts are being made to reconcile religion and science by Muslim reformers. These attempts are not without their shortcomings, hence the need for Islamization of the sciences for them to conform to the Islamic principle of unity of knowledge. However, the present researcher feels that there should be a step forward from the contemporary approaches to Islamicizing the sciences in form of colouring the Western scientific discoveries Islam, to making their own scientific breakthroughs, the type which immortalized Muslim scientists of the Islam’s golden ages. Without this, Muslims will continue to be mere consumers of the Western products. The strategy for the Ummah to achieve this is suggested in this paper.
Funding breakthrough therapies: A systematic review and recommendation.
Hanna, E; Toumi, M; Dussart, C; Borissov, B; Dabbous, O; Badora, K; Auquier, P
2018-03-01
Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are innovative therapies likely associated with high prices. Payers need guidance to create a balance between ensuring patient access to breakthrough therapies and maintaining the financial sustainability of the healthcare system. The aims of this study were to identify, define, classify and compare the approaches to funding high-cost medicines proposed in the literature, to analyze their appropriateness for ATMP funding and to suggest an optimal funding model for ATMPs. Forty-eight articles suggesting new funding models for innovative high-cost therapies were identified. The models were classified into 3 groups: financial agreement, health outcomes-based agreement and healthcoin. Financial agreement encompassed: discounts, rebates, price and volume caps, price-volume agreements, loans, cost-plus price, intellectual-based payment and fund-based payment. Health outcomes-based agreements were defined as agreements between manufacturers and payers based on drug performance, and were divided into performance-based payment and coverage with evidence development. Healthcoin described a new suggested tradeable currency used to assign monetary value to incremental outcomes. With a large number of ATMPs in development, it is time for stakeholders to start thinking about new pathways and funding strategies for these innovative high-cost therapies. An "ATMP-specific fund" may constitute a reasonable solution to ensure rapid patient access to innovation without threatening the sustainability of the health care system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
How Students Combine Resources to Make Conceptual Breakthroughs
Richards, A. J.; Jones, Darrick C.; Etkina, Eugenia
2018-04-01
We use the framework of cognitive resources to investigate how students construct understanding of a complex physics topic, namely, a photovoltaic cell. By observing students as they learn about how a solar cell functions, we identified over 60 distinct resources that learners may activate while thinking about photovoltaic cells. We classify these resources into three main types: phenomenological primitives, conceptual resources, and epistemological resources. Furthermore, we found a pattern that suggests that when students make conceptual breakthroughs they may be more likely to activate combinations of resources of different types in concert, especially if a resource from each of the three categories is used. This pattern suggests that physics instructors should encourage students to activate multiple types of prior knowledge during the learning process. This can result from instructors deliberately and explicitly connecting new knowledge to students' prior experience both in and outside the formal physics classroom, as well as allowing students to reflect metacognitively on how the new knowledge fits into their existing understanding of the natural world.
Recent breakthroughs on C-2U: Norman’s legacy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Tuszewski, M.; Smirnov, A.; Gota, H.; Garate, E.; Barnes, D.; Deng, B. H.; Trask, E.; Yang, X.; Putvinski, S.; Andow, R.; Bolte, N.; Bui, D. Q.; Ceccherini, F.; Clary, R.; Cheung, A. H.; Conroy, K. D.; Dettrick, S. A.; Douglass, J. D. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA 92688 (United States); and others
2016-03-25
Conventional field-reversed configurations (FRC) face notable stability and confinement concerns, which can be ameliorated by introducing and maintaining a significant fast ion population in the system. This is the conjecture first introduced by Norman Rostoker multiple decades ago and adopted as the central design tenet in Tri Alpha Energy’s advanced beam driven FRC concept. In fact, studying the physics of such neutral beam (NB) driven FRCs over the past decade, considerable improvements were made in confinement and stability. Next to NB injection, the addition of axially streaming plasma guns, magnetic end plugs, as well as advanced surface conditioning lead to dramatic reductions in turbulence driven losses and greatly improved stability. In turn, fast ion confinement improved significantly and allowed for the build-up of a dominant fast particle population. This recently led to the breakthrough of sustaining an advanced beam driven FRC, thereby demonstrating successful maintenance of trapped magnetic flux, plasma dimensions and total pressure inventory for times much longer than all characteristic system time scales and only limited by hardware and electric supply constraints.
Clean Energy Innovation: Sources of Technical and Commercial Breakthroughs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perry, T. D., IV; Miller, M.; Fleming, L.; Younge, K.; Newcomb, J.
2011-03-01
Low-carbon energy innovation is essential to combat climate change, promote economic competitiveness, and achieve energy security. Using U.S. patent data and additional patent-relevant data collected from the Internet, we map the landscape of low-carbon energy innovation in the United States since 1975. We isolate 10,603 renewable and 10,442 traditional energy patents and develop a database that characterizes proxy measures for technical and commercial impact, as measured by patent citations and Web presence, respectively. Regression models and multivariate simulations are used to compare the social, institutional, and geographic drivers of breakthrough clean energy innovation. Results indicate statistically significant effects of social, institutional, and geographic variables on technical and commercial impacts of patents and unique innovation trends between different energy technologies. We observe important differences between patent citations and Web presence of licensed and unlicensed patents, indicating the potential utility of using screened Web hits as a measure of commercial importance. We offer hypotheses for these revealed differences and suggest a research agenda with which to test these hypotheses. These preliminary findings indicate that leveraging empirical insights to better target research expenditures would augment the speed and scale of innovation and deployment of clean energy technologies.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Motshekga, Sarah C
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Disinfection of bacterially-contaminated drinking water requires a robust and effective technique and can be achieved by using an appropriate disinfectant material. The advanced use of nanomaterials is observed as an alternative and effective way...
The 2001 HBR list. Breakthrough ideas for today's business agenda.
2001-04-01
Business is shaped by ideas. But how do you separate enduring ideas from passing fancies? In this, the first edition of the annual HBR List, our editors spotlight five break-through ideas that are truly shaping the future of business. EVEN A GREAT BUSINESS MODEL IS NOT ENOUGH: The rise and fall of dot-coms left markets reeling and CEOs scratching their heads. The most important lesson of the debacle: squishy thinking about "business models" is no substitute for a distinctive strategy. CHANGE IS CHANGING: In recent years, pundits have urged executives to incite revolutions within their companies. But a growing group of experts now suggests that the best companies actually evolve through incremental change--change that builds on rather than subverts their heritage. EGO MAKES THE LEADER: By looking deeply into executives' psyches, we are beginning to unlock the enigma of leadership. While there will never be a single recipe for successful corporate stewardship, an understanding of the human ego can shed light on leadership's most fundamental components. ONLY CONNECT: In business organizations, what's really important about people is not their individual skills but the relationships they form with one another. By investing in "social capital," companies can often push their performance to a whole new level. THE BIOLOGY CENTURY DAWNS: In the twentieth century, product innovations tended to spring from physics. But in the new century, biology may be the central source of innovation. From genomics to biomimicry, the study of life promises to change what companies sell and even how they operate.
Cabezón-Gutiérrez, Luis; Delgado-Mingorance, Ignacio; Nabal-Vicuña, María; Jiménez-López, Antonio Javier; Cabezón-Álvarez, Ana; Soler-López, Begoña
2018-06-12
Although breakthrough dyspnea is very frequent in cancer patients, there are no precise recommendations for treating it. The main objective of this study was to analyze what treatments are used in clinical practice for the management of breakthrough dyspnea in cancer patients in Spain and the secondary objectives were to describe the characteristics of cancer patients with breakthrough dyspnea and the attributes of the disorder. Cancer patients over 18 years of age, with breakthrough dyspnea and a Karnofsky performance score of ≥30, who were treated at departments of oncology in institutes across Spain were included in this cross-sectional observational study. The characteristics of breakthrough dyspnea, history of treatment, anthropometric variables, Mahler dyspnea index, Borg scale, Edmonton Symptoms Assessment Scale, and patient satisfaction with current breakthrough dyspnea treatment were assessed. The mean age of the 149 included patients was 66 years (95% confidence interval: 64.3 to 67.9), and 53 were females (35.6%). The mean breakthrough dyspnea intensity was 5.85 (95% confidence interval 5.48 to 6.22, Borg scale). A total of 55.1% of the first-choice treatments consisted of opioids, followed by oxygen (17.3%). A total of 119 patients (79.9%) received monotherapy for breakthrough dyspnea. Patients presenting with basal dyspnea received oxygen in a greater proportion of cases (21.1% vs 7.4%; p = 0.07). Patients with predictable dyspnea received a greater proportion of opioids (70.9% vs 44.4%; p = 0.01). Opioids constitute first-line therapy for breakthrough dyspnea in routine clinical practice, though the scientific evidence supporting their use is scarce. Further information derived from controlled clinical trials is needed regarding the comparative efficacy of the different treatments in order to justify their use.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
René Pellissier
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper explores the notion ofjump ing the curve,following from Handy 's S-curve onto a new curve with new rules policies and procedures. . It claims that the curve does not generally lie in wait but has to be invented by leadership. The focus of this paper is the identification (mathematically and inferentially ofthat point in time, known as the cusp in catastrophe theory, when it is time to change - pro-actively, pre-actively or reactively. These three scenarios are addressed separately and discussed in terms ofthe relevance ofeach.
Murray, Anna; Bennett, Claire E; Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Jacobs, Patricia A; Morris, Danielle H; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Jones, Michael; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J
2011-01-01
Women become infertile approximately 10 years before menopause, and as more women delay childbirth into their 30s, the number of women who experience infertility is likely to increase. Tests that predict the timing of menopause would allow women to make informed reproductive decisions. Current predictors are only effective just prior to menopause, and there are no long-range indicators. Age at menopause and early menopause (EM) are highly heritable, suggesting a genetic aetiology. Recent genome-wide scans have identified four loci associated with variation in the age of normal menopause (40-60 years). We aimed to determine whether theses loci are also risk factors for EM. We tested the four menopause-associated genetic variants in a cohort of approximately 2000 women with menopause≤45 years from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS). All four variants significantly increased the odds of having EM. Comparing the 4.5% of individuals with the lowest number of risk alleles (two or three) with the 3.0% with the highest number (eight risk alleles), the odds ratio was 4.1 (95% CI 2.4-7.1, P=4.0×10(-7)). In combination, the four variants discriminated EM cases with a receiver operator characteristic area under the curve of 0.6. Four common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies, had a significant impact on the odds of having EM in an independent cohort from the BGS. The discriminative power is still limited, but as more variants are discovered they may be useful for predicting reproductive lifespan.
Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio
2017-01-01
In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.
Simulating Supernova Light Curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Even, Wesley Paul; Dolence, Joshua C.
2016-01-01
This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth's atmosphere.
Simulating Supernova Light Curves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-05-05
This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.
Image scaling curve generation
2012-01-01
The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then
Image scaling curve generation.
2011-01-01
The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then
Tempo curves considered harmful
Desain, P.; Honing, H.
1993-01-01
In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression
Breakthroughs in Medicinal Chemistry: New Targets and Mechanisms, New Drugs, New Hopes–2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diego Muñoz-Torrero
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Breakthroughs in Medicinal Chemistry: New Targets and Mechanisms, New Drugs, New Hopes is a series of Editorials, which are published on a biannual basis by the Editorial Board of the Medicinal Chemistry section of the journal Molecules [...
Use of pulsed-neutron capture logs to identify steam breakthrough
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masse, P.J.; Gosney, T.C.; Long, D.L.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on identification of steam-breakthrough zones in a stacked sand/shale sequence with variable lateral continuity which is difficult. Such identification, however, would allow the modification of field operations to enhance recovery through improved vertical sweep and heat injection. Twenty pulsed-neutron capture (PNC) logs were run to identify the steam-breakthrough zone(s) in a seven-pattern area of Mobil's Middle expansion (MIDX) Steamflood Project in the South Belridge field. These PNC data were combined with data from recent replacement wells and a detailed geologic analysis. Evaluation of this combined information allowed identification of potential steam-breakthrough zone(s), and operations were modified to reduce and eliminate steam breakthrough
Chou, Kai-Seng
2001-01-01
Although research in curve shortening flow has been very active for nearly 20 years, the results of those efforts have remained scattered throughout the literature. For the first time, The Curve Shortening Problem collects and illuminates those results in a comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained account of the fundamental results.The authors present a complete treatment of the Gage-Hamilton theorem, a clear, detailed exposition of Grayson''s convexity theorem, a systematic discussion of invariant solutions, applications to the existence of simple closed geodesics on a surface, and a new, almost convexity theorem for the generalized curve shortening problem.Many questions regarding curve shortening remain outstanding. With its careful exposition and complete guide to the literature, The Curve Shortening Problem provides not only an outstanding starting point for graduate students and new investigations, but a superb reference that presents intriguing new results for those already active in the field.
Zeng, Carl J.; Qi, Eric P.; Li, Simon S.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Ye, Fred Y.
2017-12-01
A publication that reports a breakthrough discovery in a particular scientific field is referred to as a ;black swan;, and the most highly-cited papers previously published in the same field ;white swans;. Important scientific progress occurs when ;white swans; meet a ;black swan;, and the citation patterns of the ;white swans; change. This metaphor combines scientific discoveries and scientometric data and suggests that breakthrough scientific discoveries are either ;black swans; or ;grey-black swans;.
The management of breakthrough cancer pain--educational needs a European nursing survey.
Wengström, Y; Rundström, C; Geerling, J; Pappa, T; Weisse, I; Williams, S C; Zavratnik, B; Rustøen, T
2014-01-01
Poorly managed cancer pain is well known to profoundly impact the patient's daily life and interfere with quality of life. Nurses who cared for patients with cancer from 12 European countries participated in a survey of breakthrough cancer pain practice. The purpose was to investigate how nurses assess breakthrough cancer pain, use of standardised tools, confidence in supporting patients and awareness of medications. Responses from 1241 participants showed country variations. The majority of the sample was female, Germany had the highest proportion of male nurses (21.0%), followed by Greece (15.8%). A significantly larger proportion of nurses with longer experience and more education (78.8%) used a comprehensive definition of breakthrough cancer pain. Significant variations in training were found; 71% of Finnish nurses had received training compared with 6% of Greek nurses. Training and using a standardised assessment tool was associated with a significant increase in the nurses' perceived ability to distinguish between breakthrough and background pain. Nurses in countries with the highest proportion of training were most confident in supporting patients. In conclusion, there still exists problems with effective management of patients' breakthrough cancer pain, continuing inability to define the difference between background and breakthrough cancer pain leads to poor treatment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo Prochno
2004-07-01
Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.
PREFACE: Inverse Problems in Applied Sciences—towards breakthrough
Cheng, Jin; Iso, Yuusuke; Nakamura, Gen; Yamamoto, Masahiro
2007-06-01
These are the proceedings of the international conference `Inverse Problems in Applied Sciences—towards breakthrough' which was held at Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan on 3-7 July 2006 (http://coe.math.sci.hokudai.ac.jp/sympo/inverse/). There were 88 presentations and more than 100 participants, and we are proud to say that the conference was very successful. Nowadays, many new activities on inverse problems are flourishing at many centers of research around the world, and the conference has successfully gathered a world-wide variety of researchers. We believe that this volume contains not only main papers, but also conveys the general status of current research into inverse problems. This conference was the third biennial international conference on inverse problems, the core of which is the Pan-Pacific Asian area. The purpose of this series of conferences is to establish and develop constant international collaboration, especially among the Pan-Pacific Asian countries, and to lead the organization of activities concerning inverse problems centered in East Asia. The first conference was held at City University of Hong Kong in January 2002 and the second was held at Fudan University in June 2004. Following the preceding two successes, the third conference was organized in order to extend the scope of activities and build useful bridges to the next conference in Seoul in 2008. Therefore this third biennial conference was intended not only to establish collaboration and links between researchers in Asia and leading researchers worldwide in inverse problems but also to nurture interdisciplinary collaboration in theoretical fields such as mathematics, applied fields and evolving aspects of inverse problems. For these purposes, we organized tutorial lectures, serial lectures and a panel discussion as well as conference research presentations. This volume contains three lecture notes from the tutorial and serial lectures, and 22 papers. Especially at this
Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando
2014-01-01
We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kožul Nataša
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruhn, C.R.
1981-05-01
An alternative utilization is presented for the gaseous ionization chamber in the detection of energetic heavy ions, which is called Bragg Curve Spectroscopy (BCS). Conceptually, BCS involves using the maximum data available from the Bragg curve of the stopping heavy ion (HI) for purposes of identifying the particle and measuring its energy. A detector has been designed that measures the Bragg curve with high precision. From the Bragg curve the range from the length of the track, the total energy from the integral of the specific ionization over the track, the dE/dx from the specific ionization at the beginning of the track, and the Bragg peak from the maximum of the specific ionization of the HI are determined. This last signal measures the atomic number, Z, of the HI unambiguously
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sutawanir Darwis
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Empirical decline curve analysis of oil production data gives reasonable answer in hyperbolic type curves situations; however the methodology has limitations in fitting real historical production data in present of unusual observations due to the effect of the treatment to the well in order to increase production capacity. The development ofrobust least squares offers new possibilities in better fitting production data using declinecurve analysis by down weighting the unusual observations. This paper proposes a robustleast squares fitting lmRobMM approach to estimate the decline rate of daily production data and compares the results with reservoir simulation results. For case study, we usethe oil production data at TBA Field West Java. The results demonstrated that theapproach is suitable for decline curve fitting and offers a new insight in decline curve analysis in the present of unusual observations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo
This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....
Alexeev, Valery; Clemens, C Herbert; Beauville, Arnaud
2008-01-01
This book is devoted to recent progress in the study of curves and abelian varieties. It discusses both classical aspects of this deep and beautiful subject as well as two important new developments, tropical geometry and the theory of log schemes. In addition to original research articles, this book contains three surveys devoted to singularities of theta divisors, of compactified Jacobians of singular curves, and of "strange duality" among moduli spaces of vector bundles on algebraic varieties.
Approximation by planar elastic curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge
2016-01-01
We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan
This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...
Curved electromagnetic missiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myers, J.M.; Shen, H.M.; Wu, T.T.
1989-01-01
Transient electromagnetic fields can exhibit interesting behavior in the limit of great distances from their sources. In situations of finite total radiated energy, the energy reaching a distant receiver can decrease with distance much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Cases of such slow decrease have been referred to as electromagnetic missiles. All of the wide variety of known missiles propagate in essentially straight lines. A sketch is presented here of a missile that can follow a path that is strongly curved. An example of a curved electromagnetic missile is explicitly constructed and some of its properties are discussed. References to details available elsewhere are given
Algebraic curves and cryptography
Murty, V Kumar
2010-01-01
It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on
IGMtransmission: Transmission curve computation
Harrison, Christopher M.; Meiksin, Avery; Stock, David
2015-04-01
IGMtransmission is a Java graphical user interface that implements Monte Carlo simulations to compute the corrections to colors of high-redshift galaxies due to intergalactic attenuation based on current models of the Intergalactic Medium. The effects of absorption due to neutral hydrogen are considered, with particular attention to the stochastic effects of Lyman Limit Systems. Attenuation curves are produced, as well as colors for a wide range of filter responses and model galaxy spectra. Photometric filters are included for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Keck telescope, the Mt. Palomar 200-inch, the SUBARU telescope and UKIRT; alternative filter response curves and spectra may be readily uploaded.
Yu, Junliang; Froning, Dieter; Reimer, Uwe; Lehnert, Werner
2018-06-01
The lattice Boltzmann method is adopted to simulate the three dimensional dynamic process of liquid water breaking through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. 22 micro-structures of Toray GDL are built based on a stochastic geometry model. It is found that more than one breakthrough locations are formed randomly on the GDL surface. Breakthrough location distance (BLD) are analyzed statistically in two ways. The distribution is evaluated statistically by the Lilliefors test. It is concluded that the BLD can be described by the normal distribution with certain statistic characteristics. Information of the shortest neighbor breakthrough location distance can be the input modeling setups on the cell-scale simulations in the field of fuel cell simulation.
Breakthrough properties of chloride ions in columns of lead phosphate hydroxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akiba, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Mimura, Hitoshi; Shindo, Manabu.
1994-01-01
Breakthrough properties of chloride ion (Cl - ) have been studied by using columns packed with a granular anion-exchanger of lead phosphate hydroxide (Pb 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , IXE-1000G). The column utilization of the ratio of breakthrough capacity to total capacity increased with decreasing particle size and increasing temperature. The collection of Cl - from a simulated waste solution was improved by the addition of cation-exchange to IXE-1000G; the adsorption capacity of the column of IXE-1000G/IXE-300G (Sb type cation-exchanger) was over 0.16 mmol Cl - /g, yielding a relatively high column utilization of 75%. (author)
Coupling gravity, electromagnetism and space-time for space propulsion breakthroughs
Millis, Marc G.
1994-01-01
spaceflight would be revolutionized if it were possible to propel a spacecraft without rockets using the coupling between gravity, electromagnetism, and space-time (hence called 'space coupling propulsion'). New theories and observations about the properties of space are emerging which offer new approaches to consider this breakthrough possibility. To guide the search, evaluation, and application of these emerging possibilities, a variety of hypothetical space coupling propulsion mechanisms are presented to highlight the issues that would have to be satisfied to enable such breakthroughs. A brief introduction of the emerging opportunities is also presented.
Learning from uncertain curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mallasto, Anton; Feragen, Aasa
2017-01-01
We introduce a novel framework for statistical analysis of populations of nondegenerate Gaussian processes (GPs), which are natural representations of uncertain curves. This allows inherent variation or uncertainty in function-valued data to be properly incorporated in the population analysis. Us...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber
This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber
The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Federici, Paolo; Vesth, Allan
The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula
The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...
Groot, L.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398
2008-01-01
The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across
Hunter, Walter M.
This document contains detailed directions for constructing a device that mechanically produces the three-dimensional shape resulting from the rotation of any algebraic line or curve around either axis on the coordinate plant. The device was developed in response to student difficulty in visualizing, and thus grasping the mathematical principles…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn
This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber
The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...
Textbook Factor Demand Curves.
Davis, Joe C.
1994-01-01
Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)
Bernstein, D.J.; Birkner, P.; Lange, T.; Peters, C.P.
2013-01-01
This paper introduces EECM-MPFQ, a fast implementation of the elliptic-curve method of factoring integers. EECM-MPFQ uses fewer modular multiplications than the well-known GMP-ECM software, takes less time than GMP-ECM, and finds more primes than GMP-ECM. The main improvements above the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber
The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...
Walker, Judy L
2000-01-01
When information is transmitted, errors are likely to occur. Coding theory examines efficient ways of packaging data so that these errors can be detected, or even corrected. The traditional tools of coding theory have come from combinatorics and group theory. Lately, however, coding theorists have added techniques from algebraic geometry to their toolboxes. In particular, by re-interpreting the Reed-Solomon codes, one can see how to define new codes based on divisors on algebraic curves. For instance, using modular curves over finite fields, Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink showed that one can define a sequence of codes with asymptotically better parameters than any previously known codes. This monograph is based on a series of lectures the author gave as part of the IAS/PCMI program on arithmetic algebraic geometry. Here, the reader is introduced to the exciting field of algebraic geometric coding theory. Presenting the material in the same conversational tone of the lectures, the author covers linear codes, inclu...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groot, L. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)
2008-11-15
The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram.
Pelce, Pierre
1989-01-01
In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.
David G. Blanchflower; Andrew J. Oswald
1992-01-01
The paper provides evidence for the existence of a negatively sloped locus linking the level of pay to the rate of regional (or industry) unemployment. This "wage curve" is estimated using microeconomic data for Britain, the US, Canada, Korea, Austria, Italy, Holland, Switzerland, Norway, and Germany, The average unemployment elasticity of pay is approximately -0.1. The paper sets out a multi-region efficiency wage model and argues that its predictions are consistent with the data.
Anatomical curve identification
Bowman, Adrian W.; Katina, Stanislav; Smith, Joanna; Brown, Denise
2015-01-01
Methods for capturing images in three dimensions are now widely available, with stereo-photogrammetry and laser scanning being two common approaches. In anatomical studies, a number of landmarks are usually identified manually from each of these images and these form the basis of subsequent statistical analysis. However, landmarks express only a very small proportion of the information available from the images. Anatomically defined curves have the advantage of providing a much richer expression of shape. This is explored in the context of identifying the boundary of breasts from an image of the female torso and the boundary of the lips from a facial image. The curves of interest are characterised by ridges or valleys. Key issues in estimation are the ability to navigate across the anatomical surface in three-dimensions, the ability to recognise the relevant boundary and the need to assess the evidence for the presence of the surface feature of interest. The first issue is addressed by the use of principal curves, as an extension of principal components, the second by suitable assessment of curvature and the third by change-point detection. P-spline smoothing is used as an integral part of the methods but adaptations are made to the specific anatomical features of interest. After estimation of the boundary curves, the intermediate surfaces of the anatomical feature of interest can be characterised by surface interpolation. This allows shape variation to be explored using standard methods such as principal components. These tools are applied to a collection of images of women where one breast has been reconstructed after mastectomy and where interest lies in shape differences between the reconstructed and unreconstructed breasts. They are also applied to a collection of lip images where possible differences in shape between males and females are of interest. PMID:26041943
Estimating Corporate Yield Curves
Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner
2001-01-01
This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...
Vo, Martin
2017-08-01
Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.
Lee, K. T.
1997-01-01
Japanese science/technology policies emphasize creative research management for strengthening breakthrough innovation. Key lessons include the following: cultivation of creative researchers, clear strategic directions, systematic teamwork and collaboration, focus on strategic industrial relevance, balance between autonomy and control, and the need…
Caira, Morena; Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; de Carolis, Elena; Leone, Giuseppe; Pagano, Livio
2012-10-01
We report the first known case of a breakthrough pulmonary infection caused by Aspergillus nomius in an acute myeloid leukemia patient receiving caspofungin therapy. The isolate was identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and sequencing-based methods. The organism was found to be fully susceptible, in vitro, to echinocandin antifungal agents.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ming-Lin Ho; Chih-Yuan Chung
2010-01-01
We evaluated the analgesic efficacy and safety of tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg combination tablet, for the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. This study was conducted at Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan from January 2006 to February 2007. The single-center and open-label study enrolled 59 opioid-treated cancer patients with at least moderate breakthrough pain (visual analog scale [VAS] score >/=40mm on a 100-mm scale). The efficacy measures included VAS scores and adverse effect assessment 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the administration of tramadol/acetaminophen. Visual analog scale score at time of pain relief was reported. The mean VAS score when the breakthrough pain episode began (0 minute) was 77.8. Analysis showed significant better mean pain VAS scores at 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the administration of tramadol/acetaminophen (p Tramadol/acetaminophen might be efficacious and safe in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer (Author).
Ho, Ming-Lin; Chung, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Chuan-Cheng; Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Hsu, Nicholas C; Chang, Cheng-Shyong
2010-12-01
We evaluated the analgesic efficacy and safety of tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg combination tablet, for the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. This study was conducted at Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan from January 2006 to February 2007. The single-center and open-label study enrolled 59 opioid-treated cancer patients with at least moderate breakthrough pain (visual analog scale [VAS] score ≥40mm on a 100-mm scale). The efficacy measures included VAS scores and adverse effect assessment 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the administration of tramadol/acetaminophen. Visual analog scale score at time of pain relief was reported. The mean VAS score when the breakthrough pain episode began (0 minute) was 77.8. Analysis showed significant better mean pain VAS scores at 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the administration of tramadol/acetaminophen (p≤0.001 versus 0 min for all 3 time points). The mean time to pain relief was 597.2 seconds and the mean VAS score at time of relief was 43.4. The effective rates, defined by more than 30% reduction of the VAS score, after 10 minutes of administration was 74.6%, 30 minutes 86.4%, and one hour 94.9% (p≤0.001 versus 0 minute for all 3 time points). Two cases of drowsiness were reported. Tramadol/acetaminophen might be efficacious and safe in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer.
Orczykowski, Michał; Jaworska-Wilczyńska, Maria; Urbanek, Piotr; Bodalski, Robert; Derejko, Paweł; Gajek, Jacek; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Szumowski, Lukasz; Walczak, Franciszek
2010-08-01
We present a case of a 61 year-old woman with tachycardia originating close to the His bundle where radiofrequency (RF) ablation may bear potential risk of atrioventricular (AV) block. In this case report we discuss the possibility of a AV nodal reciprocating tachycardia with tendon of Todaro breakthrough. Patient was safely and effectively treated with RF catheter ablation.
Use of radioactive and neutron-activatable tracers to determine effective hydrogeologic parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, C.; Jester, W.A.; Jarrett, A.R.
1985-01-01
The migration of nuclides in a geologic medium is controlled by the hydrogeologic parameters of the medium such as the dispersion coefficient, pore water velocity, retardation factor, degradation rate, mass transfer coefficient, water content, and fraction of dead-end pores. The breakthrough curve (BTC), which is the graphical relationship between the tracer concentration and the elapsed time since introduction, is an integrated picture of the hydrogeologic parameters that produced the BTC. Both radioactive and neutron-activatable tracers have been used to generate BTCs. The BTC of a 92 Br radioactive tracer generated under saturated conditions in a nonhomogeneous (fractured) soil column is shown. From BTCs, the effective hydrogeologic parameters can be identified if appropriate techniques are applied
Effect of temperature on the breakthrough of a charcoal tube during vinyl chloride monomer sampling.
Roh, J; Park, Y J; Kim, C N; Lim, N G; Lee, S H; Song, J S; Won, J U; Talaska, G
2000-01-01
This study evaluated the effects of temperature on breakthrough of two standard collection media at various concentrations during vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) sampling. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methods were evaluated. To determine whether breakthrough of VCM would occur at the extremes of exposure and temperature that might be encountered in some workplaces, air samples containing 4 ppm (10.24 mg/m3), 8 ppm (20.45 mg/m3), 16 ppm (40.98 mg/m3), and 32 ppm (81.80 mg/m3) of VCM were collected at temperatures of 4, 22, and 40 degrees C. Five liters of air was sampled at the rate of 0.05 L/min for 100 min using the activated charcoal tube recommended by NIOSH. A second tube was added to the sampling train to collect any VCM that might not have been absorbed in the first tube. To collect VCM air samples by the OSHA method, two carbon molecular sieve tubes were connected serially and 3 L of air was sampled at the rate of 0.05 L/min for 60 min. A gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector and ultra 2 capillary column was used to analyze VCM. Significant breakthrough was found when sampling at higher temperatures with the NIOSH method. No breakthrough was found when samples were collected using the OSHA media at different temperatures and concentrations. Therefore, under hot ambient conditions (>22 degrees C), the possibility of breakthrough should be considered when sampling VCM by the NIOSH method.
Distal Ureteral Diameter Ratio is Predictive of Breakthrough Febrile Urinary Tract Infection.
Arlen, Angela M; Leong, Traci; Guidos, P Joseph; Alexander, Siobhan E; Cooper, Christopher S
2017-12-01
Distal ureteral diameter ratio is an objective measure that is prognostic of spontaneous resolution of vesicoureteral reflux. Along with likelihood of resolution, improved identification of children at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infections may impact management decisions. We evaluated the usefulness of ureteral diameter ratio as a predictive factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram were identified. Ureteral diameter ratio was computed by measuring largest ureteral diameter within the pelvis and dividing by the distance between L1 and L3 vertebral bodies. Demographics, vesicoureteral reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction, and ureteral diameter ratio were tested in univariate and multivariable analyses. Primary outcome was breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. We analyzed 112 girls and 28 boys with a mean ± SD age of 2.5 ± 2.3 years at diagnosis. Vesicoureteral reflux was grade 1 to 2 in 64 patients (45.7%), grade 3 in 50 (35.7%), grade 4 in 16 (11.4%) and grade 5 in 10 (7.2%). Mean ± SD followup was 3.2 ± 2.7 years. A total of 40 children (28.6%) experienced breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Ureteral diameter ratio was significantly greater in children with (0.36) vs without (0.25) breakthrough febrile infections (p = 0.004). Controlling for vesicoureteral reflux grade, every 0.1 U increase in ureteral diameter ratio resulted in 1.7 times increased odds of breakthrough infection (95% CI 1.24 to 2.26, p urinary tract infections independent of reflux grade. Ureteral diameter ratio provides valuable prognostic information about risk of recurrent pyelonephritis and may assist with clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bedard, Gillian; Hawley, Philippa; Zhang, Liying; Slaven, Marissa; Gagnon, Pierre; Bisland, Stuart; Bennett, Margaret; Tardif, Francois; Chow, Edward
2013-09-01
Breakthrough pain is defined as a transient exacerbation of pain that occurs spontaneously or in response to a trigger despite stable and controlled background pain. The purpose of this study was to explore Canadian patients' awareness of and experience with breakthrough pain in cancer (BTPc). Four Canadian cancer centers participated in a non-interventional survey recruiting cancer patients who experienced breakthrough pain. These patients were asked about their pain, its impact on functioning, current management and interest in new treatments of BTPc. Ninety-four Canadian cancer patients participated in this study, with 96% stating that cancer pain impacted their daily living with over half unable to go to work or shopping. Fifty percent of patients said that an episode of BTPc lasted greater than 60 minutes, with the pain score being on average 7.8/10, impacting normal work (7.2/10) and general activity (7.1/10). Only 35% of patients were very satisfied with the speed of relief of their medications. Those who did not take their breakthrough pain medication for every episode stated that was because the pain was not always severe (37%), or they were afraid of becoming tolerant (23%) or addicted (12%). Patients stated that the most important features of a new treatment for BTPc were the ability to relieve pain completely (47%), and quickly (43%). Patients expressed willingness to try transmucosal products (80%) or nasal products (59%). Breakthrough cancer pain in Canadian cancer patients greatly impacts their daily lives. There is room for improvement in the management of BTPc, and the majority of patients would be willing to try new treatments.
Strickling, Laura Rutter; Doneker, Karen Lee
2014-01-01
Drawing upon data from twenty-five interviews, this paper examines how the Maryland State Department of Education's Cross-functional Team navigates its changing role from compliance monitor to breakthrough partner in terms of discourse, time, and flexibility, as it carries out the work of the Breakthrough Center. It also examines how the role of…
Transport in porous media containing residual hydrocarbon. 2: Experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatfield, K.; Ziegler, J.; Burris, D.R.
1993-01-01
When liquid hydrocarbons or nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs) become entrapped below the water table, flowing ground waters carry soluble NAPL components away from the spill zone. Transport of these dissolved NAPL components is controlled by several processes including advection, dispersion, sorption to aquifer materials, and liquid-liquid partitioning. To better understand these processes, miscible displacement experiments were conducted to generate break-through curves (BTCs) of pentafluorobenzoic acid (PFBA), benzene, and toluene on sand column with and without a fixed decane residual. A departure from equilibrium transport is observed in BTCs from the sand-decane system. These BTCs show characteristics of early breakthrough, asymmetry, and tailing. The cause of nonequilibrium is hypothesized to be rate-limited solute exchange between decane and water. A new transport model, capable of handling time-dependent exchange processes, is successfully applied to reproduce experimental BATCs. Results indicate that time-dependent partitioning becomes increasingly important as the solute decane-water partition coefficient and the aqueous-phase fluid velocity increase
Uniformization of elliptic curves
Ülkem, Özge; Ulkem, Ozge
2015-01-01
Every elliptic curve E defined over C is analytically isomorphic to C*=qZ for some q ∊ C*. Similarly, Tate has shown that if E is defined over a p-adic field K, then E is analytically isomorphic to K*=qZ for some q ∊ K . Further the isomorphism E(K) ≅ K*/qZ respects the action of the Galois group GK/K, where K is the algebraic closure of K. I will explain the construction of this isomorphism.
Roc curves for continuous data
Krzanowski, Wojtek J
2009-01-01
Since ROC curves have become ubiquitous in many application areas, the various advances have been scattered across disparate articles and texts. ROC Curves for Continuous Data is the first book solely devoted to the subject, bringing together all the relevant material to provide a clear understanding of how to analyze ROC curves.The fundamental theory of ROC curvesThe book first discusses the relationship between the ROC curve and numerous performance measures and then extends the theory into practice by describing how ROC curves are estimated. Further building on the theory, the authors prese
Dou, Z.
2017-12-01
In this study, the influence of multi-scale roughness on transport behavior of the passive solute through the self-affine fracture was investigated. The single self-affine fracture was constructed by the successive random additions (SRA) and the fracture roughness was decomposed into two different scales (i.e. large-scale primary roughness and small-scale secondary roughness) by the Wavelet analysis technique. The fluid flow in fractures, which was characterized by the Forchheimer's law, showed the non-linear flow behaviors such as eddies and tortuous streamlines. The results indicated that the small-scale secondary roughness was primarily responsible for the non-linear flow behaviors. The direct simulations of asymptotic passive solute transport represented the Non-Fickian transport characteristics (i.e. early arrivals and long tails) in breakthrough curves (BTCs) and residence time distributions (RTDs) with and without consideration of the secondary roughness. Analysis of multiscale BTCs and RTDs showed that the small-scale secondary roughness played a significant role in enhancing the Non-Fickian transport characteristics. We found that removing small-scale secondary roughness led to the lengthening arrival and shortening tail. The peak concentration in BTCs decreased as the secondary roughness was removed, implying that the secondary could also enhance the solute dilution. The estimated BTCs by the Fickian advection-dispersion equation (ADE) yielded errors which decreased with the small-scale secondary roughness being removed. The mobile-immobile model (MIM) was alternatively implemented to characterize the Non-Fickian transport. We found that the MIM was more capable of estimating Non-Fickian BTCs. The small-scale secondary roughness resulted in the decreasing mobile domain fraction and the increasing mass exchange rate between immobile and mobile domains. The estimated parameters from the MIM could provide insight into the inherent mechanism of roughness
Valentino, L. A.; Pipe, S. W.; Collins, P. W.; Blanchette, V. S.; Berntorp, E.; Fischer, K.; Ewenstein, B. M.; Oh, M.; Spotts, G.
2016-01-01
Introduction: We previously showed that pharmacokinetic-guided prophylaxis (PKP) allows the dosing interval to be extended while maintaining a specific trough level. However, the associations of peak factor VIII (FVIII) levels and area under the curve (AUC) with breakthrough bleeding have not been
Gas breakthrough and emission through unsaturated compacted clay in landfill final cover
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ng, C.W.W.; Chen, Z.K.; Coo, J.L.; Chen, R.; Zhou, C.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Explore feasibility of unsaturated clay as a gas barrier in landfill cover. • Gas breakthrough pressure increases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • Gas emission rate decreases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • A 0.6 m-thick clay layer may be sufficient to meet gas emission rate limit. - Abstract: Determination of gas transport parameters in compacted clay plays a vital role for evaluating the effectiveness of soil barriers. The gas breakthrough pressure has been widely studied for saturated swelling clay buffer commonly used in high-level radioactive waste disposal facility where the generated gas pressure is very high (in the order of MPa). However, compacted clay in landfill cover is usually unsaturated and the generated landfill gas pressure is normally low (typically less than 10 kPa). Furthermore, effects of clay thickness and degree of saturation on gas breakthrough and emission rate in the context of unsaturated landfill cover has not been quantitatively investigated in previous studies. The feasibility of using unsaturated compacted clay as gas barrier in landfill covers is thus worthwhile to be explored over a wide range of landfill gas pressures under various degrees of saturation and clay thicknesses. In this study, to evaluate the effectiveness of unsaturated compacted clay to minimize gas emission, one-dimensional soil column tests were carried out on unsaturated compacted clay to determine gas breakthrough pressures at ultimate limit state (high pressure range) and gas emission rates at serviceability limit state (low pressure range). Various degrees of saturation and thicknesses of unsaturated clay sample were considered. Moreover, numerical simulations were carried out using a coupled gas–water flow finite element program (CODE-BRIGHT) to better understand the experimental results by extending the clay thickness and varying the degree of saturation to a broader range that is typical at different
Gas breakthrough and emission through unsaturated compacted clay in landfill final cover
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ng, C.W.W.; Chen, Z.K.; Coo, J.L. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Chen, R., E-mail: chenrui1005@hotmail.com [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Urban and Civil Engineering for Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhou, C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)
2015-10-15
Highlights: • Explore feasibility of unsaturated clay as a gas barrier in landfill cover. • Gas breakthrough pressure increases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • Gas emission rate decreases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • A 0.6 m-thick clay layer may be sufficient to meet gas emission rate limit. - Abstract: Determination of gas transport parameters in compacted clay plays a vital role for evaluating the effectiveness of soil barriers. The gas breakthrough pressure has been widely studied for saturated swelling clay buffer commonly used in high-level radioactive waste disposal facility where the generated gas pressure is very high (in the order of MPa). However, compacted clay in landfill cover is usually unsaturated and the generated landfill gas pressure is normally low (typically less than 10 kPa). Furthermore, effects of clay thickness and degree of saturation on gas breakthrough and emission rate in the context of unsaturated landfill cover has not been quantitatively investigated in previous studies. The feasibility of using unsaturated compacted clay as gas barrier in landfill covers is thus worthwhile to be explored over a wide range of landfill gas pressures under various degrees of saturation and clay thicknesses. In this study, to evaluate the effectiveness of unsaturated compacted clay to minimize gas emission, one-dimensional soil column tests were carried out on unsaturated compacted clay to determine gas breakthrough pressures at ultimate limit state (high pressure range) and gas emission rates at serviceability limit state (low pressure range). Various degrees of saturation and thicknesses of unsaturated clay sample were considered. Moreover, numerical simulations were carried out using a coupled gas–water flow finite element program (CODE-BRIGHT) to better understand the experimental results by extending the clay thickness and varying the degree of saturation to a broader range that is typical at different
Kolb, D M; Williams, J
2001-02-01
Unspoken, subtle parts of a bargaining process--also known as the shadow negotiation--can set the tone for a successful negotiation. Deborah Kolb and Judith Williams, whose book The Shadow Negotiation was the starting point for this article, say there are three strategies businesspeople can use to guide these hidden interactions. Power moves are used when two negotiating parties hold unequal power--for instance, subordinates and bosses; new and existing employees; and people of different races, ages, or genders. These strategies, such as casting the status quo in an unfavorable light, can help parties realize that they must negotiate: they will be better off if they do and worse off if they don't. Process moves affect how negotiation issues are received by both sides in the process, even though they do not address substantive issues. Working outside of the actual bargaining process, one party can suggest ideas or marshal support that can shape the agenda and influence how others view the negotiation. Appreciative moves alter the tone or atmosphere so that a more collaborative exchange is possible. They shift the dynamics of the shadow negotiation away from the adversarial--helping parties to save face--and thus build trust and encourage dialogue. These strategic moves don't guarantee that all bargainers will walk away winners, but they help to get stalled negotiations moving--out of the dark of unspoken power plays and into the light of true dialogue.
Electrical breakthrough effect for end pointing in 90 and 45 nm node circuit edit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Kun; Soskov, Alex; Scipioni, Larry; Bassom, Neil; Sijbrandij, Sybren; Smith, Gerald
2006-01-01
The interaction between high-energy Ga + ions and condensed matter is studied for circuit edit applications. A new 'electrical breakthrough effect' due to charging of, and Ga + penetration/doping into, dielectrics is discovered. This new effect is proposed for end pointing in 90 and 45 nm node circuit edits where integrated circuit device dimensions are of a few hundred nanometers. This new end point approach is very sensitive, reliable, and precise. Most importantly, it is not sensitive to device dimensions. A series of circuit edits involving milling holes of high aspect ratio (5-30) and small cross-section area (0.01-0.25 μm 2 ) on real chips has been successfully performed using the electrical breakthrough effect as the end point method
Breakthrough of toluene vapours in granular activated carbon filled packed bed reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohan, N.; Kannan, G.K.; Upendra, S.; Subha, R.; Kumar, N.S.
2009-01-01
The objective of this research was to determine the toluene removal efficiency and breakthrough time using commercially available coconut shell-based granular activated carbon in packed bed reactor. To study the effect of toluene removal and break point time of the granular activated carbon (GAC), the parameters studied were bed lengths (2, 3, and 4 cm), concentrations (5, 10, and 15 mg l -1 ) and flow rates (20, 40, and 60 ml/min). The maximum percentage removal of 90% was achieved and the maximum carbon capacity for 5 mg l -1 of toluene, 60 ml/min flow rate and 3 cm bed length shows 607.14 mg/g. The results of dynamic adsorption in a packed bed were consistent with those of equilibrium adsorption by gravimetric method. The breakthrough time and quantity shows that GAC with appropriate surface area can be utilized for air cleaning filters. The result shows that the physisorption plays main role in toluene removal.
Chang, Horng-jinh; Wang, Whe-min
2017-06-01
Taiwan's economic strength has changed drastically in the past decade because of political and economic reasons; however, in order to cope with international environment, higher education must increase its breakthrough to meet the needs of enterprises. School curriculum also has to be timely changes and adjustments. This study will analyze school learning in several directions, use questionnaire to investigate students' learning stress, to find out where students' pressure lie. Also, outsourcing employers' satisfaction survey to find out what do enterprises wants to solve with the drop problem between school and enterprise. Taking Oriental Institute of Technology (OIT) as an example; over the past ten years, OIT has used overseas internships to help students overcome learning difficulties. Overseas practice courses include Penang Malaysia and Suzhou China had gained tremendous breakthrough.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobrowolski, Tomasz
2012-01-01
The constant curvature one and quasi-one dimensional Josephson junction is considered. On the base of Maxwell equations, the sine–Gordon equation that describes an influence of curvature on the kink motion was obtained. It is showed that the method of geometrical reduction of the sine–Gordon model from three to lower dimensional manifold leads to an identical form of the sine–Gordon equation. - Highlights: ► The research on dynamics of the phase in a curved Josephson junction is performed. ► The geometrical reduction is applied to the sine–Gordon model. ► The results of geometrical reduction and the fundamental research are compared.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Je Hyun Baekt
2000-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.
Elliptic curves for applications (Tutorial)
Lange, T.; Bernstein, D.J.; Chatterjee, S.
2011-01-01
More than 25 years ago, elliptic curves over finite fields were suggested as a group in which the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) can be hard. Since then many researchers have scrutinized the security of the DLP on elliptic curves with the result that for suitably chosen curves only exponential
Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.
Chamberlain, John
1997-01-01
Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Zhaoming
2014-10-01
Full Text Available A steady high yield natural gas flow was tapped in the Ordovician strata of Well Gucheng 6 drilled in the Gucheng lower uplift in the Tarim Basin in 2012, marking the discovery of another carbonate gas exploration field after the other two fields in the middle and northern Tarim Basin (the so called Tazhong and Tabei in the industry. The exploration in the Gucheng lower uplift has experienced three stages: the first stage, marine facies clastic exploration from 1995 to 2003, focusing on the Devonian Donghe sandstone lithologic traps, the Silurian overlapping lithologic traps, and the Upper Ordovician shelf slope turbidites; the second stage focusing on the reef shoal carbonate reservoirs from 2003 to 2006, during which oil and gas were first discovered in Well Gucheng 4; the third stage can be divided into two periods, in the first period, deeper insight into interbed karstification reservoir exploration, intense research on tricky seismic issues, selection of favorable zones, and 3D seismic deployment in advance laid a robust foundation for breakthroughs in oil and gas exploration; and during 2009–2012, through an in-depth investigation, Well Gucheng 6 was drilled, bringing about the major breakthrough in oil and gas exploration in this study area. This success proves that the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Gucheng area have good geological conditions and broad prospect for oil and gas exploration, which give us enlightenment in three aspects: a. new insight into geologic understanding is the prerequisite of exploration breakthrough; b. addressing bottleneck technologies, and acquiring 3D seismic data are the guarantees of exploration breakthrough; and c. emancipation of mind and persistent exploration are key to the findings in new domains.
Comprehensive sieve analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial.
Edlefsen, Paul T; Rolland, Morgane; Hertz, Tomer; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Gartland, Andrew J; deCamp, Allan C; Magaret, Craig A; Ahmed, Hasan; Gottardo, Raphael; Juraska, Michal; McCoy, Connor; Larsen, Brendan B; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Carrico, Chris; Menis, Sergey; Kijak, Gustavo H; Bose, Meera; Arroyo, Miguel A; O'Connell, Robert J; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Robb, Merlin L; Kirys, Tatsiana; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Kwong, Peter D; Scheffler, Konrad; Pond, Sergei L Kosakovsky; Carlson, Jonathan M; Michael, Nelson L; Schief, William R; Mullins, James I; Kim, Jerome H; Gilbert, Peter B
2015-02-01
The RV144 clinical trial showed the partial efficacy of a vaccine regimen with an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) of 31% for protecting low-risk Thai volunteers against acquisition of HIV-1. The impact of vaccine-induced immune responses can be investigated through sieve analysis of HIV-1 breakthrough infections (infected vaccine and placebo recipients). A V1/V2-targeted comparison of the genomes of HIV-1 breakthrough viruses identified two V2 amino acid sites that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Here we extended the V1/V2 analysis to the entire HIV-1 genome using an array of methods based on individual sites, k-mers and genes/proteins. We identified 56 amino acid sites or "signatures" and 119 k-mers that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Of those, 19 sites and 38 k-mers were located in the regions comprising the RV144 vaccine (Env-gp120, Gag, and Pro). The nine signature sites in Env-gp120 were significantly enriched for known antibody-associated sites (p = 0.0021). In particular, site 317 in the third variable loop (V3) overlapped with a hotspot of antibody recognition, and sites 369 and 424 were linked to CD4 binding site neutralization. The identified signature sites significantly covaried with other sites across the genome (mean = 32.1) more than did non-signature sites (mean = 0.9) (p analysis of the breakthrough infections in the RV144 trial, this work describes a set of statistical methods and tools applicable to analysis of breakthrough infection genomes in general vaccine efficacy trials for diverse pathogens.
[Breakthrough pain treatment with sublingual fentanyl in patients with chronic cutaneous ulcers].
Domingo-Triadó, V; López Alarcón, M D; Villegas Estévez, F; Alba Moratillas, C; Massa Domínguez, B; Palomares Payá, F; Mínguez Martí, A; Debón Vicent, L
2014-10-01
The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of opioids in the management of pain in those patients with chronic cutaneous ulcers and breakthrough/incidental pain. An open-label, multicentre, prospective, uncontrolled study was conducted in the pain and ulcer units of 5 hospitals across the Comunidad Valenciana. Eligibility criteria were baseline pain 4 in the visual analogue scale or breakthrough procedural pain 4. Exclusion criteria were cognitive impairment, opioid intolerance, or patient refusal to provide informed consent. The protocol scheduled 5 controls: baseline (enrolment), 15 days, one month, 2 months, and 3 months. The main outcome measure of the study was the visual analogue scale score during rest, movement and procedures. Opioids were administered for release of the baseline pain, and sublingual fentanyl for breakthrough pain. A total of 32 patients (86.5%) completed the study. Baseline pain achieved a mean improvement of 3.6 visual analogue scale points (SD 2.3), movement pain improved by 3.9 points (SD 2.5) and procedural pain improved by 4.5 points (SD 2.8), and the mean pain intensity improvement was statistically significant from the first control and at all controls thereafter (PDolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Booth, Richard A.; Meru, Farzana; Lee, Man Hoi; Clarke, Cathie J.
2018-03-01
For grain growth to proceed effectively and lead to planet formation, a number of barriers to growth must be overcome. One such barrier, relevant for compact grains in the inner regions of the disc, is the `bouncing barrier' in which large grains (˜mm size) tend to bounce off each other rather than sticking. However, by maintaining a population of small grains, it has been suggested that cm-size particles may grow rapidly by sweeping up these small grains. We present the first numerically resolved investigation into the conditions under which grains may be lucky enough to grow beyond the bouncing barrier by a series of rare collisions leading to growth (so-called `breakthrough'). Our models support previous results, and show that in simple models breakthrough requires the mass ratio at which high-velocity collisions transition to growth instead of causing fragmentation to be low, ϕ ≲ 50. However, in models that take into account the dependence of the fragmentation threshold on mass ratio, we find that breakthrough occurs more readily, even if mass transfer is relatively inefficient. This suggests that bouncing may only slow down growth, rather than preventing growth beyond a threshold barrier. However, even when growth beyond the bouncing barrier is possible, radial drift will usually prevent growth to arbitrarily large sizes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey A. Cherkis
2007-03-01
Full Text Available A typical solution of an integrable system is described in terms of a holomorphic curve and a line bundle over it. The curve provides the action variables while the time evolution is a linear flow on the curve's Jacobian. Even though the system of Nahm equations is closely related to the Hitchin system, the curves appearing in these two cases have very different nature. The former can be described in terms of some classical scattering problem while the latter provides a solution to some Seiberg-Witten gauge theory. This note identifies the setup in which one can formulate the question of relating the two curves.
Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.
2016-12-01
Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lippoldt, Stefan
2016-01-21
In this thesis we study a formulation of Dirac fermions in curved spacetime that respects general coordinate invariance as well as invariance under local spin base transformations. We emphasize the advantages of the spin base invariant formalism both from a conceptual as well as from a practical viewpoint. This suggests that local spin base invariance should be added to the list of (effective) properties of (quantum) gravity theories. We find support for this viewpoint by the explicit construction of a global realization of the Clifford algebra on a 2-sphere which is impossible in the spin-base non-invariant vielbein formalism. The natural variables for this formulation are spacetime-dependent Dirac matrices subject to the Clifford-algebra constraint. In particular, a coframe, i.e. vielbein field is not required. We disclose the hidden spin base invariance of the vielbein formalism. Explicit formulas for the spin connection as a function of the Dirac matrices are found. This connection consists of a canonical part that is completely fixed in terms of the Dirac matrices and a free part that can be interpreted as spin torsion. The common Lorentz symmetric gauge for the vielbein is constructed for the Dirac matrices, even for metrics which are not linearly connected. Under certain criteria, it constitutes the simplest possible gauge, demonstrating why this gauge is so useful. Using the spin base formulation for building a field theory of quantized gravity and matter fields, we show that it suffices to quantize the metric and the matter fields. This observation is of particular relevance for field theory approaches to quantum gravity, as it can serve for a purely metric-based quantization scheme for gravity even in the presence of fermions. Hence, in the second part of this thesis we critically examine the gauge, and the field-parametrization dependence of renormalization group flows in the vicinity of non-Gaussian fixed points in quantum gravity. While physical
Pashkus N.A; Pashkus V.
2013-01-01
The article discusses the possibility of using active marketing strategies for promoting the results of university’s innovations. Benefits, that can be obtained by university through its strategy of breakthrough positioning explored
Transport and retention of strontium in surface-modified quartz sand with different wettability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yifei Li; Shuaihui Tian; Tianwei Qian
2011-01-01
Instead of radioactive 90 Sr, common strontium chloride was used to simulate the migration of radioactive strontium chloride in surface hydroxylated, silanized, and common quartz sand. The sorption and retardation characteristics of strontium (Sr 2+ ) in these surface modified quartz sands were studied by batch tests and column experiments. The equilibrium sorption data for Sr 2+ on different wettability sands were described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, and the Langmuir model has been found to provide better correlation for hydrophilic sand. The breakthrough curves (BTCs) of Sr 2+ in these media were analyzed with the equilibrium convection-dispersion equation (CDE) and a non-equilibrium two-region mobile-immobile model (TRM) using a nonlinear least square curve-fitting program CXTFIT. The TRM model showed better fit to the measured BTCs of Sr 2+ , and the parameters of the fraction of mobile water indicated that significant preferential flow effected the non-equilibrium transport of Sr 2+ . Although TRM model could not fit the Sr 2+ BTCs very well, the parameter estimated by TRM model may be more reliable than those obtained from batch experiments because the transport of Sr 2+ in these kind of sand is non-equilibrium processes. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Buzina, Walter
2009-01-01
Caspofungin is used for the treatment of acute invasive candidiasis and as salvage treatment for invasive aspergillosis. We report characteristics of isolates of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus detected in a patient with breakthrough infection complicating severe gastrointestinal surgery...... without FSK1 resistance mutations in liver and lung tissues. Breakthrough disseminated aspergillosis and candidiasis developed despite an absence of characteristic FKS1 resistance mutations in the Aspergillus isolates. EUCAST and CLSI methodology did not separate the candin-resistant clinical isolate from...
Guiltinan, E. J.; Cardenas, M. B.; Cockrell, L.; Espinoza, N.
2017-12-01
The geologic sequestration of CO2 is widely considered a potential solution for decreasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 emissions. As CO2 rises buoyantly within a reservoir it pools beneath a caprock and a pressure is exerted upon the pores of the caprock proportionally to the height of the pool. The breakthrough pressure is the point at which CO2 begins to flow freely across the caprock. Understanding the mineralogical and grain size controls on breakthrough pressure is important for screening the security of CO2 sequestration sites. However, breakthrough pressure and permeability measurements on caprocks are difficult to conduct in a systematic manner given the variability in and heterogeneity of naturally occurring mudstones and shales causing significant noise and scatter in the literature. Recent work has even revealed the ability for CO2 to pass through thin shale beds at relatively low pressures. To broaden the understanding of shale breakthrough and permeability, we developed an approach that allows for the creation of resedimented mudstones at high effective stresses. Resedimented samples also include calcium carbonate cement. Using this technique, we explore the controls on entry pressure, breakthrough pressure, and permeability of synthetic mudstones. Understanding the effect of mineralogy and grain size on the permeability and breakthrough pressure of mudstones at reservoir stresses will help in the selection and uncertainty quantification of secure CO2 storage sites.
Sadek, Mohammad
2010-01-01
In this thesis we give insight into the minimisation problem of genus one curves defined by equations other than Weierstrass equations. We are interested in genus one curves given as double covers of P1, plane cubics, or complete intersections of two quadrics in P3. By minimising such a curve we mean making the invariants associated to its defining equations as small as possible using a suitable change of coordinates. We study the non-uniqueness of minimisations of the genus one curves des...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korittke, N. (DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Lagerstaette und Vermessung (ILV))
1991-02-14
After a construction time of about 2.5 years the first link was made in the Eurotunnel between France and England, viz. the service tunnel, on 1 December 1990. Thanks to the accurate Gyromat measurements of the Institute for Mineral Deposits and Surveying of the Deutsche Montan Technologie (DMT) a transverse deviation of only 361 mm, a longitudinal deviation of 69 mm and a vertical deviation of 58 mm were determined in the breakthrough of the 22.3 and 15.6 km long tunnel sections. (orig.).
Epicardial Breakthrough Waves During Sinus Rhythm: Depiction of the Arrhythmogenic Substrate?
Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Lanters, Eva A H; Teuwen, Christophe P; van der Does, Lisette J M E; Kik, Charles; Knops, Paul; Bekkers, Jos A; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S
2017-09-01
Epicardial breakthrough waves (EBW) during atrial fibrillation are important elements of the arrhythmogenic substrate and result from endo-epicardial asynchrony, which also occurs to some degree during sinus rhythm (SR). We examined the incidence and characteristics of EBW during SR and its possible value in the detection of the arrhythmogenic substrate associated with atrial fibrillation. Intraoperative epicardial mapping (interelectrode distances 2 mm) of the right atrium, Bachmann's bundle, the left atrioventricular groove, and the pulmonary vein area was performed during SR in 381 patients (289 male, 67±10 years) with ischemic or valvular heart disease. EBW were referred to as sinus node breakthrough waves if they were the earliest right atrial activated site. A total of 218 EBW and 57 sinus node breakthrough waves were observed in 168 patients (44%). EBW mostly occurred at right atrium (N=105, 48%) and left atrioventricular groove (N=67, 31%), followed by Bachmann's bundle (N=27, 12%) and pulmonary vein area (N=19, 9%; P <0.001). EBW occurred most often in ischemic heart disease patients (N=114, 49%) compared with (ischemic and) valvular heart disease patients (N=26, 17%; P <0.001). EBW electrograms most often consisted of double and fractionated potentials (N=137, 63%). In case of single potentials, an R wave was observed in 88% (N=71) of EBW, as opposed to 21% of sinus node breakthrough waves (N=5; P <0.001). Fractionated EBW potentials were more often observed at the right atrium and Bachmann's bundle ( P <0.001). During SR, EBW are present in over a third of patients, particularly in thicker parts of the atrial wall. Features of SR EBW indicate that muscular connections between endo- and epicardium underlie EBW and that a slight degree of endo-epicardial asynchrony required for EBW to occur is already present in some areas during SR. Hence, an anatomic substrate is present, which may enhance the occurrence of EBW during atrial fibrillation, thereby
Comprehensive sieve analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul T Edlefsen
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The RV144 clinical trial showed the partial efficacy of a vaccine regimen with an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE of 31% for protecting low-risk Thai volunteers against acquisition of HIV-1. The impact of vaccine-induced immune responses can be investigated through sieve analysis of HIV-1 breakthrough infections (infected vaccine and placebo recipients. A V1/V2-targeted comparison of the genomes of HIV-1 breakthrough viruses identified two V2 amino acid sites that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Here we extended the V1/V2 analysis to the entire HIV-1 genome using an array of methods based on individual sites, k-mers and genes/proteins. We identified 56 amino acid sites or "signatures" and 119 k-mers that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Of those, 19 sites and 38 k-mers were located in the regions comprising the RV144 vaccine (Env-gp120, Gag, and Pro. The nine signature sites in Env-gp120 were significantly enriched for known antibody-associated sites (p = 0.0021. In particular, site 317 in the third variable loop (V3 overlapped with a hotspot of antibody recognition, and sites 369 and 424 were linked to CD4 binding site neutralization. The identified signature sites significantly covaried with other sites across the genome (mean = 32.1 more than did non-signature sites (mean = 0.9 (p < 0.0001, suggesting functional and/or structural relevance of the signature sites. Since signature sites were not preferentially restricted to the vaccine immunogens and because most of the associations were insignificant following correction for multiple testing, we predict that few of the genetic differences are strongly linked to the RV144 vaccine-induced immune pressure. In addition to presenting results of the first complete-genome analysis of the breakthrough infections in the RV144 trial, this work describes a set of statistical methods and tools applicable to analysis of breakthrough infection genomes in general vaccine
So That's How! 2007 Microsoft® Office System Timesavers, Breakthroughs, & Everyday Genius
Archilla, Evan
2009-01-01
Turn your productivity drains into productivity gains! With this practical (and fun) guide, you'll discover the best ways to tackle your daily work with the 2007 Microsoft Office system. The authors have taught thousands of people to get better results with less effort. Now these efficiency experts let you steal from their "tip jar" full of timesaving shortcuts and other brilliant ideas. You'll explore what's new in your favorite Microsoft Office programs-and transform the way you work. Get timesavers, breakthroughs, & everyday genius to: Take control of your inbox, calendar, and everyday in
Poirier, A F; Murphy, W R
2016-12-01
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA, 2012) introduced the Breakthrough Therapy Designation (BTD), a new tool to expedite development of medicines to treat serious or life-threatening diseases. The majority of BTDs have gone to oncology drugs, and a recent publication by Shea et al. 1 reviewed the impact of BTD on oncology drug development. This article reviews the impact of BTD on development strategies and timelines for nononcology drugs. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Quantum fields in curved space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birrell, N.D.; Davies, P.C.W.
1982-01-01
The book presents a comprehensive review of the subject of gravitational effects in quantum field theory. Quantum field theory in Minkowski space, quantum field theory in curved spacetime, flat spacetime examples, curved spacetime examples, stress-tensor renormalization, applications of renormalization techniques, quantum black holes and interacting fields are all discussed in detail. (U.K.)
Extended analysis of cooling curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djurdjevic, M.B.; Kierkus, W.T.; Liliac, R.E.; Sokolowski, J.H.
2002-01-01
Thermal Analysis (TA) is the measurement of changes in a physical property of a material that is heated through a phase transformation temperature range. The temperature changes in the material are recorded as a function of the heating or cooling time in such a manner that allows for the detection of phase transformations. In order to increase accuracy, characteristic points on the cooling curve have been identified using the first derivative curve plotted versus time. In this paper, an alternative approach to the analysis of the cooling curve has been proposed. The first derivative curve has been plotted versus temperature and all characteristic points have been identified with the same accuracy achieved using the traditional method. The new cooling curve analysis also enables the Dendrite Coherency Point (DCP) to be detected using only one thermocouple. (author)
Breakthrough indicator for aromatic VOCs using needle trap samplers for activated carbon adsorbent.
Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Jiang, Jia-Rong; Huang, Yi-Ning; Huang, Shiun-Chian; Yu, Yan-Pin
2012-08-01
Internal circulation cabinets equipped with granular activated carbon (GAC) for adsorbing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely used to store bottles containing organic solvents in universities, colleges, and hospital laboratories throughout Taiwan. This work evaluates the VOC adsorption capacities of GAC using various adsorption times for gas stream mixtures of 100 ppm toluene and 100 ppm o-xylene. Additionally, needle trap sampling (NTS) technology was used to indicate the time for renewing the GAC to avoid VOC breakthrough from adsorbents. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed models can linearly express toluene and o-xylene adsorption capacities as the natural logarithm of adsorption time (ln(t)) and can accurately simulate the equilibrium adsorption capacities (Qe, g VOCs/g GAC) for gaseous toluene and o-xylene. The NTS, packed with 60-80 mesh divinylbenzene (DVB) particles, was compared in terms of extraction efficiency by simultaneously using the 75-microm Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane-solid-phase microextraction (Carboxen/PDMS-SPME) fiber for time-weighted average (TWA) sampling, and experimental results indicated that the packed DVB-NTS achieved higher toluene extraction rates. Additionally, the NTS installed in the outlet air stream for adsorbing toluene and o-xylene exhausted through GAC accurately indicated toluene and o-xylene breakthrough times of 4700-5000 min. The GAC-NTS operational instructions to indicate the replacing time of adsorbent in the internal circulation cabinets are also included in this paper.
Staines, Anthony; Amherdt, Isabelle; Lécureux, Estelle; Petignat, Christiane; Eggimann, Philippe; Schwab, Marcos; Pittet, Didier
2017-12-01
OBJECTIVE To assess hand hygiene improvement and sustainability associated with a Breakthrough Collaborative. DESIGN Multicenter analysis of hand hygiene compliance through direct observation by trained observers. SETTING A total of 5 publicly funded hospitals in 14 locations, with a total of 1,152 beds, in the County of Vaud, Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS Clinical staff. INTERVENTIONS In total, 59,272 opportunities for hand hygiene were monitored for the duration of the study, for an average of 5,921 per audit (range, 5,449-6,852). An 18-month Hand Hygiene Breakthrough Collaborative was conducted to implement the WHO multimodal promotional strategy including improved access to alcohol-based hand rub, education, performance measurement and feedback, reminders and communication, leadership engagement, and safety culture. RESULTS Overall hand hygiene compliance improved from 61.9% to 88.3% (Pstrategy for content and measurement was associated with significant and substantial improvement in compliance across all professions, all hand hygiene indications, and all participating hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1420-1427.
Proposal to realize a cost breakthrough in carbon-13 production by photochemical separation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marling, J.B.
1979-10-01
A cost breakthrough can now be made in photochemical production of the rare stable isotope carbon-13. This cost breakthrough is achieved by CO 2 laser infrared multiple-photon dissociation of any of several halocarbons (Freon derivatives) such as CF 3 Cl, CF 3 Br, or CF 2 Cl 2 . The single-step carbon-13 enrichment factor for this process is approximately 50, yielding 30% pure C-13 in one step, or up to 97% pure C-13 in two steps. A three-fold carbon-13 cost reduction to below $20/gram is expected to be achieved in a small laboratory-scale demonstration facility capable of producing 4 to 8 kg/year of carbon-13, using presently available pulsed CO 2 TEA lasers at an average power level of 50 watts. Personnel costs dominate the attainable C-13 production costs in a small photochemical enrichment facility. A price reduction to $2/gm carbon-13 is feasible at carbon-13 production levels of 100 to 1000 kg/year, dominated by the Freon raw material costs
Computational aspects of algebraic curves
Shaska, Tanush
2005-01-01
The development of new computational techniques and better computing power has made it possible to attack some classical problems of algebraic geometry. The main goal of this book is to highlight such computational techniques related to algebraic curves. The area of research in algebraic curves is receiving more interest not only from the mathematics community, but also from engineers and computer scientists, because of the importance of algebraic curves in applications including cryptography, coding theory, error-correcting codes, digital imaging, computer vision, and many more.This book cove
Z. Z. Chowdhury; S. M. Zain; A. K. Rashid; R. F. Rafique; K. Khalid
2013-01-01
The potential of granular-activated carbon (GAC) derived from agrowaste of Mangostene (Mangostana garcinia) fruit peel was investigated in batch and fixed bed system as a replacement of current expensive methods for treating wastewater contaminated by manganese, Mn(II) cations. Batch equilibrium data was analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models at different temperatures. The effect of inlet metal ion concentration (50 mg/L, 70 mg/L, and 100 mg/L), feed flow rate (1 mL/min...
51Cr - erythrocyte survival curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paiva Costa, J. de.
1982-07-01
Sixteen patients were studied, being fifteen patients in hemolytic state, and a normal individual as a witness. The aim was to obtain better techniques for the analysis of the erythrocytes, survival curves, according to the recommendations of the International Committee of Hematology. It was used the radiochromatic method as a tracer. Previously a revisional study of the International Literature was made in its aspects inherent to the work in execution, rendering possible to establish comparisons and clarify phonomena observed in cur investigation. Several parameters were considered in this study, hindering both the exponential and the linear curves. The analysis of the survival curves of the erythrocytes in the studied group, revealed that the elution factor did not present a homogeneous answer quantitatively to all, though, the result of the analysis of these curves have been established, through listed programs in the electronic calculator. (Author) [pt
Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofer, H.; Altmann, H.; Kehrer, M.
1978-08-01
Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA and data derived of them, are reported. The diminished stability is explained by basedestruction. DNA denatures completely at room temperature, if at least every fifth basepair is broken or weakened by irradiation. (author)
Management of the learning curve
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Peter-Christian; Slepniov, Dmitrij
2016-01-01
Purpose – This paper focuses on the management of the learning curve in overseas capacity expansions. The purpose of this paper is to unravel the direct as well as indirect influences on the learning curve and to advance the understanding of how these affect its management. Design...... the dimensions of the learning process involved in a capacity expansion project and identified the direct and indirect labour influences on the production learning curve. On this basis, the study proposes solutions to managing learning curves in overseas capacity expansions. Furthermore, the paper concludes...... with measures that have the potential to significantly reduce the non-value-added time when establishing new capacities overseas. Originality/value – The paper uses a longitudinal in-depth case study of a Danish wind turbine manufacturer and goes beyond a simplistic treatment of the lead time and learning...
Modeling atrazine transport in soil columns with HYDRUS-1D
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Leju Celestino Ladu
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Both physical and chemical processes affect the fate and transport of herbicides. It is useful to simulate these processes with computer programs to predict solute movement. Simulations were run with HYDRUS-1D to identify the sorption and degradation parameters of atrazine through calibration from the breakthrough curves (BTCs. Data from undisturbed and disturbed soil column experiments were compared and analyzed using the dual-porosity model. The study results show that the values of dispersivity are slightly lower in disturbed columns, suggesting that the more heterogeneous the structure is, the higher the dispersivity. Sorption parameters also show slight variability, which is attributed to the differences in soil properties, experimental conditions and methods, or other ecological factors. For both of the columns, the degradation rates were similar. Potassium bromide was used as a conservative non-reactive tracer to characterize the water movement in columns. Atrazine BTCs exhibited significant tailing and asymmetry, indicating non-equilibrium sorption during solute transport. The dual-porosity model was verified to best fit the BTCs of the column experiments. Greater or lesser concentration of atrazine spreading to the bottom of the columns indicated risk of groundwater contamination. Overall, HYDRUS-1D successfully simulated the atrazine transport in soil columns.
A parametric transfer function methodology for analyzing reactive transport in nonuniform flow.
Luo, Jian; Cirpka, Olaf A; Fienen, Michael N; Wu, Wei-min; Mehlhorn, Tonia L; Carley, Jack; Jardine, Philip M; Criddle, Craig S; Kitanidis, Peter K
2006-02-01
We analyze reactive transport during in-situ bioremediation in a nonuniform flow field, involving multiple extraction and injection wells, by the method of transfer functions. Gamma distributions are used as parametric models of the transfer functions. Apparent parameters of classical transport models may be estimated from those of the gamma distributions by matching temporal moments. We demonstrate the method by application to measured data taken at a field experiment on bioremediation conducted in a multiple-well system in Oak Ridge, TN. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of a conservative tracer (bromide) and a reactive compound (ethanol) are measured at multi-level sampling (MLS) wells and in extraction wells. The BTCs of both compounds are jointly analyzed to estimate the first-order degradation rate of ethanol. To quantify the tracer loss, we compare the approaches of using a scaling factor and a first-order decay term. Results show that by including a scaling factor both gamma distributions and inverse-Gaussian distributions (transfer functions according to the advection-dispersion equation) are suitable to approximate the transfer functions and estimate the reactive rate coefficients for both MLS and extraction wells. However, using a first-order decay term for tracer loss fails to describe the BTCs at the extraction well, which is affected by the nonuniform distribution of travel paths.
Wang, Lichun; Cardenas, M Bayani
2015-08-01
The quantitative study of transport through fractured media has continued for many decades, but has often been constrained by observational and computational challenges. Here, we developed an efficient quasi-3D random walk particle tracking (RWPT) algorithm to simulate solute transport through natural fractures based on a 2D flow field generated from the modified local cubic law (MLCL). As a reference, we also modeled the actual breakthrough curves (BTCs) through direct simulations with the 3D advection-diffusion equation (ADE) and Navier-Stokes equations. The RWPT algorithm along with the MLCL accurately reproduced the actual BTCs calculated with the 3D ADE. The BTCs exhibited non-Fickian behavior, including early arrival and long tails. Using the spatial information of particle trajectories, we further analyzed the dynamic dispersion process through moment analysis. From this, asymptotic time scales were determined for solute dispersion to distinguish non-Fickian from Fickian regimes. This analysis illustrates the advantage and benefit of using an efficient combination of flow modeling and RWPT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilde, Tineke de; Mertens, Jan; Simunek, Jirka; Sniegowksi, Kristel; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jaeken, Peter; Springael, Dirk; Spanoghe, Pieter
2009-01-01
Biopurification systems treating pesticide contaminated water are very efficient, however they operate as a black box. Processes inside the system are not yet characterized. To optimize the performance, knowledge of degradation and retention processes needs to be generated. Therefore, displacement experiments were carried out for four pesticides (isoproturon, bentazone, metalaxyl, linuron) in columns containing different organic mixtures. Bromide, isoproturon and bentazone breakthrough curves (BTCs) were well described using the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) and a first-order degradation kinetic approach. Metalaxyl and linuron BTCs were well described using the CDE model expanded with Monod-type kinetics. Freundlich sorption, first-order degradation and Monod kinetics coefficients were fitted to the BTCs. Fitted values of the distribution coefficient K f,column were much lower than those determined from batch experiments. Based on mobility, pesticides were ranked as: bentazone > metalaxyl - isoproturon > linuron. Based on degradability, pesticides were ranked as: linuron > metalaxyl - isoproturon > bentazone. - Transport of pesticides in column experiments containing organic substrates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilde, Tineke de [Laboratory of Crop Protection Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: tineke.dewilde@UGent.be; Mertens, Jan [Division Soil and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Simunek, Jirka [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Sniegowksi, Kristel; Ryckeboer, Jaak [Division Soil and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Jaeken, Peter [PCF-Royal Research Station of Gorsem, De Brede Akker 13, 3800 Sint-Truiden (Belgium); Springael, Dirk [Division Soil and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Spanoghe, Pieter [Laboratory of Crop Protection Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)
2009-02-15
Biopurification systems treating pesticide contaminated water are very efficient, however they operate as a black box. Processes inside the system are not yet characterized. To optimize the performance, knowledge of degradation and retention processes needs to be generated. Therefore, displacement experiments were carried out for four pesticides (isoproturon, bentazone, metalaxyl, linuron) in columns containing different organic mixtures. Bromide, isoproturon and bentazone breakthrough curves (BTCs) were well described using the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) and a first-order degradation kinetic approach. Metalaxyl and linuron BTCs were well described using the CDE model expanded with Monod-type kinetics. Freundlich sorption, first-order degradation and Monod kinetics coefficients were fitted to the BTCs. Fitted values of the distribution coefficient K{sub f,column} were much lower than those determined from batch experiments. Based on mobility, pesticides were ranked as: bentazone > metalaxyl - isoproturon > linuron. Based on degradability, pesticides were ranked as: linuron > metalaxyl - isoproturon > bentazone. - Transport of pesticides in column experiments containing organic substrates.
Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo
2015-09-04
To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C. Logarithmic values of specific breakthrough volume for four nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, and VX) showed a nearly linear correlation with the reciprocals of their boiling points, but the data point of sulfur mustard deviated from this linear curve. Next, we developed a method to determine volatile CWAs in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography (TD-GC/MS). CWA solutions that were spiked into the Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes were analyzed by a two-stage TD-GC/MS using a Tenax(®) TA-packed cold trap tube. Linear calibration curves for CWAs retained in the resin tubes were obtained in the range between 0.2pL and 100pL for sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard; and between 2pL and 100pL for VX and Russian VX. We also examined the stability of CWAs in Tenax(®) TA tubes purged with either dry or 50% relative humidity air under storage conditions at room temperature or 4°C. More than 80% sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard were recovered from the tubes within 2 weeks. In contrast, the recoveries of VX and Russian VX drastically reduced with storage time at room temperature, resulting in a drop to 10-30% after 2 weeks. Moreover, we examined the trapping efficiency of Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes for vaporized CWA samples (100mL) prepared in a 500mL gas sampling cylinder. In the concentration range of 0.2-2.5mg/m(3), >50% of sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and HD were
Growth curves for Laron syndrome.
Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B
1993-01-01
Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls co...
Flow over riblet curved surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: atila@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2011-12-22
The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).
Intersection numbers of spectral curves
Eynard, B.
2011-01-01
We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the Marino-Vafa formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV, Marino-Vafa formula, and Mumford formula.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haverkamp, U.; Wiezorek, C.; Poetter, R.
1990-01-01
Lyoluminescence dosimetry is based upon light emission during dissolution of previously irradiated dosimetric materials. The lyoluminescence signal is expressed in the dissolution glow curve. These curves begin, depending on the dissolution system, with a high peak followed by an exponentially decreasing intensity. System parameters that influence the graph of the dissolution glow curve, are, for example, injection speed, temperature and pH value of the solution and the design of the dissolution cell. The initial peak does not significantly correlate with the absorbed dose, it is mainly an effect of the injection. The decay of the curve consists of two exponential components: one fast and one slow. The components depend on the absorbed dose and the dosimetric materials used. In particular, the slow component correlates with the absorbed dose. In contrast to the fast component the argument of the exponential function of the slow component is independent of the dosimetric materials investigated: trehalose, glucose and mannitol. The maximum value, following the peak of the curve, and the integral light output are a measure of the absorbed dose. The reason for the different light outputs of various dosimetric materials after irradiation with the same dose is the differing solubility. The character of the dissolution glow curves is the same following irradiation with photons, electrons or neutrons. (author)
Curve Boxplot: Generalization of Boxplot for Ensembles of Curves.
Mirzargar, Mahsa; Whitaker, Ross T; Kirby, Robert M
2014-12-01
In simulation science, computational scientists often study the behavior of their simulations by repeated solutions with variations in parameters and/or boundary values or initial conditions. Through such simulation ensembles, one can try to understand or quantify the variability or uncertainty in a solution as a function of the various inputs or model assumptions. In response to a growing interest in simulation ensembles, the visualization community has developed a suite of methods for allowing users to observe and understand the properties of these ensembles in an efficient and effective manner. An important aspect of visualizing simulations is the analysis of derived features, often represented as points, surfaces, or curves. In this paper, we present a novel, nonparametric method for summarizing ensembles of 2D and 3D curves. We propose an extension of a method from descriptive statistics, data depth, to curves. We also demonstrate a set of rendering and visualization strategies for showing rank statistics of an ensemble of curves, which is a generalization of traditional whisker plots or boxplots to multidimensional curves. Results are presented for applications in neuroimaging, hurricane forecasting and fluid dynamics.
Effects of Pisha sandstone content on solute transport in a sandy soil.
Zhen, Qing; Zheng, Jiyong; He, Honghua; Han, Fengpeng; Zhang, Xingchang
2016-02-01
In sandy soil, water, nutrients and even pollutants are easily leaching to deeper layers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of Pisha sandstone on soil solute transport in a sandy soil. The miscible displacement technique was used to obtain breakthrough curves (BTCs) of Br(-) as an inert non-adsorbed tracer and Na(+) as an adsorbed tracer. The incorporation of Pisha sandstone into sandy soil was able to prevent the early breakthrough of both tracers by decreasing the saturated hydraulic conductivity compared to the controlled sandy soil column, and the impeding effects increased with Pisha sandstone content. The BTCs of Br(-) were accurately described by both the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) and the two-region model (T-R), and the T-R model fitted the experimental data slightly better than the CDE. The two-site nonequilibrium model (T-S) accurately fit the Na(+) transport data. Pisha sandstone impeded the breakthrough of Na(+) not only by decreasing the saturated hydraulic conductivity but also by increasing the adsorption capacity of the soil. The measured CEC values of Pisha sandstone were up to 11 times larger than those of the sandy soil. The retardation factors (R) determined by the T-S model increased with increasing Pisha sandstone content, and the partition coefficient (K(d)) showed a similar trend to R. According to the results of this study, Pisha sandstone can successfully impede solute transport in a sandy soil column. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Lidbeck
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Recent investigations of dysfunctional pain processing in the central nervous system have contributed much knowledge about the development of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Many common chronic musculoskeletal pain syndromes - including regional myofascial pain syndromes, whiplash pain syndromes, refractory work-related neck-shoulder pain, certain types of chronic low back pain, fibromyalgia and others - may essentially be explained by abnormalities in central pain modulation. The growing awareness of dysfunctional central pain modulation may be a conceptual breakthrough leading to a better understanding of common chronic pain disorders. A new paradigm will have multiple clinical implications, including re-evaluation of clinical practice routines and rehabilitation methods, and will focus on controversial issues of medicolegal concern. The concept of dysfunctional central pain processing will also necessitate a mechanism-based classification of pain for the selection of individual treatment and rehabilitation programs for subgroups of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain due to different pathophysiological mechanisms.
Fentanyl sublingual spray for breakthrough cancer pain in patients receiving transdermal fentanyl.
Alberts, David S; Smith, Christina Cognata; Parikh, Neha; Rauck, Richard L
2016-10-01
To investigate the relationship between effective fentanyl sublingual spray (FSS) doses for breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP) and around-the-clock (ATC) transdermal fentanyl patch (TFP). Adults tolerating ATC opioids received open-label FSS for 26 days, followed by a 26-day double-blind phase for patients achieving an effective dose (100-1600 µg). Out of 50 patients on ATC TFP at baseline, 32 (64%) achieved an effective dose. FSS effective dose moderately correlated with mean TFP dose (r = 0.4; p = 0.03). Patient satisfaction increased during the study. Common adverse event included nausea (9%) and peripheral edema (9%). FSS can be safely titrated to an effective dose for BTCP in patients receiving ATC TFP as chronic cancer pain medication. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00538850.
Scientific breakthroughs necessary for the commercial success of renewable energy (Invited)
Sharp, J.
2010-12-01
In recent years the wind energy industry has grown at an unprecedented rate, and in certain regions has attained significant penetration into the power infrastructure. This growth has been both a result of, and a precursor to, significant advances in the science and business of wind energy. But as a result of this growth and increasing penetration, further advances and breakthroughs will become increasingly important. These advances will be required in a number of different aspects of wind energy, including: resource assessment, operations and performance analysis, forecasting, and the impacts of increased wind energy development. Resource assessment has benefited from the development of tools specifically designed for this purpose. Despite this, the atmosphere is often portrayed in an extremely simplified manner by these tools. New methodologies should rely upon more sophisticated application of the physics of fluid flows. There will need to be an increasing reliance and acceptance of improved measurement techniques (remote sensing, volume rather than point measurements, etc), and more sophisticated and higher-resolution numerical methods for micrositing. The goals of resource assessment will have to include a better understanding of the variability and forecastability of potential sites. Operational and performance analysis are vital to quantifying how well all aspects of the business are being carried out. Operational wind farms generate large amounts of meteorological and mechanical data. Data mining and detailed analysis of this data has proven to be invaluable to shed light upon poorly understood aspects of the science and industry. Future analysis will need to be even more rigorous and creative. Worthy topics of study include the impact of turbine wakes upon downstream turbine performance, how to utilize operational data to improve resource assessment and forecasting, and what the impacts of large-scale wind energy development might be. Forecasting is an
Ovarian stem cells and neo-oogenesis: A breakthrough in reproductive biology research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S Mooyottu1
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The concept of ovarian stem cells which can replenish the ovarian reserve in postnatal mammalian females is a revolutionary breakthrough in reproductive biology. This idea overturned the central dogma existed in female reproductive physiology. Contradicting the popular belief that oogenesis does not occur in post natal life, researchers proved the existence of putative stem cells in ovary, which can supply functional follicles in post natal ovaries. Even though the idea of neo-oogenesis in postnatal ovaries in normal conditions is controversial, the isolation and manipulation of ovarian stem cells have got tremendous application in medical, veterinary and animal production fields. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 89-91
From Bottleneck to Breakthrough: Urbanization and the Future of Biodiversity Conservation.
Sanderson, Eric W; Walston, Joseph; Robinson, John G
2018-06-01
For the first time in the Anthropocene, the global demographic and economic trends that have resulted in unprecedented destruction of the environment are now creating the necessary conditions for a possible renaissance of nature. Drawing reasonable inferences from current patterns, we can predict that 100 years from now, the Earth could be inhabited by between 6 and 8 billion people, with very few remaining in extreme poverty, most living in towns and cities, and nearly all participating in a technologically driven, interconnected market economy. Building on the scholarship of others in demography, economics, sociology, and conservation biology, here, we articulate a theory of social-environmental change that describes the simultaneous and interacting effects of urban lifestyles on fertility, poverty alleviation, and ideation. By recognizing the shifting dynamics of these macrodrivers, conservation practice has the potential to transform itself from a discipline managing declines ("bottleneck") to a transformative movement of recovery ("breakthrough").
Marketization of Collective-owned Rural Land: A Breakthrough in Shenzhen, China
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonghua Zou
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This study focuses on analyzing the ongoing land policy reform that allows collective-owned rural land transactions in the open market in Shenzhen, China. Employing a case study method, we investigate this land policy evolution through description and contextual analysis. We argue that the existing dual-track land administration system, within which the state administers market transactions, has contributed to numerous social problems, such as urban land scarcity, inefficiency of land resource allocation, and exacerbated social injustice. Following the recent actions of the central government, a collective-owned rural land parcel in Shenzhen was officially transferred in November 2013, an action viewed as a landmark step in reforming the current dual-track land system. Though the generalization of Shenzhen’s experiment nationwide faces significant barriers, Shenzhen’s breakthrough in liberalization of the rural land market indicates that China is moving toward a potential new round of land policy revolution.
Solar Spicules: Prospects for Breakthroughs in Understanding with Solar-B
Sterling, A.
Spicules densely populate the lower solar atmosphere; any image or movie of the chromosphere shows a plethora of them or their "cousins," such as mottles or fibrils. Yet despite several decades of effort we still do not know the mechanism that generates them, or how important their contribution is to the material and energy balance of the overall solar atmosphere. Solar-B will provide exciting new chromospheric observations at high time- and spatial-resolution, along with associated quality magnetic field data, that promise to open doors to revolutionary breakthroughs in spicule research. In this presentation we will review the current observational and theoretical status of spicule studies, and discuss prospects for advances in spicule understanding during the Solar-B era.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zahoor, A.; Kanninen, M.F.
1981-01-01
A method of analyzing internal surface circumferential cracks in ductile reactor piping is presented. The method utilizes an alternate but equivalent definition of the J-integral based on nonlinear structural compliance. The analysis is valid for situations where the cross section containing the crack is fully yielded. Results are obtained for radial and circumferential crack growth for pipes subjected to bending. The stability of radial crack growth (wall breakthrough) is assessed using the J-integral-based tearing modulus approach. The analysis is shown to be in agreement with experimental results on the stability of surface crack growth in Type 304 stainless stee pipes. Example quantitative results for fracture instability assessments for nuclear piping are presented. 23 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zahoor, A.; Kanninen, M.F.
1981-07-01
A method of analyzing internal surface circumferential cracks in ductile reactor piping is presented. The method utilizes an alternate but equivalent definition of the J-integral based on nonlinear structural compliance. The analysis is valid for situations where the cross section containing the crack is fully yielded. Results are obtained for radial and circumferential crack growth for pipes subjected to bending. The stability of radial crack growth (wall breakthrough) is assessed using the J-integral-based tearing modulus approach. The analysis is shown to be in agreement with experimental results on the stability of surface crack growth in Type 304 stainless stee pipes. Example quantitative results for fracture instability assessments for nuclear piping are presented. 23 refs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamille Abdool
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We report the case of a 14-year-old boy with a past history of primary generalized seizures, who had been seizure-free for 2 years on sodium valproate and presented with generalized tonic clonic seizures suggestive of breakthrough seizures. Examination revealed hypertension, impetiginous lesions of the lower limbs, microscopic hematuria, elevated antistreptolysin O titre and low complement levels consistent with acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated changes consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Hypertension was controlled with intravenous nitroglycerin followed by oral captopril and amlodipine. Brain MRI changes returned normal within 2 weeks. The nephritis went in to remission within 2 months and after 8 months the patient has been seizure free again. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome appeared to have neither short nor intermediate effect on seizure control in this patient. The relationship between posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and seizures is reviewed.
Supply chain optimization: a practitioner's perspective on the next logistics breakthrough.
Schlegel, G L
2000-08-01
The objective of this paper is to profile a practitioner's perspective on supply chain optimization and highlight the critical elements of this potential new logistics breakthrough idea. The introduction will briefly describe the existing distribution network, and business environment. This will include operational statistics, manufacturing software, and hardware configurations. The first segment will cover the critical success factors or foundations elements that are prerequisites for success. The second segment will give you a glimpse of a "working game plan" for successful migration to supply chain optimization. The final segment will briefly profile "bottom-line" benefits to be derived from the use of supply chain optimization as a strategy, tactical tool, and competitive advantage.
Dousset, S.; Thevenot, M.; Pot, V.; Šimunek, J.; Andreux, F.
2007-12-01
In this study, displacement experiments of isoproturon were conducted in disturbed and undisturbed columns of a silty clay loam soil under similar rainfall intensities. Solute transport occurred under saturated conditions in the undisturbed soil and under unsaturated conditions in the sieved soil because of a greater bulk density of the compacted undisturbed soil compared to the sieved soil. The objective of this work was to determine transport characteristics of isoproturon relative to bromide tracer. Triplicate column experiments were performed with sieved (structure partially destroyed to simulate conventional tillage) and undisturbed (structure preserved) soils. Bromide experimental breakthrough curves were analyzed using convective-dispersive and dual-permeability (DP) models (HYDRUS-1D). Isoproturon breakthrough curves (BTCs) were analyzed using the DP model that considered either chemical equilibrium or non-equilibrium transport. The DP model described the bromide elution curves of the sieved soil columns well, whereas it overestimated the tailing of the bromide BTCs of the undisturbed soil columns. A higher degree of physical non-equilibrium was found in the undisturbed soil, where 56% of total water was contained in the slow-flow matrix, compared to 26% in the sieved soil. Isoproturon BTCs were best described in both sieved and undisturbed soil columns using the DP model combined with the chemical non-equilibrium. Higher degradation rates were obtained in the transport experiments than in batch studies, for both soils. This was likely caused by hysteresis in sorption of isoproturon. However, it cannot be ruled out that higher degradation rates were due, at least in part, to the adopted first-order model. Results showed that for similar rainfall intensity, physical and chemical non-equilibrium were greater in the saturated undisturbed soil than in the unsaturated sieved soil. Results also suggested faster transport of isoproturon in the undisturbed soil due
Webber, Katherine; Davies, Andrew N; Cowie, Martin R
2015-10-01
Breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP) is a heterogeneous condition, and there are no internationally agreed standardized criteria to diagnose it. There are published algorithms to assist with diagnosis, but these differ in content. There are no comparative data to support use. To compare the diagnostic ability of a simple algorithm against a comprehensive clinical assessment to diagnose BTCP and to assess if verbal rating descriptors can adequately discriminate controlled background pain. Patients with cancer pain completed a three-step algorithm with a researcher to determine if they had controlled background pain and BTCP. This was followed by a detailed pain consultation with a clinical specialist who was blinded to the algorithm results and determined an independent pain diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for the condition of BTCP. Further analysis determined which verbal pain severity descriptors corresponded with the condition of controlled background pain. The algorithm had a sensitivity of 0.54 and a specificity of 0.76 in the identification of BTCP. The positive predictive value was 0.7, and the negative predictive value was 0.62. The sensitivity of a background pain severity rating of mild or less to accurately categorize controlled background pain was 0.69 compared with 0.97 for severity of moderate or less; however, this was balanced by a higher specificity rating for mild or less, 0.78 compared with 0.2. The diagnostic breakthrough pain algorithm had a good positive predictive value but limited sensitivity using a cutoff score of "mild" to define controlled background pain. When the cutoff level was changed to moderate, the sensitivity increased, but specificity reduced. A comprehensive clinical assessment remains the preferred method to diagnose BTCP. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Accord on “Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh”: A Breakthrough Agreement?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zillur Rahman
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This discussion aims to review the emergence of the “Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh” signed on May 13, 2013, and evaluate if it is an international agreement “breakthrough”. The Accord is signed not only by the global clothing brands and national garment unions but also by international trade union organizations, which is a new development. This raises a question: could this agreement set a new international negotiating precedence in industrial relations between transnational corporations and international trade union organizations? In Bangladesh, globalization has played an important role for booming garment industries. Yet, lack of workers’ rights, weak safety situations, and poor working conditions have continuously been reported. Local and international solidarity movements and garment workers’ welfare associations have been emphasizing workers’ rights and better and safer working environments in workplaces since the beginning of the 1990s. However, their voices were not highly considered even there were some initiatives. Following the ‘Rana Plaza’ garment factory building collapse in April 2013, one of the world’s worst industrial accidents, with more than 1,100 dead workers, some strong measures have been taken—one of these, signing the ‘Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh’. This is a strong achievement of a long struggle to take collective action for improving the safety in garment factories in Bangladesh. Although the Accord is understood as a game changer or breakthrough in relation to national and international agreements, do we really know yet if it is a breakthrough or not when it comes to its implementation?
Photogravimagnetic assists of light sails: a mixed blessing for Breakthrough Starshot?
Forgan, Duncan H.; Heller, René; Hippke, Michael
2018-03-01
Upon entering a star system, light sails are subject to both gravitational forces and radiation pressure, and can use both in concert to modify their trajectory. Moreover, stars possess significant magnetic fields, and if the sail is in any way charged, it will feel the Lorentz force also. We investigate the dynamics of so-called `photogravimagnetic assists' of sailcraft around α Centauri A, a potential first destination en route to Proxima Centauri (the goal of the Breakthrough Starshot programme). We find that a 10-m2 sail with a charge-to-mass ratio of around 10 μC g-1 or higher will need to take account of magnetic field effects during orbital manoeuvres. The magnetic field can provide an extra source of deceleration and deflection, and allow capture on to closer orbits around a target star. However, flipping the sign of the sailcraft's charge can radically change resulting trajectories, resulting in complex loop-de-loops around magnetic field lines and essentially random ejection from the star system. Even on well-behaved trajectories, the field can generate off-axis deflections at α Centauri that, while minor, can result in very poor targeting of the final destination (Proxima) post-assist. Fortunately for Breakthrough Starshot, nanosails are less prone to charging en route than their heavier counterparts, but can still accrue relatively high charge at both the origin and destination, when travelling at low speeds. Photogravimagnetic assists are highly non-trivial, and require careful course correction to mitigate against unwanted changes in trajectory.
Lantis, A C; Ames, M K; Atkins, C E; DeFrancesco, T C; Keene, B W; Werre, S R
2015-02-01
Pilot studies in our laboratory revealed that furosemide-induced renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation was not attenuated by the subsequent co-administration of benazepril. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of benazepril on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and furosemide-induced circulating RAAS activation. Our hypothesis was that benazepril suppression of ACE activity would not suppress furosemide-induced circulating RAAS activation, indicated by urinary aldosterone concentration. Ten healthy hound dogs were used in this study. The effect of furosemide (2 mg/kg p.o., q12h; Group F; n = 5) and furosemide plus benazepril (1 mg/kg p.o., q24h; Group FB; n = 5) on circulating RAAS was determined by plasma ACE activity, 4-6 h posttreatment, and urinary aldosterone to creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) on days -1, -2, 1, 3, and 7. There was a significant increase in the average UAldo:C (μg/g) after the administration of furosemide (Group F baseline [average of days -1 and -2] UAldo:C = 0.41, SD 0.15; day 1 UAldo:C = 1.1, SD 0.56; day 3 UAldo:C = 0.85, SD 0.50; day 7 UAldo:C = 1.1, SD 0.80, P Benazepril suppressed ACE activity (U/L) in Group FB (Group FB baseline ACE = 16.4, SD 4.2; day 1 ACE = 3.5, SD 1.4; day 3 ACE = 1.6, SD 1.3; day 7 ACE = 1.4, SD 1.4, P Benazepril decreased plasma ACE activity but did not prevent furosemide-induced RAAS activation, indicating aldosterone breakthrough (escape). This is particularly noteworthy in that breakthrough is observed at the time of initiation of RAAS suppression, as opposed to developing after months of therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Breakthrough and prospect of shale gas exploration and development in China
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dazhong Dong
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the past five years, shale gas exploration and development has grown in a leaping-forward way in China. Following USA and Canada, China is now the third country where industrial shale gas production is realized, with the cumulative production exceeding 60 × 108 m3 until the end of 2015. In this paper, the main achievements of shale gas exploration and development in China in recent years were reviewed and the future development prospect was analyzed. It is pointed out that shale gas exploration and development in China is, on the whole, still at its early stage. Especially, marine shale gas in the Sichuan Basin has dominated the recent exploration and development. For the realization of shale gas scale development in China, one key point lies in the breakthrough and industrial production of transitional facies and continental facies shale gas. Low–moderate yield of shale gas wells is the normal in China, so it is crucial to develop key exploration and development technologies. Especially, strictly controlling single well investment and significantly reducing cost are the important means to increase shale gas exploration and development benefits. And finally, suggestions were proposed in five aspects. First, continuously strengthen theoretical and technical researches, actively carry out appraisal on shale gas “sweet spots”, and gradually accumulate development basis. Second, stress on primary evaluation of exploration and development, highlight the effective implementation of shale gas resources, and control the rhythm of appraisal drilling and productivity construction. Third, highlight fine description and evaluation of shale gas reservoirs and increase the overall development level. Fourth, intensify the research on exploration and development technologies in order to stand out simple and practical technologies with low costs. And fifth, summarize the experiences in fast growth of shale gas exploration and development, highlight
Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough: The FAO and IAEA Crack the Code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dixit, Aabha
2014-01-01
With the breakthrough in sequencing the genome of the tsetse fly species Glossina morsitans in April 2014, another milestone has been achieved in helping to solve a problem that has had horrendous ramifications for Africa. Finding a solution to the havoc created by tsetse flies to livestock has been a major challenge for the combined scientific efforts of the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), as well as for the World Health Organization (WHO), which has focused on combating human sleeping sickness. Joint research over the past decades to block the spread of severe infection from tsetse flies resulted in the introduction by the FAO and IAEA of the environmentally friendly sterile insect technique (SIT), a biologically-based method for the management of key insect pests of agricultural, medical and veterinary importance. A form of insect birth control, the SIT involves releasing mass-bred male flies that have been sterilized by low doses of radiation into infested areas, where they mate with wild females. These do not produce offspring and, as a result, the technique can suppress and, if applied systematically on an area-wide basis, eventually eradicate populations of wild flies. The newly acquired knowledge of the tsetse fly genome provides a wealth of information for the improvement of the entire SIT package and can help unravel interactions between tsetse flies, symbionts and trypanosomes. The decoding of the genome was detailed in a press release issued by the IAEA on 24 April 2014 entitled Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough Brings Hope for African Farmers. Tsetse flies were successfully eradicated in 1997 from the Tanzanian island of Zanzibar using the SIT. Ethiopia and Senegal are making significant progress in infested areas with the same method. The FAO and IAEA are helping 14 countries control tsetse populations through applying area-wide integrated pest management approaches
Considerations for reference pump curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stockton, N.B.
1992-01-01
This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point
Curve Digitizer – A software for multiple curves digitizing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florentin ŞPERLEA
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The Curve Digitizer is software that extracts data from an image file representing a graphicand returns them as pairs of numbers which can then be used for further analysis and applications.Numbers can be read on a computer screen stored in files or copied on paper. The final result is adata set that can be used with other tools such as MSEXCEL. Curve Digitizer provides a useful toolfor any researcher or engineer interested in quantifying the data displayed graphically. The image filecan be obtained by scanning a document
Calibration curves for biological dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. . E-mail cgc@nuclear.inin.mx
2004-01-01
The generated information by the investigations in different laboratories of the world, included the ININ, in which settles down that certain class of chromosomal leisure it increases in function of the dose and radiation type, has given by result the obtaining of calibrated curves that are applied in the well-known technique as biological dosimetry. In this work is presented a summary of the work made in the laboratory that includes the calibrated curves for gamma radiation of 60 Cobalt and X rays of 250 k Vp, examples of presumed exposure to ionizing radiation, resolved by means of aberration analysis and the corresponding dose estimate through the equations of the respective curves and finally a comparison among the dose calculations in those people affected by the accident of Ciudad Juarez, carried out by the group of Oak Ridge, USA and those obtained in this laboratory. (Author)
Vertex algebras and algebraic curves
Frenkel, Edward
2004-01-01
Vertex algebras are algebraic objects that encapsulate the concept of operator product expansion from two-dimensional conformal field theory. Vertex algebras are fast becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern mathematics, with applications to representation theory, algebraic geometry, the theory of finite groups, modular functions, topology, integrable systems, and combinatorics. This book is an introduction to the theory of vertex algebras with a particular emphasis on the relationship with the geometry of algebraic curves. The notion of a vertex algebra is introduced in a coordinate-independent way, so that vertex operators become well defined on arbitrary smooth algebraic curves, possibly equipped with additional data, such as a vector bundle. Vertex algebras then appear as the algebraic objects encoding the geometric structure of various moduli spaces associated with algebraic curves. Therefore they may be used to give a geometric interpretation of various questions of representation theory. The book co...
Curve collection, extension of databases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gillemot, F.
1992-01-01
Full text: Databases: generally calculated data only. The original measurements: diagrams. Information loss between them Expensive research eg. irradiation, aging, creep etc. Original curves should be stored for reanalysing. The format of the stored curves: a. Data in ASCII files, only numbers b. Other information in strings in a second file Same name, but different extension. Extensions shows the type of the test and the type of the file. EXAMPLES. TEN is tensile information, TED is tensile data, CHN is Charpy informations, CHD is Charpy data. Storing techniques: digitalised measurements, digitalising old curves stored on paper. Use: making catalogues, reanalysing, comparison with new data. Tools: mathematical software packages like quattro, genplot, exel, mathcad, qbasic, pascal, fortran, mathlab, grapher etc. (author)
Rational points on elliptic curves
Silverman, Joseph H
2015-01-01
The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...
Theoretical melting curve of caesium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simozar, S.; Girifalco, L.A.; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia
1983-01-01
A statistical-mechanical model is developed to account for the complex melting curve of caesium. The model assumes the existence of three different species of caesium defined by three different electronic states. On the basis of this model, the free energy of melting and the melting curve are computed up to 60 kbar, using the solid-state data and the initial slope of the fusion curve as input parameters. The calculated phase diagram agrees with experiment to within the experimental error. Other thermodynamic properties including the entropy and volume of melting were also computed, and they agree with experiment. Since the theory requires only one adjustable constant, this is taken as strong evidence that the three-species model is satisfactory for caesium. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.
in a general equilibrium framework. For the empirical analysis we employ the IABS, a two percent sample of the German labor force. We find that the elasticity of the wage curve is particularly high for young workers and workers with a university degree, while it is low for older workers and workers...... Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...
Laffer Curves and Home Production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kotamäki Mauri
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In the earlier related literature, consumption tax rate Laffer curve is found to be strictly increasing (see Trabandt and Uhlig (2011. In this paper, a general equilibrium macro model is augmented by introducing a substitute for private consumption in the form of home production. The introduction of home production brings about an additional margin of adjustment – an increase in consumption tax rate not only decreases labor supply and reduces the consumption tax base but also allows a substitution of market goods with home-produced goods. The main objective of this paper is to show that, after the introduction of home production, the consumption tax Laffer curve exhibits an inverse U-shape. Also the income tax Laffer curves are significantly altered. The result shown in this paper casts doubt on some of the earlier results in the literature.
Complexity of Curved Glass Structures
Kosić, T.; Svetel, I.; Cekić, Z.
2017-11-01
Despite the increasing number of research on the architectural structures of curvilinear forms and technological and practical improvement of the glass production observed over recent years, there is still a lack of comprehensive codes and standards, recommendations and experience data linked to real-life curved glass structures applications regarding design, manufacture, use, performance and economy. However, more and more complex buildings and structures with the large areas of glass envelope geometrically complex shape are built every year. The aim of the presented research is to collect data on the existing design philosophy on curved glass structure cases. The investigation includes a survey about how architects and engineers deal with different design aspects of curved glass structures with a special focus on the design and construction process, glass types and structural and fixing systems. The current paper gives a brief overview of the survey findings.
Optimization on Spaces of Curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller-Andersen, Jakob
in Rd, and methods to solve the initial and boundary value problem for geodesics allowing us to compute the Karcher mean and principal components analysis of data of curves. We apply the methods to study shape variation in synthetic data in the Kimia shape database, in HeLa cell nuclei and cycles...... of cardiac deformations. Finally we investigate a new application of Riemannian shape analysis in shape optimization. We setup a simple elliptic model problem, and describe how to apply shape calculus to obtain directional derivatives in the manifold of planar curves. We present an implementation based...
Tracing a planar algebraic curve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Falai; Kozak, J.
1994-09-01
In this paper, an algorithm that determines a real algebraic curve is outlined. Its basic step is to divide the plane into subdomains that include only simple branches of the algebraic curve without singular points. Each of the branches is then stably and efficiently traced in the particular subdomain. Except for the tracing, the algorithm requires only a couple of simple operations on polynomials that can be carried out exactly if the coefficients are rational, and the determination of zeros of several polynomials of one variable. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs
The New Keynesian Phillips Curve
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ólafsson, Tjörvi
This paper provides a survey on the recent literature on the new Keynesian Phillips curve: the controversies surrounding its microfoundation and estimation, the approaches that have been tried to improve its empirical fit and the challenges it faces adapting to the open-economy framework. The new......, learning or state-dependant pricing. The introduction of openeconomy factors into the new Keynesian Phillips curve complicate matters further as it must capture the nexus between price setting, inflation and the exchange rate. This is nevertheless a crucial feature for any model to be used for inflation...... forecasting in a small open economy like Iceland....
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Sun, X
2013-04-01
Full Text Available level fluctuations (WLF) on a monthly basis was proposed in the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for the purpose of groundwater recharge estimation. In this paper, the physical meaning of parameters in the CRD and previous RIB models...
Bajrektarevic, Anis
2013-01-01
From Rio to Rio with Kyoto, Copenhagen and Durban in between, the conclusion remains the same: we fundamentally disagree on realities of this planet and the ways we can address them. A decisive breakthrough would necessitate both wider contexts and a larger participatory base so as to identify problems, formulate policies, and broaden and…
Signature Curves Statistics of DNA Supercoils
Shakiban, Cheri; Lloyd, Peter
2004-01-01
In this paper we describe the Euclidean signature curves for two dimensional closed curves in the plane and their generalization to closed space curves. The focus will be on discrete numerical methods for approximating such curves. Further we will apply these numerical methods to plot the signature curves related to three-dimensional simulated DNA supercoils. Our primary focus will be on statistical analysis of the data generated for the signature curves of the supercoils. We will try to esta...
Dual Smarandache Curves of a Timelike Curve lying on Unit dual Lorentzian Sphere
Kahraman, Tanju; Hüseyin Ugurlu, Hasan
2016-01-01
In this paper, we give Darboux approximation for dual Smarandache curves of time like curve on unit dual Lorentzian sphere. Firstly, we define the four types of dual Smarandache curves of a timelike curve lying on dual Lorentzian sphere.
Electro-Mechanical Resonance Curves
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
2018-01-01
Recently I have been investigating the frequency response of galvanometers. These are direct-current devices used to measure small currents. By using a low-frequency function generator to supply the alternating-current signal and a stopwatch smartphone app to measure the period, I was able to take data to allow a resonance curve to be drawn. This…
2013-01-01
This software can be used to assist with the assessment of margin of safety for a horizontal curve. It is intended for use by engineers and technicians responsible for safety analysis or management of rural highway pavement or traffic control devices...
Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds.
Hauberg, Soren
2016-09-01
Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimizes a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend to imply that the methods only work well when the manifold is mostly flat within the support of the generating distribution. We argue that instead of generalizing linear Euclidean models, it is more fruitful to generalize non-linear Euclidean models. Specifically, we extend the classic Principal Curves from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls of traditional geodesic approaches. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the Riemannian principal curves on several manifolds and datasets.
Elliptic curves and primality proving
Atkin, A. O. L.; Morain, F.
1993-07-01
The aim of this paper is to describe the theory and implementation of the Elliptic Curve Primality Proving algorithm. Problema, numeros primos a compositis dignoscendi, hosque in factores suos primos resolvendi, ad gravissima ac utilissima totius arithmeticae pertinere, et geometrarum tum veterum tum recentiorum industriam ac sagacitatem occupavisse, tam notum est, ut de hac re copiose loqui superfluum foret.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
from biology, feel that every pattern in the living world, ranging from the folding of ... curves band c have the same rate of increase but reach different asymptotes. If these .... not at x = 0, but at xo' which is the minimum size at birth that will permit ...
Survival curves for irradiated cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibson, D.K.
1975-01-01
The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)
Mentorship, learning curves, and balance.
Cohen, Meryl S; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Quintessenza, James A; Chai, Paul J; Lindberg, Harald L; Dickey, Jamie; Ungerleider, Ross M
2007-09-01
Professionals working in the arena of health care face a variety of challenges as their careers evolve and develop. In this review, we analyze the role of mentorship, learning curves, and balance in overcoming challenges that all such professionals are likely to encounter. These challenges can exist both in professional and personal life. As any professional involved in health care matures, complex professional skills must be mastered, and new professional skills must be acquired. These skills are both technical and judgmental. In most circumstances, these skills must be learned. In 2007, despite the continued need for obtaining new knowledge and learning new skills, the professional and public tolerance for a "learning curve" is much less than in previous decades. Mentorship is the key to success in these endeavours. The success of mentorship is two-sided, with responsibilities for both the mentor and the mentee. The benefits of this relationship must be bidirectional. It is the responsibility of both the student and the mentor to assure this bidirectional exchange of benefit. This relationship requires time, patience, dedication, and to some degree selflessness. This mentorship will ultimately be the best tool for mastering complex professional skills and maturing through various learning curves. Professional mentorship also requires that mentors identify and explicitly teach their mentees the relational skills and abilities inherent in learning the management of the triad of self, relationships with others, and professional responsibilities.Up to two decades ago, a learning curve was tolerated, and even expected, while professionals involved in healthcare developed the techniques that allowed for the treatment of previously untreatable diseases. Outcomes have now improved to the point that this type of learning curve is no longer acceptable to the public. Still, professionals must learn to perform and develop independence and confidence. The responsibility to
Recent breakthroughs and themes in hydrology, from climate to the water-food-energy nexus
Montanari, A.
2017-12-01
The last decades marked a significant change in geosciences. Increasing communication, observations, computing capabilities and opportunities to make dissemination stimulated a rapid increase of the number of publications and scientific forums. On the one hand this development is undoubtedly positive. In fact, it provides more and more opportunities to young and experienced scientists to elaborate innovative ideas and to establish cooperation. On the other hand, the proliferation of information, communication and publications makes the identification of key ideas and contributions definitely more challenging. Notwithstanding the above development, Water Resources Research (WRR) provides an ideal perspective to elaborate a picture of recent breakthroughs in hydrology. In fact, despite the increasing number of submissions and the progress of time, WRR kept a rigorous attitude to assess manuscripts by evaluating their relevance to emerging environmental and societal challenges.To get a long term perspective of breakthroughs in hydrology, it is interesting to compare the two anniversary special sections published so far in WRR, namely, the 50th anniversary special section "Legacy and perspectives for the science of hydrology", and "Trends and Directions in Hydrology", that was edited by Steven Burges in 1986 to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the journal. The above comparison highlights that the traditional break-up of hydrology into sub-disciplines, each focusing on separate components of the water cycle, has given way to a more interconnected, interdisciplinary research on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and interactions between water, society, earth and biological systems.This talk will present a voyage through the WRR history to highlight recent advances and topical themes. An attempt to develop a vision for the future of WRR and hydrology will be presented. Water will become more and more the regulator of social dynamics, including economy, politics
Anumol, Tarun; Sgroi, Massimiliano; Park, Minkyu; Roccaro, Paolo; Snyder, Shane A
2015-06-01
This study investigated the applicability of bulk organic parameters like dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), and total fluorescence (TF) to act as surrogates in predicting trace organic compound (TOrC) removal by granular activated carbon in water reuse applications. Using rapid small-scale column testing, empirical linear correlations for thirteen TOrCs were determined with DOC, UV254, and TF in four wastewater effluents. Linear correlations (R(2) > 0.7) were obtained for eight TOrCs in each water quality in the UV254 model, while ten TOrCs had R(2) > 0.7 in the TF model. Conversely, DOC was shown to be a poor surrogate for TOrC breakthrough prediction. When the data from all four water qualities was combined, good linear correlations were still obtained with TF having higher R(2) than UV254 especially for TOrCs with log Dow>1. Excellent linear relationship (R(2) > 0.9) between log Dow and the removal of TOrC at 0% surrogate removal (y-intercept) were obtained for the five neutral TOrCs tested in this study. Positively charged TOrCs had enhanced removals due to electrostatic interactions with negatively charged GAC that caused them to deviate from removals that would be expected with their log Dow. Application of the empirical linear correlation models to full-scale samples provided good results for six of seven TOrCs (except meprobamate) tested when comparing predicted TOrC removal by UV254 and TF with actual removals for GAC in all the five samples tested. Surrogate predictions using UV254 and TF provide valuable tools for rapid or on-line monitoring of GAC performance and can result in cost savings by extended GAC run times as compared to using DOC breakthrough to trigger regeneration or replacement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gajjar, Vishal; Siemion, Andrew; MacMohan, David; Croft, Steve; Hellbourg, Greg; Isaacson, Howard; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Price, Daniel; Lebofsky, Matt; De Boer, David; Werthimer, Dan; Hickish, Jack; Brinkman, Casey; Chatterjee, Shami; Ransom, Scott M.; Law, Casey; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Cordes, Jim; Spitler, Laura; Lynch, Ryan; McLaughlin, Maura; Scholz, Paul; Marcote, Benito; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh
2018-01-01
Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are some of the most energetic and enigmatic events in the Universe. The origin of these sources is among the most challenging questions of modern-day astrophysics. Thus, it is imperative to understand the properties of these bursts across a range of radio frequencies. Among the known FRBs, FRB121102 is the only source known to show repeated bursts [Spitler et al., Nature, 531, 7593 202-205, 2016], which can allow a detailed investigation of various origin models. In August 2017, we initiated a campaign observing FRB 121102 using the Breakthrough Listen Digital Backend with the C-band receiver at the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We recorded baseband voltage data across 5.4 GHz of bandwidth, completely covering the C-band receiver's nominal 4-8 GHz band [MacMahon et al. arXiv:1707.06024v2]. The recorded data were searched for dispersed pulses consistent with the known dispersion measure of FRB 121102 (557 pc cm-3) using high-speed GPU software tools. We detected 21 bursts above our detection threshold of 6 sigmas in the first 60-minutes, out of which 18 occurred in the first 30-minutes only. To our knowledge, this is the highest event rate seen for FRB121102 at any observing frequency. These observations are the highest frequency and widest bandwidth detection of bursts from FRB 121102 (or any other FRB) obtained to-date. We note that individual bursts show marked changes in spectral extent ranging from hundreds of MHz to several GHz. We have used high frequency dynamic spectra of these bursts to estimate the characteristic scintillation bandwidth and correlation time-scale. We also found distinctive temporal structures, separated by a few milliseconds, in three of the strongest bursts, with each sub-structure exhibiting varied spectral features. We will discuss our findings and how these detections of FRB 121102 around 8 GHz opens up a new regime in scrutinizing various origin models. We will also highlight the unique
Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions.
Adimoelja, A
2000-01-01
Traditional herbs have been a revolutionary breakthrough in the management of erectile dysfunction and have become known world-wide as an 'instant' treatment. The modern view of the management of erectile dysfunction subscribes to a single etiology, i.e. the mechanism of erection. A large number of pharmacological agents are orally consumed and vasoactive agents inserted intraurethrally or injected intrapenially to regain good erection. Modern phytochemicals have developed from traditional herbs. Phytochemicals focus their mechanism of healing action to the root cause, i.e. the inability to control the proper function of the whole body system. Hence phytochemicals manage erectile dysfunction in the frame of sexual dysfunction as a whole entity. Protodioscin is a phytochemical agent derived from Tribulus terrestris L plant, which has been clinically proven to improve sexual desire and enhance erection via the conversion of protodioscine to DHEA (De-Hydro-Epi-Androsterone). Preliminary observations suggest that Tribulus terrestris L grown on different soils does not consistently produce the active component Protodioscin. Further photochemical studies of many other herbal plants are needed to explain the inconsistent results found with other herbal plants, such as in diversities of Ginseng, Eurycoma longifolia, Pimpinella pruacen, Muara puama, Ginkgo biloba, Yohimbe etc.
Stephan, E.
2017-12-01
The objective of published earth science study data results and literature on the Web should be to provide a means to integrate discoverable science resources through an open collaborative-Web. At the core of any open science collaborative infrastructure is the ability to discover, manage and ultimately use relevant data accessible to the collaboration. Equally important are the relationships between people, applications, services, and publications, which capture critical contextual knowledge that enable their effective use. While contributions of either irreproducible or costly data can be a great asset the inability of users being able to use the data intelligently or make sense of it, makes these investments not usable. An ability to describe ad-hoc discoverable usage methodologies, provide feedback to data producers, and identify and cite data in a systematic way by leveraging existing Web-enabled off the shelf technology is needed. Fortunately many break-through advancements in data publication best practices and government, open source, and commercial investments support consumers who can provide feedback, share experiences, and contribute back to the earth science ecosystem.
The Breakthrough Listen Initiative and the Future of the Search for Intelligent Life
Enriquez, J. Emilio; Siemion, Andrew; Croft, Steve; Hellbourg, Greg; Lebofsky, Matt; MacMahon, David; Price, Danny; DeBoer, David; Werthimer, Dan
2017-05-01
Unprecedented recent results in the fields of exoplanets and astrobiology have dramatically increased the interest in the potential existence of intelligent life elsewhere in the galaxy. Additionally, the capabilities of modern Searches for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have increased tremendously. Much of this improvement is due to the ongoing development of wide bandwidth radio instruments and the Moore's Law increase in computing power over the previous decades. Together, these instrumentation improvements allow for narrow band signal searches of billions of frequency channels at once.The Breakthrough Listen Initiative (BL) was launched on July 20, 2015 at the Royal Society in London, UK with the goal to conduct the most comprehensive and sensitive search for advanced life in humanity's history. Here we detail important milestones achieved during the first year and a half of the program. We describe the key BL SETI surveys and briefly describe current facilities, including the Green Bank Telescope, the Automated Planet Finder and the Parkes Observatory. We also mention the ongoing and potential collaborations focused on complementary sciences, these include pulse searches of pulsars and FRBs, as well as astrophysically powered radio emission from stars targeted by our program.We conclude with a brief view towards future SETI searches with upcoming next-generation radio facilities such as SKA and ngVLA.
Stem cell-derived kidney cells and organoids: Recent breakthroughs and emerging applications.
Chuah, Jacqueline Kai Chin; Zink, Daniele
The global rise in the numbers of kidney patients and the shortage in transplantable organs have led to an increasing interest in kidney-specific regenerative therapies, renal disease modelling and bioartificial kidneys. Sources for large quantities of high-quality renal cells and tissues would be required, also for applications in in vitro platforms for compound safety and efficacy screening. Stem cell-based approaches for the generation of renal-like cells and tissues would be most attractive, but such methods were not available until recently. This situation has drastically changed since 2013, and various protocols for the generation of renal-like cells and precursors from pluripotent stem cells (PSC) have been established. The most recent breakthroughs were related to the establishment of various protocols for the generation of PSC-derived kidney organoids. In combination with recent advances in genome editing, bioprinting and the establishment of predictive renal screening platforms this results in exciting new possibilities. This review will give a comprehensive overview over current PSC-based protocols for the generation of renal-like cells, precursors and organoids, and their current and potential applications in regenerative medicine, compound screening, disease modelling and bioartificial organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jingu, Akiko; Fukuda, Junya; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Tsushima, Yoshito
2014-10-06
Adverse reactions to iodinated and gadolinium contrast media are an important clinical issue. Although some guidelines have proposed oral steroid premedication protocols to prevent adverse reactions, some patients may have reactions to contrast media in spite of premedication (breakthrough reaction; BTR).The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and severity of BTR when following an oral steroid premedication protocol. All iodinated and gadolinium contrast-enhanced radiologic examinations between August 2011 and February 2013 for which the premedication protocol was applied in our institution were assessed for BTRs. The protocol was applied to a total of 252 examinations (153 patients, ages 15-87 years; 63 males, 90 females). Of these, 152 were for prior acute adverse reactions to contrast media, 85 were for a history of bronchial asthma, and 15 were for other reasons. There were 198 contrast enhanced CTs and 54 contrast enhanced MRIs. There were nine BTR (4.5%) for iodinated contrast media, and only one BTR (1.9%) for gadolinium contrast media: eight were mild and one was moderate. No patient who had a mild index reaction (IR) had a severe BTR. Incidence of BTRs when following the premedication protocol was low. This study by no means proves the efficacy of premedication, but provides some support for following a premedication protocol to improve safety of contrast-enhanced examinations when prior adverse reactions are mild, or when there is a history of asthma.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jingu, Akiko; Fukuda, Junya; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Tsushima, Yoshito
2014-01-01
Adverse reactions to iodinated and gadolinium contrast media are an important clinical issue. Although some guidelines have proposed oral steroid premedication protocols to prevent adverse reactions, some patients may have reactions to contrast media in spite of premedication (breakthrough reaction; BTR). The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and severity of BTR when following an oral steroid premedication protocol. All iodinated and gadolinium contrast-enhanced radiologic examinations between August 2011 and February 2013 for which the premedication protocol was applied in our institution were assessed for BTRs. The protocol was applied to a total of 252 examinations (153 patients, ages 15–87 years; 63 males, 90 females). Of these, 152 were for prior acute adverse reactions to contrast media, 85 were for a history of bronchial asthma, and 15 were for other reasons. There were 198 contrast enhanced CTs and 54 contrast enhanced MRIs. There were nine BTR (4.5%) for iodinated contrast media, and only one BTR (1.9%) for gadolinium contrast media: eight were mild and one was moderate. No patient who had a mild index reaction (IR) had a severe BTR. Incidence of BTRs when following the premedication protocol was low. This study by no means proves the efficacy of premedication, but provides some support for following a premedication protocol to improve safety of contrast-enhanced examinations when prior adverse reactions are mild, or when there is a history of asthma
Computational tools for Breakthrough Propulsion Physics: State of the art and future prospects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maccone, Claudio
2000-01-01
To address problems in Breakthrough Propulsion Physics (BPP) one needs sheer computing capabilities. This is because General Relativity and Quantum Field Theory are so mathematically sophisticated that the amount of analytical calculations is prohibitive and one can hardly do all of them by hand. In this paper we make a comparative review of the main tensor calculus capabilities of the three most advanced and commercially available 'symbolic manipulator' codes: Macsyma, Maple V and Mathematica. We also point out that currently one faces such a variety of different conventions in tensor calculus that it is difficult or impossible to compare results obtained by different scholars in General Relativity and Quantum Field Theory. Mathematical physicists, experimental physicists and engineers have each their own way of customizing tensors, especially by using the different metric signatures, different metric determinant signs, different definitions of the basic Riemann and Ricci tensors, and by adopting different systems of physical units. This chaos greatly hampers progress toward the chief NASA BPP goal: the design of the NASA Warp Drive. It is thus concluded that NASA should put order by establishing international standards in symbolic tensor calculus and enforcing anyone working in BPP to adopt these NASA BPP Standards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dupont, Marion; Morel, Romain; Bellassen, Valentin; Deheza, Mariana
2013-01-01
Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: For those who expect 'binding' emission reductions targets in the future international climate agreement to be signed in Paris in 2015, the Warsaw Conference (November 11 to 23, 2013) yielded as much progress as it could. That means little beyond a timetable. However, for those who consider the UNFCCC as the depository of common tools on the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of emissions, actions and financing, Warsaw represents a major breakthrough. For the first time, developing countries - at least those wishing to access climate finance for forests - will abide by MRV procedures similar to those governing the greenhouse gas inventories of industrialized countries. Forestry may be seen as a first sectoral NAMA, and it would be difficult to ignore the Warsaw decisions for the future definition of MRV procedures of NAMAs. In spite of the establishment of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, low outputs on other issues show that achieving an agreement at COP 21 will require significant political progress during the next 15 months
Schultz, Jane S; Rodgers, V G J
2012-07-01
The Department of Bioengineering at the University of California, Riverside (UCR), was established in 2006 and is the youngest department in the Bourns College of Engineering. It is an interdisciplinary research engine that builds strength from highly recognized experts in biochemistry, biophysics, biology, and engineering, focusing on common critical themes. The range of faculty research interests is notable for its diversity, from the basic cell biology through cell function to the physiology of the whole organism, each directed at breakthroughs in biomedical devices for measurement and therapy. The department forges future leaders in bioengineering, mirroring the field in being energetic, interdisciplinary, and fast moving at the frontiers of biomedical discoveries. Our educational programs combine a solid foundation in bio logical sciences and engineering, diverse communication skills, and training in the most advanced quantitative bioengineering research. Bioengineering at UCR also includes the Bioengineering Interdepartmental Graduate (BIG) program. With its slogan Start-Grow-Be-BIG, it is already recognized for its many accomplishments, including being third in the nation in 2011 for bioengineering students receiving National Science Foundation graduate research fellowships as well as being one of the most ethnically inclusive programs in the nation.
Familial concordance for age at natural menopause: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study.
Morris, Danielle H; Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J
2011-09-01
Existing estimates of the heritability of menopause age have a wide range. Furthermore, few studies have analyzed to what extent familial similarities might reflect shared environment, rather than shared genes. We therefore analyzed familial concordance for age at natural menopause and the effects of shared genetic and environmental factors on this concordance. Participants were 2,060 individuals comprising first-degree relatives, aged 31 to 90 years, and participating in the UK Breakthrough Generations Study. Menopause data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using logistic regression and variance-components models. Women were at an increased risk of early menopause (≤45 y) if their mother (odds ratio, 6.2; P menopause. Likewise, women had an increased risk of late menopause (≥54 y) if their relative had had a late menopause (mother: odds ratio, 6.1; P menopause age attributed to environmental factors shared by sisters. We confirm that early menopause aggregates within families and show, for the first time, that there is also strong familial concordance for late menopause. Both genes and shared environment were the source of variation in menopause age. Past heritability estimates have not accounted for shared environment, and thus, the effect of genetic variants on menopause age may previously have been overestimated.
Exploring the role of lipids in intercellular conduits: breakthroughs in the pipeline
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elise eDelage
2013-12-01
Full Text Available It has been known for more than a century that most of the plant cells are connected to their neighbors through membranous pores perforating the cell wall, namely plasmodesmata (PDs. The recent discovery of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs, thin membrane bridges established between distant mammalian cells, suggests that intercellular communication mediated through cytoplasmic continuity could be a conserved feature of eukaryotic organisms. Although TNTs differ from PDs in their formation and architecture, both are characterized by a continuity of the plasma membrane between two cells, delimiting a nanotubular channel supported by actin-based cytoskeleton. Due to this unusual membrane organization, lipids are likely to play critical roles in the formation and stability of intercellular conduits like TNTs and PDs, but also in regulating the transfer through these structures. While it is crucial for a better understanding of those fascinating communication highways, the study of TNT lipid composition and dynamics turned out to be extremely challenging. The present review aims to give an overview of the recent findings in this context. We will also discuss some of the promising imaging approaches, which might be the key for future breakthroughs in the field and could also benefit the research on PDs.
Li, Chengzhi; Zhang, Dehui; Hu, Danian
2017-09-01
This article discusses why Chinese space programs were able to develop to the extent they did during the turbulent decade of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). It first introduces briefly what China had accomplished in rocket and missile technology before the Cultural Revolution, including the establishment of a system for research and manufacturing, breakthroughs in rocket technology, and programs for future development. It then analyzes the harmful impacts of the Cultural Revolution on Chinese space programs by examining activities of contemporary mass factions in the Seventh Ministry of Machinery Industry. In the third section, this article presents the important developments of Chinese space programs during the Cultural Revolution and explores briefly the significance of these developments for the future and overall progress in space technology. Finally, it discusses the reasons for the series of developments of Chinese space technology during the Cultural Revolution. This article concludes that, although the Cultural Revolution generated certain harmful impacts on the development of Chinese space technology, the Chinese essentially accomplished their scheduled objectives in their space program, both because of the great support of top Chinese leaders, including the officially disgraced Lin Biao and the Gang of Four, and due to the implementation of many effective special measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A catalog of special plane curves
Lawrence, J Dennis
2014-01-01
Among the largest, finest collections available-illustrated not only once for each curve, but also for various values of any parameters present. Covers general properties of curves and types of derived curves. Curves illustrated by a CalComp digital incremental plotter. 12 illustrations.
Computation of undulator tuning curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dejus, Roger J.
1997-01-01
Computer codes for fast computation of on-axis brilliance tuning curves and flux tuning curves have been developed. They are valid for an ideal device (regular planar device or a helical device) using the Bessel function formalism. The effects of the particle beam emittance and the beam energy spread on the spectrum are taken into account. The applicability of the codes and the importance of magnetic field errors of real insertion devices are addressed. The validity of the codes has been experimentally verified at the APS and observed discrepancies are in agreement with predicted reduction of intensities due to magnetic field errors. The codes are distributed as part of the graphical user interface XOP (X-ray OPtics utilities), which simplifies execution and viewing of the results
Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jain Nidhi
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.
Invariance for Single Curved Manifold
Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de
2012-01-01
Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.
Invariance for Single Curved Manifold
Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de
2012-08-01
Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.
Curved Folded Plate Timber Structures
Buri, Hans Ulrich; Stotz, Ivo; Weinand, Yves
2011-01-01
This work investigates the development of a Curved Origami Prototype made with timber panels. In the last fifteen years the timber industry has developed new, large size, timber panels. Composition and dimensions of these panels and the possibility of milling them with Computer Numerical Controlled machines shows great potential for folded plate structures. To generate the form of these structures we were inspired by Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding. Common paper tessellations are c...
Projection-based curve clustering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auder, Benjamin; Fischer, Aurelie
2012-01-01
This paper focuses on unsupervised curve classification in the context of nuclear industry. At the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache (France), the thermal-hydraulic computer code CATHARE is used to study the reliability of reactor vessels. The code inputs are physical parameters and the outputs are time evolution curves of a few other physical quantities. As the CATHARE code is quite complex and CPU time-consuming, it has to be approximated by a regression model. This regression process involves a clustering step. In the present paper, the CATHARE output curves are clustered using a k-means scheme, with a projection onto a lower dimensional space. We study the properties of the empirically optimal cluster centres found by the clustering method based on projections, compared with the 'true' ones. The choice of the projection basis is discussed, and an algorithm is implemented to select the best projection basis among a library of orthonormal bases. The approach is illustrated on a simulated example and then applied to the industrial problem. (authors)
Growth curves for Laron syndrome.
Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B
1993-01-01
Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I. PMID:8333769
Elementary particles in curved spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazanu, I.
2004-01-01
The theories in particle physics are developed currently, in Minkowski space-time starting from the Poincare group. A physical theory in flat space can be seen as the limit of a more general physical theory in a curved space. At the present time, a theory of particles in curved space does not exist, and thus the only possibility is to extend the existent theories in these spaces. A formidable obstacle to the extension of physical models is the absence of groups of motion in more general Riemann spaces. A space of constant curvature has a group of motion that, although differs from that of a flat space, has the same number of parameters and could permit some generalisations. In this contribution we try to investigate some physical implications of the presumable existence of elementary particles in curved space. In de Sitter space (dS) the invariant rest mass is a combination of the Poincare rest mass and the generalised angular momentum of a particle and it permits to establish a correlation with the vacuum energy and with the cosmological constant. The consequences are significant because in an experiment the local structure of space-time departs from the Minkowski space and becomes a dS or AdS space-time. Discrete symmetry characteristics of the dS/AdS group suggest some arguments for the possible existence of the 'mirror matter'. (author)
Dual Smarandache Curves and Smarandache Ruled Surfaces
Tanju KAHRAMAN; Mehmet ÖNDER; H. Hüseyin UGURLU
2013-01-01
In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere S^2 and corresponding to ruled surfaces. We obtain the relationships between the elements of curvature of dual spherical curve (ruled surface) x(s) and its dual Smarandache curve (Smarandache ruled surface) x1(s) and we give an example for dual Smarandache curves of a dual spherical curve.
Budget impact analysis of the fentanyl buccal tablet for treatment of breakthrough cancer pain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darbà J
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Lisette Kaskens,2 Rainel Sánchez-de la Rosa31University of Barcelona, Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics and Outcomes Research SL, Barcelona, 3Medical and HEOR Department, TEVA Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Madrid, SpainBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the economic impact of the fentanyl buccal tablet for the management of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP in Spain.Methods: A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the period 2012–2015 for patients with BTcP from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. BTcP products included in this model were rapid-onset opioids containing fentanyl (buccal, sublingual, or nasal transmucosal. Prevalence data on cancer, BTcP, opioid use, and number of BTcP episodes were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resources associated with opioid use and opioid-induced side effects were obtained by consulting experts in oncology from different Spanish hospitals. Resources used included drugs, medical and emergency visits, other nonpharmacologic treatments, and treatment of opioid-induced side effects. Unit costs were obtained from the literature, and a 3% discount rate was applied to costs. Based on the unit costs for drugs and health care resources, the annual BTcP treatment costs per patient associated with each fentanyl product were determined to estimate the overall budget impact based on the total treatment population and the percentage of drug utilization associated with each product. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model.Results: Patients treated with oral opioids for BTcP were estimated at 23,291 in 2012, with an increase up to 23,413 in 2015. The average annual budget savings, with an increase of fentanyl buccal tablets, fentanyl sublingual tablets, and intranasal fentanyl spray, and a decrease in oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate, was estimated at €2.6 million, which represents a 0.5% decrease in
Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.
Sumarsono
1989-07-01
Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MASTURA I
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The Australian government had funded the National Primary Care Collaborative (NPCC program with funding of $14.6 million over three years. One of the pilots project was the Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Quality Improvement Program (AMQuIP.The study aims to optimize general practitioners (GPs management of patients with osteoarthritis (OA of the hip and knee by identifying gaps between their current practice and best practice. The Breakthrough Series Collaborative methodology with several Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA cycles was employed. Participants comprises of 12 GPs/practices from two Victorian Divisions of general Practice (one rural, one metropolitan with 10 patients per GP/practice. GPs/practices attended an orientation and three learning workshops and a videoconference. GPs/practices completed PDSA cycles between workshop and reported results at workshops. GPs/practices reported use of guidelines, change in patient management and change in practice management/systems. All recruited patients completed the SF-12v2 Health Survey and WOMAC OA Index Questionnaire twice. Follow up activities including focus groups and face-to-face interviews were held six months after the final workshop. All GPs/practices used the guidelines/key messages, introduced “new” management strategies to patients, and made positive changes to their practice management/systems. Patient reported positive changes and outcomes. By using a structured methodology and evidence-based guidelines/key messages; GPs can introduce new patient management strategies, and by identifying gaps in practice management systems, positive changes can be achieved.
Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maginn, Edward
2012-09-30
This is the final report for DE-FC26-07NT43091 Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture. A detailed summary is provided of the ionic liquid (IL) discovery process, synthesis and testing results, process / systems modeling, lab-scale operational testing, corrosion testing and commercialization possibilities. The work resulted in the discovery of a new class of ionic liquids (ILs) that efficiently react with CO{sub 2} in a 1:1 stoichiometry with no water present and no increase in viscosity. The enthalpy of reaction was tuned to optimize process economics. The IL was found to have excellent corrosion behavior with and without CO{sub 2} present. In lab-scale tests, the IL was able to effectively remove CO{sub 2} from a simulated flue gas stream, although mass transfer was slower than with aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) due to higher viscosities. The non-volatile nature of the solvent and its high thermal stability, however, make it an intriguing option. An independent systems analysis indicates that the economics of using the best IL discovered to date (NDIL0157), are at least comparable to and potentially slightly better than - the Fluor Econamine FG PlusTM process (DOE Case 12). Further work should be directed at improving mass transfer / lowering viscosity and developing commercial synthesis routes to make these ILs at scale in an inexpensive manner. Demonstration of the process at larger scales is also warranted, as is the exploration of other process configurations that leverage the anhydrous nature of the solvent and its extremely low volatility.
Robbins, C A; Breysse, P N
1996-08-01
This research evaluated the effect of the polarity of a second vapor on the adsorption of a polar and a nonpolar vapor using the Wheeler model. To examine the effect of polarity, it was also necessary to observe the effect of component boiling point. The 1% breakthrough time (1% tb), kinetic adsorption capacity (W(e)), and rate constant (kv) of the Wheeler model were determined for vapor challenges on carbon beds for both p-xylene and pyrrole (referred to as test vapors) individually, and in equimolar binary mixtures with the polar and nonpolar vapors toluene, p-fluorotoluene, o-dichlorobenzene, and p-dichlorobenzene (referred to as probe vapors). Probe vapor polarity (0 to 2.5 Debye) did not systematically alter the 1% tb, W(e), or kv of the test vapors. The 1% tb and W(e) for test vapors in binary mixtures can be estimated reasonably well, using the Wheeler model, from single-vapor data (1% tb +/- 30%, W(e) +/- 20%). The test vapor 1% tb depended mainly on total vapor concentration in both single and binary systems. W(e) was proportional to test vapor fractional molar concentration (mole fraction) in mixtures. The kv for p-xylene was significantly different (p boiling point; however, these differences were apparently of limited importance in estimating 1% tb for the range of boiling points tested (111 to 180 degrees C). Although the polarity and boiling point of chemicals in the range tested are not practically important in predicting 1% tb with the Wheeler model, an effect due to probe boiling point is suggested, and tests with chemicals of more widely ranging boiling point are warranted. Since the 1% tb, and thus, respirator service life, depends mainly on total vapor concentration, these data underscore the importance of taking into account the presence of other vapors when estimating respirator service life for a vapor in a mixture.
Heller, René
2017-09-01
As new concepts of sending interstellar spacecraft to the nearest stars are now being investigated by various research teams, crucial questions about the timing of such a vast financial and labour investment arise. If humanity could build high-speed interstellar lightsails and reach α Centauri 20 yr after launch, would it be better to wait a few years, then take advantage of further technology improvements and arrive earlier despite waiting? The risk of being overtaken by a future, faster probe has been described earlier as the incentive trap. Based on 211 yr of historical data, we find that the speed growth of artificial vehicles, from steam-driven locomotives to Voyager 1, is much faster than previously believed, about 4.72 per cent annually or a doubling every 15 yr. We derive the mathematical framework to calculate the minimum of the wait time to launch t plus travel time τ(t) and extend it into the relativistic regime. We show that the t + τ(t) minimum disappears for nearby targets. There is no use of waiting once we can reach an object within about 20 yr of travel, irrespective of the actual speed. In terms of speed, the t + τ(t) minimum for a travel to α Centauri occurs at 19.6 per cent the speed of light (c), in agreement with the 20 per cent c proposed by the Breakthrough Starshot initiative. If interstellar travel at 20 per cent c could be achieved within 45 yr from today and the kinetic energy be increased at a rate consistent with the historical record, then humans can reach the 10 most nearby stars within 100 yr from today.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cagliani, Alberto; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Hansen, Ole
2017-01-01
We present a breakthrough in micro-four-point probe (M4PP) metrology to substantially improve precision of transmission line (transfer length) type measurements by application of advanced electrode position correction. In particular, we demonstrate this methodology for the M4PP current-in-plane t......We present a breakthrough in micro-four-point probe (M4PP) metrology to substantially improve precision of transmission line (transfer length) type measurements by application of advanced electrode position correction. In particular, we demonstrate this methodology for the M4PP current......-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) technique. The CIPT method has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) stacks suitable for magnetic random-access memories for more than a decade. On two MTJ stacks, the measurement precision of resistance-area product and tunneling magnetoresistance...
Stanford test called a net breakthrough - data sent at 3,500 times the speed of broadband
2003-01-01
Researchers at a Stanford University-affiliated research center have found a way to send data across the Internet more than 3,500 times faster than the typical broadband connection. The technical breakthrough set an Internet speed record too fast to be of use with present-day computers but could open the way for scientists to share and ship massive databases around the world, according to the researchers.
A note on families of fragility curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaplan, S.; Bier, V.M.; Bley, D.C.
1989-01-01
In the quantitative assessment of seismic risk, uncertainty in the fragility of a structural component is usually expressed by putting forth a family of fragility curves, with probability serving as the parameter of the family. Commonly, a lognormal shape is used both for the individual curves and for the expression of uncertainty over the family. A so-called composite single curve can also be drawn and used for purposes of approximation. This composite curve is often regarded as equivalent to the mean curve of the family. The equality seems intuitively reasonable, but according to the authors has never been proven. The paper presented proves this equivalence hypothesis mathematically. Moreover, the authors show that this equivalence hypothesis between fragility curves is itself equivalent to an identity property of the standard normal probability curve. Thus, in the course of proving the fragility curve hypothesis, the authors have also proved a rather obscure, but interesting and perhaps previously unrecognized, property of the standard normal curve
Observable Zitterbewegung in curved spacetimes
Kobakhidze, Archil; Manning, Adrian; Tureanu, Anca
2016-06-01
Zitterbewegung, as it was originally described by Schrödinger, is an unphysical, non-observable effect. We verify whether the effect can be observed in non-inertial reference frames/curved spacetimes, where the ambiguity in defining particle states results in a mixing of positive and negative frequency modes. We explicitly demonstrate that such a mixing is in fact necessary to obtain the correct classical value for a particle's velocity in a uniformly accelerated reference frame, whereas in cosmological spacetime a particle does indeed exhibit Zitterbewegung.
Observable Zitterbewegung in curved spacetimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kobakhidze, Archil, E-mail: archilk@physics.usyd.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Manning, Adrian, E-mail: a.manning@physics.usyd.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Tureanu, Anca, E-mail: anca.tureanu@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)
2016-06-10
Zitterbewegung, as it was originally described by Schrödinger, is an unphysical, non-observable effect. We verify whether the effect can be observed in non-inertial reference frames/curved spacetimes, where the ambiguity in defining particle states results in a mixing of positive and negative frequency modes. We explicitly demonstrate that such a mixing is in fact necessary to obtain the correct classical value for a particle's velocity in a uniformly accelerated reference frame, whereas in cosmological spacetime a particle does indeed exhibit Zitterbewegung.
Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds
Kohnel, Wolfgang
2002-01-01
This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. Special topics that are explored include Frenet frames, ruled surfaces, minimal surfaces and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. The second part is an introduction to the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The final two chapters are insightful examinations of the special cases of spaces of constant curvature and Einstein manifolds. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra.
LINS Curve in Romanian Economy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emilian Dobrescu
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.
Differential geometry and topology of curves
Animov, Yu
2001-01-01
Differential geometry is an actively developing area of modern mathematics. This volume presents a classical approach to the general topics of the geometry of curves, including the theory of curves in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The author investigates problems for special classes of curves and gives the working method used to obtain the conditions for closed polygonal curves. The proof of the Bakel-Werner theorem in conditions of boundedness for curves with periodic curvature and torsion is also presented. This volume also highlights the contributions made by great geometers. past and present, to differential geometry and the topology of curves.
Flow characteristics of curved ducts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rudolf P.
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Curved channels are very often present in real hydraulic systems, e.g. curved diffusers of hydraulic turbines, S-shaped bulb turbines, fittings, etc. Curvature brings change of velocity profile, generation of vortices and production of hydraulic losses. Flow simulation using CFD techniques were performed to understand these phenomena. Cases ranging from single elbow to coupled elbows in shapes of U, S and spatial right angle position with circular cross-section were modeled for Re = 60000. Spatial development of the flow was studied and consequently it was deduced that minor losses are connected with the transformation of pressure energy into kinetic energy and vice versa. This transformation is a dissipative process and is reflected in the amount of the energy irreversibly lost. Least loss coefficient is connected with flow in U-shape elbows, biggest one with flow in Sshape elbows. Finally, the extent of the flow domain influenced by presence of curvature was examined. This isimportant for proper placement of mano- and flowmeters during experimental tests. Simulations were verified with experimental results presented in literature.
Improved capacitive melting curve measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sebedash, Alexander; Tuoriniemi, Juha; Pentti, Elias; Salmela, Anssi
2009-01-01
Sensitivity of the capacitive method for determining the melting pressure of helium can be enhanced by loading the empty side of the capacitor with helium at a pressure nearly equal to that desired to be measured and by using a relatively thin and flexible membrane in between. This way one can achieve a nanobar resolution at the level of 30 bar, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the best gauges with vacuum reference. This extends the applicability of melting curve thermometry to lower temperatures and would allow detecting tiny anomalies in the melting pressure, which must be associated with any phenomena contributing to the entropy of the liquid or solid phases. We demonstrated this principle in measurements of the crystallization pressure of isotopic helium mixtures at millikelvin temperatures by using partly solid pure 4 He as the reference substance providing the best possible universal reference pressure. The achieved sensitivity was good enough for melting curve thermometry on mixtures down to 100 μK. Similar system can be used on pure isotopes by virtue of a blocked capillary giving a stable reference condition with liquid slightly below the melting pressure in the reference volume. This was tested with pure 4 He at temperatures 0.08-0.3 K. To avoid spurious heating effects, one must carefully choose and arrange any dielectric materials close to the active capacitor. We observed some 100 pW loading at moderate excitation voltages.
Classical optics and curved spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailyn, M.; Ragusa, S.
1976-01-01
In the eikonal approximation of classical optics, the unit polarization 3-vector of light satisfies an equation that depends only on the index, n, of refraction. It is known that if the original 3-space line element is d sigma 2 , then this polarization direction propagates parallely in the fictitious space n 2 d sigma 2 . Since the equation depends only on n, it is possible to invent a fictitious curved 4-space in which the light performs a null geodesic, and the polarization 3-vector behaves as the 'shadow' of a parallely propagated 4-vector. The inverse, namely, the reduction of Maxwell's equation, on a curve 'dielectric free) space, to a classical space with dielectric constant n=(-g 00 ) -1 / 2 is well known, but in the latter the dielectric constant epsilon and permeability μ must also equal (-g 00 ) -1 / 2 . The rotation of polarization as light bends around the sun by utilizing the reduction to the classical space, is calculated. This (non-) rotation may then be interpreted as parallel transport in the 3-space n 2 d sigma 2 [pt
Alexander, Siobhan E; Arlen, Angela M; Storm, Douglas W; Kieran, Kathleen; Cooper, Christopher S
2015-04-01
Improved identification of children with vesicoureteral reflux at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infection may impact management decisions. We hypothesized that reflux occurring earlier during bladder filling increases the duration of exposure of the kidneys to bacteria, and, therefore, increases the risk of pyelonephritis. Children with vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram data were identified. Bladder volume at onset of reflux was normalized for age. Demographics, reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction and breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections were assessed. Median followup was 24 months (IQR 12 to 52). A total of 208 girls and 47 boys were analyzed with a mean ± SD age at diagnosis of 3.1 ± 2.6 years. On univariate analysis history of febrile urinary tract infection (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.33-2.85, p = 0.01), dilating vesicoureteral reflux (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.05-2.42, p = 0.03) and bladder-bowel dysfunction (HR 1.66, 95% CI 0.99-2.75, p = 0.05) were associated with an increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection. Median bladder volume at onset of reflux in children with breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection was significantly less (33.1%) than in those without infection (49.5%, p = 0.003). Reflux onset at 35% predicted bladder capacity or less was associated with a significantly increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection on multivariate analysis (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.05-2.38, p = 0.03). Children with early filling vesicoureteral reflux are at increased risk for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection independent of reflux grade. Bladder volume at onset of reflux should be recorded during cystograms since it provides additional prognostic information about the risk of pyelonephritis and resolution, and may assist with counseling and clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by
2002-01-01
The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...
Transition curves for highway geometric design
Kobryń, Andrzej
2017-01-01
This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .
Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
p2492989
A mathematical model of the lactation curve provides summary information about culling and milking strategies ..... Table 2 Statistics of the edited data for first lactation Holstein cows ..... Application of different models to the lactation curves of.
Enriquez, J. Emilio; Breakthrough Listen Team
2018-01-01
The Breakthrough Listen (BL) Initiative is the largest campaign in human history on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. The work presented here is the first BL search for engineered signals. This comprises a sample of 692 nearby stars within 50 pc. We used the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to conduct observations over 1.1-1.9 GHz (L-band). Our observing strategy allows us to reject most of the detected signals as terrestrial interference. During the analysis, eleven stars show events that passed our thresholding algorithm, but detailed analysis of their properties indicates they are consistent with known examples of anthropogenic radio frequency interference. This small number of false positives and their understood properties give confidence on the techniques used for this search. We conclude that, at the time of our observations none of the observed systems host high-duty-cycle radio transmitters emitting at the observed frequencies with an EIRP of 10^13 W, readily achievable by our own civilization.We can place limits on the presence of engineered signals from putative extraterrestrial civilizations inhabiting the environs of the target stars. Our results suggest that fewer than ~0.1% of the stellar systems within 50 pc possess the type of transmitters searched in this survey. This work provides the most stringent limit on the number of low power radio transmitters around nearby stars to date. We explored several metics to compare our results to previous SETI efforts. We developed a new figure-of-merit that can encompass a wider set of parameters and can be used on future SETI experiments for a meaningful comparison.We note that the current BL state-of-the-art digital backend installed at the Green Bank Observatory is the fastest ever used for a SETI experiment by a factor of a few. Here we will describe the potential use of the BL backend by other groups on complementary science, as well as a mention the ongoing and potential collaborations focused in
Correlations between plasma endothelin-1 levels and breakthrough pain in patients with cancer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan XB
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Xue-bin Yan, Tuo-chao Peng, Dong Huang Department of Anesthesiologist, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Endothelin-1 (ET-1 may be involved in driving pain in patients with advanced cancer. However, a few studies focus on the role of ET-1 in breakthrough pain (BP. The aim of this pivotal study was to explore the correlation between the plasma (ET-1 level and BP intensity. A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study, and they were divided into two groups: BP group and non-BP group. Moreover, 20 healthy adults were used as the normal control group. Pain intensity was measured using visual analog scale (VAS scores of 1–10. Plasma ET-1 levels were detected by an ET radioimmunoassay kit. Subsequently, the correlation of ET-1 level with the VAS score and cancer types was analyzed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The plasma ET-1 level in the BP group (35.31±8.02 pg/mL was higher than that in the non-BP group (29.51±6.78 pg/mL and the normal control group (24.77±10.10 pg/mL, P<0.05. In addition, the VAS score in the BP group (7.45±0.82 was higher than that in the non-BP group (2.80±1.23, P<0.05. The plasma ET-1 level was positively correlated with the VAS score of the BP group (Pearson’s r=0.42. There was no significant correlation between the plasma ET-1 level and VAS score of the non-BP group (Pearson’s r=–0.22 or/and cancer types (P>0.05. The elevated plasma ET-1 levels were positively related to BP, and targeting ET-1 may provide a novel pain-reducing therapeutic treatment in BP. Keywords: visual analog scale, correlation, cancer types, background pain
Aldosterone breakthrough in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease.
Ames, M K; Atkins, C E; Eriksson, A; Hess, A M
2017-06-01
Aldosterone breakthrough (ABT) is the condition in which angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and/or angiotensin receptor blockers fail to effectively suppress the activity of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. The objective of this study was to determine if ABT occurs in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease receiving an ACEI, using the urine aldosterone to creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) as a measure of renin angiotensin aldosterone system activation. This study includes 39 dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease. A UAldo:C cut-off definition (derived from a normal population of healthy, adult, and client-owned dogs) was used to determine the prevalence of ABT in this population. Spearman analysis and univariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the relationship between UAldo:C and ABT (yes/no) and eight variables (age, serum K + concentration, serum creatinine concentration, ACEI therapy duration and ACEI dosage, furosemide therapy duration and furosemide dosage, and urine sample storage time). Finally, the UAldo:C in dogs receiving spironolactone, as part congestive heart failure (CHF) therapy, was compared to dogs with CHF that were not receiving spironolactone. The prevalence of ABT was 32% in dogs with CHF and 30% in dogs without CHF. There was no relationship between either the UAldo:C or the likelihood of ABT and the eight variables. Therapy with spironolactone lead to a significant elevation of the UAldo:C. Using the UAldo:C and a relatively stringent definition of ABT, it appears that incomplete RAAS blockade is common in dogs with MMVD receiving an ACEI. The prevalence of ABT in this canine population mirrors that reported in humans. While the mechanism of ABT is likely multifactorial and still poorly understood, the proven existence of ABT in dogs offers the potential to improve the prognosis for MMVD with the addition of a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker to current therapeutic regimens
Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Sakane, Yusuke; Nomura, Taishin
2013-01-01
We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.
Bubble Collision in Curved Spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, Dong-il; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; Yeom, Dong-han
2014-01-01
We study vacuum bubble collisions in curved spacetime, in which vacuum bubbles were nucleated in the initial metastable vacuum state by quantum tunneling. The bubbles materialize randomly at different times and then start to grow. It is known that the percolation by true vacuum bubbles is not possible due to the exponential expansion of the space among the bubbles. In this paper, we consider two bubbles of the same size with a preferred axis and assume that two bubbles form very near each other to collide. The two bubbles have the same field value. When the bubbles collide, the collided region oscillates back-and-forth and then the collided region eventually decays and disappears. We discuss radiation and gravitational wave resulting from the collision of two bubbles
Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels
Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard
2009-11-01
Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.
Ait-Haddou, Rachid
2013-02-01
We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.
Sibling curves of quadratic polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Sibling curves were demonstrated in [1, 2] as a novel way to visualize the zeroes of real valued functions. In [3] it was shown that a polynomial of degree n has n sibling curves. This paper focuses on the algebraic and geometric properites of the sibling curves of real and complex quadratic polynomials. Key words: Quadratic ...
GLOBAL AND STRICT CURVE FITTING METHOD
Nakajima, Y.; Mori, S.
2004-01-01
To find a global and smooth curve fitting, cubic BSpline method and gathering line methods are investigated. When segmenting and recognizing a contour curve of character shape, some global method is required. If we want to connect contour curves around a singular point like crossing points,
Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
(Figure 1). A relation between tan θ and tanψ gives the trigonometric equation of the family of curves. In this article, trigonometric equations of some known plane curves are deduced and it is shown that these equations reveal some geometric characteristics of the families of the curves under consideration. In Section 2,.
M-curves and symmetric products
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Indranil Biswas
2017-08-03
Aug 3, 2017 ... is bounded above by g + 1, where g is the genus of X [11]. Curves which have exactly the maximum number (i.e., genus +1) of components of the real part are called M-curves. Classifying real algebraic curves up to homeomorphism is straightforward, however, classifying even planar non-singular real ...
Holomorphic curves in exploded manifolds: Kuranishi structure
Parker, Brett
2013-01-01
This paper constructs a Kuranishi structure for the moduli stack of holomorphic curves in exploded manifolds. To avoid some technicalities of abstract Kuranishi structures, we embed our Kuranishi structure inside a moduli stack of curves. The construction also works for the moduli stack of holomorphic curves in any compact symplectic manifold.
Automated Blazar Light Curves Using Machine Learning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Spencer James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-07-27
This presentation describes a problem and methodology pertaining to automated blazar light curves. Namely, optical variability patterns for blazars require the construction of light curves and in order to generate the light curves, data must be filtered before processing to ensure quality.
Method of construction spatial transition curve
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.V. Didanov
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.
Power forward curves: a managerial perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagarajan, Shankar
1999-01-01
This chapter concentrates on managerial application of power forward curves, and examines the determinants of electricity prices such as transmission constraints, its inability to be stored in a conventional way, its seasonality and weather dependence, the generation stack, and the swing risk. The electricity forward curve, classical arbitrage, constructing a forward curve, volatilities, and electricity forward curve models such as the jump-diffusion model, the mean-reverting heteroscedastic volatility model, and an econometric model of forward prices are examined. A managerial perspective of the applications of the forward curve is presented covering plant valuation, capital budgeting, performance measurement, product pricing and structuring, asset optimisation, valuation of transmission options, and risk management
Retrograde curves of solidus and solubility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasil'ev, M.V.
1979-01-01
The investigation was concerned with the constitutional diagrams of the eutectic type with ''retrograde solidus'' and ''retrograde solubility curve'' which must be considered as diagrams with degenerate monotectic transformation. The solidus and the solubility curves form a retrograde curve with a common retrograde point representing the solubility maximum. The two branches of the Aetrograde curve can be described with the aid of two similar equations. Presented are corresponding equations for the Cd-Zn system and shown is the possibility of predicting the run of the solubility curve
The writhe of open and closed curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, Mitchell A; Prior, Chris
2006-01-01
Twist and writhe measure basic geometric properties of a ribbon or tube. While these measures have applications in molecular biology, materials science, fluid mechanics and astrophysics, they are under-utilized because they are often considered difficult to compute. In addition, many applications involve curves with endpoints (open curves); but for these curves the definition of writhe can be ambiguous. This paper provides simple expressions for the writhe of closed curves, and provides a new definition of writhe for open curves. The open curve definition is especially appropriate when the curve is anchored at endpoints on a plane or stretches between two parallel planes. This definition can be especially useful for magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere, and for isotropic rods with ends fixed to a plane
Kimura, Muneyoshi; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Asano-Mori, Yuki; Nakamura, Shigeki; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Ohno, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Abe, Masahiro; Yuasa, Mitsuhiro; Kaji, Daisuke; Kageyama, Kosei; Nishida, Aya; Ishiwata, Kazuya; Takagi, Shinsuke; Yamamoto, Go; Uchida, Naoyuki; Izutsu, Koji; Wake, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Akiko
2017-01-01
ABSTRACT Few data on breakthrough candidemia (BC), defined as candidemia that develops on administration of antifungal agents (AFAs), in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients are available. The medical and microbiological records of recipients of an allo-HSCT obtained between December 2008 and December 2014 were reviewed. Of 768 allo-HSCT cases, 26 developed BC. Among the 26 causative strains, 22 strains were stored and identified by sequencing. The following species were isolated: Candida parapsilosis (9 strains), C. glabrata (4 strains), C. guilliermondii (3 strains), and other Candida species (6 strains). The AFAs being used when BC developed were micafungin (17 cases), liposomal amphotericin B (5 cases), itraconazole (2 cases), and voriconazole (2 cases). All 17 cases who developed BC during micafungin administration were administered 150 mg/day of micafungin. The susceptibilities of the causative Candida species to the administered AFAs when breakthrough occurred ranged from susceptible to resistant. Especially, 85% of the Candida species that caused BC during micafungin administration were susceptible to micafungin. Additionally, 75% of the strains were wild type for susceptibility to the administered AFAs when breakthrough occurred. Systemic steroid administration and a longer severe neutropenic phase (≥5 days) were independent risk factors for BC (P = 0.016 and P = 0.015, respectively). BC developed in allo-HSCT recipients even when they received a sufficient dose of AFA, including micafungin, to which the causative Candida species were susceptible and/or had wild-type susceptibility in vitro. Systemic steroid administration and a longer severe neutropenic phase were host-based factors associated with BC. PMID:28115352
Path integrals on curved manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosche, C.; Steiner, F.
1987-01-01
A general framework for treating path integrals on curved manifolds is presented. We also show how to perform general coordinate and space-time transformations in path integrals. The main result is that one has to subtract a quantum correction ΔV ∝ ℎ 2 from the classical Lagrangian L, i.e. the correct effective Lagrangian to be used in the path integral is L eff = L-ΔV. A general prescription for calculating the quantum correction ΔV is given. It is based on a canonical approach using Weyl-ordering and the Hamiltonian path integral defined by the midpoint prescription. The general framework is illustrated by several examples: The d-dimensional rotator, i.e. the motion on the sphere S d-1 , the path integral in d-dimensional polar coordinates, the exact treatment of the hydrogen atom in R 2 and R 3 by performing a Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation, the Langer transformation and the path integral for the Morse potential. (orig.)
Page curves for tripartite systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, Junha; Lee, Deok Sang; Nho, Dongju; Oh, Jeonghun; Park, Hyosub; Zoe, Heeseung; Yeom, Dong-han
2017-01-01
We investigate information flow and Page curves for tripartite systems. We prepare a tripartite system (say, A , B , and C ) of a given number of states and calculate information and entropy contents by assuming random states. Initially, every particle was in A (this means a black hole), and as time goes on, particles move to either B (this means Hawking radiation) or C (this means a broadly defined remnant, including a non-local transport of information, the last burst, an interior large volume, or a bubble universe, etc). If the final number of states of the remnant is smaller than that of Hawking radiation, then information will be stored by both the radiation and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant, while the remnant itself does not contain information. On the other hand, if the final number of states of the remnant is greater than that of Hawking radiation, then the radiation contains negligible information, while the remnant and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant contain information. Unless the number of states of the remnant is large enough compared to the entropy of the black hole, Hawking radiation must contain information; and we meet the menace of black hole complementarity again. Therefore, this contrasts the tension between various assumptions and candidates of the resolution of the information loss problem. (paper)
Vacuum polarization in curved spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guy, R.W.
1979-01-01
A necessary step in the process of understanding the quantum theory of gravity is the calculation of the stress-energy tensor of quantized fields in curved space-times. The determination of the stress tensor, a formally divergent object, is made possible in this dissertation by utilizing the zeta-function method of regularization and renormalization. By employing this scheme's representation of the renormalized effective action functional, an expression of the stress tensor for a massless, conformally invariant scalar field, first given by DeWitt, is derived. The form of the renormalized stress tensor is first tested in various examples of flat space-times. It is shown to vanish in Minkowski space and to yield the accepted value of the energy density in the Casimir effect. Next, the stress tensor is calculated in two space-times of constant curvature, the Einstein universe and the deSitter universe, and the results are shown to agree with those given by an expression of the stress tensor that is valid in conformally flat space-times. This work culminates in the determination of the stress tensor on the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole. This is accomplished by approximating the radial part of the eigen-functions and the metric in the vicinity of the horizon. The stress tensor at this level approximation is found to be pure trace. The approximated forms of the Schwarzschild metric describes a conformally flat space-time that possesses horizons
Dynamic adsorption of CO2/N2 on cation-exchanged chabazite SSZ-13: A breakthrough analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bower, Jamey K.; Barpaga, Dushyant; Prodinger, Sebastian; Krishna, Rajamani; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, Bernard P.; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Motkuri, Radha K.
2018-04-17
Alkali exchanged SSZ-13 adsorbents were investigated for their applicability in separating N2 from CO2 in flue gas streams using a dynamic breakthrough method. In contrast to IAST calculations based on equilibrium isotherms, K+ exchanged SSZ-13 was found to yield the best N2 productivity under dynamic conditions where diffusion properties play a significant role. This was attributed to the selective, partial blockage of access to the CHA cavities enhancing the separation potential in a 15/85 CO2/N2 binary gas mixture.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vandkilde, Helle
2014-01-01
The breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age (NBA) c. 1600 bc as a koiné within Bronze Age Europe can be historically linked to the Carpathian Basin. Nordic distinctiveness entailed an entanglement of cosmology and warriorhood, albeit represented through different media in the hotspot zone (bronze) ...... momentous creativity that drew upon Carpathian originals, contacts and a pool of Carpathian ideas, but ultimately drawing on emergent Mycenaean hegemonies in the Aegean. This provided the incentive for a cosmology-rooted resource from which the NBA could take its starting point....
Zhao, Yan; Yu, Qingchun
2018-01-01
The behavior of CO2 that coexists with CH4 and the effect of CH4 on the CO2 stream need to be deeply analyzed and studied, especially in the presence of water. Our previous studies investigated the breakthrough pressure and permeability of pure CO2 in five partially saturated low-permeability sandstone core samples from the Ordos Basin, and we concluded that rocks with a small pore size and low permeability show considerable sealing capacity even under unsaturated conditions. In this paper, we selected three of these samples for CO2-CH4 gas-mixture breakthrough experiments under various degrees of water saturation. The breakthrough experiments were performed by increasing the gas pressure step by step until breakthrough occurred. Then, the effluent gas mixture was collected for chromatographic partitioning analysis. The results indicate that CH4 significantly affects the breakthrough pressure and permeability of CO2. The presence of CH4 in the gas mixture increases the interfacial tension and, thus, the breakthrough pressure. Therefore, the injected gas mixture that contains the highest (lowest) mole fraction of CH4 results in the largest (smallest) breakthrough pressure. The permeability of the gas mixture is greater than that for pure CO2 because of CH4, and the effective permeability decreases with increased breakthrough pressure. Chromatographic partitioning of the effluent mixture gases indicates that CH4 breaks through ahead of CO2 as a result of its weaker solubility in water. Correlations are established between (1) the breakthrough pressure and water saturation, (2) the effective permeability and water saturation, (3) the breakthrough pressure and effective permeability, and (4) the mole fraction of CO2/CH4 in the effluent mixture gases and water saturation. These results deepen our understanding of the multi-phase flow behavior in the porous media under unsaturated conditions, which have implications for formulating emergency response plans for gas
Consistent Valuation across Curves Using Pricing Kernels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Macrina
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The general problem of asset pricing when the discount rate differs from the rate at which an asset’s cash flows accrue is considered. A pricing kernel framework is used to model an economy that is segmented into distinct markets, each identified by a yield curve having its own market, credit and liquidity risk characteristics. The proposed framework precludes arbitrage within each market, while the definition of a curve-conversion factor process links all markets in a consistent arbitrage-free manner. A pricing formula is then derived, referred to as the across-curve pricing formula, which enables consistent valuation and hedging of financial instruments across curves (and markets. As a natural application, a consistent multi-curve framework is formulated for emerging and developed inter-bank swap markets, which highlights an important dual feature of the curve-conversion factor process. Given this multi-curve framework, existing multi-curve approaches based on HJM and rational pricing kernel models are recovered, reviewed and generalised and single-curve models extended. In another application, inflation-linked, currency-based and fixed-income hybrid securities are shown to be consistently valued using the across-curve valuation method.
Construction of calibration curve for accountancy tank
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Takayuki; Goto, Yoshiki; Nidaira, Kazuo
2009-01-01
Tanks are equipped in a reprocessing plant for accounting solution of nuclear material. The careful measurement of volume in tanks is very important to implement rigorous accounting of nuclear material. The calibration curve relating the volume and level of solution needs to be constructed, where the level is determined by differential pressure of dip tubes. Several calibration curves are usually employed, but it's not explicitly decided how many segment are used, where to select segment, or what should be the degree of polynomial curve. These parameters, i.e., segment and degree of polynomial curve are mutually interrelated to give the better performance of calibration curve. Here we present the construction technique of giving optimum calibration curves and their characteristics. (author)
MICA: Multiple interval-based curve alignment
Mann, Martin; Kahle, Hans-Peter; Beck, Matthias; Bender, Bela Johannes; Spiecker, Heinrich; Backofen, Rolf
2018-01-01
MICA enables the automatic synchronization of discrete data curves. To this end, characteristic points of the curves' shapes are identified. These landmarks are used within a heuristic curve registration approach to align profile pairs by mapping similar characteristics onto each other. In combination with a progressive alignment scheme, this enables the computation of multiple curve alignments. Multiple curve alignments are needed to derive meaningful representative consensus data of measured time or data series. MICA was already successfully applied to generate representative profiles of tree growth data based on intra-annual wood density profiles or cell formation data. The MICA package provides a command-line and graphical user interface. The R interface enables the direct embedding of multiple curve alignment computation into larger analyses pipelines. Source code, binaries and documentation are freely available at https://github.com/BackofenLab/MICA
Inverse Diffusion Curves Using Shape Optimization.
Zhao, Shuang; Durand, Fredo; Zheng, Changxi
2018-07-01
The inverse diffusion curve problem focuses on automatic creation of diffusion curve images that resemble user provided color fields. This problem is challenging since the 1D curves have a nonlinear and global impact on resulting color fields via a partial differential equation (PDE). We introduce a new approach complementary to previous methods by optimizing curve geometry. In particular, we propose a novel iterative algorithm based on the theory of shape derivatives. The resulting diffusion curves are clean and well-shaped, and the final image closely approximates the input. Our method provides a user-controlled parameter to regularize curve complexity, and generalizes to handle input color fields represented in a variety of formats.
MacMahon, David H. E.; Price, Danny C.; Lebofsky, Matthew; Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Croft, Steve; DeBoer, David; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Gajjar, Vishal; Hellbourg, Gregory; Isaacson, Howard; Werthimer, Dan; Abdurashidova, Zuhra; Bloss, Marty; Brandt, Joe; Creager, Ramon; Ford, John; Lynch, Ryan S.; Maddalena, Ronald J.; McCullough, Randy; Ray, Jason; Whitehead, Mark; Woody, Dave
2018-04-01
The Breakthrough Listen Initiative is undertaking a comprehensive search for radio and optical signatures from extraterrestrial civilizations. An integral component of the project is the design and implementation of wide-bandwidth data recorder and signal processing systems. The capabilities of these systems, particularly at radio frequencies, directly determine survey speed; further, given a fixed observing time and spectral coverage, they determine sensitivity as well. Here, we detail the Breakthrough Listen wide-bandwidth data recording system deployed at the 100 m aperture Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The system digitizes up to 6 GHz of bandwidth at 8 bits for both polarizations, storing the resultant 24 GB s‑1 of data to disk. This system is among the highest data rate baseband recording systems in use in radio astronomy. A future system expansion will double recording capacity, to achieve a total Nyquist bandwidth of 12 GHz in two polarizations. In this paper, we present details of the system architecture, along with salient configuration and disk-write optimizations used to achieve high-throughput data capture on commodity compute servers and consumer-class hard disk drives.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.M.N. Minkman
2005-03-01
Full Text Available Purpose: This article considers the question if measurable improvements are achieved in the quality of care in stroke services by using a Breakthrough collaborative quality improvement model. Context of case: Despite the availability of explicit criteria, evidence based guidelines, national protocols and examples of best practices; stroke care in the Netherlands did not improve substantially yet. For that reason a national collaborative started in 2002 to improve integrated stroke care in 23 self selected stroke services. Data sources: Characteristics of sites, teams, aims and changes were assessed by using a questionnaire and monthly self-reports of teams. Progress in achieving significant quality improvement has been assessed on a five point Likert scale (IHI score. Case description: The stroke services (n=23 formed multidisciplinary teams, which worked together in a collaborative based on the IHI Breakthrough Series Model. Teams received instruction in quality improvement, reviewed self reported performance data, identified bottlenecks and improvement goals, and implemented “potentially better practices” based on criteria from the Edisse study, evidence based guidelines, own ideas and expert opinion. Conclusion and discussion: Quality of care has been improved in most participating stroke services. Eighty-seven percent of the teams have improved their care significantly on at least one topic. About 34% of the teams have achieved significant improvement on all aims within the time frame of the project. The project has contributed to the further development and spread of integrated stroke care in the Netherlands.
String Sigma Models on Curved Supermanifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Catenacci
2018-04-01
Full Text Available We use the techniques of integral forms to analyze the easiest example of two-dimensional sigma models on a supermanifold. We write the action as an integral of a top integral form over a D = 2 supermanifold, and we show how to interpolate between different superspace actions. Then, we consider curved supermanifolds, and we show that the definitions used for flat supermanifolds can also be used for curved supermanifolds. We prove it by first considering the case of a curved rigid supermanifold and then the case of a generic curved supermanifold described by a single superfield E.
Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...
Hong Shen
2011-01-01
The concepts of curve profile, curve intercept, curve intercept density, curve profile area density, intersection density in containing intersection (or intersection density relied on intersection reference), curve profile intersection density in surface (or curve intercept intersection density relied on intersection of containing curve), and curve profile area density in surface (AS) were defined. AS expressed the amount of curve profile area of Y phase in the unit containing surface area, S...
Polar representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veloso, Marcelo Antonio; Mattos, Joao Roberto Loureiro de
2008-01-01
Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic parameters: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. Any one of these quantities can be expressed as a function of any two others. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves, also referred to as four-quadrant curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, the four-quadrant configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the polar form appears as the simplest way to represent the homologous curves. In the polar method, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a
Migration and the Wage-Settings Curve
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke
Germany on basis of a wage-setting curve. The wage-setting curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a hange in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously in a general equilibrium framework. Using...
Learning curves in energy planning models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barreto, L; Kypreos, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1999-08-01
This study describes the endogenous representation of investment cost learning curves into the MARKAL energy planning model. A piece-wise representation of the learning curves is implemented using Mixed Integer Programming. The approach is briefly described and some results are presented. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.
The Koch curve as a smooth manifold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Epstein, Marcelo; Sniatycki, Jedrzej
2008-01-01
We show that there exists a homeomorphism between the closed interval [0,1] is contained in R and the Koch curve endowed with the subset topology of R 2 . We use this homeomorphism to endow the Koch curve with the structure of a smooth manifold with boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bershadsky, M.; Radul, A.
1988-01-01
The line bundles of degree g-1 on Z N -curves corresponding to 1/N nonsingular characteristics are considered. The determinants of Dirac operators defined on these line bundles are evaluated in terms of branch points. The generalization of Thomae's formula for Z N -curves is derived. (orig.)
Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves
Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.
2010-01-01
This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…
A minicourse on moduli of curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Looijenga, E.
2000-01-01
These are notes that accompany a short course given at the School on Algebraic Geometry 1999 at the ICTP, Trieste. A major goal is to outline various approaches to moduli spaces of curves. In the last part I discuss the algebraic classes that naturally live on these spaces; these can be thought of as the characteristic classes for bundles of curves. (author)
Minimal families of curves on surfaces
Lubbes, Niels
2014-01-01
A minimal family of curves on an embedded surface is defined as a 1-dimensional family of rational curves of minimal degree, which cover the surface. We classify such minimal families using constructive methods. This allows us to compute the minimal
Symmetry Properties of Potentiometric Titration Curves.
Macca, Carlo; Bombi, G. Giorgio
1983-01-01
Demonstrates how the symmetry properties of titration curves can be efficiently and rigorously treated by means of a simple method, assisted by the use of logarithmic diagrams. Discusses the symmetry properties of several typical titration curves, comparing the graphical approach and an explicit mathematical treatment. (Author/JM)
Deep-learnt classification of light curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mahabal, Ashish; Gieseke, Fabian; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru
2017-01-01
Astronomy light curves are sparse, gappy, and heteroscedastic. As a result standard time series methods regularly used for financial and similar datasets are of little help and astronomers are usually left to their own instruments and techniques to classify light curves. A common approach is to d...
Hyper-and-elliptic-curve cryptography
Bernstein, D.J.; Lange, T.
2014-01-01
This paper introduces ‘hyper-and-elliptic-curve cryptography’, in which a single high-security group supports fast genus-2-hyperelliptic-curve formulas for variable-base-point single-scalar multiplication (for example, Diffie–Hellman shared-secret computation) and at the same time supports fast
Curve Matching with Applications in Medical Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bauer, Martin; Bruveris, Martins; Harms, Philipp
2015-01-01
In the recent years, Riemannian shape analysis of curves and surfaces has found several applications in medical image analysis. In this paper we present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves in Euclidean space. This class of metrics has several...
Remote sensing used for power curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, R; Joergensen, H E; Paulsen, U S; Larsen, T J; Antoniou, I; Thesbjerg, L
2008-01-01
Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviation in the power curve significantly. Two LiDARs and a SoDAR are used to measure the wind profile in front of a wind turbine. These profiles are used to calculate the equivalent wind speed. The comparison of the power curves obtained with the three instruments to the traditional power curve, obtained using a cup anemometer measurement, confirms the results obtained from the simulations. Using LiDAR profiles reduces the error in power curve measurement, when these are used as relative instrument together with a cup anemometer. Results from the SoDAR do not show such promising results, probably because of noisy measurements resulting in distorted profiles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suzuki F
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Fumitaka Suzuki,1,2 Hitomi Sezaki,1 Norio Akuta,1 Yoshiyuki Suzuki,1 Yusuke Kawamura,1 Tetsuya Hosaka,1 Masahiro Kobayashi,1 Satoshi Saitoh,1 Yasuji Arase,1 Kenji Ikeda,1 Mariko Kobayashi,3 Sachiyo Watahiki,3 Rie Mineta,3 Yukiko Suzuki,3 Hiromitsu Kumada1 1Department of Hepatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Okinaka Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Tokyo, Japan; 3Research Institute for Hepatology, Toranomon Branch Hospital, Kawasaki, Japan Abstract: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF is widely used to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV patients in the USA and Europe. No confirmed report of resistance selection during treatment with TDF in treatment-naïve and nucleoside/nucleotide analog-treated chronic hepatitis B patients has yet been reported. Here, we report for the first time a patient with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis who emerged with virologic breakthrough during combination therapy with TDF and entecavir (ETV, against ETV-resistant virus. A 51-year-old Japanese woman with hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg, whose genotype was C, received ETV monotherapy continuously followed by TDF and ETV combination therapy, because her HBV DNA levels had been >3.5 log copies/mL. At the start of combination therapy, amino acid substitutions of the reverse transcriptase (rt gene, rtL180M, rtT184I/M, and rtM204V, were detected. After this, serum HBV DNA decreased to less than 2.1 log copies/mL and remained at this level until 31 months of combination therapy, when it again began to increase. Amino acid substitutions of rtL180M, rtS202G, and rtM204V emerged and were associated with an increase in serum HBV DNA at virologic breakthrough. Long-term therapy with TDF against the ETV-resistant virus has the potential to induce virologic breakthrough and resistance, and careful follow-up should be carried out. Keywords: hepatitis B virus, resistant
Platt, Matthew B; Platt, Manu O
2013-11-27
From the travel ban on people living with HIV (PLHIV) to resistance to needle exchange programmes, there are many examples where policy responses to HIV/AIDS in the United States seem divorced from behavioural, public health and sociological evidence. At its root, however, the unknowns about HIV/AIDS lie at biomedical science, and scientific researchers have made tremendous progress over the past 30 years of the epidemic by using antiretroviral therapy to increase the life expectancy of PLHIV almost to the same level as non-infected individuals; but a relationship between biomedical science discoveries and congressional responses to HIV/AIDS has not been studied. Using quantitative approaches, we directly examine the hypothesis that progress in HIV/AIDS biomedical science discoveries would have a correlative relationship with congressional response to HIV/AIDS from 1981 to 2010. This study used original data on every bill introduced, hearing held and law passed by the US Congress relating to HIV/AIDS over 30 years (1981-2010). We combined congressional data with the most cited and impactful biomedical research scientific publications over the same time period as a metric of biomedical science breakthroughs. Correlations between congressional policy and biomedical research were then analyzed at the aggregate and individual levels. Biomedical research advancements helped shape both the level and content of bill sponsorship on HIV/AIDS, but they had no effect on other stages of the legislative process. Examination of the content of bills and biomedical research indicated that science helped transform HIV/AIDS bill sponsorship from a niche concern of liberal Democrats to a bipartisan coalition when Republicans became the majority party. The trade-off for that expansion has been an emphasis on the global epidemic to the detriment of domestic policies and programmes. Breakthroughs in biomedical science did associate with the number and types of HIV/AIDS bills introduced
Parametric representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veloso, Marcelo A.; Mattos, Joao R.L. de
2015-01-01
Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic quantities: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, this configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the parametric form appears as the simplest way to deal with the homologous curves. In this approach, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) are transformed to the parametric form. (author)
Computerised curve deconvolution of TL/OSL curves using a popular spreadsheet program.
Afouxenidis, D; Polymeris, G S; Tsirliganis, N C; Kitis, G
2012-05-01
This paper exploits the possibility of using commercial software for thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence curve deconvolution analysis. The widely used software package Microsoft Excel, with the Solver utility has been used to perform deconvolution analysis to both experimental and reference glow curves resulted from the GLOw Curve ANalysis INtercomparison project. The simple interface of this programme combined with the powerful Solver utility, allows the analysis of complex stimulated luminescence curves into their components and the evaluation of the associated luminescence parameters.
Computerised curve deconvolution of TL/OSL curves using a popular spreadsheet program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afouxenidis, D.; Polymeris, G. S.; Tsirliganis, N. C.; Kitis, G.
2012-01-01
This paper exploits the possibility of using commercial software for thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence curve deconvolution analysis. The widely used software package Microsoft Excel, with the Solver utility has been used to perform deconvolution analysis to both experimental and reference glow curves resulted from the Glow Curve Analysis Intercomparison project. The simple interface of this programme combined with the powerful Solver utility, allows the analysis of complex stimulated luminescence curves into their components and the evaluation of the associated luminescence parameters. (authors)
Mannheim Partner D-Curves in the Euclidean 3-space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustafa Kazaz
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the idea of Mannheim partner curves for curves lying on surfaces. By considering the Darboux frames of surface curves, we define Mannheim partner D-curves and give the characterizations for these curves. We also find the relations between geodesic curvatures, normal curvatures and geodesic torsions of these associated curves. Furthermore, we show that definition and characterizations of Mannheim partner D-curves include those of Mannheim partner curves in some special cases.
A versatile curve-fit model for linear to deeply concave rank abundance curves
Neuteboom, J.H.; Struik, P.C.
2005-01-01
A new, flexible curve-fit model for linear to concave rank abundance curves was conceptualized and validated using observational data. The model links the geometric-series model and log-series model and can also fit deeply concave rank abundance curves. The model is based ¿ in an unconventional way
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davies, Andrew; Zeppetella, Giovambattista; Andersen, Steen
2011-01-01
This study involved 320 cancer patients from four Northern European countries. Patients with breakthrough pain were questioned about the characteristics of their pain, the current management of their pain, and the acceptability/utility of alternative routes of administration. The median number...... of episodes was 3/day. Forty-four percent patients reported incident-type pain, 39% spontaneous-type pain, and 17% a combination of these pains. The median duration was 60 min, and the median time to peak intensity was 15 min. Three percent patients reported "mild" pain, 37% "moderate" pain, and 60% "severe......" pain. Ninety percent patients stated that the pain interfered with their daily activities. All patients were using opioids as rescue medication (mainly oral morphine/oxycodone), whilst 28% patients were using non-opioids, and 50% patients were using non-pharmacological interventions. Only 55% patients...
Cagliani, Alberto; Østerberg, Frederik W; Hansen, Ole; Shiv, Lior; Nielsen, Peter F; Petersen, Dirch H
2017-09-01
We present a breakthrough in micro-four-point probe (M4PP) metrology to substantially improve precision of transmission line (transfer length) type measurements by application of advanced electrode position correction. In particular, we demonstrate this methodology for the M4PP current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) technique. The CIPT method has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) stacks suitable for magnetic random-access memories for more than a decade. On two MTJ stacks, the measurement precision of resistance-area product and tunneling magnetoresistance was improved by up to a factor of 3.5 and the measurement reproducibility by up to a factor of 17, thanks to our improved position correction technique.
Nalamachu, Srinivas
2013-12-01
Breakthrough pain is common among patients with cancer and presents challenges to effective pain management. Breakthrough pain is characterized by rapid onset, severe intensity, and duration typically lasting disintegration time of three different doses of sublingual fentanyl tablets in opioid-tolerant patients. This was a single-center, non-randomized, open-label study. Opioid-tolerant adult patients (N = 30) with chronic pain were assigned to one of three dose groups and self-administered a single 100, 200, or 300 μg sublingual fentanyl tablet (Abstral(®), Galena Biopharma, Portland, OR, USA). Time to complete disintegration was measured by each patient with a stopwatch and independently verified by study personnel. Disintegration time (mean ± SD) for sublingual fentanyl tablets (all doses) was 88.2 ± 55.1 s. Mean disintegration times tended to be slightly longer for the 200 μg (96.7 ± 57.9 s) and 300 μg doses (98.6 ± 64.8 s) compared to the 100 μg dose (69.5 ± 40.5 s). Differences were not statistically significant. Disintegration time was not significantly different between men and women and was not affected by age. Sublingual fentanyl tablets dissolved rapidly (average time <2 min) in all patients, with the higher doses taking slightly more time to dissolve.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuhong Xie
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In 2014, Zhanjiang Branch of CNOOC Limited obtained high oil and gas flows (160 × 104 m3/d in Well LS 17-2-1 in northern South China Sea. The tested formation is the Neogene Upper Miocene Huangliu Fm. This is the first self-explored natural gas field in deep water area in China. Exploration in this area underwent three periods: (1 Reconnaissance exploration period (before 2002: Limited by techniques, the major exploration was in shallow water areas; (2 Foreign cooperative exploration period (2002–2012: As the discovered reserve scale was small, and there is no economic benefit, the partners successively gave up their exploration equities in the deep water area of western South China Sea; however, the high quality source rocks and reservoirs were confirmed in the deep water area of the South China Sea, revealing the mask of hydrocarbon exploration in this region; (3 Self-exploration period (since 2013: Relying on national science and technology major projects and its scientific research and production, Zhanjiang Company of CNOOC conducted several scientific researches on seismic data acquisition and processing, high-quality reservoir distribution, key factors for hydrocarbon accumulation in deep water areas, optimized and confirmed Lingshui 17-2 structure as the first drilling target, and obtained significant exploration breakthrough. Lingshui 17-2 structure is located in the Ledong-Lingshui section of the Central Canyon. Its major target layer is the Huangliu Fm. Its total thickness is over 150 m, with sandstone ratio of 75.4%, maximum single layer thickness of 52 m, porosity ranging 30.0%–33.7% (31.5% averagely, permeability ranging 293–2512 mD (633 mD averagely, belonging to reservoir with ultrahigh porosity and high-ultrahigh permeability. The exploration breakthrough in Lingshui 17-2 shows the giant potentiality of hydrocarbon exploration in this deep water area.
Brinda, B J; Pasikhova, Y; Quilitz, R E; Thai, C M; Greene, J N
2017-04-01
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most frequent cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in adults. Cancer patients, in particular, are at a higher risk for CDI. Limited clinical data exist regarding the use of tigecycline for the treatment of CDI, especially in patients with oncologic and haematologic malignancies. To characterize the use of tigecycline for treatment of CDI in oncology patients at an academic cancer centre. This was a retrospective, single-centre, single-arm, chart review evaluating the use of tigecycline for the management of CDI in oncology patients at an academic cancer centre. The median age of CDI diagnosis in this patient group (N=66) was 65 years (range: 16-84) and the majority of patients had solid tumour malignancies. Fifty-six percent of patients had severe CDI, 70.3% of which were classified as having severe complicated disease. The median time to initiation of tigecycline therapy was 2 days (mean: 3.83) and the median number of tigecycline doses was 13 (range: 1-50). Twelve non-CDI breakthrough infections were observed, and four patients developed CDI while receiving tigecycline for non-CDI indications. The rate of death was 18% and the recurrence rate was 15.2%. Tigecycline did not lead to overt benefits in outcomes of oncology patients with CDI when compared to historical data. In addition, several breakthrough CDIs were observed in patients who received the drug for a non-CDI indication. Further prospective research is needed to validate the use of tigecycline for management of CDI. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Investigation of learning and experience curves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.
1980-04-01
The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chism, S.E.; Goodwin, D.A.; Meares, C.F.
1986-01-01
Recently there has been interest in labelling monoclonal antibodies with therapeutic amounts of a pure beta emitting isotope. 90 Y offers many desirable features and may be conveniently and economically obtained from a 90 Sr- 90 Y generator. A potential hazard with this system is breakthrough of the parent 90 Sr which has a half life of 28 years and is an extremely toxic bone seeking isotope. Therefore it is essential that the daughter be completely separated from its parent. We have devised two simple techniques which allow us to monitor rapidly the amount of 90 Sr breakthrough and quantitate the 90 Y activity over a 5 log range. (author)
Modelling curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soloninko K.S.
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The authors research the issue of functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand. Settlement of the problem, and its connection with important scientific and practical tasks. According to its nature, the market economy is unstable and is in constant movement. Economy has an effective instrument for explanation of changes in economic environment; this tool is called the modelling of economic processes. The modelling of economic processes depends first and foremost on the building of economic model which is the base for the formalization of economic process, that is, the building of mathematical model. The effective means for formalization of economic process is the creation of the model of hypothetic or imaginary economy. The building of demand model is significant for the market of goods and services. The problem includes the receiving (as the result of modelling definite functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand according to which one can determine their mathematical model. Another problem lies in obtaining majorant properties of curves of joint demand on the market of goods and services. Analysis of the latest researches and publications. Many domestic and foreign scientists dedicated their studies to the researches and building of the models of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand. In spite of considerable work of the scientists, such problems as functional properties of the curves and their practical use in modelling. The purpose of the article is to describe functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand on the market of goods and services on the base of modelling of their building. Scientific novelty and practical value. The theoretical regulations (for functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand received as a result of the present research, that is convexity, give extra practical possibilities in a microeconomic
Reflected Light Curves of Extrasolar Planets
Green, D.; Matthews, J.; Kuschnig, R.; Seager, S.
The planned launches of ultra-precise photometric satellites such as MOST, COROT and MONS should provide the first opportunity to study the reflected light curves from extrasolar planets. To predict the capabilities of these missions, we have constructed a series of models of such light curves, improving upon the Monte Carlo simulations by Seager et al. (2000). These models include more realistic features such limb darkening of the star and broad band photometry. For specific models, the resulting planet light curves exhibit unique behavior with the variation of radius, inclination and presence or absence of clouds.
Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul
2012-01-01
The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of 280 X 90 with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.
Morse theory on timelike and causal curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Everson, J.; Talbot, C.J.
1976-01-01
It is shown that the set of timelike curves in a globally hyperbolic space-time manifold can be given the structure of a Hilbert manifold under a suitable definition of 'timelike.' The causal curves are the topological closure of this manifold. The Lorentzian energy (corresponding to Milnor's energy, except that the Lorentzian inner product is used) is shown to be a Morse function for the space of causal curves. A fixed end point index theorem is obtained in which a lower bound for the index of the Hessian of the Lorentzian energy is given in terms of the sum of the orders of the conjugate points between the end points. (author)
Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fleten, S.-E.; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard
2003-01-01
We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available...... to the analyst. Our method combines the information contained in observed bid and ask prices with information from the forecasts generated by bottom-up models. As an example, we use information concerning the shape of the seasonal variation from a bottom-up model to improve the forward price curve quoted...
Curves of restricted type in euclidean spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bengü Kılıç Bayram
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Submanifolds of restricted type were introduced in [7]. In the present study we consider restricted type of curves in Em. We give some special examples. We also show that spherical curve in S2(r C E3 is of restricted type if and only if either ƒ(s is constant or a linear function of s of the form ƒ(s = ±s + b and every closed W - curve of rank k and of length 2(r in E2k is of restricted type.
Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleten, Stein-Erik; Lemming, Jacob
2003-01-01
We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available to the analyst. Our method combines the information contained in observed bid and ask prices with information from the forecasts generated by bottom-up models. As an example, we use information concerning the shape of the seasonal variation from a bottom-up model to improve the forward price curve quoted on the Nordic power exchange
Growth curves for twins in Slovenia.
Bricelj, Katja; Blickstein, Isaac; Bržan-Šimenc, Gabrijela; Janša, Vid; Lučovnik, Miha; Verdenik, Ivan; Trojner-Bregar, Andreja; Tul, Nataša
2017-02-01
Abnormalities of fetal growth are more common in twins. We introduce the growth curves for monitoring fetal growth in twin pregnancies in Slovenia. Slovenian National Perinatal Information System for the period between 2002 and 2010 was used to calculate birth weight percentiles for all live born twins for each week from 22nd to 40th week. The calculated percentiles of birth weight for all live-born twins in Slovenia served as the basis for drawing 'growth' curves. The calculated growth curves for twins will help accurately diagnose small or large twin fetuses for their gestational age in the native central European population.
Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse
2014-01-01
. The model and method are parsimonious in the sense that only a single function (the zero-turbulence power curve) and a single auxiliary parameter (the equivalent turbulence factor) are needed to predict the mean power at any desired turbulence intensity. The method requires only ten minute statistics......The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, Haoran; Koehler, Jonathan
2007-01-01
Learning curves have recently been widely adopted in climate-economy models to incorporate endogenous change of energy technologies, replacing the conventional assumption of an autonomous energy efficiency improvement. However, there has been little consideration of the credibility of the learning curve. The current trend that many important energy and climate change policy analyses rely on the learning curve means that it is of great importance to critically examine the basis for learning curves. Here, we analyse the use of learning curves in energy technology, usually implemented as a simple power function. We find that the learning curve cannot separate the effects of price and technological change, cannot reflect continuous and qualitative change of both conventional and emerging energy technologies, cannot help to determine the time paths of technological investment, and misses the central role of R and D activity in driving technological change. We argue that a logistic curve of improving performance modified to include R and D activity as a driving variable can better describe the cost reductions in energy technologies. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the top-down Leontief technology can incorporate the bottom-up technologies that improve along either the learning curve or the logistic curve, through changing input-output coefficients. An application to UK wind power illustrates that the logistic curve fits the observed data better and implies greater potential for cost reduction than the learning curve does. (author)
A simple Lissajous curves experimental setup
Şahin Kızılcık, Hasan; Damlı, Volkan
2018-05-01
The aim of this study is to develop an experimental setup to produce Lissajous curves. The setup was made using a smartphone, a powered speaker (computer speaker), a balloon, a laser pointer and a piece of mirror. Lissajous curves are formed as follows: a piece of mirror is attached to a balloon. The balloon is vibrated with the sound signal provided by the speaker that is connected to a smartphone. The laser beam is reflected off the mirror and the reflection is shaped as a Lissajous curve. Because of the intersection of two frequencies (frequency of the sound signal and natural vibration frequency of the balloon), these curves are formed. They can be used to measure the ratio of frequencies.
On ``minimally curved spacetimes'' in general relativity
Dadhich, Naresh
1997-01-01
We consider a spacetime corresponding to uniform relativistic potential analogus to Newtonian potential as an example of ``minimally curved spacetime''. We also consider a radially symmetric analogue of the Rindler spacetime of uniform proper acceleration relative to infinity.
Utilization of curve offsets in additive manufacturing
Haseltalab, Vahid; Yaman, Ulas; Dolen, Melik
2018-05-01
Curve offsets are utilized in different fields of engineering and science. Additive manufacturing, which lately becomes an explicit requirement in manufacturing industry, utilizes curve offsets widely. One of the necessities of offsetting is for scaling which is required if there is shrinkage after the fabrication or if the surface quality of the resulting part is unacceptable. Therefore, some post-processing is indispensable. But the major application of curve offsets in additive manufacturing processes is for generating head trajectories. In a point-wise AM process, a correct tool-path in each layer can reduce lots of costs and increase the surface quality of the fabricated parts. In this study, different curve offset generation algorithms are analyzed to show their capabilities and disadvantages through some test cases and improvements on their drawbacks are suggested.
Quaternion orders, quadratic forms, and Shimura curves
Alsina, Montserrat
2004-01-01
Shimura curves are a far-reaching generalization of the classical modular curves. They lie at the crossroads of many areas, including complex analysis, hyperbolic geometry, algebraic geometry, algebra, and arithmetic. The text provides an introduction to the subject from a theoretic and algorithmic perspective. The main topics covered in it are Shimura curves defined over the rational number field, the construction of their fundamental domains, and the determination of their complex multiplication points. The study of complex multiplication points in Shimura curves leads to the study of families of binary quadratic forms with algebraic coefficients and to their classification by arithmetic Fuchsian groups. In this regard, the authors develop a theory full of new possibilities which parallels Gauss' theory on the classification of binary quadratic forms with integral coefficients by the action of the modular group. Each topic covered in the book begins with a theoretical discussion followed by carefully worked...
Uncovering the skewness news impact curve
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Anatolyev, Stanislav; Petukhov, A.
2016-01-01
Roč. 14, č. 4 (2016), s. 746-771 ISSN 1479-8409 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : conditional skewness * news impact curve * stock returns Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.800, year: 2016
Classification of ASKAP Vast Radio Light Curves
Rebbapragada, Umaa; Lo, Kitty; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Reed, Colorado; Murphy, Tara; Thompson, David R.
2012-01-01
The VAST survey is a wide-field survey that observes with unprecedented instrument sensitivity (0.5 mJy or lower) and repeat cadence (a goal of 5 seconds) that will enable novel scientific discoveries related to known and unknown classes of radio transients and variables. Given the unprecedented observing characteristics of VAST, it is important to estimate source classification performance, and determine best practices prior to the launch of ASKAP's BETA in 2012. The goal of this study is to identify light curve characterization and classification algorithms that are best suited for archival VAST light curve classification. We perform our experiments on light curve simulations of eight source types and achieve best case performance of approximately 90% accuracy. We note that classification performance is most influenced by light curve characterization rather than classifier algorithm.
Automorphisms of double coverings of curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres, F.
1994-11-01
We study automorphisms of curves that commute with each other. We prove that the order and the number of fixed points of one of them satisfy certain relations involving those of the other. Then, we specialize our results to the case of double coverings of curves. For instance, if the genus of the curve is at least 4γ + 2 and γ >= 1 (γ = the genus of the covered curve) we prove that the order of an automorphism is bounded above by 2γ + 1 (resp. 4γ + 2) provided it is prime (resp. it has at least five fixed points). We also improve Farkas' bound on the number of fixed points namely 4γ + 4 by showing that it involves the order of the automorphism except in the case of even order when such an improvement is obtained provided the automorphism and the γ-involution has at least one common fixed point. (author). 15 refs
Uncovering the skewness news impact curve
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Anatolyev, Stanislav; Petukhov, A.
2016-01-01
Roč. 14, č. 4 (2016), s. 746-771 ISSN 1479-8409 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : conditional skewness * news impact curve * stock returns Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.800, year: 2016
Transmission of wave energy in curved ducts
Rostafinski, W.
1973-01-01
A formation of wave energy flow was developed for motion in curved ducts. A parametric study over a range of frequencies determined the ability of circular bends to transmit energy for the case of perfectly rigid walls.
Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich's and Vistoli's twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.
Statistics from dynamics in curved spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parker, L.; Wang, Y.
1989-01-01
We consider quantum fields of spin 0, 1/2, 1, 3/2, and 2 with a nonzero mass in curved spacetime. We show that the dynamical Bogolubov transformations associated with gravitationally induced particle creation imply the connection between spin and statistics: By embedding two flat regions in a curved spacetime, we find that only when one imposes Bose-Einstein statistics for an integer-spin field and Fermi-Dirac statistics for a half-integer-spin field in the first flat region is the same type of statistics propagated from the first to the second flat region. This derivation of the flat-spacetime spin-statistics theorem makes use of curved-spacetime dynamics and does not reduce to any proof given in flat spacetime. We also show in the same manner that parastatistics, up to the fourth order, are consistent with the dynamical evolution of curved spacetime
RMS fatigue curves for random vibrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brenneman, B.; Talley, J.G.
1984-01-01
Fatigue usage factors for deterministic or constant amplitude vibration stresses may be calculated with well known procedures and fatigue curves given in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. However, some phenomena produce nondeterministic cyclic stresses which can only be described and analyzed with statistical concepts and methods. Such stresses may be caused by turbulent fluid flow over a structure. Previous methods for solving this statistical fatigue problem are often difficult to use and may yield inaccurate results. Two such methods examined herein are Crandall's method and the ''3sigma'' method. The objective of this paper is to provide a method for creating ''RMS fatigue curves'' which accurately incorporate the requisite statistical information. These curves are given and may be used by analysts with the same ease and in the same manner as the ASME fatigue curves
Neutron cross sections: Book of curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.
1988-01-01
Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs
Constructing elliptic curves from Galois representations
Snowden, Andrew; Tsimerman, Jacob
2017-01-01
Given a non-isotrivial elliptic curve over an arithmetic surface, one obtains a lisse $\\ell$-adic sheaf of rank two over the surface. This lisse sheaf has a number of straightforward properties: cyclotomic determinant, finite ramification, rational traces of Frobenius, and somewhere not potentially good reduction. We prove that any lisse sheaf of rank two possessing these properties comes from an elliptic curve.
Curved twistor spaces and H-space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tod, K.P.
1980-01-01
The curved twistor space construction of Penrose for anti-self-dual solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations is described. Curved twistor spaces are defined and it is shown with the aid of an example how to obtain them by deforming the complex structure of regions of flat twistor space. The connection of this procedure with Newman's H-space construction via asymptotic twistor space is outlined. (Auth.)
Potential Energy Curve of N2 Revisited
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Špirko, Vladimír; Xiangzhu, L.; Paldus, J.
2011-01-01
Roč. 76, č. 4 (2011), s. 327-341 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GAP208/11/0436 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : reduced multireference coupled-cluster method * reduced potential curve method * nitrogen molecule potential energy curves Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011
Curvature Entropy for Curved Profile Generation
Ujiie, Yoshiki; Kato, Takeo; Sato, Koichiro; Matsuoka, Yoshiyuki
2012-01-01
In a curved surface design, the overall shape features that emerge from combinations of shape elements are important. However, controlling the features of the overall shape in curved profiles is difficult using conventional microscopic shape information such as dimension. Herein two types of macroscopic shape information, curvature entropy and quadrature curvature entropy, quantitatively represent the features of the overall shape. The curvature entropy is calculated by the curvature distribu...
Anomalies in curved spacetime at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boschi-Filho, H.; Natividade, C.P.
1993-01-01
We discuss the problem of the breakdown of conformal and gauge symmetries at finite temperature in curved spacetime background, when the changes in the background are gradual. We obtain the expressions for the Seeley's coefficients and the heat kernel expansion in this regime. As applications, we consider the self-interacting lambda phi''4 and chiral Schwinger models in curved backgrounds at finite temperature. (Author) 9 refs
Learning curves in health professions education.
Pusic, Martin V; Boutis, Kathy; Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A
2015-08-01
Learning curves, which graphically show the relationship between learning effort and achievement, are common in published education research but are not often used in day-to-day educational activities. The purpose of this article is to describe the generation and analysis of learning curves and their applicability to health professions education. The authors argue that the time is right for a closer look at using learning curves-given their desirable properties-to inform both self-directed instruction by individuals and education management by instructors.A typical learning curve is made up of a measure of learning (y-axis), a measure of effort (x-axis), and a mathematical linking function. At the individual level, learning curves make manifest a single person's progress towards competence including his/her rate of learning, the inflection point where learning becomes more effortful, and the remaining distance to mastery attainment. At the group level, overlaid learning curves show the full variation of a group of learners' paths through a given learning domain. Specifically, they make overt the difference between time-based and competency-based approaches to instruction. Additionally, instructors can use learning curve information to more accurately target educational resources to those who most require them.The learning curve approach requires a fine-grained collection of data that will not be possible in all educational settings; however, the increased use of an assessment paradigm that explicitly includes effort and its link to individual achievement could result in increased learner engagement and more effective instructional design.
Barberá, J. A.; Mudarra, M.; Andreo, B.; De la Torre, B.
2018-02-01
Tracer concentration data from field experiments conducted in several carbonate aquifers (Malaga province, southern Spain) were analyzed following a dual approach based on the graphical evaluation method (GEM) and solute transport modeling to decipher flow mechanisms in karst systems at regional scale. The results show that conduit system geometry and flow conditions are the principal factors influencing tracer migration through the examined karst flow routes. Solute transport is mainly controlled by longitudinal advection and dispersion throughout the conduit length, but also by flow partitioning between mobile and immobile fluid phases, while the matrix diffusion process appears to be less relevant. The simulation of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) suggests that diffuse and concentrated flow through the unsaturated zone can have equivalent transport properties under extreme recharge, with high flow velocities and efficient mixing due to the high hydraulic gradients generated. Tracer mobilization within the saturated zone under low flow conditions mainly depends on the hydrodynamics (rather than on the karst conduit development), which promote a lower longitudinal advection and retardation in the tracer migration, resulting in a marked tailing effect of BTCs. The analytical advection-dispersion equation better approximates the effective flow velocity and longitudinal dispersion estimations provided by the GEM, while the non-equilibrium transport model achieves a better adjustment of most asymmetric and long-tailed BTCs. The assessment of karst underground flow properties from tracing tests at regional scale can aid design of groundwater management and protection strategies, particularly in large hydrogeological systems (i.e. transboundary carbonate aquifers) and/or in poorly investigated ones.
Environmental bias and elastic curves on surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guven, Jemal; María Valencia, Dulce; Vázquez-Montejo, Pablo
2014-01-01
The behavior of an elastic curve bound to a surface will reflect the geometry of its environment. This may occur in an obvious way: the curve may deform freely along directions tangent to the surface, but not along the surface normal. However, even if the energy itself is symmetric in the curve's geodesic and normal curvatures, which control these modes, very distinct roles are played by the two. If the elastic curve binds preferentially on one side, or is itself assembled on the surface, not only would one expect the bending moduli associated with the two modes to differ, binding along specific directions, reflected in spontaneous values of these curvatures, may be favored. The shape equations describing the equilibrium states of a surface curve described by an elastic energy accommodating environmental factors will be identified by adapting the method of Lagrange multipliers to the Darboux frame associated with the curve. The forces transmitted to the surface along the surface normal will be determined. Features associated with a number of different energies, both of physical relevance and of mathematical interest, are described. The conservation laws associated with trajectories on surface geometries exhibiting continuous symmetries are also examined. (paper)
Geometric invariant theory for polarized curves
Bini, Gilberto; Melo, Margarida; Viviani, Filippo
2014-01-01
We investigate GIT quotients of polarized curves. More specifically, we study the GIT problem for the Hilbert and Chow schemes of curves of degree d and genus g in a projective space of dimension d-g, as d decreases with respect to g. We prove that the first three values of d at which the GIT quotients change are given by d=a(2g-2) where a=2, 3.5, 4. We show that, for a>4, L. Caporaso's results hold true for both Hilbert and Chow semistability. If 3.5curves. If 2curves. We also analyze in detail the critical values a=3.5 and a=4, where the Hilbert semistable locus is strictly smaller than the Chow semistable locus. As an application, we obtain three compactications of the universal Jacobian over the moduli space of stable curves, weakly-pseudo-stable curves and pseu...
Global experience curves for wind farms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Junginger, M.; Faaij, A.; Turkenburg, W.C.
2005-01-01
In order to forecast the technological development and cost of wind turbines and the production costs of wind electricity, frequent use is made of the so-called experience curve concept. Experience curves of wind turbines are generally based on data describing the development of national markets, which cause a number of problems when applied for global assessments. To analyze global wind energy price development more adequately, we compose a global experience curve. First, underlying factors for past and potential future price reductions of wind turbines are analyzed. Also possible implications and pitfalls when applying the experience curve methodology are assessed. Second, we present and discuss a new approach of establishing a global experience curve and thus a global progress ratio for the investment cost of wind farms. Results show that global progress ratios for wind farms may lie between 77% and 85% (with an average of 81%), which is significantly more optimistic than progress ratios applied in most current scenario studies and integrated assessment models. While the findings are based on a limited amount of data, they may indicate faster price reduction opportunities than so far assumed. With this global experience curve we aim to improve the reliability of describing the speed with which global costs of wind power may decline
Stenting for curved lesions using a novel curved balloon: Preliminary experimental study.
Tomita, Hideshi; Higaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Fujii, Takanari; Fujimoto, Kazuto
2015-08-01
Stenting may be a compelling approach to dilating curved lesions in congenital heart diseases. However, balloon-expandable stents, which are commonly used for congenital heart diseases, are usually deployed in a straight orientation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of stenting with a novel curved balloon considered to provide better conformability to the curved-angled lesion. In vitro experiments: A Palmaz Genesis(®) stent (Johnson & Johnson, Cordis Co, Bridgewater, NJ, USA) mounted on the Goku(®) curve (Tokai Medical Co. Nagoya, Japan) was dilated in vitro to observe directly the behavior of the stent and balloon assembly during expansion. Animal experiment: A short Express(®) Vascular SD (Boston Scientific Co, Marlborough, MA, USA) stent and a long Express(®) Vascular LD stent (Boston Scientific) mounted on the curved balloon were deployed in the curved vessel of a pig to observe the effect of stenting in vivo. In vitro experiments: Although the stent was dilated in a curved fashion, stent and balloon assembly also rotated conjointly during expansion of its curved portion. In the primary stenting of the short stent, the stent was dilated with rotation of the curved portion. The excised stent conformed to the curved vessel. As the long stent could not be negotiated across the mid-portion with the balloon in expansion when it started curving, the mid-portion of the stent failed to expand fully. Furthermore, the balloon, which became entangled with the stent strut, could not be retrieved even after complete deflation. This novel curved balloon catheter might be used for implantation of the short stent in a curved lesion; however, it should not be used for primary stenting of the long stent. Post-dilation to conform the stent to the angled vessel would be safer than primary stenting irrespective of stent length. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Geels, F.W.
2007-01-01
The breakthrough of rock ‘n’ roll was part of broader transformations in the American music industry, involving changes in music instruments, music recording technology, audiences, radio programming and music styles. These transformations will be analysed as sociotechnical transition, using the
Rustoen, Tone; Geerling, Jenske I.; Pappa, Theodora; Rundstrom, Carina; Weisse, Isolde; Williams, Sian C.; Zavratnik, Bostjan; Wengstrom, Yvonne
Purpose: To increase our knowledge of how nurses assess breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP); and whether they find it difficult to distinguish BTCP from background pain; how they estimate the impact of BTCP on patients' daily lives, and the factors that nurses consider to induce BTCP. Variations in
Development of the curve of Spee.
Marshall, Steven D; Caspersen, Matthew; Hardinger, Rachel R; Franciscus, Robert G; Aquilino, Steven A; Southard, Thomas E
2008-09-01
Ferdinand Graf von Spee is credited with characterizing human occlusal curvature viewed in the sagittal plane. This naturally occurring phenomenon has clinical importance in orthodontics and restorative dentistry, yet we have little understanding of when, how, or why it develops. The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding by examining the development of the curve of Spee longitudinally in a sample of untreated subjects with normal occlusion from the deciduous dentition to adulthood. Records of 16 male and 17 female subjects from the Iowa Facial Growth Study were selected and examined. The depth of the curve of Spee was measured on their study models at 7 time points from ages 4 (deciduous dentition) to 26 (adult dentition) years. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare changes in the curve of Spee depth between time points. For each subject, the relative eruption of the mandibular teeth was measured from corresponding cephalometric radiographs, and its contribution to the developing curve of Spee was ascertained. In the deciduous dentition, the curve of Spee is minimal. At mean ages of 4.05 and 5.27 years, the average curve of Spee depths are 0.24 and 0.25 mm, respectively. With change to the transitional dentition, corresponding to the eruption of the mandibular permanent first molars and central incisors (mean age, 6.91 years), the curve of Spee depth increases significantly (P < 0.0001) to a mean maximum depth of 1.32 mm. The curve of Spee then remains essentially unchanged until eruption of the second molars (mean age, 12.38 years), when the depth increases (P < 0.0001) to a mean maximum depth of 2.17 mm. In the adolescent dentition (mean age, 16.21 years), the depth decreases slightly (P = 0.0009) to a mean maximum depth of 1.98 mm, and, in the adult dentition (mean age 26.98 years), the curve remains unchanged (P = 0.66), with a mean maximum depth of 2.02 mm. No significant differences in curve of Spee development were found between
Klaus, J.; Zehe, E.; Palm, J.; Schroeder, B.
2009-04-01
Preferential flow in macropores is a key process which strongly affects infiltration and may cause rapid transport of pesticides into depths of 80 to 150 cm. At these depths they experience a much slower degradation, may leach into shallow groundwater or enter a tile-drain and are transported in surface water bodies. Therefore, preferential transport is an environ¬mental problem because the topsoil is bypassed, which has been originally thought to act as a filter to protect the subsoil and shallow groundwater. To get a better insight in the process of pesticide transport in agricultural soils an irrigation experiment was performed on a 400 m² field site. The experimental plot is located in the Weiherbach valley, south-west Germany, which basic geology consists of Loess and Keuper layers, the soil at the test site is a gleyic Colluvisol. The distance of the irrigation site to the Weiherbach brook is aprox. 12 m, the field is drained with a tile-drain in about 1.2 m depth and the shows runoff over the entire year. Three hours before the irrigation started the farmer applied a pesticide solution consisting of Isoproturon and Flufenacet according to conventional agricultural practice. The irrigation took place in three time blocks (80 min, 60 min, 80 min) and had a total irrigation rate of 33.6 mm measured with ten precipitation samplers. During the first block a tracer solution of 1600 g Bromide and 2000 g Brilliant Blue was irrigated on the test site. The drainage outlet was instrumented with a pressure probe to measure the water level. About 50 water samples were taken on the day of the experiment from the drainage outlet by hand, and in an eight hour interval for six days with an automatic sample procedure. Discharge at the drainage outlet showed two peaks in response irrigation. The breakthrough of the tracer into the brook is much faster then the reaction of the discharge on the precipitation impulse. To gain insight in the vertical transport behaviour three
Liu, Q; Gao, L-L; Dai, Y-L; Li, Y-X; Wang, Y; Bai, C-F; Mu, G-X; Chai, X-M; Han, W-J; Zhou, L-J; Zhang, Y-J; Tang, L; Liu, J; Yu, J-Q
2018-03-01
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a fixed nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture for the management of breakthrough cancer pain. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was undertaken in the Medical ward of Tumor Hospital of General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University. 240 cancer patients with breakthrough pain were recruited and randomly received a standard pain treatment (morphine sulphate immediate release) plus a pre-prepared nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture, or the standard pain treatment plus oxygen. The primary endpoint measure was the numerical rating scale (NRS) score measured at baseline, 5 and 15 min after the beginning of treatment, and at 5 min post treatment. In all, analysis of pain score (NRS) at 5 min after the beginning of treatment shown a significant decrease in nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture treated patients with 2.8 ± 1.3 versus 5.5 ± 1.2 in controls (p nitrous oxide/oxygen was 2.0 ± 1.1 compared with 5.6 ± 1.3 for oxygen (p nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture was effective in reducing moderate to severe breakthrough pain among patients with cancer. The management of breakthrough cancer pain is always a challenge due to its temporal characteristics of rapid onset, moderate to severe in intensity, short duration (median 30-60 min). Our study find that self-administered nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture was effective in reducing moderate to severe breakthrough cancer pain. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.
Hagan-Brown, Abena; Favaretto, Maddalena; Borry, Pascal
2017-07-01
A recently published article in the journal Cell by scientists from the Salk Institute highlighted the successful integration of stem cells from humans in pig embryos. This marks the first step toward the goal of growing human organs in animals for transplantation. There has, to date, been no research performed on the presentation of this breakthrough in the media. We thus assessed early newspaper coverage of the chimera study, looking into the descriptions as well as the benefits and concerns raised by the study mentioned by newspaper sources. We looked at newspaper coverage of the human-pig chimera study in the two weeks after the publication of the article describing the breakthrough in Cell. This time period spanned from January 26 to February 9, 2017. We used the LexisNexis Academic database and identified articles using the search string "hybrid OR chimera AND pig OR human OR embryo." The relevant articles were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Two researchers openly coded the articles independently using themes that emerged from the raw texts. Our search yielded 31 unique articles, after extensive screening for relevance and duplicates. Through our analysis, we were able to identify several themes in a majority of the texts. Almost every article gave descriptive information about the chimera experiment with details about the study findings. All of the articles mentioned the benefits of the study, citing both immediate- and long-term goals, which included creating transplantable human organs, disease and drug development, and personalized medicine, among others. Some of the articles highlighted some ethical, social, and health concerns that the study and its future implications pose. Many of the articles also offered reassurances over the concerns brought up by the experiment. Our results appeared to align with similar research performed on the media representation of sensitive scientific news coverage. We also explored the inconsistency between
Gu, Bon-Wun; Lee, Chang-Gu; Park, Seong-Jik
2018-03-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions by using crushed concrete fines as a filter medium under varying conditions of pH 3-7, flow rate of 0.3-0.7 mL/min, and filter depth of 10-20 cm. The performance of fixed-bed columns was evaluated on the basis of the removal ratio (Re), uptake capacity (qe), degree of sorbent used (DoSU), and sorbent usage rate (SUR) obtained from breakthrough curves (BTCs). Three widely used semi-mechanistic models, that is, Bohart-Adams, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models, were applied to simulate the BTCs and to derive the design parameters. The Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM) was used to elucidate the individual and interactive effects of the three operational parameters on the column performance and to optimize these parameters. The results demonstrated that pH is the most important factor in the performance of fluoride removal by a fixed-bed column. The flow rate had a significant negative influence on Re and DoSU, and the effect of filter depth was observed only in the regression model for DoSU. Statistical analysis indicated that the model attained from the RSM study is suitable for describing the semi-mechanistic model parameters.
Estimating Reaction Rate Coefficients Within a Travel-Time Modeling Framework
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gong, R [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lu, C [Georgia Institute of Technology; Luo, Jian [Georgia Institute of Technology; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Cheng, H. [Stanford University; Criddle, Craig [Stanford University; Kitanidis, Peter K. [Stanford University; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL
2011-03-01
A generalized, efficient, and practical approach based on the travel-time modeling framework is developed to estimate in situ reaction rate coefficients for groundwater remediation in heterogeneous aquifers. The required information for this approach can be obtained by conducting tracer tests with injection of a mixture of conservative and reactive tracers and measurements of both breakthrough curves (BTCs). The conservative BTC is used to infer the travel-time distribution from the injection point to the observation point. For advection-dominant reactive transport with well-mixed reactive species and a constant travel-time distribution, the reactive BTC is obtained by integrating the solutions to advective-reactive transport over the entire travel-time distribution, and then is used in optimization to determine the in situ reaction rate coefficients. By directly working on the conservative and reactive BTCs, this approach avoids costly aquifer characterization and improves the estimation for transport in heterogeneous aquifers which may not be sufficiently described by traditional mechanistic transport models with constant transport parameters. Simplified schemes are proposed for reactive transport with zero-, first-, nth-order, and Michaelis-Menten reactions. The proposed approach is validated by a reactive transport case in a two-dimensional synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and a field-scale bioremediation experiment conducted at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The field application indicates that ethanol degradation for U(VI)-bioremediation is better approximated by zero-order reaction kinetics than first-order reaction kinetics.
Herrington, C.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.; Covino, T. P.; Mortensen, J.
2015-12-01
Solute transport studies in streams and rivers often begin with the introduction of conservative and reactive tracers into the water column. Information on the transport of these substances is then captured within tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) and used to estimate, for instance, travel times and dissolved nutrient and carbon dynamics. Traditionally, these investigations have been limited to systems with small discharges (turbidity (e.g., nitrate signals with SUNA instruments or fluorescence measures) and/or high total dissolved solids (e.g., making prohibitively expensive the use of salt tracers such as NaCl) in larger systems. Additionally, a successful time-of-travel study is valuable for only a single discharge and river stage. We have developed a method to predict tracer BTCs to inform sampling frequencies at small and large stream orders using empirical relationships developed from multiple tracer injections spanning several orders of magnitude in discharge and reach length. This method was successfully tested in 1st to 8th order systems along the Middle Rio Grande River Basin in New Mexico, USA.
F(α) curves: Experimental results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glazier, J.A.; Gunaratne, G.; Libchaber, A.
1988-01-01
We study the transition to chaos at the golden and silver means for forced Rayleigh-Benard (RB) convection in mercury. We present f(α) curves below, at, and above the transition, and provide comparisons to the curves calculated for the one-dimensional circle map. We find good agreement at both the golden and silver means. This confirms our earlier observation that for low amplitude forcing, forced RB convection is well described by the one-dimensional circle map and indicates that the f(α) curve is a good measure of the approach to criticality. For selected subcritical experimental data sets we calculate the degree of subcriticality. We also present both experimental and calculated results for f(α) in the presence of a third frequency. Again we obtain agreement: The presence of random noise or a third frequency narrows the right-hand (negative q) side of the f(α) curve. Subcriticality results in symmetrically narrowed curves. We can also distinguish these cases by examining the power spectra and Poincare sections of the time series
Multiwavelength light curve parameters of Cepheid variables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhardwaj Anupam
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We present a comparative analysis of theoretical and observed light curves of Cepheid variables using Fourier decomposition. The theoretical light curves at multiple wavelengths are generated using stellar pulsation models for chemical compositions representative of Cepheids in the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds. The observed light curves at optical (VI, near-infrared (JHKs and mid-infrared (3.6 & 4.5-μm bands are compiled from the literature. We discuss the variation of light curve parameters as a function of period, wavelength and metallicity. Theoretical and observed Fourier amplitude parameters decrease with increase in wavelength while the phase parameters increase with wavelength. We find that theoretical amplitude parameters obtained using canonical mass-luminosity levels exhibit a greater offset with respect to observations when compared to non-canonical relations. We also discuss the impact of variation in convective efficiency on the light curve structure of Cepheid variables. The increase in mixing length parameter results in a zero-point offset in bolometric mean magnitudes and reduces the systematic large difference in theoretical amplitudes with respect to observations.
Incorporating experience curves in appliance standards analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina; Kantner, Colleen; Van Buskirk, Robert; Yang, Hung-Chia
2013-01-01
There exists considerable evidence that manufacturing costs and consumer prices of residential appliances have decreased in real terms over the last several decades. This phenomenon is generally attributable to manufacturing efficiency gained with cumulative experience producing a certain good, and is modeled by an empirical experience curve. The technical analyses conducted in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have, until recently, assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. This assumption does not reflect real market price dynamics. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards analyses for these products. Including experience curves increases the national consumer net present value of potential standard levels. In some cases a potential standard level exhibits a net benefit when considering experience, whereas without experience it exhibits a net cost. These results highlight the importance of modeling more representative market prices. - Highlights: ► Past appliance standards analyses have assumed constant equipment prices. ► There is considerable evidence of consistent real price declines. ► We incorporate experience curves for several large appliances into the analysis. ► The revised analyses demonstrate larger net present values of potential standards. ► The results imply that past standards analyses may have undervalued benefits.
Comparison of power curve monitoring methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cambron Philippe
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Performance monitoring is an important aspect of operating wind farms. This can be done through the power curve monitoring (PCM of wind turbines (WT. In the past years, important work has been conducted on PCM. Various methodologies have been proposed, each one with interesting results. However, it is difficult to compare these methods because they have been developed using their respective data sets. The objective of this actual work is to compare some of the proposed PCM methods using common data sets. The metric used to compare the PCM methods is the time needed to detect a change in the power curve. Two power curve models will be covered to establish the effect the model type has on the monitoring outcomes. Each model was tested with two control charts. Other methodologies and metrics proposed in the literature for power curve monitoring such as areas under the power curve and the use of statistical copulas have also been covered. Results demonstrate that model-based PCM methods are more reliable at the detecting a performance change than other methodologies and that the effectiveness of the control chart depends on the types of shift observed.
Asymptotic scalings of developing curved pipe flow
Ault, Jesse; Chen, Kevin; Stone, Howard
2015-11-01
Asymptotic velocity and pressure scalings are identified for the developing curved pipe flow problem in the limit of small pipe curvature and high Reynolds numbers. The continuity and Navier-Stokes equations in toroidal coordinates are linearized about Dean's analytical curved pipe flow solution (Dean 1927). Applying appropriate scaling arguments to the perturbation pressure and velocity components and taking the limits of small curvature and large Reynolds number yields a set of governing equations and boundary conditions for the perturbations, independent of any Reynolds number and pipe curvature dependence. Direct numerical simulations are used to confirm these scaling arguments. Fully developed straight pipe flow is simulated entering a curved pipe section for a range of Reynolds numbers and pipe-to-curvature radius ratios. The maximum values of the axial and secondary velocity perturbation components along with the maximum value of the pressure perturbation are plotted along the curved pipe section. The results collapse when the scaling arguments are applied. The numerically solved decay of the velocity perturbation is also used to determine the entrance/development lengths for the curved pipe flows, which are shown to scale linearly with the Reynolds number.
Critical Factors for Inducing Curved Somatosensory Saccades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tamami Nakano
2011-10-01
Full Text Available We are able to make a saccade toward a tactile stimuli to one hand, but trajectories of many saccades curved markedly when the arms were crossed (Groh & Sparks, 2006. However, it remains unknown why some curved and others did not. We therefore examined critical factors for inducing the curved somatosensory saccades. Participants made a saccade as soon as possible from a central fixation point toward a tactile stimulus delivered to one of the two hands, and switched between arms-crossed and arms-uncrossed postures every 6 trials. Trajectories were generally straight when the arms were uncrossed, but all participants made curved saccades when the arms were crossed (12–64%. We found that the probability of curved saccades depended critically on the onset latency: the probability was less than 5% when the latency was larger than 250 ms, but the probability increased up to 70–80% when the onset latency was 160 ms. This relationship was shared across participants. The results suggest that a touch in the arms-crossed posture was always mapped to the wrong hand in the initial phase up to 160 ms, and then remapped to the correct hand during the next 100 ms by some fundamental neural mechanisms shared across participants.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koestel, J. K.; Nørgaard, Trine; Loung, N. M.
2013-01-01
It is known that solute transport through soil is heterogeneous at all spatial scales. However, little data are available to allow quantification of these heterogeneities at the field scale or larger. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of soil properties, hydrologic state variables......, and tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) at the field scale for the inert solute transport under a steady-state irrigation rate which produced near-saturated conditions. Sixty-five undisturbed soil columns approximately 20 cm in height and diameter were sampled from the loamy topsoil of an agricultural field...... to larger water saturation and the activation of larger macropores. Our study provides further evidence that it should be possible to estimate solute transport properties from soil properties such as soil texture or bulk density. We also demonstrated that estimation approaches established for the column...
Surface growth kinematics via local curve evolution
Moulton, Derek E.
2012-11-18
A mathematical framework is developed to model the kinematics of surface growth for objects that can be generated by evolving a curve in space, such as seashells and horns. Growth is dictated by a growth velocity vector field defined at every point on a generating curve. A local orthonormal basis is attached to each point of the generating curve and the velocity field is given in terms of the local coordinate directions, leading to a fully local and elegant mathematical structure. Several examples of increasing complexity are provided, and we demonstrate how biologically relevant structures such as logarithmic shells and horns emerge as analytical solutions of the kinematics equations with a small number of parameters that can be linked to the underlying growth process. Direct access to cell tracks and local orientation enables for connections to be made to the underlying growth process. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Asymmetry dependence of the nuclear caloric curve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McIntosh, A.B.; Bonasera, A.; Cammarata, P.; Hagel, K.; Heilborn, L.; Kohley, Z.; Mabiala, J.; May, L.W.; Marini, P.; Raphelt, A.; Souliotis, G.A.; Wuenschel, S.; Zarrella, A.; Yennello, S.J.
2013-01-01
A basic feature of the nuclear equation of state is not yet understood: the dependence of the nuclear caloric curve on the neutron–proton asymmetry. Predictions of theoretical models differ on the magnitude and even the sign of this dependence. In this work, the nuclear caloric curve is examined for fully reconstructed quasi-projectiles around mass A=50. The caloric curve extracted with the momentum quadrupole fluctuation thermometer shows that the temperature varies linearly with quasi-projectile asymmetry (N−Z)/A . An increase in asymmetry of 0.15 units corresponds to a decrease in temperature on the order of 1 MeV. These results also highlight the importance of a full quasi-projectile reconstruction in the study of thermodynamic properties of hot nuclei
The genus curve of the Abell clusters
Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc
1994-01-01
We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21-0.47+0.43 on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36-0.17+0.46.
Differential geometry of curves and surfaces
Banchoff, Thomas F
2010-01-01
Students and professors of an undergraduate course in differential geometry will appreciate the clear exposition and comprehensive exercises in this book that focuses on the geometric properties of curves and surfaces, one- and two-dimensional objects in Euclidean space. The problems generally relate to questions of local properties (the properties observed at a point on the curve or surface) or global properties (the properties of the object as a whole). Some of the more interesting theorems explore relationships between local and global properties. A special feature is the availability of accompanying online interactive java applets coordinated with each section. The applets allow students to investigate and manipulate curves and surfaces to develop intuition and to help analyze geometric phenomena.
Experimental simulation of closed timelike curves.
Ringbauer, Martin; Broome, Matthew A; Myers, Casey R; White, Andrew G; Ralph, Timothy C
2014-06-19
Closed timelike curves are among the most controversial features of modern physics. As legitimate solutions to Einstein's field equations, they allow for time travel, which instinctively seems paradoxical. However, in the quantum regime these paradoxes can be resolved, leaving closed timelike curves consistent with relativity. The study of these systems therefore provides valuable insight into nonlinearities and the emergence of causal structures in quantum mechanics--essential for any formulation of a quantum theory of gravity. Here we experimentally simulate the nonlinear behaviour of a qubit interacting unitarily with an older version of itself, addressing some of the fascinating effects that arise in systems traversing a closed timelike curve. These include perfect discrimination of non-orthogonal states and, most intriguingly, the ability to distinguish nominally equivalent ways of preparing pure quantum states. Finally, we examine the dependence of these effects on the initial qubit state, the form of the unitary interaction and the influence of decoherence.
Design fatigue curve for Hastelloy-X
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishiguchi, Isoharu; Muto, Yasushi; Tsuji, Hirokazu
1983-12-01
In the design of components intended for elevated temperature service as the experimental Very High-Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR), it is essential to prevent fatigue failure and creep-fatigue failure. The evaluation method which uses design fatigue curves is adopted in the design rules. This report discussed several aspects of these design fatigue curves for Hastelloy-X (-XR) which is considered for use as a heat-resistant alloy in the VHTR. Examination of fatigue data gathered by a literature search including unpublished data showed that Brinkman's equation is suitable for the design curve of Hastelloy-X (-XR), where total strain range Δ epsilon sub(t) is used as independent variable and fatigue life Nsub(f) is transformed into log(log Nsub(f)). (author)
The genus curve of the Abell clusters
Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc
1994-01-01
We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).
Deep-learnt classification of light curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mahabal, Ashish; Gieseke, Fabian; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru
2017-01-01
is to derive statistical features from the time series and to use machine learning methods, generally supervised, to separate objects into a few of the standard classes. In this work, we transform the time series to two-dimensional light curve representations in order to classify them using modern deep......Astronomy light curves are sparse, gappy, and heteroscedastic. As a result standard time series methods regularly used for financial and similar datasets are of little help and astronomers are usually left to their own instruments and techniques to classify light curves. A common approach...... learning techniques. In particular, we show that convolutional neural networks based classifiers work well for broad characterization and classification. We use labeled datasets of periodic variables from CRTS survey and show how this opens doors for a quick classification of diverse classes with several...
Energy efficiency and load curve impacts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feilberg, Nicolai
2002-01-01
One of SINTEF Energy Research's European RTD projects is the two-year EFFLOCOM (Energy EFFiciency and LOad curve impacts of COMmercial development in competitive markets). This project will determine the end-user response of different market-related services offered in deregulated power markets. The project will investigate the possibility of influencing load curves by using different price signals and two-way communications via Internet. The partners are from Denmark. Finland, England, France and Norway. SINTEF Energy Research is in charge of the project management. During the project, the changes in load curves will he studied in the in the participating countries before and after deregulation. Specific issues are the use of ICT, time- and situation-dependent tariffs and smart-house technology. The project will consist of 5 work packages that will give recommendations about new methods, guidelines and tools to promote effective use of energy in the partner countries. The total budget is EUR 692 000. (author)
Trend curve data development and testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McElroy, W.N.; Gold, R.; Simons, R.L.; Roberts, J.H.
1986-01-01
Existing trend curves do not account for previous and more recently observed test and power reactor flux-level, thermal neutron and γ-ray field-induced effects. Any agreement between measured data and trend curve predictions that does not adequately represent the important neutron environmental and temperature effects as well as the microstructural damage processes, therefore, could be fortuitous. Empirically derived end-of-life (EOL) and life-extension-range (LER) trend curves are presented and discussed in this paper for high temperature [∼288 0 C (550 0 F)] irradiation of two weld, two plate, and two forging pressure vessel (PV) steels and low-temperature [∼60 0 C (140 0 F)] irradiation of one support structure-type steel
Minimal families of curves on surfaces
Lubbes, Niels
2014-11-01
A minimal family of curves on an embedded surface is defined as a 1-dimensional family of rational curves of minimal degree, which cover the surface. We classify such minimal families using constructive methods. This allows us to compute the minimal families of a given surface.The classification of minimal families of curves can be reduced to the classification of minimal families which cover weak Del Pezzo surfaces. We classify the minimal families of weak Del Pezzo surfaces and present a table with the number of minimal families of each weak Del Pezzo surface up to Weyl equivalence.As an application of this classification we generalize some results of Schicho. We classify algebraic surfaces that carry a family of conics. We determine the minimal lexicographic degree for the parametrization of a surface that carries at least 2 minimal families. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Energy and GHG abatement cost curves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarenga, Rafael [BHP Billiton Base Metals (Australia)
2010-07-01
Global warming due to various reasons but especially to emission of green house gases (GHGs) has become a cause for serious concern. This paper discusses the steps taken by BHP Billiton to reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions using cost curves. According to forecasts, global warming is expected to impact Chile badly and the rise in temperature could be between 1 and more than 5 degrees Celsius. Mining in Chile consumes a lot of energy, particularly electricity. Total energy and electricity consumption in 2007 was 13 and 36 % respectively. BHP base metals developed a set of abatement cost curves for energy and GHG in Chile and these are shown in figures. The methodology for the curves consisted of consultant visits to each mine operation. The study also includes mass energy balance and feasibility maps. The paper concludes that it is important to evaluate the potential for reducing emissions and energy and their associated costs.
Collins, P W; Blanchette, V S; Fischer, K; Björkman, S; Oh, M; Fritsch, S; Schroth, P; Spotts, G; Astermark, J; Ewenstein, B
2009-03-01
The role of prophylactic factor VIII (FVIII) to decrease hemophilic bleeding and arthropathy is well established. The rationale for this strategy is to convert patients with severe hemophilia A to a moderate clinical phenotype by reducing time spent with a FVIII level break-through bleeding in patients with severe hemophilia A on prophylaxis. This study analysed data from 44 patients aged 1-6 and 99 patients aged 10-65 years with severe hemophilia A (FVIII safety and efficacy of a recombinant FVIII (Advate). Each patient had pharmacokinetic measurements and FVIII infusions recorded, and these were used to calculate time spent with a FVIII below 1, 2 and 5 IU dL(-1). The data demonstrate that increasing time with a FVIII below 1 IU dL(-1) is associated with increased total bleeds and hemarthroses. Lack of adherence to the intended frequency of FVIII infusion was the most important determinant of low FVIII and increased bleeding. In children aged 1-6 years, the rate of bleeding was also influenced by FVIII half-life and clearance. These data have important implications for the management of patients with severe hemophilia.
Hassanzadeh, Parichehr; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul
2017-08-01
The limited efficiency of the current treatment options against the central nervous system (CNS) disorders has created increasing demands towards the development of novel theranostic strategies. The enormous research efforts in nanotechnology have led to the production of highly-advanced nanodevices and biomaterials in a variety of geometries and configurations for targeted delivery of genes, drugs, or growth factors across the blood-brain barrier. Meanwhile, the richness or reliability of data, drug delivery methods, therapeutic effects or potential toxicity of nanoparticles, occurrence of the unexpected phenomena due to the polydisperse or polymorphic nature of nanomaterials, and personalized theranostics have remained as challenging issues. In this respect, computational modelling has emerged as a powerful tool for rational design of nanoparticles with optimized characteristics including the selectivity, improved bioactivity, and reduced toxicity that might lead to the effective delivery of therapeutic agents. High-performance simulation techniques by shedding more light on the dynamical behaviour of neural networks and pathomechanisms of CNS disorders may provide imminent breakthroughs in nanomedicine. In the present review, the importance of integration of nanotechnology-based approaches with computational techniques for targeted delivery of theranostics to the CNS has been highlighted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Zubkoff, Lisa; Neily, Julia; Mills, Peter D; Borzecki, Ann; Shin, Marlena; Lynn, Marilyn M; Gunnar, William; Rosen, Amy
2014-01-01
The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) Virtual Breakthrough Series (VBTS) process was used in an eight-month (June 2011-January 2012) quality improvement (QI) project to improve care related to reducing postoperative respiratory failure. The VBTS collaborative drew on Patient Safety Indicator 11: Postoperative Respiratory Failure Rate to guide changes in care at the bedside. Sixteen Veterans Health Administration hospitals, each representing a regional Veterans Integrated Service Network, participated in the QI project. During the prework phase (initial two months), hospitals formed multidisciplinary teams, selected measures related to their goals, and collected baseline data. The six-month action phase included group conference calls in which the faculty presented clinical background on the topic, discussed evidence-based processes of care, and/or presented content regarding reducing postoperative respiratory failure. During a final, six-month continuous improvement and spread phase, teams were to continue implementing changes as part of their usual processes. The six most commonly reported interventions to reduce postoperative respiratory failure focused on improving incentive spirometer use, documenting implementation of targeted interventions, oral care, standardized orders, early ambulation, and provider education. A few teams reported reduced ICU readmissions for respiratory failure. The VBTS collaborative helped teams implement process changes to help reduce postoperative respiratory complications. Teams reported initial success at implementing site-specific improvements using real-time data. The VBTS model shows promise for knowledge sharing and efficient multifacility improvement efforts, although long-term sustainability and testing in these and other settings need to be examined.
The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: 1.1-1.9 GHz Observations of 692 Nearby Stars
Enriquez, J. Emilio; Siemion, Andrew; Foster, Griffin; Gajjar, Vishal; Hellbourg, Greg; Hickish, Jack; Isaacson, Howard; Price, Danny C.; Croft, Steve; DeBoer, David; Lebofsky, Matt; MacMahon, David H. E.; Werthimer, Dan
2017-11-01
We report on a search for engineered signals from a sample of 692 nearby stars using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, undertaken as part of the Breakthrough Listen Initiative search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Observations were made over 1.1-1.9 GHz (L band), with three sets of five-minute observations of the 692 primary targets, interspersed with five-minute observations of secondary targets. By comparing the “ON” and “OFF” observations, we are able to identify terrestrial interference and place limits on the presence of engineered signals from putative extraterrestrial civilizations inhabiting the environs of the target stars. During the analysis, 11 events passed our thresholding algorithm, but a detailed analysis of their properties indicates that they are consistent with known examples of anthropogenic radio-frequency interference. We conclude that, at the time of our observations, none of the observed systems host high-duty-cycle radio transmitters emitting between 1.1 and 1.9 GHz with an Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power of ˜1013 W, which is readily achievable by our own civilization. Our results suggest that fewer than ˜0.1% of the stellar systems within 50 pc possess the type of transmitters searched in this survey.
Petri, Y.; Juliza, H.; Humala, N.
2018-03-01
The activity of exploring natural oil and gas will produce gas flare 0.584 MMSCFD. A gas flare is the combustion of gas remaining to avoid poisonous gas like H2S and CO which is very dangerous for human and environmental health. The combustion can bring about environmental pollution and losses because it still contains valuable energy. It needs the policy to encourage the use of flare gas with Zero Routine Flaring and green productivity to reduce waste and pollution. The objective of the research was to determine the use of gas flare so that it will have economic value and can achieve Zero Routine Flaring. It was started by analysing based on volume or rate and composition gas flare was used to determine technical feasibility, and the estimation of the gas reserves as the determination of the economy of a gas well. The results showed that the use of flare gas as fuel for power generation feasible to be implemented technically and economically with Internal Rate of Return (IRR) 19.32% and the Payback Period (PP) 5 year. Thus, it can increase gas flare value economically and can achieve a breakthrough in Zero Routine Flaring.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartman, P.E.; Biggley, W.H.
1996-01-01
In a comparative study of 17 pairs of 15 W fluorescent lamps intended for use in homes and purchased in local stores, we detect over 10-fold differences in UVB + UVC emissions between various lamps. This breakthrough of ultraviolet (UV) light is in part correlated with ability of lamps to kill DNA repair-defective recA - uvrB - Salmonella. Relative proficiency of lamps in eliciting photoreactivation of UV-induced DNA lesions also plays a prominent role in the relative rates of bacterial inactivation by emissions from different lamps. Lamps made in Chile, such as Phillips brand lamps and one type of General Electric lamp, produce far less UVB + UVC and fail to kill recA - uvrB - bacteria. In contrast, all tested lamps manufactured in the USA, Hungary, and Japan exhibit readily observed deleterious biological effects. When an E. coli recA - uvrB - phr - (photolyase-negative) triple mutant is used for assay, lethal radiations are detected from all lamps, and single-hit exponential inactivation rates rather closely correlate to amount of directly measured UVB + UVC output of each pair of lamps. Although all lamps tested may meet international and Unite States standards for radiation safely, optimal practices in lamp manufacture are clearly capable of decreasing human exposure to indoor UV light. 38 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
POSSIBLE RECESSION CURVE APPLICATIONS FOR RETENTION EVALUATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Liberacki
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The objective of the article was to present possible applications of recession flow curve in a small lowland watershed retention discharge size evaluation. The examined woodland micro catchment area of 0.52 sq km is located in Puszcza Zielonka in central Wielkopolska. The Hutka catchment is typically woody with high retention abilities. The catchment of the Hutka watercourse is forested in 89%, the other 11% is covered by swamps and wasteland. The predominant sites are fresh mixed coniferous forest (BMśw, fresh coniferous forest (Bśw and alder carr forest (Ol. Landscape in catchment is characterized by a large number of interior depressions, filled partly with rainwater or peatbogs, with poorly developed natural drainage. The watercourses do not exceed 1 km in length, the mean width is approx. 0.5 m, while mean depth ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 m. During hydrological research conducted in 1997/1998–1999/2000, 35 major (characteristic raised water stages were observed in Hutka after substantial precipitation. The recession curve dating from 18–24 September 2000 has the α and n rates nearest to average. Comparing the model curve and the curve created by observing watercourse flow, one can notice their resemblance and that they have similar ordinate values as well as shape. In the case of other recession curves, the maximum differences of ordinate values are also about 0.1–0.2 l/s/km2. The measuured α and n rates do not reveal any regularities. There are no significant statistical Horton model parameter (for recession flow curves dependencies between α and n and e.g. initial flows (Qo or the whole period of high water waves (Qp. Consequently, calculated relation between these parameters is only an approximation for the general evaluation of the retention discharge in the catchment area towards retention with flow function.
Fractal properties of critical invariant curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hunt, B.R.; Yorke, J.A.; Khanin, K.M.; Sinai, Y.G.
1996-01-01
We examine the dimension of the invariant measure for some singular circle homeomorphisms for a variety of rotation numbers, through both the thermodynamic formalism and numerical computation. The maps we consider include those induced by the action of the standard map on an invariant curve at the critical parameter value beyond which the curve is destroyed. Our results indicate that the dimension is universal for a given type of singularity and rotation number, and that among all rotation numbers, the golden mean produces the largest dimension
Trend curve data development and testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McElroy, W.N.; Gold, R.; Simons, R.L.; Roberts, J.H.
1986-08-01
Existing trend curves do not account for previous and more recently observed test and power reactor flux-level, thermal neutron and gamma-ray field-induced effects. Any agreement between measured data and trend curve predictions that does not adequately represent the important neutron environmental and temperature effects as well as the microstructural damage processes, therefore, could be fortuitous. Two principal questions asked concerning the metallurgical condition of the pressure vessel and its support structures are: What are the controlling variables; and What effects do they have on changing the metallurgical properties of the vessel and its support structures throughout their lifetimes
Linear Titration Curves of Acids and Bases.
Joseph, N R
1959-05-29
The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, by a simple transformation, becomes pH - pK = pA - pB, where pA and pB are the negative logarithms of acid and base concentrations. Sigmoid titration curves then reduce to straight lines; titration curves of polyelectrolytes, to families of straight lines. The method is applied to the titration of the dipeptide glycyl aminotricarballylic acid, with four titrable groups. Results are expressed as Cartesian and d'Ocagne nomograms. The latter is of a general form applicable to polyelectrolytes of any degree of complexity.
From Curve Fitting to Machine Learning
Zielesny, Achim
2011-01-01
The analysis of experimental data is at heart of science from its beginnings. But it was the advent of digital computers that allowed the execution of highly non-linear and increasingly complex data analysis procedures - methods that were completely unfeasible before. Non-linear curve fitting, clustering and machine learning belong to these modern techniques which are a further step towards computational intelligence. The goal of this book is to provide an interactive and illustrative guide to these topics. It concentrates on the road from two dimensional curve fitting to multidimensional clus
Phonon dispersion curves for CsCN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaur, N.K.; Singh, Preeti; Rini, E.G.; Galgale, Jyostna; Singh, R.K.
2004-01-01
The motivation for the present work was gained from the recent publication on phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) of CsCN from the neutron scattering technique. We have applied the extended three-body force shell model (ETSM) by incorporating the effect of coupling between the translation modes and the orientation of cyanide molecules for the description of phonon dispersion curves of CsCN between the temperatures 195 and 295 K. Our results on PDCs in symmetric direction are in good agreement with the experimental data measured with inelastic neutron scattering technique. (author)
Bound states in curved quantum waveguides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Exner, P.; Seba, P.
1987-01-01
We study free quantum particle living on a curved planar strip Ω of a fixed width d with Dirichlet boundary conditions. It can serve as a model for electrons in thin films on a cylindrical-type substrate, or in a curved quantum wire. Assuming that the boundary of Ω is infinitely smooth and its curvature decays fast enough at infinity, we prove that a bound state with energy below the first transversal mode exists for all sufficiently small d. A lower bound on the critical width is obtained using the Birman-Schwinger technique. (orig.)
Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, & Other Mathematical Explorations
Ball, Keith
2011-01-01
How does mathematics enable us to send pictures from space back to Earth? Where does the bell-shaped curve come from? Why do you need only 23 people in a room for a 50/50 chance of two of them sharing the same birthday? In Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, and Other Mathematical Explorations, Keith Ball highlights how ideas, mostly from pure math, can answer these questions and many more. Drawing on areas of mathematics from probability theory, number theory, and geometry, he explores a wide range of concepts, some more light-hearted, others central to the development of the field and used dai
Boiling curve in high quality flow boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiralkar, B.S.; Hein, R.A.; Yadigaroglu, G.
1980-01-01
The post dry-out heat transfer regime of the flow boiling curve was investigated experimentally for high pressure water at high qualities. The test section was a short round tube located downstream of a hot patch created by a temperature controlled segment of tubing. Results from the experiment showed that the distance from the dryout point has a significant effect on the downstream temperatures and there was no unique boiling curve. The heat transfer coefficients measured sufficiently downstream of the dryout point could be correlated using the Heineman correlation for superheated steam, indicating that the droplet deposition effects could be neglected in this region
Light Curve Analysis of SAO23229
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ho-Il Kim
1993-06-01
Full Text Available We have made UBV light curves of a newly discovered eclipsing binary, SAO23229 at Sobaeksan Astronomy Observatory. We determined a minimum light time of HJD2448636.1170+/-0.0005 that is 3 minutes later than predicted time, and founda peculiar light variation at phase 0.75 that may not be secondary eclipse. Orbital period of SAO23229 would be 4.2 days rather than 2.1 days. Our analysis of the light curves shows that SAO23229 has a detached configuration consisting of two almost identical F type main sequence stars.
Analysis of characteristic performance curves in radiodiagnosis by an observer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kossovoj, A.L.
1988-01-01
Methods and ways of construction of performance characteristic curves (PX-curves) in roentgenology, their qualitative and quantitative estimation are described. Estimation of PX curves application for analysis of scintigraphic and sonographic images is presented
a new approach of Analysing GRB light curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varga, B.; Horvath, I.
2005-01-01
We estimated the T xx quantiles of the cumulative GRB light curves using our recalculated background. The basic information of the light curves was extracted by multivariate statistical methods. The possible classes of the light curves are also briefly discussed
Bijlsma, S.; Boelens, H. F. M.; Hoefsloot, H. C. J.; Smilde, A. K.
2000-01-01
A traditional curve fitting (TCF) algorithm is compared with a classical curve resolution (CCR) approach for estimating reaction rate constants from spectral data obtained in time of a chemical reaction. In the TCF algorithm, reaction rate constants an estimated from the absorbance versus time data
In-Vehicle Dynamic Curve-Speed Warnings at High-Risk Rural Curves
2018-03-01
Lane-departure crashes at horizontal curves represent a significant portion of fatal crashes on rural Minnesota roads. Because of this, solutions are needed to aid drivers in identifying upcoming curves and inform them of a safe speed at which they s...
A mobile-mobile transport model for simulating reactive transport in connected heterogeneous fields
Lu, Chunhui; Wang, Zhiyuan; Zhao, Yue; Rathore, Saubhagya Singh; Huo, Jinge; Tang, Yuening; Liu, Ming; Gong, Rulan; Cirpka, Olaf A.; Luo, Jian
2018-05-01
Mobile-immobile transport models can be effective in reproducing heavily tailed breakthrough curves of concentration. However, such models may not adequately describe transport along multiple flow paths with intermediate velocity contrasts in connected fields. We propose using the mobile-mobile model for simulating subsurface flow and associated mixing-controlled reactive transport in connected fields. This model includes two local concentrations, one in the fast- and the other in the slow-flow domain, which predict both the concentration mean and variance. The normalized total concentration variance within the flux is found to be a non-monotonic function of the discharge ratio with a maximum concentration variance at intermediate values of the discharge ratio. We test the mobile-mobile model for mixing-controlled reactive transport with an instantaneous, irreversible bimolecular reaction in structured and connected random heterogeneous domains, and compare the performance of the mobile-mobile to the mobile-immobile model. The results indicate that the mobile-mobile model generally predicts the concentration breakthrough curves (BTCs) of the reactive compound better. Particularly, for cases of an elliptical inclusion with intermediate hydraulic-conductivity contrasts, where the travel-time distribution shows bimodal behavior, the prediction of both the BTCs and maximum product concentration is significantly improved. Our results exemplify that the conceptual model of two mobile domains with diffusive mass transfer in between is in general good for predicting mixing-controlled reactive transport, and particularly so in cases where the transfer in the low-conductivity zones is by slow advection rather than diffusion.
Matter fields in curved space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viet, Nguyen Ai; Wali, Kameshwar C.
2000-01-01
We study the geometry of a two-sheeted space-time within the framework of non-commutative geometry. As a prelude to the Standard Model in curved space-time, we present a model of a left- and a right- chiral field living on the two sheeted-space time and construct the action functionals that describe their interactions
Some genus 3 curves with many points
Auer, R; Top, J; Fieker, C; Kohel, DR
2002-01-01
We explain a naive approach towards the problem of finding genus 3 curves C over any given finite field F-q of odd characteristic, with a number of rational points close to the Hasse-Weil-Serre upper bound q+1+3[2rootq]. The method turns out to be successful at least in characteristic 3.
PV experience curves for the Netherlands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerwig, R.
2005-01-01
Experience curves are one of several tools used by policy makers to take a look at market development. Numerous curves have been constructed for PV but none specific to the Netherlands. The objective of this report is to take a look at the price development of grid-connected PV systems in the Netherlands using the experience curve theory. After a literature and internet search and attempts to acquire information from PV companies information on 51% of the totally installed capacity was found. Curves for the period 1991-2001 were constructed based on system price, BOS (balance-of-system) price and inverter price. The progress ratio of the locally learning BOS was similar to the globally learning module market. This indicates that the pace of development of the Dutch PV market is similar to the globally followed pace. Improvement of the detail of the data might help to get a better idea of which BOS components have declined most. The similar progress ratio also shows the importance of investing both in module and system research as is the case in the Netherlands
Bootstrap confidence intervals for principal response curves
Timmerman, Marieke E.; Ter Braak, Cajo J. F.
2008-01-01
The principal response curve (PRC) model is of use to analyse multivariate data resulting from experiments involving repeated sampling in time. The time-dependent treatment effects are represented by PRCs, which are functional in nature. The sample PRCs can be estimated using a raw approach, or the
Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Principal Response Curves
Timmerman, M.E.; Braak, ter C.J.F.
2008-01-01
The principal response curve (PRC) model is of use to analyse multivariate data resulting from experiments involving repeated sampling in time. The time-dependent treatment effects are represented by PRCs, which are functional in nature. The sample PRCs can be estimated using a raw approach, or the
Light extraction block with curved surface
Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.
2016-03-22
Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.
Spherical images and inextensible curved folding
Seffen, Keith A.
2018-02-01
In their study, Duncan and Duncan [Proc. R. Soc. London A 383, 191 (1982), 10.1098/rspa.1982.0126] calculate the shape of an inextensible surface folded in two about a general curve. They find the analytical relationships between pairs of generators linked across the fold curve, the shape of the original path, and the fold angle variation along it. They present two special cases of generator layouts for which the fold angle is uniform or the folded curve remains planar, for simplifying practical folding in sheet-metal processes. We verify their special cases by a graphical treatment according to a method of Gauss. We replace the fold curve by a piecewise linear path, which connects vertices of intersecting pairs of hinge lines. Inspired by the d-cone analysis by Farmer and Calladine [Int. J. Mech. Sci. 47, 509 (2005), 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2005.02.013], we construct the spherical images for developable folding of successive vertices: the operating conditions of the special cases in Duncan and Duncan are then revealed straightforwardly by the geometric relationships between the images. Our approach may be used to synthesize folding patterns for novel deployable and shape-changing surfaces without need of complex calculation.
Principal normal indicatrices of closed space curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Røgen, Peter
1999-01-01
A theorem due to J. Weiner, which is also proven by B. Solomon, implies that a principal normal indicatrix of a closed space curve with nonvanishing curvature has integrated geodesic curvature zero and contains no subarc with integrated geodesic curvature pi. We prove that the inverse problem alw...
Steady turbulent flow in curved rectangular channels
De Vriend, H.J.
1979-01-01
After the study of fully developed and developing steady laminar flow in curved channels of shallow rectangular wet cross-section (see earlier reports in this series), steady turbulent flow in such channels is investigated as a next step towards a mathematical model of the flow in shallow river
ATLAS detector records its first curved muon
2007-01-01
The barrel muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector has acquired its first cosmic event in a magnetic field produced by the barrel toroid magnet. This was an important test of the chambers in their final configurations, and marked the first triggering and measurement of curved cosmic ray muons in ATLAS.
Dual kinetic curves in reversible electrochemical systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael J Hankins
Full Text Available We introduce dual kinetic chronoamperometry, in which reciprocal relations are established between the kinetic curves of electrochemical reactions that start from symmetrical initial conditions. We have performed numerical and experimental studies in which the kinetic curves of the electron-transfer processes are analyzed for a reversible first order reaction. Experimental tests were done with the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide system in which the concentrations of each component could be measured separately using the platinum disk/gold ring electrode. It is shown that the proper ratio of the transient kinetic curves obtained from cathodic and anodic mass transfer limited regions give thermodynamic time invariances related to the reaction quotient of the bulk concentrations. Therefore, thermodynamic time invariances can be observed at any time using the dual kinetic curves for reversible reactions. The technique provides a unique possibility to extract the non-steady state trajectory starting from one initial condition based only on the equilibrium constant and the trajectory which starts from the symmetrical initial condition. The results could impact battery technology by predicting the concentrations and currents of the underlying non-steady state processes in a wide domain from thermodynamic principles and limited kinetic information.
Remote sensing used for power curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Rozenn; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe
2008-01-01
Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviat...
Asymptotic Translation Length in the Curve Complex
Valdivia, Aaron D.
2013-01-01
We show that when the genus and punctures of a surface are directly proportional by some rational number the minimal asymptotic translation length in the curve complex has behavior inverse to the square of the Euler characteristic. We also show that when the genus is fixed and the number of punctures varies the behavior is inverse to the Euler characteristic.
Strong imploding shock, the representative curve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C.
1981-01-01
The representative curve of the ideal gas behind the front of a spherically, or cylindrically, symmetric strong imploding shock is shown to pass through the point where the reduced pressure is maximum, P(xisub(m)) = Psub(m)sub(a)sub(x). (orig.)
Focus on Physics: The Delightful Catenary Curve
Hewitt, Paul G.
2017-01-01
When teaching how "tension" and "compression" relate to geometrical structures such as bridges, arches, and domes, The author shows a picture of the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, completed in the 14th century, and presents a lesson on using the curve called a catenary to explain how he teaches about tension and compression…
Nonlinear Growth Curves in Developmental Research
Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam; Hamagami, Fumiaki
2011-01-01
Developmentalists are often interested in understanding change processes, and growth models are the most common analytic tool for examining such processes. Nonlinear growth curves are especially valuable to developmentalists because the defining characteristics of the growth process such as initial levels, rates of change during growth spurts, and…
Residual Structures in Latent Growth Curve Modeling
Grimm, Kevin J.; Widaman, Keith F.
2010-01-01
Several alternatives are available for specifying the residual structure in latent growth curve modeling. Two specifications involve uncorrelated residuals and represent the most commonly used residual structures. The first, building on repeated measures analysis of variance and common specifications in multilevel models, forces residual variances…
Updated Hubbert curves analyze world oil supply
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanhoe, L.F.
1996-01-01
The question is not whether, but when, world crude oil production will start to decline, ushering in the permanent oil shock era. While global information for predicting this event is not so straightforward as the data M. King Hubbert used in creating his famous Hubbert Curve that predicted the US (Lower 48 states, or US/48) 1970 oil production peak, there are strong indications that most of the world's large exploration targets have now been found. Meanwhile, the earth's population is exploding along with the oil needs of Asia's developing nations. This article reviews Hubbert's original analyses on oil discovery and production curves for the US/48 and projects his proven methodology onto global oil discoveries and production as of 1992. The world's oil discovery curve peaked in 1962, and thence declined, as a Hubbert Curve predicts. However, global production was restricted after the 1973 Arab oil embargo. Otherwise, world production would have peaked in the mid-1990s. Two graphs show alternate versions of future global oil production
Growth Curves for Girls with Turner Syndrome
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabio Bertapelli
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review the growth curves for Turner syndrome, evaluate the methodological and statistical quality, and suggest potential growth curves for clinical practice guidelines. The search was carried out in the databases Medline and Embase. Of 1006 references identified, 15 were included. Studies constructed curves for weight, height, weight/height, body mass index, head circumference, height velocity, leg length, and sitting height. The sample ranged between 47 and 1,565 (total = 6,273 girls aged 0 to 24 y, born between 1950 and 2006. The number of measures ranged from 580 to 9,011 (total = 28,915. Most studies showed strengths such as sample size, exclusion of the use of growth hormone and androgen, and analysis of confounding variables. However, the growth curves were restricted to height, lack of information about selection bias, limited distributional properties, and smoothing aspects. In conclusion, we observe the need to construct an international growth reference for girls with Turner syndrome, in order to provide support for clinical practice guidelines.
Sound concentration caused by curved surfaces
Vercammen, M.L.S.
2012-01-01
In room acoustics the focusing effect of reflections from concave surfaces is a wellknown problem. Although curved surfaces are found throughout the history of architecture, the occurrence of concave surfaces has tended to increase in modern architecture, due to new techniques in design, materials
Singular interactions supported by embedded curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaynak, Burak Tevfik; Turgut, O Teoman
2012-01-01
In this work, singular interactions supported by embedded curves on Riemannian manifolds are discussed from a more direct and physical perspective, via the heat kernel approach. We show that the renormalized problem is well defined, the ground state is finite and the corresponding wavefunction is positive. The renormalization group invariance of the model is also discussed. (paper)
Theoretical Magnon Dispersion Curves for Gd
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker; Harmon, B. N.; Freeman, A. J.
1975-01-01
The magnon dispersion curve of Gd metal has been determined from first principles by use of augmented-plane-wave energy bands and wave functions. The exchange matrix elements I(k⃗, k⃗′) between the 4f electrons and the conduction electrons from the first six energy bands were calculated under...
A Probabilistic Framework for Curve Evolution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Vedrana Andersen
2017-01-01
approach include ability to handle textured images, simple generalization to multiple regions, and efficiency in computation. We test our probabilistic framework in combination with parametric (snakes) and geometric (level-sets) curves. The experimental results on composed and natural images demonstrate...
Covariant quantizations in plane and curved spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assirati, J.L.M.; Gitman, D.M.
2017-01-01
We present covariant quantization rules for nonsingular finite-dimensional classical theories with flat and curved configuration spaces. In the beginning, we construct a family of covariant quantizations in flat spaces and Cartesian coordinates. This family is parametrized by a function ω(θ), θ element of (1,0), which describes an ambiguity of the quantization. We generalize this construction presenting covariant quantizations of theories with flat configuration spaces but already with arbitrary curvilinear coordinates. Then we construct a so-called minimal family of covariant quantizations for theories with curved configuration spaces. This family of quantizations is parametrized by the same function ω(θ). Finally, we describe a more wide family of covariant quantizations in curved spaces. This family is already parametrized by two functions, the previous one ω(θ) and by an additional function Θ(x,ξ). The above mentioned minimal family is a part at Θ = 1 of the wide family of quantizations. We study constructed quantizations in detail, proving their consistency and covariance. As a physical application, we consider a quantization of a non-relativistic particle moving in a curved space, discussing the problem of a quantum potential. Applying the covariant quantizations in flat spaces to an old problem of constructing quantum Hamiltonian in polar coordinates, we directly obtain a correct result. (orig.)
Covariant quantizations in plane and curved spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assirati, J.L.M. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2017-07-15
We present covariant quantization rules for nonsingular finite-dimensional classical theories with flat and curved configuration spaces. In the beginning, we construct a family of covariant quantizations in flat spaces and Cartesian coordinates. This family is parametrized by a function ω(θ), θ element of (1,0), which describes an ambiguity of the quantization. We generalize this construction presenting covariant quantizations of theories with flat configuration spaces but already with arbitrary curvilinear coordinates. Then we construct a so-called minimal family of covariant quantizations for theories with curved configuration spaces. This family of quantizations is parametrized by the same function ω(θ). Finally, we describe a more wide family of covariant quantizations in curved spaces. This family is already parametrized by two functions, the previous one ω(θ) and by an additional function Θ(x,ξ). The above mentioned minimal family is a part at Θ = 1 of the wide family of quantizations. We study constructed quantizations in detail, proving their consistency and covariance. As a physical application, we consider a quantization of a non-relativistic particle moving in a curved space, discussing the problem of a quantum potential. Applying the covariant quantizations in flat spaces to an old problem of constructing quantum Hamiltonian in polar coordinates, we directly obtain a correct result. (orig.)
Numerical analysis of thermoluminescence glow curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez Ros, J. M.; Delgado, A.
1989-01-01
This report presents a method for the numerical analysis of complex thermoluminescence glow curves resolving the individual glow peak components. The method employs first order kinetics analytical expressions and is based In a Marquart-Levenberg minimization procedure. A simplified version of this method for thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) is also described and specifically developed to operate whit Lithium Fluoride TLD-100. (Author). 36 refs
Irregularities in the dendrochronological calibration curve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ottaway, J.H.; Ottaway, B.
1975-01-01
A discussion is presented on the reality or otherwise of short-term deviations from a linear or smooth curve relating conventional C-14 dates to dendrochronological measurements. The possibility of the effect of short-term changes in the earth's atmosphere and in the oceans, and particularly in their temperature, is considered. (U.K.)
A spectral mean for random closed curves
van Lieshout, Maria Nicolette Margaretha
2016-01-01
We propose a spectral mean for closed sets described by sample points on their boundaries subject to mis-alignment and noise. We derive maximum likelihood estimators for the model and noise parameters in the Fourier domain. We estimate the unknown mean boundary curve by back-transformation and
A spectral mean for random closed curves
M.N.M. van Lieshout (Marie-Colette)
2016-01-01
textabstractWe propose a spectral mean for closed sets described by sample points on their boundaries subject to mis-alignment and noise. We derive maximum likelihood estimators for the model and noise parameters in the Fourier domain. We estimate the unknown mean boundary curve by
Contribution to the boiling curve of sodium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schins, H.E.J.
1975-01-01
Sodium in a pool was preheated to saturation temperatures at system pressures of 200, 350 and 500 torr. A test section of normal stainless steel was then extra heated by means of the conical fitting condenser zone of a heat pipe. Measurements were made of heat transfer fluxes, q in W/cm 2 , as a function of wall excess temperature above saturation, THETA = Tsub(w) - Tsub(s) in 0 C, both, in natural convection and in boiling regimes. These measurements make it possible to select the Subbotin natural convection and nucleate boiling curves among other variants proposed in literature. Further it is empirically demonstrated on water that the minimum film boiling point corresponds to the homogeneous nucleation temperature calculated by the Doering formula. Assuming that the minimum film boiling point of sodium can be obtained in the same manner, it is then possible to give an appoximate boiling curve of sodium for the use in thermal interaction studies. At 1 atm the heat transfer fluxes q versus wall temperatures THETA are for a point on the natural convection curve 0.3 W/cm 2 and 2 0 C; for start of boiling 1.6 W/cm 2 and 6 0 C; for peak heat flux 360 W/cm 2 and 37 0 C; for minimum film boiling 30 W/cm 2 and 905 0 C and for a point on the film boiling curve 160 W/cm 2 and 2,000 0 C. (orig.) [de
Designing the Alluvial Riverbeds in Curved Paths
Macura, Viliam; Škrinár, Andrej; Štefunková, Zuzana; Muchová, Zlatica; Majorošová, Martina
2017-10-01
The paper presents the method of determining the shape of the riverbed in curves of the watercourse, which is based on the method of Ikeda (1975) developed for a slightly curved path in sandy riverbed. Regulated rivers have essentially slightly and smoothly curved paths; therefore, this methodology provides the appropriate basis for river restoration. Based on the research in the experimental reach of the Holeška Brook and several alluvial mountain streams the methodology was adjusted. The method also takes into account other important characteristics of bottom material - the shape and orientation of the particles, settling velocity and drag coefficients. Thus, the method is mainly meant for the natural sand-gravel material, which is heterogeneous and the particle shape of the bottom material is very different from spherical. The calculation of the river channel in the curved path provides the basis for the design of optimal habitat, but also for the design of foundations of armouring of the bankside of the channel. The input data is adapted to the conditions of design practice.
Fermat's Technique of Finding Areas under Curves
Staples, Ed
2004-01-01
Perhaps next time teachers head towards the fundamental theorem of calculus in their classroom, they may wish to consider Fermat's technique of finding expressions for areas under curves, beautifully outlined in Boyer's History of Mathematics. Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665) developed some important results in the journey toward the discovery of the…
Variability of the Wind Turbine Power Curve
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahesh M. Bandi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Wind turbine power curves are calibrated by turbine manufacturers under requirements stipulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission to provide a functional mapping between the mean wind speed v ¯ and the mean turbine power output P ¯ . Wind plant operators employ these power curves to estimate or forecast wind power generation under given wind conditions. However, it is general knowledge that wide variability exists in these mean calibration values. We first analyse how the standard deviation in wind speed σ v affects the mean P ¯ and the standard deviation σ P of wind power. We find that the magnitude of wind power fluctuations scales as the square of the mean wind speed. Using data from three planetary locations, we find that the wind speed standard deviation σ v systematically varies with mean wind speed v ¯ , and in some instances, follows a scaling of the form σ v = C × v ¯ α ; C being a constant and α a fractional power. We show that, when applicable, this scaling form provides a minimal parameter description of the power curve in terms of v ¯ alone. Wind data from different locations establishes that (in instances when this scaling exists the exponent α varies with location, owing to the influence of local environmental conditions on wind speed variability. Since manufacturer-calibrated power curves cannot account for variability influenced by local conditions, this variability translates to forecast uncertainty in power generation. We close with a proposal for operators to perform post-installation recalibration of their turbine power curves to account for the influence of local environmental factors on wind speed variability in order to reduce the uncertainty of wind power forecasts. Understanding the relationship between wind’s speed and its variability is likely to lead to lower costs for the integration of wind power into the electric grid.
Curved bones: An adaptation to habitual loading.
Milne, Nick
2016-10-21
Why are long bones curved? It has long been considered a paradox that many long bones supporting mammalian bodies are curved, since this curvature results in the bone undergoing greater bending, with higher strains and so greater fracture risk under load. This study develops a theoretical model wherein the curvature is a response to bending strains imposed by the requirements of locomotion. In particular the radioulna of obligate quadrupeds is a lever operated by the triceps muscle, and the bending strains induced by the triceps muscle counter the bending resulting from longitudinal loads acting on the curved bone. Indeed the theoretical model reverses this logic and suggests that the curvature is itself a response to the predictable bending strains induced by the triceps muscle. This, in turn, results in anatomical arrangements of bone, muscle and tendon that create a simple physiological mechanism whereby the bone can resist the bending due to the action of triceps in supporting and moving the body. The model is illustrated by contrasting the behaviour of a finite element model of a llama radioulna to that of a straightened version of the same bone. The results show that longitudinal and flexor muscle forces produce bending strains that effectively counter strains due to the pull of the triceps muscle in the curved but not in the straightened model. It is concluded that the curvature of these and other curved bones adds resilience to the skeleton by acting as pre-stressed beams or strainable pre-buckled struts. It is also proposed that the cranial bending strains that result from triceps, acting on the lever that is the radioulna, can explain the development of the curvature of such bones. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
New configuration factors for curved surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabeza-Lainez, Jose M.; Pulido-Arcas, Jesus A.
2013-01-01
Curved surfaces have not been thoroughly considered in radiative transfer analysis mainly due to the difficulties arisen in the integration process and perhaps because of the lack of spatial vision of the researchers. It is a fact, especially for architectural lighting, that when concave geometries appear inside a curved space, they are mostly avoided. In this way, a vast repertoire of significant forms is neglected and energy waste is evident. Starting from the properties of volumes enclosed by the minimum number of surfaces, the authors formulate, with little calculus, new simple laws, which enable them to discover a set of configuration factors for caps and various segments of the sphere. The procedure is subsequently extended to previously unimagined surfaces as the paraboloid, the ellipsoid or the cone. Appropriate combination of the said forms with right truncated cones produces several complex volumes, often used in architectural and engineering creations and whose radiative performance could not be accurately predicted for decades. To complete the research, a new method for determining interreflections in curved volumes is also presented. Radiative transfer simulation benefits from these findings, as the simplicity of the results has led the authors to create innovative software more efficient for design and evaluation and applicable to emerging fields like LED lighting. -- Highlights: ► Friendly revision of fundamentals of radiative transfer. ► New configuration factors for curved surfaces obtained without calculus. ► New method for interreflections in curved geometries. ► Enhanced simulation algorithms. ► Fast comparison of radiative performances of surfaces
IDF-curves for precipitation In Belgium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohymont, Bernard; Demarde, Gaston R.
2004-01-01
The Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves for precipitation constitute a relationship between the intensity, the duration and the frequency of rainfall amounts. The intensity of precipitation is expressed in mm/h, the duration or aggregation time is the length of the interval considered while the frequency stands for the probability of occurrence of the event. IDF-curves constitute a classical and useful tool that is primarily used to dimension hydraulic structures in general, as e.g., sewer systems and which are consequently used to assess the risk of inundation. In this presentation, the IDF relation for precipitation is studied for different locations in Belgium. These locations correspond to two long-term, high-quality precipitation networks of the RMIB: (a) the daily precipitation depths of the climatological network (more than 200 stations, 1951-2001 baseline period); (b) the high-frequency 10-minutes precipitation depths of the hydro meteorological network (more than 30 stations, 15 to 33 years baseline period). For the station of Uccle, an uninterrupted time-series of more than one hundred years of 10-minutes rainfall data is available. The proposed technique for assessing the curves is based on maximum annual values of precipitation. A new analytical formula for the IDF-curves was developed such that these curves stay valid for aggregation times ranging from 10 minutes to 30 days (when fitted with appropriate data). Moreover, all parameters of this formula have physical dimensions. Finally, adequate spatial interpolation techniques are used to provide nationwide extreme values precipitation depths for short- to long-term durations With a given return period. These values are estimated on the grid points of the Belgian ALADIN-domain used in the operational weather forecasts at the RMIB.(Author)
TELECOMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE AND GDP /JIPP CURVE/
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariana Kaneva
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The relationship between telecommunications infrastructure and economic activity is under discussion in many scientific papers. Most of the authors use for research and analysis the Jipp curve. A lot of doubts about the correctness of the Jipp curve appear in terms of applying econometric models. The aim of this study is a review of the Jipp curve, refining the possibility of its application in modern conditions. The methodology used in the study is based on dynamic econometric models, including tests for nonstationarity and tests for causality. The focus of this study is directed to methodological problems in measuring the local density types of telecommunication networks. This study offers a specific methodology for assessing the Jipp law, through VAR-approach and Granger causality tests. It is proved that mechanical substitution of momentary aggregated variables (such as the number of subscribers of a telecommunication network at the end of the year and periodically aggregated variables (such as GDP per capita in the Jipp�s curve is methodologically wrong. Researchers have to reconsider the relationship set in the Jipp�s curve by including additional variables that characterize the Telecommunications sector and the economic activity in a particular country within a specified time period. GDP per capita should not be regarded as a single factor for the local density of telecommunications infrastructure. New econometric models studying the relationship between the investments in telecommunications infrastructure and economic development may be not only linear regression models, but also other econometric models. New econometric models should be proposed after testing and validating with sound economic theory and econometric methodology.
Trend analyses with river sediment rating curves
Warrick, Jonathan A.
2015-01-01
Sediment rating curves, which are fitted relationships between river discharge (Q) and suspended-sediment concentration (C), are commonly used to assess patterns and trends in river water quality. In many of these studies it is assumed that rating curves have a power-law form (i.e., C = aQb, where a and b are fitted parameters). Two fundamental questions about the utility of these techniques are assessed in this paper: (i) How well to the parameters, a and b, characterize trends in the data? (ii) Are trends in rating curves diagnostic of changes to river water or sediment discharge? As noted in previous research, the offset parameter, a, is not an independent variable for most rivers, but rather strongly dependent on b and Q. Here it is shown that a is a poor metric for trends in the vertical offset of a rating curve, and a new parameter, â, as determined by the discharge-normalized power function [C = â (Q/QGM)b], where QGM is the geometric mean of the Q values sampled, provides a better characterization of trends. However, these techniques must be applied carefully, because curvature in the relationship between log(Q) and log(C), which exists for many rivers, can produce false trends in â and b. Also, it is shown that trends in â and b are not uniquely diagnostic of river water or sediment supply conditions. For example, an increase in â can be caused by an increase in sediment supply, a decrease in water supply, or a combination of these conditions. Large changes in water and sediment supplies can occur without any change in the parameters, â and b. Thus, trend analyses using sediment rating curves must include additional assessments of the time-dependent rates and trends of river water, sediment concentrations, and sediment discharge.
Achieving a demographic breakthrough.
Taniguchi, H
1994-09-01
President Hosni Mubarak received the United Nations Population Award on June 14, 1994, because of his contribution to the promotion of the national population program in Egypt. Egypt has been tackling the population problem on three fronts: high rate of natural increase (2.3% in 1994), unbalanced population distribution along the Nile Valley and the Mediterranean coast that account for just 4% of the land, and insufficient educational and health levels. At present seven major programs are being implemented throughout the country to curb population increase involving information, education and communication; family planning; human resource development; improving maternal and child health, and educational level; increasing employment; the empowerment of women; and systematic land development. The total fertility rate dropped to 3.9 during 1990-1992 from 5.3 during 1979-1980. The crude birth rate dropped to 29.2/1000 population in 1992 from 38.7/1000 in 1986. The crude death rate also decreased to 7.4/1000 in 1992 from 9.2/1000 in 1986. The infant mortality rate decreased to 62 during 1988-1992 from 132 during 1975-1979. The contraceptive prevalence rate climbed from 24.25 in 1980 to 47.1% in 1992. The strong endorsement by the Grand Mufti that Islam supports family planning made many people change their traditional view that family planning was forbidden by the Koran. The political commitment from the President led to the provision of large budgets for the national population program. Technical and program assistance provided by donors including the United States Agency for International Development has greatly contributed to mass media campaigns and service delivery. 63.4% of acceptors received family planning services or contraceptives from the private sector. Egypt is willing to share its population and family planning experience with other developing countries that have similar economic and social conditions particularly if financial assistance by industrialized countries is attainable.
Lentil: the Bangladesh breakthrough
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erskine, W.; Manners, G.
1996-01-01
Bangladesh has made great strides in food production. Recently it has achieved a worthwhile improvement in productivity of lentil—one of its most important crops. And ICARDA had a part to play. Lentil is the most important pulse in Bangladesh. It is the most popular pulse in both urban and rural areas, and rice with lentil soup (known as dhal) is often eaten in the villages; most people try to include it in their daily diet. So it is not surprising that Bangladesh is the world’s fourth largest lentil producer, exceeded only by India, Turkey and Canada—all of which have a far greater land area. The sown area of lentil in Bangladesh is about 210,000 ha, giving a production of 160,000 tonnes at an average yield of 769 t/ha. Even so, this is not enough. In 1994, according to FAO, Bangladesh imported 75,000 tonnes of pulses with a value of around US $19.8 million. This was high; the figure fluctuates, but there is an obvious need to improve production. This can not be done by increasing the sown area. In an intensive cropping pattern, lentil faces tough competition from cereals and oilseeds and from other winter pulses. Indeed, lentil is grown as a sole crop in Bangladesh but also as a mix or intercropped with cereals, oilseeds and sugarcane. Intercropping and mix-cropping are age-old practices, particularly in the north and north-western parts of the country. In this situation, an increase in production can come only from better yield
Limit, breakthrough and prosperity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Minoru
1973-01-01
It is pointed out that the flow toward serious crises is in progress with regard to energy and industrial problems. Technical and industrial preparation and countermeasure to the flow are proposed, and the existence of a certain new world attainable on the assumption that the countermeasure is successful is described. The relation between oil output and the increasing demand for energy is pointed out as a subject matter of the crisis. The contribution of oil energy to total energy, after the output turns to decreasing process, decreases by 177.87x10 6 tons (converted to coal at the rate 6848 kcal/kg) per year at maximum. Converted to the GNP of the world, this becomes (425 dollar/ton x 177.87 x 10 6 ton=75.6 x 10 9 dollar). This fluctuation width in a year must be compensated by the change of industrial structure and energy supplying means. The countermeasure and preparation are proposed from the viewpoints of the energy and the industrial structure in which nuclear power generation plays important role. The largest production on the earth limited by energy consumption and the temperature balance on the earth is investigated, and the perspective in the future is given. (Yamamoto, Y.)
... Terms Research & News Recipes & Food Recipe Finder The Healthy Kitchen What Can I Eat? Main Dishes Salads & Sandwiches Breakfast Snacks Sides Dessert I'm Hungry! Body & Mind Well-Being Fitness Weight Loss Blood Glucose & Medications ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koch, G.
1996-01-01
The ongoing transformation of the oilsands and heavy oil sector from a poor cousin a few years ago into the cornerstone of the Alberta oil industry, was discussed. Much of this change is due to the development of SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) technology for the underground recovery of heavy oil and tarry bitumens, aided by partly government-funded research, and boosted by a revised provincial royalty regime. The thermal recovery process makes use of a pair of horizontal injection and recovery wells, drilled one above the other. The efficiency of this new technology could produce a shift in the petroleum industry's spending towards oil sands and heavy oil if investors conclude that it is more profitable to produce heavy oil than conventional light oil. Some of the oil sands producers that are poised to invest billions of dollars in various underground bitumen projects in Alberta over the next five years include Suncor, Syncrude, Alberta Energy Co., Amoco Canada, Elan Energy, Imperial Oil Resources, CS Resources, Koch Oil, and Gulf Resources. The ultimate goal is recovery costs of $6 per barrel, which is comparable to the costs of the conventional oil sector. The added advantage of oil sands production is, of course, the virtual elimination of the exploration risk. 3 figs
Brainstorming for breakthrough thinking.
Shirey, Maria R
2011-12-01
This department highlights change management strategies that may be used in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses brainstorming as a viable innovation technique and goal-based change intervention.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rauh Manfred
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lung diseases are a major issue in public health. A serial pulmonary assessment using imaging techniques free of ionizing radiation and which provides early information on local function impairment would therefore be a considerably important development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a powerful tool for the static and dynamic imaging of many organs. Its application in lung imaging however, has been limited due to the low water content of the lung and the artefacts evident at air-tissue interfaces. Many attempts have been made to visualize local ventilation using the inhalation of hyperpolarized gases or gadolinium aerosol responding to MRI. None of these methods are applicable for broad clinical use as they require specific equipment. Methods We have shown previously that low-field MRI can be used for static imaging of the lung. Here we show that mathematical processing of data derived from serial MRI scans during the respiratory cycle produces good quality images of local ventilation without any contrast agent. A phantom study and investigations in 85 patients were performed. Results The phantom study proved our theoretical considerations. In 99 patient investigations good correlation (r = 0.8; p ≤ 0.001 was seen for pulmonary function tests and MR ventilation measurements. Small ventilation defects were visualized. Conclusion With this method, ventilation defects can be diagnosed long before any imaging or pulmonary function test will indicate disease. This surprisingly simple approach could easily be incorporated in clinical routine and may be a breakthrough for lung imaging and functional assessment.
Torres, Luis M; Revnic, Julia; Knight, Alastair D; Perelman, Michael
2014-10-01
Satisfaction with pain relief in patients with breakthrough pain in cancer (BTPc) has typically been assessed by overall efficacy without consideration of the rapidity of that response. To determine the relationship between speed of onset of pain relief and patient satisfaction for treated BTPc episodes overall and for individual treatments. Pooled data from two randomized, double-blinded crossover studies. Patients having 1-4 BTPc episodes per day on ≥60 mg/day oral morphine or equivalent. Episodes treated with fentanyl pectin nasal spray (FPNS; 100-800 μg), immediate-release morphine sulfate (IRMS), or placebo. Pain intensity was measured on an 11-point scale (5-60 minutes posttreatment); satisfaction was measured on a 4-point scale (30 and 60 minutes). The primary analysis assessed the overall relationship of time to onset of pain relief (pain intensity difference [PID]≥1) or time to clinically meaningfully reduction in pain (PID≥2) versus patient satisfaction and overall pain intensity (summed pain intensity difference at 30 [SPID30] and 60 minutes [SPID60]) assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). A secondary analysis assessed whether satisfaction was different between treatments using a within-patient comparison. Eight hundred thirty-one FPNS-treated, 368 IRMS-treated, and 200 placebo-treated episodes were analyzed. Overall, within the pool there was a statistically significant relationship between time to onset of pain relief (PID≥1 and PID≥2) and patient satisfaction (both speed of relief and overall) at 30 and 60 minutes (ppain intensity reduction. When treatment groups were compared using within-patient data, FPNS provided earlier onset of pain relief than IRMS or placebo (ppain relief resulted in greater patient satisfaction and overall relief of pain; between-treatment comparisons showed that FPNS provided earlier pain relief and greater satisfaction than IRMS or placebo.
Samolsky Dekel, Boaz Gedaliahu; Remondini, Francesca; Gori, Alberto; Vasarri, Alessio; Di Nino, GianFranco; Melotti, Rita Maria
2016-02-01
Breakthrough pain (BTP) shows variable prevalence in different clinical contexts of cancer and non-cancer patients. BTP diagnostic tools with demonstrated reliability, validation and prognostic capability are lacking. We report the development, psychometric and validation properties of a diagnostic/prognostic tool, the IQ-BTP, for BTP recognition, its likelihood and clinical features among chronic-pain (CP) patients. n=120 consecutive mixed cancer/non-cancer CP in/outpatients. Development, psychometric analyses and formal validation included: Face/Content validity (by 'experts' opinion and assessing the relationship between the IQ-BTP classes and criteria derived from BTP operational-case-definition); Construct validity, by Principle Component Analysis (PCA); and the strength of Spearman correlation between IQ-BTP classes and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) items; Reliability, by Cronbach's alpha statistics. Associations with clinical/demographic moderators were assessed applying χ(2) analysis. Potential-BTP was found in 36.7% of patients (38.4% of non-cancer and 32.4% of cancer patients). Among these the likelihood for BTP diagnosis was 'high' in 25%, 'intermediate' in 41% and, 'low' 34% of patients. Analyses showed significant differences between IQ-BTP classes and between the latter BPI pain-item scores. Correlation between IQ-BTP classes and BPI items was moderate. PCA and scree test identified 3 components accounting for 62.3% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.71. The IQ-BTP showed satisfactory psychometric and validation properties. With adequate feasibility it enabled the allocating of cancer/non-cancer CP patients in three prognostic classes. Results are sufficient to warrant a subsequent impact study of the IQ-BTP as prognostic model and screening tool for BTP in both CP populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdolali, Atefeh [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ngo, Huu Hao, E-mail: h.ngo@uts.edu.au [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Guo, Wenshan [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Lu, Shaoyong [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Chen, Shiao-Shing; Nguyen, Nguyen Cong [Institute of Environmental Engineering and Management, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Xinbo [Department of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science and Technology, Tianjin Chengjian University, Jinjing Road 26, Tianjin 300384 (China); Wang, Jie; Wu, Yun [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)
2016-01-15
A breakthrough biosorbent namely multi-metal binding biosorbent (MMBB) made from a combination of tea wastes, maple leaves and mandarin peels, was prepared to evaluate their biosorptive potential for removal of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) from multi-metal aqueous solutions. FTIR and SEM were conducted, before and after biosorption, to explore the intensity and position of the available functional groups and changes in adsorbent surface morphology. Carboxylic, hydroxyl and amine groups were found to be the principal functional groups for the sorption of metals. MMBB exhibited best performance at pH 5.5 with maximum sorption capacities of 31.73, 41.06, 76.25 and 26.63 mg/g for Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), respectively. Pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order models represented the kinetic experimental data in different initial metal concentrations very well. Among two-parameter adsorption isotherm models, the Langmuir equation gave a better fit of the equilibrium data. For Cu(II) and Zn(II), the Khan isotherm describes better biosorption conditions while for Cd(II) and Pb(II), the Sips model was found to provide the best correlation of the biosorption equilibrium data. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated feasible, spontaneous and exothermic biosorption process. Overall, this novel MMBB can effectively be utilized as an adsorbent to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. - Highlights: • A novel multi-metal binding biosorbent (MMBB) was studied. • The biosorption of Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} on MMBB was evaluated. • Hydroxyl, carbonyl and amine groups are involved in metal binding of MMBB. • Equilibrium data were presented and the best fitting models were identified. • The obtained results recommend this MMBB as potentially low-cost biosorbent.
Alai, Milind; Lin, Wen Jen
2013-01-01
The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the lansoprazole (LPZ)-loaded microparticles to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The microparticulate delivery system was prepared by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RS100 as a matrix polymer followed by enteric coated with Eudragit S100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate HP55 using spray drying method. The enteric coated microparticles were stable in gastric pH condition. In vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in male Wistar rats demonstrated that enteric coated microparticles sustained release of LPZ and promoted ulcer healing activity. In other words, the microparticulate dosage form provided effective drug concentration for a longer period as compared to conventional extended release dosage form, and showed sufficient anti-acid secretion activity to treat acid related disorders including the enrichment of nocturnal acid breakthrough event based on a once daily administration.
Geels, Frank W.
2007-01-01
The breakthrough of rock 'n' roll was part of broader transformations in the American music industry, involving changes in music instruments, music recording technology, audiences, radio programming and music styles. These transformations will be analysed as sociotechnical transition, using the multi-level perspective. One characteristic of the case is interactions between multiple regimes: radio and recording. Another characteristic is the presence of strong cultural components, with rock 'n...
Part 5: Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve and Area under the Curve
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeed Safari
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Multiple diagnostic tools are used by emergency physicians,every day. In addition, new tools are evaluated to obtainmore accurate methods and reduce time or cost of conventionalones. In the previous parts of this educationalseries, we described diagnostic performance characteristicsof diagnostic tests including sensitivity, specificity, positiveand negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Thereceiver operating characteristics (ROC curve is a graphicalpresentation of screening characteristics. ROC curve is usedto determine the best cutoff point and compare two or moretests or observers by measuring the area under the curve(AUC. In this part of our educational series, we explain ROCcurve and two methods to determine the best cutoff value.
MTD-MFC: unified framework for investigation of diversity of boiling heat transfer curves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shekriladze, I.G. [Georgian Technical University, Tbilisi (Georgia)], e-mail: shekri@geo.net.ge
2009-07-01
A keynote paper presents just the next attempt to promote a discussion of modern state of art in the field of boiling heat transfer research. It is shown how longstanding disregard of internal contradictions of applicable approaches has resulted theoretical deadlock. Alternatively, it also is shown how resolution of these contradictions opens the ways to breakthrough in boiling heat transfer theory. Basic experimental facts, physical models and correlations are reconsidered. Principal contradictions between experimental knowledge and traditional model of 'the theatre of actors' (MTA) are discussed. Crucial role of pumping effect of growing bubble (PEGB) in boiling heat transfer and hydrodynamics is shown. Basic role of control of HTC by thermodynamic conditions on nucleation sites is demonstrated and consequent model of 'the theatre of director' (MTD) is discussed. Universal MTD-based correlation of boiling HTC of all types of liquids is considered. Unified consistent research framework for developed boiling heat transfer and diverse specific boiling heat transfer regimes is outlined through supplementing MTD by so-called multifactoring concept (MFC). The latter links transition from developed boiling mode to diverse boiling curves to a phenomenon of multiplication of factors influencing HTC. The ways of further research of the boiling problem are discussed. (author)
MTD-MFC: unified framework for investigation of diversity of boiling heat transfer curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shekriladze, I.G.
2009-01-01
A keynote paper presents just the next attempt to promote a discussion of modern state of art in the field of boiling heat transfer research. It is shown how longstanding disregard of internal contradictions of applicable approaches has resulted theoretical deadlock. Alternatively, it also is shown how resolution of these contradictions opens the ways to breakthrough in boiling heat transfer theory. Basic experimental facts, physical models and correlations are reconsidered. Principal contradictions between experimental knowledge and traditional model of 'the theatre of actors' (MTA) are discussed. Crucial role of pumping effect of growing bubble (PEGB) in boiling heat transfer and hydrodynamics is shown. Basic role of control of HTC by thermodynamic conditions on nucleation sites is demonstrated and consequent model of 'the theatre of director' (MTD) is discussed. Universal MTD-based correlation of boiling HTC of all types of liquids is considered. Unified consistent research framework for developed boiling heat transfer and diverse specific boiling heat transfer regimes is outlined through supplementing MTD by so-called multifactoring concept (MFC). The latter links transition from developed boiling mode to diverse boiling curves to a phenomenon of multiplication of factors influencing HTC. The ways of further research of the boiling problem are discussed. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benner, J.; Van Lieshout, M.; Croezen, H.
2012-01-15
The European Commission's Roadmap for a competitive and low carbon economy in 2050 indicates that greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in all sectors should be significantly reduced to meet the European Union (EU) objective of 80 to 95% greenhouse gas emission reductions by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The European Commission indicated in the Roadmap that the EU's industrial sectors should reduce emissions by 83 to 87% domestically by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The objective of this study is to explore breakthrough abatement technologies in three processes in the European chemical industry that can considerably contribute to achieving the required greenhouse gas emission reductions. In this context we have assessed the processes for the production of: (1) Ammonia; (2) Olefins; (3) Aromatics (BTX). For all three processes possible breakthrough abatement technologies were found, allowing for reductions in GHG emissions varying between 50 and 100% compared to the conventional processes. Our finding regarding the chemical industry and our earlier findings regarding options in the steel, cement and pulp and paper industries show that promising breakthrough abatement technologies are available for European energy-intensive industries to contribute to a low-carbon economy. However, large scale deployment requires an integrated EU industry and energy policy allowing for a resource efficient and sustainable use of available biomass, CCS storage capacity and renewable energy capacity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benner, J.; Van Lieshout, M.; Croezen, H.
2012-01-15
The European Commission's Roadmap for a competitive and low carbon economy in 2050 indicates that greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in all sectors should be significantly reduced to meet the European Union (EU) objective of 80 to 95% greenhouse gas emission reductions by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The European Commission indicated in the Roadmap that the EU's industrial sectors should reduce emissions by 83 to 87% domestically by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The objective of this study is to explore breakthrough abatement technologies in three processes in the European chemical industry that can considerably contribute to achieving the required greenhouse gas emission reductions. In this context we have assessed the processes for the production of: (1) Ammonia; (2) Olefins; (3) Aromatics (BTX). For all three processes possible breakthrough abatement technologies were found, allowing for reductions in GHG emissions varying between 50 and 100% compared to the conventional processes. Our finding regarding the chemical industry and our earlier findings regarding options in the steel, cement and pulp and paper industries show that promising breakthrough abatement technologies are available for European energy-intensive industries to contribute to a low-carbon economy. However, large scale deployment requires an integrated EU industry and energy policy allowing for a resource efficient and sustainable use of available biomass, CCS storage capacity and renewable energy capacity.